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Sample records for counterpropagating surface acoustic

  1. Efficient counter-propagating wave acoustic micro-particle manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinenko, A.; Ong, C. K.; Courtney, C. R. P.; Wilcox, P. D.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2012-12-01

    A simple acoustic system consisting of a pair of parallel singe layered piezoelectric transducers submerged in a fluid used to form standing waves by a superposition of two counter-propagating waves is reported. The nodal positions of the standing wave are controlled by applying a variable phase difference to the transducers. This system was used to manipulate polystyrene micro-beads trapped at the nodal positions of the standing wave. The demonstrated good manipulation capability of the system is based on a lowering of the reflection coefficient in a narrow frequency band near the through-thickness resonance of the transducer plates.

  2. Acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel with a reflector: Case of a standing wave generated by two counterpropagating leaky surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doinikov, Alexander A.; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    A theory is developed for the modeling of acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel confined between an elastic solid wall and a rigid reflector. A situation is studied where the acoustic streaming is produced by two leaky surface waves that propagate towards each other in the solid wall and thus form a combined standing wave in the fluid. Full analytical solutions are found for both the linear acoustic field and the field of the acoustic streaming. A dispersion equation is derived that allows one to calculate the wave speed in the system under study. The obtained solutions are used to consider particular numerical examples and to reveal the structure of the acoustic streaming. It is shown that two systems of vortices are established along the boundaries of the microfluidic channel.

  3. Excitation of monochromatic and stable electron acoustic wave by two counter-propagating laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, C. Z.; Liu, Z. J.; Zheng, C. Y.; He, X. T.

    2017-07-01

    The undamped electron acoustic wave is a newly-observed nonlinear electrostatic plasma wave and has potential applications in ion acceleration, laser amplification and diagnostics due to its unique frequency range. We propose to make the first attempt to excite a monochromatic and stable electron acoustic wave (EAW) by two counter-propagating laser beams. The matching conditions relevant to laser frequencies, plasma density, and electron thermal velocity are derived and the harmonic effects of the EAW are excluded. Single-beam instabilities, including stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering, on the excitation process are quantified by an interaction quantity, η =γ {τ }B, where γ is the growth rate of each instability and {τ }B is the characteristic time of the undamped EAW. The smaller the interaction quantity, the more successfully the monochromatic and stable EAW can be excited. Using one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, we excite EAW wave trains which are amplitude tunable, have a duration of thousands of laser periods, and are monochromatic and stable, by carefully controlling the parameters under the above conditions.

  4. Acoustic visualizations using surface mapping.

    PubMed

    Siltanen, Samuel; Robinson, Philip W; Saarelma, Jukka; Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Savioja, Lauri; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-06-01

    Sound visualizations have been an integral part of room acoustics studies for more than a century. As acoustic measurement techniques and knowledge of hearing evolve, acousticians need more intuitive ways to represent increasingly complex data. Microphone array processing now allows accurate measurement of spatio-temporal acoustic properties. However, the multidimensional data can be a challenge to display coherently. This letter details a method of mapping visual representations of acoustic reflections from a receiver position to the surfaces from which the reflections originated. The resulting animations are presented as a spatial acoustic analysis tool.

  5. Acoustic tweezing of particles using decaying opposing travelling surface acoustic waves (DOTSAW).

    PubMed

    Ng, Jia Wei; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Neild, Adrian

    2017-10-11

    Surface acoustic waves offer a versatile and biocompatible method of manipulating the location of suspended particles or cells within microfluidic systems. The most common approach uses the interference of identical frequency, counter propagating travelling waves to generate a standing surface acoustic wave, in which particles migrate a distance less than half the acoustic wavelength to their nearest pressure node. The result is the formation of a periodic pattern of particles. Subsequent displacement of this pattern, the prerequisite for tweezing, can be achieved by translation of the standing wave, and with it the pressure nodes; this requires changing either the frequency of the pair of waves, or their relative phase. Here, in contrast, we examine the use of two counterpropagating traveling waves of different frequency. The non-linearity of the acoustic forces used to manipulate particles, means that a small frequency difference between the two waves creates a substantially different force field, which offers significant advantages. Firstly, this approach creates a much longer range force field, in which migration takes place across multiple wavelengths, and causes particles to be gathered together in a single trapping site. Secondly, the location of this single trapping site can be controlled by the relative amplitude of the two waves, requiring simply an attenuation of one of the electrical drive signals. Using this approach, we show that by controlling the powers of the opposing incoherent waves, 5 μm particles can be migrated laterally across a fluid flow to defined locations with an accuracy of ±10 μm.

  6. Surface acoustic wave microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S.; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting, and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next. PMID:23900527

  7. Surface acoustic wave microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-09-21

    The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next.

  8. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  9. Surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collman, James P.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Zhang, Xumu; Herrmann, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device that responds to oxygen pressure was developed by coating a 158 MHz quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with an oxygen binding agent. Two types of coatings were used. One type was prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer containing the axial ligand. A second type was prepared with an oxygen binding porphyrin solution containing excess axial ligand without a polymer matrix. In the polymer based coatings, the copolymer served to provide the axial ligand to the oxygen binding agent and as a coating matrix on the surface of the SAW device. The oxygen sensing SAW device has been shown to bind oxygen following a Langmuir isotherm and may be used to measure the equilibrium constant of the oxygen binding compound in the coating matrix.

  10. Distributed feedback acoustic surface wave oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An acoustic surface wave oscillator is constructed from a semiconductor piezoelectric acoustic surface wave amplifier by providing appropriate perturbations at the piezoelectric boundary. The perturbations cause Bragg order reflections that maintain acoustic wave oscillation under certain conditions of gain and feedback.

  11. Acoustic phonons, surface plasmons and surface acoustic plasmons in a superlattice and their nonreciprocal device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derov, John S.

    1987-05-01

    The literature was surveyed to determine potential applications of acoustic and plasma phenomena in superlattices. The use of folded zone acoustic phonons and acoustic surface plasmons in 3 to 5 compounds like AlGaAs/GaAs superlattices is addressed. A dielectric phonon filter is presented and an acoustic resonator is considered. Surface plasmons and surface acoustic plasmons are discussed and a transducer, delay line and mixer are proposed as applications. A 500 GHz isolator utilizing surface magnetoplasmons is also presented.

  12. Surface acoustic wave frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsko, A. B.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate opto-mechanical oscillation (OMO) and subsequent generation of acoustic wave frequency combs in monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators. The OMO is observed in resonators made of electro-optic (lithium tantalate), non-electro-optic birefringent (magnesium fluoride), and non-birefringent (calcium fluoride) materials. The phenomenon manifests itself as generation of optical harmonics separated by the eigenfrequency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) mechanical mode of the same WGM resonator. We show that the light escaping the resonator and demodulated on a fast photodiode produces a spectrally pure radio frequency (RF) signal. For instance, we demonstrate generation of 200 MHz signals with instantaneous linewidth of 0.2 Hz.

  13. Swimming Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel. PMID:23431358

  14. Swimming using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel.

  15. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. E.; Lee, D. L.; Leja, I.

    1979-01-01

    Four areas of surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were investigated and a number of 401.2 MHz oscillators were constructed that showed improved performance. Aging studies on SAW devices packaged in HC36/U cold weld enclosures produced frequency drifts as low as 0.4 ppm in 35 weeks and drift rates well under 0.5 ppm/year. Temperature compensation circuits have substantially improved oscillator temperature stability, with a deviation of + or - 4 ppm observed over the range -45 C to + 40 C. High efficiency amplifiers were constructed for SAW oscillators and a dc to RF efficiency of 44 percent was obtained for an RF output of 25 mW. Shock and vibration tests were made on four oscillators and all survived 500 G shock pulses unchanged. Only when white noise vibration (20 Hz to 2000 Hz) levels of 20 G's rms were applied did some of the devices fail.

  16. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. E.

    1978-01-01

    A number of 401.2 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were built and tested. The performance of these oscillators was evaluated for possible use as stable oscillators in communication systems. A short term frequency stability of better than 1 x 10 to the minus 9th power for one second was measured for the SAW oscillators. Long term frequency drift was measured and was found to be dependent on SAW design and packaging. Drift rates ranging from 15 ppm in twenty weeks to 2.5 ppm in twenty weeks were observed. Some further improvement was required. The temperature dependence of the saw oscillators was evaluated and it was concluded that some form of temperature compensation will be necessary to meet the requirements of some communication systems.

  17. Applications of surface acoustic and shallow bulk acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Colin K.

    1989-10-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device coverage includes delay lines and filters operating at selected frequencies in the range from about 10 MHz to 11 GHz; modeling with single-crystal piezoelectrics and layered structures; resonators and low-loss filters; comb filters and multiplexers; antenna duplexers; harmonic devices; chirp filters for pulse compression; coding with fixed and programmable transversal filters; Barker and quadraphase coding; adaptive filters; acoustic and acoustoelectric convolvers and correlators for radar, spread spectrum, and packet radio; acoustooptic processors for Bragg modulation and spectrum analysis; real-time Fourier-transform and cepstrum processors for radar and sonar; compressive receivers; Nyquist filters for microwave digital radio; clock-recovery filters for fiber communications; fixed-, tunable-, and multimode oscillators and frequency synthesizers; acoustic charge transport; and other SAW devices for signal processing on gallium arsenide. Shallow bulk acoustic wave device applications include gigahertz delay lines, surface-transverse-wave resonators employing energy-trapping gratings, and oscillators with enhanced performance and capability.

  18. Probing Acoustic Nonlinearity by Mixing Surface Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, David Howard; Telschow, Kenneth Louis

    2000-07-01

    Measurement methods aimed at determining material properties through nonlinear wave propagation are sensitive to artifacts caused by background nonlinearities inherent in the ultrasonic generation and detection methods. The focus of this paper is to describe our investigation of nonlinear mixing of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) as a means to decrease sensitivity to background nonlinearity and increase spatial sensitivity to acoustic nonlinearity induced by material microstructure.

  19. Planetary surface research with acoustic sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Seidensticker, K. J.

    2007-08-01

    Planetary space missions like Rosetta and ExoMars put more and more emphasis on the in-situ investigation of planetary surfaces. The use of mechanical vibrations in the audible frequency range provide a new means to study the structure and properties of the surface layers of terrestrial planets and minor bodies like comets. As the first of this new type of instruments, the Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment (CASSE) on the Rosetta Lander Philae intends to determine elastic parameters and the structure of the surface layer of the target comet. One drawback of CASSE is unknown possibly weak coupling to the cometary surface. A DFG project is being conducted at the DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt - to test the applicability of planetary penetration instruments like PLUTO, planetary sampling tool, developed for the Mars Express lander Beagle 2, or MUPUS, a heat probe instrument also on Philae, as stronger acoustic sources as well as to develop new methods for the analysis of acoustic data. From the analysis of the polarisation of the recorded acoustic signals it is possible to separate the mixture of different propagating wave types. These identified waves can be used for the determination of mechanical soil properties and near-surface layering. We also will present how acoustic receivers can be used to locate acoustic penetrators or nearby seismic sources using the travel time and/or the polarisation of the acoustic waves.

  20. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Parent, Philippe; Reinholdtsen, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respected to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations.

  1. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Parent, P.; Reinholdtsen, P.A.

    1991-02-26

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method are described in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respect to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations. 7 figures.

  2. Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2014-05-07

    A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.

  3. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  4. Gas sensing with surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. J.; Schweizer, K. S.; Ricco, A. J.; Zipperian, T. E.

    1985-03-01

    The use of a ZnO-on-Si surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator as a gas sensor is discussed. In particular, the sensitivity of the device to organic vapors is examined. The planar nature of the SAW device, in which the acoustic energy is confined to within roughly one acoustic wavelength of the surface, makes the device extremely sensitive to surface perturbations. This characteristic has been exploited in the construction of SAW gas sensors in which the surface wave propagation characteristics are altered by species adsorbed from the ambient gas. The porous nature of the sputtered ZnO film, in conjunction with the microbalance capability of the SAW device, gives the sensor the ability to distinguish molecules on the basis of both size and mass.

  5. Asymmetric counterpropagating fronts without flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2015-06-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit domain walls between different states. These walls, depending on the type of connected states, can display rich spatiotemporal dynamics. In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the asymmetrical counterpropagation of fronts in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the different front shapes and propagation speeds. These fronts present dissimilar elastic deformations that are responsible for their asymmetric speeds. Theoretically, using a phenomenological model, we describe the observed dynamics with fair agreement.

  6. Asymmetric counterpropagating fronts without flow.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, I; Clerc, M G; Odent, V

    2015-06-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit domain walls between different states. These walls, depending on the type of connected states, can display rich spatiotemporal dynamics. In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the asymmetrical counterpropagation of fronts in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the different front shapes and propagation speeds. These fronts present dissimilar elastic deformations that are responsible for their asymmetric speeds. Theoretically, using a phenomenological model, we describe the observed dynamics with fair agreement.

  7. Wireless actuation with functional acoustic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, T.; Palagi, S.; Mark, A. G.; Melde, K.; Adams, F.; Fischer, P.

    2016-11-01

    Miniaturization calls for micro-actuators that can be powered wirelessly and addressed individually. Here, we develop functional surfaces consisting of arrays of acoustically resonant micro-cavities, and we demonstrate their application as two-dimensional wireless actuators. When remotely powered by an acoustic field, the surfaces provide highly directional propulsive forces in fluids through acoustic streaming. A maximal force of ˜0.45 mN is measured on a 4 × 4 mm2 functional surface. The response of the surfaces with bubbles of different sizes is characterized experimentally. This shows a marked peak around the micro-bubbles' resonance frequency, as estimated by both an analytical model and numerical simulations. The strong frequency dependence can be exploited to address different surfaces with different acoustic frequencies, thus achieving wireless actuation with multiple degrees of freedom. The use of the functional surfaces as wireless ready-to-attach actuators is demonstrated by implementing a wireless and bidirectional miniaturized rotary motor, which is 2.6 × 2.6 × 5 mm3 in size and generates a stall torque of ˜0.5 mN.mm. The adoption of micro-structured surfaces as wireless actuators opens new possibilities in the development of miniaturized devices and tools for fluidic environments that are accessible by low intensity ultrasound fields.

  8. Topological charge pump by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zheng; Shi-Ping, Feng; Shi-Jie, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Quantized electron pumping by the surface acoustic wave across barriers created by a sequence of split metal gates is interpreted from the viewpoint of topology. The surface acoustic wave serves as a one-dimensional periodical potential whose energy spectrum possesses the Bloch band structure. The time-dependent phase plays the role of an adiabatic parameter of the Hamiltonian which induces a geometrical phase. The pumping currents are related to the Chern numbers of the filled bands below the Fermi energy. Based on this understanding, we predict a novel effect of quantized but non-monotonous current plateaus simultaneously pumped by two homodromous surface acoustic waves. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374036) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821403).

  9. Acoustic Impedance Measurement for Underground Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockcroft, Paul William

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis investigates the measurement of acoustic impedance for surfaces likely to be found in underground coal mines. By introducing the concepts of industrial noise, the effects of noise on the ear and relevant legislation the need for the protection of workers can be appreciated. Representative acoustic impedance values are vital as input for existing computer models that predict sound levels in various underground environments. These enable the mining engineer to predict the noise level at any point within a mine in the vicinity of noisy machinery. The concepts of acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance are investigated and different acoustic impedance measurement techniques are detailed. The possible use of either an impedance tube or an intensity meter for these kinds of measurements are suggested. The problems with acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance measurements are discussed with reference to the restraints that an underground environment imposes on any measurement technique. The impedance tube method for work in an acoustics laboratory is shown and the theory explained, accompanied by a few representative results. The use of a Metravib intensity meter in a soundproof chamber to gain impedance values is explained in detail. The accompanying software for the analysis of the two measured pressure signals is shown as well as the actual results for a variety of test surfaces. The use of a Nagra IV-SJ tape recorder is investigated to determine the effect of recording on the measurement and subsequent analysis of the input signals, particularly with reference to the phase difference introduced between the two simultaneous pressure signals. The subsequent use of a Norwegian Electronic intensity meter, including a proposal for underground work, is shown along with results for tests completed with this piece of equipment. Finally, recommendations are made on how to link up

  10. Ring waveguide resonator on surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, S. V.; Martin, G.; Weihnacht, M.

    2007-04-01

    A simple regular electrode structure for surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is proposed. The structure consists of an interdigital transducer in the form of a ring placed on the Z cut of a hexagonal piezoelectric crystal. Finite thickness electrodes produce the known slowing effect for a SAW in comparison with this SAW on a free surface. The closed "slow" electrode region with the "fast" surrounding region forms an open waveguide resonator structure with the acoustic field concentrated in the electrode region. If the radius of the structure is large enough for a given wavelength, an acceptable level of radiation losses can be reached. The electrical admittance of such resonator does not have sidelobes.

  11. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    DOEpatents

    Branch,; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold, G [Ithaca, NY

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  12. Resonant surface acoustic wave chemical detector

    DOEpatents

    Brocato, Robert W.; Brocato, Terisse; Stotts, Larry G.

    2017-08-08

    Apparatus for chemical detection includes a pair of interdigitated transducers (IDTs) formed on a piezoelectric substrate. The apparatus includes a layer of adsorptive material deposited on a surface of the piezoelectric substrate between the IDTs, where each IDT is conformed, and is dimensioned in relation to an operating frequency and an acoustic velocity of the piezoelectric substrate, so as to function as a single-phase uni-directional transducer (SPUDT) at the operating frequency. Additionally, the apparatus includes the pair of IDTs is spaced apart along a propagation axis and mutually aligned relative to said propagation axis so as to define an acoustic cavity that is resonant to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the operating frequency, where a distance between each IDT of the pair of IDTs ranges from 100 wavelength of the operating frequency to 400 wavelength of the operating frequency.

  13. Absorption of surface acoustic waves by graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Xu, W.

    2011-06-01

    We present a theoretical study on interactions of electrons in graphene with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). We find that owing to momentum and energy conservation laws, the electronic transition accompanied by the SAW absorption cannot be achieved via inter-band transition channels in graphene. For graphene, strong absorption of SAWs can be observed in a wide frequency range up to terahertz at room temperature. The intensity of SAW absorption by graphene depends strongly on temperature and can be adjusted by changing the carrier density. This study is relevant to the exploration of the acoustic properties of graphene and to the application of graphene as frequency-tunable SAW devices.

  14. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    SciTech Connect

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula

    2015-09-14

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.

  15. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Irzhak, Dmitry; Insepov, Zinetula

    2015-09-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.

  16. Acoustic tomography in the atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, A.; Arnold, K.; Raabe, A.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique) is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.

  17. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.

    2016-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging. PMID:27640998

  18. Wireless Multiplexed Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Sensor is a new technology for obtaining multiple, real-time measurements under extreme environmental conditions. This project plans to develop a wireless multiplexed sensor system that uses SAW sensors, with no batteries or semiconductors, that are passive and rugged, can operate down to cryogenic temperatures and up to hundreds of degrees C, and can be used to sense a wide variety of parameters over reasonable distances (meters).

  19. Study of surface plasmons with a scanning acoustic microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Bereiter-Hahn, J; Blase, C; Lozovik, Yurii E; Nazarov, Maksim M; Shkurinov, A P

    2003-05-31

    A new technique for investigating the surface plasmons by means of a scanning acoustic microscope is proposed. Within this technique, the surface electromagnetic wave (plasmon polariton) is excited by laser radiation on one side of a metal film, while a scanning acoustic microscope excites surface acoustic waves on the other side of the film. Obtained for the first time, the acoustic images of plasmons, propagating on the grating surface, demonstrate the possibility of studying the plasmon wave field distribution by means of a scanning acoustic microscope. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  20. Surface acoustic wave microsensors and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galipeau, David W.; Story, Patrick R.; Vetelino, Kevin A.; Mileham, R. D.

    1997-06-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been studied for the last twenty years as highly sensitive yet relatively inexpensive microsensors for applications ranging from gas and biological sensing to thin film and surface characterization. This wide range of applications is due to SAW microsensors high sensitivity to several physical parameters including mass, conductivity, permittivity, stress, temperature and electric fields. Their low cost results from the use of standard batch microelectronic fabrication techniques for their manufacture. In this work several SAW sensing applications are described. These include: gas detection; thin film polymer characterization; dew-point measurements; surface energy measurements; and as a method to measure surface cleanliness. Experimental results are presented along with comparisons to other measurement techniques.

  1. Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Eliot F.; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals—as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work—we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems. PMID:28361922

  2. Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Eliot F; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T

    2017-03-31

    Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals-as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work-we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.

  3. Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Eliot F.; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T.

    2017-03-01

    Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals—as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work—we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.

  4. Surface Acoustic Wave Atomizer and Electrostatic Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Yutaka

    A new methodology for fabricating thin film or micro patters of organic/bio material using surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer and electrostatic deposition is proposed and characteristics of atomization techniques are discussed in terms of drop size and atomization speed. Various types of SAW atomizer are compared with electrospray and conventional ultrasonic atomizers. It has been proved that SAW atomizers generate drops as small as electrospray and have very fast atomization speed. This technique is applied to fabrication of micro patterns of proteins. According to the result of immunoassay, the specific activity of immunoglobulin was preserved after deposition process.

  5. Surface acoustic wave atomizer and electrostatic deposition.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology for fabricating thin film or micro patters of organic/bio material using surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer and electrostatic deposition is proposed and characteristics of atomization techniques are discussed in terms of drop size and atomization speed. Various types of SAW atomizer are compared with electrospray and conventional ultrasonic atomizers. It has been proved that SAW atomizers generate drops as small as electrospray and have very fast atomization speed. This technique is applied to fabrication of micro patterns of proteins. According to the result of immunoassay, the specific activity of immunoglobulin was preserved after deposition process.

  6. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmeier, Peter; Dóra, Balázs; Ziegler, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation is a powerful method to investigate two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. We show how SAW observables are influenced by coupling to the 2D massless Dirac electrons of graphene and argue that Landau oscillations in SAW propagation can be observed as function of gate voltage for constant field. Contrary to other transport measurements, the zero-field SAW propagation gives the wave-vector dependence of graphene conductivity for small wave numbers. We predict a crossover from Schrödinger to Dirac-like behavior as a function of gate voltage, with no attenuation in the latter for clean samples.

  7. Surface acoustic wave oxygen pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transducer for the measurement of absolute gas-state oxygen pressure from pressures of less than 100 Pa to atmospheric pressure (1.01 x 10(exp 5) Pa) is based on a standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The piezoelectric material of the SAW device is coated with a compound which will selectively and reversibly bind oxygen. When oxygen is bound by the coating, the mass of the coating increases by an amount equal to the mass of the bound oxygen. Such an increase in the mass of the coating causes a corresponding decrease in the resonant frequency of the SAW device.

  8. Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Microbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuan, Raymond L.; Bowers, William D.

    1992-01-01

    Improved piezoelectric microbalances developed for use in measuring masses of volcanic, aerosol, and other small particles suspended in air. Sensitive microbalance used to analyze airborne particles in real time in environments as diverse as clean rooms or upper atmosphere. Surface-acoustic-wave resonator includes input and output sets of interdigitated electrodes and two passive conductive patterns acting as reflectors. Mechanical energy travels both ways out from middle and reflected back toward middle. Microbalance and associated circuitry fit in small package. Circuit draws only 80 mA at 5 V. Sensitivity more than 400 times that of bulk piezoelectric microbalance.

  9. Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Microbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuan, Raymond L.; Bowers, William D.

    1992-01-01

    Improved piezoelectric microbalances developed for use in measuring masses of volcanic, aerosol, and other small particles suspended in air. Sensitive microbalance used to analyze airborne particles in real time in environments as diverse as clean rooms or upper atmosphere. Surface-acoustic-wave resonator includes input and output sets of interdigitated electrodes and two passive conductive patterns acting as reflectors. Mechanical energy travels both ways out from middle and reflected back toward middle. Microbalance and associated circuitry fit in small package. Circuit draws only 80 mA at 5 V. Sensitivity more than 400 times that of bulk piezoelectric microbalance.

  10. Surface acoustic wave microsensors and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galipeau, David W.; Story, Patrick R.; Vetelino, Kevin A.; Mileham, Russell D.

    1997-12-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been studied for the last twenty years as highly sensitive yet relatively inexpensive microsensors for applications ranging from temperature and stress to gas and biological sensing. This wide range of applications is due to the SAW microsensors' high sensitivity to several physical parameters including mass, temperature, stress, and conductivity. Their low cost results from the use of standard batch microelectronic fabrication techniques for their manufacture. In this paper several chemical sensing applications for SAW devices are described. These include: gas detection; thin-film polymer characterization; dew-point measurements; surface energy measurements; and as a method to measure surface cleanliness. Experimental results are presented along with comparisons to other measurement techniques.

  11. Strong enhancement of surface diffusion by nonlinear surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugaev, Maxim V.; Manzo, Anthony J.; Wu, Chengping; Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Helvajian, Henry; Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    2015-06-01

    The phenomenon of acoustic activation of surface diffusion is investigated in a combined computational and experimental study. The ability of pulsed laser-generated surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to enhance the mobility of small atomic clusters is demonstrated by directly tracking, with fluorescence microscopy, individual A u8 clusters moving on a (111) silicon substrate. A 19-fold increase in the effective diffusion coefficient is measured in room temperature experiments in the presence of SAWs generated by nanosecond pulse laser irradiation at a 100 Hz repetition rate. A strong enhancement of cluster mobility by SAWs is also observed in large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of surface diffusion of small atomic clusters. The analysis of the computational results demonstrates that the nonlinear sharpening of SAWs and the corresponding enrichment of the SAW spectra by high frequency harmonics which are capable of dynamic coupling to the cluster vibrations are responsible for the efficient acoustic activation of surface mobility in the simulations. The increase in the effective diffusion coefficient is proportional to the number of the SAW pulses passing through the diffusion region per unit time and a dramatic 4500-fold diffusion enhancement (corresponds to an equivalent temperature increase by ˜103K ) is predicted in the simulations for 15 GHz SAWs. The ability of SAWs to affect atomic-level surface processes has far-reaching implications for the design of new techniques where the acoustic energy serves as an effective substitution for thermal activation in applications where heating must be avoided or rapid switching of surface conditions is required.

  12. Upper surface blowing aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryle, D. M., Jr.; Braden, J. A.; Gibson, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance at cruise, and noise effects due to variations in nacelle and wing geometry and mode of operation are studied using small aircraft models that simulate upper surface blowing (USB). At cruise speeds ranging from Mach .50 to Mach .82, the key determinants of drag/thrust penalties are found to be nozzle aspect ratio, boattailing angle, and chordwise position; number of nacelles; and streamlined versus symmetric configuration. Recommendations are made for obtaining favorable cruise configurations. The acoustic studies, which concentrate on the noise created by the jet exhaust flow and its interaction with wing and flap surfaces, isolate several important sources of USB noise, including nozzle shape, exit velocity, and impingement angle; flow pathlength; and flap angle and radius of curvature. Suggestions for lessening noise due to trailing edge flow velocity, flow pathlength, and flow spreading are given, though compromises between some design options may be necessary.

  13. Acoustics of Jet Surface Interaction - Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity to the structure or embedded in the airframe. While such integrated systems are intended to shield noise from the community, they also introduce new sources of sound. Sound generation due to interaction of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated here using the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation. The propagation Green's function is solved numerically for a high aspect-ratio rectangular jet starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. It is shown the magnitude of the Green's function decreases with increasing source frequency and/or jet temperature. The phase remains constant for a rigid surface, but varies with source location when subject to an impedance type boundary condition. The Green's function in the absence of the surface, and flight effects are also investigated

  14. Nozzleless Spray Cooling Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Kar Man; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming Kwang

    2015-11-01

    Due to its reliability and portability, surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomization is an attractive approach for the generation of monodispersed microdroplets in microfluidics devices. Here, we present a nozzleless spray cooling technique via SAW atomization with key advantage of downward scalability by simply increasing the excitation frequency. With generation of micron size droplets through surface destabilization using SAW, the clogging issues commonly encountered by spraying nozzle can be neutralized. Using deionised water, cooling is improved when the atomization rate is increased and the position of the device is optimized such that the atomized droplets can be easily seeded into the upstream of the flow circulation. Cooling is further improved with the use of nanofluids; a suspension of nanoparticles in water. By increasing nanoparticle mass concentration from 1% to 3%, cooling is enhanced due to the deposition and formation of nanoparticle clusters on heated surface and eventually increase the surface area. However, further increase the concentration to 10% reduces the cooling efficiency due to drastic increase in viscosity μ that leads to lower atomization rate which scales as ṁ ~μ - 1 / 2 .

  15. Standing Surface Acoustic Wave Based Cell Coculture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Precise reconstruction of heterotypic cell–cell interactions in vitro requires the coculture of different cell types in a highly controlled manner. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell coculture platform. In our approach, different types of cells are patterned sequentially in the SSAW field to form an organized cell coculture. To validate our platform, we demonstrate a coculture of epithelial cancer cells and endothelial cells. Real-time monitoring of cell migration dynamics reveals increased cancer cell mobility when cancer cells are cocultured with endothelial cells. Our SSAW-based cell coculture platform has the advantages of contactless cell manipulation, high biocompatibility, high controllability, simplicity, and minimal interference of the cellular microenvironment. The SSAW technique demonstrated here can be a valuable analytical tool for various biological studies involving heterotypic cell–cell interactions. PMID:25232648

  16. Raising Photoemission Efficiency with Surface Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    A. Afanasev, F. Hassani, C.E. Korman, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, M. Poelker, K.E.L. Surles-Law

    2012-07-01

    We are developing a novel technique that may help increase the efficiency and reduce costs of photoelectron sources used at electron accelerators. The technique is based on the use of Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) in piezoelectric materials, such as GaAs, that are commonly used as photocathodes. Piezoelectric fields produced by the traveling SAW spatially separate electrons and holes, reducing their probability of recombination, thereby enhancing the photoemission quantum efficiency of the photocathode. Additional advantages could be increased polarization provided by the enhanced mobility of charge carriers that can be controlled by the SAW and the ionization of optically-generated excitons resulting in the creation of additional electron-hole pairs. It is expected that these novel features will reduce the cost of accelerator operation. A theoretical model for photoemission in the presence of SAW has been developed, and experimental tests of the technique are underway.

  17. Standing surface acoustic wave based cell coculture.

    PubMed

    Li, Sixing; Guo, Feng; Chen, Yuchao; Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Wang, Lin; Cameron, Craig E; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-10-07

    Precise reconstruction of heterotypic cell-cell interactions in vitro requires the coculture of different cell types in a highly controlled manner. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell coculture platform. In our approach, different types of cells are patterned sequentially in the SSAW field to form an organized cell coculture. To validate our platform, we demonstrate a coculture of epithelial cancer cells and endothelial cells. Real-time monitoring of cell migration dynamics reveals increased cancer cell mobility when cancer cells are cocultured with endothelial cells. Our SSAW-based cell coculture platform has the advantages of contactless cell manipulation, high biocompatibility, high controllability, simplicity, and minimal interference of the cellular microenvironment. The SSAW technique demonstrated here can be a valuable analytical tool for various biological studies involving heterotypic cell-cell interactions.

  18. Magnetically programmable surface acoustic wave radio frequency identification tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Matthew; Buford, Benjamin; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2011-04-01

    A reconfigurable surface acoustic wave reflector using an integrated magnetoresistive bit was fabricated and evaluated for use in programmable radio frequency identification tags. It is shown that two distinct reflectivities can be achieved depending on the magnetic state of the bit. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations of optimal reflectivities achievable from resistively loaded surface acoustic wave transducers.

  19. Acceleration of solitary ion-acoustic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, L.; Gradov, O. M.

    1991-10-01

    We consider the interaction between long-wavelength ion-acoustic and electron-plasma surface waves on a semi-infinite plasma. It then turns out that an ion-acoustic solitary wave can be accelerated when the amplitude of the electron-plasma surface wave varies in time.

  20. Nonlinear surface acoustic waves in cubic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumon, Ronald Edward

    Model equations developed by Hamilton, Il'inskii, and Zabolotskaya [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 639-651 (1999)] are used to perform theoretical and numerical studies of nonlinear surface acoustic waves in a variety of nonpiezoelectric cubic crystals. The basic theory underlying the model equations is outlined, quasilinear solutions of the equations are derived, and expressions are developed for the shock formation distance and nonlinearity coefficient. A time-domain equation corresponding to the frequency-domain model equations is derived and shown to reduce to a time-domain equation introduced previously for Rayleigh waves [E. A. Zabolotskaya, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 2569-2575 (1992)]. Numerical calculations are performed to predict the evolution of initially monofrequency surface waves in the (001), (110), and (111) planes of the crystals RbCl, KCl, NaCl, CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, C (diamond), Si, Ge, Al, Ni, Cu in the moverline 3m point group, and the crystals Cs-alum, NH4- alum, and K-alum in the moverline 3 point group. The calculations are based on measured second- and third- order elastic constants taken from the literature. Nonlinearity matrix elements which describe the coupling strength of harmonic interactions are shown to provide a powerful tool for characterizing waveform distortion. Simulations in the (001) and (110) planes show that in certain directions the velocity waveform distortion may change in sign, generation of one or more harmonies may be suppressed and shock formation postponed, or energy may be transferred rapidly to the highest harmonics and shock formation enhanced. Simulations in the (111) plane show that the nonlinearity matrix elements are generally complex-valued, which may lead to asymmetric distortion and the appearance of low frequency oscillations near the peaks and shocks in the velocity waveforms. A simple transformation based on the phase of the nonlinearity matrix is shown to provide a reasonable approximation of asymmetric waveform

  1. Estimating surface acoustic impedance with the inverse method.

    PubMed

    Piechowicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Sound field parameters are predicted with numerical methods in sound control systems, in acoustic designs of building and in sound field simulations. Those methods define the acoustic properties of surfaces, such as sound absorption coefficients or acoustic impedance, to determine boundary conditions. Several in situ measurement techniques were developed; one of them uses 2 microphones to measure direct and reflected sound over a planar test surface. Another approach is used in the inverse boundary elements method, in which estimating acoustic impedance of a surface is expressed as an inverse boundary problem. The boundary values can be found from multipoint sound pressure measurements in the interior of a room. This method can be applied to arbitrarily-shaped surfaces. This investigation is part of a research programme on using inverse methods in industrial room acoustics.

  2. Acoustic Tomography of the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-28

    resolution of an ultrasonic anemometer , it was suggested that one consider it is as a small acoustic tomography array and apply appropriate inverse...Fairall, D. Keith Wilson, Ludovic Bariteau. Sonic Anemometer as a Small Acoustic Tomography Array, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, (08 2013): 0. doi...Received Paper 3.00 S. N. Vecherin, V. E. Ostashev, D. K. Wilson, A. Grached. Utilization of an acoustic tomography array as a large sonic anemometer

  3. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit.

  4. Acoustic environment of the Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jean-Pierre

    2001-03-01

    Prompted by the Mars Microphone aboard the 1998 Mars Polar Lander, a theoretical study of the acoustical environment of the Martian surface has been made to ascertain how the propagation of sound is attenuated under such conditions and to predict what sounds may be detectable by a microphone. Viscous and thermal relaxation (termed classical absorption), molecular relaxation, and geometric attenuation are considered. Classical absorption is stronger under Martian conditions resulting in sounds in the audible frequencies (20 Hz to 20 kHz) being more strongly attenuated than in the terrestrial environment. The higher frequencies (>3000 Hz) will be severely attenuated as the absorption is frequency dependent. At very low infrasound frequencies (i.e., <10 Hz), attenuation will be mostly due to geometric spreading of the propagating wave front and will therefore be more similar to the terrestrial surface environment. Probable sound sources in the landed environment include wind-blown dust and sand from large dust storms, dust devils, and possible associated electrostatic discharge. The sounds most likely to be detected will be sounds generated by the lander itself and aeroacoustic noises generated by winds blowing against the lander and its instruments.

  5. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Vibration Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit. PMID:22247694

  6. Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Länge, Kerstin; Rapp, Bastian E; Rapp, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This review presents an overview of 20 years of worldwide development in the field of biosensors based on special types of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that permit the highly sensitive detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media (such as water or aqueous buffer solutions). 1987 saw the first approaches, which used either horizontally polarized shear waves (HPSW) in a delay line configuration on lithium tantalate (LiTaO(3)) substrates or SAW resonator structures on quartz or LiTaO(3) with periodic mass gratings. The latter are termed "surface transverse waves" (STW), and they have comparatively low attenuation values when operated in liquids. Later Love wave devices were developed, which used a film resonance effect to significantly reduce attenuation. All of these sensor approaches were accompanied by the development of appropriate sensing films. First attempts used simple layers of adsorbed antibodies. Later approaches used various types of covalently bound layers, for example those utilizing intermediate hydrogel layers. Recent approaches involve SAW biosensor devices inserted into compact systems with integrated fluidics for sample handling. To achieve this, the SAW biosensors can be embedded into micromachined polymer housings. Combining these two features will extend the system to create versatile biosensor arrays for generic lab use or for diagnostic purposes.

  7. High transmission acoustic focusing by impedance-matched acoustic meta-surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jahdali, Rasha; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Impedance is an important issue in the design of acoustic lenses because mismatched impedance is detrimental to real focusing applications. Here, we report two designs of acoustic lenses that focus acoustic waves in water and air, respectively. They are tailored by acoustic meta-surfaces, which are rigid thin plates decorated with periodically distributed sub-wavelength slits. Their respective building blocks are constructed from the coiling-up spaces in water and the layered structures in air. Analytic analysis based on coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix reveals that the impedances of the lenses are matched to those of the background media. With these impedance-matched acoustic lenses, we demonstrate the acoustic focusing effect by finite-element simulations.

  8. Droplet actuation by surface acoustic waves: an interplay between acoustic streaming and radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Philippe; Baudoin, Michael; Matar, Olivier Bou; Zoueshtiagh, Farzam

    2010-11-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) are known to be a versatile technique for the actuation of sessile drops. Droplet displacement, internal mixing or drop splitting, are amongst the elementary operations that SAW can achieve, which are useful on lab-on-chip microfluidics benches. On the purpose to understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved during these operations, we study experimentally the droplet dynamics varying different physical parameters. Here in particular, the influence of liquid viscosity and acoustic frequency is investigated: it is indeed predicted that both quantities should play a role in the acoustic-hydrodynamic coupling involved in the dynamics. The key point is to compare the relative magnitude of the attenuation length, i.e. the scale within which the acoustic wave decays in the fluid, and the size of the drop. This relative magnitude governs the relative importance of acoustic streaming and acoustic radiation pressure, which are both involved in the droplet dynamics.

  9. Ultrafast microfluidics using surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs), nanometer amplitude Rayleigh waves driven at megahertz order frequencies propagating on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate, offer a powerful method for driving a host of extremely fast microfluidic actuation and micro∕bioparticle manipulation schemes. We show that sessile drops can be translated rapidly on planar substrates or fluid can be pumped through microchannels at 1–10 cm∕s velocities, which are typically one to two orders quicker than that afforded by current microfluidic technologies. Through symmetry-breaking, azimuthal recirculation can be induced within the drop to drive strong inertial microcentrifugation for micromixing and particle concentration or separation. Similar micromixing strategies can be induced in the same microchannel in which fluid is pumped with the SAW by merely changing the SAW frequency to rapidly switch the uniform through-flow into a chaotic oscillatory flow by exploiting superpositioning of the irradiated sound waves from the sidewalls of the microchannel. If the flow is sufficiently quiescent, the nodes of the transverse standing wave that arises across the microchannel also allow for particle aggregation, and hence, sorting on nodal lines. In addition, the SAW also facilitates other microfluidic capabilities. For example, capillary waves excited at the free surface of a sessile drop by the SAW underneath it can be exploited for micro∕nanoparticle collection and sorting at nodal points or lines at low powers. At higher powers, the large accelerations off the substrate surface as the SAW propagates across drives rapid destabilization of the drop free surface giving rise to inertial liquid jets that persist over 1–2 cm in length or atomization of the entire drop to produce 1–10 μm monodispersed aerosol droplets, which can be exploited for ink-jet printing, mass spectrometry interfacing, or pulmonary drug delivery. The atomization of polymer∕protein solutions

  10. Surface Acoustic Wave Induced Magnetic Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S.; Baruth, A.; Adenwalla, S.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the use of Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) to switch the magnetization direction of lithographically patterned 40um by 10um cobalt rectangles between two titanium inter-digital transducers (IDTs) on Y-cut LiNbO3. Easy and hard axis magnetization loops measured using the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) show the expected in-plane shape anisotropy. After magnetic saturation along the long easy axis, the magnetic field is turned off and the IDT's are excited at the fundamental resonance frequency, 91.5 MHz, producing a SAW that travels across the patterned Co magnetic structure producing a fast time dependent mechanical strain parallel to the short hard axis of the Co. Magneto-elastic coupling results in a rotation of the magnetization into the hard axis direction, measured by in-plane MOKE measurements along the hard axis direction. Both dc MOKE and high frequency MOKE show, as expected, a definite turn on voltage followed by an asymptotic approach to saturation. Support from NSF MRSEC (DMR-0820521), UCARE, and NFC-Minnesota.

  11. Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Shrinivas G.

    1991-03-01

    The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.

  12. Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren

    2016-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of counterpropagating Airy beams

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Noémi; Marsal, Nicolas; Sciamanna, Marc; Wolfersberger, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    We analyse theoretically the spatiotemporal dynamics of two incoherent counterpropagating Airy beams interacting in a photorefractive crystal under focusing conditions. For a large enough nonlinearity strength the interaction between the two Airy beams leads to light-induced waveguiding. The stability of the waveguide is determined by the crystal length, the nonlinearity strength and the beam’s intensities and is improved when comparing to the situation using Gaussian beams. We further identify the threshold above which the waveguide is no longer static but evolves dynamically either time-periodically or even chaotically. Above the stability threshold, each Airy-soliton moves erratically between privileged output positions that correspond to the spatial positions of the lobes of the counterpropagating Airy beam. These results suggest new ways of creating dynamically varying waveguides, optical logic gates and chaos-based computing. PMID:26315530

  14. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  15. 3-D Acoustic Scattering from 2-D Rough Surfaces Using A Parabolic Equation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    acoustic propagation signals, especially at mid- frequencies and higher (e.g., acoustic communications systems). For many years, the effects of rough...of the effect of surface scattering on 3-D propagation , which is critical in evaluating the variability in underwater acoustic propagation . Results...14. SUBJECT TERMS Acoustic Propagation , Acoustic Scattering, Sea Surface Perturbations, Split- Step Fourier Algorithm, Finite Difference Algorithm

  16. Acoustic carrier transportation induced by surface acoustic waves in graphene in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Satoshi; Ikuta, Takashi; Kanai, Yasushi; Ono, Takao; Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Shimatani, Masaaki; Inoue, Koichi; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-01

    The acoustic charge transportation induced by surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in graphene in solution was investigated. The sign of acoustic current (I A) was found to switch when crossing the Dirac point because the major carrier was transitioned from holes to electrons by the change in electrolyte-gate voltage. I A also exhibited a peak value under conditions of both hole and electron conduction. These results can be explained on the basis of a change in the type of major carrier in graphene, as well as a change in the carrier mobility of graphene.

  17. Nanoliter-droplet acoustic streaming via ultra high frequency surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Richie J; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-06

    The relevant length scales in sub-nanometer amplitude surface acoustic wave-driven acoustic streaming are demonstrated. We demonstrate the absence of any physical limitations preventing the downscaling of SAW-driven internal streaming to nanoliter microreactors and beyond by extending SAW microfluidics up to operating frequencies in the GHz range. This method is applied to nanoliter scale fluid mixing. © 2014 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Anisotropic Swirling Surface Acoustic Waves from Inverse Filtering for On-Chip Generation of Acoustic Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Charron, Eric; Bussonnière, Adrien; Bou Matar, Olivier; Baudoin, Michael

    2015-09-01

    From radio-electronics signal analysis to biological sample actuation, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are involved in a multitude of modern devices. However, only the most simple standing or progressive waves such as plane and focused waves have been explored so far. In this paper, we expand the SAW toolbox with a wave family named "swirling surface acoustic waves" which are the 2D anisotropic analogue of bulk acoustic vortices. Similarly to their 3D counterpart, they appear as concentric structures of bright rings with a phase singularity in their center resulting in a central dark spot. After the rigorous mathematical definition of these waves, we synthesize them experimentally through the inverse filtering technique revisited for surface waves. For this purpose, we design a setup combining arrays of interdigitated transducers and a multichannel electronic that enables one to synthesize any prescribed wave field compatible with the anisotropy of the substrate in a region called the "acoustic scene." This work opens prospects for the design of integrated acoustic vortex generators for on-chip selective acoustic tweezing.

  19. Acoustic tweezers via sub–time-of-flight regime surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Collins, David J.; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Ma, Zhichao; Ng, Jia Wei; Neild, Adrian; Ai, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Micrometer-scale acoustic waves are highly useful for refined optomechanical and acoustofluidic manipulation, where these fields are spatially localized along the transducer aperture but not along the acoustic propagation direction. In the case of acoustic tweezers, such a conventional acoustic standing wave results in particle and cell patterning across the entire width of a microfluidic channel, preventing selective trapping. We demonstrate the use of nanosecond-scale pulsed surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with a pulse period that is less than the time of flight between opposing transducers to generate localized time-averaged patterning regions while using conventional electrode structures. These nodal positions can be readily and arbitrarily positioned in two dimensions and within the patterning region itself through the imposition of pulse delays, frequency modulation, and phase shifts. This straightforward concept adds new spatial dimensions to which acoustic fields can be localized in SAW applications in a manner analogous to optical tweezers, including spatially selective acoustic tweezers and optical waveguides. PMID:27453940

  20. Interaction of surface plasmon polaritons and acoustic waves inside an acoustic cavity.

    PubMed

    Khokhlov, Nikolai; Knyazev, Grigoriy; Glavin, Boris; Shtykov, Yakov; Romanov, Oleg; Belotelov, Vladimir

    2017-09-15

    In this Letter, we introduce an approach for manipulation of active plasmon polaritons via acoustic waves at sub-terahertz frequency range. The acoustic structures considered are designed as phononic Fabry-Perot microresonators where mirrors are presented with an acoustic superlattice and the structure's surface, and a plasmonic grating is placed on top of the acoustic cavity so formed. It provides phonon localization in the vicinity of the plasmonic grating at frequencies within the phononic stop band enhancing phonon-light interaction. We consider phonon excitation by shining a femtosecond laser pulse on the plasmonic grating. Appropriate theoretical model was used to describe the acoustic process caused by the pump laser pulse in the GaAs/AlAs-based acoustic cavity with a gold grating on top. Strongest modulation is achieved upon excitation of propagating surface plasmon polaritons and hybridization of propagating and localized plasmons. The relative changes in the optical reflectivity of the structure are more than an order of magnitude higher than for the structure without the plasmonic film.

  1. Fabrication, Operation and Flow Visualization in Surface-acoustic-wave-driven Acoustic-counterflow Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Travagliati, Marco; Shilton, Richie; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be used to drive liquids in portable microfluidic chips via the acoustic counterflow phenomenon. In this video we present the fabrication protocol for a multilayered SAW acoustic counterflow device. The device is fabricated starting from a lithium niobate (LN) substrate onto which two interdigital transducers (IDTs) and appropriate markers are patterned. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel cast on an SU8 master mold is finally bonded on the patterned substrate. Following the fabrication procedure, we show the techniques that allow the characterization and operation of the acoustic counterflow device in order to pump fluids through the PDMS channel grid. We finally present the procedure to visualize liquid flow in the channels. The protocol is used to show on-chip fluid pumping under different flow regimes such as laminar flow and more complicated dynamics characterized by vortices and particle accumulation domains. PMID:24022515

  2. A surface-acoustic-wave-based cantilever bio-sensor.

    PubMed

    De Simoni, Giorgio; Signore, Giovanni; Agostini, Matteo; Beltram, Fabio; Piazza, Vincenzo

    2015-06-15

    A scalable surface-acoustic-wave- (SAW-) based cantilevered device for portable bio-chemical sensing applications is presented. Even in the current, proof-of-principle implementation this architecture is shown to outperform commercial quartz-crystal microbalances in terms of sensitivity. Adhesion of analytes on a functionalized surface of the cantilever shifts the resonant frequency of a SAW-generating transducer due to the stress-induced variation of the speed of surface acoustic modes. We discuss the relevance of this approach for diagnostics applications based on miniaturized devices.

  3. Counterpropagating Rossby waves in confined plane wakes

    PubMed Central

    Biancofiore, L.; Gallaire, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we revisit the temporal and the spatio-temporal stability of confined plane wakes under the perspective of the counterpropagating Rossby waves (CRWs). Within the context of broken line velocity profiles, each vorticity discontinuity can be associated to a counterpropagating Rossby wave. In the case of a wake modeled by a broken line profile, the interaction of two CRWs is shown to originate in a shear instability. Following this description, we first recover the stability results obtained by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 590, 163–185 (2007)]10.1017/S0022112007007975 and Biancofiore and Gallaire [Phys. Fluids 23, 034103 (2011)]10.1063/1.3554764 by means of the classical normal mode analysis. In this manner, we propose an explanation of the stabilizing influence of the confinement on the temporal stability properties. The CRW description further allows us to propose a new interpretation of the counterintuitive spatio-temporal destabilization in wake flows at moderate confinement noticed by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 565, 171–195 (2006)]10.1017/S0022112006001558: it is well predicted by the mean group velocity of the uncoupled CRWs. PMID:22865998

  4. Surface wave patterns on acoustically levitated viscous liquid alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Z. Y.; Yan, N.; Geng, D. L.; Wei, B.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate two different kinds of surface wave patterns on viscous liquid alloys, which are melted and solidified under acoustic levitation condition. These patterns are consistent with the morphologies of standing capillary waves and ensembles of oscillons, respectively. The rapid solidification of two-dimensional liquid alloy surfaces may hold them down.

  5. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-01-01

    Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273

  6. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.

  7. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; ...

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensormore » with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.« less

  8. Directional Reflective Surface Formed via Gradient-Impeding Acoustic Meta-Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Jedo; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Seong-Hyun; Kim, Taesung

    2016-08-01

    Artificially designed acoustic meta-surfaces have the ability to manipulate sound energy to an extraordinary extent. Here, we report on a new type of directional reflective surface consisting of an array of sub-wavelength Helmholtz resonators with varying internal coiled path lengths, which induce a reflection phase gradient along a planar acoustic meta-surface. The acoustically reshaped reflective surface created by the gradient-impeding meta-surface yields a distinct focal line similar to a parabolic cylinder antenna, and is used for directive sound beamforming. Focused beam steering can be also obtained by repositioning the source (or receiver) off axis, i.e., displaced from the focal line. Besides flat reflective surfaces, complex surfaces such as convex or conformal shapes may be used for sound beamforming, thus facilitating easy application in sound reinforcement systems. Therefore, directional reflective surfaces have promising applications in fields such as acoustic imaging, sonic weaponry, and underwater communication.

  9. Directional Reflective Surface Formed via Gradient-Impeding Acoustic Meta-Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Jedo; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Seong-Hyun; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    Artificially designed acoustic meta-surfaces have the ability to manipulate sound energy to an extraordinary extent. Here, we report on a new type of directional reflective surface consisting of an array of sub-wavelength Helmholtz resonators with varying internal coiled path lengths, which induce a reflection phase gradient along a planar acoustic meta-surface. The acoustically reshaped reflective surface created by the gradient-impeding meta-surface yields a distinct focal line similar to a parabolic cylinder antenna, and is used for directive sound beamforming. Focused beam steering can be also obtained by repositioning the source (or receiver) off axis, i.e., displaced from the focal line. Besides flat reflective surfaces, complex surfaces such as convex or conformal shapes may be used for sound beamforming, thus facilitating easy application in sound reinforcement systems. Therefore, directional reflective surfaces have promising applications in fields such as acoustic imaging, sonic weaponry, and underwater communication. PMID:27562634

  10. Surface acoustic wave/silicon monolithic sensor/processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.; Nouhi, A.; Kilmer, R.; Fathimulla, M. A.; Mehter, E.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for sputter deposition of piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) is described. An argon-ion milling system was converted to sputter zinc oxide films in an oxygen atmosphere using a pure zinc oxide target. Piezoelectric films were grown on silicon dioxide and silicon dioxide overlayed with gold. The sputtered films were evaluated using surface acoustic wave measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and resistivity measurements. The effect of the sputtering conditions on the film quality and the result of post-deposition annealing are discussed. The application of these films to the generation of surface acoustic waves is also discussed.

  11. Coupling light into graphene plasmons through surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Schiefele, Jürgen; Pedrós, Jorge; Sols, Fernando; Calle, Fernando; Guinea, Francisco

    2013-12-06

    We propose a scheme for coupling laser light into graphene plasmons with the help of electrically generated surface acoustic waves. The surface acoustic wave forms a diffraction grating which allows us to excite the long lived phononlike branch of the hybridized graphene plasmon-phonon dispersion with infrared laser light. Our approach avoids patterning the graphene sheet, does not rely on complicated optical near-field techniques, and allows us to electrically switch the coupling between far-field radiation and propagating graphene plasmons.

  12. Numerics of surface acoustic wave (SAW) driven acoustic streaming and radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nama, Nitesh; Barnkob, Rune; Kahler, Christian; Costanzo, Francesco; Jun Huang, Tony

    2015-11-01

    Recently, surface acoustic wave (SAW) based systems have shown great potential for various lab-on-a-chip applications. However, the physical understanding of the precise acoustic fields and associated acoustophoresis is rather limited. In this work, we present a numerical study of the acoustophoretic particle motion inside a SAW-actuated, liquid-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. We utilize a perturbation approach to divide the flow variables into first- and second-order components. The first-order fields result in a time-averaged acoustic radiation force on suspended particles, as well as the time-averaged body force terms that drive the second-order fields. We model the SAW actuation by a displacement function while we utilize impedance boundary conditions to model the PDMS walls. We identify the precise acoustic fields generated inside the microchannel and investigate a range of particle sizes to characterize the transition from streaming-dominated acoustophoresis to radiation-force-dominated acoustophoresis. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of SAW devices to tune the position of vertical pressure node inside the microchannel by tuning the phase difference between the two incoming surface acoustic waves.

  13. Microfluidic particle manipulation using high frequency surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Ye; Collins, David J.

    2016-11-01

    Precise manipulation of particles and biological cells remains a very active research area in microfluidics. Among various force fields applied for microfluidic manipulations, acoustic waves have superior propagating properties in solids and fluids, which can readily enable non-contact cell manipulation in long operating distances. Exploiting acoustic waves for fluid and cell manipulation in microfluidics has led to a newly emerging research area, acoustofluidics. In this work, I will present particle and cell manipulation in microfluidics using high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAW). In particular, I will discuss a unique design of a focused IDT (FIDT) structure, which is able to generate a highly localized SAW field on the order of 20 µm wide. This highly focused acoustic beam has an effective manipulation area size that is comparable to individual micron-sized particles. Here, I demonstrate the use of this highly localized SAW field for single particle level sorting with sub-millisecond pulses and selective capture of particles. Based on the presented studies on acoustic particle manipulation, I envision that the merging of acoustics and microfluidics could enable various particle and cell manipulations needed in microfluidic applications. We acknowledge the support received from Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD)-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) International Design Center (IDG11300101) and SUTD Startup Research Grant (SREP13053) awarded to Y.A.

  14. Quantum electrodynamics analysis of optical binding in counterpropagating beams and effect of particle size.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Justo

    2008-10-01

    A general expression for optical binding energy between particles of any size, in counterpropagating beams with and without interference, is derived using quantum electrodynamics. The effect of particle size on the optically induced interparticle energy surface, which has been the subject of recent research, is explored. Significant changes in this surface when particle size approaches the wavelength of the optical field are revealed. Finally, optically induced particle arrays that may be fabricated with these potentials are briefly discussed.

  15. Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell washing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sixing; Ding, Xiaoyun; Mao, Zhangming; Chen, Yuchao; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; Wang, Lin; Cameron, Craig E.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cell/bead washing is an indispensable sample preparation procedure used in various cell studies and analytical processes. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microfluidic device for cell and bead washing in a continuous flow. In our approach, the acoustic radiation force generated in a SSAW field is utilized to actively extract cells or beads from their original medium. A unique configuration of tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) is employed in our device, enabling us to wash beads with >98% recovery rate and >97% washing efficiency. We also demonstrate the functionality of our device by preparing high-purity (>97%) white blood cells from lysed blood samples through cell washing. Our SSAW-based cell/bead washing device has the advantages of label-free manipulation, simplicity, high biocompatibility, high recovery rate, and high washing efficiency. It can be useful for many lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:25372273

  16. Drops subjected to surface acoustic waves: flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Philippe; Baudoin, Michael; Bou Matar, Olivier; Dynamique Des Systèmes Hors Equilibre Team; Aiman-Films Team

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic waves of frequency beyond the MHz are known to induce streaming flow in fluids that can be suitable to perform elementary operations in microfluidics systems. One of the currently appealing geometry is that of a sessile drop subjected to surface acoustic waves (SAW). Such Rayleigh waves produce non-trival actuation in the drop leading to internal flow, drop displacement, free-surface oscillations and atomization. We recently carried out experiments and numerical simulations that allowed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms that couple acoustic propagation and fluid actuation. We varied the frequency and amplitude of actuation, as well as the properties of the fluid, and we measured the effects of these parameters on the dynamics of the flow. We compared these results to finite-elements numerical simulations.

  17. Individually Identifiable Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors, Tags and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor); Solie, Leland P. (Inventor); Tucker, Dana Y. G. (Inventor); Hines, Andrew T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A surface-launched acoustic wave sensor tag system for remotely sensing and/or providing identification information using sets of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor tag devices is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include coding and other diversity techniques to produce groups of sensors that interact minimally, reducing or alleviating code collision problems typical of prior art coded SAW sensors and tags, and specific device embodiments of said coded SAW sensor tags and systems. These sensor/tag devices operate in a system which consists of one or more uniquely identifiable sensor/tag devices and a wireless interrogator. The sensor device incorporates an antenna for receiving incident RF energy and re-radiating the tag identification information and the sensor measured parameter(s). Since there is no power source in or connected to the sensor, it is a passive sensor. The device is wirelessly interrogated by the interrogator.

  18. Seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Grismayer, T; Vranic, M; Martins, J L; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O

    2017-02-01

    The growth rates of seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating lasers are calculated with first-principles two- and three-dimensional QED-PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. The dependence of the growth rate on the laser polarization and intensity is compared with analytical models that support the findings of the simulations. The models provide insight regarding the qualitative trend of the cascade growth when the intensity of the laser field is varied. A discussion about the cascade's threshold is included, based on the analytical and numerical results. These results show that relativistic pair plasmas and efficient conversion from laser photons to γ rays can be observed with the typical intensities planned to operate on future ultraintense laser facilities such as ELI or Vulcan.

  19. Seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grismayer, T.; Vranic, M.; Martins, J. L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2017-02-01

    The growth rates of seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating lasers are calculated with first-principles two- and three-dimensional QED-PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. The dependence of the growth rate on the laser polarization and intensity is compared with analytical models that support the findings of the simulations. The models provide insight regarding the qualitative trend of the cascade growth when the intensity of the laser field is varied. A discussion about the cascade's threshold is included, based on the analytical and numerical results. These results show that relativistic pair plasmas and efficient conversion from laser photons to γ rays can be observed with the typical intensities planned to operate on future ultraintense laser facilities such as ELI or Vulcan.

  20. Air-ground interface: Surface waves, surface impedance and acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Gilles; Embleton, Tony

    1990-01-01

    In atmospheric acoustics, the subject of surface waves has been an area of discussion for many years. The existence of an acoustic surface wave is now well established theoretically. The mathematical solution for spherical wave propagation above an impedance boundary includes the possibility of a contribution that possesses all the standard properties for a surface wave. Surface waves exist when the surface is sufficiently porous, relative to its acoustical resistance, that it can influence the airborne particle velocity near the surface and reduce the phase velocity of sound waves in air at the surface. This traps some of the sound energy in the air to remain near the surface as it propagates. Above porous grounds, the existence of surface waves has eluded direct experimental confirmation (pulse experiments have failed to show a separate arrival expected from the reduced phase speed) and indirect evidence for its existence has appeared contradictory. The experimental evidence for the existence of an acoustical surface wave above porous boundaries is reviewed. Recent measurements including pulse experiments are also described. A few years ago the acoustic impedance of a grass-covered surface was measured in the frequency range 30 to 300 Hz. Here, further measurements on the same site are discussed. These measurements include core samples, a shallow refractive survey to determine the seismic velocities, and measurements of the acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient.

  1. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Edward S.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  2. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, E.S.

    1980-05-09

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  3. A surface acoustic wave technique for monitoring the growth behavior of small surface fatigue cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Resch, M.T.; Nelson, D.V.; Ramvsat, G.F.; Yuce, H.H.

    1985-03-01

    The theory of Kino and Auld which relates the reflection coefficient of acoustic waves from a crack to its size is summarized. A scattering model is evaluated from this theory concerning the reflection of surface acoustic waves (SAW) from a small surface fatigue crack at a frequency such that the crack depth is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength. Acoustic predictions of crack depth are compared to postfracture measurements of depth for small surface cracks in Pyrex glass, 7075-T651 aluminum, and 4340 steel. Additionally, the minimum detectable crack depth as limited by the acoustic noise level is determined for several typical aluminum and steel alloys. The utility of SAW reflection coefficient measurements for inferring crack depth, crack growth, and crack opening behavior in situ during fatigue cycling is discussed.

  4. Acoustic charge transport induced by the surface acoustic wave in chemical doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shijun; Zhang, Hao; Feng, Zhihong; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Chongling; Liu, Jing; Duan, Xuexin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua

    2016-10-01

    A graphene/LiNbO3 hybrid device is used to investigate the acoustic induced charge transport in chemical doped graphene. The chemical doping of graphene via its physisorption of gas molecules affects the surface acoustic wave (SAW) charge carrier transport in a manner different from electric field drift. That transport induces doping dependent macroscopic acoustoelectric current. The chemical doping can manipulate majority carriers and induces unique acoustoelectric features. The observation is explained by a classical relaxation model. Eventually the device based on acoustoelectric current is proved to outperform the common chemiresistor for chemicals. Our finding provides insight into acoustic charge carrier transport during chemical doping. The doping affects interaction of carriers with SAW phonon and facilitates the understanding of nanoscale acoustoelectric effect. The exploration inspires potential acoustoelectric application for chemical detection involving emerging 2D nanomaterials.

  5. Nonlinear Acoustics at the Air-Water Free Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pree, Seth; Naranjo, Brian; Putterman, Seth

    2016-11-01

    According to linear acoustics, airborne sound incident on a water surface transmits only a tenth of a percent of its energy. This difficulty of transmitting energy across the water surface limits the feasibility of standoff ultrasound imaging. We propose to overcome this long standing problem by developing new methods of coupling into the medium at standoff. In particular, we believe that the acoustic nonlinearity of both the air and the medium may yield a range of effects in the vicinity of the surface permitting an efficient transmission of ultrasound from the air into the medium. The recent commercial availability of parametric speakers that deliver modulated 100kHz ultrasound at 135dB to nonlinearly generate music at 95dB provides an interesting platform with which to revisit the transmission of sound across acoustic impedance mismatches. We show results of experimental studies of the behavior of the air-water free surface when subjected to large amplitude acoustic pressures from the air. This work was supported by the ARO STIR program.

  6. Application of surface acoustic wave devices to radio telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strasilla, U.

    1983-01-01

    Three experimental Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators (SAWR) are developed and evaluated. A desired center frequency is obtained by correct spacing of the Inter-Digital Transducers (IDT). Transmitting and receiving IDT's must be close for adequate coupling and a sufficient number of reflectors are required to create a high quality standing wave. A review of oscillator theory is given and current technology evaluated.

  7. Acoustic Reflection from a Plane Boundary having Variable Surface Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    1960). Mechanical waveguides. Pergamon Press . 10. Oppenheim, A.V. and Schafer, R.W. (1989). Discrete-time signal processing. Prentice Hall Signal...public release ANNOUNCEMENT Anouncement of this report is unlimited KEYWORDS Anechoic Coatings Surface Admittance Acoustic Reflectance ABSTRACT A

  8. Self-focusing of ion-acoustic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, L.; Gradov, O. M.

    1996-06-01

    An electrostatic ion-acoustic surface wave propagating along the boundary of a semi-infinite plasma is considered. It is shown that a nonlinear Schrödinger equation can describe the development of the wave amplitude. The self-focusing length of a wave beam is estimated.

  9. Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, S. L.; Kohl, I.; Madsen, J. B.; Simmons, J.; Terry, N.; Titensor, J.; Wang, Q.; Peatross, J.

    2001-09-01

    Relatively weak counterpropagating light is shown to disrupt the emission of laser high-harmonic generation. Harmonic orders ranging from the teens to the low thirties produced by a 30-femtosecond pulse in a narrow argon jet are ``shut down'' with a contrast as high as 2 orders of magnitude by a chirped 1-picosecond counterpropagating laser pulse (60 times less intense). Alternatively, under poor phase-matching conditions, the counterpropagating light boosts harmonic production by similar contrast through quasiphase matching where out-of-phase emission is suppressed.

  10. Noncontact detection of surface-breaking cracks using a laser acoustic source and an electromagnetic acoustic receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Dewhurst, R.J.; Edwards, C.; Palmer, S.B.

    1986-08-01

    An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) is used to detect laser-generated surface acoustic transients. The surface acoustic waves are broadband and can be used to detect and size surface-breaking cracks if used in conjunction with a broadband detector. A broadband EMAT is described and its use to locate artificial surface-breaking defects in both aluminum and steel is demonstrated. A second study reveals that it can also be used for the detection of real surface-breaking cracks, even on rusty steel surfaces. 10 references.

  11. Surface particulate contamination removal using noncontact acoustic traps (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanis, Sam S.; Zhan, Mei Z.; Barsamian, Hagop

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic field-induced forces (FIF) can detach, trap, and translate particles with no physical contact. This technology thereby shows potential for cleaning optical surfaces without introducing damage to the surface as well as allowing for scale-up to cover large areas where an atmosphere exists such as prior to launch. Experiments relying on acoustic fields created a force field landscape in the region between a transducer and the contaminated glass surface. That force field was then responsible for removing dust particles, trapping them, and translating them to a repository site. We have established proof-of-principle through experiments that removed both well-controlled particles with a narrow diameter distribution, as well as Arizona road dust, with a wide diameter distribution from a glass surface.

  12. Synchronized photonic modulators driven by surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Poveda, A; Hey, R; Biermann, K; Tahraoui, A; Santos, P V; Gargallo, B; Muñoz, P; Cantarero, A; de Lima, M M

    2013-09-09

    Photonic modulators are one of the most important elements of integrated photonics. We have designed, fabricated, and characterized a tunable photonic modulator consisting of two 180°-dephased output waveguide channels, driven by a surface acoustic wave in the GHz frequency range built on (Al,Ga)As. Odd multiples of the fundamental driven frequency are enabled by adjusting the applied acoustic power. A good agreement between theory and experimental results is achieved. The device can be used as a building block for more complex integrated functionalities and can be implemented in several material platforms.

  13. Subwavelength acoustic focusing by surface-wave-resonance enhanced transmission in doubly negative acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M. Oudich, Mourad

    2014-11-21

    We present analytical and numerical analyses of a yet unseen lensing paradigm that is based on a solid metamaterial slab in which the wave excitation source is attached. We propose and demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited acoustic focusing induced by surface resonant states in doubly negative metamaterials. The enhancement of evanescent waves across the metamaterial slab produced by their resonant coupling to surface waves is evidenced and quantitatively determined. The effect of metamaterial parameters on surface states, transmission, and wavenumber bandwidth is clearly identified. Based on this concept consisting of a wave source attached on the metamaterial, a high resolution of λ/28.4 is obtained with the optimum effective physical parameters, opening then an exciting way to design acoustic metamaterials for ultrasonic focused imaging.

  14. Acoustic Bubble Removal from Boiling Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    The object of the study was the investigation of the forces generated by standing acoustic waves on vapor bubbles, both far and near boundaries. In order to accomplish this objective, in view of the scarcity of publications on the topic, it has been necessary to build an edifice of knowledge about vapor bubbles in sound and flow fields from the ground up, as it were. We have addressed problems of gradually greater difficulty as follows: 1. In the first place, the physics of an stationary isolated bubble subject to a sound field in an unbounded liquid was addressed; 2. The case of bubbles translating in a stationary pressure field was then considered; 3. This was followed by a study of the combined effects of sound and translation, 4. And of a neighboring boundary 5. Finally, a new method to deal with nonspherical bubbles was developed- In addition to the work on vapor bubbles, some studies on gas bubbles were conducted in view of NASA's interest in the phenomenon of sonoluminescence.

  15. Estimation of Sea Surface Wave Spectra Using Acoustic Tomography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    develops a new technique for estimating quasi- homogeneous and quasi-stationary sea surface wave frequency-direction spectra using acoustic tomog...problems for the homogeneous and quasi- homogeneous frequency-direction spectrum are introduced. The theory is ap- plied tosynthetic data which simulate...thesis introduces a technique that estimates the quasi-stationary and quasi- homogeneous sea surface wave frequency-direction spectrum from the spectra of

  16. Optimizing surface acoustic wave sensors for trace chemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, G.C.; Kottenstette, R.J.; Heller, E.J.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes several recent advances for fabricating coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for applications requiring trace chemical detection. Specifically, we have demonstrated that high surface area microporous oxides can provide 100-fold improvements in SAW sensor responses compared with more typical polymeric coatings. In addition, we fabricated GaAs SAW devices with frequencies up to 500 MHz to provide greater sensitivity and an ideal substrate for integration with high-frequency electronics.

  17. Dispersionless Manipulation of Reflected Acoustic Wavefront by Subwavelength Corrugated Surface

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Zou, Xin-Ye; Li, Rui-Qi; Jiang, Xue; Tu, Juan; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Free controls of optic/acoustic waves for bending, focusing or steering the energy of wavefronts are highly desirable in many practical scenarios. However, the dispersive nature of the existing metamaterials/metasurfaces for wavefront manipulation necessarily results in limited bandwidth. Here, we propose the concept of dispersionless wavefront manipulation and report a theoretical, numerical and experimental work on the design of a reflective surface capable of controlling the acoustic wavefront arbitrarily without bandwidth limitation. Analytical analysis predicts the possibility to completely eliminate the frequency dependence with a specific gradient surface which can be implemented by designing a subwavelength corrugated surface. Experimental and numerical results, well consistent with the theoretical predictions, have validated the proposed scheme by demonstrating a distinct phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic reflection within an ultra-broad band. For acquiring a deeper insight into the underlying physics, a simple physical model is developed which helps to interpret this extraordinary phenomenon and predict the upper cutoff frequency precisely. Generations of planar focusing and non-diffractive beam have also been exemplified. With the dispersionless wave-steering capability and deep discrete resolution, our designed structure may open new avenue to fully steer classical waves and offer design possibilities for broadband optical/acoustical devices. PMID:26077772

  18. Dispersionless Manipulation of Reflected Acoustic Wavefront by Subwavelength Corrugated Surface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Zou, Xin-Ye; Li, Rui-Qi; Jiang, Xue; Tu, Juan; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2015-06-16

    Free controls of optic/acoustic waves for bending, focusing or steering the energy of wavefronts are highly desirable in many practical scenarios. However, the dispersive nature of the existing metamaterials/metasurfaces for wavefront manipulation necessarily results in limited bandwidth. Here, we propose the concept of dispersionless wavefront manipulation and report a theoretical, numerical and experimental work on the design of a reflective surface capable of controlling the acoustic wavefront arbitrarily without bandwidth limitation. Analytical analysis predicts the possibility to completely eliminate the frequency dependence with a specific gradient surface which can be implemented by designing a subwavelength corrugated surface. Experimental and numerical results, well consistent with the theoretical predictions, have validated the proposed scheme by demonstrating a distinct phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic reflection within an ultra-broad band. For acquiring a deeper insight into the underlying physics, a simple physical model is developed which helps to interpret this extraordinary phenomenon and predict the upper cutoff frequency precisely. Generations of planar focusing and non-diffractive beam have also been exemplified. With the dispersionless wave-steering capability and deep discrete resolution, our designed structure may open new avenue to fully steer classical waves and offer design possibilities for broadband optical/acoustical devices.

  19. Dispersionless Manipulation of Reflected Acoustic Wavefront by Subwavelength Corrugated Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Zou, Xin-Ye; Li, Rui-Qi; Jiang, Xue; Tu, Juan; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Free controls of optic/acoustic waves for bending, focusing or steering the energy of wavefronts are highly desirable in many practical scenarios. However, the dispersive nature of the existing metamaterials/metasurfaces for wavefront manipulation necessarily results in limited bandwidth. Here, we propose the concept of dispersionless wavefront manipulation and report a theoretical, numerical and experimental work on the design of a reflective surface capable of controlling the acoustic wavefront arbitrarily without bandwidth limitation. Analytical analysis predicts the possibility to completely eliminate the frequency dependence with a specific gradient surface which can be implemented by designing a subwavelength corrugated surface. Experimental and numerical results, well consistent with the theoretical predictions, have validated the proposed scheme by demonstrating a distinct phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic reflection within an ultra-broad band. For acquiring a deeper insight into the underlying physics, a simple physical model is developed which helps to interpret this extraordinary phenomenon and predict the upper cutoff frequency precisely. Generations of planar focusing and non-diffractive beam have also been exemplified. With the dispersionless wave-steering capability and deep discrete resolution, our designed structure may open new avenue to fully steer classical waves and offer design possibilities for broadband optical/acoustical devices.

  20. Surface acoustic wave properties of freestanding diamond films.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Colm M; Whitfield, Michael D; Jackman, Richard B

    2004-03-01

    "Ideal" diamond has the highest acoustic velocity of any material known, and is of great interest as a substrate material for high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures. However, little is known of the acoustic wave propagation properties of polycrystalline diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques, the commercially accessible form of this material. We report on propagation of laser-generated SAW on three forms of freestanding CVD diamond samples, "white" polycrystalline, "black" polycrystalline, and "highly oriented" diamond. Despite differing sample nature, SAW waves propagating along the smooth (nucleation) side of the diamond showed similar velocities in the range 10600-11900 ms(-1). These results are discussed in terms of the potential of each form of CVD diamond for SAW device fabrication.

  1. Reducing extrinsic damping of surface acoustic waves at gigahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelda, Dhruv; Sadhu, Jyothi; Ghossoub, Marc G.; Ertekin, Elif; Sinha, Sanjiv

    2016-04-01

    High-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the gigahertz range can be generated using absorption from an ultrafast laser in a patterned metallic grating on a substrate. Reducing the attenuation at these frequencies can yield better sensors as well as enable them to better probe phonon and electron-phonon interactions near surfaces. It is not clear from existing experiments which mechanisms dominate damping at high frequencies. We calculate damping times of SAWs due to various mechanisms in the 1-100 GHz range to find that mechanical loading of the grating on the substrate dominates dissipation by radiating energy from the surface into the bulk. To overcome this and enable future measurements to probe intrinsic damping, we propose incorporating distributed acoustic Bragg reflectors in the experimental structure. Layers of alternating materials with contrasting acoustic impedances embedded a wavelength away from the surface serve to reflect energy back to the surface. Using numerical simulations, we show that a single Bragg reflector is sufficient to increase the energy density at the surface by more than five times. We quantify the resulting damping time to find that it is longer than the intrinsic damping time. The proposed structure can enable future measurements of intrinsic damping in SAWs at ˜100 GHz.

  2. Reducing extrinsic damping of surface acoustic waves at gigahertz frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Gelda, Dhruv Sadhu, Jyothi; Ghossoub, Marc G.; Ertekin, Elif; Sinha, Sanjiv

    2016-04-28

    High-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the gigahertz range can be generated using absorption from an ultrafast laser in a patterned metallic grating on a substrate. Reducing the attenuation at these frequencies can yield better sensors as well as enable them to better probe phonon and electron-phonon interactions near surfaces. It is not clear from existing experiments which mechanisms dominate damping at high frequencies. We calculate damping times of SAWs due to various mechanisms in the 1–100 GHz range to find that mechanical loading of the grating on the substrate dominates dissipation by radiating energy from the surface into the bulk. To overcome this and enable future measurements to probe intrinsic damping, we propose incorporating distributed acoustic Bragg reflectors in the experimental structure. Layers of alternating materials with contrasting acoustic impedances embedded a wavelength away from the surface serve to reflect energy back to the surface. Using numerical simulations, we show that a single Bragg reflector is sufficient to increase the energy density at the surface by more than five times. We quantify the resulting damping time to find that it is longer than the intrinsic damping time. The proposed structure can enable future measurements of intrinsic damping in SAWs at ∼100 GHz.

  3. Diffraction correction for precision surface acoustic wave velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz M., Alberto; Nagy, Peter B.

    2002-09-01

    Surface wave dispersion measurements can be used to nondestructively characterize shot-peened, laser shock-peened, burnished, and otherwise surface-treated specimens. In recent years, there have been numerous efforts to separate the contribution of surface roughness from those of near-surface material variations, such as residual stress, texture, and increased dislocation density. As the accuracy of the dispersion measurements was gradually increased using state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic scanning and sophisticated digital signal processing methods, it was recognized that a perceivable dispersive effect, similar to the one found on rough shot-peened specimens, is exhibited by untreated smooth surfaces as well. This dispersion effect is on the order of 0.1%, that is significantly higher than the experimental error associated with the measurements and comparable to the expected velocity change produced by near-surface compressive residual stresses in metals below their yield point. This paper demonstrates that the cause of this apparent dispersion is the diffraction of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) as it travels over the surface of the specimen. The results suggest that a diffraction correction may be introduced to increase the accuracy of surface wave dispersion measurements. A simple diffraction correction model was developed for surface waves and this correction was subsequently validated by laser-interferometric velocity measurements on aluminum specimens. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  4. Surface spin-electron acoustic waves in magnetically ordered metals

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Pavel A. Kuz'menkov, L. S.

    2016-05-09

    Degenerate plasmas with motionless ions show existence of three surface waves: the Langmuir wave, the electromagnetic wave, and the zeroth sound. Applying the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics to half-space plasma, we demonstrate the existence of the surface spin-electron acoustic wave (SSEAW). We study dispersion of the SSEAW. We show that there is hybridization between the surface Langmuir wave and the SSEAW at rather small spin polarization. In the hybridization area, the dispersion branches are located close to each other. In this area, there is a strong interaction between these waves leading to the energy exchange. Consequently, generating the Langmuir waves with the frequencies close to hybridization area we can generate the SSEAWs. Thus, we report a method of creation of the spin-electron acoustic waves.

  5. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: Fabrication and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Malone, Vanessa

    2012-02-01

    We report on the development of harsh-environment surface acoustic wave sensors for wired and wireless operation. Surface acoustic wave devices with an interdigitated transducer emitter and multiple reflectors were fabricated on langasite substrates. Both wired and wireless temperature sensing was demonstrated using radar-mode (pulse) detection. Temperature resolution of better than ±0.5°C was achieved between 200°C and 600°C. Oxygen sensing was achieved by depositing a layer of ZnO on the propagation path. Although the ZnO layer caused additional attenuation of the surface wave, oxygen sensing was accomplished at temperatures up to 700°C. The results indicate that langasite SAW devices are a potential solution for harsh-environment gas and temperature sensing.

  6. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  7. Electromagnetically Induced Guiding of Counter-propagating Lasers in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = G. Shvets; A. Pukhov

    1998-05-01

    The interaction of counter-propagating laser pulses in a plasma is considered. When the frequencies of the two lasers are close, nonlinear modification of the refraction index results in the mutual focusing of the two beams. A short (of order the plasma period) laser pulse can also be nonlinearly focused by a long counter-propagating beam which extends over the entire guiding length. This phenomenon of electromagnetically induced guiding can be utilized in laser-driven plasma accelerators.

  8. Surface Acoustic Waves Enhance Neutrophil Killing of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Loike, John D.; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm2, significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria. PMID:23936303

  9. Surface acoustic waves enhance neutrophil killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Loike, John D; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm(2), significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria.

  10. Optical processing deep inside optical materials using counterpropagating pulse-shaped spatial solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisaka, Masaki

    2016-10-01

    Optical processing using a pair of counterpropagating pulse-shaped spatial solitons to control the molecular structure deep inside an optical material is investigated. A femtosecond pulsed laser focused at the surface of a strontium barium niobate single crystal induces a pulse-shaped self-focusing second-harmonic beam. The two counterpropagating beams are involved in a head-on collision. Locally reversed crystal domains are formed at the collision point, assisted by external threshold controls such as crystal temperature and an electric dc field. The nonlinear interaction between the soliton collision and the approximate nonperiodic reversed domains induces a change in the second-harmonic intensity of the scattered and transmitted beams, thereby enabling the detection of locally reversed crystal domains.

  11. FROM THE CURRENT LITERATURE: Laser excitation of surface acoustic waves: a new direction in opto-acoustic spectroscopy of a solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabutov, Aleksander A.

    1985-11-01

    Studies in thermo-optic excitation of surface acoustic waves are reviewed. The excitation of periodic and pulse signals is discussed, using nonmoving and moving beams. Most attention is paid to application of this effect for purposes of opto-acoustic spectroscopy of a solid. The possibilities and promises of using opto-acoustic spectroscopy (OAS) employing surface acoustic waves (SAW) are analyzed

  12. Absorption of surface acoustic waves by topological insulator thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L. L.; Xu, W.

    2014-08-11

    We present a theoretical study on the absorption of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by Dirac electrons in topological insulator (TI) thin films (TITFs). We find that due to momentum and energy conservation laws, the absorption of the SAWs in TITFs can only be achieved via intra-band electronic transitions. The strong absorption can be observed up to sub-terahertz frequencies. With increasing temperature, the absorption intensity increases significantly and the cut-off frequency is blue-shifted. More interestingly, we find that the absorption of the SAWs by the TITFs can be markedly enhanced by the tunable subgap in the Dirac energy spectrum of the TI surface states. Such a subgap is absent in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) and in the gapless Dirac 2DEG such as graphene. This study is pertinent to the exploration of the acoustic properties of TIs and to potential application of TIs as tunable SAW devices working at hypersonic frequencies.

  13. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  14. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Branch, Darren W

    2014-03-11

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  15. Absorption of surface acoustic waves by topological insulator thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. L.; Xu, W.

    2014-08-01

    We present a theoretical study on the absorption of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by Dirac electrons in topological insulator (TI) thin films (TITFs). We find that due to momentum and energy conservation laws, the absorption of the SAWs in TITFs can only be achieved via intra-band electronic transitions. The strong absorption can be observed up to sub-terahertz frequencies. With increasing temperature, the absorption intensity increases significantly and the cut-off frequency is blue-shifted. More interestingly, we find that the absorption of the SAWs by the TITFs can be markedly enhanced by the tunable subgap in the Dirac energy spectrum of the TI surface states. Such a subgap is absent in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) and in the gapless Dirac 2DEG such as graphene. This study is pertinent to the exploration of the acoustic properties of TIs and to potential application of TIs as tunable SAW devices working at hypersonic frequencies.

  16. Multiple-frequency surface acoustic wave devices as sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Martin, Stephen J.

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a multiple-frequency acoustic wave (MUFAW) device on ST-cut quartz with nominal surface acoustic wave (SAW) center frequencies of 16, 40, 100, and 250 MHz. The four frequencies are obtained by patterning four sets of input and output interdigital transducers of differing periodicities on a single substrate. Such a device allows the frequency dependence of AW sensor perturbations to be examined, aiding in the elucidation of the operative interaction mechanism(s). Initial measurements of the SAW response to the vacuum deposition of a thin nickel film show the expected frequency dependence of mass sensitivity in addition to the expected frequency independence of the magnitude of the acoustoelectric effect. By measuring changes in both wave velocity and attenuation at multiple frequencies, extrinsic perturbations such as temperature and pressure changes are readily differentiated from one another and from changes in surface mass.

  17. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  18. Space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices, appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sardella, G.

    1973-01-01

    Space manufacturing of transducers in a vibration free environment is discussed. Fabrication of the masks, and possible manufacturing of the surface acoustic wave components aboard a space laboratory would avoid the inherent ground vibrations and the frequency limitation imposed by a seismic isolator pad. The manufacturing vibration requirements are identified. The concepts of space manufacturing are analyzed. A development program for manufacturing transducers is recommended.

  19. Monolithic GaAs surface acoustic wave chemical microsensor array

    SciTech Connect

    HIETALA,VINCENT M.; CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; HELLER,EDWIN J.; WENDT,JOEL R.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-03-09

    A four-channel surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensor array with associated RF electronics is monolithically integrated onto one GaAs IC. The sensor operates at 690 MHz from an on-chip SAW based oscillator and provides simple DC voltage outputs by using integrated phase detectors. This sensor array represents a significant advance in microsensor technology offering miniaturization, increased chemical selectivity, simplified system assembly, improved sensitivity, and inherent temperature compensation.

  20. Optimum contact conditions for miniaturized surface acoustic wave linear motor

    PubMed

    Takasaki; Kurosawa; Higuchi

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the successful operation of a 70 MHz driving surface acoustic wave (SAW) linear motor with a miniaturized stator transducer. This paper also deals with an investigation into an optimized slider design for the miniaturized SAW linear motor. The performance of three silicon type sliders, with different projection size, was compared. Output forces of the three sliders were measured with change of pre-load. It was found that the slider with smaller projection tended to produce greater output force.

  1. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa [Naperville, IL; Kulikov, Stanislav [Sarov, RU; Osorio, Ivan [Leawood, KS; Raptis, Apostolos C [Downers Grove, IL

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  2. Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno; Bonneau, Lenaic

    2009-06-18

    Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.

  3. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  4. Acoustic Techniques for Studying Soil-surface Seals and Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, C. J.; Leary, D.; Dicarlo, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    The impact of raindrops on a soil surface during a rainstorm may cause soil-surface sealing and crusting. Soil- surface sealing is a result of the clogging in interaggregate pores by smaller suspended particles in the water, which reduces the infiltration capacity of soils. Soil-surface crusting refers to the increase in soil strength or mechanical stiffness associated with near surface compaction or densification. The formation of soil-surface seals and crusts have a profound influence on the erodability of soils, with the consensus being that the reduced hydraulic conductivity due to sealing is the more important factor. However, studies note that measured values of seal hydraulic conductivity are few. The reason so few measurements may be because the thickness of the altered surface layer is on the order of millimeters. For example Lee (2006) states that a soil-surface seal consist of two parts: a 0.1mm thick upper skin seal attributed to compaction by the rain drop impact and a deeper 1.5 mm "washed in" zone with decreased porosity due to the accumulation of particles. Bulk density profiles measured using X-radiography show maximum changes in the top 5 mm of the soil. The surface of the ground (soil) has an influence on the propagation of sound outdoors. The porosity, air flow- resistivity, and tortuosity of the ground are the properties, which characterize the influence of the ground on the airborne sound. The air flow-resistivity of a dry soil is equivalent to the hydraulic conductivity of a water-saturated soil. In this presentation we discuss two acoustic techniques, one with sensitivity to changes in hydraulic properties (sealing) and the other to changes in mechanical stiffness (crusting). These non-contact techniques excite the soil using a suspended loudspeaker to impinge acoustic energy from the air (sound) onto the sample. The response of the soil is quantified using a microphone to measure the total pressure above the soil surface and a laser Doppler

  5. An oxygen pressure sensor using surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) piezoelectric devices are finding widespread applications in many arenas, particularly in the area of chemical sensing. We have developed an oxygen pressure sensor based on coating a SAW device with an oxygen binding agent which can be tailored to provide variable sensitivity. The coating is prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer which is then sprayed onto the surface of the SAW device. Experimental data shows the feasibility of tailoring sensors to measure the partial pressure of oxygen from 2.6 to 67 KPa (20 to 500 torr). Potential applications of this technology are discussed.

  6. Laser method of acoustical emission control from vibrating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    For limitation of the noise in environment, the necessity occurs of determining and location of sources of sounds emitted from surfaces of many machines and devices, assuring in effect the possibility of suitable constructional changes implementation, targeted at decreasing of their nuisance. In the paper, the results of tests and calculations are presented for plane surface sources emitting acoustic waves. The tests were realized with the use of scanning laser vibrometer which enabled remote registration and the spectral analysis of the surfaces vibrations. The known hybrid digital method developed for determination of sound wave emission from such surfaces divided into small finite elements was slightly modified by distinguishing the phase correlations between such vibrating elements. The final method being developed may find use in wide range of applications for different forms of vibrations of plane surfaces.

  7. Surface acoustic wave gas sensor based on film conductivity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricco, A. J.; Martin, S. J.; Zipperian, T. E.

    The first surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor that functions via changes in conductivity of a thin surface film is reported. A lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) thin film is deposited on the acoustic propagation path of a LiNbO3 SAW delay line, which serves as the feedback element of an oscillator circuit. Reaction with strongly oxidizing gases, in particular NO2, increases the conductivity of the PbPc film. Acoustoelectic coupling of the traveling electric potential wave associated with the SAW-to-charge carriers in the PbPc film slows the acoustic wave velocity, altering the oscillation frequency of the circuit. This sensor is about 1000 times more sensitive, in terms of the number of NO2 molecules that can be detected (10 to the 16th molecules/cu cm of PbPc film), than an identical SAW sensor functioning via mass loading would be. Sensitivity to a few ppm of NO2 in Ne was demonstrated.

  8. Scanning Michelson interferometer for imaging surface acoustic wave fields.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, J V; Tikka, P T; Salomaa, M M

    2000-05-01

    A scanning homodyne Michelson interferometer is constructed for two-dimensional imaging of high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) fields in SAW devices. The interferometer possesses a sensitivity of ~10(-5)nm/ radicalHz , and it is capable of directly measuring SAW's with frequencies ranging from 0.5 MHz up to 1 GHz. The fast scheme used for locating the optimum operation point of the interferometer facilitates high measuring speeds, up to 50,000 points/h. The measured field image has a lateral resolution of better than 1 mu;m . The fully optical noninvasive scanning system can be applied to SAW device development and research, providing information on acoustic wave distribution that cannot be obtained by merely electrical measurements.

  9. Surface acoustic wave unidirectional transducers for quantum applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekström, Maria K.; Aref, Thomas; Runeson, Johan; Björck, Johan; Boström, Isac; Delsing, Per

    2017-02-01

    The conversion efficiency of electric microwave signals into surface acoustic waves in different types of superconducting transducers is studied with the aim of quantum applications. We compare delay lines containing either conventional symmetric transducers (IDTs) or unidirectional transducers (UDTs) at 2.3 GHz and 10 mK. The UDT delay lines improve the insertion loss with 4.7 dB and a directivity of 22 dB is found for each UDT, indicating that 99.4% of the acoustic power goes in the desired direction. The power lost in the undesired direction accounts for more than 90% of the total loss in IDT delay lines, but only ˜3% of the total loss in the floating electrode unidirectional transducer delay lines.

  10. Visualization of Surface Acoustic Waves in Thin Liquid Films

    PubMed Central

    Rambach, R. W.; Taiber, J.; Scheck, C. M. L.; Meyer, C.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, J. M.; Franke, T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with an interdigitated transducer (IDT), can be visualized using a thin liquid film dispensed onto a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. The practical advantages of this visualization method are its rapid and simple implementation, with many potential applications including in characterising acoustic pumping within microfluidic channels. It also enables low-cost characterisation of IDT designs thereby allowing the determination of anisotropy and orientation of the piezoelectric substrate without the requirement for sophisticated and expensive equipment. Here, we show that the optical visibility of the sound path critically depends on the physical properties of the liquid film and identify heptane and methanol as most contrast rich solvents for visualization of SAW. We also provide a detailed theoretical description of this effect. PMID:26917490

  11. Visualization of Surface Acoustic Waves in Thin Liquid Films.

    PubMed

    Rambach, R W; Taiber, J; Scheck, C M L; Meyer, C; Reboud, J; Cooper, J M; Franke, T

    2016-02-26

    We demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with an interdigitated transducer (IDT), can be visualized using a thin liquid film dispensed onto a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. The practical advantages of this visualization method are its rapid and simple implementation, with many potential applications including in characterising acoustic pumping within microfluidic channels. It also enables low-cost characterisation of IDT designs thereby allowing the determination of anisotropy and orientation of the piezoelectric substrate without the requirement for sophisticated and expensive equipment. Here, we show that the optical visibility of the sound path critically depends on the physical properties of the liquid film and identify heptane and methanol as most contrast rich solvents for visualization of SAW. We also provide a detailed theoretical description of this effect.

  12. Visualization of Surface Acoustic Waves in Thin Liquid Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambach, R. W.; Taiber, J.; Scheck, C. M. L.; Meyer, C.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, J. M.; Franke, T.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with an interdigitated transducer (IDT), can be visualized using a thin liquid film dispensed onto a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. The practical advantages of this visualization method are its rapid and simple implementation, with many potential applications including in characterising acoustic pumping within microfluidic channels. It also enables low-cost characterisation of IDT designs thereby allowing the determination of anisotropy and orientation of the piezoelectric substrate without the requirement for sophisticated and expensive equipment. Here, we show that the optical visibility of the sound path critically depends on the physical properties of the liquid film and identify heptane and methanol as most contrast rich solvents for visualization of SAW. We also provide a detailed theoretical description of this effect.

  13. Monolithic phononic crystals with a surface acoustic band gap from surface phonon-polariton coupling.

    PubMed

    Yudistira, D; Boes, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Pennec, Y; Yeo, L Y; Mitchell, A; Friend, J R

    2014-11-21

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the existence of complete surface acoustic wave band gaps in surface phonon-polariton phononic crystals, in a completely monolithic structure formed from a two-dimensional honeycomb array of hexagonal shape domain-inverted inclusions in single crystal piezoelectric Z-cut lithium niobate. The band gaps appear at a frequency of about twice the Bragg band gap at the center of the Brillouin zone, formed through phonon-polariton coupling. The structure is mechanically, electromagnetically, and topographically homogeneous, without any physical alteration of the surface, offering an ideal platform for many acoustic wave applications for photonics, phononics, and microfluidics.

  14. Light scattering by surface acoustic waves on corrugated metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.M.; Grimsditch, M. ); Moretti, A.L.; Kaufman, R.G.; Hulse, G.R. ); Fullerton, E.; Schuller, I.K. )

    1990-03-15

    We report the results of a Brillouin-scattering study of corrugated Ag surfaces. The corrugation plays a dramatic role in the wave-vector--selection rules governing coupling to surface phonons, and this effect is substantially different when the effective wave vector of the surface corrugation is collinear or perpendicular to the scattering plane. In processes that involve the grating wave vector, we show that the coupling mechanism between light and phonons is governed by surface plasmons which introduce a new scattering interaction with unusual polarization features in the Brillouin-scattering process.

  15. Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2011-11-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.

  16. Near Field Ocean Surface Waves Acoustic Radiation Observation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhuin, F.; Peureux, C.; Royer, J. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The acoustic noise generation by nonlinearly interacting surface gravity waves has been studied for a long time both theoretically and experimentally [Longuet-Higgins 1951]. The associated far field noise is continuously measured by a vast network of seismometers at the ocean bottom and on the continents. It can especially be used to infer the time variability of short ocean waves statistics [Peureux and Ardhuin 2016]. However, better quantitative estimates of the latter are made difficult due to a poor knowledge of the Earth's crust characteristics, whose coupling with acoustic modes can affect large uncertainties to the frequency response at the bottom of the ocean.The pressure field at depths less than an acoustic wave length to the surface is made of evanescent modes which vanish away from their sources (near field) [Cox and Jacobs 1989]. For this reason, they are less affected by the ocean bottom composition. This near field is recorded and analyzed in the frequency range 0.1 to 0.5 Hz approximately, at two locations : at a shallow site in the North-East Atlantic continental shelf and a deep water site in the Southern Indian ocean, where pressure measurements are performed at the ocean bottom (ca. 100 m) and at 300 m water depth respectively. Evanescent and propagating Rayleigh modes are compared against theoretical predictions. Comparisons against surface waves hindcast based on WAVEWATCH(R) III modeling framework help assessing its performances and can be used to help future model improvements.References Longuet-Higgins, M. S., A Theory of the Origin of Microseisms, Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A, 1950, 243, 1-3. Peureux, C. and Ardhuin, F., Ocean bottom pressure records from the Cascadia array and short surface gravity waves, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 2016, 121, 2862-2873. Cox, C. S. & Jacobs, D. C., Cartesian diver observations of double frequency pressure fluctuations in the upper levels of the ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1989, 16, 807-810.

  17. Mapping of the ocean surface wind by ocean acoustic interferometers.

    PubMed

    Voronovich, Alexander G; Penland, Cécile

    2011-05-01

    Measurements of marine surface winds are crucial to understanding mechanical and thermodynamic forces on the ocean. Satellite measurements of surface winds provide global coverage but are problematic at high wind speeds. Acoustic techniques of wind speed retrieval, and even for tracking hurricanes, have been suggested as an alternative since wind is a strong source of ambient noise in the ocean. Such approaches involve near-local measurements with bottom-mounted hydrophones located close to the area of interest. This paper suggests a complementary approach: measuring directivity of low-frequency ambient noise in the horizontal plane. These measurements would employ long vertical line arrays (VLAs) spanning a significant portion of the ocean waveguide. Two VLAs separated by a distance of some tens of kilometers and coherently measuring acoustic pressure form a single ocean interferometer. By sampling the area of interest from different perspectives with at least two interferometers, marine surface winds might be mapped over horizontal scales of the order of 1000 km with about 10 km resolution (more specifically, the 10 km resolution here means that contribution from the basis functions representing surface wind field with the scale of spatial variations of the order of 10 km can be resolved; independent retrieval of the wind within 10(4) cells of a corresponding grid is hardly possible). An averaging time required to overcome statistical variability in the noise field is estimated to be about 3 h. Numerical simulations of propagation conditions typical for the North Atlantic Ocean are presented.

  18. Environmental Acoustics and Intensity Vector Acoustics with Emphasis on Shallow Water Effects and the Sea Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Environmental Acoustics and Intensity Vector Acoustics with Emphasis on Shallow Water Effects and the Sea...OBJECTIVES This year our objective has been to investigate properties of the acoustic vector field within a waveguide as they are influenced by the...refraction. Preliminary results were first discussed at the TREX workshop in November 2014 (Indianapolis) and at the Acoustical Society of America

  19. Mechanical Properties Based Particle Separation via Traveling Surface Acoustic Wave.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhichao; Collins, David J; Guo, Jinhong; Ai, Ye

    2016-12-06

    Most microfluidics-based sorting methodologies utilize size differences between suspended micro-objects as the defining characteristic by which they are sorted. Sorting based on mechanical properties, however, would provide a new avenue for sample preparation, detection and diagnosis for a number of emerging biological and medical analyses. In this study, we demonstrate separation of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres based entirely on their difference in mechanical properties using traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs). We theoretically examine the correlation of the applied TSAW frequency, particle density and sound speed with respect to the resultant acoustic radiation force (ARF) that acts to translate particles, and experimentally corroborate these predictions by translating PS and PMMA particles simultaneously in a stationary flow. Even when PS and PMMA particles have the same diameters, they exhibit strongly nonlinear and distinct acoustophoretic responses as a function of their mechanical properties and the applied TSAW frequency. By specifically matching the appropriate acoustic frequency to the desired particle size, each particle population can be selectively translated and sorted. We demonstrate that this mechanical property based sorting can continuously separate these particle populations with at least 95% efficiency in the mixed 10/15 μm diameter PS and PMMA particle solutions tested.

  20. Surface acoustic wave gas sensor based on film conductivity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricco, A. J.; Martin, S. J.; Zipperian, T. E.

    1985-12-01

    The first surfce acoustic wave (SAW) sensor that functions via changes in conductivity of a thin surface film is reported. A lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) thin film is deposted on the acoustic progagation path of a LiNbO3 SAW delay line, which serves as the feedback element of an oscillator circuit. Reaction with strongly oxidizing gases, in particular NO2, increases the conductivity of the PbPc film. Acoustoelectric coupling of the traveling electric potential wave associated with the SAW-to-charge carriers in the PbPc film slows the acoustic wave velocity, altering the oscillation frequency of the circuit. This sensor is about 1000 times more sensitive, in terms of the number of NO2 molecules that can be detected (10 to the 16th molecules/cu cm of PbPc film), than an identical SAW sensor functioning via mass loading would be. Sensitivity to a few ppm of NO2 in N2 has been demonstrated.

  1. Pool Boiling Enhancement on Textured Surfaces using Acoustic Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boziuk, Thomas; Smith, Marc; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Boiling heat transfer on submerged textured heated surfaces is enhanced using ultrasound actuation. The heated surface is textured using an array of open microchannels that advantageously separate the nucleation sites on the surface and inhibit the transition to film boiling, which significantly increases the critical heat flux compared to a smooth surface of the same planform dimensions. The present investigation shows that the formation and evolution of vapor bubbles on the heated surface can be substantially altered by a highly directional ultrasound (1.7 MHz) beam, and leads to significant enhancement in heat transfer, including reduced surface superheat and increased critical heat flux (exceeding 55%). The effects of the beam incidence and azimuthal angle on vapor formation, advection, and resulting effect on surface superheat are investigated experimentally in a liquid test cell. Heat transfer enhancement characterized by changes in the boiling curve (i.e., superheat and CHF) varies with surface texturing and is also dependent on acoustic beam orientation relative to the surface texture pattern.

  2. Cell separation using tilted-angle standing surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Peng, Zhangli; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Geri, Michela; Li, Sixing; Li, Peng; Chen, Yuchao; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-09-09

    Separation of cells is a critical process for studying cell properties, disease diagnostics, and therapeutics. Cell sorting by acoustic waves offers a means to separate cells on the basis of their size and physical properties in a label-free, contactless, and biocompatible manner. The separation sensitivity and efficiency of currently available acoustic-based approaches, however, are limited, thereby restricting their widespread application in research and health diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a unique configuration of tilted-angle standing surface acoustic waves (taSSAW), which are oriented at an optimally designed inclination to the flow direction in the microfluidic channel. We demonstrate that this design significantly improves the efficiency and sensitivity of acoustic separation techniques. To optimize our device design, we carried out systematic simulations of cell trajectories, matching closely with experimental results. Using numerically optimized design of taSSAW, we successfully separated 2- and 10-µm-diameter polystyrene beads with a separation efficiency of ∼ 99%, and separated 7.3- and 9.9-µm-polystyrene beads with an efficiency of ∼ 97%. We illustrate that taSSAW is capable of effectively separating particles-cells of approximately the same size and density but different compressibility. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the present technique for biological-biomedical applications by sorting MCF-7 human breast cancer cells from nonmalignant leukocytes, while preserving the integrity of the separated cells. The method introduced here thus offers a unique route for separating circulating tumor cells, and for label-free cell separation with potential applications in biological research, disease diagnostics, and clinical practice.

  3. Transportation control of microfluidic particles using mode switching between surface acoustic waves and plate waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Huang, Yeo-Wei; Hsu, Chih-Hsun

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we report the numerical and experimental results of guided acoustic mode switching between surface and plate acoustic waves (SAWs and PAWs) for manipulating microparticles suspended in a microfluidic channel. Numerical results show switchable acoustic pressure and acoustic radiation force fields for controlling particle motion in the microfluidic channel by acoustic mode switching. Acoustic mode switching can be achieved by designing an acoustic-wave device and by changing the frequencies of the input electrical signal. The working mechanisms of acoustic-mode-switchable manipulation are revealed. On the basis of numerical prediction, the feasibility of a mode-switchable acoustic microfluidic device is experimentally demonstrated, and the actuation of suspended microparticles using SAWs and PAWs is achieved. We note that this study provides access to mode-switching acoustophoresis.

  4. The study of surface acoustic wave charge transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanicolaou, N.; Lin, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave-charge transfer device, consisting of an n-type silicon substrate, a thermally grown silicon dioxide layer, and a sputtered film of piezoelectric zinc oxide is proposed as a means of circumventing problems associated with charge-coupled device (CCD) applications in memory, signal processing, and imaging. The proposed device creates traveling longitudinal electric fields in the silicon and replaces the multiphase clocks in CCD's. The traveling electric fields create potential wells which carry along charges stored there. These charges may be injected into the wells by light or by using a p-n junction as in conventional CCD's.

  5. Hydrogen Adsorption Studies Using Surface Acoustic Waves on Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    A.B. Phillips; G. Myneni; B.S. Shivaram

    2005-06-13

    Vanadium nanoparticles, on the order of 20 nm, were deposited on a quartz crystal surface acoustic wave resonator (SAW) using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser deposition system. Due to the high Q and resonant frequency of the SAW, mass changes on the order of 0.1 nanogram can be quantitatively measured. Roughly 60 nanogram of V was deposited on the SAW for these experiments. The SAW was then moved into a hydrogen high pressure cell.At room temperature and 1 atmosphere of hydrogen pressure, 1 wt% H, or H/V {approx} 0.5 (atomic ratio) absorption was measured.

  6. Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented

  7. Adaptive spread spectrum receiver using acoustic surface wave technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, P.; Milstein, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this research project can be broadly classified as theoretical study and implementation of spread spectrum communication systems using surface acoustic wave technology. Significant progress has been made in the last 39 months towards this goal. Some of these are: (1) Measurement of the probability of error curve for a spread spectrum receiver implemented with real time SAW Fourier transformer, and (2) Theoretical study of the receiver including the removal of narrowband jamming. The details of this research have been published in 14 papers and one report and presented at 11 technical conferences.

  8. Surface acoustic wave vapor sensors based on resonator devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Klusty, Mark

    1991-05-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices fabricated in the resonator configuration have been used as organic vapor sensors and compared with delay line devices more commonly used. The experimentally determined mass sensitivities of 200, 300, and 400 MHz resonators and 158 MHz delay lines coated with Langmuir-Blodgett films of poly(vinyl tetradecanal) are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. The response of LB- and spray-coated sensors to various organic vapors were determined, and scaling laws for mass sensitivities, vapor sensitivities, and detection limits are discussed. The 200 MHz resonators provide the lowest noise levels and detection limits of all the devices examined.

  9. Surface acoustic wave devices including Langmuir-Blodgett films (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesskii, V. P.

    1991-06-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental research related to the use of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is reviewed. The sensitivity of the different cuts of quartz and lithium niobate to inertial loading is investigated, and it is shown that some cuts in lithium niobate are twice as sensitive to mass loading than the commonly used YZ-cut. The large variety of organic compounds suitable for the production of LB films makes it possible to create SAW sensors reacting selectively to certain substances. The existing SAW sensors based on LB films are characterized by high sensitivity and fast response.

  10. Surface Acoustic Wave Microwave Oscillator and Frequency Synthesizer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    AD-A086 336 TRW DEFENSE AND SPACE SYSTEMS GROUP REDONDO BEACH CA F/ A /5 SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE MICROWA VE OSC ILLATOR AND FR EQUENCY SYNTME--ETC(U...DEVELOPMENT COMMAND FORT MONMOUTH, NEW JERSEY 07703 HISAŕ 78 UNCLASSIFIED 6 URTSfaceIO A si WHS ae Micowvef scilltr nermepteOt󈧫 BEFORE COEPETINFOR RE~~~ a ...D OKUI UBRj~ ~~n SpaReT ParkWCAIO OP T05HIS A .11eu.0t13..... IINCLASSTFTF[ gCUNTY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAOI(Whin DEla AIRIm Fminimum frequency step

  11. Cyclodextrin-based surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.Q.; Shi, J.X.; Springer, K.; Swanson, B.I.

    1996-07-01

    Cyclodextrin thin films were fabricated using either self-assembled monolayer (SAM) or solgel techniques. The resulting host receptor thin films on the substrates of surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators were studied as method of tracking organic toxins in vapor phase. The mass loading of surface-attached host monolayers on SAW resonators gave frequency shifts corresponding to typical monolayer surface coverages for SAM methods and ``multilayer`` coverages for sol-gel techniques. Subsequent exposure of the coated SAW resonators to organic vapors at various concentrations, typically 5,000 parts per millions (ppm) down to 100 parts per billions (ppb) by mole, gave responses indicating middle-ppb-sensitivity ({approximately}50 ppb) for those sensor-host-receptors and organic-toxin pairs with optimum mutual matching of polarity, size, and structural properties.

  12. Transport Powder and Liquid Samples by Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Louyeh, Sahar

    2009-01-01

    Sample transport is an important requirement for In-situ analysis of samples in NASA planetary exploration missions. Tests have shown that powders or liquid drops on a surface can be transported by surface acoustic waves (SAW) that are generated on the surface using interdigital transducers. The phenomena were investigated experimentally and to generate SAWs interdigital electrodes were deposited on wafers of 128 deg rotated Y-cut LiNbO?. Transporting capability of the SAW device was tested using particles of various sizes and drops of various viscosities liquids. Because of different interaction mechanisms with the SAWs, the powders and the liquid drops were observed to move in opposite directions. In the preliminary tests, a speed of 180 mm/s was achieved for powder transportation. The detailed experimental setup and results are presented in this paper. The transporting mechanism can potentially be applied to miniaturize sample analysis system or " lab-on-chip" devices.

  13. Acoustic shadows help gleaning bats find prey, but may be defeated by prey acoustic camouflage on rough surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Elizabeth L; Holderied, Marc W

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual abilities of animals, like echolocating bats, are difficult to study because they challenge our understanding of non-visual senses. We used novel acoustic tomography to convert echoes into visual representations and compare these cues to traditional echo measurements. We provide a new hypothesis for the echo-acoustic basis of prey detection on surfaces. We propose that bats perceive a change in depth profile and an ‘acoustic shadow’ cast by prey. The shadow is more salient than prey echoes and particularly strong on smooth surfaces. This may explain why bats look for prey on flat surfaces like leaves using scanning behaviour. We propose that rather than forming search images for prey, whose characteristics are unpredictable, predators may look for disruptions to the resting surface (acoustic shadows). The fact that the acoustic shadow is much fainter on rougher resting surfaces provides the first empirical evidence for ‘acoustic camouflage’ as an anti-predator defence mechanism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07404.001 PMID:26327624

  14. Parabolic equation modeling of high frequency acoustic transmission with an evolving sea surface.

    PubMed

    Senne, J; Song, A; Badiey, M; Smith, K B

    2012-09-01

    The present paper examines the temporal evolution of acoustic fields by modeling forward propagation subject to sea surface dynamics with time scales of less than a second to tens of seconds. A time-evolving rough sea surface model is combined with a rough surface formulation of a parabolic equation model for predicting time-varying acoustic fields. Surface waves are generated from surface wave spectra, and stepped in time using a Runge-Kutta integration technique applied to linear evolution equations. This evolving, range-dependent surface information is combined with other environmental parameters and input to the acoustic model, giving an approximation of the time-varying acoustic field. The wide-angle parabolic equation model manages the rough sea surfaces by molding them into the boundary conditions for calculations of the near-surface acoustic field. This merged acoustic model is validated using concurrently-collected acoustic and environmental information, including surface wave spectra. Data to model comparisons demonstrate that the model is able to approximate the ensemble-averaged acoustic intensity at ranges of about a kilometer for acoustic signals of around 15 kHz. Furthermore, the model is shown to capture variations due to surface fluctuations occurring over time scales of less than a second to tens of seconds.

  15. Reducing Mechanical and Flow-Induced Noise in the Surface Suspended Acoustic Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-06

    John Spiesberger . Surface Suspended Acoustic Receiver: A free-drifting acoustic tomography receiver features real-time data processing, telemetry. Sea...Technology, 36:43-48, 1995. [7] Daniel E. Frye, Lee Freitag, Walter Paul, Mark Grosenbuagh, and John Spiesberger . Sur- face Suspended Acoustic...Press, Cambridge, MA, 1977. [17] J.L. Spiesberger , D.E. Frye, J. O’Brien, H. Hurlburt, J.W. McCaffrey, M. Johnson, and J. Kenny. Global acoustic

  16. Acoustically Induced Microparticle Orbiting and Clustering on a Solid Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.; Tarimala, S.; Roberts, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    Behavior of colloidal particles in the bulk solution or at interfaces under the effect of high-frequency acoustics is critical to many seemingly different applications ranging from enhanced oil recovery to improved mixing in microfluidic channels and from accelerated contaminant extractions to surface cleaning, drug delivery and microelectronics. It can be detrimental or beneficial, depending on the application. In medical research, flow cytometry and microfluidics, for example, acoustically induced clustering of tracer particles and/or their sticking to the walls of channels, vessels, or tubes often becomes a problem. On the other hand, it can be tailored to enhance processes such as mixing in microfluidic devices, particle separation and sizing, and power generation microdevices. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, microscopic visualization experiments were performed in which polystyrene fluorescent (468/508 nm wavelength) microspheres with a mean diameter of 2.26-µm and density of 1.05 g/cm3, were suspended in either de-ionized water or a 0.1M NaCl solution. The freshly-prepared colloidal suspension was injected into a parallel-plate glass flow cell, which was subjected to high-frequency acoustics (200-500 kHz) through a piezoelectric transducer attached to one of the cell's outer walls. When the suspending medium is de-ionized water, acoustic stimulation of the cell at 313 kHz induced three distinct particle behaviors: 1) entrainment and bulk transport via wavelength-scale Rayleigh streaming, 2) transport via direct radiation forces to concentrate at nodal or anti-nodal planes, and 3) entrapment via boundary layer vorticular microstreaming resulting in mobile particles orbiting deposited particles. This latter phenomenon is intriguing. It occurs at specific frequencies and the shape of the orbits is determined by the applied frequency, whereas the rotation speed is proportional to the applied amplitude. At the higher ionic strength, on the other

  17. Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microfluidic cytometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuchao; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Zhao, Yanhui; Huang, Po-Hsun; McCoy, J. Phillip; Levine, Stewart; Wang, Lin; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    The development of microfluidic chip-based cytometers has become an important area due to their advantages of compact size and low cost. Herein, we demonstrate a sheathless microfluidic cytometer which integrates a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microdevice capable of 3D particle/cell focusing with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system. Using SSAW, our microfluidic cytometer was able to continuously focus microparticles/cells at the pressure node inside a microchannel. Flow cytometry was successfully demonstrated using this system with a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 10% at a throughput of ~1000 events/s when calibration beads were used. We also demonstrated that fluorescently labeled human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) could be effectively focused and detected with our SSAW-based system. This SSAW-based microfluidic cytometer did not require any sheath flows or complex structures, and it allowed for simple operation over a wide range of sample flow rates. Moreover, with the gentle, bio-compatible nature of low-power surface acoustic waves, this technique is expected to be able to preserve the integrity of cells and other bioparticles. PMID:24406848

  18. Tunable Nanowire Patterning Using Standing Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuchao; Ding, Xiaoyun; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Yang, Shikuan; Huang, Po-Hsun; Nama, Nitesh; Zhao, Yanhui; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Guo, Feng; Wang, Wei; Gu, Yeyi; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Patterning of nanowires in a controllable, tunable manner is important for the fabrication of functional nanodevices. Here we present a simple approach for tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). This technique allows for the construction of large-scale nanowire arrays with well-controlled patterning geometry and spacing within 5 seconds. In this approach, SSAWs were generated by interdigital transducers (IDTs), which induced a periodic alternating current (AC) electric field on the piezoelectric substrate and consequently patterned metallic nanowires in suspension. The patterns could be deposited onto the substrate after the liquid evaporated. By controlling the distribution of the SSAW field, metallic nanowires were assembled into different patterns including parallel and perpendicular arrays. The spacing of the nanowire arrays could be tuned by controlling the frequency of the surface acoustic waves. Additionally, we observed 3D spark-shape nanowire patterns in the SSAW field. The SSAW-based nanowire-patterning technique presented here possesses several advantages over alternative patterning approaches, including high versatility, tunability, and efficiency, making it promising for device applications. PMID:23540330

  19. Tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuchao; Ding, Xiaoyun; Steven Lin, Sz-Chin; Yang, Shikuan; Huang, Po-Hsun; Nama, Nitesh; Zhao, Yanhui; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Guo, Feng; Wang, Wei; Gu, Yeyi; Mallouk, Thomas E; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-04-23

    Patterning of nanowires in a controllable, tunable manner is important for the fabrication of functional nanodevices. Here we present a simple approach for tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). This technique allows for the construction of large-scale nanowire arrays with well-controlled patterning geometry and spacing within 5 s. In this approach, SSAWs were generated by interdigital transducers, which induced a periodic alternating current (ac) electric field on the piezoelectric substrate and consequently patterned metallic nanowires in suspension. The patterns could be deposited onto the substrate after the liquid evaporated. By controlling the distribution of the SSAW field, metallic nanowires were assembled into different patterns including parallel and perpendicular arrays. The spacing of the nanowire arrays could be tuned by controlling the frequency of the surface acoustic waves. Additionally, we observed 3D spark-shaped nanowire patterns in the SSAW field. The SSAW-based nanowire-patterning technique presented here possesses several advantages over alternative patterning approaches, including high versatility, tunability, and efficiency, making it promising for device applications.

  20. Attenuation of 7 GHz surface acoustic waves on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyao; Cahill, David G.

    2016-09-01

    We measured the attenuation of GHz frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on the Si (001) surface using an optical pump-probe technique at temperatures between 300 and 600 K. SAWs are generated and detected by a 700 nm Al grating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. The grating for SAW generation is separated from the grating for SAW detection by ≈150 μ m . The amplitude of SAWs is attenuated by coupling to bulk waves created by the Al grating, diffraction due to the finite size of the source, and the intrinsic relaxational Akhiezer damping of elastic waves in Si. Thermal phonon relaxation time and Grüneisen parameters are fitted using temperature-dependent measurement. The f Q product of a hypothetical micromechanical oscillator limited by Akhiezer damping at this frequency is ˜3 ×1013 Hz.

  1. Langasite surface acoustic wave gas sensors: modeling and verification

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Zheng,; Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.

    2013-03-01

    We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.

  2. Acoustic measurement of the surface tension of levitated drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Marston, P. L.; Robey, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement of the frequency of the fundamental mode of shape oscillation of acoustically levitated drops has been carried out to determine the surface tension of the drop material. Sound fields of about 20 kHz in frequency allow the suspension of drops a few millimeters in size, as well as the necessary drive for oscillations. The surface tension of water, hexadecane, silicone oil, and aqueous solutions of glycerin levitated in air has been measured, and the results have been compared with those obtained with standard ring tensiometry. The two sets of data are in good agreement, the largest discrepancy being about 10 percent. Uncertainties in the effects of the nonspherical static shape of drops levitated in the earth's gravitational field and the rotation state of the sample are the major contributors to the experimental error. A decrease of the resonance frequency of the fundamental mode indicates a soft nonlinearity as the oscillation amplitude increases.

  3. New Biosensor Using Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Jun; Matsui, Yoshikazu; Shiokawa, Showko

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes a new biosensor to detect an enzyme reaction in liquid using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices fabricated on 36°-rotated Y-cut, X-propagating LiTaO3. The sensing wave on the substrate is a predominantly shear-horizontal-mode SAW (SH-SAW) and is affected by a strong acoustoelectric interaction between the piezoelectric potential and electrical properties of the materials in the adjacent liquid. As an example of an electrical property, pH change associated with an enzyme reaction leads to measurable perturbation in the wave-propagation characteristic. Taking advantage of this phenomenon we realized a SAW biosensor which consists of an immobilized urease membrane on the surface. Also, highly sensitive detection for the urea solution was obtained in our preliminary experiments.

  4. Acoustic measurement of the surface tension of levitated drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Marston, P. L.; Robey, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement of the frequency of the fundamental mode of shape oscillation of acoustically levitated drops has been carried out to determine the surface tension of the drop material. Sound fields of about 20 kHz in frequency allow the suspension of drops a few millimeters in size, as well as the necessary drive for oscillations. The surface tension of water, hexadecane, silicone oil, and aqueous solutions of glycerin levitated in air has been measured, and the results have been compared with those obtained with standard ring tensiometry. The two sets of data are in good agreement, the largest discrepancy being about 10 percent. Uncertainties in the effects of the nonspherical static shape of drops levitated in the earth's gravitational field and the rotation state of the sample are the major contributors to the experimental error. A decrease of the resonance frequency of the fundamental mode indicates a soft nonlinearity as the oscillation amplitude increases.

  5. Wireless surface acoustic wave and MEMS-based microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    2001-04-01

    The integration of SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave), MEMS and required microelectronics and conformal antennas to realize programmable microsensors suitable for many engineering and biomedical applications will be presented in this talk. This unique combination of technologies results in novel conformal sensors that can be remotely sensed by a wireless communication system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site (passive sensor). The required features in many of these applications are high precision, wide dynamic range and wide frequency range. MEMS-SAW based devices presented possess typical advantages of MEMS sensors including the additional benefits of robustness, excellent sensitivity, surface conformability and durability. After a brief overview of SAW sensors and MEMS, the paper is focused on the design and fabrication of MEMS devices for a few engineering applications such as accelerometer and gyroscopes for automobile, inertial navigation sensors and tire pressure sensor.

  6. Collective Lipid Bilayer Dynamics Excited by Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, T.; Schülein, F. J. R.; Nicolas, J. D.; Osterhoff, M.; Beerlink, A.; Krenner, H. J.; Müller, M.; Wixforth, A.; Salditt, T.

    2014-09-01

    We use standing surface acoustic waves to induce coherent phonons in model lipid multilayers deposited on a piezoelectric surface. Probing the structure by phase-controlled stroboscopic x-ray pulses we find that the internal lipid bilayer electron density profile oscillates in response to the externally driven motion of the lipid film. The structural response to the well-controlled motion is a strong indication that bilayer structure and membrane fluctuations are intrinsically coupled, even though these structural changes are averaged out in equilibrium and time integrating measurements. Here the effects are revealed by a timing scheme with temporal resolution on the picosecond scale in combination with the sub-nm spatial resolution, enabled by high brilliance synchrotron x-ray reflectivity.

  7. Passive hypervelocity boundary layer control using an acoustically absortive surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Adam

    A series of exploratory boundary layer transition experiments was performed on a sharp 5.06 degree half-angle round cone at zero angle-of-attack in the T5 Hypervelocity Shock Tunnel in order to test a novel hypersonic boundary layer control scheme. Recently performed linear stability analyses suggested that transition could be delayed in hypersonic boundary layers by using an ultrasonically absorptive surface that would damp the second mode (Mack mode). The cone used in the experiments was constructed with a smooth surface on half the cone (to serve as a control) and an acoustically absorptive porous surface on the other half. It was instrumented with flush-mounted thermocouples to detect the transition location. Test gases investigated included nitrogen and carbon dioxide at M = 5 with specific reservoir enthalpy ranging from 1.3 MJ/kg to 13.0 MJ/kg and reservoir pressure ranging from 9.0 MPa to 50.0 MPa. Detailed comparisons were performed to insure that previous results obtained in similar boundary layer transition experiments (on a regular smooth surface) were reproduced and the results were extended to examine the effects of the porous surface. These experiments indicated that the porous surface was highly effective in delaying transition provided that the hole size was significantly smaller than the viscous length scale.

  8. Acoustics of Jet Surface Interaction-Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity of the structure or embedded in the airframe. While such integrated systems are intended to shield noise from community, they also introduce new sources of sound. Sound generation due to interaction of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated here using the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation. The propagation Greens function is solved numerically for a high aspect-ratio rectangular jet starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. It is shown the magnitude of the Greens function decreases with increasing source frequency andor jet temperature. The phase remains constant for a rigid surface, but varies with source location when subject to an impedance type boundary condition. The Greens function in the absence of the surface, and flight effect are also investigated.

  9. Surface properties of solids and surface acoustic waves: Application to chemical sensors and layer characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, V. V.

    1995-09-01

    A general phenomenological approach is given for the description of mechanical surface properties of solids and their influence on surface acoustic wave propogation. Surface properties under consideration may be changes of the stress distribution in subsurface atomic layers, the presence of adsorbed gas molecules, surface degradation as a result of impacts from an aggressive environment, damage due to mechanical manufacturing or polishing, deposition of thin films or liquid layers, surface corrugations, etc. If the characteristic thickness of the affected layers is much less than the wavelengths of the propagating surface waves, then the effects of all these irregularities can be described by means of non-classical boundary conditions incorporating the integral surface parameters such as surface tension, surface moduli of elasticity and surface mass density. The effect of surface properties on the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves is analysed in comparison with the results of traditional approaches, in particular with Auld's energy perturbation method. One of the important implications of the above-mentioned boudnary conditions is that they are adequate for the description of the effect of rarely distributed adsorbed atoms or molecules. This allows, in particular, to obtain a rigorous theoretical description of chemical sensors using surface acoustic waves and to derive analytical expressions for their sensitivity.

  10. Determination of Surface Stress Distributions in Steel Using Laser-Generated Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi; Yifei; Ni; Chenyin; Shen; Zhonghua; Ni; Xiaowu; Lu; Jian

    2008-05-01

    High frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are excited by a pulsed laser and detected by a specially designed poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) transducer to investigate surface stress distribution. Two kinds of stressed surfaces are examined experimentally. One is a steel plate elastically deformed under simple bending forces, where the surface stress varies slowly. The other is a welded steel plate for which the surface stress varies very rapidly within a small area near the welding seam. Applying a new signal processing method developed from correlation technique, the velocity distribution of the SAWs, which reflects the stress distribution, is obtained in these two samples with high resolution.

  11. Multimode filter composed of single-mode surface acoustic wave/bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulin; Bao, Jingfu; Tang, Gongbin; Wang, Yiling; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2017-07-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of realizing multimode filters composed of multiple single-mode resonators by using radio frequency surface and bulk acoustic wave (SAW/BAW) technologies. First, the filter operation and design principle are given. It is shown that excellent filter characteristics are achievable by combining multiple single-mode resonators with identical capacitance ratios provided that their resonance frequencies and clamped capacitances are set properly. Next, the effect of balun performance is investigated. It is shown that the total filter performance is significantly degraded by balun imperfections such as the common-mode rejection. Then, two circuits are proposed to improve the common-mode rejection, and their effectiveness is demonstrated.

  12. Mass sensitivity of layered shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave devices for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Trinchi, Adrian; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Holland, Anthony; Galatsis, Kosmas

    2001-11-01

    Layered Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices that allow the propagation of Love mode acoustic waves will be studied in this paper. In these devices, the substrate allows the propagation of Surface Skimming Bulks Waves (SSBWs). By depositing layers, that the speed of Shear Horizontal (SH) acoustic wave propagation is less than that of the substrate, the propagation mode transforms to Love mode. Love mode devices which will be studied in this paper, have SiO2 and ZnO acoustic guiding layers. As Love mode of propagation has no movement of particles component normal to the active sensor surface, they can be employed for the sensing applications in the liquid media.

  13. Envelope solitons of acoustic plate modes and surface waves.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andreas P; Kovalev, Alexander S

    2003-06-01

    The problem of the existence of evelope solitons in elastic plates and at solid surfaces covered by an elastic film is revisited with special attention paid to nonlinear long-wave short-wave interactions. Using asymptotic expansions and multiple scales, conditions for the existence of envelope solitons are established and it is shown how their parameters can be expressed in terms of the elastic moduli and mass densities of the materials involved. In addition to homogeneous plates, weak periodic modulation of the plate's material parameters are also considered. In the case of wave propagation in an elastic plate, modulations of weakly nonlinear carrier waves are governed by a coupled system of partial differential equations consisting of evolution equations for the complex amplitude of the carrier wave (the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for envelope solitons and the Mills-Trullinger equations for gap solitons), and the wave equation for long-wavelength acoustic plate modes. In contrast to this situation, envelope solitons of surface acoustic waves in a layered structure are normally described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation alone. However, at higher orders of the carrier wave amplitude, the envelope soliton is found to be accompanied by a quasistatic long-wavelength strain field, which may be localized at the surface with penetration depth into the substrate of the order of the inverse amplitude or which may radiate energy into the bulk. A new set of modulation equations is derived for the resonant case of the carrier wave's group velocity being equal to the phase velocity of long-wavelength Rayleigh waves of the uncoated substrate.

  14. On-line surveillance of lubricants in bearings by means of surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Gerhard; Schmitt, Martin; Schubert, Josephine; Krempel, Sandro; Faustmann, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    The acoustic wave propagation in bearings filled with lubricants and driven by pulsed excitation of surface acoustic waves has been investigated with respect to the presence and the distribution of different lubricants. Experimental setups, which are based on the mode conversion between surface acoustic waves and compression waves at the interface between a solid substrate of the bearing and a lubricant are described. The results of preliminary measurements at linear friction bearings, rotation ball bearings and axial cylinder roller bearings are presented.

  15. The detection of surface vibrations from interior acoustical pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLillo, Thomas; Isakov, Victor; Valdivia, Nicolas; Wang, Lianju

    2003-06-01

    We consider the problem of detecting the source of acoustical noise inside the cabin of a midsize aircraft from measurements of the acoustical pressure field inside the cabin. Mathematically this field satisfies the Helmholtz equation. In this paper we consider the three-dimensional case. We show that any regular solution of this equation admits a unique representation by a single-layer potential, so that the problem is equivalent to the solution of a linear integral equation of the first kind. We study uniqueness of reconstruction and obtain a sharp stability estimate and convergence rates for some regularization algorithms when the domain is a sphere. We have developed a boundary element code to solve the integral equation. We report numerical results with this code applied to three geometries: a sphere, a cylinder with spherical endcaps and a cylinder with a floor modelling the interior of an aircraft cabin. The exact test solution is given by a point source exterior to the surfaces with about 1% random noise added. Regularization methods using the truncated singular value decomposition with generalized cross validation and the conjugate gradient (cg) method with a stopping rule due to Hanke and Raus are compared. An interesting feature of the three-dimensional problem is the relative insensitivity of the optimal regularization parameter (number of iterations) for the cg method to the wavenumber and the multiplicity of the singular values of the integral operator.

  16. Spatial selective manipulation of microbubbles by tunable surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Lili; Cai, Feiyan; Li, Fei; Wang, Chen; Huang, Xiaowei; Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Junru; Meng, Long; Zheng, Hairong

    2016-01-01

    A microfluidic device based on a pair of slant-finger interdigital transducers (SFITs) is developed to achieve a selective and flexible manipulation of microbubbles (MBs) by surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The resonance frequency of SAWs generated by the SFITs depends on the location of its parallel pathway; the particles at different locations of the SAWs' pathway can be controlled selectively by choosing the frequency of the excitation signal applied on the SFITs. By adjusting the input signal continuously, MBs can be transported along the acoustic aperture precisely. The displacement of MBs has a linear relationship with the frequency shift. The resolution of transportation is 15.19 ± 2.65 μm when the shift of input signal frequency is at a step of 10 kHz. In addition, the MBs can be controlled in a two-dimensional plane by combining variations of the frequency and the relative phase of the excitation signal applied on the SFITs simultaneously. This technology may open up the possibility of selectively and flexibly manipulating MBs using a simple one-dimensional device. PMID:27462381

  17. Primary acoustic signal structure during free falling drop collision with a water surface

    SciTech Connect

    Chashechkin, Yu. D. Prokhorov, V. E.

    2016-04-15

    Consistent optical and acoustic techniques have been used to study the structure of hydrodynamic disturbances and acoustic signals generated as a free falling drop penetrates water. The relationship between the structures of hydrodynamic and acoustic perturbations arising as a result of a falling drop contacting with the water surface and subsequent immersion into water is traced. The primary acoustic signal is characterized, in addition to stably reproduced features (steep leading edge followed by long decay with local pressure maxima), by irregular high-frequency packets, which are studied for the first time. Reproducible experimental data are used to recognize constant and variable components of the primary acoustic signal.

  18. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  19. Submicron separation of microspheres via travelling surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Ha, Byung Hang; Jung, Jin Ho; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2014-12-21

    Submicron separation is the segregation of particles having a diameter difference of less than one micrometre. We present an acoustofluidic particle separator with submicron separation resolution to study the continuous, label-free, and contactless separation of polystyrene (PS) particles based on their acoustofluidic parameters such as size, density, compressibility and shape. In this work, the submicron separation of PS microspheres, having a marginal size difference, is achieved inside a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel via travelling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs). The TSAWs of different frequencies (200, 192, 155, and 129 MHz), propagating normal to the fluid flow direction inside the PDMS microchannel, realized continuous separation of particles with a diameter difference as low as 200 nm. A theoretical framework based on the rigid and elastic theories is presented to support the experimental results.

  20. Subharmonic phased array for crack evaluation using surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Akihiro; Sugawara, Azusa; Ohara, Yoshikazu; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2015-07-01

    To accurately measure closed crack length, we proposed an imaging method using a subharmonic phased array for crack evaluation using surface acoustic waves (SAW SPACE) with water immersion. We applied SAW SPACE to the hole specimen in a fundamental array (FA) image. The hole was imaged with high resolution. Subsequently, SAW SPACE was applied to fatigue crack and stress corrosion crack (SCC) specimens. A fatigue crack was imaged in FA and subharmonic array (SA) images, and the length of this particular fatigue crack measured in the images was almost the same as that measured by optical observation. The SCC was imaged and its length was accurately measured in the SA image, whereas it was underestimated in the FA image and by optical observation. Thus, we demonstrated that SAW SPACE with water immersion is useful for the accurate measurement of closed crack length and for imaging the distribution of open and closed parts of cracks with high resolution.

  1. Multilayer-graphene-based amplifier of surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchenko, Stanislav O. Komarov, Kirill A.; Pustovoit, Vladislav I.

    2015-05-15

    The amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by a multilayer graphene (MLG)-based amplifier is studied. The conductivity of massless carriers (electrons or holes) in graphene in an external drift electric field is calculated using Boltzmann’s equation. At some carrier drift velocities, the real part of the variable conductivity becomes negative and MLG can be employed in SAW amplifiers. Amplification of Blustein’s and Rayleigh’s SAWs in CdS, a piezoelectric hexagonal crystal of the symmetry group C{sub 6v}, is considered. The corresponding equations for SAW propagation in the device are derived and can be applied to other substrate crystals of the same symmetry. The results of the paper indicate that MLG can be considered as a perspective material for SAW amplification and related applications.

  2. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  3. Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.

  4. Application of acoustic surface wave technology to shuttle radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The application of surface acoustic wave (SAW) signal processing devices in the space shuttle was explored. In order to demonstrate the functions which a SAW device might perform, a breadboard pulse compression filter (PCF) module was assembled. The PCF permits a pulse radar to operate with a large duty cycle and low peak power, a regime favorable to the use of solid state RF sources. The transducer design, strong coupling compensation, circuit model analysis, fabrication limitations, and performance evaluation of a PCF are described. The nominal value of the compression ratio is 100:1 with 10-MHz bandwidth centered at 60 MHz and 10-microsecond dispersive delay. The PCF incorporates dispersive interdigital transducers and a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate.

  5. Multilayer-graphene-based amplifier of surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Komarov, Kirill A.; Pustovoit, Vladislav I.

    2015-05-01

    The amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by a multilayer graphene (MLG)-based amplifier is studied. The conductivity of massless carriers (electrons or holes) in graphene in an external drift electric field is calculated using Boltzmann's equation. At some carrier drift velocities, the real part of the variable conductivity becomes negative and MLG can be employed in SAW amplifiers. Amplification of Blustein's and Rayleigh's SAWs in CdS, a piezoelectric hexagonal crystal of the symmetry group C6v, is considered. The corresponding equations for SAW propagation in the device are derived and can be applied to other substrate crystals of the same symmetry. The results of the paper indicate that MLG can be considered as a perspective material for SAW amplification and related applications.

  6. Surface acoustic-wave piezoelectric crystal aerosol mass microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, W. D.; Chuan, R. L.

    1989-07-01

    The development of a particulate mass-sensing instrument based on a quartz-crystal microbalance and enhanced with the new surface acoustic-wave (SAW) technology is reported. Mass sensitivity comparisons of a 158-MHz SAW piezoelectric microbalance and a conventional 10-MHz quartz-crystal microbalance show that the SAW crystal is 266 times more sensitive, in good agreement with the theoretical value of 250. The frequency stability of a single SAW resonator is 6 parts in 10 to the 8th over 1 min. The response to temperature changes is found to be very linear over the range +30 to -30 C. A strong response to 15 ppm SO2 has been demonstrated on a chemically coated SAW crystal.

  7. A Comparison of Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. c.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method a first order model, and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices.

  8. Surface Acoustic Wave Tag-Based Coherence Multiplexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Saldanha, Nancy (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based coherence multiplexing system includes SAW tags each including a SAW transducer, a first SAW reflector positioned a first distance from the SAW transducer and a second SAW reflector positioned a second distance from the SAW transducer. A transceiver including a wireless transmitter has a signal source providing a source signal and circuitry for transmitting interrogation pulses including a first and a second interrogation pulse toward the SAW tags, and a wireless receiver for receiving and processing response signals from the SAW tags. The receiver receives scrambled signals including a convolution of the wideband interrogation pulses with response signals from the SAW tags and includes a computing device which implements an algorithm that correlates the interrogation pulses or the source signal before transmitting against the scrambled signals to generate tag responses for each of the SAW tags.

  9. A radioisotope-powered surface acoustic wave transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, S.; Lal, A.

    2009-09-01

    We demonstrate a 63Ni radioisotope-powered pulse transponder that has a SAW (surface acoustic wave) device as the frequency transmission frequency selector. Because the frequency is determined by a SAW device, narrowband detection with an identical SAW device enables the possibility for a long-distance RF-link. The SAW transponders can be buried deep into structural constructs such as steel and concrete, where changing batteries or harvesting vibration or EM energy is not a reliable option. RF-released power to radioisotope- released power amplification is 108, even when regulatory safe amounts of 63Ni are used. Here we have achieved an 800 µW pulse (315 MHz, 10 µs pause) across a 50 Ω load every 3 min, using a 1.5 milli-Ci 63Ni source.

  10. Passive Downhole Pressure Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Technology.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Sully M M; Figueiredo, Sávio W O; Takahashi, Victor L; Llerena, Roberth A W; Braga, Arthur M B

    2017-07-15

    A passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) pressure sensor was developed for real-time pressure monitoring in downhole application. The passive pressure sensor consists of a SAW resonator, which is attached to a circular metal diaphragm used as a pressure transducer. While the membrane deflects as a function of pressure applied, the frequency response changes due to the variation of the SAW propagation parameters. The sensitivity and linearity of the SAW pressure sensor were measured to be 8.3 kHz/bar and 0.999, respectively. The experimental results were validated with a hybrid analytical-numerical analysis. The good results combined with the robust design and packaging for harsh environment demonstrated it to be a promising sensor for industrial applications.

  11. Elastic friction drive of surface acoustic wave motor.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi; Itoh, Hidenori; Asai, Katsuhiko

    2003-06-01

    Importance of elastic deformation control to obtain large output force with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor is discussed in this paper. By adding pre-load to slider, stator and slider surfaces are deformed in a few tens nanometer. Appropriate deformation in normal direction against normal vibration displacement amplitude of SAW existed. By moderate deformation, the output force of the SAW motor was enlarged up to about 10 N and no-load speed was 0.7 m/s. To produce this performance, the transducer weight and slider size were only 4.2 g and 4 x 4 mm(2).By traveling wave propagation, surface particles of the SAW device move in elliptical motion. Due to the amplitude of the elliptical motion is 10 or 20 nm order, the contact condition of the slider is very critical. To control the contact condition, namely, the elastic deformation of the slider and stator surface in nanometer order, a lot of projections were fabricated on the slider surface. The projection diameter was 20 micro m. In static condition, the elastic deformation and stress were evaluated with the FEM analysis. From this calculation and the simulation result, it is consider that the wave crest is distorted, hence the elasticity has influence on the friction drive condition. Elastic deformation of the stator surface beneath the projection from the initial position were evaluated. In 4 x 4 mm(2) square area, the sliders had from 1089 to 23,409 projections. Depression was independent to the contact pressure. However, the output force depended on the depression although the projection density were different. From the view point of the output power of the motor, the proper depression was independent to the projection density. Around 25 nm depression, the output force and output power were maximized. This depression value was almost same as the vibration displacement amplitude of the stator transducer.

  12. Bubble-based acoustic micropropulsors: active surfaces and mixers.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Nicolas; Spelman, Tamsin A; Combriat, Thomas; Hue, Hervé; Stéphan, Olivier; Lauga, Eric; Marmottant, Philippe

    2017-04-11

    Acoustic micropropulsors present great potential for microfluidic applications. The propulsion is based on encapsulated 20 μm bubbles excited by a contacless ultrasonic transducer. The vibrating bubbles then generate a powerful streaming flow, with speeds 1-100 mm s(-1) in water, through the action of viscous stresses. In this paper we introduce a full toolbox of micropropulsors using a versatile three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication setup. Doublets and triplets of propulsors are introduced, and the flows they generate are predicted by a theoretical hydrodynamic model. We then introduce whole surfaces covered with propulsors, which we term active surfaces. These surfaces are excited by a single ultrasonic wave, can generate collective flows and may be harnessed for mixing purposes. Several patterns of propulsors are tested, and the flows produced by the two most efficient mixers are predicted by a simple theoretical model based on flow singularities. In particular, the vortices generated by the most efficient pattern, an L-shaped mixer, are analysed in detail.

  13. Ultrasonic phased array with surface acoustic wave for imaging cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Yoshikazu; Oshiumi, Taro; Nakajima, Hiromichi; Yamanaka, Kazushi; Wu, Xiaoyang; Uchimoto, Tetsuya; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Mihara, Tsuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    To accurately measure crack lengths, we developed a real-time surface imaging method (SAW PA) combining an ultrasonic phased array (PA) with a surface acoustic wave (SAW). SAW PA using a Rayleigh wave with a high sensitivity to surface defects was implemented for contact testing using a wedge with the third critical angle that allows the Rayleigh wave to be generated. Here, to realize high sensitivity imaging, SAW PA was optimized in terms of the wedge and the imaging area. The improved SAW PA was experimentally demonstrated using a fatigue crack specimen made of an aluminum alloy. For further verification in more realistic specimens, SAW PA was applied to stainless-steel specimens with a fatigue crack and stress corrosion cracks (SCCs). The fatigue crack was visualized with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and its length was measured with a high accuracy of better than 1 mm. The SCCs generated in the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of a weld were successfully visualized with a satisfactory SNR, although responses at coarse grains appeared throughout the imaging area. The SCC lengths were accurately measured. The imaging results also precisely showed complicated distributions of SCCs, which were in excellent agreement with the optically observed distributions.

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Siegfried; Kögel, Svea; Brunner, Yvonne; Schmieg, Barbara; Ewald, Christina; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Brenner-Weiß, Gerald; Länge, Kerstin

    2015-05-21

    We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.

  15. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Siegfried; Kögel, Svea; Brunner, Yvonne; Schmieg, Barbara; Ewald, Christina; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Brenner-Weiß, Gerald; Länge, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application. PMID:26007735

  16. Surface acoustic waves in acoustic superlattice lithium niobate coated with a waveguide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. Y.; Du, J. K.; Huang, B.; Jin, Y. A.; Xu, M. H.

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the waveguide layer on the band structure of Rayleigh waves are studied in this work based on a one-dimensional acoustic superlattice lithium niobate substrate coated with a waveguide layer. The present phononic structure is formed by the periodic domain-inverted single crystal that is the Z-cut lithium niobate substrate with a waveguide layer on the upper surface. The plane wave expansion method (PWE) is adopted to determine the band gap behavior of the phononic structure and validated by the finite element method (FEM). The FEM is also used to investigate the transmission of Rayleigh waves in the phononic structure with the interdigital transducers by means of the commercial package COMSOL. The results show that, although there is a homogeneous waveguide layer on the surface, the band gap of Rayleigh waves still exist. It is also found that increasing the thickness of the waveguide layer, the band width narrows and the band structure shifts to lower frequency. The present approach can be taken as an efficient tool in designing of phononic structures with waveguide layer.

  17. Investigation of the Surface Condition of an Electrode after Electropolishing under the Influence of Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietze, Sabrina; Reißenweber, Marina; Schlemmer, Josefine; Lindner, Gerhard

    The observation of acoustic enhancement ofthe anodiccurrentin an electropolishing experiment promises to be useful in acceleration of industrial electrochemical processes. Besides the process, however, the surface condition after the electropolishing is of importance as well. This investigation is focused onthe surface condition of the electropolished surface after an acoustic wave treatment. At the anode surface acoustic waves, especially Scholte waves, will be generated. Theevanescentpartof the wave will propagate in the electrolyte and cause Schlichting streaming in the boundary layer. For different frequencies and different intensities of the surface acoustic wave the surface roughness of the anode is analyzed by a laser scanning microscope.The results of the investigation will allow to find the best parameters for polishing and to avoid cavitation damage.

  18. Measurement of surface acoustic wave resonances in ferroelectric domains by microwave microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Scott R.; Yang, Yongliang; Cui, Yong-Tao; Ma, Eric Yue; Kämpfe, Thomas; Eng, Lukas M.; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Yan-Feng; Lu, Minghui; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2017-08-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonances were imaged within a closed domain in the ferroelectric LiTaO3 via scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (MIM). The MIM probe is used for both SAW generation and measurement, allowing the contact-less measurement within a mesoscopic structure. Measurements taken over a range of microwave frequencies are consistent with a constant acoustic velocity, demonstrating the acoustic nature of the measurement.

  19. Droplet Jumping Induced by Focused Surface Acoustic Wave on Superhydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, Marten; Jeon, Kwangsun; Byun, Doyoung

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the droplet jumping phenomena that are induced by focused surface acoustic wave on superhydrophobic surface. The utilization of an identical pair of single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) leads to the focusing of acoustic wave energy on a small region between them. This focused energy gives a very high acceleration as well as rapid interface destabilization to the liquid droplet and thus derives the jumping phenomenon once surpasses some Weber number's threshold value. We intriguingly investigate the effect of the small contact area of droplet on superhydrophobic surface, which is generated by using plasma treatment, to the droplet jetting phenomena and how it deforms under this circumstance. Furthermore, a parametric study, i.e. varying acoustic energy power, volume of droplet and degree of arc SPUDT, is also performed to investigate their effect on the elongated jumping droplet. Partially funded by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, 2011-0016461) and the Industrial Core Technology Development Project through the Ministry of Knowledge and Commerce.

  20. Atomic Interferometry with Detuned Counter-Propagating Electromagnetic Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Ming -Yee

    2014-09-05

    Atomic fountain interferometry uses atoms cooled with optical molasses to 1 μK, which are then launched in a fountain mode. The interferometer relies on the nonlinear Raman interaction of counter-propagating visible light pulses. We present models of these key transitions through a series of Hamiltonians. Our models, which have been verified against special cases with known solutions, allow us to incorporate the effects of non-ideal pulse shapes and realistic laser frequency or wavevector jitter.

  1. Simulation of surface acoustic wave motor with spherical slider.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Kurosawa, M K; Higuchi, T

    1999-01-01

    The operation of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor using spherical-shaped sliders was demonstrated by Kurosawa et al. (1994). It was necessary to modify the previous simulation models for usual ultrasonic motors because of this slider shape and the high frequency vibration. A conventional ultrasonic motor has a flat contact surface slider and a hundredth driving frequency; so, the tangential motion caused by the elasticity of the slider and stator with regard to the spherical slider of the SAW motor requires further investigation. In this paper, a dynamic simulation model for the SAW motor is proposed. From the simulation result, the mechanism of the SAW motor was clarified (i.e., levitation and contact conditions were repeated during the operation). The transient response of the motor speed was simulated. The relationships between frictional factor and time constant and vibration velocity of the stator and the slider speed were understood. The detailed research regarding the elastic deformation caused by preload would be helpful to construct an exact simulation model for the next work.

  2. Acoustic Scattering by Near-Surface Inhomogeneities in Porous Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-21

    then applying the in- verse Hankel transform gives equations that have been obtained by Rudnick [66], and Briquet et al [67], and alternative forms have...The propagation of an acoustic wave along a boundary. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 19:348-356, 1947. 131 1I t [67] M. Briquet and P

  3. New specimen design for studying the growth of small fatigue cracks with surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, Blair

    1985-08-01

    The study of small surface fatigue cracks in AISI 4140 quenched and tempered steel by a nondestructive surface acoustic wave technique is summarized. A novel cantilevered bending, plate-type fatigue specimen is described that is compatible with the acoustic method. Small cracks are initiated from a 25-μm deep surface pit produced by an electrospark machine. The importance of studying these cracks which closely approximate naturally occurring fatigue cracks is briefly discussed.

  4. Enhanced surface acoustic wave cell sorting by 3D microfluidic-chip design.

    PubMed

    Ung, W L; Mutafopulos, K; Spink, P; Rambach, R W; Franke, T; Weitz, D A

    2017-10-10

    We demonstrate an acoustic wave driven microfluidic cell sorter that combines advantages of multilayer device fabrication with planar surface acoustic wave excitation. We harness the strong vertical component of the refracted acoustic wave to enhance cell actuation by using an asymmetric flow field to increase cell deflection. Precise control of the 3-dimensional flow is realized by topographical structures implemented on the top of the microchannel. We experimentally quantify the effect of the structure dimensions and acoustic parameter. The design attains cell sorting rates and purities approaching those of state of the art fluorescence-activated cell sorters with all the advantages of microfluidic cell sorting.

  5. On-chip droplet production regimes using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Brenker, Jason C; Collins, David J; Van Phan, Hoang; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2016-04-26

    Aqueous droplets suspended in an immiscible carrier fluid are a key tool in microfluidic chemical analysis platforms. The approaches for producing droplets in microfluidic devices can be divided into three general categories: batch emulsification, continuous production and tailored on-demand production. The major distinctions between each category are the rate of production and the degree of control over the droplet formation process in terms of the size and quantity. On-demand methods are highly desirable when, for example, small numbers or even single droplets of one sample type are required at a time. Here, we present a method for the on-demand production of femtolitre droplets, utilising a pressure source generated by high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAW). An increase in the continuous phase flow rate is enabled by a quasi-3D feature at the droplet production nozzle. A wide range of accessible flow rates permits the identification of different physical regimes in which droplets of different dimensions are produced. In the system investigated droplets measuring as little as 200 fl have been produced, ∼1/60th of the minimum volume previously reported. The experimental findings are supported by a numerical model which demonstrates the link between the number of droplets formed and the pulse length used.

  6. Surface acoustic wave enabled pipette on a chip.

    PubMed

    Sesen, Muhsincan; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Malikides, Sean; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2017-01-31

    Mono-disperse droplet formation in microfluidic devices allows the rapid production of thousands of identical droplets and has enabled a wide range of chemical and biological studies through repeat tests performed at pico-to-nanoliter volume samples. However, it is exactly this efficiency of production which has hindered the ability to carefully control the location and quantity of the distribution of various samples on a chip - the key requirement for replicating micro well plate based high throughput screening in vastly reduced volumetric scales. To address this need, here, we present a programmable microfluidic chip capable of pipetting samples from mobile droplets with high accuracy using a non-contact approach. Pipette on a chip (PoaCH) system selectively ejects (pipettes) part of a droplet into a customizable reaction chamber using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Droplet pipetting is shown to range from as low as 150 pL up to 850 pL with precision down to tens of picoliters. PoaCH offers ease of integration with existing lab on a chip systems as well as a robust and contamination-free droplet manipulation technique in closed microchannels enabling potential implementation in screening and other studies.

  7. Controlling cell–cell interactions using surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; French, Jarrod B.; Mao, Zhangming; Zhao, Hong; Li, Sixing; Nama, Nitesh; Fick, James R.; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between pairs of cells and within multicellular assemblies are critical to many biological processes such as intercellular communication, tissue and organ formation, immunological reactions, and cancer metastasis. The ability to precisely control the position of cells relative to one another and within larger cellular assemblies will enable the investigation and characterization of phenomena not currently accessible by conventional in vitro methods. We present a versatile surface acoustic wave technique that is capable of controlling the intercellular distance and spatial arrangement of cells with micrometer level resolution. This technique is, to our knowledge, among the first of its kind to marry high precision and high throughput into a single extremely versatile and wholly biocompatible technology. We demonstrated the capabilities of the system to precisely control intercellular distance, assemble cells with defined geometries, maintain cellular assemblies in suspension, and translate these suspended assemblies to adherent states, all in a contactless, biocompatible manner. As an example of the power of this system, this technology was used to quantitatively investigate the gap junctional intercellular communication in several homotypic and heterotypic populations by visualizing the transfer of fluorescent dye between cells. PMID:25535339

  8. Controlling cell-cell interactions using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; French, Jarrod B; Mao, Zhangming; Zhao, Hong; Li, Sixing; Nama, Nitesh; Fick, James R; Benkovic, Stephen J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-01-06

    The interactions between pairs of cells and within multicellular assemblies are critical to many biological processes such as intercellular communication, tissue and organ formation, immunological reactions, and cancer metastasis. The ability to precisely control the position of cells relative to one another and within larger cellular assemblies will enable the investigation and characterization of phenomena not currently accessible by conventional in vitro methods. We present a versatile surface acoustic wave technique that is capable of controlling the intercellular distance and spatial arrangement of cells with micrometer level resolution. This technique is, to our knowledge, among the first of its kind to marry high precision and high throughput into a single extremely versatile and wholly biocompatible technology. We demonstrated the capabilities of the system to precisely control intercellular distance, assemble cells with defined geometries, maintain cellular assemblies in suspension, and translate these suspended assemblies to adherent states, all in a contactless, biocompatible manner. As an example of the power of this system, this technology was used to quantitatively investigate the gap junctional intercellular communication in several homotypic and heterotypic populations by visualizing the transfer of fluorescent dye between cells.

  9. Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R

    2012-08-07

    Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.

  10. Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves in a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre

    PubMed Central

    Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Lebrun, Sylvie; Pauliat, Gilles; Maillotte, Hervé; Laude, Vincent; Sylvestre, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Brillouin scattering in optical fibres is a fundamental interaction between light and sound with important implications ranging from optical sensors to slow and fast light. In usual optical fibres, light both excites and feels shear and longitudinal bulk elastic waves, giving rise to forward-guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering and backward-stimulated Brillouin scattering. In a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre, the situation changes dramatically, as we here report with the first experimental observation of Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves. These Rayleigh-type surface waves travel the wire surface at a specific velocity of 3,400 m s−1 and backscatter the light with a Doppler shift of about 6 GHz. As these acoustic resonances are sensitive to surface defects or features, surface acoustic wave Brillouin scattering opens new opportunities for various sensing applications, but also in other domains such as microwave photonics and nonlinear plasmonics. PMID:25341638

  11. Environmental Acoustics and Intensity Vector Acoustics with Emphasis on Shallow Water Effects and the Sea Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    as MORAY) consisting of a combined pressure and vector sensor (4 channels ), a 7- element vertical line array and a 4-elment horizontal line array of...pressure sensors (Fig. 3.). The combined set of vector sensors and array elements established a set of 15 channels that were coherently recorded...Streamlines Interference among modes or rays can establish a null, or dislocation , where the acoustic pressure field vanishes. Measurements of the acoustic

  12. Environmental Acoustics and Intensity Vector Acoustics with Emphasis on Shallow Water Effects and the Sea Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    scientists), and Kevin Williams, all of APL-UW, and William Hodgkiss of SIO-MPL. The PI is also advising PhD student Mr. Jeffrey Daniels, from the...the University of Washington. PUBLICATIONS [1] D.R. Dall’Osto and P. H. Dahl, Elliptical acoustic particle motion in underwater waveguides , J...published, refereed] [3] D. R. Dall’Osto, Properties of the Acoustic Vector Field in Underwater Waveguides , Ph.D. thesis, Dept. Mechanical Engineering

  13. Response Mechanism for Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors Based on Surface-Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiansheng; Lu, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model is established to describe the response mechanism of surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors based on physical adsorption on the detector surface. Wohljent's method is utilized to describe the relationship of sensor output (frequency shift of SAW oscillator) and the mass loaded on the detector surface. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) formula and its improved form are introduced to depict the adsorption behavior of gas on the detector surface. By combining the two methods, we obtain a theoretical model for the response mechanism of SAW gas sensors. By using a commercial SAW gas chromatography (GC) analyzer, an experiment is performed to measure the frequency shifts caused by different concentration of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The parameters in the model are given by fitting the experimental results and the theoretical curve agrees well with the experimental data. PMID:24743157

  14. Comparison of Sonar Discrimination by an Echolocating Dolphin and a Counterpropagation Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    AND SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING NUMBERS COMPARISON OF SONAR DISCRIMINATION BY AN ECHOLOCATING PR: MMB2 DOLPHIN AND A COUNTERPROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK PE...COMPARISON OF SONAR DISCRIMINATION BY AN constanB-1 filter cal fe expressed as ECIHOLOCATING DOLPHIN AND A COUNTERPROPAGATION 2Q-1 NEURAL NETWORK ’ " -- 1...In this study, a counterpropagation artificial layer of N+1 elements, a Kohonen layer of N elements neural network was used to examine the broadband

  15. Engineered nanostructured thin films for enhanced surface acoustic wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Jonathan Kwok Wah

    Sensor technologies profoundly impact all aspects of our everyday lives. Advances have led to smaller devices, faster response times, reduced costs, higher specificity and sensitivity, and even new sensing technologies. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology, which has been around for many decades already, is an example of a newer sensing technology that has begun to be studied for sensing applications. Many advantages of SAW sensors have been identified, in particular the high sensitivity, low cost and wireless capability. However, as the technology is still in its infancy for sensing applications, many improvements and refinements on the platform have yet to be explored. With the arrival of nanotechnology, many existing technologies have benefited from integrating with the new findings that nanotechnology has brought forth. This thesis investigates the enhancement of existing SAW sensors using nanostructured films fabricated by a thin film deposition process known as glancing angle deposition (GLAD). The GLAD technique is a highly flexible and precise thin film fabrication method that is able to create high-surface-area thin films. This high-surface-area characteristic of these films is the driving motivation in their utilization to enhance the performance of SAW sensors. This thesis first demonstrates that dense, extremely high surface area films can be deposited on SAW sensors without adversely affecting device performance. These modified sensors were then studied as humidity sensors to demonstrate improved sensitivity with the addition of the GLAD films. Before the sensors with GLAD films could be tested in a liquid environment, ion-milling was investigated as a method of eliminating the clustering of the individual structures typically seen after exposure to liquids. These modified films were extended for use on the SAW sensors to investigate liquid sensing performance. The performance of SAW devices with clustered films was also studied for comparison. Both

  16. Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces and Droplet Transportation by Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J. T.; Geraldi, N. R.; Guan, J. H.; McHale, G.; Wells, G. G.; Fu, Y. Q.

    2017-01-01

    On a solid surface, a droplet of liquid will stick due to the capillary adhesion, and this causes low droplet mobility. To reduce contact line pinning, surface chemistry can be coupled to micro- and/or nanostructures to create superhydrophobic surfaces on which a droplet balls up into an almost spherical shape, thus, minimizing the contact area. Recent progress in soft matter has now led to alternative lubricant-impregnated surfaces capable of almost zero contact line pinning and high droplet mobility without causing droplets to ball up and minimize the contact area. Here we report an approach to surface-acoustic-wave- (SAW) actuated droplet transportation enabled using such a surface. These surfaces maintain the contact area required for efficient energy and momentum transfer of the wave energy into the droplet while achieving high droplet mobility and a large footprint, therefore, reducing the threshold power required to induce droplet motion. In our approach, we use a slippery layer of lubricating oil infused into a self-assembled porous hydrophobic layer, which is significantly thinner than the SAW wavelength, and avoid damping of the wave. We find a significant reduction (up to 85%) in the threshold power for droplet transportation compared to that using a conventional surface-treatment method. Moreover, unlike droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces, where interaction with the SAW induces a transition from a Cassie-Baxter state to a Wenzel state, the droplets on our liquid-impregnated surfaces remain in a mobile state after interaction with the SAW.

  17. Experimental observation of surface acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in a small-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchahame, Joël. Cabrel; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Phan Huy, Kien; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Laude, Vincent; Beugnot, Jean-Charles

    2016-04-01

    Light propagation in small-core photonic crystal fibers enables tight optical confinement over long propagation lengths to enhance light-matter interactions. Not only can photonic crystal fibers compress light spatially, they also provide a tunable means to control light-hypersound interactions. By exploring Brillouin light scattering in a small-core and high air-filling fraction microstructured fiber, we report the observation of Brillouin scattering from surface acoustic waves at lower frequencies than standard Brillouin scattering from bulk acoustic waves. This effect could find potential applications for optical sensing technologies that exploit surface acoustic waves.

  18. Interface nano-confined acoustic waves in polymeric surface phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Travagliati, Marco; Nardi, Damiano; Giannetti, Claudio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco; Gusev, Vitalyi; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Piazza, Vincenzo

    2015-01-12

    The impulsive acoustic dynamics of soft polymeric surface phononic crystals is investigated here in the hypersonic frequency range by near-IR time-resolved optical diffraction. The acoustic response is analysed by means of wavelet spectral methods and finite element modeling. An unprecedented class of acoustic modes propagating within the polymer surface phononic crystal and confined within 100 nm of the nano-patterned interface is revealed. The present finding opens the path to an alternative paradigm for characterizing the mechanical properties of soft polymers at interfaces and for sensing schemes exploiting polymers as embedding materials.

  19. X-ray Bragg diffraction from langasite crystal modulated by surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchupkin, D. V.; Irzhak, D. V.; Tucoulou, R.; Buzanov, O. A.

    2003-11-01

    X-ray diffraction on the X cut of a langasite crystal (La3Ga5SiO14) modulated by a Λ=12 μm Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) has been studied at the ESRF synchrotron radiation source. Due to the sinusoidal modulation of the crystal lattice involved by the SAW diffraction satellites appear on the rocking curve, with their number, angular positions, and intensities depending on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Full extinction of a specific satellite could be performed by adjusting the acoustic amplitude. It is shown that x-ray diffraction can be used to study surface acoustic wave field distributions in crystals.

  20. Numerical study of acoustophoretic motion of particles in a PDMS microchannel driven by surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Nama, Nitesh; Barnkob, Rune; Mao, Zhangming; Kähler, Christian J; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-06-21

    We present a numerical study of the acoustophoretic motion of particles suspended in a liquid-filled PDMS microchannel on a lithium niobate substrate acoustically driven by surface acoustic waves. We employ a perturbation approach where the flow variables are divided into first- and second-order fields. We use impedance boundary conditions to model the PDMS microchannel walls and we model the acoustic actuation by a displacement function from the literature based on a numerical study of piezoelectric actuation. Consistent with the type of actuation, the obtained first-order field is a horizontal standing wave that travels vertically from the actuated wall towards the upper PDMS wall. This is in contrast to what is observed in bulk acoustic wave devices. The first-order fields drive the acoustic streaming, as well as the time-averaged acoustic radiation force acting on suspended particles. We analyze the motion of suspended particles driven by the acoustic streaming drag and the radiation force. We examine a range of particle diameters to demonstrate the transition from streaming-drag-dominated acoustophoresis to radiation-force-dominated acoustophoresis. Finally, as an application of our numerical model, we demonstrate the capability to tune the position of the vertical pressure node along the channel width by tuning the phase difference between two incoming surface acoustic waves.

  1. Numerical study of acoustophoretic motion of particles in a PDMS microchannel driven by surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Nama, Nitesh; Barnkob, Rune; Mao, Zhangming; Kähler, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the acoustophoretic motion of particles suspended in a liquid-filled PDMS microchannel on a lithium niobate substrate acoustically driven by surface acoustic waves. We employ a perturbation approach where the flow variables are divided into first- and second-order fields. We use impedance boundary conditions to model the PDMS microchannel walls and we model the acoustic actuation by a displacement function from the literature based on a numerical study of piezoelectric actuation. Consistent with the type of actuation, the obtained first-order field is a horizontal standing wave that travels vertically from the actuated wall towards the upper PDMS wall. This is in contrast to what is observed in bulk acoustic wave devices. The first-order fields drive the acoustic streaming, as well as the time-averaged acoustic radiation force acting on suspended particles. We analyze the motion of suspended particles driven by the acoustic streaming drag and the radiation force. We examine a range of particle diameters to demonstrate the transition from streaming-drag-dominated acoustophoresis to radiation-force-dominated acoustophoresis. Finally, as an application of our numerical model, we demonstrate the capability to tune the position of the vertical pressure node along the channel width by tuning the phase difference between two incoming surface acoustic waves. PMID:26001199

  2. Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.

    2011-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5

  3. Monitoring polymer properties using shear horizontal surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, Dana Y; Millard, Paul J; Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio

    2009-10-01

    Real-time, nondestructive methods for monitoring polymer film properties are increasingly important in the development and fabrication of modern polymer-containing products. Online testing of industrial polymer films during preparation and conditioning is required to minimize material and energy consumption, improve the product quality, increase the production rate, and reduce the number of product rejects. It is well-known that shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) propagation is sensitive to mass changes as well as to the mechanical properties of attached materials. In this work, the SH-SAW was used to monitor polymer property changes primarily dictated by variations in the viscoelasticity. The viscoelastic properties of a negative photoresist film were monitored throughout the ultraviolet (UV) light-induced polymer cross-linking process using SH-SAW delay line devices. Changes in the polymer film mass and viscoelasticity caused by UV exposure produced variations in the phase velocity and attenuation of the SH-SAW propagating in the structure. Based on measured polymer-coated delay line scattering transmission responses (S(21)) and the measured polymer layer thickness and density, the viscoelastic constants c(44) and eta(44) were extracted. The polymer thickness was found to decrease 0.6% during UV curing, while variations in the polymer density were determined to be insignificant. Changes of 6% in c(44) and 22% in eta(44) during the cross-linking process were observed, showing the sensitivity of the SH-SAW phase velocity and attenuation to changes in the polymer film viscoelasticity. These results indicate the potential for SH-SAW devices as online monitoring sensors for polymer film processing.

  4. Coherent reflection from surface gravity water waves during reciprocal acoustic transmissions.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Song, Aijun; Smith, Kevin B

    2012-10-01

    During a recent experiment in Kauai, Hawaii, reciprocal transmissions were conducted between two acoustic transceivers mounted on the seafloor at a depth of 100 m. The passage of moving surface wave crests was shown to generate focused and intense coherent acoustic returns, which had increasing or decreasing delay depending on the direction of propagation relative to the direction of surface wave crests. It is shown that a rough surface two-dimensional parabolic equation model with an evolving sea surface can produce qualitative agreement with data for the dynamic surface returns.

  5. Classification of Cm i energy levels using counterpropagation neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Keith L.

    1990-03-01

    Two different types of counterpropagation neural networks are applied to the problem of classifying unknown Cm i energy levels. Four features-energy level, angular momentum, g factor, and isotope shift-are used to describe each level. One type of network is trained at the 100% level, while the other type is trained in excess of 96%. Performance on test sets is not as good, ranging from 81.2% to 93.7%. These results equal or surpass pattern recognition results obtained in an earlier study. Classifications for 12 odd-parity unknowns and 42 even-parity unknowns are also obtained and compared with the previous pattern recognition predictions.

  6. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  7. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-09-08

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices.

  8. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices. PMID:26346448

  9. Nonlinear hydrodynamic effects induced by Rayleigh surface acoustic wave in sessile droplets.

    PubMed

    Alghane, M; Chen, B X; Fu, Y Q; Li, Y; Desmulliez, M P Y; Mohammed, M I; Walton, A J

    2012-11-01

    We report an experimental and numerical characterization of three-dimensional acoustic streaming behavior in small droplets of volumes (1-30 μl) induced by surface acoustic wave (SAW). We provide a quantitative evidence of the existence of strong nonlinear nature of the flow inertia in this SAW-driven flow over a range of the newly defined acoustic parameter F{NA}=Fλ/(σ/R_{d})≥0.01, which is a measure of the strength of the acoustic force to surface tension, where F is the acoustic body force, λ is the SAW wavelength, σ is the surface tension, and R{d} is the droplet radius. In contrast to the widely used Stokes model of acoustic streaming, which generally ignores such a nonlinearity, we identify that the full Navier-Stokes equation must be applied to avoid errors up to 93% between the computed streaming velocities and those from experiments as in the nonlinear case. We suggest that the Stokes model is valid only for very small acoustic power of ≤1 μW (F{NA}<0.002). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the increase of F{NA} above 0.45 induces not only internal streaming, but also the deformation of droplets.

  10. Two true surface acoustic waves and other acoustic modes in (110) plane of Li2B4O7 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Victor Y.; Lefebvre, J. E.; Gryba, T.

    1999-09-01

    The surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and other acoustic modes propagating in the (110) plane of Li2B4O7 are investigated by means of the effective surface permittivity (ESP). It is demonstrated that the velocity of all piezoactive SAWs, both true and pseudo, as well as surface skimming bulk waves (SSBWs) can be numerically determined by computing the ESP as a function of acoustic trace slowness. A physical phenomenon not reported has been found for certain propagation directions, namely, simultaneous existence of two true SAWs, both being of the generalized Rayleigh type, together with a pseudo SAW of similar polarization. Propagation velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient, and decay factor have been verified and confirmed by using two different sets of material constants and two numerical methods. The obtained values and accuracy of SAWs parameters are compared, and the validity conditions discussed. The generalized slowness diagram, plotted for the sagittal plane, enables to determine the total number of SSBW and to interpret the depth penetration properties of SAW. The Nyquist diagram of the ESP is shown to be a more helpful form for identifying a pseudo SAW and for distinguishing it from a SSBW.

  11. Co- and counter-propagating slow light systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, T.; Kondo, K.

    2016-03-01

    We report what we call co- and counter propagating slow-light systems based on the high nonlinearity in Si lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguides (LSPCWs). The intense slow-light pulse, as a control pulse, efficiently generates two-photon absorption and carrier plasma effects, which tunes the dispersion characteristics of the LSPCWs and spectrum of copropagating or counter-propagating slow-light pulse, as a signal pulse. Using the control pulse, we succeeded in experimentally demonstrating adiabatic wavelength conversion and its enhancement, delay tuning of up to 10 ps with a response time <10 ps, and temporal pulse compression of factor 9.9 in the signal pulse. Furthermore, we discussed theoretically the collision and reflection of the signal pulse counterpropagating against the control pulse through the photonic-bandgap shift, resulting in a large Doppler shift. Considering the detail of these phenomena, we clarified the relation and difference between the adiabatic wavelength conversion, cross-phase modulation, and Doppler shift, which have been unclear so far.

  12. Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Wu, Tsung-Tsong

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we present a study on the existence of Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu piezoelectric surface acoustic waves in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal (zinc oxide, ZnO, and cadmium-sulfide, CdS) using the plane wave expansion method. In the configuration of ZnO (100)/CdS(100) phononic crystal, the calculated results show that this type of surface waves has higher acoustic wave velocities, high electromechanical coupling coefficients, and larger band gap width than those of the Rayleigh surface waves and pseudosurface waves. In addition, we find that the folded modes of the Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface waves have higher coupling coefficients.

  13. Detection of rolling contact sub-surface fatigue cracks using acoustic emission technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, T. )

    1993-04-01

    A method of locating the position of acoustic emission sources has been developed to analyze the mechanism of rolling contact fatigue. Using this method, sub-surface fatigue cracks were found at positions corresponding to the actual source positions of acoustic emissions. When fatigue tests were run under maximum stresses of 5.75 GPa and lubricant film parameters of 0.19, the cracks propagated parallel to the surface, had a maximum length of approximately 200 microns in the rolling direction of balls, and were distributed between 50 microns and 200 microns below the surface. Although the lubricant film parameter was small, no cracks from the surface were found. 12 refs.

  14. Continuous micro-vortex-based nanoparticle manipulation via focused surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye

    2016-12-20

    Despite increasing demand in the manipulation of nanoscale objects for next generation biological and industrial processes, there is a lack of methods for reliable separation, concentration and purification of nanoscale objects. Acoustic methods have proven their utility in contactless manipulation of microscale objects mainly relying on the acoustic radiation effect, though the influence of acoustic streaming has typically prevented manipulation at smaller length scales. In this work, however, we explicitly take advantage of the strong acoustic streaming in the vicinity of a highly focused, high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) beam emanating from a series of focused 6 μm substrate wavelength interdigital transducers patterned on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate and actuated with a 633 MHz sinusoidal signal. This streaming field serves to focus fluid streamlines such that incoming particles interact with the acoustic field similarly regardless of their initial starting positions, and results in particle displacements that would not be possible with a travelling acoustic wave force alone. This streaming-induced manipulation of nanoscale particles is maximized with the formation of micro-vortices that extend the width of the microfluidic channel even with the imposition of a lateral flow, occurring when the streaming-induced flow velocities are an order of magnitude larger than the lateral one. We make use of this acoustic streaming to demonstrate the continuous and differential focusing of 100 nm, 300 nm and 500 nm particles.

  15. Global boundary flattening transforms for acoustic propagation under rough sea surfaces.

    PubMed

    Oba, Roger M

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces a conformal transform of an acoustic domain under a one-dimensional, rough sea surface onto a domain with a flat top. This non-perturbative transform can include many hundreds of wavelengths of the surface variation. The resulting two-dimensional, flat-topped domain allows direct application of any existing, acoustic propagation model of the Helmholtz or wave equation using transformed sound speeds. Such a transform-model combination applies where the surface particle velocity is much slower than sound speed, such that the boundary motion can be neglected. Once the acoustic field is computed, the bijective (one-to-one and onto) mapping permits the field interpolation in terms of the original coordinates. The Bergstrom method for inverse Riemann maps determines the transform by iterated solution of an integral equation for a surface matching term. Rough sea surface forward scatter test cases provide verification of the method using a particular parabolic equation model of the Helmholtz equation.

  16. Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Mao, Zhangming; Chen, Yuchao; Xie, Zhiwei; Lata, James P.; Li, Peng; Ren, Liqiang; Liu, Jiayang; Yang, Jian; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-01-01

    The ability of surface acoustic waves to trap and manipulate micrometer-scale particles and biological cells has led to many applications involving “acoustic tweezers” in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. Here, we present 3D acoustic tweezers, which use surface acoustic waves to create 3D trapping nodes for the capture and manipulation of microparticles and cells along three mutually orthogonal axes. In this method, we use standing-wave phase shifts to move particles or cells in-plane, whereas the amplitude of acoustic vibrations is used to control particle motion along an orthogonal plane. We demonstrate, through controlled experiments guided by simulations, how acoustic vibrations result in micromanipulations in a microfluidic chamber by invoking physical principles that underlie the formation and regulation of complex, volumetric trapping nodes of particles and biological cells. We further show how 3D acoustic tweezers can be used to pick up, translate, and print single cells and cell assemblies to create 2D and 3D structures in a precise, noninvasive, label-free, and contact-free manner. PMID:26811444

  17. Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Mao, Zhangming; Chen, Yuchao; Xie, Zhiwei; Lata, James P; Li, Peng; Ren, Liqiang; Liu, Jiayang; Yang, Jian; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-02-09

    The ability of surface acoustic waves to trap and manipulate micrometer-scale particles and biological cells has led to many applications involving "acoustic tweezers" in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. Here, we present 3D acoustic tweezers, which use surface acoustic waves to create 3D trapping nodes for the capture and manipulation of microparticles and cells along three mutually orthogonal axes. In this method, we use standing-wave phase shifts to move particles or cells in-plane, whereas the amplitude of acoustic vibrations is used to control particle motion along an orthogonal plane. We demonstrate, through controlled experiments guided by simulations, how acoustic vibrations result in micromanipulations in a microfluidic chamber by invoking physical principles that underlie the formation and regulation of complex, volumetric trapping nodes of particles and biological cells. We further show how 3D acoustic tweezers can be used to pick up, translate, and print single cells and cell assemblies to create 2D and 3D structures in a precise, noninvasive, label-free, and contact-free manner.

  18. Self-similar micron-size and nanosize drops of liquid generated by surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Taller, Daniel; Go, David B; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2012-11-30

    A planar surface acoustic wave on a solid substrate and its radiated sound into a static liquid drop produce time-averaged, exponentially decaying acoustic and electric Maxwell pressures near the contact line. These localized contact-line pressures are shown to generate two sequences of hemispherical satellite droplets at the tens of microns and submicron scales, both obeying self-similar exponential scaling but with distinct exponents that correspond to viscous dissipation and field leakage length scales, respectively. The acoustic pressure becomes dominant when the film thickness exceeds (1/4π) of the surface acoustic wave wavelength and it affects the shape and stability of the mother drop. The Maxwell pressure of the nanodrops, which exceeds ten atmospheres, is sensitive to the contact angle.

  19. Environmental Acoustics and Intensity Vector Acoustics with Emphasis on Shallow Water Effects and the Sea Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    interference; for example how it relates directly the angles of interfering wavefronts and therefore reflection and refraction processes in a waveguide . We...intensity fields in an underwater waveguide through modification of the RAM parabolic wave equation (PE) code [3]. The vector products of the PE are used...advising PhD student Mr. Jeffrey Daniels, from the Acoustics Research Detachment (Bayview ID) Carderock Division, who has received an ILIR grant from

  20. On-Demand Droplet Capture and Release Using Microwell-Assisted Surface Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Ho; Destgeer, Ghulam; Park, Jinsoo; Ahmed, Husnain; Park, Kwangseok; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-02-21

    We demonstrate an acoustofluidic platform that uses surface acoustic waves (SAWs) for the facile capture of droplets inside microwells and their on-demand release. When the ac signal applied to the device is tuned to modulate the location of the SAW, the SAW-based acoustic radiation force retracts or pushes the droplets into or out of one of three microwells fabricated inside a microchannel to selectively capture or release the droplet.

  1. Dynamic Response of X-37 Hot Structure Control Surfaces Exposed to Controlled Reverberant Acoustic Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Rice, Chad E.

    2004-01-01

    This document represents a compilation of three informal reports from reverberant acoustic tests performed on X-37 hot structure control surfaces in the NASA Langley Research Center Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility. The first test was performed on a carbon-silicone carbide flaperon subcomponent on February 24, 2004. The second test was performed on a carbon-carbon ruddervator subcomponent on May 27, 2004. The third test was performed on a carbon-carbon flaperon subcomponent on June 30, 2004.

  2. Observation of sagittal X-ray diffraction by surface acoustic waves in Bragg geometry.

    PubMed

    Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Evgenii, Emelin; Petsiuk, Andrei; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Erko, Alexei

    2017-04-01

    X-ray Bragg diffraction in sagittal geometry on a Y-cut langasite crystal (La3Ga5SiO14) modulated by Λ = 3 µm Rayleigh surface acoustic waves was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Owing to the crystal lattice modulation by the surface acoustic wave diffraction, satellites appear. Their intensity and angular separation depend on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Experimental results are compared with the corresponding theoretical model that exploits the kinematical diffraction theory. This experiment shows that the propagation of the surface acoustic waves creates a dynamical diffraction grating on the crystal surface, and this can be used for space-time modulation of an X-ray beam.

  3. A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Observation of sagittal X-ray diffraction by surface acoustic waves in Bragg geometry1

    PubMed Central

    Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Evgenii, Emelin; Petsiuk, Andrei; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Erko, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    X-ray Bragg diffraction in sagittal geometry on a Y-cut langasite crystal (La3Ga5SiO14) modulated by Λ = 3 µm Rayleigh surface acoustic waves was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Owing to the crystal lattice modulation by the surface acoustic wave diffraction, satellites appear. Their intensity and angular separation depend on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Experimental results are compared with the corresponding theoretical model that exploits the kinematical diffraction theory. This experiment shows that the propagation of the surface acoustic waves creates a dynamical diffraction grating on the crystal surface, and this can be used for space–time modulation of an X-ray beam. PMID:28381976

  5. Acoustic receptivity of compressible boundary layers: Receptivity by way of surface-temperature variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1994-01-01

    The Goldstein-Ruban theory has been extended within the framework of Zavol'skii et al. to study the acoustic receptivity of compressible boundary layers. We consider the receptivity produced in a region of localized, small-amplitude variation in the surface temperature and compare it with the receptivity that is induced through a similar mechanism by a variation in the suction velocity at the surface. It is found that the orientation of the acoustic wave can have a significant impact on the receptivity process, with the maximum receptivity at a given sound-pressure level being produced by upstream oriented acoustic waves. At sufficiently low Mach numbers, the variation of receptivity with the acoustic-wave orientation can be predicted analytically and is the same for both surface suction and surface heating. However, as a result of the acoustic refraction across the mean boundary layer, the above dependence can become rather complex and, also, dependent on the type of surface nonuniformity. The results also suggest that the receptivity caused by temperature nonuniformities may turn out to be more significant than that produced by the mean-flow perturbations associated with strip suction.

  6. Microfluidic particle manipulation using high frequency surface acoustic waves (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Ye

    2017-02-01

    Precise manipulation of particles and biological cells is an essential process in various biomedical research fields, industrial and clinical applications, which remains a very active research area in microfluidics. Among various force fields applied for microfluidic manipulations, acoustic waves have superior propagating properties in solids and fluids, which can readily enable non-contact cell manipulation in long operating distances. In addition, acoustic fields are advantageous to high power laser beams for non-contact optical tweezing in terms of biocompatibility, throughput and setup simplicity. Exploiting acoustic waves for fluid and cell manipulation in microfluidics has led to a newly emerging research area, acoustofluidics. In this presentation, I will talk about particle and cell manipulation in microfluidics using high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAW). In particular, I will discuss a unique design of a focused IDT (FIDT) structure, which is able to generate a highly localized SAW field on the order of 20 µm wide. This highly focused acoustic beam has an effective manipulation area size that is comparable to individual micron-sized particles. Here, I demonstrate the use of this highly localized SAW field for single particle level sorting using sub-millisecond pulses and selective capture of particles. Based on our research studies on acoustic particle manipulation, I envision that the merging of acoustics and microfluidics could enable various particle and cell manipulations needed in microfluidic applications.

  7. Counterpropagating Radiative Shock Experiments on the Orion Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Clayson, T.; Stehlé, C.; Swadling, G. F.; Foster, J. M.; Skidmore, J.; Graham, P.; Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Chaulagain, U.; Singh, R. L.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Patankar, S.; Spindloe, C.; Larour, J.; Kozlova, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G.; Velarde, P.; Danson, C.

    2017-08-01

    We present new experiments to study the formation of radiative shocks and the interaction between two counterpropagating radiative shocks. The experiments are performed at the Orion laser facility, which is used to drive shocks in xenon inside large aspect ratio gas cells. The collision between the two shocks and their respective radiative precursors, combined with the formation of inherently three-dimensional shocks, provides a novel platform particularly suited for the benchmarking of numerical codes. The dynamics of the shocks before and after the collision are investigated using point-projection x-ray backlighting while, simultaneously, the electron density in the radiative precursor was measured via optical laser interferometry. Modeling of the experiments using the 2D radiation hydrodynamic codes nym and petra shows very good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Wave attraction in resonant counter-propagating wave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, M.; Jauslin, H.-R.; Klein, C.; Matveev, V. B.

    2011-08-01

    Wave attraction is a general phenomenon that was first established in the context of the attraction of the polarization between two counter-propagating waves in optical fibers. This phenomenon has been observed experimentally, and its properties were studied through numerical simulations. The relevant models are Hamiltonian hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, with time-dependent boundary conditions on a finite interval. The underlying mechanism can be traced back to the existence of singular tori in the corresponding stationary equations. In this article, we analyze in detail the simplest example in this family of models. We show that most of the phenomena of the wave attraction process are already present in a linear model with resonant interaction. We establish the existence and regularity of the solutions and analyze the relaxation towards a stationary solution that features the wave attraction properties.

  9. Acoustic imaging in application to reconstruction of rough rigid surface with airborne ultrasound waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krynkin, A.; Dolcetti, G.; Hunting, S.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the surface roughness is of high importance to various areas of science and engineering. One important application of this technology is for remote monitoring of open channel flows through observing its dynamic surface roughness. In this paper a novel airborne acoustic method of roughness reconstruction is proposed and tested with a static rigid rough surface. This method is based on the acoustic holography principle and Kirchhoff approximation which make use of acoustic pressure data collected at multiple receiver points spread along an arch. The Tikhonov regularisation and generalised cross validation technique are used to solve the underdetermined system of equations for the acoustic pressures. The experimental data are collected above a roughness created with a 3D printer. For the given surface, it is shown that the proposed method works well with the various number of receiver positions. In this paper, the tested ratios between the number of surface points at which the surface elevation can be reconstructed and number of receiver positions are 2.5, 5, and 7.5. It is shown that, in a region comparable with the projected size of the main directivity lobe, the method is able to reconstruct the spatial spectrum density of the actual surface elevation with the accuracy of 20%.

  10. Surface Roughness Evaluation Based on Acoustic Emission Signals in Robot Assisted Polishing

    PubMed Central

    de Agustina, Beatriz; Marín, Marta María; Teti, Roberto; Rubio, Eva María

    2014-01-01

    The polishing process is the most common technology used in applications where a high level of surface quality is demanded. The automation of polishing processes is especially difficult due to the high level of skill and dexterity that is required. Much of this difficulty arises because of the lack of reliable data on the effect of the polishing parameters on the resulting surface roughness. An experimental study was developed to evaluate the surface roughness obtained during Robot Assisted Polishing processes by the analysis of acoustic emission signals in the frequency domain. The aim is to find out a trend of a feature or features calculated from the acoustic emission signals detected along the process. Such an evaluation was made with the objective of collecting valuable information for the establishment of the end point detection of polishing process. As a main conclusion, it can be affirmed that acoustic emission (AE) signals can be considered useful to monitor the polishing process state. PMID:25405509

  11. Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1992-01-01

    Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them.

  12. Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1988-04-29

    Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.

  13. Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1992-05-26

    Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes there between. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.

  14. Stimulated Brillouin side-scattering of the beat wave excited by two counter-propagating X-mode lasers in magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek; Baliyan, Sweta; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2015-06-01

    The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of nonresonant beat mode in the presence of static magnetic field is investigated in a plasma. Two counter-propagating lasers of frequencies ( ω 1 and ω 2 ) and wave vectors ( k 1 and k 2 ) drive a nonresonant space charge beat mode at the phase matching condition of frequency ω 0 ≈ ω 1 ˜ ω 2 and wave number k → 0 ≈ k → 1 + k → 2 . The driver wave parametrically excites a pair of ion acoustic wave ( ω , k → ) and a sideband electromagnetic wave ( ω 3 , k → 3 ) . The beat wave couples with the sideband electromagnetic wave to exert a nonlinear ponderomotive force at the frequency of ion acoustic wave. Density perturbations due to ion acoustic wave and ponderomotive force couple with the oscillatory motion of plasma electron due to velocity of beat wave to give rise to a nonlinear current (by feedback mechanism) responsible for the growth of sideband wave at resonance. The growth rate of SBS was reduced (from ˜ 10 12 s - 1 to 10 10 s - 1 ) by applying a transverse static magnetic field ˜ 90 T. The present study can be useful for the excitation of fast plasma waves (for the purpose of electron acceleration) by two counter-propagating laser beams.

  15. Differentiation of red wines using an electronic nose based on surface acoustic wave devices.

    PubMed

    García, M; Fernández, M J; Fontecha, J L; Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Aleixandre, M; Sayago, I; Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2006-02-15

    An electronic nose, utilizing the principle of surface acoustic waves (SAW), was used to differentiate among different wines of the same variety of grapes which come from the same cellar. The electronic nose is based on eight surface acoustic wave sensors, one is a reference sensor and the others are coated by different polymers by spray coating technique. Data analysis was performed by two pattern recognition methods; principal component analysis (PCA) and probabilistic neuronal network (PNN). The results showed that electronic nose was able to identify the tested wines.

  16. Time-resolved coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Jan-David; Reusch, Tobias; Osterhoff, Markus; Sprung, Michael; Schülein, Florian J R; Krenner, Hubert J; Wixforth, Achim; Salditt, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Time-resolved coherent X-ray diffraction experiments of standing surface acoustic waves, illuminated under grazing incidence by a nanofocused synchrotron beam, are reported. The data have been recorded in stroboscopic mode at controlled and varied phase between the acoustic frequency generator and the synchrotron bunch train. At each time delay (phase angle), the coherent far-field diffraction pattern in the small-angle regime is inverted by an iterative algorithm to yield the local instantaneous surface height profile along the optical axis. The results show that periodic nanoscale dynamics can be imaged at high temporal resolution in the range of 50 ps (pulse length).

  17. Adjustable, rapidly switching microfluidic gradient generation using focused travelling surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Im, Sunghyuk; Hang Ha, Byung; Ho Jung, Jin; Ahmad Ansari, Mubashshir; Jin Sung, Hyung

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple device to generate chemical concentration gradients in a microfluidic channel using focused travelling surface acoustic waves (F-TSAW). A pair of curved interdigitated metal electrodes deposited on the surface of a piezoelectric (LiNbO3) substrate disseminate high frequency sound waves when actuated by an alternating current source. The F-TSAW produces chaotic acoustic streaming flow upon its interaction with the fluid inside a microfluidic channel, which mixes confluent streams of chemicals in a controlled fashion for an adjustable and rapidly switching gradient generation.

  18. Nonreciprocal propagation of surface acoustic wave in Ni/LiNbO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, R.; Nii, Y.; Iguchi, Y.; Onose, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated surface acoustic wave propagation in a Ni/LiNbO3 hybrid device. We found that the absorption and phase velocity are dependent on the sign of the wave vector, which indicates that the surface acoustic wave propagation has nonreciprocal characteristics induced by simultaneous breaking of time-reversal and spatial inversion symmetries. The nonreciprocity was reversed by 180∘ rotation of the magnetic field. The origin of the nonreciprocity is ascribed to interference of shear-type and longitudinal-type magnetoelastic couplings.

  19. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  20. Acousto-Optic Interaction in Surface Acoustic Waves and Its Application to Real Time Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-30

    ACOUSTO - OPTIC INTERACTION IN SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES AND ITS APP--ETC(U) DEC 77 0 SCHUMER, P DAS NOOOIJ -75-C-0772 NCLASSIFIED MA-ONR-30 Nt.EE E’h...CHART NAT*NAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 1-63- ACOUSTO - OPTIC INTERACTION IN SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES AND ITS APPLICATION TO REAL TIME SIGNAL PROCESSING By 00 D... Acousto - optics , Integrated optics, Optical Signal Processing. 20. AbSKTRACT (Continue an reverse side it neceary and idewnt& by block mum ber) The

  1. Unipolar and Bipolar High-Magnetic-Field Sensors Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polewczyk, V.; Dumesnil, K.; Lacour, D.; Moutaouekkil, M.; Mjahed, H.; Tiercelin, N.; Petit Watelot, S.; Mishra, H.; Dusch, Y.; Hage-Ali, S.; Elmazria, O.; Montaigne, F.; Talbi, A.; Bou Matar, O.; Hehn, M.

    2017-08-01

    While surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors have been used to measure temperature, pressure, strains, and low magnetic fields, the capability to measure bipolar fields and high fields is lacking. In this paper, we report magnetic surface acoustic wave sensors that consist of interdigital transducers made of a single magnetostrictive material, either Ni or TbFe2 , or based on exchange-biased (Co /IrMn ) multilayers. By controlling the ferromagnet magnetic properties, high-field sensors can be obtained with unipolar or bipolar responses. The issue of hysteretic response of the ferromagnetic material is especially addressed, and the control of the magnetic properties ensures the reversible behavior in the SAW response.

  2. Adjustable, rapidly switching microfluidic gradient generation using focused travelling surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Im, Sunghyuk; Hang Ha, Byung; Ho Jung, Jin; Ahmad Ansari, Mubashshir; Jin Sung, Hyung

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate a simple device to generate chemical concentration gradients in a microfluidic channel using focused travelling surface acoustic waves (F-TSAW). A pair of curved interdigitated metal electrodes deposited on the surface of a piezoelectric (LiNbO{sub 3}) substrate disseminate high frequency sound waves when actuated by an alternating current source. The F-TSAW produces chaotic acoustic streaming flow upon its interaction with the fluid inside a microfluidic channel, which mixes confluent streams of chemicals in a controlled fashion for an adjustable and rapidly switching gradient generation.

  3. Time-resolved coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Jan-David; Reusch, Tobias; Osterhoff, Markus; Sprung, Michael; Schülein, Florian J. R.; Krenner, Hubert J.; Wixforth, Achim; Salditt, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved coherent X-ray diffraction experiments of standing surface acoustic waves, illuminated under grazing incidence by a nanofocused synchrotron beam, are reported. The data have been recorded in stroboscopic mode at controlled and varied phase between the acoustic frequency generator and the synchrotron bunch train. At each time delay (phase angle), the coherent far-field diffraction pattern in the small-angle regime is inverted by an iterative algorithm to yield the local instantaneous surface height profile along the optical axis. The results show that periodic nanoscale dynamics can be imaged at high temporal resolution in the range of 50 ps (pulse length). PMID:25294979

  4. Acoustics and hydrodynamics of a drop impact on a water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Prokhorov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrodynamic and acoustic processes associated with a drop impact on a water surface were studied experimentally. Acoustic signals were detected underwater (with a hydrophone) and in air (with a microphone), the flow pattern was recorded with a high-speed camera, and the surface perturbation was monitored with a laser detector. The dimensionless parameters of flows (Reynolds, Froude, and Weber numbers) induced by the impact varied with fall height within the ranges of 5000 < Re < 20000, 20 < Fr < 350, and 70 < We < 1000. The sequence of acoustic signals incorporated an impact pulse at the moment of contact between a drop and the surface and a series of acoustic packets attributable to the resonance emission of gas cavities. The top of the impact pulse, which was detected clearly in the entire fall height range, had a complex structure with short high-frequency and longer low-frequency oscillations. The total number and the parameters of emitted acoustic packets depended to a considerable extent on the fall height. The cases of lacking, one-time, and repeated emission of packets were noted in a series of experiments performed at a constant fall height. The analysis of video data showed that the signal variability was induced by considerable differences in the scenarios of water entry of a drop, which assumed an ovoid shape at the end trajectory segment, in the mentioned experiments.

  5. Surface study of cross-linking gradients in photopolymers by acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augereau, F.; Cros, B.; Marco, J. P.

    1996-08-01

    Acoustic techniques use the propagation of ultrasonic waves a few microns under the sample surface and their interaction with the material structure to characterize sample surface properties. The aim of this work is to apply these investigation methods to display cross-linking gradients created in photopolymers by a reticulation process induced by UV light. This method has first been tested on materials exposed through a test target mask. Using 600 and 90 MHz focused lenses, we got fine acoustic images with resolution respectively around 4 μm and 25 μm, where the abrupt variations of elastic properties produced by the optic filter are easily detectable. Next, we tried to locate a more gradual distribution of elastic properties, created via the UV exposure through an apodizing filter with a progressive radial transmission function. This gradient has not been detected with the previous acoustic imaging system, but using the complementary technique of acoustic signature, a quite similar profile has been retrieved from measurements of the longitudinal lateral velocity on small volumes close to the material surface. This sample has then been cut off in two parallel cross-sections to follow, via surface investigation, variations induced inside the material. This study has demonstrated a softening of the cross-linkings gradients close to the surface, responsible for the absence of contrast on previous acoustic images. Moreover, the evolution of the velocities measured inside this sample has shown a special volumic distribution, which agrees with the chemical theories predictions about the reticulation process. Acoustic attenuation measurements are also produced as a possible complementary information on structural changes in photopolymers.

  6. A wideband characterization of the acoustic spreading function in the surface layer of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahon, Mark P.

    2001-07-01

    Acoustic signals propagating in the surface layer (within 100 meters of the earth's surface) of the atmosphere are subjected to refraction and scattering off of turbulent pockets of air, known as eddies. These eddies are postulated to be of varying size with a length-scale directly proportional to the height above the surface and are inherently stochastic. The net effect is a fundamentally dispersive process imparting frequency dependent amplitude and phase variations on the propagating signals. Mathematically, this can be characterized by a spreading function. In addition to the atmospheric effects the acoustic channel will typically possess multiple deterministic propagation paths. In this thesis original experimental work designed to characterize, in a wideband sense, the surface layer spreading function is presented. This is accomplished by analyzing the acoustic channel using communications theory typically employed in the electromagnetic environment. Small- and large-scale acoustic channel fluctuations are characterized simultaneously through signal set design and advanced space-time signal processing techniques. Carefully designed wideband (spread spectrum) signals were used to probe and interact with the channel to provide a mechanism to bound the relevant parameters and classify the type of time and frequency dispersive fading effects. The experimental results demonstrate that the signal design methodology employed facilitates simultaneous parameterization of the time-varying surface layer structures (turbulence) over a spread of time-scales. The signals were collected by an acoustic planar array located approximately 750 meters from the source location. Direction-of-arrival techniques were applied to track the multiple arrival angles over time. This provided a means of tracking the refraction effects imparted onto the acoustic signal by the turbulent atmosphere and discriminating other arrival angles due to ground waves and deterministic paths. The signal

  7. Transient processes in the parametric interaction of counter-propagating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Slabko, V V; Rasskazova, E V; Tkachenko, V A; Moskalev, A K; Popov, A K; Myslivets, S A

    2015-12-31

    We present a comparative analysis of transient processes in media with a negative refractive index for the parametric interaction of co- and counter-propagating waves. The transient time for the interaction of counter-propagating waves is shown to considerably exceed that for the interaction of co-propagating waves. In the case of counter-propagating waves, we present fitting results for the generated wave amplitude as a function of time and for the transient time vs. the amplitude of the pump wave and the length of the medium. (optical metamaterials)

  8. Surface-acoustic-wave device incorporating conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcroft, B.; Roberts, G. G.; Barraud, A.; Richard, J.

    1987-04-01

    Surface-acoustic-wave devices incorporating conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films are reported for the first time. Excellent characteristics have been obtained using a mixed valence charge transfer salt of a substituted pyridinium tetracyanoquinodimethane. The control afforded by the deposition technique has enabled the fractional change in surface wave velocity due to the electrical effects to be distinguished from those due to mass loading. The resistivity of the organic surface layer is measured to be 2 ohm-cm.

  9. Separation of biological cells in a microfluidic device using surface acoustic waves (SAWs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Ye; Marrone, Babetta L.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based microfluidic device has been developed to separate heterogeneous particle or cell mixtures in a continuous flow using acoustophoresis. The microfluidic device is comprised of two components, a SAW transducer and a microfluidic channel made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The SAW transducer was fabricated by patterning two pairs of interdigital electrodes on a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) piezoelectric substrate. When exciting the SAW transducer by AC signals, a standing SAW is generated along the cross-section of the channel. Solid particles immersed in the standing SAW field are accordingly pushed to the pressure node arising from the acoustic radiation force acting on the particles, referring to the acoustic particle-focusing phenomenon. Acoustic radiation force highly depends on the particle properties, resulting in different acoustic responses for different types of cells. A numerical model, coupling the piezoelectric effect in the solid substrate and acoustic pressure in the fluid, was developed to provide a better understanding of SAW-based particle manipulation. Separation of two types of fluorescent particles has been demonstrated using the developed SAW-based microfluidic device. An efficient separation of E. coli bacteria from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples has also been successfully achieved. The purity of separated E. coli bacteria and separated PBMCs were over 95% and 91%, respectively, obtained by a flow cytometric analysis. The developed microfluidic device can efficiently separate E. coli bacteria from biological samples, which has potential applications in biomedical analysis and clinical diagnosis.

  10. Evaluation of near-surface stress distributions in dissimilar welded joint by scanning acoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dong Ryul; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Todd, Judith A; Park, Ik Keun

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results from a set of experiments designed to ultrasonically measure the near surface stresses distributed within a dissimilar metal welded plate. A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), with a tone-burst ultrasonic wave frequency of 200 MHz, was used for the measurement of near surface stresses in the dissimilar welded plate between 304 stainless steel and low carbon steel. For quantitative data acquisition such as leaky surface acoustic wave (leaky SAW) velocity measurement, a point focus acoustic lens of frequency 200 MHz was used and the leaky SAW velocities within the specimen were precisely measured. The distributions of the surface acoustic wave velocities change according to the near-surface stresses within the joint. A three dimensional (3D) finite element simulation was carried out to predict numerically the stress distributions and compare with the experimental results. The experiment and FE simulation results for the dissimilar welded plate showed good agreement. This research demonstrates that a combination of FE simulation and ultrasonic stress measurements using SAW velocity distributions appear promising for determining welding residual stresses in dissimilar material joints.

  11. Effective Prevention of Microbial Biofilm Formation on Medical Devices by Low-Energy Surface Acoustic Waves▿

    PubMed Central

    Hazan, Zadik; Zumeris, Jona; Jacob, Harold; Raskin, Hanan; Kratysh, Gera; Vishnia, Moshe; Dror, Naama; Barliya, Tilda; Mandel, Mathilda; Lavie, Gad

    2006-01-01

    Low-energy surface acoustic waves generated from electrically activated piezo elements are shown to effectively prevent microbial biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices. The development of biofilms by four different bacteria and Candida species is prevented when such elastic waves with amplitudes in the nanometer range are applied. Acoustic-wave-activated Foley catheters have all their surfaces vibrating with longitudinal and transversal dispersion vectors homogeneously surrounding the catheter surfaces. The acoustic waves at the surface are repulsive to bacteria and interfere with the docking and attachment of planktonic microorganisms to solid surfaces that constitute the initial phases of microbial biofilm development. FimH-mediated adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to guinea pig erythrocytes was prevented at power densities below thresholds that activate bacterial force sensor mechanisms. Elevated power densities dramatically enhanced red blood cell aggregation. We inserted Foley urinary catheters attached with elastic-wave-generating actuators into the urinary tracts of male rabbits. The treatment with the elastic acoustic waves maintained urine sterility for up to 9 days compared to 2 days in control catheterized animals. Scanning electron microscopy and bioburden analyses revealed diminished biofilm development on these catheters. The ability to prevent biofilm formation on indwelling devices and catheters can benefit the implanted medical device industry. PMID:16940055

  12. Resonant attenuation of surface acoustic waves by a disordered monolayer of microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliason, J. K.; Vega-Flick, A.; Hiraiwa, M.; Khanolkar, A.; Gan, T.; Boechler, N.; Fang, N.; Nelson, K. A.; Maznev, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Attenuation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by a disordered monolayer of polystyrene microspheres is investigated. Surface acoustic wave packets are generated by a pair of crossed laser pulses in a glass substrate coated with a thin aluminum film and detected via the diffraction of a probe laser beam. When a 170 μm-wide strip of micron-sized spheres is placed on the substrate between the excitation and detection spots, strong resonant attenuation of SAWs near 240 MHz is observed. The attenuation is caused by the interaction of SAWs with a contact resonance of the microspheres, as confirmed by acoustic dispersion measurements on the microsphere-coated area. Frequency-selective attenuation of SAWs by such a locally resonant metamaterial may lead to reconfigurable SAW devices and sensors, which can be easily manufactured via self-assembly techniques.

  13. Piezoelectric surface acoustical phonon amplification in graphene on a GaAs substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, O. A. C.

    2014-06-21

    We study the interaction of Dirac Fermions in monolayer graphene on a GaAs substrate in an applied electric field by the combined action of the extrinsic potential of piezoelectric surface acoustical phonons of GaAs (piezoelectric acoustical (PA)) and of the intrinsic deformation potential of acoustical phonons in graphene (deformation acoustical (DA)). We find that provided the dc field exceeds a threshold value, emission of piezoelectric (PA) and deformation (DA) acoustical phonons can be obtained in a wide frequency range up to terahertz at low and high temperatures. We found that the phonon amplification rate R{sup PA,DA} scales with T{sub BG}{sup S−1} (S=PA,DA), T{sub BG}{sup S} being the Block−Gru{sup ¨}neisen temperature. In the high-T Block−Gru{sup ¨}neisen regime, extrinsic PA phonon scattering is suppressed by intrinsic DA phonon scattering, where the ratio R{sup PA}/R{sup DA} scales with ≈1/√(n), n being the carrier concentration. We found that only for carrier concentration n≤10{sup 10}cm{sup −2}, R{sup PA}/R{sup DA}>1. In the low-T Block−Gru{sup ¨}neisen regime, and for n=10{sup 10}cm{sup −2}, the ratio R{sup PA}/R{sup DA} scales with T{sub BG}{sup DA}/T{sub BG}{sup PA}≈7.5 and R{sup PA}/R{sup DA}>1. In this regime, PA phonon dominates the electron scattering and R{sup PA}/R{sup DA}<1 otherwise. This study is relevant to the exploration of the acoustic properties of graphene and to the application of graphene as an acoustical phonon amplifier and a frequency-tunable acoustical phonon device.

  14. Acoustofluidics and whole-blood manipulation in surface acoustic wave counterflow devices.

    PubMed

    Travagliati, Marco; Shilton, Richie J; Pagliazzi, Marco; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-11-04

    On-chip functional blocks for sample preprocessing are necessary elements for the implementation of fully portable micrototal analysis systems (μTAS). We demonstrate and characterize the microparticle and whole-blood manipulation capabilities of surface acoustic wave (SAW) driven counterflow micropumps. The motion of suspended cells in this system is governed by the two dominant acoustic forces associated with the scattered SAW (of wavelength λf): acoustic-radiation force and acoustic-streaming Stokesian drag force. We show that by reducing the microchannel height (h) beyond a threshold value the balance of these forces is shifted toward the acoustic-radiation force and that this yields control of two different regimes of microparticle dynamics. In the regime dominated by the acoustic radiation force (h ≲ λf), microparticles are collected in the seminodes of the partial standing sound-wave arising from reflections off microchannel walls. This enables the complete separation of plasma and corpuscular components of whole blood in periodical predetermined positions without any prior sample dilution. Conversely, in the regime dominated by acoustic streaming (h ≫ λf), the microbeads follow vortical streamlines in a pattern characterized by three different phases during microchannel filling. This makes it possible to generate a cell-concentration gradient within whole-blood samples, a behavior not previously reported in any acoustic-streaming device. By careful device design, a new class of SAW pumping devices is presented that allows the manipulation and pretreatment of whole-blood samples for portable and integrable biological chips and is compatible with hand-held battery-operated devices.

  15. Acoustic techniques for studying soil-surface seals and crusts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of raindrops on a soil surface during a rainstorm may cause soil-surface sealing and upon drying, soil crusting. Soil-surface sealing is a result of the clogging of interaggregate pores by smaller suspended particles in the water and by structural deformation of the soil fabric, which red...

  16. Frequency effect on streaming phenomenon induced by Rayleigh surface acoustic wave in microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghane, M.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, B. X.; Li, Y.; Desmulliez, M. P. Y.; Walton, A. J.

    2012-10-01

    Acoustic streaming of ink particles inside a water microdroplet generated by a surface acoustic wave (SAW) has been studied numerically using a finite volume numerical method and these results have been verified using experimental measurements. Effects of SAW excitation frequency, droplet volume, and radio-frequency (RF) power are investigated, and it has been shown that SAW excitation frequency influences the SAW attenuation length, lSAW, and hence the acoustic energy absorbed by liquid. It has also been observed that an increase of excitation frequency generally enhances the SAW streaming behavior. However, when the frequency exceeds a critical value that depends on the RF power applied to the SAW device, weaker acoustic streaming is observed resulting in less effective acoustic mixing inside the droplet. This critical value is characterised by a dimensionless ratio of droplet radius to SAW attenuation length, i.e., Rd/lSAW. With a mean value of Rd/lSAW ≈ 1, a fast and efficient mixing can be induced, even at the lowest RF power of 0.05 mW studied in this paper. On the other hand, for the Rd/lSAW ratios much larger than ˜1, significant decreases in streaming velocities were observed, resulting in a transition from regular (strong) to irregular (weak) mixing/flow. This is attributed to an increased absorption rate of acoustic wave energy that leaks into the liquid, resulting in a reduction of the acoustic energy radiated away from the SAW interaction region towards the droplet free surface. It has been demonstrated in this study that a fast and efficient mixing process with a smaller RF power could be achieved if the ratio of Rd/lSAW ≤ 1 in the SAW-droplet based microfluidics.

  17. Finite element analysis of true and pseudo surface acoustic waves in one-dimensional phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Graczykowski, B. Alzina, F.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-14

    In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of surface acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional phononic crystal. Using finite element method eigenfrequency and frequency response studies, we develop two model geometries suitable to distinguish true and pseudo (or leaky) surface acoustic waves and determine their propagation through finite size phononic crystals, respectively. The novelty of the first model comes from the application of a surface-like criterion and, additionally, functional damping domain. Exemplary calculated band diagrams show sorted branches of true and pseudo surface acoustic waves and their quantified surface confinement. The second model gives a complementary study of transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses of Rayleigh surface waves in the case of a phononic crystal with a finite number of periods. Here, we demonstrate that a non-zero transmission within non-radiative band gaps can be carried via leaky modes originating from the coupling of local resonances with propagating waves in the substrate. Finally, we show that the transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses can be effectively optimised by tuning the geometrical properties of a stripe.

  18. Increasing the Sensitivity of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Chemical Sensors and other Chemical Sensing Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    MicroChemLab system consists of a micromachined preconcentrator (PC), a gas chromatography channel (GC), and a quartz surface acoustic wave array detector......preconcentrator while maintaining a comparable thermal conductivity [12]. 13 The gas chromatography channels, shown in Figure 4, consists of

  19. Transporting and manipulating single electrons in surface-acoustic-wave minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Christopher J. B.

    2017-03-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) can produce a moving potential wave that can trap and drag electrons along with it. We review work on using a SAW to create moving quantum dots containing single electrons, with the aims of developing a current standard, emitting single photons, transferring single electrons between static quantum dots, and investigating non-adiabatic effects.

  20. Surface acoustic wave generation and detection using graphene interdigitated transducers on lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Mayorov, A. S.; Hunter, N.; Muchenje, W.; Wood, C. D.; Rosamond, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Cunningham, J. E.

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using graphene as a conductive electrode for the generation and detection of surface acoustic waves at 100 s of MHz on a lithium niobate substrate. The graphene interdigitated transducers (IDTs) show sensitivity to doping and temperature, and the characteristics of the IDTs are discussed in the context of a lossy transmission line model.

  1. Acoustic Receptivity of a Blasius Boundary Layer with 2-D and Oblique Surface Waviness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine acoustic receptivity and subsequent boundary-layer instability evolution for a Blasius boundary layer formed on a flat plate in the presence of two-dimensional (2-D) and oblique (3-D) surface waviness. The effect of the non-localized surface roughness geometry and acoustic wave amplitude on the receptivity process was explored. The surface roughness had a well defined wavenumber spectrum with fundamental wavenumber k (sub w). A planar downstream traveling acoustic wave was created to temporally excite the flow near the resonance frequency of an unstable eigenmode corresponding to k (sub ts) = k (sub w). The range of acoustic forcing levels, epsilon, and roughness heights, DELTA h, examined resulted in a linear dependence of receptivity coefficients; however, the larger values of the forcing combination epsilon dot DELTA h resulted in subsequent nonlinear development of the Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave. This study provided the first experimental evidence of a marked increase in the receptivity coefficient with increasing obliqueness of the surface waviness in excellent agreement with theory. Detuning of the 2-D and oblique disturbances was investigated by varying the streamwise wall-roughness wavenumber a,, and measuring the T-S response. For the configuration where laminar-to-turbulent breakdown occurred, the breakdown process was found to be dominated by energy at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies, indicative of K-type breakdown.

  2. Surface and subsurface sensor performance in acoustically detecting western drywood termites in naturally infested boards.

    Treesearch

    V.R. Lewis; A.B. Power; M.I. Haverty

    2004-01-01

    Field-collected boards showing visual signs of damage by the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor, were searched with a portable acoustic emission (AE) device. Depending on cross-sectional size, boards were either searched with a flat sensor that was hot-melt-glued to the wood surface or a subsurface sensor that wasthreaded 20 mm into the...

  3. An all fiber-optic sensor for surface acoustic wave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, J. E.; Jungerman, R. L.; Khuri-Yakub, B. T.; Kino, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor constructed from single-mode fiber-optic components is described. An analysis of reciprocal and nonreciprocal modes of operation of the sensor is presented. Results from measurements on a variety of SAW devices illustrate the use of the sensor. The amplitude sensitivity is 0.0003 A for an integration time of 0.1 s.

  4. Characterization Test Report for the Mnemonics-UCS Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Joshua J.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this testing includes the Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor System delivered to KSC: two interrogator (transceiver) systems, four temperature sensors, with wooden mounting blocks, two antennas, two power supplies, network cables, and analysis software. Also included are a number of additional temperature sensors and newly-developed hydrogen sensors

  5. An all fiber-optic sensor for surface acoustic wave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, J. E.; Jungerman, R. L.; Khuri-Yakub, B. T.; Kino, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor constructed from single-mode fiber-optic components is described. An analysis of reciprocal and nonreciprocal modes of operation of the sensor is presented. Results from measurements on a variety of SAW devices illustrate the use of the sensor. The amplitude sensitivity is 0.0003 A for an integration time of 0.1 s.

  6. Effect of surface acoustic waves on the catalytic decomposition of ethanol employing a comb transducer for ultrasonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    S. J. Reese; D. H. Hurley; H.W. Rollins

    2006-04-01

    The effect of surface acoustic waves, generated on a silver catalyst using a comb transducer, on the catalytic decomposition of ethanol is examined. The comb transducer employs purely mechanical means for surface acoustic wave (SAW) transduction. Unlike interdigital SAW transducers on piezoelectric substrates, the complicating effects of heat generation due to electromechanical coupling, high electric fields between adjacent electrodes, and acoustoelectric currents are avoided. The ethanol decomposition reactions are carried out at 473 K. The rates of acetaldehyde and ethylene production are retarded when acoustic waves are applied. The rates recover to varying degrees when acoustic excitation ceases.

  7. Quasi-phase matching and quantum control of high harmonic generation in waveguides using counterpropagating beams

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L.; Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2010-11-09

    All-optical quasi-phase matching (QPM) uses a train of counterpropagating pulses to enhance high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a hollow waveguide. A pump pulse enters one end of the waveguide, and causes HHG in the waveguide. The counterpropagation pulses enter the other end of the waveguide and interact with the pump pulses to cause QPM within the waveguide, enhancing the HHG.

  8. Acoustical breakdown of materials by focusing of laser-generated Rayleigh surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysset, David; Maznev, A. A.; Veres, István A.; Pezeril, Thomas; Kooi, Steven E.; Lomonosov, Alexey M.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2017-07-01

    Focusing of high-amplitude surface acoustic waves leading to material damage is visualized in an all-optical experiment. The optical setup includes a lens and an axicon that focuses an intense picosecond excitation pulse into a ring-shaped pattern at the surface of a gold-coated glass substrate. Optical excitation induces a surface acoustic wave (SAW) that propagates in the plane of the sample and converges toward the center. The evolution of the SAW profile is monitored using interferometry with a femtosecond probe pulse at variable time delays. The quantitative analysis of the full-field images provides direct information about the surface displacement profiles, which are compared to calculations. The high stress at the focal point leads to the removal of the gold coating and, at higher excitation energies, to damage of the glass substrate. The results open the prospect for testing material strength on the microscale using laser-generated SAWs.

  9. Wireless surface acoustic wave sensors for displacement and crack monitoring in concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M.; McKeeman, I.; Saafi, M.; Niewczas, P.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that wireless surface acoustic wave devices can be used to monitor millimetre displacements in crack opening during the cyclic and static loading of reinforced concrete structures. Sensors were packaged to extend their gauge length and to protect them against brittle fracture, before being surface-mounted onto the tensioned surface of a concrete beam. The accuracy of measurements was verified using computational methods and optical-fibre strain sensors. After packaging, the displacement and temperature resolutions of the surface acoustic wave sensors were 10 μ {{m}} and 2 °C respectively. With some further work, these devices could be retrofitted to existing concrete structures to facilitate wireless structural health monitoring.

  10. Optical Generation And Spatially Distinct Interferometric Detection Of Ultrahigh Frequency Surface Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Hurley

    2006-05-01

    Generation and interferometric detection of 22 GHz surface acoustic waves (SAWs) using two laterally separated absorption gratings on a Si substrate are presented. Optical phase sensitive detection of SAWs is demonstrated using a modified Sagnac interferometer. The reflection characteristics of the suboptical wavelength grating necessitate the use of only linear polarization. This is accomplished by employing a Faraday rotator to ensure path reversal of the reference and signal pulses. The enhanced sensitivity of the interferometer is exploited to measure the acoustic disturbance on an identical absorption grating at a distance of ~4.5 µm from the generation site.

  11. Acousto-plasmofluidics: Acoustic modulation of surface plasmon resonance in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Daniel; Peng, Xiaolei; Ozcelik, Adem; Zheng, Yuebing; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-09-01

    We acoustically modulated the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of metal nanostructures integrated within microfluidic systems. An acoustically driven micromixing device based on bubble microstreaming quickly and homogeneously mixes multiple laminar flows of different refractive indices. The altered refractive index of the mixed fluids enables rapid modulation of the LSPRs of gold nanodisk arrays embedded within the microfluidic channel. The device features fast response for dynamic operation, and the refractive index within the channel is tailorable. With these unique features, our "acousto-plasmofluidic" device can be useful in applications such as optical switches, modulators, filters, biosensors, and lab-on-a-chip systems.

  12. Integrated microfluidics system using surface acoustic wave and electrowetting on dielectrics technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Fu, Y Q; Brodie, S D; Alghane, M; Walton, A J

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents integrated microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology combining surface acoustic wave (SAW) and electro-wetting on dielectric (EWOD). This combination has been designed to provide enhanced microfluidic functionality and the integrated devices have been fabricated using a single mask lithographic process. The integrated technology uses EWOD to guide and precisely position microdroplets which can then be actuated by SAW devices for particle concentration, acoustic streaming, mixing and ejection, as well as for sensing using a shear-horizontal wave SAW device. A SAW induced force has also been employed to enhance the EWOD droplet splitting function.

  13. Broadband convergence of acoustic energy with binary reflected phases on planar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Yi-Fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2016-12-01

    We propose to produce efficient three-dimensional sound converging in broadband with binary reflected phases on a planar surface with unit cells consisting of only two kinds of elements. The mechanism is experimentally demonstrated by focusing airborne sound and by forming an "acoustic needle," with handmade arrays of commercial test tubes with/without lids. Both the simulated and measured results show the precise control of converging acoustic energy despite misalignment errors obvious even to naked eyes. Our approach with extreme simplicity yet good robustness may apply in various scenarios that conventionally need complicated elements and continuous variation of parameters for focusing sound.

  14. Acoustical imaging of spheres above a reflecting surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, David; Berryman, James

    2003-04-01

    An analytical study using the MUSIC method of subspace imaging is presented for the case of spheres above a reflecting boundary. The field scattered from the spheres and the reflecting boundary is calculated analytically, neglecting interactions between spheres. The singular value decomposition of the response matrix is calculated and the singular vectors divided into signal and noise subspaces. Images showing the estimated sphere locations are obtained by backpropagating the noise vectors using either the free space Green's function or the Green's function that incorporates reflections from the boundary. We show that the latter Green's function improves imaging performance after applying a normalization that compensates for the interference between direct and reflected fields. We also show that the best images are attained in some cases when the number of singular vectors in the signal subspace exceeds the number of spheres. This is consistent with previous analysis showing multiple eigenvalues of the time reversal operator for spherical scatterers [Chambers and Gautesen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109 (2001)]. [Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  15. Counterpropagation fuzzy-neural network for city flood control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Kai-Yao; Chang, Li-Chiu

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThe counterpropagation fuzzy-neural network (CFNN) can effectively solve highly non-linear control problems and robustly tune the complicated conversion of human intelligence to logical operating system. We propose the CFNN for extracting flood control knowledge in the form of fuzzy if-then rules to simulate a human-like operating strategy in a city flood control system through storm events. The Yu-Cheng pumping station, Taipei City, is used as a case study, where storm and operating records are used to train and verify the model's performance. Historical records contain information of rainfall amounts, inner water levels, and pump and gate operating records in torrential rain events. Input information can be classified according to its similarity and mapped into the hidden layer to form precedent if-then rules, while the output layer gradually adjusts the linked weights to obtain the optimal operating result. A model with increasing historical data can automatically increase rules and thus enhance its predicting ability. The results indicate the network has a simple basic structure with efficient learning ability to construct a human-like operating strategy and has the potential ability to automatically operating the flood control system.

  16. Controlled rotation and translation of spherical particles or living cells by surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ianis; Doinikov, Alexander A; Marmottant, Philippe; Rabaud, David; Poulain, Cédric; Thibault, Pierre

    2017-07-11

    We show experimental evidence of the acoustically-assisted micromanipulation of small objects like solid particles or blood cells, combining rotation and translation, using high frequency surface acoustic waves. This was obtained from the leakage in a microfluidic channel of two standing waves arranged perpendicularly in a LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate working at 36.3 MHz. By controlling the phase lag between the emitters, we could, in addition to translation, generate a swirling motion of the emitting surface which, in turn, led to the rapid rotation of spherical polystyrene Janus beads suspended in the channel and of human red and white blood cells up to several rounds per second. We show that these revolution velocities are compatible with a torque caused by the acoustic streaming that develops at the particles surface, like that first described by [F. Busse et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1981, 69(6), 1634-1638]. This device, based on standard interdigitated transducers (IDTs) adjusted to emit at equal frequencies, opens a way to a large range of applications since it allows the simultaneous control of the translation and rotation of hard objects, as well as the investigation of the response of cells to shear stress.

  17. On the Acoustic Absorption of Porous Materials with Different Surface Shapes and Perforated Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, WEN-HWA; LEE, FAN-CHING; CHIANG, DAR-MING

    2000-10-01

    In architectural acoustic design, perforated plates are often used to protect porous materials from erosion. Although porous materials are usually applied to passive noise control, the effects of their surface shapes are seldom studied. To study the acoustic absorption of porous materials with different surface shapes and perforated plates, an efficient finite element procedure, which is derived by the Galerkin residual method and Helmholtz wave propagation equation, is used in this work. The two-microphone transfer function method and the modified Ingard and Dear impedance tube testing system are employed to measure the parameters deemed necessary for the finite element analysis, such as complex wave propagation constant, characteristic impedance and flow resistivity. For verifying the finite element results, the two-microphone transfer function method is also applied to measure the absorption coefficients of the discussed acoustic absorbers. Four surface shapes of commercially available porous materials, i.e., triangle, semicircle, convex rectangle and plate shapes, are chosen for analysis. The porosity of perforated plates is then evaluated. Finally, the distinct effect of the flow resistivity of porous materials on the acoustic absorption is demonstrated.

  18. Surface Generated Acoustic Wave Biosensors for the Detection of Pathogens: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Gaso, María-Isabel; March-Iborra, Carmen; Montoya-Baides, Ángel; Arnau-Vives, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This review presents a deep insight into the Surface Generated Acoustic Wave (SGAW) technology for biosensing applications, based on more than 40 years of technological and scientific developments. In the last 20 years, SGAWs have been attracting the attention of the biochemical scientific community, due to the fact that some of these devices - Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave (SH-SAW), Surface Transverse Wave (STW), Love Wave (LW), Flexural Plate Wave (FPW), Shear Horizontal Acoustic Plate Mode (SH-APM) and Layered Guided Acoustic Plate Mode (LG-APM) - have demonstrated a high sensitivity in the detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media. In addition, complementary efforts to improve the sensing films have been done during these years. All these developments have been made with the aim of achieving, in a future, a highly sensitive, low cost, small size, multi-channel, portable, reliable and commercially established SGAW biosensor. A setup with these features could significantly contribute to future developments in the health, food and environmental industries. The second purpose of this work is to describe the state-of-the-art of SGAW biosensors for the detection of pathogens, being this topic an issue of extremely importance for the human health. Finally, the review discuses the commercial availability, trends and future challenges of the SGAW biosensors for such applications. PMID:22346725

  19. Interaction of surface and bulk acoustic waves with a two-dimensional semimetal

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, V. M. Chaplik, A. V.

    2015-02-15

    The interaction of a surface elastic Rayleigh wave with an electron-hole plasma in a two-dimensional semimetal has been theoretically studied as determined by the deformation potential and piezoelectric mechanisms. Dispersion equations describing the coupled plasmon-acoustic modes for both types of interaction are derived, and damping of the Rayleigh wave is calculated. The damping of the acoustic and optical plasmon modes, which is related to the sound emission by plasma oscillations into the substrate volume, is calculated and it is shown that this sound emission is predominantly determined by the acoustic plasmon mode in the case of a deformation potential mechanism and by the optical mode in the case of a piezoelectric mechanism.

  20. Surface acoustic admittance and absorption of highly porous, layered, fibrous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesar, J. S.; Lambert, R. F.

    1984-06-01

    Some acoustic properties of Kevlar-29 - a fine fibered, layered material is investigated. Kevlar is characterized by very high strength, uniform filaments arranged in a parallel batt where most filaments are random in the x-y plane but ordered as planes in the z direction. For experimental purposes, volume porosity, static flow resistance and mean filament diameter are used to identify the material. To determine the acoustic surface admittance of Kevlar, batts of the material are cut into small pads and placed into a standing wave tube terminated by a rigid brass plug. The attenuation and relative phase shift are recorded at each frequency in the range of 50 to 6000 Hz. Normalized conductance and susceptance are combined to form the acoustic absorption coefficient. The data are compared with theory by plotting the normalized admittance and normal incident absorption coefficient versus cyclic frequency.

  1. Surface acoustic admittance and absorption of highly porous, layered, fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, J. S.; Lambert, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some acoustic properties of Kevlar-29 - a fine fibered, layered material is investigated. Kevlar is characterized by very high strength, uniform filaments arranged in a parallel batt where most filaments are random in the x-y plane but ordered as planes in the z direction. For experimental purposes, volume porosity, static flow resistance and mean filament diameter are used to identify the material. To determine the acoustic surface admittance of Kevlar, batts of the material are cut into small pads and placed into a standing wave tube terminated by a rigid brass plug. The attenuation and relative phase shift are recorded at each frequency in the range of 50 to 6000 Hz. Normalized conductance and susceptance are combined to form the acoustic absorption coefficient. The data are compared with theory by plotting the normalized admittance and normal incident absorption coefficient versus cyclic frequency.

  2. Computation of acoustic absorption in media composed of packed microtubes exhibiting surface irregularity.

    PubMed

    Kulpe, Jason A; Lee, Chang-Yong; Leamy, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    A multi-scale homogenization technique and a finite element-based solution procedure are employed to compute acoustic absorption in smooth and rough packed microtubes. The absorption considered arises from thermo-viscous interactions between the fluid media and the microtube walls. The homogenization technique requires geometric periodicity, which for smooth tubes is invoked using the periodicity of the finite element mesh; for rough microtubes, the periodicity invoked is that associated with the roughness. Analysis of the packed configurations, for the specific microtube radii considered, demonstrates that surface roughness does not appreciably increase the overall absorption, but instead shifts the peaks and values of the absorption curve. Additionally, the effect of the fluid media temperature on acoustic absorption is also explored. The results of the investigation are used to make conclusions about tailored design of acoustically absorbing microtube-based materials.

  3. Direct visualization of surface acoustic waves along substrates using smoke particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ming K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2007-11-01

    Smoke particles (SPs) are used to directly visualize surface acoustic waves (SAWs) propagating on a 128°-rotated Y-cut X-propagating lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. By electrically exciting a SAW device in a compartment filled with SP, the SP were found to collect along the regions where the SAW propagates on the substrate. The results of the experiments show that SPs are deposited adjacent to regions of large vibration amplitude and form a clear pattern corresponding to the surface wave profile on the substrate. Through an analysis of the SAW-induced acoustic streaming in the air adjacent to the substrate and the surface acceleration measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer, we postulate that the large transverse surface accelerations due to the SAW ejects SP from the surface and carries them aloft to relatively quiescent regions nearby via acoustic streaming. Offering finer detail than fine powders common in Chladni figures [E. Chladni, Entdeckungen über die Theorie des Klanges (Weidmanns, Erben und Reich, Leipzig, Germany, 1787)] the approach is an inexpensive and a quick counterpart to laser interferometric techniques, presenting a means to explore the controversial phenomena of particle agglomeration on surfaces.

  4. A high-throughput standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell sorter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Mao, Zhangming; Huang, Po-Hsun; Rufo, Joseph; Guo, Feng; Wang, Lin; McCoy, J. Philip; Levine, Stewart J.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic-based fluorescence activated cell sorters (FACS) have drawn increased attention in recent years due to their versatility, high biocompatibility, high controllability, and simple design. However, the sorting throughput for existing acoustic cell sorters is far from optimum for practical applications. Here we report a high-throughput cell sorting method based on standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs). We utilized a pair of focused interdigital transducers (FIDTs) to generate SSAW with high resolution and high energy efficiency. As a result, the sorting throughput is improved significantly from conventional acoustic-based cell sorting methods. We demonstrated the successful sorting of 10 μm polystyrene particles with a minimum actuation time of 72 μs, which translates to a potential sorting rate of more than 13,800 events/s. Without using a cell-detection unit, we were able to demonstrate an actual sorting throughput of 3,300 events/s. Our sorting method can be conveniently integrated with upstream detection units, and it represents an important development towards a functional acoustic-based FACS system. PMID:26289231

  5. Control of single photon emitters in semiconductor nanowires by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazić, S.; Hernández-Mínguez, A.; Santos, P. V.

    2017-08-01

    We report on an experimental study into the effects of surface acoustic waves on the optical emission of dot-in-a-nanowire heterostructures in III-V material systems. Under direct optical excitation, the excitonic energy levels in III-nitride dot-in-a-nanowire heterostructures oscillate at the acoustic frequency, producing a characteristic splitting of the emission lines in the time-integrated photoluminescence spectra. This acoustically induced periodic tuning of the excitonic transition energies is combined with spectral detection filtering and employed as a tool to regulate the temporal output of anti-bunched photons emitted from these nanowire quantum dots. In addition, the acoustic transport of electrons and holes along a III-arsenide nanowire injects the electric charges into an ensemble of quantum dot-like recombination centers that are spatially separated from the optical excitation area. The acoustic population and depopulation mechanism determines the number of carrier recombination events taking place simultaneously in the ensemble, thus allowing control of the anti-bunching degree of the emitted photons. The results presented are relevant for the dynamic control of single photon emission in III-V semiconductor heterostructures.

  6. Virtual membrane for filtration of particles using surface acoustic waves (SAW).

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Armaghan; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Collins, David J; Ai, Ye; Neild, Adrian

    2016-09-21

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) based particle manipulation is contactless, versatile, non-invasive and biocompatible making it useful for biological studies and diagnostic technologies. In this work, we present a sensitive particle sorting system, termed the virtual membrane, in which a periodic acoustic field with a wavelength on the order of particle dimensions permits size-selective filtration. Polystyrene particles that are larger than approximately 0.3 times the acoustic half-wavelength experience a force repelling them from the acoustic field. If the particle size is such that, at a given acoustic power and flow velocity, this repulsive force is dominant over the drag force, these particles will be prohibited from progressing further downstream (i.e. filtered), while smaller particles will be able to pass through the force field along the pressure nodes (akin to a filter's pores). Using this mechanism, we demonstrate high size selectivity using a standing SAW generated by opposing sets of focused interdigital transducers (FIDTs). The use of FIDTs permits the generation of a highly localized standing wave field, here used for filtration in μl min(-1) order flow rates at 10s of mW of applied power. Specifically, we demonstrate the filtration of 8 μm particles from 5 μm particles and 10.36 μm particles from 7.0 μm and 5.0 μm particles, using high frequency SAW at 258 MHz, 192.5 MHz, and 129.5 MHz, respectively.

  7. Acoustic Measurement of Surface Wave Damping by a Meniscus.

    PubMed

    Michel, Guillaume; Pétrélis, François; Fauve, Stéphan

    2016-04-29

    We investigate the reflection of gravity-capillary surface waves by a plane vertical barrier. The size of the meniscus is found to strongly affect reflection: the energy of the reflected wave with a pinned contact line is around twice the one corresponding to a fully developed meniscus. To perform these measurements, a new experimental setup similar to an acousto-optic modulator is developed and offers a simple way to measure the amplitude, frequency and direction of propagation of surface waves.

  8. Investigation of acoustic emission and surface treatment to improve tool materials and metal forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Deming

    Silicon nitride and WC-Co cermet tools are used for metal forming processes including extrusion and drawing. These materials are used to make tool dies which are exposed to deformation caused by friction and wear. Surface treatments such as ion implantation, laser blazing and coating have been found to improve surface properties, to optimize tribological behavior between the metal and die, as well as to extend service life of the tool dies. Early detection and continuous monitoring processes by non destructive testing (NDT) methods are needed in order to ensure the functionality of the wear process and extend the tool service life. Acoustic emission is one of the promising NDT methods for this application. The surface treatment chosen for this investigation was ion implantation. Three types of wear resistant materials with and without surface treatment were selected for this project; silicon nitride and two tungsten carbides (6% Cobalt and 10% Cobalt). This investigation was conducted using a pin-on-disk device for wear/friction tests of the selected materials with lubrication and/or without lubrication against both a stainless steel disk and an aluminum disk. The acoustic emissions generated during the experiments were recorded and analyzed. The results of this investigation showed that the ion implantation improved the tribological properties of the materials and reduced acoustic emission and coefficient of friction. A linear relationship between the average amplitude of the acoustic emission and the coefficient of friction of the tested materials was found. The investigation demonstrated that the acoustic emission method could be used to monitor the wear/friction processes.

  9. Excitation and propagation of shear-horizontal-type surface and bulk acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K Y; Yamaguchi, M

    2001-09-01

    This paper reviews the basic properties of shear-horizontal (SH)-type surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and bulk acoustic waves (BAWs). As one of the simplest cases, the structure supporting Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu waves is considered, and their excitation and propagation are discussed from various view points. First, the formalism based on the complex integral theory is presented, where the surface is assumed to be covered with an infinitesimally thin metallic film, and it is shown how the excitation and propagation of SH-type waves are affected by the surface perturbation. Then, the analysis is extended to a periodic grating structure, and the behavior of SH-type SAWs under the grating structure is discussed. Finally, the origin of the leaky nature is explained.

  10. Laser photoacoustic technique for ultrasonic surface acoustic wave velocity evaluation on porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, K.; Tu, S. J.; Gao, L.; Xu, J.; Li, S. D.; Yu, W. C.; Liao, H. H.

    2016-10-01

    A laser photoacoustic technique has been developed to evaluate the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity of porcelain. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm was focused by a cylindrical lens to initiate broadband SAW impulses, which were detected by an optical fiber interferometer with high spatial resolution. Multiple near-field surface acoustic waves were observed on the sample surface at various locations along the axis perpendicular to the laser line source as the detector moved away from the source in the same increments. The frequency spectrum and dispersion curves were obtained by operating on the recorded waveforms with cross-correlation and FFT. The SAW phase velocities of the porcelain of the same source are similar while they are different from those of different sources. The marked differences of Rayleigh phase velocities in our experiment suggest that this technique has the potential for porcelain identification.

  11. Imaging of transient surface acoustic waves by full-field photorefractive interferometry.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jichuan; Xu, Xiaodong; Glorieux, Christ; Matsuda, Osamu; Cheng, Liping

    2015-05-01

    A stroboscopic full-field imaging technique based on photorefractive interferometry for the visualization of rapidly changing surface displacement fields by using of a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is presented. The photorefractive buildup of the space charge field during and after probe laser pulses is simulated numerically. The resulting anisotropic diffraction upon the refractive index grating and the interference between the polarization-rotated diffracted reference beam and the transmitted signal beam are modeled theoretically. The method is experimentally demonstrated by full-field imaging of the propagation of photoacoustically generated surface acoustic waves with a temporal resolution of nanoseconds. The surface acoustic wave propagation in a 23 mm × 17 mm area on an aluminum plate was visualized with 520 × 696 pixels of the CCD sensor, yielding a spatial resolution of 33 μm. The short pulse duration (8 ns) of the probe laser yields the capability of imaging SAWs with frequencies up to 60 MHz.

  12. Imaging of transient surface acoustic waves by full-field photorefractive interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jichuan; Xu, Xiaodong; Glorieux, Christ; Matsuda, Osamu; Cheng, Liping

    2015-05-01

    A stroboscopic full-field imaging technique based on photorefractive interferometry for the visualization of rapidly changing surface displacement fields by using of a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is presented. The photorefractive buildup of the space charge field during and after probe laser pulses is simulated numerically. The resulting anisotropic diffraction upon the refractive index grating and the interference between the polarization-rotated diffracted reference beam and the transmitted signal beam are modeled theoretically. The method is experimentally demonstrated by full-field imaging of the propagation of photoacoustically generated surface acoustic waves with a temporal resolution of nanoseconds. The surface acoustic wave propagation in a 23 mm × 17 mm area on an aluminum plate was visualized with 520 × 696 pixels of the CCD sensor, yielding a spatial resolution of 33 μm. The short pulse duration (8 ns) of the probe laser yields the capability of imaging SAWs with frequencies up to 60 MHz.

  13. Imaging of transient surface acoustic waves by full-field photorefractive interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Jichuan; Xu, Xiaodong E-mail: christ.glorieux@fys.kuleuven.be; Glorieux, Christ E-mail: christ.glorieux@fys.kuleuven.be; Matsuda, Osamu; Cheng, Liping

    2015-05-15

    A stroboscopic full-field imaging technique based on photorefractive interferometry for the visualization of rapidly changing surface displacement fields by using of a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is presented. The photorefractive buildup of the space charge field during and after probe laser pulses is simulated numerically. The resulting anisotropic diffraction upon the refractive index grating and the interference between the polarization-rotated diffracted reference beam and the transmitted signal beam are modeled theoretically. The method is experimentally demonstrated by full-field imaging of the propagation of photoacoustically generated surface acoustic waves with a temporal resolution of nanoseconds. The surface acoustic wave propagation in a 23 mm × 17 mm area on an aluminum plate was visualized with 520 × 696 pixels of the CCD sensor, yielding a spatial resolution of 33 μm. The short pulse duration (8 ns) of the probe laser yields the capability of imaging SAWs with frequencies up to 60 MHz.

  14. Monitoring of Surface Grinding process using Acoustic Emission (AE) with emphasis on Cutting Fluid selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisal, Tejas V.

    Correct selection of cutting fluid is an important step in all machining operations. In this study, experiments were designed and conducted on AISI 52100 steel to determine the effects of using different cutting fluids in Surface Grinding. The grinding parameters varied were wheel speed, feed, depth of cut and type of cutting fluid. The grinding responses studied here were Acoustic Emission (AE) Signals, Normal and Tangential Forces on the workpiece surface, Grinding Temperature and Surface Roughness. Potential of Acoustic Emission technique as a tool to provide efficient real-time knowledge and monitoring of the grinding process, is tested in this research. AERMS values were used to analyses the process characteristics. This paper proposes four different statistical models for predicting Grinding Temperature, Force, Acoustic Emission (AERMS) and Roughness, based on grinding parameters. This research concludes that the selection of Cutting Fluids influence the Surface finish, AE signals, Temperature and grinding Forces measured. Further, prediction of surface roughness during the grinding process using AE signal monitoring is demonstrated in this work.

  15. Low-coherence terahertz tomography based on spatially separated counterpropagating beams with allowance for probe radiation absorption in the medium

    SciTech Connect

    Mandrosov, V I

    2015-10-31

    This paper analyses low-coherence tomography of absorbing media with the use of spatially separated counterpropagating object and reference beams. A probe radiation source based on a broadband terahertz (THz) generator that emits sufficiently intense THz waves in the spectral range 90 – 350 μm and a prism spectroscope that separates out eight narrow intervals from this range are proposed for implementing this method. This allows media of interest to be examined by low-coherence tomography with counterpropagating beams in each interval. It is shown that, according to the Rayleigh criterion, the method is capable of resolving inhomogeneities with a size near one quarter of the coherence length of the probe radiation. In addition, the proposed tomograph configuration allows one to determine the average surface asperity slope and the refractive index and absorption coefficient of inhomogeneities 180 to 700 mm in size, and obtain spectra of such inhomogeneities in order to determine their chemical composition. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Surface acoustical intensity measurements on a diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.; Crocker, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of surface intensity measurements as an alternative to the conventional selective wrapping technique of noise source identification and ranking on diesel engines was investigated. A six cylinder, in line turbocharged, 350 horsepower diesel engine was used. Sound power was measured under anechoic conditions for eight separate parts of the engine at steady state operating conditions using the conventional technique. Sound power measurements were repeated on five separate parts of the engine using the surface intensity at the same steady state operating conditions. The results were compared by plotting sound power level against frequency and noise source rankings for the two methods.

  17. Observations of Brine Pool Surface Characteristics and Internal Structure Through Remote Acoustic and Structured Light Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, C.; Roman, C.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the surface characteristics and internal structure of deep-sea brine pools are currently limited to discrete in-situ observations. Complementary acoustic and structured light imaging sensors mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) have demonstrated the ability systematically detect variations in surface characteristics of a brine pool, reveal internal stratification and detect areas of active hydrocarbon activity. The presented visual and acoustic sensors combined with a stereo camera pair are mounted on the 4000m rated ROV Hercules (Ocean Exploration Trust). These three independent sensors operate simultaneously from a typical 3m altitude resulting in visual and bathymetric maps with sub-centimeter resolution. Applying this imaging technology to 2014 and 2015 brine pool surveys in the Gulf of Mexico revealed acoustic and visual anomalies due to the density changes inherent in the brine. Such distinct changes in acoustic impedance allowed the high frequency 1350KHz multibeam sonar to detect multiple interfaces. For instance, distinct acoustic reflections were observed at 3m and 5.5m below the vehicle. Subsequent verification using a CDT and lead line indicated the acoustic return from the brine surface was the signal at 3m, while a thicker muddy and more saline interface occurred at 5.5m, the bottom of the brine pool was not located but is assumed to be deeper than 15m. The multibeam is also capable of remotely detecting emitted gas bubbles within the brine pool, indicative of active hydrocarbon seeps. Bubbles associated with these seeps were not consistently visible above the brine while using the HD camera on the ROV. Additionally, while imaging the surface of brine pool the structured light sheet laser became diffuse, refracting across the main interface. Analysis of this refraction combined with varying acoustic returns allow for systematic and remote detection of the density, stratification and activity levels within and

  18. Separation of Escherichia coli bacteria from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using standing surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ye; Sanders, Claire K; Marrone, Babetta L

    2013-10-01

    A microfluidic device was developed to separate heterogeneous particle or cell mixtures in a continuous flow using acoustophoresis. In this device, two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated by interdigital transducers (IDTs) propagated toward a microchannel, which accordingly built up a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) field across the channel. A numerical model, coupling a piezoelectric effect in the solid substrate and acoustic pressure in the fluid, was developed to provide a better understanding of SSAW-based particle manipulation. It was found that the pressure nodes across the channel were individual planes perpendicular to the solid substrate. In the separation experiments, two side sheath flows hydrodynamically focused the injected particle or cell mixtures into a very narrow stream along the centerline. Particles flowing through the SSAW field experienced an acoustic radiation force that highly depends on the particle properties. As a result, dissimilar particles or cells were laterally attracted toward the pressure nodes at different magnitudes, and were eventually switched to different outlets. Two types of fluorescent microspheres with different sizes were successfully separated using the developed device. In addition, Escherichia coli bacteria premixed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also efficiently isolated using the SSAW-base separation technique. Flow cytometric analysis on the collected samples found that the purity of separated E. coli bacteria was 95.65%.

  19. The Effects of Surfaces on the Aerodynamics and Acoustics of Jet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew J.; Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft noise mitigation is an ongoing challenge for the aeronautics research community. In response to this challenge, low-noise aircraft concepts have been developed that exhibit situations where the jet exhaust interacts with an airframe surface. Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces manifest a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. In this paper, the variation of the aerodynamics, acoustic source, and far-field acoustic intensity are examined as a large at plate is positioned relative to the nozzle exit. Steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions are examined to study the aerodynamic changes in the field-variables and turbulence statistics. The mixing noise model of Tam and Auriault is used to predict the noise produced by the jet. To validate both the aerodynamic and the noise prediction models, results are compared with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and free-field acoustic data respectively. The variation of the aerodynamic quantities and noise source are examined by comparing predictions from various jet and at plate configurations with an isolated jet. To quantify the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects on the aerodynamic noise source, a non-dimensional number is formed that contains the flow-conditions and airframe installation parameters.

  20. Acoustic containerless experiment system: A non-contact surface tension measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G.; Barmatz, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Acoustic Containerless Experiment System (ACES) was flown on STS 41-B in February 1984 and was scheduled to be reflown in 1986. The primary experiment that was to be conducted with the ACES module was the containerless melting and processing of a fluoride glass sample. A second experiment that was to be conducted was the verification of a non-contact surface tension measurement technique using the molten glass sample. The ACES module consisted of a three-axis acoustic positioning module that was inside an electric furnace capable of heating the system above the melting temperature of the sample. The acoustic module is able to hold the sample with acoustic forces in the center of the chamber and, in addition, has the capability of applying a modulating force on the sample along one axis of the chamber so that the molten sample or liquid drop could be driven into one of its normal oscillation modes. The acoustic module could also be adjusted so that it could place a torque on the molten drop and cause the drop to rotate. In the ACES, a modulating frequency was applied to the drop and swept through a range of frequencies that would include the n = 2 mode. A maximum amplitude of the drop oscillation would indicate when resonance was reached and from that data the surface tension could be calculated. For large viscosity samples, a second technique for measuring surface tension was developed. The results of the ACES experiment and some of the problems encountered during the actual flight of the experiment will be discussed.

  1. On the formation of nanostructures on a CdTe surface, stimulated by surface acoustic waves under nanosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasenko, A. I.; Baidullaeva, A.; Veleschuk, V. P. Mozol, P. E.; Boiko, N. I.; Litvin, O. S.

    2015-02-15

    The formation of nanoscale structures in the unirradiated part of a p-CdTe crystal surface irradiated by a nanosecond ruby laser is revealed and investigated. It is shown that their formation is caused by the effect of the long-range action of a laser pulse with an intensity of I = 20 MW/cm{sup 2}. Nanoscale-structure formation is explained by the influence of the pressure gradient of the surface acoustic wave, in particular, within the “vacancy-pump” mechanism on the surface.

  2. Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage: Role of acoustic boundary conditions at the pleural surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, William D.; Kramer, Jeffrey M.; Waldrop, Tony G.; Frizzell, Leon A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; Zachary, James F.

    2002-02-01

    In a previous study [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1290 (2000)] the acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung was evaluated as a possible explanation for the enhanced lung damage with increased hydrostatic pressure, but the hydrostatic-pressure-dependent impedance difference alone could not explain the enhanced occurrence of hemorrhage. In that study, it was hypothesized that the animal's breathing pattern might be altered as a function of hydrostatic pressure, which in turn might affect the volume of air inspired and expired. The acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung would be affected with altered lung inflation, thus altering the acoustic boundary conditions. In this study, 12 rats were exposed to 3 volumes of lung inflation (inflated: approximately tidal volume; half-deflated: half-tidal volume; deflated: lung volume at functional residual capacity), 6 rats at 8.6-MPa in situ peak rarefactional pressure (MI of 3.1) and 6 rats at 16-MPa in situ peak rarefactional pressure (MI of 5.8). Respiration was chemically inhibited and a ventilator was used to control lung volume and respiratory frequency. Superthreshold ultrasound exposures of the lungs were used (3.1-MHz, 1000-Hz PRF, 1.3-μs pulse duration, 10-s exposure duration) to produce lesions. Deflated lungs were more easily damaged than half-deflated lungs, and half-deflated lungs were more easily damaged than inflated lungs. In fact, there were no lesions observed in inflated lungs in any of the rats. The acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung is much less for the deflated lung condition, suggesting that the extent of lung damage is related to the amount of acoustic energy that is propagated across the pleural surface boundary.

  3. Stimulated Optomechanical Excitation of Surface Acoustic Waves in a Microdevice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-26

    tunable Fabry - Perot spectrum analyser (Fig. 3, top). We confirm that no optical lines other than the stimulated Stokes line exist in our system by using a...applications in surface-wave sensors and in oscillators. Results Modelling of optical and mechanical modes. We calculate a reso- nant trio (Fig. 1d...Carmon, T., Rokhsari, H., Yang, L., Kippenberg, T. & Vahala, K. Temporal behavior of radiation- pressure -induced vibrations of an optical microcavity

  4. Monolithic Thin Film SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    storage " regions. The device is simple to fabricate, requiring neither pn or Schottky diode * arrays for -ignal storage. The memory function is...and is close to the value for LiNbOj Several convolvers and diode storage correlators which exploit the banidwidth advantage of the Sezawa mode have...fLUILcti of the properties~ of the interface. Surface state storage was subscquenitly replaced by more easily controlled and repeatable diode storage

  5. Vapor sensing by means of a ZnO-on-Si surface acoustic wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. J.; Schweizer, K. S.; Schwartz, S. S.; Gunshor, R. L.

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices can function as sensitive detectors of vapors. The high surface acoustic energy density of the device makes it extremely sensitive to the presence of molecules adsorbed from the gas phase. Mass loading by the adsorbate is the primary mechanism for the surface wave velocity perturbation. If the device is used as the frequency control element of an oscillator, perturbations in wave velocity on the order of 10 parts per billion may be resolved by means of a frequency counter. Zno-on-Si SAW resonators have been examined as vapor sensors. The piezoelectric ZnO layer permits transduction between electrical and acoustic energies, as well as endowing the surface with particular adsorptive properties. These devices exhibit C-values up to 12,000 at a resonant frequency of 109 MHZ. The resonant frequency of the device shifts upon exposure to a vapor-air mixture, with a transient response which is distinct for each of the organic vapors tested. Due to the permeability of the polycrystalline ZnO layer, the instantaneous reversibility of the resonant frequency shift is found to depend on the type of adsorbed molecule.

  6. Tunable far-field acoustic imaging by two-dimensional sonic crystal with concave incident surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Feng-Fu; Lu, Dan-Feng; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ji, Chang-Ying; Shi, Qing-Fan

    2017-01-01

    An additional concave incident surface comprised of two-dimensional (2D) sonic crystals (SCs) is employed to tune the acoustic image in the far-field region. The tunability is realized through changing the curvature of the concave surface. To explain the tuning mechanism, a simple ray-trace analysis is demonstrated based on the wave-beam negative refractive law. Then, a numerical confirmation is carried out. Results show that both the position and the intensity of the image can be tuned by the introduced concave surface.

  7. Enhanced sensitive love wave surface acoustic wave sensor designed for immunoassay formats.

    PubMed

    Puiu, Mihaela; Gurban, Ana-Maria; Rotariu, Lucian; Brajnicov, Simona; Viespe, Cristian; Bala, Camelia

    2015-05-05

    We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW) immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporated in portable devices, suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications.

  8. Observation of Surface Andreev Bound States of Superfluid {sup 3}He by Transverse Acoustic Impedance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Y.; Wada, Y.; Saitoh, M.; Nomura, R.; Okuda, Y.; Nagato, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Higashitani, S.; Nagai, K.

    2005-08-12

    Complex transverse acoustic impedance of the superfluid {sup 3}He-B was measured at the frequencies of 10 to 80 MHz at 17.0 bar by a cw bridge method. The observed temperature dependence was well explained by the quasiclassical theory with random S-matrix model for a diffusive surface. The temperature dependence was influenced by pair breaking and by quasiparticle density of states at the surface, which was drastically modified from the bulk one by the presence of surface Andreev bound states.

  9. Reflection of an acoustic line source by an impedance surface with uniform flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambley, E. J.; Gabard, G.

    2014-10-01

    An exact analytic solution is derived for the 2D acoustic pressure field generated by a time-harmonic line mass source located above an impedance surface with uniform grazing flow. Closed-form asymptotic solutions in the far field are also provided. The analysis is valid for both locally-reacting and nonlocally-reacting impedances, as is demonstrated by analyzing a nonlocally reacting effective impedance representing the presence of a thin boundary layer over the surface. The analytic solution may be written in a form suggesting a generalization of the method of images to account for the impedance surface. The line source is found to excite surface waves on the impedance surface, some of which may be leaky waves which contradict the assumption of decay away from the surface predicted in previous analyses of surface waves with flow. The surface waves may be treated either (correctly) as unstable waves or (artificially) as stable waves, enabling comparison with previous numerical or mathematical studies which make either of these assumptions. The computer code for evaluating the analytic solution and far-field asymptotics is provided in the supplementary material. It is hoped this work will provide a useful benchmark solution for validating 2D numerical acoustic codes.

  10. An airborne acoustic method to reconstruct a dynamically rough flow surface.

    PubMed

    Krynkin, Anton; Horoshenkov, Kirill V; Van Renterghem, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there is no airborne in situ method to reconstruct with high fidelity the instantaneous elevation of a dynamically rough surface of a turbulent flow. This work proposes a holographic method that reconstructs the elevation of a one-dimensional rough water surface from airborne acoustic pressure data. This method can be implemented practically using an array of microphones deployed over a dynamically rough surface or using a single microphone which is traversed above the surface at a speed that is much higher than the phase velocity of the roughness pattern. In this work, the theory is validated using synthetic data calculated with the Kirchhoff approximation and a finite difference time domain method over a number of measured surface roughness patterns. The proposed method is able to reconstruct the surface elevation with a sub-millimeter accuracy and over a representatively large area of the surface. Since it has been previously shown that the surface roughness pattern reflects accurately the underlying hydraulic processes in open channel flow [e.g., Horoshenkov, Nichols, Tait, and Maximov, J. Geophys. Res. 118(3), 1864-1876 (2013)], the proposed method paves the way for the development of non-invasive instrumentation for flow mapping and characterization that are based on the acoustic holography principle.

  11. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices as Chemical Vapor Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposited Surfaces,” Advanced Materials, 2006. 45. S . C. Huang, K. D. Caldwell , J. N. Lin, H . K. Wang, and J. N. Herron...exposure, 45 s develop, titanium. 59 Figure 4.4: SEM image of one of the devices from Series 3. 4.2 Testing AFRL- Designed SAW Devices Through...Approach for the Detection of Explosives,” Jour- nal of Hazardous Materials,, vol. 144, pp. 15–28, June 2007. 4. M. H . Ervin, S . J. Kilpatrick, C

  12. Low-loss unidirectional transducer for high frequency surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, S. V.; Martin, G.; Schmidt, H.; Wall, B.

    2011-10-01

    A multi-track unidirectional transducer for surface acoustic wave devices is presented. This transducer consists of periodic cells containing in each of the multiple tracks, only two electrodes and two gaps with quarter period width. So the structure has maximal possible dimensions of its elements for a cell period equal to one wavelength. In spite of current technological limitations this permits to implement unidirectional transducers in GHz range. In contrast to known structures with active tracks only, the structure contains alternating both active transducer tracks and passive reflector tracks with different apertures comparable to surface acoustic wave (SAW) wavelength. The tracks strongly interact due to diffraction of waves excited by such electrode structure on a piezoelectric substrate. A structure analysis by means of finite element method shows that complete unidirectionality can be reached. First experimental results are given.

  13. A Comparison of Measured and Predicted XV-15 Tiltrotor Surface Acoustic Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Burley, Casey L.; Prichard, Devon S.

    1997-01-01

    Predicted XV-15 exterior surface acoustic pressures are compared with previously published experimental data. Surface acoustic pressure transducers were concentrated near the tip-path-plane of the rotor in airplane mode. The comparison emphasized cruise conditions which are of interest for tiltrotor interior noise - level flight for speeds ranging from 72 m/s to 113 m/s. The predictions were produced by components of the NASA Langley Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC) system of computer codes. Comparisons between measurements and predictions were made in both the time and frequency domains, as well as overall sound pressure levels. In general, the predictions replicated the measured data well. Discrepancies between measurements and predictions were noted. Some of the discrepancies were due to poor correlation of the measured data with the rotor tach signal. In other cases limitations of the predictive methodology have been indicated.

  14. Fundamental frequency degeneracy of standing surface acoustic waves under metallic gratings on piezoelectric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darinskii, A. N.; Biryukov, S. V.; Weihnacht, M.

    2002-11-01

    The paper studies specific features of surface acoustic waves on piezoelectric substrates under infinite periodic grating arrays. The grating is made up of identical metallic electrodes of finite thickness and has one electrode per cell. It has been shown via the analysis of numerical algorithms and the coupling-of-modes equations that one of the fundamental frequencies of the standing wave under short-circuited grating necessarily coincides with one of the fundamental frequencies corresponding to the open-circuited grating if the substrate assumes particular orientations connected with its crystallographic symmetry. The existence of degeneracy does not depend on the material constants of the substrate and the electrode, the thickness of the electrode, and the specific electrode shape provided that the electrode is uniform along the wave normal and shaped symmetrically in the same direction. The proof applies both to ordinary and leaky surface waves. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  15. Broadband cylindrical acoustic cloak for linear surface waves in a fluid.

    PubMed

    Farhat, M; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S; Movchan, A B

    2008-09-26

    We describe the first practical realization of a cylindrical cloak for linear surface liquid waves. This structured metamaterial bends surface waves radiated by a closely located acoustic source over a finite interval of Hertz frequencies. We demonstrate theoretically its unique mechanism using homogenization theory: the cloak behaves as an effective anisotropic fluid characterized by a diagonal stress tensor in a cylindrical basis. A low azimuthal viscosity is achieved, where the fluid flows most rapidly. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the homogenized cloak behaves like the actual structured cloak. We experimentally analyze the decreased backscattering of a fluid with low viscosity and finite density (methoxynonafluorobutane) from a cylindrical rigid obstacle surrounded by the cloak when it is located a couple of wavelengths away from the acoustic source.

  16. Solitary surface acoustic waves and bulk solitons in nanosecond and picosecond laser ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Hess, Peter; Lomonosov, Alexey M

    2010-02-01

    Recent achievements of nonlinear acoustics concerning the realization of solitons and solitary waves in crystals and their surfaces attained by nanosecond and picosecond laser ultrasonics are discussed and compared. The corresponding pump-probe setups are described, which allow an all-optical contact-free excitation and detection of short strain pulses in the broad frequency range between 10 MHz and about 300 GHz. The formation of solitons in the propagating longitudinal strain pulses is investigated for nonlinear media with intrinsic lattice-based dispersion. The excitation of solitary surface acoustic waves is realized by a geometric film-based dispersion effect. Future developments and potential applications of nonlinear nanosecond and picosecond ultrasonics are discussed.

  17. Echo thresholds for reflections from acoustically diffusive architectural surfaces.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip W; Walther, Andreas; Faller, Christof; Braasch, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    When sound reflects from an irregular architectural surface, it spreads spatially and temporally. Extensive research has been devoted to prediction and measurement of diffusion, but less has focused on its perceptual effects. This paper examines the effect of temporal diffusion on echo threshold. There are several notable differences between the waveform of a reflection identical to the direct sound and one from an architectural surface. The onset and offset are damped and the energy is spread in time; hence, the reflection response has a lower peak amplitude, and is decorrelated from the direct sound. The perceptual consequences of these differences are previously undocumented. Echo threshold tests are conducted with speech and music signals, using direct sound and a simulated reflection that is either identical to the direct sound or has various degrees of diffusion. Results indicate that for a speech signal, diffuse reflections are less easily detectable as a separate auditory event than specular reflections of the same total energy. For a music signal, no differences are observed between the echo thresholds for reflections with and without temporal diffusion. Additionally, echo thresholds are found to be shorter for speech than for music, and shorter for spatialized than for diotic presentation of signals.

  18. Development of a GaAs Monolithic Surface Acoustic Wave Integrated Circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Casalnuovo, S.C.; Drummond, T.J.; Frye, G.C.; Heller, E.J.; Hietala, V.M.; Klem, J.F.

    1999-03-08

    An oscillator technology using surface acoustic wave delay lines integrated with GaAs MESFET electronics has been developed for GaAs-based integrated microsensor applications. The oscillator consists of a two-port SAW delay line in a feedback loop with a four-stage GaAs MESFET amplifier. Oscillators with frequencies of 470, 350, and 200 MHz have been designed and fabricated. These oscillators are also promising for other RF applications.

  19. Surface Acoustic-Wave-Induced Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, John P.; Kennett, Malcolm P.; Cooper, Nigel R.; Fal'Ko, Vladimir I.

    2004-07-01

    We study the geometrical commensurability oscillations imposed on the resistivity of 2D electrons in a perpendicular magnetic field by a propagating surface acoustic wave (SAW). We show that, for ω<ωc, this effect contains an anisotropic dynamical classical contribution increasing the resistivity and a nonequilibrium quantum contribution isotropically decreasing the resistivity, and we predict zero-resistance states associated with geometrical commensurability at large SAW amplitude.

  20. Photolithographic Techniques for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Devices. Volume 4. Technical and Operational Parts 4, 5.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    AD-AOSI � HUGHES AIRCRAFT CO FULLERTON CA BROUNOD SYSTEMS GROUP Fie 9/s UNPHOTOLITHOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES FOR SURFAC .E ACOUSTIC WAVE’ (SAW) OfE--YC... AIRCRAFT COMPANY SFULLERTON, CALIFORNIA 92634 July 1675 to December 1978 Final Report: Volume 4 - Technical and Operational Parts 4,5 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT...3.4-4 Dispenser for Application of Dow Corning 3140 RTV to Package Base .. .............................. 3-31 3.4-5 Proposed SAW Platform Packages

  1. Fluorescence activated cell sorting via a focused traveling surface acoustic beam.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhichao; Zhou, Yinning; Collins, David J; Ai, Ye

    2017-09-12

    Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) has become an essential technique widely exploited in biological studies and clinical applications. However, current FACS systems are quite complex, expensive, bulky, and pose potential sample contamination and biosafety issues due to the generation of aerosols in an open environment. Microfluidic technology capable of precise cell manipulation has great potential to reinvent and miniaturize conventional FACS systems. In this work, we demonstrate a benchtop scale FACS system that makes use of a highly focused traveling surface acoustic wave beam to sort out micron-sized particles and biological cells upon fluorescence interrogation at ∼kHz rates. The highly focused acoustic wave beam has a width of ∼50 μm that enables highly accurate sorting of individual particles and cells. We have applied our acoustic FACS system to isolate fluorescently labeled MCF-7 breast cancer cells from diluted whole blood samples with the purity of sorted MCF-7 cells higher than 86%. The cell viability before and after acoustic sorting is higher than 95%, indicating excellent biocompatibility that should enable a variety of cell sorting applications in biomedical research.

  2. Imaging textural variation in the acoustoelastic coefficient of aluminum using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, R; Stratoudaki, T; Sharples, S D; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2015-11-01

    Much interest has arisen in nonlinear acoustic techniques because of their reported sensitivity to variations in residual stress, fatigue life, and creep damage when compared to traditional linear ultrasonic techniques. However, there is also evidence that the nonlinear acoustic properties are also sensitive to material microstructure. As many industrially relevant materials have a polycrystalline structure, this could potentially complicate the monitoring of material processes when using nonlinear acoustics. Variations in the nonlinear acoustoelastic coefficient on the same length scale as the microstructure of a polycrystalline sample of aluminum are investigated in this paper. This is achieved by the development of a measurement protocol that allows imaging of the acoustoelastic response of a material across a samples surface at the same time as imaging the microstructure. The development, validation, and limitations of this technique are discussed. The nonlinear acoustic response is found to vary spatially by a large factor (>20) between different grains. A relationship is observed when the spatial variation of the acoustoelastic coefficient is compared to the variation in material microstructure.

  3. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1-x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (<0.5%). The performance of the two types of devices was also investigated and compared, using acoustofluidics as an example. The AlScN/Si SAW devices achieved much lower threshold powers for the acoustic streaming and pumping of liquid droplets, and the acoustic streaming and pumping velocities were 2  ×  and 3  ×  those of the AlN/Si SAW devices, respectively. Mechanical characterization showed that the Young’s modulus and hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  4. Detection of Volatile Organics Using a Surface Acoustic Wave Array System

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON, LAWRENCE F.; BARTHOLOMEW, JOHN W.; CERNOSEK, RICHARD W.; COLBURN, CHRISTOPHER W.; CROOKS, R.M.; MARTINEZ, R.F.; OSBOURN, GORDON C.; RICCO, A.J.; STATON, ALAN W.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.

    1999-10-14

    A chemical sensing system based on arrays of surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines has been developed for identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The individual SAW chemical sensors consist of interdigital transducers patterned on the surface of an ST-cut quartz substrate to launch and detect the acoustic waves and a thin film coating in the SAW propagation path to perturb the acoustic wave velocity and attenuation during analyte sorption. A diverse set of material coatings gives the sensor arrays a degree of chemical sensitivity and selectivity. Materials examined for sensor application include the alkanethiol-based self-assembled monolayer, plasma-processed films, custom-synthesized conventional polymers, dendrimeric polymers, molecular recognition materials, electroplated metal thin films, and porous metal oxides. All of these materials target a specific chemical fi.mctionality and the enhancement of accessible film surface area. Since no one coating provides absolute analyte specificity, the array responses are further analyzed using a visual-empirical region-of-influence (VERI) pattern recognition algorithm. The chemical sensing system consists of a seven-element SAW array with accompanying drive and control electronics, sensor signal acquisition electronics, environmental vapor sampling hardware, and a notebook computer. Based on data gathered for individual sensor responses, greater than 93%-accurate identification can be achieved for any single analyte from a group of 17 VOCs and water.

  5. Rayleigh surface acoustic wave as an efficient heating system for biological reactions: investigation of microdroplet temperature uniformity.

    PubMed

    Roux-Marchand, Thibaut; Beyssen, Denis; Sarry, Frederic; Elmazria, Omar

    2015-04-01

    When a microdroplet is put on the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave path, longitudinal waves are radiated into the liquid and induce several phenomena such as the wellknown surface acoustic wave streaming. At the same time, the temperature of the microdroplet increases as it has been shown. In this paper, we study the temperature uniformity of a microdroplet heated by Rayleigh surface acoustic wave for discrete microfluidic applications such as biological reactions. To precisely ascertain the temperature uniformity and not interfere with the biological reaction, we used an infrared camera. We then tested the temperature uniformity as a function of three parameters: the microdroplet volume, the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave frequency, and the continuous applied radio frequency power. Based on these results, we propose a new device structure to develop a future lab on a chip based on reaction temperatures.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring surface changes, in porous materials, using multiple differently-configured acoustic sensors

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Susan Leslie; Hietala, Vincent Mark; Tigges, Chris Phillip

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring surface changes, such as mass uptake at various pressures, in a thin-film material, in particular porous membranes, using multiple differently-configured acoustic sensors.

  7. Focused acoustic beam imaging of grain structure and local Young's modulus with Rayleigh and surface skimming longitudinal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R. W.; Sathish, S.; Blodgett, M. P.

    2013-01-25

    The interaction of a focused acoustic beam with materials generates Rayleigh surface waves (RSW) and surface skimming longitudinal waves (SSLW). Acoustic microscopic investigations have used the RSW amplitude and the velocity measurements, extensively for grain structure analysis. Although, the presence of SSLW has been recognized, it is rarely used in acoustic imaging. This paper presents an approach to perform microstructure imaging and local elastic modulus measurements by combining both RSW and SSLW. The acoustic imaging of grain structure was performed by measuring the amplitude of RSW and SSLW signal. The microstructure images obtained on the same region of the samples with RSW and SSLW are compared and the difference in the contrast observed is discussed based on the propagation characteristics of the individual surface waves. The velocity measurements are determined by two point defocus method. The surface wave velocities of RSW and SSLW of the same regions of the sample are combined and presented as average Young's modulus image.

  8. Single-component single-partial acoustic surface waves in cubic crystals with surface distortion taken into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    The surface waves and bulk acoustic bands were studied taking into account the interaction between the nearest and next-nearest neighbors in a cubic crystal. Expressions for the dispersion relations, the frequencies at which the surface waves split off the bulk spectrum, and the parameters of the amplitude attenuation have been obtained for the crystalline systems in which the surface waves are single-component and single-partial. The calculations were conducted taking into account the discrete nature of crystal lattice for arbitrary values of the two-dimensional wave vector. The analysis has demonstrated that the results obtained in the long-wavelength limit are in full agreement with those calculated in the framework of linear nonlocal elasticity theory. The influence of an adsorbed surface monolayer on the characteristics of the surface waves was studied.

  9. The Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Acoustic Energy Exposure Due to Near Surface Explosions on Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    NUWC-NPT Reprint Report 11,773 18 October 2005 The Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Acoustic Energy Exposure Due to Near Surface Explosions...Underwater Acoustic Energy Exposure Due to Near Surface Explosions on Marine Mammals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... energy are released into the surrounding underwater environment. A simulation tool is developed to predict the biological exposure effects from multiple

  10. Superlensing effect for surface acoustic waves in a pillar-based phononic crystal with negative refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Addouche, Mahmoud Al-Lethawe, Mohammed A. Choujaa, Abdelkrim Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate super resolution imaging for surface acoustic waves using a phononic structure displaying negative refractive index. This phononic structure is made of a monolithic square lattice of cylindrical pillars standing on a semi-infinite medium. The pillars act as acoustic resonator and induce a surface propagating wave with unusual dispersion. We found, under specific geometrical parameters, one propagating mode that exhibits negative refraction effect with negative effective index close to −1. Furthermore, a flat lens with finite number of pillars is designed to allow the focusing of an acoustic point source into an image with a resolution of (λ)/3 , overcoming the Rayleigh diffraction limit.

  11. Preliminary study of the effect of the turbulent flow field around complex surfaces on their acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W. A.; Boldman, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fairly extensive measurements have been conducted of the turbulent flow around various surfaces as a basis for a study of the acoustic characteristics involved. In the experiments the flow from a nozzle was directed upon various two-dimensional surface configurations such as the three-flap model. A turbulent flow field description is given and an estimate of the acoustic characteristics is provided. The developed equations are based upon fundamental theories for simple configurations having simple flows. Qualitative estimates are obtained regarding the radiation pattern and the velocity power law. The effect of geometry and turbulent flow distribution on the acoustic emission from simple configurations are discussed.

  12. Surface acoustic waves induced micropatterning of cells in gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Shahid M; Manbachi, Amir; Samandari, Mohamadmahdi; Walch, Philipp; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Davoudi, Farideh; Wang, Wesley; Abrinia, Karen; Cooper, Jonathan M; Khademhosseini, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon

    2017-02-14

    Acoustic force patterning is an emerging technology that provides a platform to control the spatial location of cells in a rapid, accurate, yet contactless manner. However, very few studies have been reported on the usage of acoustic force patterning for the rapid arrangement of biological objects, such as cells, in a three-dimensional (3D) environment. In this study, we report on a bio-acoustic force patterning technique, which uses surface acoustic waves (SAWs) for the rapid arrangement of cells within an extracellular matrix-based hydrogel such as gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA). A proof-of-principle was achieved through both simulations and experiments based on the in-house fabricated piezoelectric SAW transducers, which enabled us to explore the effects of various parameters on the performance of the built construct. The SAWs were applied in a fashion that generated standing SAWs (SSAWs) on the substrate, the energy of which subsequently was transferred into the gel, creating a rapid, and contactless alignment of the cells (<10 s, based on the experimental conditions). Following ultraviolet radiation induced photo-crosslinking of the cell encapsulated GelMA pre-polymer solution, the patterned cardiac cells readily spread after alignment in the GelMA hydrogel and demonstrated beating activity in 5-7 days. The described acoustic force assembly method can be utilized not only to control the spatial distribution of the cells inside a 3D construct, but can also preserve the viability and functionality of the patterned cells (e.g. beating rates of cardiac cells). This platform can be potentially employed in a diverse range of applications, whether it is for tissue engineering, in vitro cell studies, or creating 3D biomimetic tissue structures.

  13. Efficient Solution of Three-Dimensional Problems of Acoustic and Electromagnetic Scattering by Open Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turc, Catalin; Anand, Akash; Bruno, Oscar; Chaubell, Julian

    2011-01-01

    We present a computational methodology (a novel Nystrom approach based on use of a non-overlapping patch technique and Chebyshev discretizations) for efficient solution of problems of acoustic and electromagnetic scattering by open surfaces. Our integral equation formulations (1) Incorporate, as ansatz, the singular nature of open-surface integral-equation solutions, and (2) For the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE), use analytical regularizes that effectively reduce the number of iterations required by iterative linear-algebra solution based on Krylov-subspace iterative solvers.

  14. Surface acoustic wave response to optical absorption by graphene composite film.

    PubMed

    Chivukula, Venkata S; Ciplys, Daumantas; Kim, Jin Ho; Rimeika, Romualdas; Xu, Jimmy M; Shur, Michael S

    2012-02-01

    Propagation of surface acoustic waves in YZ LiNbO3 overlaid with graphene flakes has been investigated and its optical response to illumination by 633-nm light from a He-Ne laser was studied. The heating of the sample surface caused by optical absorption by the graphene led to a downshift in the transmitted SAW phase caused by the wave velocity's dependence on temperature. The proposed simple model based on optothermal SAW phase modulation was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Efficient Solution of Three-Dimensional Problems of Acoustic and Electromagnetic Scattering by Open Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turc, Catalin; Anand, Akash; Bruno, Oscar; Chaubell, Julian

    2011-01-01

    We present a computational methodology (a novel Nystrom approach based on use of a non-overlapping patch technique and Chebyshev discretizations) for efficient solution of problems of acoustic and electromagnetic scattering by open surfaces. Our integral equation formulations (1) Incorporate, as ansatz, the singular nature of open-surface integral-equation solutions, and (2) For the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE), use analytical regularizes that effectively reduce the number of iterations required by iterative linear-algebra solution based on Krylov-subspace iterative solvers.

  16. Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bino, Leonardo; Silver, Jonathan M.; Stebbings, Sarah L.; Del'Haye, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept of fundamental importance in many areas of physics, underpinning such diverse phenomena as ferromagnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and the Higgs mechanism. Here we demonstrate nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) states of light to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, this effect can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. Our findings pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors.

  17. Turn-key calibration of counter-propagating multiple beam 3D trapping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelin Dam, Jeppe; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2008-02-01

    Optical trapping by use of multiple counter-propagating beam traps has not been widely implemented outside optical engineering laboratories. One, if not the primary, reason for this is the relatively complex calibration procedures involved in connection with this optical geometry. In this talk, we present automated solutions to all the calibration issues, which in effect results in a turn-key counter-propagating multi-beam 3D trapping system. These results allow a wider audience to utilize counter-propagating beam trapping systems. The calibrated system can be used to independently manipulate a plurality of cells real-time in a large 3D working area. Optionally, the system can be extended to allow for use of various spectroscopic methods concurrently with optical manipulation/trapping.

  18. Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Del Bino, Leonardo; Silver, Jonathan M.; Stebbings, Sarah L.; Del'Haye, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept of fundamental importance in many areas of physics, underpinning such diverse phenomena as ferromagnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and the Higgs mechanism. Here we demonstrate nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) states of light to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, this effect can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. Our findings pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors. PMID:28220865

  19. Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator.

    PubMed

    Del Bino, Leonardo; Silver, Jonathan M; Stebbings, Sarah L; Del'Haye, Pascal

    2017-02-21

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept of fundamental importance in many areas of physics, underpinning such diverse phenomena as ferromagnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and the Higgs mechanism. Here we demonstrate nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) states of light to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, this effect can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. Our findings pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors.

  20. The holographic optical micro-manipulation system based on counter-propagating beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čižmár, T.; Brzobohatý, O.; Dholakia, K.; Zemánek, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a system employing a dynamic diffractive optical element to control properties of two counter-propagating beams overlapping within a sample chamber. This system allows us to eliminate optical aberrations along both beam pathways and arbitrarily switch between various numbers of laser beams and their spatial profiles (i.e. Gaussian, Laguerre-Gaussian, Bessel beams, etc.). We successfully tested various counter-propagating dual-beam configurations including optical manipulation of both high and low index particles in water or air, particle delivery in an optical conveyor belt and the formation of colloidal solitons by optical binding. Furthermore, we realized a novel optical mixer created by particles spiraling in counter-propagating interfering optical vortices and a new tool for optical tomography or localized spectroscopy enabling sterile contactless rotation and reorientation of a trapped living cell.

  1. Picosecond ultrasonic study of surface acoustic waves on titanium nitride nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornsson, M. M.; Connolly, A. B.; Mahat, S.; Rachmilowitz, B. E.; Daly, B. C.; Antonelli, G. A.; Myers, A.; Singh, K. J.; Yoo, H. J.; King, S. W.

    2015-03-07

    We have measured surface acoustic waves on nanostructured TiN wires overlaid on multiple thin films on a silicon substrate using the ultrafast pump-probe technique known as picosecond ultrasonics. We find a prominent oscillation in the range of 11–54 GHz for samples with varying pitch ranging from 420 nm down to 168 nm. We find that the observed oscillation increases monotonically in frequency with decrease in pitch, but that the increase is not linear. By comparing our data to two-dimensional mechanical simulations of the nanostructures, we find that the type of surface oscillation to which we are sensitive changes depending on the pitch of the sample. Surface waves on substrates that are loaded by thin films can take multiple forms, including Rayleigh-like waves, Sezawa waves, and radiative (leaky) surface waves. We describe evidence for detection of modes that display characteristics of these three surface wave types.

  2. Picosecond ultrasonic study of surface acoustic waves on titanium nitride nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjornsson, M. M.; Connolly, A. B.; Mahat, S.; Rachmilowitz, B. E.; Daly, B. C.; Antonelli, G. A.; Myers, A.; Singh, K. J.; Yoo, H. J.; King, S. W.

    2015-03-01

    We have measured surface acoustic waves on nanostructured TiN wires overlaid on multiple thin films on a silicon substrate using the ultrafast pump-probe technique known as picosecond ultrasonics. We find a prominent oscillation in the range of 11-54 GHz for samples with varying pitch ranging from 420 nm down to 168 nm. We find that the observed oscillation increases monotonically in frequency with decrease in pitch, but that the increase is not linear. By comparing our data to two-dimensional mechanical simulations of the nanostructures, we find that the type of surface oscillation to which we are sensitive changes depending on the pitch of the sample. Surface waves on substrates that are loaded by thin films can take multiple forms, including Rayleigh-like waves, Sezawa waves, and radiative (leaky) surface waves. We describe evidence for detection of modes that display characteristics of these three surface wave types.

  3. Generalized Discrete Model of Systems with Distributed Feedback Based on Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveshnikov, B. V.; Bagdasaryan, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a self-consistent physical model that improves the accuracy of calculating the characteristics of the devices based on both surface and pseudosurface acoustic waves. The model is free from restrictions inherent in the well-known method of coupled modes and other phenomenological methods for studying distributed systems. The compact relationships describing all the characteristics of the acoustoelectric transducers of all types with allowance for the possible directionality of their radiation and its propagation loss are obtained using analytical solution of the difference equations. The method for determining the spatial orientation of the elastic-polarization ellipse in an anisotropic crystal, which allows one to unambiguously calculate the phase shift between the oscillations of two coupled dynamical subsystems, i.e., elastic displacements and the corresponding electric field, is proposed. The obtained results, which considerably facilitate the task of fast and accurate design of various devices on the basis of surface and pseudosurface acoustic waves, are valid in the general case for any frequency, including the harmonics of the frequency of the fundamental acoustic synchronism.

  4. Particle Separation inside a Sessile Droplet with Variable Contact Angle Using Surface Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Jinsoo; Ahmed, Husnain; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-01-03

    A sessile droplet of water carrying polystyrene microparticles of different diameters was uniformly exposed to high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) produced by an interdigitated transducer (IDT). We investigated the concentration behavior of the microparticles as the SAWs generated a strong acoustic streaming flow (ASF) inside the water droplet and exerted a direct acoustic radiation force (ARF) on the suspended particles, the magnitude of which depended upon the particle diameter. As a result of the ARF, the microparticles were concentrated according to their diameters at different positions inside the sessile droplet placed in the path of the SAW, right in front of the IDT. The microparticle concentration behavior changed as the sessile droplet contact angle with the substrate was varied by adding surfactant to the water or by gradually evaporating the water. The positions at which the smaller and larger microparticles were concentrated remained distinguishable, even at very different experimental conditions. The long-term exposure of the droplets to the SAWs was accompanied by the gradual evaporation of the carrier fluid, which dynamically changed the droplet contact angle as well as the concentration of particles. Complete evaporation of the fluid left behind several concentrated yet separated clusters of particles on the substrate surface. The effect of the droplet contact angle on particles' concentration behavior and consequent separation of particles has been uniquely studied in this SAW-based report.

  5. Stimulated Brillouin side-scattering of the beat wave excited by two counter-propagating X-mode lasers in magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.; Baliyan, Sweta

    2015-06-15

    The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of nonresonant beat mode in the presence of static magnetic field is investigated in a plasma. Two counter-propagating lasers of frequencies (ω{sub 1} and ω{sub 2}) and wave vectors (k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}) drive a nonresonant space charge beat mode at the phase matching condition of frequency ω{sub 0}≈ω{sub 1}∼ω{sub 2} and wave number k{sup →}{sub 0}≈k{sup →}{sub 1}+k{sup →}{sub 2}. The driver wave parametrically excites a pair of ion acoustic wave (ω,k{sup →}) and a sideband electromagnetic wave (ω{sub 3},k{sup →}{sub 3}). The beat wave couples with the sideband electromagnetic wave to exert a nonlinear ponderomotive force at the frequency of ion acoustic wave. Density perturbations due to ion acoustic wave and ponderomotive force couple with the oscillatory motion of plasma electron due to velocity of beat wave to give rise to a nonlinear current (by feedback mechanism) responsible for the growth of sideband wave at resonance. The growth rate of SBS was reduced (from ∼10{sup 12}s{sup −1} to 10{sup 10}s{sup −1}) by applying a transverse static magnetic field ∼90 T. The present study can be useful for the excitation of fast plasma waves (for the purpose of electron acceleration) by two counter-propagating laser beams.

  6. Surface acoustic waves for on-demand production of picoliter droplets and particle encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Alan, Tuncay; Helmerson, Kristian; Neild, Adrian

    2013-08-21

    Microscopic water-in-oil droplets are a versatile chemical and biological platform whose dimensions result in short reaction times and require minuscule amounts of reagent. Methods exist for the production of droplets, though the vast majority are only able to do so in continuous flows, restricting the ability to independently control reactions of individual droplets, a prerequisite for programmable digital microfluidics. Here we present a novel method to produce individual picoliter-scale droplets on-demand using surface acoustic waves (SAW). Acoustic forces arising from SAW act on the oil-water interface, creating a droplet whose volume is defined by the applied power, duration of the force and system geometry. Additionally, this method is able to pre-concentrate particles simultaneously with droplet production, meaning that particles and cells, even if in a dilute mixture, can be easily encapsulated. Our method is expected to be applicable to high-throughput screening, bioreactor creation and other microfluidic processes.

  7. Acoustic Sensing Based on Density Shift of Microspheres by Surface Binding of Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Akihisa; Inoue, Yoshinori; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we propose a concept for sensing based on density changes of microparticles (MPs) caused by a biochemical reaction. The MPs are levitated by a combined acoustic-gravitational force at a position determined by the density and compressibility. Importantly, the levitation is independent of the MPs sizes. When gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are bound on the surface of polymer MPs through a reaction, the density of the MPs dramatically increases, and their levitation position in the acoustic-gravitational field is lowered. Because the shift of the levitation position is proportional to the number of AuNPs bound on one MP, we can determine the number of molecules involved in the reaction. The avidin-biotin reaction is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this concept. The number of molecules involved in the reaction is very small because the reaction space is small for an MP; thus, the method has potential for highly sensitive detection.

  8. Broadband asymmetric acoustic transmission by a plate with quasi-periodic surface ridges

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunhui; Ke, Manzhu Ye, Yangtao; Xu, Shengjun; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, an acoustic system with broadband asymmetric transmission is designed and fabricated, which consists of a water-immersed aluminum plate engraved with quasi-periodically-patterned ridges on single surface. It demonstrates that when the acoustic waves are launched into the system from the structured side, they can couple into the Lamb modes in the plate efficiently and attain a high transmission; on the contrary, when the waves are incident from the opposite flat side, the coupling is weak, and the transmission is low. Superior to systems with periodic patterning, this quasi-periodically-patterned system has a broad working frequency range due to the collective contributions from the multiple diffractions specific to the structure.

  9. Surface acoustic wave mediated carrier injection into individual quantum post nano emitters.

    PubMed

    Völk, Stefan; Knall, Florian; Schülein, Florian J R; Truong, Tuan A; Kim, Hyochul; Petroff, Pierre M; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J

    2012-07-20

    Acousto-electric charge conveyance induced by a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is employed to dissociate photogenerated excitons. Over macroscopic distances, both electrons and holes are injected sequentially into a remotely positioned, isolated and high quality quantum emitter, a self-assembled quantum post. This process is found to be highly efficient and to exhibit improved stability at high acoustic powers when compared to direct optical pumping at the position of the quantum post. These characteristics are attributed to the wide matrix quantum well in which charge conveyance occurs and to the larger number of carriers available for injection in the remote configuration, respectively. The emission of such pumped quantum posts is dominated by recombination of neutral excitons and fully directional when the propagation direction of the SAW and the position of the quantum post are reversed.

  10. Single-drop liquid phase microextraction accelerated by surface acoustic wave.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anliang; Zha, Yan

    2013-03-01

    A single-drop liquid phase microextraction method is presented, in which surface acoustic wave (SAW) is used for accelerating extraction speed. A pair of interdigital transducers with 27.5 MHz center frequency is fabricated on a 128° yx-LiNbO3 substrate. A radio frequency signal is applied to one of interdigital transducers to excite SAW. Plastic straw is filled with PDMS, leaving 1 mL for holding sample solution. Plastic straw with sample solution droplet is then dipping into extractant, into which SAW is radiated. Mass transportation from sample solution to extractant drop is accelerated due to acoustic streaming, and extraction time is decreased. An ionic liquid and an acid green-25 solution are used for extraction experiments. Results show that the extraction process is almost finished within 2 min, and extraction speed is increased with radio frequency signal power.

  11. Estimating sub-surface dispersed oil concentration using acoustic backscatter response.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christopher B; Bonner, James S; Islam, Mohammad S; Page, Cheryl; Ojo, Temitope; Kirkey, William

    2013-05-15

    The recent Deepwater Horizon disaster resulted in a dispersed oil plume at an approximate depth of 1000 m. Several methods were used to characterize this plume with respect to concentration and spatial extent including surface supported sampling and autonomous underwater vehicles with in situ instrument payloads. Additionally, echo sounders were used to track the plume location, demonstrating the potential for remote detection using acoustic backscatter (ABS). This study evaluated use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to quantitatively detect oil-droplet suspensions from the ABS response in a controlled laboratory setting. Results from this study showed log-linear ABS responses to oil-droplet volume concentration. However, the inability to reproduce ABS response factors suggests the difficultly in developing meaningful calibration factors for quantitative field analysis. Evaluation of theoretical ABS intensity derived from the particle size distribution provided insight regarding method sensitivity in the presence of interfering ambient particles.

  12. Investigation of 3D surface acoustic waves in granular media with 3-color digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Mathieu; Picart, Pascal; Penelet, Guillaume; Tournat, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the implementation of digital color holography to investigate elastic waves propagating along a layer of a granular medium. The holographic set-up provides simultaneous recording and measurement of the 3D dynamic displacement at the surface. Full-field measurements of the acoustic amplitude and phase at different excitation frequencies are obtained. It is shown that the experimental data can be used to obtain the dispersion curve of the modes propagating in this granular medium layer. The experimental dispersion curve and that obtained from a finite element modeling of the problem are found to be in good agreement. In addition, full-field images of the interaction of an acoustic wave guided in the granular layer with a buried object are also shown.

  13. Effects of dissipation on propagation of surface electromagnetic and acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nagaraj

    With the recent emergence of the field of metamaterials, the study of subwavelength propagation of plane waves and the dissipation of their energy either in the form of Joule losses in the case of electomagnetic waves or in the form of viscous dissipation in the case of acoustic waves in different interfaced media assumes great importance. With this motivation, I have worked on problems in two different areas, viz., plasmonics and surface acoustics. The first part (chapters 2 & 3) of the dissertation deals with the emerging field of plasmonics. Researchers have come up with various designs in an effort to fabricate efficient plasmonic waveguides capable of guiding plasmonic signals. However, the inherent dissipation in the form of Joule losses limits efficient usage of surface plasmon signal. A dielectric-metal-dielectric planar structure is one of the most practical plasmonic structures that can serve as an efficient waveguide to guide electromagnetic waves along the metal-dielectric boundary. I present here a theoretical study of propagation of surface plasmons along a symmetric dielectric-metal-dielectric structure and show how proper orientation of the optical axis of the anisotropic substrate enhances the propagation length. An equation for propagation length is derived in a wide range of frequencies. I also show how the frequency of coupled surface plasmons can be modulated by changing the thickness of the metal film. I propose a Kronig-Penny model for the plasmonic crystal, which in the long wavelength limit, may serve as a homogeneous dielectric substrate with high anisotropy which do not exist for natural optical crystals. In the second part (chapters 4 & 5) of the dissertation, I discuss an interesting effect of extraordinary absorption of acoustic energy due to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow water channel clad between two metal plates. Starting from the elastic properties of the metal plates, I derive a dispersion equation that gives

  14. Investigation of phononic crystals for dispersive surface acoustic wave ozone sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westafer, Ryan S.

    The object of this research was to investigate dispersion in surface phononic crystals (PnCs) for application to a newly developed passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) ozone sensor. Frequency band gaps and slow sound already have been reported for PnC lattice structures. Such engineered structures are often advertised to reduce loss, increase sensitivity, and reduce device size. However, these advances have not yet been realized in the context of surface acoustic wave sensors. In early work, we computed SAW dispersion in patterned surface structures and we confirmed that our finite element computations of SAW dispersion in thin films and in one dimensional surface PnC structures agree with experimental results obtained by laser probe techniques. We analyzed the computations to guide device design in terms of sensitivity and joint spectral operating point. Next we conducted simulations and experiments to determine sensitivity and limit of detection for more conventional dispersive SAW devices and PnC sensors. Finally, we conducted extensive ozone detection trials on passive reflection mode SAW devices, using distinct components of the time dispersed response to compensate for the effect of temperature. The experimental work revealed that the devices may be used for dosimetry applications over periods of several days.

  15. The high-energy-density counterpropagating shear experiment and turbulent self-heating

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, F. W.; Fincke, J. R.; Loomis, E. N.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Flippo, K. A.

    2013-12-06

    The counterpropagating shear experiment has previously demonstrated the ability to create regions of shockdriven shear, balanced symmetrically in pressure and experiencing minimal net drift. This allows for the creation of a high-Mach-number high-energy-density shear environment. New data from the counterpropagating shear campaign is presented, and both hydrocode modeling and theoretical analysis in the context of a Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes model suggest turbulent dissipation of energy from the supersonic flow bounding the layer is a significant driver in its expansion. A theoretical minimum shear flow Mach number threshold is suggested for substantial thermal-turbulence coupling.

  16. Generation of Counterpropagating Path-Entangled Photon Pairs in a Single Periodic Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravi, Sina; Pertsch, Thomas; Setzpfandt, Frank

    2017-05-01

    We propose the use of nonlinear periodic waveguides for direct and fully integrated generation of counterpropagating photon pairs by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Using the unique properties of Bloch modes in such periodic structures, we furthermore show that two counterpropagating phase-matching conditions can be fulfilled simultaneously, allowing for the generation of path-entangled Bell states in a single periodic waveguide. To demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal, we design a photonic crystal slab waveguide made of lithium niobate and numerically demonstrate Bell-state generation.

  17. The high-energy-density counterpropagating shear experiment and turbulent self-heating

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, F. W.; Fincke, J. R.; Loomis, E. N.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Flippo, K. A.

    2013-12-15

    The counterpropagating shear experiment has previously demonstrated the ability to create regions of shock-driven shear, balanced symmetrically in pressure, and experiencing minimal net drift. This allows for the creation of a high-Mach-number high-energy-density shear environment. New data from the counterpropagating shear campaign is presented, and both hydrocode modeling and theoretical analysis in the context of a Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes model suggest turbulent dissipation of energy from the supersonic flow bounding the layer is a significant driver in its expansion. A theoretical minimum shear flow Mach number threshold is suggested for substantial thermal-turbulence coupling.

  18. Modulated exponential films generated by surface acoustic waves and their role in liquid wicking and aerosolization at a pinned drop.

    PubMed

    Taller, Daniel; Go, David B; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2013-05-01

    The exponentially decaying acoustic pressure of scattered surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the contact line of a liquid film pinned to filter paper is shown to sustain a high curvature conic tip with micron-sized modulations whose dimension grows exponentially from the tip. The large negative capillary pressure in the film, necessary for offsetting the large positive acoustic pressure at the contact line, also creates significant negative hydrodynamic pressure and robust wicking action through the paper. An asymptotic analysis of this intricate pressure matching between the quasistatic conic film and bulk drop shows that the necessary SAW power to pump liquid from the filter paper and aerosolize, expressed in terms of the acoustic pressure scaled by the drop capillary pressure, grows exponentially with respect to twice the acoustic decay constant multiplied by the drop length, with a universal preexponential coefficient. Global rapid aerosolization occurs at a SAW power twice as high, beyond which the wicking rate saturates.

  19. Modulated exponential films generated by surface acoustic waves and their role in liquid wicking and aerosolization at a pinned drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taller, Daniel; Go, David B.; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2013-05-01

    The exponentially decaying acoustic pressure of scattered surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the contact line of a liquid film pinned to filter paper is shown to sustain a high curvature conic tip with micron-sized modulations whose dimension grows exponentially from the tip. The large negative capillary pressure in the film, necessary for offsetting the large positive acoustic pressure at the contact line, also creates significant negative hydrodynamic pressure and robust wicking action through the paper. An asymptotic analysis of this intricate pressure matching between the quasistatic conic film and bulk drop shows that the necessary SAW power to pump liquid from the filter paper and aerosolize, expressed in terms of the acoustic pressure scaled by the drop capillary pressure, grows exponentially with respect to twice the acoustic decay constant multiplied by the drop length, with a universal preexponential coefficient. Global rapid aerosolization occurs at a SAW power twice as high, beyond which the wicking rate saturates.

  20. Surface acoustic wave induced particle manipulation in a PDMS channel--principle concepts for continuous flow applications.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Linda; Enlund, Johannes; Johansson, Stefan; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2012-04-01

    A device for acoustic particle manipulation in the 40 MHz range for continuous-flow operation in a 50 μm wide PDMS channel has been evaluated. Unidirectional interdigital transducers on a Y-cut Z-propagation lithium nixobate wafer were used to excite a surface acoustic wave that generated an acoustic standing wave inside the microfluidic channel. It was shown that particle alignment nodes with different inter-node spacing could be obtained, depending on device design and driving frequency. The observed inter-node spacing differed from the standard half-wavelength inter-node spacing generally employed in bulk acoustic transducer excited resonant systems. This effect and the related issue of acoustic node positions relative the channel walls, which is fundamental for most continuous flow particle manipulation operations in channels, was evaluated in measurements and simulations. Specific applications of particle separation and alignment where these systems can offer benefits relative state-of the art designs were identified.

  1. A Finite Element Model of a MEMS-based Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Sensor

    PubMed Central

    EL Gowini, Mohamed M.; Moussa, Walied A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication cost, ease of integration and high sensitivity. In this paper a finite element model of a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor is developed using ANSYS12© and tested for hydrogen detection. The sensor consists of a YZ-lithium niobate substrate with interdigital electrodes (IDT) patterned on the surface. A thin palladium (Pd) film is added on the surface of the sensor due to its high affinity for hydrogen. With increased hydrogen absorption the palladium hydride structure undergoes a phase change due to the formation of the β-phase, which deteriorates the crystal structure. Therefore with increasing hydrogen concentration the stiffness and the density are significantly reduced. The values of the modulus of elasticity and the density at different hydrogen concentrations in palladium are utilized in the finite element model to determine the corresponding SAW sensor response. Results indicate that with increasing the hydrogen concentration the wave velocity decreases and the attenuation of the wave is reduced. PMID:22205865

  2. Sound conversion phenomena at the free surface of liquid helium. II. Experimental determination of acoustic coefficients and surface absorption coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiechert, H.; Buchholz, F. I.

    1983-05-01

    The acoustic coefficients of reflection, transmission, and transformation of first-, second-, and gas sound waves incident normally on the free surface of liquid helium have been determined. The experimental results are compared with the theory developed in Part I of this paper. It is shown that equilibrium theories of boundary conditions disagree with the experiments. Nonequilibrium theories, however, which take into account that mass and energy transport processes occur at the liquid-vapor interface of helium II, lead to a very good description of the experimental data below 2 K. Within experimental accuracy the measurements fully confirm several kinetic models of evaporation and energy transport processes. Near the λ point, deviations from the theory have been found which might be attributed to influences of critical phenomena. The surface absorption coefficients of first-, second-, and gas sound waves could be deduced from the experimental data on the acoustic coefficients, and it is shown that, in agreement with the theory, appreciable energy dissipation occurs at the free surface of helium II when a second-sound or a gas sound wave is incident.

  3. Modeling of the acoustic field of thermally induced ultrasonic emission from a spherical cavity surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongdong; Hu, Hanping; Wang, Zedong

    2015-02-01

    Thermo-acoustic (TA) ultrasound has attracted considerable interest during the last decade for its many advantages over the conventional electro-acoustic ultrasound. In this paper, a general expression of the acoustic pressure field of thermally induced ultrasonic emission from a spherical cavity surface is derived by using a fully thermally-mechanically coupled TA model. The characteristics and regularities of ultrasound from spherical focusing TA emitter can therefore be studied in detail. It is found that, for the TA emission in sphere shell, wideband flat amplitude-frequency response pattern, the most important feature of TA ultrasound in an open space from a technical standpoint, is seriously disrupted by wave interference occurring in spherical cavity. The dependences of sound pressure of TA ultrasound in spherical cavity on the heating frequency, the inner radius of spherical cavity, the location in spherical cavity, and the thickness of TA sample layer, as well as the type and filling pressure of gas in cavity are given and discussed. The currently used planar TA solution is only the special case for spherical cavity with infinite radius of the analytical solution developed in this work, which would be of significance for more comprehensive guide to understanding and using TA ultrasound.

  4. An on-chip, multichannel droplet sorter using standing surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Sixing; Ding, Xiaoyun; Guo, Feng; Chen, Yuchao; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Wang, Lin; McCoy, J Philip; Cameron, Craig E; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-06-04

    The emerging field of droplet microfluidics requires effective on-chip handling and sorting of droplets. In this work, we demonstrate a microfluidic device that is capable of sorting picoliter water-in-oil droplets into multiple outputs using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). This device integrates a single-layer microfluidic channel with interdigital transducers (IDTs) to achieve on-chip droplet generation and sorting. Within the SSAW field, water-in-oil droplets experience an acoustic radiation force and are pushed toward the acoustic pressure node. As a result, by tuning the frequency of the SSAW excitation, the position of the pressure nodes can be changed and droplets can be sorted to different outlets at rates up to 222 droplets s(-1). With its advantages in simplicity, controllability, versatility, noninvasiveness, and capability to be integrated with other on-chip components such as droplet manipulation and optical detection units, the technique presented here could be valuable for the development of droplet-based micro total analysis systems (μTAS).

  5. Quantitative determination of size and shape of surface-bound DNA using an acoustic wave sensor.

    PubMed

    Tsortos, Achilleas; Papadakis, George; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Melzak, Kathryn A; Gizeli, Electra

    2008-04-01

    DNA bending plays a significant role in many biological processes, such as gene regulation, DNA replication, and chromosomal packing. Understanding how such processes take place and how they can, in turn, be regulated by artificial agents for individual oriented therapies is of importance to both biology and medicine. In this work, we describe the application of an acoustic wave device for characterizing the conformation of DNA molecules tethered to the device surface via a biotin-neutravidin interaction. The acoustic energy dissipation per unit mass observed upon DNA binding is directly related to DNA intrinsic viscosity, providing quantitative information on the size and shape of the tethered molecules. The validity of the above approach was verified by showing that the predesigned geometries of model double-stranded and triple-helix DNA molecules could be quantitatively distinguished: the resolution of the acoustic measurements is sufficient to allow discrimination between same size DNA carrying a bent at different positions along the chain. Furthermore, the significance of this analysis to the study of biologically relevant systems is shown during the evaluation of DNA conformational change upon protein (histone) binding.

  6. Manipulating particle trajectories with phase-control in surface acoustic wave microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Orloff, Nathan D; Dennis, Jaclyn R; Cecchini, Marco; Schonbrun, Ethan; Rocas, Eduard; Wang, Yu; Novotny, David; Simmonds, Raymond W; Moreland, John; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Booth, James C

    2011-12-01

    We present a 91 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator with integrated microfluidics that includes a flow focus, an expansion region, and a binning region in order to manipulate particle trajectories. We demonstrate the ability to change the position of the acoustic nodes by varying the electronic phase of one of the transducers relative to the other in a pseudo-static manner. The measurements were performed at room temperature with 3 μm diameter latex beads dispersed in a water-based solution. We demonstrate the dependence of nodal position on pseudo-static phase and show simultaneous control of 9 bead streams with spatial control of -0.058 μm/deg ± 0.001 μm/deg. As a consequence of changing the position of bead streams perpendicular to their flow direction, we also show that the integrated acoustic-microfluidic device can be used to change the trajectory of a bead stream towards a selected bin with an angular control of 0.008 deg/deg ± 0.000(2) deg/deg.

  7. Particle Accumulation in a Microchannel and Its Reduction by a Standing Surface Acoustic Wave (SSAW)

    PubMed Central

    Sriphutkiat, Yannapol; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of particles in a high concentration on a microchannel wall is a common phenomenon in a colloidal fluid. Gradual accumulation/deposition of particles can eventually obstruct the fluid flow and lead to clogging, which seriously affects the accuracy and reliability of nozzle-based printing and causes damage to the nozzle. Particle accumulation in a 100 μm microchannel was investigated by light microscopy, and its area growth in an exponential format was used to quantify this phenomenon. The effects of the constriction angle and alginate concentration on particle accumulation were also studied. In order to reduce the clogging problem, an acoustic method was proposed and evaluated here. Numerical simulation was first conducted to predict the acoustic radiation force on the particles in the fluid with different viscosities. Interdigital transducers (IDTs) were fabricated on the LiNbO3 wafer to produce standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW) in the microchannel. It was found that the actuation of SSAW can reduce the accumulation area in the microchannel by 2 to 3.7-fold. In summary, the particle accumulation becomes significant with the increase of the constriction angle and fluid viscosity. The SSAW can effectively reduce the particle accumulation and postpone clogging. PMID:28067852

  8. Particle Accumulation in a Microchannel and Its Reduction by a Standing Surface Acoustic Wave (SSAW).

    PubMed

    Sriphutkiat, Yannapol; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-01-07

    Accumulation of particles in a high concentration on a microchannel wall is a common phenomenon in a colloidal fluid. Gradual accumulation/deposition of particles can eventually obstruct the fluid flow and lead to clogging, which seriously affects the accuracy and reliability of nozzle-based printing and causes damage to the nozzle. Particle accumulation in a 100 μm microchannel was investigated by light microscopy, and its area growth in an exponential format was used to quantify this phenomenon. The effects of the constriction angle and alginate concentration on particle accumulation were also studied. In order to reduce the clogging problem, an acoustic method was proposed and evaluated here. Numerical simulation was first conducted to predict the acoustic radiation force on the particles in the fluid with different viscosities. Interdigital transducers (IDTs) were fabricated on the LiNbO₃ wafer to produce standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW) in the microchannel. It was found that the actuation of SSAW can reduce the accumulation area in the microchannel by 2 to 3.7-fold. In summary, the particle accumulation becomes significant with the increase of the constriction angle and fluid viscosity. The SSAW can effectively reduce the particle accumulation and postpone clogging.

  9. Recent advances in microfluidic actuation and micro-object manipulation via surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-07-07

    The realization of microscale total analysis systems and lab-on-a-chip technologies requires efficient actuation (mixing, pumping, atomizing, nebulizing, driving, etc.) of fluids on the microscopic scale and dexterous manipulation (separation, sorting, trapping, concentration, merging, patterning, aligning, focusing, etc.) of micro-objects (cells, droplets, particles, nanotubes, etc.) in open (sessile droplets) as well as confined spaces (microchannels/chambers). These capabilities have been recently achieved using powerful acoustofluidic techniques based on high-frequency (10-1000 MHz) surface acoustic waves (SAWs). SAW-based miniaturized microfluidic devices are best known for their non-invasive properties, low costs, and ability to manipulate micro-objects in a label-free manner. The energy-efficient SAWs are also compatible with conventional microfabrication technologies. The present work critically analyses recent reports describing the use of SAWs in microfluidic actuation and micro-object manipulation. Acoustofluidic techniques may be categorized according to the use of travelling SAWs (TSAWs) or standing SAWs (SSAWs). TSAWs are used to actuate fluids and manipulate micro-objects via acoustic streaming flow (ASF) as well as acoustic radiation force (ARF). SSAWs are mainly used for micro-object manipulation and are rarely employed for microfluidic actuation. We have reviewed reports of new technological developments that have not been covered in other recent reviews. In the end, we describe the future prospects of SAW-based acoustofluidic technologies.

  10. An on-chip, multichannel droplet sorter using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sixing; Ding, Xiaoyun; Guo, Feng; Chen, Yuchao; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Wang, Lin; McCoy, J. Philip; Cameron, Craig E.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    The emerging field of droplet microfluidics requires effective on-chip handling and sorting of droplets. In this work, we demonstrate a microfluidic device that is capable of sorting picoliter water-in-oil droplets into multiple outputs using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). This device integrates a single-layer microfluidic channel with interdigital transducers (IDTs) to achieve on-chip droplet generation and sorting. Within the SSAW field, water-in-oil droplets experience an acoustic radiation force and are pushed towards the acoustic pressure node. As a result, by tuning the frequency of the SSAW excitation, the position of the pressure nodes can be changed and droplets can be sorted to different outlets at rates up to 222 droplets s−1. With its advantages in simplicity, controllability, versatility, non-invasiveness, and capability to be integrated with other on-chip components such as droplet manipulation and optical detection units, the technique presented here could be valuable for the development of droplet-based micro total analysis systems (μTAS). PMID:23647057

  11. Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Shilton, Richie J.; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-18

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754 MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w ≳ 10 λ, where λ is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

  12. Polydimethylsiloxane-LiNbO3 surface acoustic wave micropump devices for fluid control into microchannels.

    PubMed

    Girardo, Salvatore; Cecchini, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cingolani, Roberto; Pisignano, Dario

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents prototypical microfluidic devices made by hybrid microchannels based on piezoelectric LiNbO(3) and polydimethylsiloxane. This system enables withdrawing micropumping by acoustic radiation in microchannels. The withdrawing configuration, integrated on chip, is here quantitatively investigated for the first time, and found to be related to the formation and coalescence dynamics of droplets within the microchannel, primed by surface acoustic waves. The growth dynamics of droplets is governed by the water diffusion on LiNbO(3), determining the advancement of the fluid front. Observed velocities are up to 2.6 mm s(-1) for 30 dBm signals applied to the interdigital transducer, corresponding to tens of nl s(-1), and the micropumping dynamics is described by a model taking into account an acoustic power exponentially decaying upon travelling along the microchannel. This straighforward and flexible micropumping approach is particularly promising for the withdrawing of liquids in lab-on-chip devices performing cycling transport of fluids and biochemical reactions.

  13. Manipulating particle trajectories with phase-control in surface acoustic wave microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Orloff, Nathan D.; Dennis, Jaclyn R.; Cecchini, Marco; Schonbrun, Ethan; Rocas, Eduard; Wang, Yu; Novotny, David; Simmonds, Raymond W.; Moreland, John; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Booth, James C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 91 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator with integrated microfluidics that includes a flow focus, an expansion region, and a binning region in order to manipulate particle trajectories. We demonstrate the ability to change the position of the acoustic nodes by varying the electronic phase of one of the transducers relative to the other in a pseudo-static manner. The measurements were performed at room temperature with 3 μm diameter latex beads dispersed in a water-based solution. We demonstrate the dependence of nodal position on pseudo-static phase and show simultaneous control of 9 bead streams with spatial control of −0.058 μm/deg ± 0.001 μm/deg. As a consequence of changing the position of bead streams perpendicular to their flow direction, we also show that the integrated acoustic-microfluidic device can be used to change the trajectory of a bead stream towards a selected bin with an angular control of 0.008 deg/deg ± 0.000(2) deg/deg. PMID:22662059

  14. PACT - a bottom pressure based, compact deep-ocean tsunameter with acoustic surface coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrander, A.; Gouretski, V.; Boebel, O.

    2009-04-01

    The German-Indonsian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) processes a multitude of information to comprehensively and accurately evaluate the possible risks inherent to seismic events around Indonesia. Within just a few minutes, measurements of the vibration and horizontal movements off the coastal regions of Indonesia provide a clear picture of the location and intensity of a seaquake. However, not every seaquake causes a tsunami, nor is every tsunami caused by a seaquake. To avoid nerve-wrecking and costly false alarms and to protect against tsunamis caused by landslides, the oceanic sea-level must be measured directly. This goal is pursued in the GITEWS work package "ocean instrumentation", aiming at a a highest reliability and redundancy by developing a set of independent instruments, which measure the sea-level both offshore in the deep ocean and at the coast on the islands off Indonesia. Deep ocean sea-level changes less than a centimetre can be detected by pressure gauges deployed at the sea floor. Based on some of the concepts developed as part of the US DART system, a bottom pressure based, acoustically coupled tsunami detector (PACT) was developed under the auspices of the AWI in collaboration with two German SME and with support of University of Bremen and University of Rhode Island. The PACT system records ocean bottom pressure, performs on-board tsunami detection and acoustically relays the data to the surface buoy. However, employing computational powers and communication technologies of the new millennium, PACT integrates the entire sea-floor package (pressure gauge, data logger and analyzer, acoustic modem, acoustic release and relocation aids) into a single unit, i.e. a standard benthos sphere. PACT thereby reduces costs, minimizes the deployment efforts, while maximizing reliability and maintenance intervals. Several PACT systems are scheduled for their first deployment off Indonesia during 2009. In this presentation, the technical specifications

  15. Quantitative measurements of acoustic emissions from cavitation at the surface of a stone in response to a lithotripter shock wave.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Parag V; Cleveland, Robin O

    2006-04-01

    Measurements are presented of acoustic emissions from cavitation collapses on the surface of a synthetic kidney stone in response to shock waves (SWs) from an electrohydraulic lithotripter. A fiber optic probe hydrophone was used for pressure measurements, and passive cavitation detection was used to identify acoustic emissions from bubble collapse. At a lithotripter charging voltage of 20 kV, the focused SW incident on the stone surface resulted in a peak pressure of 43 +/- 6 MPa compared to 23 +/- 4 MPa in the free field. The focused SW incident upon the stone appeared to be enhanced due to the acoustic emissions from the forced cavitation collapse of the preexisting bubbles. The peak pressure of the acoustic emission from a bubble collapse was 34 +/- 15 MPa, that is, the same magnitude as the SWs incident on the stone. These data indicate that stresses induced by focused SWs and cavitation collapses are similar in magnitude thus likely play a similar role in stone fragmentation.

  16. Guided shear horizontal surface acoustic wave sensors for chemical and biochemical detection in liquids.

    PubMed

    Josse, F; Bender, F; Cernose, R W

    2001-12-15

    The design and performance of guided shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (guided SH-SAW) devices on LiTaO3 substrates are investigated for high-sensitivity chemical and biochemical sensors in liquids. Despite their structural similarity to Rayleigh SAW, SH-SAWs often propagate slightly deeper within the substrate, hence preventing the implementation of high-sensitivity detectors. The device sensitivity to mass and viscoelastic loading is increased using a thin guiding layer on the device surface. Because of their relatively low shear wave velocity, various polymers including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and cyanoethyl cellulose (cured or cross-linked) are investigated as the guiding layers to trap the acoustic energy near the sensing surface. The devices have been tested in biosensing and chemical sensing experiments. Suitable design principles for these applications are discussed with regard to wave guidance, electrical passivation of the interdigital transducers from the liquid environments, acoustic loss, and sensor signal distortion. In biosensing experiments, using near-optimal PMMA thickness of approximately 2 microm, mass sensitivity greater than 1500 Hz/(ng/mm2) is demonstrated, resulting in a minimum detection limit less than 20 pg/mm2. For chemical sensor experiments, it is found that optimal waveguide thickness must be modified to account for the chemically sensitive layer which also acts to guide the SH-SAW. A detection limit of 780 (3 x peak-to-peak noise) or 180 ppb (3 x rms noise) is estimated from the present measurements for some organic compounds in water.

  17. Surface acoustic wave modulation of a coherently driven quantum dot in a pillar microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, B.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Lee, J. P.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Mitchell, T. A.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Ford, C. J. B.; Shields, A. J.

    2017-07-01

    We report the efficient coherent photon scattering from a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a pillar microcavity. We show that a surface acoustic wave can periodically modulate the energy levels of the quantum dot but has a negligible effect on the cavity mode. The scattered narrow-band laser is converted into a pulsed single-photon stream, displaying an anti-bunching dip characteristic of single-photon emission. Multiple phonon sidebands are resolved in the emission spectrum, due to the absorption and emission of vibrational quanta in each scattering event.

  18. Amplification and directional emission of surface acoustic waves by a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Lei; Pipe, Kevin P.

    2015-01-12

    Amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by electron drift in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is analyzed analytically and confirmed experimentally. Calculations suggest that peak power gain per SAW radian occurs at a more practical carrier density for a 2DEG than for a bulk material. It is also shown that SAW emission with tunable directionality can be achieved by modulating a 2DEG's carrier density (to effect SAW generation) in the presence of an applied DC field that amplifies SAWs propagating in a particular direction while attenuating those propagating in the opposite direction.

  19. Surface Acoustic Wave Ammonia Sensors Based on ST-cut Quartz under Periodic Al Structure.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Liang; Shen, Chi-Yen; Tsai, Rume-Tze; Su, Ming-Yau

    2009-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are key components for sensing applications. SAW propagation under a periodic grating was investigated in this work. The theoretical method used here is the space harmonic method. We also applied the results of SAW propagation studied in this work to design a two-port resonator with an Al grating on ST-cut quartz. The measured frequency responses of the resonator were similar to the simulation ones. Then, the chemical interface of polyaniline/WO(3) composites was coated on the SAW sensor for ammonia detection. The SAW sensor responded to ammonia gas and could be regenerated using dry nitrogen.

  20. Surface acoustic wave opto-mechanical oscillator and frequency comb generator.

    PubMed

    Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2011-09-01

    We report on realization of an efficient triply resonant coupling between two long lived optical modes and a high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode of the same monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. The coupling results in an opto-mechanical oscillation and generation of a monochromatic SAW. A strong nonlinear interaction of this mechanical mode with other equidistant SAW modes leads to mechanical hyperparametric oscillation and generation of a SAW pulse train and associated frequency comb in the resonator. We visualized the comb by observing the modulation of the light escaping the resonator.

  1. Surface acoustic wave regulated single photon emission from a coupled quantum dot-nanocavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, M.; Kapfinger, S.; Reichert, T.; Finley, J. J.; Wixforth, A.; Kaniber, M.; Krenner, H. J.

    2016-07-01

    A coupled quantum dot-nanocavity system in the weak coupling regime of cavity-quantumelectrodynamics is dynamically tuned in and out of resonance by the coherent elastic field of a fSAW ≃ 800 MHz surface acoustic wave. When the system is brought to resonance by the sound wave, light-matter interaction is strongly increased by the Purcell effect. This leads to a precisely timed single photon emission as confirmed by the second order photon correlation function, g(2). All relevant frequencies of our experiment are faithfully identified in the Fourier transform of g(2), demonstrating high fidelity regulation of the stream of single photons emitted by the system.

  2. Spin Current Generation Using a Surface Acoustic Wave Generated via Spin-Rotation Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, D.; Yoshikawa, T.; Matsuo, M.; Iguchi, R.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.; Nozaki, Y.

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the generation of alternating spin current (SC) via spin-rotation coupling (SRC) using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) in a Cu film. Ferromagnetic resonance caused by injecting SAWs was observed in a Ni-Fe film attached to a Cu film, with the resonance further found to be suppressed through the insertion of a SiO2 film into the interface. The intensity of the resonance depended on the angle between the wave vector of the SAW and the magnetization of the Ni-Fe film. This angular dependence is explicable in terms of the presence of spin transfer torque from a SC generated via SRC.

  3. Development of a surface acoustic wave sensor for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds.

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Wright, Jerome L.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Rawlinson, Kim Scott; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that is designed to be operated continuously and in situ to detect volatile organic compounds. A ruggedized stainless-steel package that encases the SAW device and integrated circuit board allows the sensor to be deployed in a variety of media including air, soil, and even water. Polymers were optimized and chosen based on their response to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene), which are common groundwater contaminants. Initial testing indicates that a running-average data-logging algorithm can reduce the noise and increase the sensitivity of the in-situ sensor.

  4. Surface acoustic wave devices based on AlN/sapphire structure for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Thierry; Elmazria, Omar; Assouar, Badreddine; Bouvot, Laurent; Oudich, Mourad

    2010-05-01

    AlN/sapphire layered structure has been investigated as a potential substrate for surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices operating at high temperatures up to 950 °C under air atmosphere. Frequency characterizations of the SAW delay lines based on this structure indicate a slight increase of 2 dB in the insertion losses after annealing for 30 min at 900 °C. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy as well as x-ray diffraction measurements suggest that theses losses are due to the deterioration of the Pt/Ta electrodes and to a slight oxidation of the AlN film.

  5. Surface Acoustic Wave Multiple Phase Shift Keying Modulator-Demodulator Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Nobushige; Komine, Kenji; Hara, Motoaki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Hohkawa, Kohji

    1994-05-01

    Multiple phase shift keying technology is effectively used in various communication systems because of its high-capacity data transmission capability along a restricted passband. This-paper proposes a high-performance offset quadri-pulse shift keying modulator and demodulator with a new simple circuit configuration employing surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. We propose two types of modulators (modulation and pulse pattern generation method) and a demodulator with a differential-operation SAW device. A fundamental experiment verified the feasibility of the circuits.

  6. Rapid microscale in-gel processing and digestion of proteins using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ketav P; Ramarathinam, Sri H; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie; Purcell, Anthony W; Perlmutter, Patrick

    2010-06-21

    A new method for in-gel sample processing and tryptic digestion of proteins is described. Sample preparation, rehydration, in situ digestion and peptide extraction from gel slices are dramatically accelerated by treating the gel slice with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Only 30 minutes total workflow time is required for this new method to produce base peak chromatograms (BPCs) of similar coverage and intensity to those observed for traditional processing and overnight digestion. Simple set up, good reproducibility, excellent peptide recoveries, rapid turnover of samples and high confidence protein identifications put this technology at the fore-front of the next generation of proteomics sample processing tools.

  7. In situ high-temperature characterization of AlN-based surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Thierry; Bardong, Jochen; Legrani, Ouarda; Elmazria, Omar; Badreddine Assouar, M.; Bruckner, Gudrun; Talbi, Abdelkrim

    2013-07-01

    We report on in situ electrical measurements of surface acoustic wave delay lines based on AlN/sapphire structure and iridium interdigital transducers between 20 °C and 1050 °C under vacuum conditions. The devices show a great potential for temperature sensing applications. Burnout is only observed after 60 h at 1050 °C and is mainly attributed to the agglomeration phenomena undergone by the Ir transducers. However, despite the vacuum conditions, a significant oxidation of the AlN film is observed, pointing out the limitation of the considered structure at least at such extreme temperatures. Original structures overcoming this limitation are then proposed and discussed.

  8. Quantum Simulator for the Hubbard Model with Long-Range Coulomb Interactions Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Tim; Recher, Patrik; Kim, Na Young; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2007-07-01

    An experimental scheme for a quantum simulator of strongly correlated electrons is proposed. Our scheme employs electrons confined in a two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction. Two surface acoustic waves are then induced in the substrate, creating a two-dimensional “egg-carton” potential. The dynamics of the electrons in this potential are described by a Hubbard model with long-range Coulomb interactions. Estimates of the Hubbard parameters suggest that observations of quantum phase transition phenomena are within experimental reach.

  9. Surface acoustic admittance of highly porous open-cell, elastic foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive study of the surface acoustic admittance properties of graded sizes of open-cell foams that are highly porous and elastic. The intrinsic admittance as well as properties of samples of finite depth were predicted and then measured for sound at normal incidence over a frequency range extending from about 35-3500 Hz. The agreement between theory and experiment for a range of mean pore size and volume porosity is excellent. The implications of fibrous structure on the admittance of open-cell foams is quite evident from the results.

  10. Multilayer graphene electrodes for one-port surface acoustic wave resonator mass sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Ainan; Swamy, Varghese; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2017-02-01

    A one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator mass sensor composed of multilayer graphene (MLG) electrodes was investigated by the finite element method (FEM) and analyses were carried out to study the enhancement of sensitivity and the secondary effects caused by MLG electrodes on the performance of the resonator. Unlike metal electrodes, MLG electrode offers elastic loading to the contact surface, as evidenced by the increase in the surface velocity of the SAW device. In terms of the sensitivity of the mass sensor, MLG electrode showed the largest center frequency shift in response to a change in mass loading, as well as when used as a gas sensor to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Also, MLG electrodes offered the least triple transit signal (TTS) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) generations compared with Al and Au–Cr electrodes. Thus, the one-port SAW resonator with graphene electrodes not only possesses excellent performance characteristics but also gives rise to new opportunities in the development of highly sensitive mass sensors.

  11. Internal reflection as a cause of the correlation of counterpropagating pulses in superradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Trifonov, E.D.

    1994-07-01

    Resonant reflection from boundaries as an excitation region is considered as a cause of a correlation of counterpropagating pulses in superradiance. Criteria for the pulse synchronization are obtained, both for pure superradiance and for the case when phase relaxation is present. 11 refs.

  12. All-Optical Quasi-Phase Matching of Frequency Doubling Using Counterpropagating Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camuccio, Richard; Myer, Rachel; Penfield, Allison; Gagnon, Etienne; Lytle, Amy

    Nonlinear optical frequency conversion is a useful method for creating coherent light sources with unique capabilities. The main challenge for conversion efficiency of processes like frequency doubling is the chromatic dispersion of the nonlinear medium. Successful techniques for correcting the phase mismatch between the different frequencies are often limited by the type of nonlinear medium that may be used. An all-optical method of quasi-phase matching using counterpropagating light has recently been demonstrated for high-order harmonic generation, an extreme nonlinear process. Sequences of counterpropagating pulses are used to interfere with the harmonic generation process periodically, correcting the phase mismatch and boosting efficiency. We report progress on an experimental investigation of the effect of counterpropagating light on the more commonly used low-order nonlinear optical processes. We present data showing the effects of a single counterpropagating pulse on the efficiency of frequency doubling of a Ti:sapphire ultrafast laser oscillator in beta-Barium Borate. Research Corporation for Science Advancement (RCSA), Cottrell College Science Award #21084; Franklin & Marshall Hackman Summer Scholars Program.

  13. All-optical quasi-phase matching of frequency doubling using counterpropagating light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, Rachel; Penfield, Allison; Gagnon, Etienne; Lytle, Amy

    2013-03-01

    Nonlinear optical frequency conversion is a useful method for creating coherent light sources with unique capabilities. The main challenge for conversion efficiency of processes like frequency doubling is the chromatic dispersion of the nonlinear medium. Successful techniques for correcting the phase mismatch between the different frequencies are often limited by the type of nonlinear medium that may be used. An all-optical method of quasi-phase matching using counterpropagating light has recently been demonstrated for high-order harmonic generation, an extreme nonlinear process. Sequences of counterpropagating pulses are used to interfere with the harmonic generation process periodically, correcting the phase mismatch and boosting efficiency. We report progress on an experimental investigation of the effect of counterpropagating light on the more commonly used low-order nonlinear optical processes. We present data showing the effects of a single counterpropagating pulse on the efficiency of frequency doubling of a Ti:sapphire ultrafast laser oscillator in beta-Barium Borate. This work is supported by the Hackman Summer Scholars program at Franklin & Marshall College, and a CCSA grant (#21084) from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  14. Parametric Excitations of Fast Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch

    2001-03-19

    Short- and long-wavelength plasma waves can become strongly coupled in the presence of two counter-propagating laser pump pulses detuned by twice the cold plasma frequency. What makes this four-wave interaction important is that the growth rate of the plasma waves occurs much faster than in the more obvious co-propagating geometry.

  15. Frequency characteristic of a uniformly rotating laser gyroscope with differently amplified counterpropagating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, Evgenii A

    2002-02-28

    It is shown that the frequency characteristic of a uniformly rotating laser gyroscope with differently amplified counterpropagating waves is described by the expression containing components that are commuting or noncommuting with respect to the angular velocity. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Trapping of atoms by the counter-propagating stochastic light waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanenko, V. I.; Yatsenko, L. P.

    2017-06-01

    We calculate the temperature of the atoms in the field of counter-propagating stochastic light waves (the chaotic-field model). We show that the temperature of the atomic ensemble depends on the autocorrelation time of the waves, their intensity and the detuning of the carrier frequency of the waves from the atomic transition frequency. The field can form a one-dimensional trap for atoms, as is readily seen from our previous investigation of light-pressure force on an atom in counter-propagating stochastic light waves [V. I. Romanenko, B. W. Shore, L. P. Yatsenko, Opt. Commun. 268 (2006) 121-132]. We carry out numerical simulation of the atomic ensemble using parameters appropriate for sodium atoms. Analyzing the known investigation of the light-pressure force on atoms and their motion in the counter-propagating polychromatic waves, we suggest an hypothesis that any polychromatic counter-propagating waves that have a discrete spectrum, or waves described by a stationary stochastic process, one of which repeats the other, can form a trap for atoms.

  17. Measurement of Plasma Clotting Using Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Tatsuya; Kondoh, Jun; Oonishi, Tomoko; Hosokawa, Kazuya

    2013-07-01

    The monitoring of blood coagulation is important during operation. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied to monitor plasma clotting. An SH-SAW sensor with a metallized surface for mechanical perturbation detection can detect plasma clotting. As plasma clotting is a gel formation reaction, the SH-SAW sensor detects viscoelastic property changes. On the other hand, an SH-SAW sensor with a free surface for electrical perturbation detection detects only the liquid mixing effect. No electrical property changes due to plasma clotting are obtained using this sensor. A planar electrochemical sensor is also used to monitor plasma clotting. In impedance spectral analysis, plasma clotting is measured. However, in the measurement of time responses, no differences between clotting and nonclotting are obtained. Therefore, the SH-SAW sensor is useful for monitoring plasma clotting.

  18. Infrared beam-steering using acoustically modulated surface plasmons over a graphene monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.-Y.; Farhat, M.; Askarpour, A. N.; Tymchenko, M.; Alù, A.

    2014-09-01

    We model and design a graphene-based infrared beamformer based on the concept of leaky-wave (fast traveling wave) antennas. The excitation of infrared surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) over a ‘one-atom-thick’ graphene monolayer is typically associated with intrinsically ‘slow light’. By modulating the graphene with elastic vibrations based on flexural waves, a dynamic diffraction grating can be formed on the graphene surface, converting propagating SPPs into fast surface waves, able to radiate directive infrared beams into the background medium. This scheme allows fast on-off switching of infrared emission and dynamic tuning of its radiation pattern, beam angle and frequency of operation, by simply varying the acoustic frequency that controls the effective grating period. We envision that this graphene beamformer may be integrated into reconfigurable transmitter/receiver modules, switches and detectors for THz and infrared wireless communication, sensing, imaging and actuation systems.

  19. Microfluidic pumps employing surface acoustic waves generated in ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Du, X. Y.; Flewitt, A. J.; Milne, W. I.; Fu, Y. Q.; Luo, J. K.

    2009-01-15

    ZnO thin film based surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been utilized to fabricate microfluidic pumps. The SAW devices were fabricated on nanocrystalline ZnO piezoelectric thin films deposited on Si substrates using rf magnetron sputtering and use a Sezawa wave mode for effective droplet motion. The as-deposited ZnO surface is hydrophilic, with a water contact angle of {approx}75 deg., which prevents droplet pumping. Therefore, the ZnO surface was coated using a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane which forms a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of {approx}110 deg. Liquid droplets between 0.5 and 1 {mu}l in volume were successfully pumped on the hydrophobic ZnO surface at velocities up to 1 cm s{sup -1}. Under acoustic pressure, the water droplet on an hydrophilic surface becomes deformed, and the asymmetry in the contact angle at the trailing and leading edges allow the force acting upon the droplet to be calculated. These forces, which increase with input voltage above a threshold level, are found to be in the range of {approx}100 {mu}N. A pulsed rf signal has also been used to demonstrate precision manipulation of the liquid droplets. Furthermore, a SAW device structure is demonstrated in which the ZnO piezoelectric only exists under the input and output transducers. This structure still permits pumping, while avoiding direct contact between the piezoelectric material and the fluid. This is of particular importance for biological laboratory-on-a-chip applications.

  20. Surface acoustic BLOCH oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling in a solid.

    PubMed

    de Lima, M M; Kosevich, Yu A; Santos, P V; Cantarero, A

    2010-04-23

    We present the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling of surface acoustic waves in perturbed grating structures on a solid substrate. A model providing a quantitative description of our experimental observations, including multiple Landau-Zener transitions of the anticrossed surface acoustic Wannier-Stark states, is developed. The use of a planar geometry for the realization of the Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling allows a direct access to the elastic field distribution. The vertical surface displacement has been measured by interferometry.

  1. Measurement of surface acoustic wave velocity using a variable-line-focus polyurea thin-film ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Marie; Tabaru, Masaya; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the novel measurement method of the surface acoustic wave velocity by the variable-line- focus transducer using a polyurea piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. First, a multiresonant polyurea thin-film ultrasonic transducer is fabricated by the vapor deposition polymerization process using 2 monomers. Second, the measurement system of surface acoustic wave velocity modified from the V(z) curve method is established. The system uses the fabricated polyurea thin film as a variable-line-focus transducer at the 30-MHz resonance frequency. The focal length is changed by varying the radius of curvature of the film transducer. To estimate the surface acoustic wave velocities from the measured data theoretically, the photographs of the transducer bent shapes are taken by using a digital microscope, and the bent transducer curvature is modeled by the 7th-order polynomial. To examine the performances of the variable-line-focus transducer, the surface acoustic wave velocities of an aluminum and a synthesized silica glass specimen have been measured. The measured surface acoustic velocities showed good agreement with the reference values.

  2. Comment on "Reconstructing surface wave profiles from reflected acoustic pulses" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(5), 2597-2611 (2013)].

    PubMed

    Choo, Youngmin; Song, H C

    2016-05-01

    A computationally efficient, time-domain Helmholtz-Kirchhoff (H-K) integral was derived and applied to reconstructing surface wave profiles from reflected acoustic pulses [Walstead and Deane, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2597-2611 (2013)]. However, the final form of the integral equation incorporating a stationary phase approximation contained a complex phase term exp(iπ/4), which cannot be treated as a simple time delay. In this work, a real time-domain H-K integral is presented that includes an additional Hilbert transform of the time-derivative of the transmitted pulse. Numerical simulation with a sinusoidal surface shows good agreement between the real time-domain formulation and exact H-K integral, while achieving a significant improvement in computational speed (e.g., 2 orders of magnitude).

  3. Sound scattering from rough bubbly ocean surface based on modified sea surface acoustic simulator and consideration of various incident angles and sub-surface bubbles' radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolghasi, Alireza; Ghadimi, Parviz; Chekab, Mohammad A. Feizi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to improve the capabilities and precision of a recently introduced Sea Surface Acoustic Simulator (SSAS) developed based on optimization of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Fresnel (HKF) method. The improved acoustic simulator, hereby known as the Modified SSAS (MSSAS), is capable of determining sound scattering from the sea surface and includes an extended Hall-Novarini model and optimized HKF method. The extended Hall-Novarini model is used for considering the effects of sub-surface bubbles over a wider range of radii of sub-surface bubbles compared to the previous SSAS version. Furthermore, MSSAS has the capability of making a three-dimensional simulation of scattered sound from the rough bubbly sea surface with less error than that of the Critical Sea Tests (CST) experiments. Also, it presents scattered pressure levels from the rough bubbly sea surface based on various incident angles of sound. Wind speed, frequency, incident angle, and pressure level of the sound source are considered as input data, and scattered pressure levels and scattering coefficients are provided. Finally, different parametric studies were conducted on wind speeds, frequencies, and incident angles to indicate that MSSAS is quite capable of simulating sound scattering from the rough bubbly sea surface, according to the scattering mechanisms determined by Ogden and Erskine. Therefore, it is concluded that MSSAS is valid for both scattering mechanisms and the transition region between them that are defined by Ogden and Erskine.

  4. Mobile acoustic system for the detection of surface-breaking cracks in pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzani, Alessandro; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Benzoni, Gianmario

    2004-07-01

    Monitoring the structural condition of road and airport pavement is an extremely critical task to ensure the safety and efficiency of teh transportation. The topic is relevant to both civil and military transportation infrastructure. The presence of damage in pavement, including surface cracking, depressions, swells, and wear, is inevitable due to the sever environmental and service loads that these structures must be subject to. Existing NDE techniques aimed at assessing the structural condition of pavement include Falling Weight Deflectometer, Ground Penetrating Radar, and acoustic methods based on surface waves. This paper presents improvements to the traditional surface-wave method for the detection of surface-breaking cracks in pavement. The advances include 1) the modeling of the problem as dipsersive waves propagating in a multilayer system, 2) the inclusion of post-processing algorithms based on the Wavelet Transform to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the inspection, and 3) the use of non-contact, air-coupled acoustic detectors to enhance the mobility of the inspection unit. The crack detection procedure consists of first generating a dispersive wave with an impulse hammer, and then measuring the changes in velocity, amplitude and/or frequency content as the wave travels across the flaw with the aid of the Continuous Wavelet Transform. Multilayer wave propagation modeling provides a better understanding of the experimental results by predicting how the various frequencies interact with cracks of different depths. The results of field tests will be presented for both rigid (concrete-based) and flexible (bitumen-based) pavement with surface cracks.

  5. Passive wireless surface acoustic wave sensors for monitoring sequestration sites CO2 emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yizhong; Chyu, Minking; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2013-02-14

    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/°C. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/°C. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2 . The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2 . With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  6. Diagnostics of elastic properties of a planar interface between two rough media using surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokshaiskii, A. I.; Korobov, A. I.; Shirgina, N. V.

    2017-03-01

    The results of experimental studies on the nonlinear elastic properties of a planar interface between two media are presented—an optically polished glass substrate and flat samples with different degrees of roughness. The nonlinear elastic properties of the interfaces between two media were investigated by the spectral method using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The effect of external pressure applied to the interface on the efficiency of the generation of the second SAW harmonic was studied. Using the measured amplitudes of the first and second harmonics of the SAW that passes along the interface, the second-order nonlinear acoustic parameter was calculated as a function of the external pressure applied to the sample at a fixed amplitude of a probing wave. It was revealed that the nonlinear parameter of the SAW is a nonmonotonic function of the pressure at the boundary. The results were analyzed on the basis of an elastic contact nonlinearity, and it is concluded that these results can be used in nondestructive testing for roughness and waviness of surfaces of flat solids.

  7. Advanced vapor recognition materials for selective and fast responsive surface acoustic wave sensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Adeel; Iqbal, Naseer; Mujahid, Adnan; Schirhagl, Romana

    2013-07-17

    The necessity of selectively detecting various organic vapors is primitive not only with respect to regular environmental and industrial hazard monitoring, but also in detecting explosives to combat terrorism and for defense applications. Today, the huge arsenal of micro-sensors has revolutionized the traditional methods of analysis by, e.g. replacing expensive laboratory equipment, and has made the remote screening of atmospheric threats possible. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors - based on piezoelectric crystal resonators - are extremely sensitive to even very small perturbations in the external atmosphere, because the energy associated with the acoustic waves is confined to the crystal surface. Combined with suitably designed molecular recognition materials SAW devices could develop into highly selective and fast responsive miniaturized sensors, which are capable of continuously monitoring a specific organic gas, preferably in the sub-ppm regime. For this purpose, different types of recognition layers ranging from nanostructured metal oxides and carbons to pristine or molecularly imprinted polymers and self-assembled monolayers have been applied in the past decade. We present a critical review of the recent developments in nano- and micro-engineered synthetic recognition materials predominantly used for SAW-based organic vapor sensors. Besides highlighting their potential to realize real-time vapor sensing, their limitations and future perspectives are also discussed.

  8. Direct imaging of delayed magneto-dynamic modes induced by surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Michael; Macià, Ferran; Statuto, Nahuel; Finizio, Simone; Hernández-Mínguez, Alberto; Lendínez, Sergi; Santos, Paulo V; Fontcuberta, Josep; Hernàndez, Joan Manel; Kläui, Mathias; Aballe, Lucia

    2017-09-01

    The magnetoelastic effect-the change of magnetic properties caused by the elastic deformation of a magnetic material-has been proposed as an alternative approach to magnetic fields for the low-power control of magnetization states of nanoelements since it avoids charge currents, which entail ohmic losses. Here, we have studied the effect of dynamic strain accompanying a surface acoustic wave on magnetic nanostructures in thermal equilibrium. We have developed an experimental technique based on stroboscopic X-ray microscopy that provides a pathway to the quantitative study of strain waves and magnetization at the nanoscale. We have simultaneously imaged the evolution of both strain and magnetization dynamics of nanostructures at the picosecond time scale and found that magnetization modes have a delayed response to the strain modes, adjustable by the magnetic domain configuration. Our results provide fundamental insight into magnetoelastic coupling in nanostructures and have implications for the design of strain-controlled magnetostrictive nano-devices.Understanding the effects of local dynamic strain on magnetization may help the development of magnetic devices. Foerster et al. demonstrate stroboscopic imaging that allows the observation of both strain and magnetization dynamics in nickel when surface acoustic waves are driven in the substrate.

  9. Hybrid Surface Acoustic Wave- Electrohydrodynamic Atomization (SAW-EHDA) For the Development of Functional Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Bum; Ali, Kamran; Sajid, Memoon; Uddin Siddiqui, Ghayas; Chang, Dong Eui; Kim, Hyung Chan; Ko, Jeong Beom; Dang, Hyun Woo; Doh, Yang Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Conventional surface acoustic wave - electrostatic deposition (SAW-ED) technology is struggling to compete with other thin film fabrication technologies because of its limitation in atomizing high density solutions or solutions with strong inter-particle bonding that requires very high frequency (100 MHz) and power. In this study, a hybrid surface acoustic wave - electrohydrodynamic atomization (SAW-EHDA) system has been introduced to overcome this problem by integrating EHDA with SAW to achieve the deposition of different types of conductive inks at lower frequency (19.8 MHZ) and power. Three materials, Poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), Zinc Oxide (ZnO), and Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Polystyrene Sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) have been successfully deposited as thin films through the hybrid SAW-EHDA. The films showed good morphological, chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics. To further evaluate the characteristics of deposited films, a humidity sensor was fabricated with active layer of PEDOT:PSS deposited using the SAW-EHDA system. The response of sensor was outstanding and much better when compared to similar sensors fabricated using other manufacturing techniques. The results of the device and the films’ characteristics suggest that the hybrid SAW-EHDA technology has high potential to efficiently produce wide variety of thin films and thus predict its promising future in certain areas of printed electronics. PMID:26478189

  10. Bulk and surface acoustic waves in solid-fluid Fibonacci layered materials.

    PubMed

    Quotane, I; El Boudouti, E H; Djafari-Rouhani, B; El Hassouani, Y; Velasco, V R

    2015-08-01

    We study theoretically the propagation and localization of acoustic waves in quasi-periodic structures made of solid and fluid layers arranged according to a Fibonacci sequence. We consider two types of structures: either a given Fibonacci sequence or a periodic repetition of a given sequence called Fibonacci superlattice. Various properties of these systems such as: the scaling law and the self-similarity of the transmission spectra or the power law behavior of the measure of the energy spectrum have been highlighted for waves of sagittal polarization in normal and oblique incidence. In addition to the allowed modes which propagate along the system, we study surface modes induced by the surface of the Fibonacci superlattice. In comparison with solid-solid layered structures, the solid-fluid systems exhibit transmission zeros which can break the self-similarity behavior in the transmission spectra for a given sequence or induce additional gaps other than Bragg gaps in a periodic structure.

  11. Acoustic Plate Mode sensing in liquids based on free and electrically shorted plate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Anisimkin, V I; Caliendo, C; Verona, E

    2016-05-01

    The sensing behavior to liquids for Acoustic Plate Modes (APMs) propagating along 64°Y, 90°X LiNbO3 plate was investigated vs. two electric boundary conditions. The changes in the APMs phase velocity and attenuation were measured upon exposure to different liquids wetting one of the surfaces of the plate, either free or electrically shorted by a thin conductive Al layer. The experimental data confirm that the presence of a metallic layer covering one of the plate surfaces affects the viscosity and temperature sensitivity of the device. The differences between the sensor response for various liquids, with free or metalized faces, are interpreted in terms of the APM polarization.

  12. Simplified theory of the acoustic surface plasmons at the two-dimentional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jong-Kwan; Kim, Yon-Il; Kim, Kwang-Hyon; Kang, Chol-Jin; Ri, Myong Chol; Kim, Song-Hyok

    2016-01-01

    In the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), the system can be polarized by metal ions on the 2D surface, resulting in screening of Coulomb interaction between electrons. We calculate the 2D screened Coulomb interaction in Thomas-Fermi approximation and find that both electron-hole (e-h) and collective excitations occurring in the 2DEG can be described with the use of effective dielectric function, in the random-phase approximation (RPA). In this paper we show that the mode proportional to in-plane momentum, called acoustic surface plasmon (ASP), can appear in long-wavelength limit. We calculate ASP dispersion and determine the critical wave number and frequency for the ASP decay into e-h pair, and the velocity of ASP. Our result agrees qualitatively with previous ones in tendency.

  13. Landau damping of the dust-acoustic surface waves in a Lorentzian dusty plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-01-15

    Landau damping of a dust-acoustic surface wave propagating at the interfaces of generalized Lorentzian dusty plasma slab bounded by a vacuum is kinetically derived as the surface wave displays the symmetric and the anti-symmetric mode in a plasma slab. In the limiting case of small scaled wave number, we have found that Landau damping is enhanced as the slab thickness is increased. In particular, the damping of anti-symmetric mode is much stronger for a Lorentzian plasma than for a Maxwellian plasma. We have also found that the damping is more affected by superthermal particles in a Lorentzian plasma than by a Maxwellian plasma for both of the symmetric and the anti-symmetric cases. The variations of Landau damping with various parameters are also discussed.

  14. Detection of cells captured with antigens on shear horizontal surface-acoustic-wave sensors.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hsu-Chao; Chang, Hwan-You; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2013-02-01

    Techniques to separate cells are widely applied in immunology. The technique to separate a specific antigen on a microfluidic platform involves the use of a shear horizontal surface-acoustic-wave (SH-SAW) sensor. With specific antibodies conjugated onto the surface of the SH-SAW sensors, this technique can serve to identify specific cells in bodily fluids. Jurkat cells, used as a target in this work, provide a model of cells in small abundance (1:1000) for isolation and purification with the ultimate goal of targeting even more dilute cells. T cells were separated from a mixed-cell medium on a chip (Jurkat cells/K562 cells, 1/1000). A novel microchamber was developed to capture cells during the purification, which required a large biosample. Cell detection was demonstrated through the performance of genetic identification on the chip.

  15. Surface acoustic wave amplification by direct current-voltage supplied to graphene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insepov, Z.; Emelin, E.; Kononenko, O.; Roshchupkin, D. V.; Tnyshtykbayev, K. B.; Baigarin, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-resolution X-Ray diffraction measurement method, the surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of a Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) piezoelectric crystal was investigated, where an external current was driven across the graphene film. Here, we show that the application of the DC field leads to a significant enhancement of the SAW magnitude and, as a result, to amplification of the diffraction satellites. Amplification of 33.2 dB/cm for the satellite +1, and of 13.8 dB/cm for the satellite +2, at 471 MHz has been observed where the external DC voltage of +10 V was applied. Amplification of SAW occurs above a DC field much smaller than that of a system using bulk semiconductor. Theoretical estimates are in reasonable agreement with our measurements and analysis of experimental data for other materials.

  16. Characterization of Surface Acoustic Wave Nebulization: Atomization dynamics and resulting droplet size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Alicia; Aliseda, Alberto; Heron, Scott; Huang, Yue; Goodlett, David

    2012-11-01

    High-speed imaging and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements are used to characterize the size and velocity distributions of micron-sized droplets produced by a surface acoustic wave (SAW) microelectronic nebulizer. The effects of drop composition, electric field amplitude and pulsation frequency, and initial drop volume have been experimentally studied. We observe that the droplets created in pure water are smaller, ~2 μm, and the plume more concentrated near the nebulizer, with small second probability peak for large diameters, ~100 μm. Pure methanol droplets have larger diameters, ~ 5 μm, and lower volume concentration in the nebulizer plume, as corresponds to less efficient atomization process. The influence of fluid viscosity and surface tension will be discussed. Measurements of the velocity distribution show a strong dependency with excitation amplitude and duty factor.

  17. Toward soft-tissue elastography using digital holography to monitor surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiguang; Mohan, Karan D; Sanders, William W; Oldenburg, Amy L

    2011-11-01

    Measuring the elasticity distribution inside the human body is of great interest because elastic abnormalities can serve as indicators of several diseases. We present a method for mapping elasticity inside soft tissues by imaging surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with digital holographic interferometry. With this method, we show that SAWs are consistent with Rayleigh waves, with velocities proportional to the square root of the elastic modulus greater than 2-40 kPa in homogeneous tissue phantoms. In two-layer phantoms, the SAW velocity transitions approximately from that of the lower layer to that of the upper layer as frequency is increased in agreement with the theoretical relationship between SAW dispersion and the depth-dependent stiffness profile. We also observed deformation in the propagation direction of SAWs above a stiff inclusion placed 8 mm below the surface. These findings demonstrate the potential for quantitative digital holography-based elastography of soft tissues as a noninvasive method for disease detection.

  18. The Gate Hysteresis in Single Electron Transport Driven by Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW/SET) Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li; Chen, Shuwei

    2017-08-01

    We study the gate hysteresis behavior in single electron transport driven by surface acoustic wave (SAW/SET) devices over a wide temperature range from 1.7 to 200 K. From the temperature dependence, we come to the conclusion that the gate hysteresis in SAW/SET devices arises from a combination of the screening effect of the surface state and the electron tunneling between the moving quantum dot and the impurity quantum dot. In addition, when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied to the sample, the behavior of the gate hysteresis changes substantially. A competition between the magnetic field and the gate voltage on determining the electronic wave function is considered as the reason for the experimental results.

  19. Evaluation of the inner-surface morphology of an artificial heart by acoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Y; Okawai, H; Sasaki, H; Yambe, T; Nitta, S; Tanaka, M; Kobayashi, K; Honda, Y

    2000-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is being developed for permanent replacement of the natural heart instead of heart transplantation. The need for detecting the material fatigue in the TAH is increasing in order to guarantee long-term use. In this study, the inner surface morphology of the TAH was evaluated by a specially developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) system operating in the frequency range of 100-200 MHz. The inner sac of our TAH consisted of polyvinylchloride coated with polyurethane, and the SAM investigations were performed before and after the implantations in goats. The amplitude images of the SAM demonstrated protein adhesion on the inner surface of the TAH after the animal experiment, and the phase images showed distortion of the wall with spatial resolution of 0.2 microm. These results suggest the feasibility of a high-frequency ultrasound for evaluating the material fatigue of TAH.

  20. Influence of coupling with shear horizontal surface acoustic wave on lateral propagation of Rayleigh surface acoustic wave on 128°YX-LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Benfeng; Han, Tao; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of the coupling with shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic wave (SAW) on the propagation of Rayleigh SAW in periodic grating structures on 128°YX-LiNbO3. First, the frequency dispersion behavior with longitudinal and lateral wavenumbers of Rayleigh SAW is calculated using the finite element method (FEM) software COMSOL. It is shown that the coupling causes (1) the satellite stopband and (2) variation of the anisotropy factor. It is also shown these phenomena remain even when the electromechanical coupling factor of SH SAW is zero. Then, the extended thin plate model which can take coupling between two SAWs into account, is applied to simulate the result of FEM. Good agreement between these results indicated that the mechanical coupling is responsible for these two phenomena. Finally, including electrical excitation and detection, the model is applied to the infinitely long interdigital transducer (IDT) structure and the calculated result is compared with that obtained by the three-dimensional FEM. The excellent agreement of both results confirms the effectiveness of the extended thin plate model.

  1. Evaluation on Micro Cracks in Ceramic Bearing Balls by Using the Floating Resonance of Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hideo; Komatsu, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Satoru; Tanimoto, Kiyoshi; Takii, Hirokazu; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2003-05-01

    Although resonant ultrasound spectroscopy is useful for testing the surface and the inside of objects, the acoustic properties (resonance frequency, mode amplitude ratio, attenuation, etc.) are disturbed by the contact made with supports and transducers. To eliminate this disturbance, we developed the floating resonance (FR) method in which the acoustic properties of bulk and surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are evaluated using laser ultrasound after floating the objects, thus avoiding the contact with the supports and transducers. In this work we applied the FR method to detect artificial flaws on the surface of ceramic bearing balls and a slit as shallow as 50 μm was successfully detected from the attenuation of SAWs after multiple round trips with as many as 20 turns.

  2. An Analytical Comparison of the Acoustic Analogy and Kirchhoff Formulation for Moving Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1997-01-01

    The Lighthill acoustic analogy, as embodied in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation, is compared with the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces. A comparison of the two governing equations reveals that the main Kirchhoff advantage (namely nonlinear flow effects are included in the surface integration) is also available to the FW-H method if the integration surface used in the FW-H equation is not assumed impenetrable. The FW-H equation is analytically superior for aeroacoustics because it is based upon the conservation laws of fluid mechanics rather than the wave equation. This means that the FW-H equation is valid even if the integration surface is in the nonlinear region. This is demonstrated numerically in the paper. The Kirchhoff approach can lead to substantial errors if the integration surface is not positioned in the linear region. These errors may be hard to identify. Finally, new metrics based on the Sobolev norm are introduced which may be used to compare input data for both quadrupole noise calculations and Kirchhoff noise predictions.

  3. A New Method to Evaluate Surface Defects with an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kang; Yi, Pengxing; Li, Yahui; Hui, Bing; Zhang, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing a surface defect is very crucial in non-destructive testing (NDT). We employ an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) to detect the surface defect of a nonmagnetic material. An appropriate feature that can avoid the interference of the human factor is vital for evaluating the crack quantitatively. Moreover, it can also reduce the influence of other factors, such as the lift-off, during the testing. In this paper, we conduct experiments at various depths of surface cracks in an aluminum plate, and a new feature, lift-off slope (LOS), is put forward for the theoretical and experimental analyses of the lift-off effect on the receiving signals. Besides, by changing the lift-off between the receiving probe and the sample for testing, a new method is adopted to evaluate surface defects with the EMAT. Compared with other features, the theoretical and experimental results show that the feature lift-off slope has many advantages prior to the other features for evaluating the surface defect with the EMAT. This can reduce the lift-off effect of one probe. Meanwhile, it is not essential to measure the signal without defects. PMID:26193282

  4. Highly sensitive Escherichia coli shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor with silicon dioxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ten, S T; Hashim, U; Gopinath, S C B; Liu, W W; Foo, K L; Sam, S T; Rahman, S F A; Voon, C H; Nordin, A N

    2017-07-15

    Surface acoustic wave mediated transductions have been widely used in the sensors and actuators applications. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SHSAW) was used for the detection of food pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.coli O157:H7), a dangerous strain among 225 E. coli unique serotypes. A few cells of this bacterium are able to cause young children to be most vulnerable to serious complications. Presence of higher than 1cfu E.coli O157:H7 in 25g of food has been considered as a dangerous level. The SHSAW biosensor was fabricated on 64° YX LiNbO3 substrate. Its sensitivity was enhanced by depositing 130.5nm thin layer of SiO2 nanostructures with particle size lesser than 70nm. The nanostructures act both as a waveguide as well as a physical surface modification of the sensor prior to biomolecular immobilization. A specific DNA sequence from E. coli O157:H7 having 22 mers as an amine-terminated probe ssDNA was immobilized on the thin film sensing area through chemical functionalization [(CHO-(CH2)3-CHO) and APTES; NH2-(CH2)3-Si(OC2H5)3]. The high-performance of sensor was shown with the specific oligonucleotide target and attained the sensitivity of 0.6439nM/0.1kHz and detection limit was down to 1.8femto-molar (1.8×10(-15)M). Further evidence was provided by specificity analysis using single mismatched and complementary oligonucleotide sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective pulmonary delivery of an aerosolized plasmid DNA vaccine via surface acoustic wave nebulization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary-delivered gene therapy promises to mitigate vaccine safety issues and reduce the need for needles and skilled personnel to use them. While plasmid DNA (pDNA) offers a rapid route to vaccine production without side effects or reliance on cold chain storage, its delivery to the lung has proved challenging. Conventional methods, including jet and ultrasonic nebulizers, fail to deliver large biomolecules like pDNA intact due to the shear and cavitational stresses present during nebulization. Methods In vitro structural analysis followed by in vivo protein expression studies served in assessing the integrity of the pDNA subjected to surface acoustic wave (SAW) nebulisation. In vivo immunization trials were then carried out in rats using SAW nebulized pDNA (influenza A, human hemagglutinin H1N1) condensate delivered via intratracheal instillation. Finally, in vivo pulmonary vaccinations using pDNA for influenza was nebulized and delivered via a respirator to sheep. Results The SAW nebulizer was effective at generating pDNA aerosols with sizes optimal for deep lung delivery. Successful gene expression was observed in mouse lung epithelial cells, when SAW-nebulized pDNA was delivered to male Swiss mice via intratracheal instillation. Effective systemic and mucosal antibody responses were found in rats via post-nebulized, condensed fluid instillation. Significantly, we demonstrated the suitability of the SAW nebulizer to administer unprotected pDNA encoding an influenza A virus surface glycoprotein to respirated sheep via aerosolized inhalation. Conclusion Given the difficulty of inducing functional antibody responses for DNA vaccination in large animals, we report here the first instance of successful aerosolized inhalation delivery of a pDNA vaccine in a large animal model relevant to human lung development, structure, physiology, and disease, using a novel, low-power (<1 W) surface acoustic wave (SAW) hand-held nebulizer to produce droplets of p

  6. Elastic contact conditions to optimize friction drive of surface acoustic wave motor.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi Kurosawa, M; Takahashi, M; Higuchi, T

    1998-01-01

    The optimum pressing force, namely the preload, for a slider to obtain superior operation conditions in a surface acoustic wave motor have been examined. We used steel balls as sliders. The preload was controlled using a permanent magnet. The steel balls were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm diameter, with the differences in diameter making it possible to change contact conditions, such as the contact pressure, contact area, and deformation of the stator and the slider. The stator transducer was lithium niobate, 128 degrees rotated, y-cut x-propagation substrate. The driving frequency of the Rayleigh wave was about 10 MHz. Hence, the particle vibration amplitude at the surface is as small as 10 nm. For superior friction drive conditions, a high contact pressure was required. For example, in the case of the 1 mm diameter steel ball at the sinusoidal driving voltage of 180 V(peak), the slider speed was 43 cm/sec, the thrust output force was 1 mN, and the acceleration was 23 times as large as the gravitational acceleration at a contact pressure of 390 MPa. From the Hertz theory of contact stress, the contact area radius was only 3 microm. The estimation of the friction drive performance was carried out from the transient traveling distance of the slider in a 3 msec burst drive. As a result, the deformation of the stator and the slider by the preload should be half of the vibration amplitude. This condition was independent of the ball diameter and the vibration amplitude. The output thrust per square millimeter was 50 N, and the maximum speed was 0.7 m/sec. From these results, we conclude that it is possible for the surface acoustic wave motor to have a large output force, high speed, quick response, long traveling distance, and a thin micro linear actuator.

  7. The Characterization of Surface Acoustic Wave Devices Based on AlN-Metal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Lin; Peng, Bin; Li, Chuan; Gong, Dongdong; Yang, Zhengbing; Liu, Xingzhao; Zhang, Wanli

    2016-01-01

    We report in this paper on the study of surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators based on an AlN/titanium alloy (TC4) structure. The AlN/TC4 structure with different thicknesses of AlN films was simulated, and the acoustic propagating modes were discussed. Based on the simulation results, interdigital transducers with a periodic length of 24 μm were patterned by lift-off photolithography techniques on the AlN films/TC4 structure, while the AlN film thickness was in the range 1.5–3.5 μm. The device performances in terms of quality factor (Q-factor) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k2) were determined from the measure S11 parameters. The Q-factor and k2 were strongly dependent not only on the normalized AlN film thickness but also on the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of AlN (002) peak. The dispersion curve of the SAW phase velocity was analyzed, and the experimental results showed a good agreement with simulations. The temperature behaviors of the devices were also presented and discussed. The prepared SAW resonators based on AlN/TC4 structure have potential applications in integrated micromechanical sensing systems. PMID:27077864

  8. Surface acoustic streaming in microfluidic system for rapid multicellular tumor spheroids generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlHasan, Layla; Qi, Aisha; Al-Aboodi, Aswan; Rezk, Amged; Shilton, Richie R.; Chan, Peggy P. Y.; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a novel and rapid method to generate in vitro three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroids using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. A SAW device with single-phase unidirectional transducer electrodes (SPUTD) on lithium niobate substrate was fabricated using standing UV photolithography and wet-etching techniques. To generate spheroids, the SAW device was loaded with medium containing human breast carcinoma (BT474) cells, an oscillating electrical signal at resonant frequency was supplied to the SPUDT to generate acoustic radiation in the medium. Spheroids with uniform size and shape can be obtained using this method in less than 1 minute, and the size of the spheroids can be controlled through adjusting the seeding density. The resulting spheroids were used for further cultivation and were monitored using an optical microscope in real time. The viability and actin organization of the spheroids were assessed using live/dead viability staining and actin cytoskeleton staining, respectively. Compared to spheroids generated using the liquid overlay method, the SAW generated spheroids exhibited higher circularity and higher viability. The F-actin filaments of spheroids appear to aggregate compared to that of untreated cells, indicating that mature spheroids can be obtained using this method. This spheroid generating method can be useful for a variety of biological studies and clinical applications.

  9. Toward efficient light diffraction and intensity variations by using wide bandwidth surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Ok; Chen, Fu; Lee, Kee Keun

    2016-06-01

    We have developed acoustic-optic (AO) based display units for implementing a handheld hologram display by modulating light deflection through wide bandwidth surface acoustic wave (SAW). The developed AO device consists of a metal layer, a ZnS waveguide layer, SAW inter digital transducers (IDTs), and a screen for display. When RF power with a particular resonant frequency was applied to IDTs, SAW was radiated and interfered with confined beam propagating along ZnS waveguide layer. The AO interacted beam was deflected laterally toward a certain direction depending on Bragg diffraction condition, exited out of the waveguide layer and then directed to the viewing screen placed at a certain distance from the device to form a single pixel. The deflected angles was adjusted by modulating the center frequency of the SAW IDT (SAW grating), the RF power of SAW, and the angles between propagating light beam path along waveguide and radiating SAW. The diffraction efficiency was also characterized in terms of waveguide thickness, SAW RF input power, and aperture length. Coupling of mode (COM) modeling was fulfilled to find optimal device parameters prior to fabrication. All the parameters affecting the deflection angle and efficiency to form a pixel for a three-dimensional (3D) hologram image were characterized and then discussed.

  10. Application of Acoustical Processor Reactors for Degradation of Diazinon from Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Shayeghi, M; Dehghani, MH; Mahvi, AH; Azam, K

    2010-01-01

    Background: Since organophosphorus pesticides are widely used for industry and insect control in agricultural crops, their fate in the environment is very important. Pesticide contamination of surface water has been recognized as a major contaminant in world because of their potential toxicity towards human and animals. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of various parameters including the influence of time, power, and initial concentration on degradation of diazinon pesticide. Methods: The sonochemical degradation of diazinon was investigated using acoustical processor reactor. Acoustical processor reactor with 130 kHz was used to study the degradation of pesticide solution. Samples were analyzed using HPLC at different time intervals. Effectiveness of APR at different times (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min), concentrations (2, 4 and 8 mg/L) and powers (300W, 400W, 500W) were compared. Results: The degradation of the diazinon at lower concentrations was greater in comparison to higher concentrations. There was also direct correlation between power and diazinon degradation. In addition, when the power increased, the ability to degraded diazinon increased. Conclusion: The sonodegradation of diazinon pesticide at different concentrations and powers was successfully provided. It has been shown that APR can be used to reduce the concentration of dissolved pesticide using high frequency. PMID:22808395

  11. Ultrasound neuro-modulation chip: activation of sensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans by surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Kaiyue; Huang, Bin; Niu, Lili; Li, Fei; Cai, Feiyan; Chen, Yan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Hankui; Kang, Lijun; Meng, Long; Zheng, Hairong

    2017-05-16

    Ultrasound neuro-modulation has gained increasing attention as a non-invasive method. In this paper, we present an ultrasound neuro-modulation chip, capable of initiating reversal behaviour and activating neurons of C. elegans under the stimulation of a single-shot, short-pulsed ultrasound. About 85.29% ± 6.17% of worms respond to the ultrasound stimulation exhibiting reversal behaviour. Furthermore, the worms can adapt to the ultrasound stimulation with a lower acoustic pulse duration of stimulation. In vivo calcium imaging shows that the activity of ASH, a polymodal sensory neuron in C. elegans, can be directly evoked by the ultrasound stimulation. On the other hand, AFD, a thermal sensitive neuron, cannot be activated by the ultrasound stimulation using the same parameter and the temperature elevation during the stimulation process is relatively small. Consistent with the calcium imaging results, the tax-4 mutants, which are insensitive to temperature increase, do not show a significant difference in avoidance probability compared to the wild type. Therefore, the mechanical effects induced by ultrasound are the main reason for neural and behavioural modulation of C. elegans. With the advantages of confined acoustic energy on the surface, compatible with standard calcium imaging, this neuro-modulation chip could be a powerful tool for revealing the molecular mechanisms of ultrasound neuro-modulation.

  12. Silence on Shangri-La: Attenuation of Huygens acoustic signals suggests surface volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Leese, Mark R.; Hathi, Brijen; Zarnecki, John C.; Hagermann, Axel; Rosenberg, Phil; Towner, Martin C.; Garry, James; Svedhem, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Characterize and understand acoustic instrument performance on the surface of Titan. Methods. The Huygens probe measured the speed of sound in Titan's atmosphere with a 1 MHz pulse time-of-flight transducer pair near the bottom of the vehicle. We examine the fraction of pulses correctly received as a function of time. Results. This system returned good data from about 11 km altitude, where the atmosphere became thick enough to effectively transmit the sound, down to the surface just before landing: these data have been analyzed previously. After an initial transient at landing, the instrument operated nominally for about 10 min, recording pulses much as during descent. The fraction of pulses detected then declined and the transmitted sound ceased to be detected altogether, despite no indication of instrument or probe configuration changes. Conclusions. The most likely explanation appears to be absorption of the signal by polyatomic gases with relaxation losses at the instrument frequency, such as ethane, acetylene and carbon dioxide. These vapors, detected independently by the GCMS instrument, were evolved from the surface material by the warmth leaking from the probe, and confirm the nature of the surface materials as 'damp' with a cocktail of volatile compounds. Some suggestions for future missions are considered. Practice implications. None.

  13. Complex dispersion relation of surface acoustic waves at a lossy metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, Logan; Geslain, Alan; Romero-García, Vicente; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The complex dispersion relation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at a lossy resonant metasurface is theoretically and experimentally reported. The metasurface consists of the periodic arrangement of borehole resonators in a rigid substrate. The theoretical model relies on a boundary layer approach that provides the effective metasurface admittance governing the complex dispersion relation in the presence of viscous and thermal losses. The model is experimentally validated by measurements in the semi-anechoic chamber. The complex SAW dispersion relation is experimentally retrieved from the analysis of the spatial Laplace transform of the pressure scanned along a line at the metasurface. The geometrical spreading of the energy from the speaker is accounted for, and both the real and imaginary parts of the SAW wavenumber are obtained. The results show that the strong reduction of the SAW group velocity occurs jointly with a drastic attenuation of the wave, leading to the confinement of the field close to the source and preventing the efficient propagation of such slow-sound surface modes. The method opens perspectives to theoretically predict and experimentally characterize both the dispersion and the attenuation of surface waves at structured surfaces.

  14. Influence of intermediate aminodextran layers on the signal response of surface acoustic wave biosensors.

    PubMed

    Länge, Kerstin; Rapp, Michael

    2008-06-15

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on horizontally polarized surface shear waves enable direct and label-free detection of proteins in real time. Binding reactions on the sensor surface are detected by determining changes in surface wave velocity caused mainly by mass adsorption or change of viscoelasticity in the sensing layer. Intermediate hydrogel layers have been proven to be useful to immobilize capture molecules or ligands corresponding to the analyte. However, the SAW signal response strongly depends on the morphology of the hydrogel due to different relative changes of its acoustomechanical parameters such as viscoelasticity and density. In this work five aminodextrans (AMD) and one diamino polyethylene glycol (DA-PEG) were used as intermediate hydrogel layers. Sensors with immobilized streptavidin and samples containing biotinylated bovine serum albumin were used to exemplify affinity assays based on immobilized capture molecules for protein detection. The effects of the three-dimensional AMDs and the two-dimensional (2D) DA-PEG on the SAW signal response were investigated. The signal height decreased with increasing molar mass and increasing amount of immobilized AMD. Consequently, thin hydrogel layers are ideal to obtain optimum signal responses in this type of assay, whereas it is not necessarily a 2D hydrogel that gives the best results.

  15. Modification and characterization of aluminum nitride surfaces for an acoustic wave biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberger, Leland W.

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a piezoelectric material that is being developed for use in a surface acoustic wave sensor for the detection of bacteria in fluid media. An AlN film is deposited on a sapphire or silicon substrate. After conductor deposition, an electronic signal is applied across the device and the signal is modified by changes in the mass immobilized on the sensor surface. Bacteria are immobilized on the surface by antibodies specific to the bacterial species. The problem addressed in this dissertation is how to form a bridge between the inorganic surface and the antibodies. The approach used is to form a new chemical layer on the AlN by using silanes. Functional groups on the silane surface can then be used as anchor points for the antibodies. This approach was carried out in three steps: (1) characterize the AlN surface, (2) explore four surface treatment methods that prepare the AlN surface for silanization and (3) silanize the resulting surface. AlN films were deposited by a Plasma Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy method. The films were characterized by RHEED, X-ray diffraction, air/water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The four surface treatment methods explored were: immersion in boiling water, exposure to laser light, immersion in piranha solution and treatment with plasma. Samples were characterized by contact angle, AFM and XPS. Plasma treatment was preferred because it prepared the surface most effectively, without any loss of sub-surface AlN. Samples of AlN were silanized with two types of silane, along with silicon controls. Samples were characterized by contact angle, AFM and XPS. The effectiveness of silanes on AlN was equal to or somewhat less than that observed on silicon. AlN samples were also co-deposited with two different silanes and then the end group on one of the silanes was chemically modified. This demonstrated that the density of functional groups on the

  16. a Finite Difference Numerical Model for the Propagation of Finite Amplitude Acoustical Blast Waves Outdoors Over Hard and Porous Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Victor Ward

    1990-01-01

    This study has concerned the propagation of finite amplitude, i.e. weakly non-linear, acoustical blast waves from explosions over hard and porous media models of outdoor ground surfaces. The nonlinear acoustic propagation effects require a numerical solution in the time domain. To model a porous ground surface, which in the frequency domain exhibits a finite impedance, the linear phenomenological porous model of Morse and Ingard was used. The phenomenological equations are solved in the time domain for coupling with the time domain propagation solution in the air. The numerical solution is found through the method of finite differences. The second-order in time and fourth -order in space MacCormack method was used in the air, and the second-order in time and space MacCormack method was used in the porous medium modeling the ground. Two kinds of numerical absorbing boundary conditions were developed for the air propagation equations to truncate the physical domain for solution on a computer. Radiation conditions first were used on those sides of the domain where there were outgoing waves. Characteristic boundary conditions secondly are employed near the acoustic source. The numerical model agreed well with the Pestorius algorithm for the propagation of electric spark pulses in the free field, and with a result of Pfriem for normal plane reflection off a hard surface. In addition, curves of pressure amplification versus incident angle for waves obliquely incident on the hard and porous surfaces were produced which are similar to those in the literature. The model predicted that near grazing finite amplitude acoustic blast waves decay with distance over hard surfaces as r to the power -1.2. This result is consistent with the work of Reed. For propagation over the porous ground surface, the model predicted that this surface decreased the decay rate with distance for the larger blasts compared to the rate expected in the linear acoustics limit.

  17. The influence of acoustic reflections from diffusive architectural surfaces on spatial auditory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Philip W.

    This thesis addresses the effect of reflections from diffusive architectural surfaces on the perception of echoes and on auditory spatial resolution. Diffusive architectural surfaces play an important role in performance venue design for architectural expression and proper sound distribution. Extensive research has been devoted to the prediction and measurement of the spatial dispersion. However, previous psychoacoustic research on perception of reflections and the precedence effect has focused on specular reflections. This study compares the echo threshold of specular reflections, against those for reflections from realistic architectural surfaces, and against synthesized reflections that isolate individual qualities of reflections from diffusive surfaces, namely temporal dispersion and spectral coloration. In particular, the activation of the precedence effect, as indicated by the echo threshold is measured. Perceptual tests are conducted with direct sound, and simulated or measured reflections with varying temporal dispersion. The threshold for reflections from diffusive architectural surfaces is found to be comparable to that of a specular re ection of similar energy rather than similar amplitude. This is surprising because the amplitude of the dispersed re ection is highly attenuated, and onset cues are reduced. This effect indicates that the auditory system is integrating re ection response energy dispersed over many milliseconds into a single stream. Studies on the effect of a single diffuse reflection are then extended to a full architectural enclosure with various surface properties. This research utilizes auralizations from measured and simulated performance venues to investigate spatial discrimination of multiple acoustic sources in rooms. It is found that discriminating the lateral arrangement of two sources is possible at narrower separation angles when reflections come from at rather than diffusive surfaces. Additionally, subjective impressions are

  18. Measurement of cantilever vibration using impedance-loaded surface acoustic wave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Masaki; Hamashima, Hiromitsu; Kondoh, Jun

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an impedance-loaded surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor was demonstrated to monitor the vibration frequency. Commercialized pressure sensors and a variable capacitor were chosen as external sensors, which were connected to a reflector on a SAW device. As the reflection coefficient of the reflector depended on the impedance, the echo amplitude was influenced by changes in the impedance of the external sensor. The vibration frequency of the cantilever was determined by monitoring the echo amplitude of the SAW device. Moreover, the attenuation constant of an envelope was estimated. The results of our feasibility study indicate that the impedance-loaded SAW sensor can be applied as a detector for structural health monitoring.

  19. Continuous enrichment of low-abundance cell samples using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuchao; Li, Sixing; Gu, Yeyi; Li, Peng; Ding, Xiaoyun; Wang, Lin; McCoy, J Philip; Levine, Stewart J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-03-07

    Cell enrichment is a powerful tool in a variety of cellular studies, especially in applications with low-abundance cell types. In this work, we developed a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) based microfluidic device for non-contact, continuous cell enrichment. With a pair of parallel interdigital transducers (IDT) deposited on a piezoelectric substrate, a one-dimensional SSAW field was established along disposable micro-tubing channels, generating numerous pressure nodes (and thus numerous cell-enrichment regions). Our method is able to concentrate highly diluted blood cells by more than 100 fold with a recovery efficiency of up to 99%. Such highly effective cell enrichment was achieved without using sheath flow. The SSAW-based technique presented here is simple, bio-compatible, label-free, and sheath-flow-free. With these advantages, it could be valuable for many biomedical applications.

  20. Precise Manipulation and Patterning of Protein Crystals for Macromolecular Crystallography using Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Zhou, Weijie; Li, Peng; Mao, Zhangming; Yennawar, Neela; French, Jarrod B.; Jun Huang, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern X-ray sources and detector technology have made it possible for crystallographers to collect usable data on crystals of only a few micrometers or less in size. Despite these developments, sample handling techniques have significantly lagged behind and often prevent the full realization of current beamline capabilities. In order to address this shortcoming we have developed a surface acoustic wave-based method for manipulating and patterning crystals. This method, which does not damage the fragile protein crystals, can precisely manipulate and pattern micrometer and sub-micrometer sized crystals for data collection and screening. The technique is robust, inexpensive, and easy to implement. This method not only promises to significantly increase efficiency and throughput of both conventional and serial crystallography experiments, but also will make it possible to collect data on samples that were previously intractable. PMID:25641793

  1. Surface acoustic wave regulated single photon emission from a coupled quantum dot–nanocavity system

    SciTech Connect

    Weiß, M.; Kapfinger, S.; Wixforth, A.; Krenner, H. J.; Reichert, T.; Finley, J. J.; Kaniber, M.

    2016-07-18

    A coupled quantum dot–nanocavity system in the weak coupling regime of cavity-quantumelectrodynamics is dynamically tuned in and out of resonance by the coherent elastic field of a f{sub SAW} ≃ 800 MHz surface acoustic wave. When the system is brought to resonance by the sound wave, light-matter interaction is strongly increased by the Purcell effect. This leads to a precisely timed single photon emission as confirmed by the second order photon correlation function, g{sup (2)}. All relevant frequencies of our experiment are faithfully identified in the Fourier transform of g{sup (2)}, demonstrating high fidelity regulation of the stream of single photons emitted by the system.

  2. Multiplex transmission system for gate drive signals of inverter circuit using surface acoustic wave filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akifumi; Ueda, Kensuke; Goka, Shigeyoshi; Wada, Keiji; Kakio, Shoji

    2016-07-01

    We propose and fabricate a multiplexed transmission system based on frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) with surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. SAW filters are suitable for use in wide-gap switching devices and multilevel inverters because of their capability to operate at high temperatures, good electrical isolation, low cost, and high reliability. Our proposed system reduces the number of electrical signal wires needed to control each switching device and eliminates the need for isolation circuits, simplifying the transmission system and gate drive circuits. We successfully controlled two switching devices with a single coaxial line and confirmed the operation of a single-phase half-bridge inverter at a supply voltage of 100 V, and the total delay time to control the switching devices was less than 2.5 µs. Our experimental results validated our proposed system.

  3. Contactless Monitoring of Conductivity Changes in Vanadium Pentoxide Xerogel Layers Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimeika, Romualdas; Sereika, Raimundas; Čiplys, Daumantas; Bondarenka, Vladimiras; Sereika, Albertas; Shur, Michael

    The hydrated form of the vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 ·nH2O) deposited by the sol-gel method on the piezoelectric YZ-LiNbO3 substrate has been studied using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Brush-deposited and spin-coated layers, differing in thickness by an order of magnitude (∼1 μm and ∼0.1 μm, respectively) were studied. The variations with time in the transmitted SAW amplitude and phase during the gel-to-xerogel transition of V2O5 ·nH2O were observed and attributed to the acoustoelectric interaction. The possibilities of using the SAWs for contactless monitoring of the layer sheet conductivity have been demonstrated.

  4. Implementation of Surface Acoustic Wave Vapor Sensor Using Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chia-Sung; Chang, Ching-Chun; Ku, Chia-Lin; Peng, Kang-Ming; Jeng, Erik S.; Chen, Wen-Lin; Huang, Guo-Wei; Wu, Lin-Kun

    2009-04-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) vapor sensor is presented in this work. A SAW delay line oscillator on quartz substrate with the high gain complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) amplifier using a two-poly-two-metal (2P2M) 0.35 µm process was designed. The gain of the CMOS amplifier and its total power consumption are 20 dB and 70 mW, respectively. The achieved phase noise of this SAW oscillator is -150 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The sensing is successfully demonstrated by a thin poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) polymer film on a SAW oscillator with alcohol vapor. This two-in-one sensor unit includes the SAW device and the CMOS amplifier provides designers with comprehensive model for using these components for sensor circuit fabrication. Furthermore it will be promising for future chemical and biological sensing applications.

  5. Precise Manipulation and Patterning of Protein Crystals for Macromolecular Crystallography Using Surface Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Zhou, Weijie; Li, Peng; Mao, Zhangming; Yennawar, Neela H; French, Jarrod B; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-06-01

    Advances in modern X-ray sources and detector technology have made it possible for crystallographers to collect usable data on crystals of only a few micrometers or less in size. Despite these developments, sample handling techniques have significantly lagged behind and often prevent the full realization of current beamline capabilities. In order to address this shortcoming, a surface acoustic wave-based method for manipulating and patterning crystals is developed. This method, which does not damage the fragile protein crystals, can precisely manipulate and pattern micrometer and submicrometer-sized crystals for data collection and screening. The technique is robust, inexpensive, and easy to implement. This method not only promises to significantly increase efficiency and throughput of both conventional and serial crystallography experiments, but will also make it possible to collect data on samples that were previously intractable.

  6. Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David

    2014-04-29

    A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

  7. Remote vibration measurement: a wireless passive surface acoustic wave resonator fast probing strategy.

    PubMed

    Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Ballandras, S; Alzuaga, S; Martin, G; Sandoz, P

    2012-05-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators can advantageously operate as passive sensors which can be interrogated through a wireless link. Amongst the practical applications of such devices, structural health monitoring through stress measurement and more generally vibration characteristics of mechanical structures benefit from the ability to bury such sensors within the considered structure (wireless and battery-less). However, measurement bandwidth becomes a significant challenge when measuring wideband vibration characteristics of mechanical structures. A fast SAW resonator measurement scheme is demonstrated here. The measurement bandwidth is limited by the physical settling time of the resonator (Q/π periods), requiring only two probe pulses through a monostatic RADAR-like electronic setup to identify the sensor resonance frequency and hence stress on a resonator acting as a strain gauge. A measurement update rate of 4800 Hz using a high quality factor SAW resonator operating in the 434 MHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band is experimentally demonstrated.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Lateral Propagation of Surface Acoustic Waves Including Coupling Between Different Waves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Benfeng; Han, Tao; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses lateral propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in periodic grating structures when two types of SAWs exist simultaneously and are coupled. The thin plate model proposed by the authors is extended to include the coupling between two different SAW modes. First, lateral SAW propagation in an infinitely long periodic grating is modeled and discussed. Then, the model is applied to the Al-grating/42° YX-LiTaO3 (42-LT) substrate structure, and it is shown that the slowness curve shape changes from concave to convex with the Al grating thickness. The transverse responses are also analyzed on an infinitely long interdigital transducer on the structure, and good agreement is achieved between the present and the finite-element method analyses. Finally, SAW resonators are fabricated on the Cu grating/42-LT substrate structure, and it is experimentally verified that the slowness curve shape of the shear horizontal SAW changes with the Cu thickness.

  9. Texture in steel plates revealed by laser ultrasonic surface acoustic waves velocity dispersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Anmin; Wang, Xiaochen; Glorieux, Christ; Yang, Quan; Dong, Feng; He, Fei; Wang, Yanlong; Sermeus, Jan; Van der Donck, Tom; Shu, Xuedao

    2017-02-24

    A photoacoustic, laser ultrasonics based approach in an Impulsive Stimulated Scattering (ISS) implementation was used to investigate the texture in polycrystalline metal plates. The angular dependence of the 'polycrystalline' surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity measured along regions containing many grains was experimentally determined and compared with simulated results that were based on the angular dependence of the 'single grain' SAW velocity within single grains and the grain orientation distribution. The polycrystalline SAW velocities turn out to vary with texture. The SAW velocities and their angular variations for {110} texture were found to be larger than that the ones for {111} texture or the strong γ fiber texture. The SAW velocities for {001} texture were larger than for {111} texture, but with almost the same angular dependence. The results infer the feasibility to apply angular SAW angular dispersion measurements by laser ultrasonics for on-line texture monitoring.

  10. Application of surface-acoustic-wave technology to burst-format spread-spectrum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowatsch, M.

    1984-12-01

    A hybrid direct-sequence/frequency-hopping spread-spectrum communication modem for burst-format transmission of digital data has been developed. A burst consists of a short synchronisation preamble and the data packet. Data modulation is accomplished by assignment of pairs of pseudonoise sequences with low crosscorrelation for message ones and zeros. The spreading code chip pattern is changed from bit to bit in both the preamble and the message portion of a burst. Receiver signal processing is based on the application of surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) elastic convolvers to programmable matched filtering. The performance of the system in an additive white Gaussian noise channel is analysed, measures of performance being the probability of burst loss and the bit error probability in the case of ideal synchronisation. Evaluations for a particular design are presented, and some experimental results obtained with a test system are shown for comparison.

  11. Simulation Study on Semiconductor Coupled Surface Acoustic Wave Convolver through a Multi-Strip Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohkawa, Kohji; Suda, Takaya; Aoki, Yusuke; Kaneshiro, Chinami; Koh, Keishin

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents results of simulation study on a semiconductor coupled surface acoustic wave (SAW) convolver, in which the propagating SAW on a highly coupling coefficient piezoelectric substrate, couples with a bonded semiconductor diodes through multi-strip electrodes. We focus our study on a relatively wide band device which is the main feature of a highly efficiency device. By using a simple analysis and circuit simulator, based on the simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE), we clarified the effect of device parameters, such as the shape of multi-strip tapping electrodes, characteristics of diode, impedance matching condition, kinds of transmission code and electro-mechanical coupling coefficient of SAW, on the device performances. We discussed the phenomenon, which cause the degradation, focusing on the frequency domain. We also clarified the essential problems of second order effect on the wide bandwidth device, which should be solved.

  12. Graphene-like nano-sheets for surface acoustic wave gas sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsat, R.; Breedon, M.; Shafiei, M.; Spizziri, P. G.; Gilje, S.; Kaner, R. B.; Kalantar-zadeh, K.; Wlodarski, W.

    2009-01-01

    The gas sensing properties of graphene-like nano-sheets deposited on 36° YX lithium tantalate (LiTaO 3) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers are reported. The thin graphene-like nano-sheets were produced via the reduction of graphite oxide which was deposited on SAW interdigitated transducers (IDTs). Their sensing performance was assessed towards hydrogen (H 2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in a synthetic air carrier gas at room temperature (25 °C) and 40 °C. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the deposited graphite oxide (GO) was not completely reduced creating small, graphitic nanocrystals ˜2.7 nm in size.

  13. Surface Acoustic Wave Duplexer for US Personal Communication Services with Good Temperature Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Michio; Nakao, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Norio; Takata, Eiichi; Mimura, Masakazu; Nishiyama, Kenji; Hada, Takuo; Komura, Tomohisa

    2005-06-01

    The transmission (Tx) and receiving (Rx) passbands of the Personal Communication Services (PCS) mobile phone system in the US are 1850-1910 MHz and 1930-1990 MHz, respectively. The transition bandwidth between Tx and Rx is very narrow, 20 MHz. A duplexer for the US-PCS employing surface acoustic waves (SAWs) requires a substrate which has good temperature stability, an optimum electromechanical coupling factor, a large reflection coefficient, and a good resonant mechanical Q value. Previously, there did not exist any substrate suitable for the US-PCS SAW duplexer. In this paper, we describe a new substrate that is suitable for the US-PCS SAW duplexer and a US-PCS SAW duplexer constructed with this new substrate.

  14. Motion Characteristics Measurement of Rotating Object Using Surface Acoustic Wave Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugizaki, Goro; Takenaka, Tadashi; Sakata, Koichiro; Toda, Kohji

    1993-09-01

    The configuration and characteristics of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line oscillator for use as an accelerometer using a ceramic plate are described. The static strain sensitivity of the delay line oscillator using a Pb(Zr\\cdotTi)O3-based piezoelectric ceramic plate is measured. The SAW accelerometer is a strain-sensitive SAW delay line oscillator, in which the oscillation frequency varies with bending stress imparted to the ceramic plate by four loading pins on a brass block that is subjected to force. The accelerometer is mounted on a rotating disk and its oscillation frequency deviation is measured against the number of rotations and the radial acceleration of the disk. The strain sensitivity in the form of the change of oscillation frequency is satisfactory for accelerometer performance.

  15. Bendable ZnO thin film surface acoustic wave devices on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xingli; Guo, Hongwei; Chen, Jinkai; Wang, Wenbo; Xuan, Weipeng; Xu, Yang E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Luo, Jikui E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk

    2014-05-26

    Bendable surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices were fabricated using high quality c-axis orientation ZnO films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates at 120 °C. Dual resonance modes, namely, the zero order pseudo asymmetric (A{sub 0}) and symmetric (S{sub 0}) Lamb wave modes, have been obtained from the SAW devices. The SAW devices perform well even after repeated flexion up to 2500 με for 100 times, demonstrating its suitability for flexible electronics application. The SAW devices are also highly sensitive to compressive and tensile strains, exhibiting excellent anti-strain deterioration property, thus, they are particularly suitable for sensing large strains.

  16. High-temperature 434 Mhz surface acoustic wave devices based on GaPO4.

    PubMed

    Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Skarda, Vlad; White, Neil M; Krispel, Ferdinand; Krempl, Peter; Binhack, Michael; Buff, Werner

    2006-12-01

    Research into surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices began in the early 1970s and led to the development of high performance, small size, and high reproducibility devices. Much research has now been done on the application of such devices to consumer electronics, process monitoring, and communication systems. The use of novel materials, such as gallium phosphate (GaPO4), extends the operating temperature of the elements. SAW devices based on this material operating at 434 MHz and up 800 degrees C, can be used for passive wireless sensor applications. Interdigital transducer (IDT) devices with platinum/zirconium metallization and 1.4 microm finger-gap ratio of 1:1 have been fabricated using direct write e-beam lithography and a lift-off process. The performance and long-term stability of these devices has been studied, and the results are reported in this paper.

  17. Remote vibration measurement: A wireless passive surface acoustic wave resonator fast probing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Droit, C.; Ballandras, S.; Alzuaga, S.; Martin, G.; Sandoz, P.

    2012-05-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators can advantageously operate as passive sensors which can be interrogated through a wireless link. Amongst the practical applications of such devices, structural health monitoring through stress measurement and more generally vibration characteristics of mechanical structures benefit from the ability to bury such sensors within the considered structure (wireless and battery-less). However, measurement bandwidth becomes a significant challenge when measuring wideband vibration characteristics of mechanical structures. A fast SAW resonator measurement scheme is demonstrated here. The measurement bandwidth is limited by the physical settling time of the resonator (Q/π periods), requiring only two probe pulses through a monostatic RADAR-like electronic setup to identify the sensor resonance frequency and hence stress on a resonator acting as a strain gauge. A measurement update rate of 4800 Hz using a high quality factor SAW resonator operating in the 434 MHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band is experimentally demonstrated.

  18. Thin plate model for transverse mode analysis of surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Benfeng; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a physical model for the analysis of transverse modes in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. It is mostly equivalent to the scalar potential (SP) theory, but sufficiently flexible to include various effects such as anisotropy, coupling between multiple modes, etc. First, fundamentals of the proposed model are established and procedures for determining the model parameters are given in detailed. Then the model is implemented in the partial differential equation mode of the commercial finite element analysis software COMSOL. The analysis is carried out for an infinitely long interdigital transducer on the 128°YX-LiNbO3 substrate. As a demonstration, it is shown how the energy leakage changes with the frequency and the device design.

  19. Effect of viscoelastic film for shear horizontal surface acoustic wave on quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Mikihiro; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Kondoh, Jun

    2015-07-01

    A numerical analysis for the mass loading sensitivity of shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) immunoassay biosensors on quartz has already been studied. However, the mass loading analysis is insufficient to explain the actual biosensor performance. To understand the SH-SAW biosensor performance, we analyze the effect of a viscoelastic film on SH-SAW biosensors. In this paper, a numerical analysis using a simple viscoelastic model for the SH-SAW biosensors is presented. In the theoretical model, the bioreaction layer on the SH-SAW biosensors can be treated as a viscoelastic film. The velocity changes of the 250 MHz SH-SAWs on quartz substrates, which are covered with bovine serum albumin (BSA) layers of different thicknesses, were measured and compared with the theoretical results obtained using the proposed viscoelastic model. Good agreement of the velocity changes of SH-SAWs versus changes in the viscoelastic film thickness between theoretical and experimental results was obtained.

  20. High-frequency surface acoustic wave device based on thin-film piezoelectric interdigital transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Sarin Kumar, A.K.; Paruch, P.; Triscone, J.-M.; Daniau, W.; Ballandras, S.; Pellegrino, L.; Marre, D.; Tybell, T.

    2004-09-06

    Using high-quality epitaxial c-axis Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3} films grown by off-axis magnetron sputtering onto metallic (001) Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} substrates, a nonconventional thin-film surface acoustic wave device based on periodic piezoelectric transducers was realized. The piezoelectric transducers consist of a series of ferroelectric domains with alternating polarization states. The artificial modification of the ferroelectric domain structure is performed by using an atomic force microscope tip as a source of electric field, allowing local switching of the polarization. Devices with 1.2 and 0.8 {mu}m wavelength, defined by the modulation period of the polarization, and corresponding to central frequencies in the range 1.50-3.50 GHz have been realized and tested.