Science.gov

Sample records for countries context determinants

  1. Household and Context Determinants of Child Labor in 221 Districts of 18 Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webbink, Ellen; Smits, Jeroen; de Jong, Eelke

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new theoretical framework that explains the engagement in child labor of children in developing countries. This framework distinguishes three levels (household, district and nation) and three groups of explanatory variables: Resources, Structure and Culture. Each of the three groups refers to another strand of the literature;…

  2. Performance-Centered Design for Developing Countries: Emphasizing Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance-centered design (PCD) for developing countries and demonstrates how the process of internationalization and localization needs to go beyond the traditional functionality checklists of culture and language. Describes how the unique nature of developing country economic, human capacity, and infrastructure contexts has to be…

  3. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  4. Determinants of branded prescription medicine prices in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos G; Vandoros, Sotiris

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the prices of branded prescription medicines across different regulatory settings and health care systems, taking into account their launch date, patent status, market dynamics and the regulatory context in which they diffuse. By using volume-weighted price indices, this paper analyzes price levels for a basket of prescription medicines and their differences in 15 OECD countries, including the United States and key European countries, the impact of distribution margins and generic entry on public prices and to what extent innovation, by means of introducing newer classes of medicines, contributes to price formation across countries. In doing so, the paper seeks to understand the factors that contribute to the existing differences in prices across countries, whether at an ex-factory or a retail level. The evidence shows that retail prices for branded prescription medicines in the United States are higher than those in key European and other OECD countries, but not as high as widely thought. Large differences in prices are mainly observed at an ex-factory level, but these are not the prices that consumers and payers pay. Cross-country differences in retail prices are actually not as high as expected and, when controlling for exchange rates, these differences can be even smaller. Product age has a significant effect on prices in all settings after having controlled for other factors. Price convergence is observed across countries for newer prescription medicines compared with older medicines. There is no evidence that originator brand prices fall after generic entry in the United States, a phenomenon known as the 'generics paradox'. Finally, distribution and taxes are important determinants of retail prices in several of the study countries. To the extent that remuneration of the distribution chain and taxation are directly and proportionately linked to product prices this is likely to persist over time.

  5. The Diffusion of IT in the Historical Context of Innovations from Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The well-known s-shaped diffusion of technology curve generally works well in developed countries. But how does it perform in the very different context of developing countries? Across a wide range of new technologies imported from the developed countries it works poorly. In most cases the penetration rate fails to reach 25% of the population. The…

  6. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazyura, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other…

  7. Mass Customization and Personalization Prospects in Developing Country: Indonesian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risdiyono; Djati Widodo, Imam; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of information technology (IT) has changed many modes and ways for people in doing their businesses. Mass Customization and Personalization (MCP) is one example of business modes that has been dramatically evolve, mainly due to the currently very fast IT development. MCP has enabled people to involve in adjusting some design parameters of a product to meet their personal requirements before purchased. The advancement of IT has made MCP more successful as it makes the process faster, easier, simpler and more joyful. The success stories of MCP are easily found in many developed countries, where the IT infrastructure has firmly been established. For developing countries, there are very few industries have implemented the MCP concept, including Indonesia. This paper discusses a descriptive study to depict what people think about MCP implementation in Indonesia especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Kano model was used to see the perception of both producers and consumers in relation with MCP implementation. Five dummy MCP prototypes were developed for five creative products including plaques, hats, invitation card, t-shirts and leather bags. Based on the KANO questionnaire analyses, it is clear that there are big opportunities to implement MCP in Indonesia especially for creative products produced by SMEs. Identifying the correct product features is an important key for successful MCP implementation in developing countries.

  8. Gender, Context, and Reading: A Comparison of Students in 43 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    In 43 countries, 199,097 fifteen-year-olds completed a reading comprehension test and a questionnaire. We analyzed the data using multilevel regressions of Rasch-estimated test scores to test the associations of gender and context on reading achievement among adolescents. In every country, girls outscored boys. Reading enjoyment mediated 42% of…

  9. Comparing the Gender Gap in Educational Attainment: The Impact of Emancipatory Contexts in 33 Cohorts across 33 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hek, Margriet; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Wolbers, Maarten H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, women outperform men in educational attainment in many countries. Still, large variation between countries remains. Emancipatory contexts in which individuals are raised might explain these differences in male-female educational attainment, both over time and across countries. This study examines individual and contextual factors that…

  10. Community socioeconomic context and its influence on intermediary determinants of child health: evidence from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ana María; Bolancé, Catalina; Madise, Nyovani

    2015-01-01

    Intermediary determinants are the most immediate mechanisms through which socioeconomic position shapes health inequities. This study examines the effect of community socioeconomic context on different indicators representing intermediary determinants of child health. In the context of Colombia, a developing country with a clear economic expansion, but one of the most unequal countries in the world, two categories of intermediary determinants, namely behavioural and psychosocial factors and the health system, are analysed. Using data from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), the results suggest that whilst the community context can exert a greater influence on factors linked directly to health, in the case of psychosocial factors and parent's behaviours, the family context can be more important. In addition, the results from multilevel analysis indicate that a significant percentage of the variability in the overall index of intermediary determinants of child health is explained by the community context, even after controlling for individual, family and community characteristics. These findings underline the importance of distinguishing between community and family intervention programmes in order to reduce place-based health inequities in Colombia.

  11. Distribution and Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Low birth weight (LBW) is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries, and is frequently related to child morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to identify key determinants that influence the prevalence of LBW in selected developing countries. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted using 10 recent Demography and Health Surveys from developing countries based on the availability of the required information for the years 2010 to 2013. Associations of demographic, socioeconomic, community-based, and individual factors of the mother with LBW in infants were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The overall prevalence of LBW in the study countries was 15.9% (range, 9.0 to 35.1%). The following factors were shown to have a significant association with the risk of having an LBW infant in developing countries: maternal age of 35 to 49 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 3.1; p<0.01), inadequate antenatal care (ANC) (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8; p<0.01), illiteracy (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.001), delayed conception (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.5; p<0.001), low body mass index (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.1; p<0.001) and being in the poorest socioeconomic stratum (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8; p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrated that delayed conception, advanced maternal age, and inadequate ANC visits had independent effects on the prevalence of LBW. Strategies should be implemented based on these findings with the goal of developing policy options for improving the overall maternal health status in developing countries. PMID:28173687

  12. The determinants and effects of health expenditure in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Hitiris, T; Posnett, J

    1992-08-01

    Previous studies of international differences in health spending have been restricted to the use of relatively small samples of cross-sectional data. Our objective here is to re-examine the results of previous work using a sample of 560 pooled time-series and cross-section observations. Results confirm the importance of GDP as a determinant of health spending, with an estimated income elasticity at or around unity, but also suggest that OECD countries should not be regarded as a single, homogeneous group. The importance of some non-income variables is also confirmed, although the direct effect of these factors appears to be small.

  13. Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in Included Versus Excluded Contexts.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior (PSB) is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of PSB. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity) and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation) on PSB under neutral contexts (Study 1), and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2). Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of PSB. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of PSB. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted PSB. We showed that the investigated variables predicted PSB; this suggests that to promote PSB one could (1) foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2) try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on PSB. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  14. Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in Included Versus Excluded Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behavior (PSB) is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of PSB. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity) and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation) on PSB under neutral contexts (Study 1), and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2). Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of PSB. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of PSB. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted PSB. We showed that the investigated variables predicted PSB; this suggests that to promote PSB one could (1) foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2) try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on PSB. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust. PMID:26779103

  15. Design and Implementation Issues in Surveying the Views of Young Children in Ethnolinguistically Diverse Developing Country Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hilary A.; Haslett, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses issues in the development of a methodology appropriate for eliciting sound quantitative data from primary school children in the complex contexts of ethnolinguistically diverse developing countries. Although these issues often occur in field-based surveys, the large extent and compound effects of their occurrence in…

  16. Teaching Aviation English in the Chinese Context: Developing ESP Theory in a Non-English Speaking Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiguo, Wang

    2007-01-01

    This note introduces readers to the development of English for specific purposes (ESP) teaching and research in China and, more specifically, aviation English curriculum development in the Chinese context, so that ESP professionals can be acquainted with the recent development of ESP theory and practice in a non-English speaking country like…

  17. Comparative Comparison of Implementing School-Based Management in Developed Countries in the Historical Context: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Saeid; Beidokhti, Aliakbar Amin; Fathi, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to study the comparative comparison of implementing school-based management in developed countries in the historical context: from theory to practice. School-based management is not by itself and objective but a valuable tool in order to reach sagacity, capabilities and the enthusiasm from most people having shares in school.…

  18. Individual and district scale determinants of users' satisfaction with primary health care in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sarah; Haran, Dave

    2005-02-01

    The paper has two aims: to explore possible determinants of user satisfaction based on a broad conception of the health care system involving both individual and district scale variables, and to add to the limited knowledge and empirical study about such determinants in developing countries. The study was carried out in one of Brazil's poorest states, Ceará, in the northeast of the country. Brazil has a policy of an increased role for the population in management together with decentralised management to the local administrative (municipio) scale. For user views on health care to be useful in management, understanding their determinants needs to explore not only individual scale factors but also influences from the local health system and wider society, here termed district scale factors. The study design took different angles on users' satisfaction to build three measures: the particular health event (termed perceived quality); a generalised perception (termed satisfaction); and, satisfaction with the Community Health Worker (termed CHW satisfaction). Potential determinants explored at the individual scale (17 variables) are grouped into: socio-demographic and economic characteristics; health outcome; health care provision; and, awareness of space for local voice in planning. Potential determinants explored at the district scale (50 variables) are grouped into: formal organisation and management (health system inputs, management capacity, outputs and outcomes); informal organisation (population awareness of health system activities, staff characteristics, district management style); and, local political culture (geographic and socio-economic population profile, commitment to the district of local leaders, norms and values of staff regarding practice). Three determinants were key for all three user evaluation measures: getting an appointment, getting better, and the type of district (rural-urban). Our primary conclusion from this study is that there are

  19. Postmortem sperm retrieval in context of developing countries of Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Sikary, Asit Kumar; Murty, O. P.; Bardale, Rajesh V.

    2016-01-01

    There was a request for postmortem sperm retrieval (PMSR) from the wife of a deceased, but we had to decline. We have no guideline in place for the procedure in such cases. When we explored the international scenario on the issue of PMSR, we found that most of the developed countries have their guidelines about it, whether to allow or not to. There is not guideline available in developing countries, as such, for the procedure and various medical, legal, and social issues related thereto. In this article, we have explored the status of postmortem retrieval and feasibility of the procedure in developing countries of Indian subcontinent. PMID:27382231

  20. Sources of Free and Open Source Spatial Data for Natural Disasters and Principles for Use in Developing Country Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Millington, James D. A.

    2016-04-01

    Access to reliable spatial and quantitative datasets (e.g., infrastructure maps, historical observations, environmental variables) at regional and site specific scales can be a limiting factor for understanding hazards and risks in developing country settings. Here we present a 'living database' of >75 freely available data sources relevant to hazard and risk in Africa (and more globally). Data sources include national scientific foundations, non-governmental bodies, crowd-sourced efforts, academic projects, special interest groups and others. The database is available at http://tinyurl.com/africa-datasets and is continually being updated, particularly in the context of broader natural hazards research we are doing in the context of Malawi and Kenya. For each data source, we review the spatiotemporal resolution and extent and make our own assessments of reliability and usability of datasets. Although such freely available datasets are sometimes presented as a panacea to improving our understanding of hazards and risk in developing countries, there are both pitfalls and opportunities unique to using this type of freely available data. These include factors such as resolution, homogeneity, uncertainty, access to metadata and training for usage. Based on our experience, use in the field and grey/peer-review literature, we present a suggested set of guidelines for using these free and open source data in developing country contexts.

  1. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a

  2. Determinants of breastfeeding in developing countries: overview and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S L

    1984-01-01

    Breastfeeding can play a major role in fertility regulation in developing countries. The effect of breastfeeding is enhanced when the incidence of breastfeeding is high and the duration extended. These factors are more likely to occur when suckling at the breast is frequent. Sociological and behavioral factors can also influence a woman's decision to initiate and terminate breastfeeding. The effects of urbanization, maternal education, and socioeconomic status act through the intervening variables of sociocultural factors, health services, employment status of women, and availability of breastmilk substitutes. Strategies to alter these intervening variables include educational campaigns and support groups for lactating women, changes in health services, availability of child care facilities near employment centers, and enforcement of the international code of marketing of breastmilk substitutes.

  3. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  4. Policy-Making for Education Reform in Developing Countries: Contexts and Processes. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Cummings, William K.

    2005-01-01

    Here is the first book in a two-volume series designed to help those working, or preparing to work, as education change agents in developing countries. Each volume describes an approach to education reform that is: (1) Political and empirical; (2) A series of choices rather than a single best approach; (3) Implementation-centered; and (4)…

  5. Which Love of Country? Tensions, Questions and Contexts for Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers Martha Nussbaum's motivation for departing from her earlier cosmopolitan position in favour of now promoting a globally sensitive patriotism. Her reasons for endorsing patriotism will be shown as exemplary for related argumentations by other authors, especially insofar as love of country as a motivating force for civic duty is…

  6. Authentic e-Learning in a Multicultural Context: Virtual Benchmarking Cases from Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppisaari, Irja; Herrington, Jan; Vainio, Leena; Im, Yeonwook

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of authentic learning elements at education institutions in five countries, eight online courses in total, is examined in this paper. The International Virtual Benchmarking Project (2009-2010) applied the elements of authentic learning developed by Herrington and Oliver (2000) as criteria to evaluate authenticity. Twelve…

  7. Learning Organizations: Diagnosis and Measurement in a Developing Country Context--The Case of Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamali, Dima; Sidani, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the performance of a sample of Lebanese organizations vis-a-vis some of the core learning organization dimensions identified in the literature, focusing specifically on those dimensions that are considered most salient and relevant in the Lebanese context. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  8. Children's Weekend Activities in Four Countries: Context for Personal and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdogru, Asil Ali

    2010-01-01

    Out-of-school time constitutes a major context of social and emotional development for children across cultures. Because it is not constrained by school attendance, weekend time allows cultural and gender differences in time usage to emerge. In this study, children's weekend activities, choice, and some of the related emotional outcomes were…

  9. Applying the food technology neophobia scale in a developing country context. A case-study on processed matooke (cooking banana) flour in Central Uganda.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Odongo, Walter; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The success of new food technologies largely depends on consumers' behavioral responses to the innovation. In Eastern Africa, and Uganda in particular, a technology to process matooke into flour has been introduced with limited success. We measure and apply the Food technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS) to this specific case. This technique has been increasingly used in consumer research to determine consumers' fear for foods produced by novel technologies. Although it has been successful in developed countries, the low number and limited scope of past studies underlines the need for testing its applicability in a developing country context. Data was collected from 209 matooke consumers from Central Uganda. In general, respondents are relatively neophobic towards the new technology, with an average FTNS score of 58.7%, which hampers the success of processed matooke flour. Besides socio-demographic indicators, 'risk perception', 'healthiness' and the 'necessity of technologies' were key factors that influenced consumer's preference of processed matooke flour. Benchmarking the findings against previous FTNS surveys allows to evaluate factor solutions, compare standardized FTNS scores and further lends support for the multidimensionality of the FTNS. Being the first application in a developing country context, this study provides a case for examining food technology neophobia for processed staple crops in various regions and cultures. Nevertheless, research is needed to replicate this method and evaluate the external validity of our findings.

  10. 15 CFR 806.10 - Determining place of residence and country of jurisdiction of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.10 Determining place of residence and country of jurisdiction of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining place of residence and country of jurisdiction of individuals. 806.10 Section 806.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade...

  11. Collaborative practice in a global health context: Common themes from developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mickan, Sharon; Hoffman, Steven J; Nasmith, Louise

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports on a study commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO) to explore common themes of collaborative practice. The WHO requested global clarification of (1) the nature of collaborative practice, (2) its perceived importance, and (3) strategies for systematizing collaborative practice throughout national health systems. While there are many interpretations of collaborative practice around the world, there was a need to ascertain common underlying themes that illustrate good practice in both developed and developing countries to inform an international Framework for Action. A multiple case study design was used to examine collaborative practice in primary health care and commonalities across countries. Staff at each of WHO's six regional offices invited key informants in one or two primary health care organizations where collaborative practice was the model of care to complete case studies. Ten case studies were received from ten different countries, representing all six WHO regions. The results are described according to the study's three areas of focus: describing collaborative practice globally, the shared importance of collaborative practice, and systematizing collaborative practice. Collaborative practice requires a strong political framework that encourages interprofessional education and teamworking. Shared governance models and enabling legislation are required. At a practical level, interprofessional health care teams function most efficiently with shared clinical pathways and a common patient record.

  12. Health in China and India: a cross-country comparison in a context of rapid globalisation.

    PubMed

    Dummer, Trevor J B; Cook, Ian G

    2008-08-01

    China and India are similarly huge nations currently experiencing rapid economic growth, urbanisation and widening inequalities between rich and poor. They are dissimilar in terms of their political regimes, policies for population growth and ethnic composition and heterogeneity. This review compares health and health care in China and India within the framework of the epidemiological transition model and against the backdrop of globalisation. We identify similarities and differences in health situation. In general, for both countries, infectious diseases of the past sit alongside emerging infectious diseases and chronic illnesses associated with ageing societies, although the burden of infectious diseases is much higher in India. Whilst globalisation contributes to widening inequalities in health and health care in both countries--particularly with respect to increasing disparities between urban and rural areas and between rich and poor--there is evidence that local circumstances are important, especially with respect to the structure and financing of health care and the implementation of health policy. For example, India has huge problems providing even rudimentary health care to its large population of urban slum dwellers whilst China is struggling to re-establish universal rural health insurance. In terms of funding access to health care, the Chinese state has traditionally supported most costs, whereas private insurance has always played a major role in India, although recent changes in China have seen the burgeoning of private health care payments. China has, arguably, had more success than India in improving population health, although recent reforms have severely impacted upon the ability of the Chinese health care system to operate effectively. Both countries are experiencing a decline in the amount of government funding for health care and this is a major issue that must be addressed.

  13. The Impact of Institutional Context, Education and Labour Market Policies on Early School Leaving: A Comparative Analysis of EU Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, Kristof; Nicaise, Ides; Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Van Landeghem, Georges; Lamote, Carl; Van Damme, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the determinants of early school leaving (ESL) at the country level. We decompose ESL rates into two components: a "primary" rate reflecting unqualified school leaving from initial education, and a second component accounting for early school leavers who participate in training programmes.…

  14. Intervention bioethics: a proposal for peripheral countries in a context of power and injustice.

    PubMed

    Garrafa, Volnei; Porto, Dora

    2003-10-01

    The bioethics of the so-called 'peripheral countries' must preferably be concerned with persistent situations, that is, with those problems that are still happening, but should not happen anymore in the 21st century. Resulting conflicts cannot be exclusively analysed based on ethical (or bioethical) theories derived from 'central countries.' The authors warn of the growing lack of political analysis of moral conflicts and of human indignation. The indiscriminate utilisation of the bioethics justification as a neutral methodological tool softens and even cancels out the seriousness of several problems, even those that might result in the most profound social distortions. The current study takes as a theoretical reference the fact that natural resources (which affect us all) are relevant. Based on these premises, and on the concept that equity means 'treating unevenly the unequal', a proposal of a hard bioethics (or intervention bioethics) is introduced, in defence of the historical insights and rights of economically and socially excluded populations that are separated from the international developmental process.

  15. 19 CFR 177.23 - Who may request a country-of-origin advisory ruling or final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who may request a country-of-origin advisory... Procurement; Country-of-Origin Determinations § 177.23 Who may request a country-of-origin advisory ruling or final determination. A country-of-origin advisory ruling or final determination may be requested by:...

  16. 19 CFR 177.23 - Who may request a country-of-origin advisory ruling or final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may request a country-of-origin advisory... Procurement; Country-of-Origin Determinations § 177.23 Who may request a country-of-origin advisory ruling or final determination. A country-of-origin advisory ruling or final determination may be requested by:...

  17. Improving Access to Medicines in Low and Middle Income Countries: Corporate Responsibilities in Context

    PubMed Central

    Leisinger, Klaus Michael; Garabedian, Laura Faden; Wagner, Anita Katharina

    2012-01-01

    More than two billion people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) lack adequate access to essential medicines. In this paper, we make strong public health, human rights and economic arguments for improving access to medicines in LMIC and discuss the different roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders, including national governments, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We then establish a framework of pharmaceutical firms’ corporate responsibilities - the “must,” the “ought to,” and the “can” dimensions - and make recommendations for actionable business strategies for improving access to medicines. We discuss controversial topics, such as pharmaceutical profits and patents, with the goal of building consensus around facts and working towards a solution. We conclude that partnerships and collaboration among multiple stakeholders are urgently needed to improve equitable access to medicines in LMIC. PMID:23535994

  18. New perspectives on the pedagogy of programming in a developing country context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2012-09-01

    Programming education is a widely researched and intensely discussed topic. The literature proposes a broad variety of pedagogical viewpoints, practical approaches, learning theories, motivational vehicles, and other elements of the learning situation. However, little effort has been put on understanding cultural and contextual differences in pedagogy of programming. Pedagogical literature shows that educational design should account for differences in the ways of learning and teaching between industrialized and developing countries. However, the nature and implications of those differences are hitherto unclear. Using group interviews and quantitative surveys, we identified several crucial elements for contextualizing programming education. Our results reveal that students are facing many similar challenges to students in the west: they often lack deep level learning skills and problem-solving skills, which are required for learning computer programming, and, secondly, that from the students' viewpoint the standard learning environment does not offer enough support for gaining the requisite development. With inadequate support students may resort to surface learning and may adopt extrinsic sources of motivation. Learning is also hindered by many contextually unique factors, such as unfamiliar pedagogical approaches, language problems, and cultural differences. Our analysis suggests that challenges can be minimized by increasing the number of practical exercises, by carefully selecting between guided and minimally guided environments, by rigorously monitoring student progress, and by providing students timely help, repetitive exercises, clear guidelines, and emotional support.

  19. Developmental Context Determines Latency of MYC-Induced Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Shelly; Zetterberg, Anders; Ihrie, Rebecca A; McTaggart, Ryan A; Yang, Qiwei; Bradon, Nicole; Arvanitis, Constadina; Attardi, Laura D; Feng, Sandy; Ruebner, Boris; Cardiff, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    One of the enigmas in tumor biology is that different types of cancers are prevalent in different age groups. One possible explanation is that the ability of a specific oncogene to cause tumorigenesis in a particular cell type depends on epigenetic parameters such as the developmental context. To address this hypothesis, we have used the tetracycline regulatory system to generate transgenic mice in which the expression of a c-MYC human transgene can be conditionally regulated in murine hepatocytes. MYC's ability to induce tumorigenesis was dependent upon developmental context. In embryonic and neonatal mice, MYC overexpression in the liver induced marked cell proliferation and immediate onset of neoplasia. In contrast, in adult mice MYC overexpression induced cell growth and DNA replication without mitotic cell division, and mice succumbed to neoplasia only after a prolonged latency. In adult hepatocytes, MYC activation failed to induce cell division, which was at least in part mediated through the activation of p53. Surprisingly, apoptosis is not a barrier to MYC inducing tumorigenesis. The ability of oncogenes to induce tumorigenesis may be generally restrained by developmentally specific mechanisms. Adult somatic cells have evolved mechanisms to prevent individual oncogenes from initiating cellular growth, DNA replication, and mitotic cellular division alone, thereby preventing any single genetic event from inducing tumorigenesis. PMID:15455033

  20. Automatic RNA secondary structure determination stochastic context-free grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, L.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a method for predicting the common secondary structure of large RNA multiple alignments using only the information in the alignment. It uses a series of progressively more sensitive searches of the data in an iterative manner to discover regions of base pairing; the first pass examines the entire multiple alignment. The searching uses two methods to find base pairings. Mutual information is used to measure covariation between pairs of columns in the multiple alignment and a minimum length encoding method is used to detect column pairs with high potential to base pair. Dynamic programming is used to recover the optimal tree made up of the best potential base pairs and to create a stochastic context-free grammar. The information in the tree guides the next iteration of searching. The method is similar to the traditional comparative sequence analysis technique. The method correctly identifies most of the common secondary structure in 16S and 23S rRNA.

  1. Emergency preparedness for those who care for infants in developed country contexts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Emergency management organisations recognise the vulnerability of infants in emergencies, even in developed countries. However, thus far, those who care for infants have not been provided with detailed information on what emergency preparedness entails. Emergency management authorities should provide those who care for infants with accurate and detailed information on the supplies necessary to care for them in an emergency, distinguishing between the needs of breastfed infants and the needs of formula fed infants. Those who care for formula fed infants should be provided with detailed information on the supplies necessary for an emergency preparedness kit and with information on how to prepare formula feeds in an emergency. An emergency preparedness kit for exclusively breastfed infants should include 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. The contents of an emergency preparedness for formula fed infants will vary depending upon whether ready-to-use liquid infant formula or powdered infant formula is used. If ready-to-use liquid infant formula is used, an emergency kit should include: 56 serves of ready-to-use liquid infant formula, 84 L water, storage container, metal knife, small bowl, 56 feeding bottles and teats/cups, 56 zip-lock plastic bags, 220 paper towels, detergent, 120 antiseptic wipes, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. If powdered infant formula is used, an emergency preparedness kit should include: two 900 g tins powdered infant formula, 170 L drinking water, storage container, large cooking pot with lid, kettle, gas stove, box of matches/lighter, 14 kg liquid petroleum gas, measuring container, metal knife, metal tongs, feeding cup, 300 large sheets paper towel, detergent, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. Great care with regards hygiene should be taken in the preparation of formula feeds. Child protection organisations should ensure that foster carers responsible for infants have the resources necessary to formula feed in the event of an emergency. Exclusive

  2. Emergency preparedness for those who care for infants in developed country contexts.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Karleen D; Berry, Nina J

    2011-11-07

    Emergency management organisations recognise the vulnerability of infants in emergencies, even in developed countries. However, thus far, those who care for infants have not been provided with detailed information on what emergency preparedness entails. Emergency management authorities should provide those who care for infants with accurate and detailed information on the supplies necessary to care for them in an emergency, distinguishing between the needs of breastfed infants and the needs of formula fed infants. Those who care for formula fed infants should be provided with detailed information on the supplies necessary for an emergency preparedness kit and with information on how to prepare formula feeds in an emergency. An emergency preparedness kit for exclusively breastfed infants should include 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. The contents of an emergency preparedness for formula fed infants will vary depending upon whether ready-to-use liquid infant formula or powdered infant formula is used. If ready-to-use liquid infant formula is used, an emergency kit should include: 56 serves of ready-to-use liquid infant formula, 84 L water, storage container, metal knife, small bowl, 56 feeding bottles and teats/cups, 56 zip-lock plastic bags, 220 paper towels, detergent, 120 antiseptic wipes, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. If powdered infant formula is used, an emergency preparedness kit should include: two 900 g tins powdered infant formula, 170 L drinking water, storage container, large cooking pot with lid, kettle, gas stove, box of matches/lighter, 14 kg liquid petroleum gas, measuring container, metal knife, metal tongs, feeding cup, 300 large sheets paper towel, detergent, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. Great care with regards hygiene should be taken in the preparation of formula feeds. Child protection organisations should ensure that foster carers responsible for infants have the resources necessary to formula feed in the event of an emergency. Exclusive

  3. Determinants of relative and absolute concentration indices: evidence from 26 European countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of publicly-provided health care is generally not only to produce health, but also to decrease variation in health by socio-economic status. The aim of this study is to measure to what extent this goal has been obtained in various European countries and evaluate the determinants of inequalities within countries, as well as cross-country patterns with regard to different cultural, institutional and social settings. Methods The data utilized in this study provides information on 440,000 individuals in 26 European countries and stem from The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) collected in 2007. As measures of income-related inequality in health both the relative concentration indices and the absolute concentration indices are calculated. Further, health inequality in each country is decomposed into individual-level determinants and cross-country comparisons are made to shed light on social and institutional determinants. Results Income-related health inequality favoring the better-off is observed for all the 26 European countries. In terms of within-country determinants inequality is mainly explained by income, age, education, and activity status. However, the degree of inequality and contribution of each determinant to inequality varies considerably between countries. Aggregate bivariate linear regressions show that there is a positive association between health-income inequality in Europe and public expenditure on education. Furthermore, a negative relationship between health-income inequality and income inequality was found when individual employee cash income was used in the health-concentration measurement. Using that same income measure, health-income inequality was found to be higher in the Nordic countries than in other areas, but this result is sensitive to the income measure chosen. Conclusions The findings indicate that institutional determinants partly explain income-related health inequalities across

  4. Health in global context; beyond the social determinants of health?

    PubMed Central

    Krumeich, Anja; Meershoek, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The rise of the social determinants of health (SDH) discourse on the basis of statistical evidence that correlates ill health to SDH and pictures causal pathways in comprehensive theoretical frameworks led to widespread awareness that health and health disparities are the outcome of complex pathways of interconnecting SDH. In this paper we explore whether and how SDH frameworks can be translated to effectively inform particular national health policies. To this end we identified major challenges for this translation followed by reflections on ways to overcome them. Most important challenges affecting adequate translation of these frameworks into concrete policy and intervention are 1) overcoming the inclination to conceptualize SDH as mere barriers to health behavior to be modified by lifestyle interventions by addressing them as structural factors instead; 2) obtaining sufficient in-depth insight in and evidence for the exact nature of the relationship between SDs and health; 3) to adequately translate the general determinants and pathways into explanations for ill health and limited access to health care in local settings; 4) to develop and implement policies and other interventions that are adjusted to those local circumstances. We conclude that to transform generic SDH models into useful policy tools and to prevent them to transform in SDH themselves, in depth understanding of the unique interplay between local, national and global SDH in a local setting, gathered by ethnographic research, is needed to be able to address structural SD in the local setting and decrease health inequity.

  5. 49 CFR 583.8 - Procedure for determining country of origin for engines and transmissions (for purposes of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for determining country of origin for...) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.8 Procedure for determining country of origin for engines and...) Each supplier of an engine or transmission shall determine the country of origin once a year for...

  6. 49 CFR 583.8 - Procedure for determining country of origin for engines and transmissions (for purposes of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure for determining country of origin for...) AUTOMOBILE PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.8 Procedure for determining country of origin for engines and...) Each supplier of an engine or transmission shall determine the country of origin once a year for...

  7. Social Determinants: Taking the Social Context of Asthma Seriously

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Sternthal, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2012-01-01

    While asthma has emerged as a major contributor to disease and disability in American children, the burden of this disease is unevenly distributed within the population. This paper provides a brief overview of social status variables that predict variation in asthma risks and social exposures such as stress and violence that are emerging as important risk factors. However, the central focus of the paper is on the distal social variables that have given rise to unhealthy residential environments in which the risk factors for asthma and other diseases are clustered. Effective initiatives for the prevention and treatment of childhood asthma need to address these non-medical determinants of the prevalence of asthma. PMID:19221161

  8. Teachers' Conceptions About the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed teachers' conceptions. This illustrates that innatism is present in two distinct ways: in relation to individuals (e.g. genetic determinism to justify intellectual likeness between individuals such as twins) or in relation to groups of humans (e.g. genetic determinism to justify gender differences or the superiority of some human ethnic groups). A between-factor analysis discriminates between countries, showing very significant differences. There is more innatism among teachers' conceptions in African countries and Lebanon than in European countries, Brazil and Australia. Among the other controlled parameters, only two are significantly independent of the country: the level of training and the level of knowledge of biology. A co-inertia analysis shows a strong correlation between non-citizen attitudes towards and innatist conceptions of genetic determinism regarding human groups. We discuss these findings and their implications for education.

  9. Direct costs of ankylosing spondylitis and its determinants: an analysis among three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Boonen, A; van der Heijde, D; Landewe, R; Guillemin, F; Rutten-van, M; Dougados, M; Mielants, H; de Vlam, K; van der Tempel, H; Boesen, S; Spoorenberg, A; Schouten, H; van der Linden, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess direct costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). To determine which variables, including country, predict costs. Methods: 216 patients with AS from the Netherlands, France, and Belgium participated in a two year observational study and filled in bimonthly economic questionnaires. Disease related healthcare resource use was measured and direct costs were calculated from a societal perspective (true cost estimates) and from a financial perspective (country-specific tariffs). Predictors of costs were assessed using Cox's regression analysis. Results: 209 patients provided sufficient data for cost analysis. Mean annual societal direct costs for each patient were €2640, of which 82% were direct healthcare costs. In univariate analysis costs were higher in the Netherlands than in Belgium, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for baseline differences in patients' characteristics among countries. Longer disease duration, lower education, worse physical function, and higher disease activity were predictors of costs. Mean annual direct costs from a financial perspective were €2122, €1402, and €941 per patient in the Netherlands, France, and Belgium, respectively. For each country, costs from a financial perspective were significantly lower than costs from a societal perspective. Conclusion: Direct costs for AS are substantial in three European countries but not significantly different after adjusting for baseline characteristics among countries. Worse physical function and higher disease activity are important determinants of costs, suggesting better disease control might reduce the costs of AS. The difference in costs from a societal and financial perspective emphasises the importance of an economic analysis. PMID:12860728

  10. Changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries between 1997 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Holm, Lotte; Lauridsen, Drude; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Gronow, Jukka; Niva, Mari; Mäkelä, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    How have eating patterns changed in modern life? In public and academic debate concern has been expressed that the social function of eating may be challenged by de-structuration and the dissolution of traditions. We analyzed changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries over the period 1997-2012. We focused on three interlinked processes often claimed to be distinctive of modern eating: delocalization of eating from private households to commercial settings, individualization in the form of more eating alone, and informalization, implying more casual codes of conduct. We based the analysis on data from two surveys conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012. The surveys reported in detail one day of eating in representative samples of adult populations in the four countries (N = 4823 and N = 8242). We compared data regarding where, with whom, and for how long people ate, and whether parallel activities took place while eating. While Nordic people's primary location for eating remained the home and the workplace, the practices of eating in haste, and while watching television increased and using tablets, computers and smartphones while eating was frequent in 2012. Propensity to eat alone increased slightly in Denmark and Norway, and decreased slightly in Sweden. While such practices vary with socio-economic background, regression analysis showed several changes were common across the Nordic populations. However, the new practice of using tablets, computers, and smartphones while eating was strongly associated with young age. Further, each of the practices appeared to be related to different types of meal. We conclude that while the changes in the social organization of eating were not dramatic, signs of individualization and informalization could be detected.

  11. Micro- and Macrolevel Determinants of Women's Employment in Six Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spierings, Niels; Smits, Jeroen; Verloo, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed determinants of women's employment with data for 40,792 women living in 103 districts of 6 Arab countries. We tested a new theoretical framework that addresses the roles of needs, opportunities, and values at multiple levels. At the microlevel (individual, family), socioeconomic factors, care duties, and traditionalism were important;…

  12. Teachers' Conceptions about the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed…

  13. Patterns and determinants of antenatal care utilization: analysis of national survey data in seven countdown countries

    PubMed Central

    Saad–Haddad, Ghada; DeJong, Jocelyn; Terreri, Nancy; Restrepo–Méndez, María Clara; Perin, Jamie; Vaz, Lara; Newby, Holly; Amouzou, Agbessi; Barros, Aluísio JD; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is critical for improving maternal and newborn health. WHO recommends that pregnant women complete at least four ANC visits. Countdown and other global monitoring efforts track the proportions of women who receive one or more visits by a skilled provider (ANC1+) and four or more visits by any provider (ANC4+). This study investigates patterns of drop–off in use between ANC1+ and ANC4+, and explores inequalities in women’s use of ANC services. It also identifies determinants of utilization and describes countries’ ANC–related policies, and programs. Methods We performed secondary analyses using Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data from seven Countdown countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cameroon, Nepal, Peru, Senegal and Uganda. The descriptive analysis illustrates country variations in the frequency of visits by provider type, content, and by household wealth, women’s education and type of residence. We conducted a multivariable analysis using a conceptual framework to identify determinants of ANC utilization. We collected contextual information from countries through a standard questionnaire completed by country–based informants. Results Each country had a unique pattern of ANC utilization in terms of coverage, inequality and the extent to which predictors affected the frequency of visits. Nevertheless, common patterns arise. Women having four or more visits usually saw a skilled provider at least once, and received more evidence–based content interventions than women reporting fewer than four visits. A considerable proportion of women reporting four or more visits did not report receiving the essential interventions. Large disparities exist in ANC use by household wealth, women’s education and residence area; and are wider for a larger number of visits. The multivariable analyses of two models in each country showed that determinants had different effects on the dependent variable in each model. Overall, strong

  14. Did Equity of Reproductive and Maternal Health Service Coverage Increase during the MDG Era? An Analysis of Trends and Determinants across 74 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suneeta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite widespread gains toward the 5th Millennium Development Goal (MDG), pro-rich inequalities in reproductive health (RH) and maternal health (MH) are pervasive throughout the world. As countries enter the post-MDG era and strive toward UHC, it will be important to monitor the extent to which countries are achieving equity of RH and MH service coverage. This study explores how equity of service coverage differs across countries, and explores what policy factors are associated with a country’s progress, or lack thereof, toward more equitable RH and MH service coverage. Methods We used RH and MH service coverage data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 74 countries to examine trends in equity between countries and over time from 1990 to 2014. We examined trends in both relative and absolute equity, and measured relative equity using a concentration index of coverage data grouped by wealth quintile. Through multivariate analysis we examined the relative importance of policy factors, such as political commitment to health, governance, and the level of prepayment, in determining countries’ progress toward greater equity in RH and MH service coverage. Results Relative equity for the coverage of RH and MH services has continually increased across all countries over the past quarter century; however, inequities in coverage persist, in some countries more than others. Multivariate analysis shows that higher education and greater political commitment (measured as the share of government spending allocated to health) were significantly associated with higher equity of service coverage. Neither country income, i.e., GDP per capita, nor better governance were significantly associated with equity. Conclusion Equity in RH and MH service coverage has improved but varies considerably across countries and over time. Even among the subset of countries that are close to achieving the MDGs, progress made on equity varies considerably across countries

  15. 26 CFR 1.955-3 - Election as to date of determining qualified investments in less developed countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investments in less developed countries. 1.955-3 Section 1.955-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.955-3 Election as to date of determining qualified investments in less developed countries. (a... foreign corporation's qualified investments in less developed countries for a taxable year in the...

  16. Analysis and implications of the determinants of healthcare expenditure in African countries.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Albert A

    2005-11-01

    The income elasticity of health care spending in the OECD countries tends toward luxury good values. Similar studies, based on more recent data, and capable of informing macroeconomic health policies of the African countries, do not currently exist. How the health care expenditure in Africa responds to changes in the Gross Domestic Products (GDP), Official Development Assistance (ODA), and other determinants, is also relevant for health policy because health care is a necessity in the 'basic needs' theory of economic development. This paper presents econometric model findings of the determinants of per-capita health expenditure (in PPPs) for 26 African countries, using the flexible Box-Cox model regression methods and 1995 cross-sectional data (sources: WRI, UNEP, UNDP, The World Bank). The economic and other determinants, capturing 74 percent of the variations in health expenditures, include per-capita GDP (in PPPs), ODA (US dollar), Gini income inequality index, population dependency ratio, internal conflicts, and the percentage of births attended by trained medical workers. Income inequality dampens, while the ODA and population per health personnel raise health care expenditure. The GDP elasticity of about 0.6 signals the tendency for health care to behave like a technical 'necessity'. Implications for sustainable basic health development policies are discussed.

  17. The core determinants of health expenditure in the African context: some econometric evidence for policy.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vasudeva N R; Okunade, Albert A

    2009-06-01

    This paper, using cross-sectional data from 44 (83% of all) African countries for year 2001, presents econometric model estimates linking real per-capita health expenditure (HEXP) to a host of economic and non-economic factors. The empirical results of OLS and robust LAE estimators indicate that real per-capita GDP (PRGDP) and real per-capita foreign aid (FAID) resources are both core and statistically significant correlates of HEXP. Our empirical results suggest that health care in the African context is technically, a necessity rather than a luxury good (for the OECD countries). This suggests that the goal of health system in Africa is primarily 'physiological' or 'curative' rather than 'caring' or 'pampering'. The positive association of HEXP with FAID hints that external resource inflows targeting health could be instrumental for spurring economic progress in good policy environments. Most African countries until the late 1990s experienced economic and political instability, and faced stringent structural adjustment mandates of the major international financial institution lenders for economic development. Therefore, our finding a positive effect of FAID on HEXP could suggest that external resource inflows softened some of the macroeconomic fiscal deficit impacts on HEXP in the 2000s. Policy implications of country-specific elasticity estimates are given.

  18. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true U.S. citizenship determinations on children born.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... laws of the nation in which she is a citizen. (2) A child born out of wedlock in a foreign country...

  19. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true U.S. citizenship determinations on children born.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... laws of the nation in which she is a citizen. (2) A child born out of wedlock in a foreign country...

  20. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true U.S. citizenship determinations on children born.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... laws of the nation in which she is a citizen. (2) A child born out of wedlock in a foreign country...

  1. International application of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation in obesity reduction: factors that may influence policy effectiveness in country-specific contexts.

    PubMed

    Jou, Judy; Techakehakij, Win

    2012-09-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation is becoming of increasing interest as a policy aimed at addressing the rising prevalence of obesity in many countries. Preliminary evidence indicates its potential to not only reduce obesity prevalence, but also generate public revenue. However, differences in country-specific contexts create uncertainties in its possible outcomes. This paper urges careful consideration of country-specific characteristics by suggesting three points in particular that may influence the effectiveness of a volume-based soft drink excise tax: population obesity prevalence, soft drink consumption levels, and existing baseline tax rates. Data from 19 countries are compared with regard to each point. The authors suggest that SSB or soft drink taxation policy may be more effective in reducing obesity prevalence where existing obesity prevalence and soft drink consumption levels are high. Conversely, in countries where the baseline tax rate is already considered high, SSB taxation may not have a noticeable impact on consumption patterns or obesity prevalence, and may incur negative feedback from the beverage industry or the general public. Thorough evaluation of these points is recommended prior to adopting SSB or soft drink taxation as an obesity reduction measure in any given country.

  2. Cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation: An electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether or not a cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on the evaluation of two action outcomes: a monetary outcome and a conflict of opinion with other group members. In the present study, three-person groups were randomly assigned to be either a cooperative or individual group and asked to perform a gambling task. The monetary outcomes in the cooperative group were interrelated among group members, whereas those in the individual group did not influence each other. The present results showed that monetary outcomes elicited feedback-related negativity (FRN) and a conflict of opinion with other group members elicited FRN-like negativity, which reflect an evaluation of the motivational significance of action outcomes. The FRN elicited by monetary outcomes was reduced when participants shared decisions with other group members only in the cooperative group, indicating that the cooperative context reduced the motivational significance of monetary outcomes through the diffusion of responsibility. The FRN-like negativity elicited by a conflict of opinion showed a different pattern between the cooperative and individual groups, indicating that the cooperative context can influence the evaluation of a conflict of opinion, possibly via the modulation of group cohesiveness or conflict processing. The present results suggest that a cooperative context, rather than the social setting, is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation.

  3. Context: An Algorithm for Determining Negation, Experiencer, and Temporal Status from Clinical Reports

    PubMed Central

    Harkema, Henk; Dowling, John N.; Thornblade, Tyler; Chapman, Wendy W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm called ConText for determining whether clinical conditions mentioned in clinical reports are negated, hypothetical, historical, or experienced by someone other than the patient. The algorithm infers the status of a condition with regard to these properties from simple lexical clues occurring in the context of the condition. The discussion and evaluation of the algorithm presented in this paper address the questions of whether a simple surface-based approach which has been shown to work well for negation can be successfully transferred to other contextual properties of clinical conditions, and to what extent this approach is portable among different clinical report types. In our study we find that ConText obtains reasonable to good performance for negated, historical, and hypothetical conditions across all report types that contain such conditions. Conditions experienced by someone other than the patient are very rarely found in our report set. A comprehensive solution to the problem of determining whether a clinical condition is historical or recent requires knowledge above and beyond the surface clues picked up by ConText. PMID:19435614

  4. Psychological Determinants of Consumer Acceptance of Personalised Nutrition in 9 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Poínhos, Rui; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Rankin, Audrey; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Bunting, Brendan; Kuznesof, Sharron; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a model of the psychological factors which predict people’s intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Potential determinants of adoption included perceived risk and benefit, perceived self-efficacy, internal locus of control and health commitment. Methods A questionnaire, developed from exploratory study data and the existing theoretical literature, and including validated psychological scales was administered to N = 9381 participants from 9 European countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the UK, and Norway). Results Structural equation modelling indicated that the greater participants’ perceived benefits to be associated with personalised nutrition, the more positive their attitudes were towards personalised nutrition, and the greater their intention to adopt it. Higher levels of nutrition self-efficacy were related to more positive attitudes towards, and a greater expressed intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. Other constructs positively impacting attitudes towards personalised nutrition included more positive perceptions of the efficacy of regulatory control to protect consumers (e.g. in relation to personal data protection), higher self-reported internal health locus of control, and health commitment. Although higher perceived risk had a negative relationship with attitude and an inverse relationship with perceived benefit, its effects on attitude and intention to adopt personalised nutrition was less influential than perceived benefit. The model was stable across the different European countries, suggesting that psychological factors determining adoption of personalised nutrition have generic applicability across different European countries. Conclusion The results suggest that transparent provision of information about potential benefits, and protection of consumers’ personal data is important for adoption, delivery of public health benefits, and commercialisation of personalised

  5. When Do States Respond to Low Fertility? Contexts of State Concern in Wealthier Countries, 1976–2011

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, expressions of state concern over low fertility have greatly increased among wealthier countries. This study asks to what extent this increase is explained by demographic factors, national-level economic and political factors, and processes of international diffusion and changing international norms. Analyses integrate the world polity literature on global policy diffusion with a social problems approach to examine international diffusion of state concern among more powerful members of the world polity, a process that can produce changes in international policy consensus. Comparisons of the characteristics of states that do and do not express concern over low fertility find that among wealthier “first-world” countries, state concern has become more responsive to fertility rates: fertility rates are not significantly associated with concern early in the study period, but are strongly associated with concern later in the study period. There is no evidence that integration into the world polity is associated with concern in these countries, and some evidence that less integrated countries are more likely to express concern, suggesting that processes shaping the diffusion of state concern may differ from those identified as shaping policy diffusion in the existing literature. Among “second-world” former Eastern bloc countries, different patterns of associations reflect different political histories: concern is associated only with demographic factors, with no significant change in this association over time. PMID:26213421

  6. The significance of context for curriculum development in engineering education: a case study across three African countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.; Kumar, Anil; Itika, Ambrose

    2016-05-01

    Curriculum reform is a key topic in the engineering education literature, but much of this discussion proceeds with little engagement with the impact of the local context in which the programme resides. This article thus seeks to understand the influence of local contextual dynamics on curriculum reform in engineering education. The empirical study is a comparative analysis of the context for curriculum reform in three different chemical engineering departments on the African continent, located in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. All three departments are currently engaged in processes of curriculum reform, but the analysis shows how the different contexts in which these efforts are taking place exert strong shaping effects on the processes and outcomes for that reform.

  7. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look 'cool' were

  8. Intercultural Communication Skills among Prospective Turkish Teachers of German in the Context of the Comparative Country Knowledge Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basbagi, R. Ragip

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and provides a sample implementation of a seminar for the "Comparative Country Knowledge" course taught in the German Language Teaching departments of Turkish universities. The study was conducted with the participation of forty-seven 1st year students attending a German Language Teaching department. As part of the…

  9. The Significance of Context for Curriculum Development in Engineering Education: A Case Study across Three African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.; Kumar, Anil; Itika, Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum reform is a key topic in the engineering education literature, but much of this discussion proceeds with little engagement with the impact of the local context in which the programme resides. This article thus seeks to understand the influence of local contextual dynamics on curriculum reform in engineering education. The empirical…

  10. Organization of ambulatory care provision: a critical determinant of health system performance in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, P.

    2000-01-01

    Success in the provision of ambulatory personal health services, i.e. providing individuals with treatment for acute illness and preventive health care on an ambulatory basis, is the most significant contributor to the health care system's performance in most developing countries. Ambulatory personal health care has the potential to contribute the largest immediate gains in health status in populations, especially for the poor. At present, such health care accounts for the largest share of the total health expenditure in most lower income countries. It frequently comprises the largest share of the financial burden on households associated with health care consumption, which is typically regressively distributed. The "organization" of ambulatory personal health services is a critical determinant of the health system's performance which, at present, is poorly understood and insufficiently considered in policies and programmes for reforming health care systems. This article begins with a brief analysis of the importance of ambulatory care in the overall health system performance and this is followed by a summary of the inadequate global data on ambulatory care organization. It then defines the concept of "macro organization of health care" at a system level. Outlined also is a framework for analysing the organization of health care services and the major pathways through which the organization of ambulatory personal health care services can affect system performance. Examples of recent policy interventions to influence primary care organization--both government and nongovernmental providers and market structure--are reviewed. It is argued that the characteristics of health care markets in developing countries and of most primary care goods result in relatively diverse and competitive environments for ambulatory care services, compared with other types of health care. Therefore, governments will be required to use a variety of approaches beyond direct public provision

  11. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    PubMed

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  12. Determining the optimal vaccine vial size in developing countries: a Monte Carlo simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Dhamodharan, Aswin; Proano, Ruben A

    2012-09-01

    Outreach immunization services, in which health workers immunize children in their own communities, are indispensable to improve vaccine coverage in rural areas of developing countries. One of the challenges faced by these services is how to reduce high levels of vaccine wastage. In particular, the open vial wastage (OVW) that result from the vaccine doses remaining in a vial after a time for safe use -since opening the vial- has elapsed. This wastage is highly dependent on the choice of vial size and the expected number of participants for which the outreach session is planned (i.e., session size). The use single-dose vials results in zero OVW, but it increases the vaccine purchase, transportation, and holding costs per dose as compared to those resulting from using larger vial sizes. The OVW also decreases when more people are immunized in a session. However, controlling the actual number of people that show to an outreach session in rural areas of developing countries highly depends on factors that are out of control of the immunization planners. This paper integrates a binary integer-programming model to a Monte Carlo simulation method to determine the choice of vial size and the optimal reordering point level to implement an (nQ, r, T) lot-sizing policy that provides the best tradeoff between procurement costs and wastage.

  13. Improving antibiotic use in low-income countries: an overview of evidence on determinants.

    PubMed

    Radyowijati, Aryanti; Haak, Hilbrand

    2003-08-01

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics has often been identified as a problem in effective health care delivery. High levels of antibiotics use, often clinically unnecessary, have led to a steady increase in drug resistance. Low-income countries, home to the majority of the world's population, are believed to have an important role in this phenomena. Effective intervention in these practices is often constrained by the paucity of information on determinants of antibiotic use. This review provides information from studies on the factors that influence the use of antibiotics by health providers, dispensers and community members in low-income countries. A proper understanding of these factors should be seen as a precondition for the development of more effective policies and programmes to address inappropriate antibiotic use. The review encompasses physicians' practices, the role of drug dispensers, and the influences on patterns of drug use across community members. Although a set of papers with useful research data was identified, probably the most important finding of the review was the scarcity of research. If interventions into antibiotic use are to be effective, future research must explore in more depth the socio-cultural rationality of antibiotic usage. The most productive approach would be to combine quantitative studies of the patterns of antibiotic use with the rich variety of qualitative methods like case simulations, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, informal interviews, or illness diaries to explore determinants.Research programmes alone are unlikely to improve antibiotic use. Priority programme activities would include a carefully designed mix of activities by governments, health delivery systems, health training institutions, professional societies, pharmaceutical companies, consumer organisations, and international organisations. Strategies that lean too heavily on professional education are unlikely to result in large-scale or long

  14. Synthesis and Implications: China’s Nutrition Transition in the Context of Changes Across other Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) is important for its insights into current and future diet, physical activity, and obesity-related changes in China and for understanding underlying processes common across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While China modernized later than Latin American countries, many changes seen in China echo those in Latin America and in other LMICs. In general changes in physical activity and diet behaviors in China have occurred at a faster pace relative to other LMICs. Modernization of the overall Chinese food system has lagged behind most other LMICs, yet the now-rapid changes in the Chinese food system are similar to what has been seen in other LMICs. Further, there is variation in these changes across social and geographic space. The incidence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases has increased as the major health burden has shifted toward the poor. This paper examines changes in China and addresses the literature and issues that link these changes with those in other LMICs. In many ways the detailed 20-year CHNS, with nine repeated measures, provides a remarkable window through which to understand nutrition-related changes in other LMICs. PMID:24341759

  15. Systematic Literature Review on ICF From 2001 to 2013 in the Nordic Countries Focusing on Clinical and Rehabilitation Context

    PubMed Central

    Maribo, Thomas; Petersen, Kirsten S.; Handberg, Charlotte; Melchiorsen, Hanne; Momsen, Anne-Mette H.; Nielsen, Claus V.; Leonardi, Matilde; Labriola, Merete

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic review on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) used in the Nordic countries from 2001 through 2013, describing and quantifying the development in utilization of ICF, and describe the extent to which the different components of the ICF have been used. A search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo. Papers from Nordic countries were included if ICF was mentioned in title or abstract. Papers were assigned to one of eight categories covering the wide rehabilitation area; furthermore, area of focus was assigned. Use of ICF components and intervention were coded in papers categorized as “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” or “non-clinical contexts”. One hundred seventy papers were included, of these 99 papers were from the categories “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” or “non-clinical contexts”. Forty-two percent of the 170 included papers were published in the period 2011 - 2013. There was an increase in ICF-relevant papers from 2001 to 2013, especially in the categories “clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts” and “non-clinical contexts”. The most represented focus areas were neurology, musculoskeletal, and work-related areas. All five or at least four ICF components were mentioned in the results or discussions in most papers, and activity was most frequently mentioned. PMID:26668676

  16. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  17. The impact of a rural or urban context in eating awareness and self-regulation strategies in children and adolescents from eight European countries.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Tania; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Baban, Adriana; Wit, John

    2014-06-01

    Complex relationships exist between eating behaviour and personal and environmental factors. Rural and urban geographic contexts seem to play a role in eating behaviour, and therefore deserve a deeper study. A healthy eating behaviour and the conditions that promote it are a major issue in the promotion of adolescent health. The study aims to investigate the associations between the area of residence (urban vs. rural), self-regulation strategies (TESQ-E) and eating behaviours among children and adolescents. A total of 11,820 adolescents (50.6% girls) participated in the study, with a mean age of 13.30 years (SD= 2.13). Nine countries (The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Poland, Portugal, Denmark, Romania, Germany, Finland and Belgium) completed a questionnaire in the school context, asking about the use of self-regulation strategies, eating behaviour awareness/care and sociodemographic questions such as age, gender and residential area. Both areas of residence (urban vs. rural) are associated with eating awareness/care in Romania and Portugal, controlling for age, gender and self-regulation strategies. In some European countries at least, and most probably around the world, health promotion should focus on an ecological approach that includes the understanding of the effect of both environmental factors and personal skills on eating behaviour/awareness.

  18. Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Darci N; Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; Bastos, Ana Cecília S; Santos, Letícia M; Santos, Carlos Antonio ST; Strina, Agostino; Prado, Matildes S; Almeida-Filho, Naomar M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2008-01-01

    Background There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. Methods This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child health and nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation and nursery school attendance. The effect of these on Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence scores at five years of age was investigated using a multivariable hierarchical analysis, guided by the proposed conceptual framework. Results Unfavourable socioeconomic conditions, poorly educated mother, absent father, poor sanitary conditions at home and in the neighbourhood and low birth weight were negatively associated with cognitive performance at five years of age, while strong positive associations were found with high levels of domestic stimulation and nursery school attendance. Conclusion Children's cognitive development in urban contexts in developing countries could be substantially increased by interventions promoting early psychosocial stimulation and preschool experience, together with efforts to prevent low birth weight and promote adequate nutritional status. PMID:18534035

  19. Determination and levels of the biocide ortho-phenylphenol in canned beers from different countries.

    PubMed

    Coelhan, Mehmet; Bromig, Karl-Heinz; Glas, Karl; Roberts, A Lynn

    2006-08-09

    A method was developed for the determination of the biocide ortho-phenylphenol (biphenyl-2-ol; OPP) in beer, using deuterated OPP as an internal standard. A new liquid-liquid extraction procedure, employing acetonitrile, diethyl ether, and n-pentane, afforded rapid phase separation. The evaporated extract was derivatized with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in a water-acetonitrile mixture that was buffered with potassium carbonate, followed by extraction of the derivative into cyclohexane and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron ionization mode. The method enables the detection of OPP in 50 mL of beer at concentrations as low as 0.1 microg/L and provides a linear range of quantification of 0.5-40 microg/L. Samples from 61 beers canned over the past 12 years and sold in 27 countries were analyzed for OPP. In 40 of them, the target compound was present at concentrations of 1.2-40 microg/L. Our investigations indicate that the ends of the cans, which contain sealing material presumably treated with OPP, are responsible for this contamination.

  20. The Determinants of Reported Personal and Household Hygiene Behaviour: A Multi-Country Study.

    PubMed

    Aunger, Robert; Greenland, Katie; Ploubidis, George; Schmidt, Wolf; Oxford, John; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239). A structural equation model of hygiene behaviour and its consequences derived from theory was then estimated on this dataset for both behaviours, using a maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis showed that the frequency of handwashing with soap is significantly related to how automatically it is performed, and whether or not someone is busy, or tired. Surface cleaning was strongly linked to possessing a cleaning routine, the perception that one is living in a dirty environment and that others are doing the behaviour, whether one has a strong sense of contamination, as well as a felt need to keep one's surroundings tidy. Being concerned with good manners is also linked to the performance of both behaviours. This study is the first to identify the role of manners, orderliness and routine on hygiene behaviours globally. Such findings should prove helpful in designing programs to improve domestic hygiene practices.

  1. The Determinants of Reported Personal and Household Hygiene Behaviour: A Multi-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Aunger, Robert; Greenland, Katie; Ploubidis, George; Schmidt, Wolf; Oxford, John; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239). A structural equation model of hygiene behaviour and its consequences derived from theory was then estimated on this dataset for both behaviours, using a maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis showed that the frequency of handwashing with soap is significantly related to how automatically it is performed, and whether or not someone is busy, or tired. Surface cleaning was strongly linked to possessing a cleaning routine, the perception that one is living in a dirty environment and that others are doing the behaviour, whether one has a strong sense of contamination, as well as a felt need to keep one’s surroundings tidy. Being concerned with good manners is also linked to the performance of both behaviours. This study is the first to identify the role of manners, orderliness and routine on hygiene behaviours globally. Such findings should prove helpful in designing programs to improve domestic hygiene practices. PMID:27541259

  2. Life cycle development of obesity and its determinants in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sandra; Eriksson, Tor; Skalli, Ali

    2014-07-01

    This paper empirically examines the effect of parents' and individuals' own socioeconomic status on overweight and obesity, and investigates how this effect changes over the life cycle. The impact of individuals' health behaviours on their obesity status later in life is also studied. We use data from Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, the Netherlands and the U.K. in which 4595 individuals aged 50-65 are surveyed and where individuals' height and weight at different ages (25, 35, 45 and current age) are available. We perform "repeated cross-sections" analyses as well as dynamic probit analyses of the individuals' obesity histories. We contribute to the literature by examining the role of a variety of obesity determinants over the whole life cycle, not only over a certain portion of individuals' lives. Key findings are: (i) parents' socioeconomic status predicts obesity in early adulthood whereas the individual's own socioeconomic status as adult is more important in explaining obesity at later stages of the life cycle, (ii) changes in obesity status are associated with changes in health behaviours, (iii) obesity in late adulthood is strongly and positively correlated with overweight and obesity in younger ages, and (iv) cross-country differences in obesity and overweight largely remain after controlling for parental and childhood factors and individuals' health behaviours.

  3. Determinants of the number of mammography units in 31 countries with significant mammography screening

    PubMed Central

    Autier, P; Ouakrim, D A

    2008-01-01

    In the 2000s, most of the female population of industrialised countries had access to mammography breast cancer screening, but with variable modalities among the countries. We assessed the number of mammography units (MUs) in 31 European, North American and Asian countries where significant mammography activity has existed for over 10 years, collecting data on the number of such units and of radiologists by contacting institutions in each country likely to provide the relevant information. Around 2004, there were 32 324 MU in 31 countries, the number per million women ranging from less than 25 in Turkey, Denmark, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Norway, Poland and Hungary to more than 80 in Cyprus, Italy, France, the United States and Austria. In a multivariate analysis, the number of MUs was positively associated with the number of radiologists (P=0.0081), the number of women (P=0.0023) and somewhat with the country surface area (P=0.077). There is considerable variation in the density of MU across countries and the number of MUs in service are often well above what would be necessary according to local screening recommendations. High number of MUs in some countries may have undesirable consequences, such as unnecessarily high screening frequency and decreased age at which screening is started. PMID:18781176

  4. Determining the utility and durability of medical equipment donated to a rural clinic in a low-income country

    PubMed Central

    Bauserman, Melissa; Hailey, Claire; Gado, Justin; Lokangaka, Adrien; Williams, Jessica; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Health centers in low-income countries often depend on donations to provide appropriate diagnostic equipment. However, donations are sometimes made without an understanding of the recipient's needs, practical constraints or sustainability of supplies. Methods We donated a set of physical diagnostic equipment, non-invasive instrument tests and laboratory supplies to a rural health center in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We collected information on the usage and durability of equipment and supplies for each patient encounter over a 1-year period. Results We recorded 913 patient encounters. The most commonly used physical diagnostic equipment were the stethoscope (98.9%; 903/913), thermometer (81.7%; 746/913), adult scale (81.4%; 744/913), stop watch (62.6%; 572/913), adult sphygmomanometer (55.8%; 510/913), infant scale (24.9%; 228/913), measuring tape (24.3%; 222/913) and fetoscope (23.8%; 218/913). The most commonly used laboratory tests were the blood smear for malaria (53.7%; 491/913), hematocrit (23.5%; 215/913), urinalysis (20.1%; 184/913) and sputum stain for TB (13.3%; 122/913). With the exception of a penlight and solar lantern, all equipment remained functional. Conclusions This study adds valuable information about the utility and durability of equipment supplied to a health center in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our results might aid in determining the appropriateness of donated medical equipment in similar settings. The selection of donated goods should be made with knowledge of the context in which it will be used, and utilization should be monitored. PMID:25525132

  5. 19 CFR 356.7 - Request to determine when the Government of a FTA country received notice of a scope determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... country received notice of a scope determination. 356.7 Section 356.7 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Procedures for Commencing Review of Final Determinations § 356.7 Request...

  6. 19 CFR 356.7 - Request to determine when the Government of a FTA country received notice of a scope determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... country received notice of a scope determination. 356.7 Section 356.7 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Procedures for Commencing Review of Final Determinations § 356.7 Request...

  7. 19 CFR 356.7 - Request to determine when the Government of a FTA country received notice of a scope determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... country received notice of a scope determination. 356.7 Section 356.7 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Procedures for Commencing Review of Final Determinations § 356.7 Request...

  8. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  9. Beyond conception: legal determinations of filiation in the context of assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Mykitiuk, R

    2001-01-01

    This article argues that legal determinations of filiation are normative ideological constructions about how societal relations between parents and children should be ordered. They are based upon regular understandings of the relationship between biological and social facts and, as this article demonstrates, operate to create an asymmetrical relationship between the categories between paternity and maternity. I suggest that fairly recent developments in reproductive and genetic filiation have been made and offer the potential for an expanded understanding of relatedness or kinship which does not take the two-parent--one of each sex--model of the family as its normative form. While the examples I draw on arise in the context of reproductive technologies, I suggest that the analysis has broader implications for the recognition of broader family forms and relationship.

  10. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C; Ørtenblad, N

    2017-04-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance. The STT was repeated four times on a 1300-m simulated sprint course including three flat (1°) double poling (DP) sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) diagonal stride (DS) sections. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously during the four STTs and data were averaged. Supramaximal GE during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy contribution was 18 ± 5%, with an accumulated O2 deficit of 45 ± 13 mL/kg. Block-wise multiple regression revealed that VO2 , O2 deficit, and GE explained 30%, 15%, and 53% of the variance in STT time, respectively (all P < 0.05). This novel GE-based method of estimating the O2 deficit in simulated sprint-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance.

  11. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    PubMed

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either.

  12. Stall in fertility decline in Eastern African countries: regional analysis of patterns, determinants and implications

    PubMed Central

    Ezeh, Alex C.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Emina, Jacques O.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to examine the patterns of stall in fertility decline in four Eastern African countries. Contrary to patterns of fertility transition in Africa that cut across various socio-economic and geographical groups within countries, we find strong selectivity of fertility stall across different groups and regions in all four countries. In both Kenya and Tanzania where fertility decline has stalled at the national level, it continued to decline among the most educated women and in some regions. While fertility has remained at pre-transition level in Uganda over the past 20 years, there are signs of decline with specific groups of women (especially the most educated, urban and those in the Eastern region) taking the lead. For Zimbabwe, although fertility has continued to decline at the national level, stall is observed among women with less than secondary education and those in some of the regions. We link these intra-country variations to differential changes in socio-economic variables, family planning programme environment and reproductive behaviour models. The results suggest that declines in contraceptive use, increases in unmet need for family planning, increasing preferences for larger families, and increases in adolescent fertility were consistently associated with stalls in subgroup fertility across all four countries. These results are consistent with models that emphasize the role of declines in national and international commitments to family planning programmes in the premature stall in sub-Saharan fertility transition. PMID:19770151

  13. Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).

    PubMed

    Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries.

  14. 19 CFR 356.6 - Receipt of notice of a scope determination by the Government of a FTA country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of notice of a scope determination by the Government of a FTA country. 356.6 Section 356.6 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE...

  15. 19 CFR 356.6 - Receipt of notice of a scope determination by the Government of a FTA country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Receipt of notice of a scope determination by the Government of a FTA country. 356.6 Section 356.6 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE...

  16. 19 CFR 356.6 - Receipt of notice of a scope determination by the Government of a FTA country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Receipt of notice of a scope determination by the Government of a FTA country. 356.6 Section 356.6 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE...

  17. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation.

  18. Social Determinants of Health and Tobacco Use in Thirteen Low and Middle Income Countries: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Palipudi, Krishna M.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Andes, Linda J.; Asma, Samira; McAfee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008–2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate a significant but

  19. Determinants of Life Satisfaction among Immigrants from Western Countries and from the FSU in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amit, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the integration of immigrants via their satisfaction with life in the new country. While most studies on immigrant integration have focused on objective integration parameters such as education, occupation and salary (e.g., Borjas in "Friends or strangers: the impact of immigrants on the US economy." Basic Books, New…

  20. Education is a key determinant of health in Europe: a comparative analysis of 11 countries.

    PubMed

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A

    2011-06-01

    This paper has contributed to confirming the link between education and health in developed countries. The analysis is based on 11 European Union countries. We estimate country-specific health functions, where the dependent variable is self-reported health status and the education attainment is one of the main inputs. All eight waves (1994-2001) of the European Community Household Panel are deployed. A random effects ordered probit is estimated in order to control, to a given extent, for unobserved heterogeneity. Explanatory variables are both time invariant (education attainment and gender) and time varying (gross wages, hours of work, age and living alone). Results confirm the positive impact of secondary education on health in most cases and tertiary education in all cases, even after controlling for other inputs in the health function and taking unobserved heterogeneity into account. Secondary education has an impact on health in all countries in the sample except for The Netherlands and UK. The effect does not differ between secondary and tertiary education in France, Ireland and Greece. The correlation between education and health is interpreted in different but complementary ways by diverse approaches and we may not disentangle the precise mechanism that connects health with education from our results. Anyway, it seems clear that better coordination is needed between education and health policies to effectively improve health literacy. Other relevant results from our study are that women register poorer health than men, age contributes to worsening health status and wages contribute positively to health.

  1. Determinants of evidence use in public health policy making: Results from a study across six EU countries.

    PubMed

    van de Goor, Ien; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Syed, Ahmed; Juel Lau, Cathrine; Sandu, Petru; Spitters, Hilde; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Dulf, Diana; Valente, Adriana; Castellani, Tommaso; Aro, Arja R

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge-practice gap in public health is widely known. The importance of using different types of evidence for the development of effective health promotion has also been emphasized. Nevertheless, in practice, intervention decisions are often based on perceived short-term opportunities, lacking the most effective approaches, thus limiting the impact of health promotion strategies. This article focuses on facilitators and barriers in the use of evidence in developing health enhancing physical activity policies. Data was collected in 2012 by interviewing 86 key stakeholders from six EU countries (FI, DK, UK, NL, IT, RO) using a common topic guide. Content analysis and concept mapping was used to construct a map of facilitators and barriers. Barriers and facilitators experienced by most stakeholders and policy context in each country are analysed. A lack of locally useful and concrete evidence, evidence on costs, and a lack of joint understanding were specific hindrances. Also users' characteristics and the role media play were identified as factors of influence. Attention for individual and social factors within the policy context might provide the key to enhance more sustainable evidence use. Developing and evaluating tailored approaches impacting on networking, personal relationships, collaboration and evidence coproduction is recommended.

  2. Why do some countries spend more for health? An assessment of sociopolitical determinants and international aid for government health expenditures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li-Lin; Mirelman, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    A consensus exists that rising income levels and technological development are among key drivers of total health spending. Determinants of public sector health expenditure, by contrast, are less well understood. This study examines a complex relationship across government health expenditure (GHE), sociopolitical risks, and international aid, while taking into account the impacts of national income, debt and tax financing and aging populations on health spending. We apply a fixed-effects two-stage least squares regression method to a panel dataset comprising 120 countries for the years 1995 through 2010. Our results show that democratic accountability has a diminishing positive correlation with GHE, and that levels of GHE are higher when government is more stable. Corruption is associated with less GHE in developing countries, but with higher GHE in developed countries. We also find that development assistance for health (DAH) is fungible with domestically financed government health expenditure (DGHE). For an average country, a 1% increase in DAH to government is associated with a 0.03-0.04% decrease in DGHE. Furthermore, the degree of fungibility of DAH to government is higher in countries where corruption or ethnic tensions are widespread. However, DAH to non-governmental organizations is not fungible with DGHE.

  3. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO2 emissions.

  4. District-level hospital trauma care audit filters: Delphi technique for defining context-appropriate indicators for quality improvement initiative evaluation in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Quansah, Robert; Addo, Wilfred Larbi; Afoko, Akis; Agbenorku, Pius; Amponsah-Manu, Forster; Ankomah, James; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer; Baffoe, Peter; Debrah, Sam; Donkor, Peter; Dorvlo, Theodor; Japiong, Kennedy; Kushner, Adam L; Morna, Martin; Ofosu, Anthony; Oppong-Nketia, Victor; Tabiri, Stephen; Mock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prospective clinical audit of trauma care improves outcomes for the injured in high-income countries (HICs). However, equivalent, context-appropriate audit filters for use in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) district-level hospitals have not been well established. We aimed to develop context-appropriate trauma care audit filters for district-level hospitals in Ghana, was well as other LMICs more broadly. Methods Consensus on trauma care audit filters was built between twenty panelists using a Delphi technique with four anonymous, iterative surveys designed to elicit: i) trauma care processes to be measured; ii) important features of audit filters for the district-level hospital setting; and iii) potentially useful filters. Filters were ranked on a scale from 0 – 10 (10 being very useful). Consensus was measured with average percent majority opinion (APMO) cut-off rate. Target consensus was defined a priori as: a median rank of ≥9 for each filter and an APMO cut-off rate of ≥0.8. Results Panelists agreed on trauma care processes to target (e.g. triage, phases of trauma assessment, early referral if needed) and specific features of filters for district-level hospital use (e.g. simplicity, unassuming of resource capacity). APMO cut-off rate increased successively: Round 1 - 0.58; Round 2 - 0.66; Round 3 - 0.76; and Round 4 - 0.82. After Round 4, target consensus on 22 trauma care and referral-specific filters was reached. Example filters include: triage - vital signs are recorded within 15 minutes of arrival (must include breathing assessment, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation if available); circulation - a large bore IV was placed within 15 minutes of patient arrival; referral - if referral is activated, the referring clinician and receiving facility communicate by phone or radio prior to transfer. Conclusion This study proposes trauma care audit filters appropriate for LMIC district-level hospitals. Given the successes of similar

  5. Development and preliminary validation of the 'Caring for Country' questionnaire: measurement of an Indigenous Australian health determinant

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Christopher P; Berry, Helen L; Gunthorpe, Wendy; Bailie, Ross S

    2008-01-01

    Background 'Caring for Country' is defined as Indigenous participation in interrelated activities with the objective of promoting ecological and human health. Ecological services on Indigenous-owned lands are belatedly attracting some institutional investment. However, the health outcomes associated with Indigenous participation in 'caring for country' activities have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to pilot and validate a questionnaire measuring caring for country as an Indigenous health determinant and to relate it to an external reference, obesity. Methods Purposively sampled participants were 301 Indigenous adults aged 15 to 54 years, recruited during a cross-sectional program of preventive health checks in a remote Australian community. Questionnaire validation was undertaken with psychometric tests of internal consistency, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory one-factor congeneric modelling. Accurate item weightings were derived from the model and used to create a single weighted composite score for caring for country. Multiple linear regression modelling was used to test associations between the caring for country score and body mass index adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours. Results The questionnaire demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest validity and proxy-respondent validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the 'caring for country' items produced a single factor solution that was confirmed via one-factor congeneric modelling. A significant and substantial association between greater participation in caring for country activities and lower body mass index was demonstrated. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours, an inter-quartile range rise in caring for country scores was associated with 6.1 Kg and 5.3 Kg less body weight for non-pregnant women and men respectively. Conclusion This study indicates preliminary support for the validity of the caring

  6. Determining factors affecting tourism demand for Malaysia using ARDL modeling: A case of Europe countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhan, Nurbaizura; Arsad, Zainudin

    2016-10-01

    Tourism industry is the second largest foreign exchange earner after manufacturing in Malaysia. With regards to the importance of tourism industry in Malaysia, any factors that influence tourism demand should be considered cautiously by the government and tourism authorities in order to attract more international tourists in the near future. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic long-run and short-run relationship between the number of international tourist arrivals from six European countries and four selected economic variables. The economic variables used in this study are exchange rate, gross domestic product, relative price and substitute relative price. This study also examines the impact of the European Sovereign crisis on the number of arrivals from the selected European countries to Malaysia. The data covers the period from quarter 1 (Q1) of 1999 to quarter 3 (Q3) of 2014 and employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001). The results of unit root test show a mixture of integrated at level and order one, I(0) and I(1). The results show that there exist long-run cointegration between the number of international tourist arrivals and exchange rate, level of income, tourism price and substitute tourism price for all countries. Generally, the results show that level of income is in line with the economic theory and Thailand is a competing destination for the tourism industry in Malaysia. Surprisingly, relative price is found to have positive impact on the number of arrivals to Malaysia and this suggests that an increase in the price level in Malaysia is unexpectedly increase the number of international tourist arrivals to Malaysia. Therefore the Malaysian government and tourism authorities should continue the efforts to withstand the growth of the tourism industry.

  7. Determinants of CO{sub 2} emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO{sub 2} emissions.

  8. Coverage models to determine outreach vaccination center locations in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung; Claypool, Erin; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant

    2016-06-01

    The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) was established in 1974 to ensure that children all around the world benefit from life-saving vaccines. However, in many low and middle income countries, it is extremely difficult to vaccinate the entire population with the standard regimen of vaccines. One important reason for this is geographically dispersed or nomadic populations. To improve vaccination rates, these countries typically use outreach, where health workers take vaccines to remote locations. Outreach is the last, critical link in the vaccine supply chain, and the locations selected to offer outreach directly impact the number of additional children that can be vaccinated. This research presents four quantitative models that can be used to optimize the selection of outreach locations, in order to maximize the number of residents that can be reached; each model addresses a different type of coverage possibility. The models are analyzed and contrasted using an example with inputs generated from a subset of data from the state of Bihar in India that was made available to the authors.

  9. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children <5 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study analysed complementary feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households.

  10. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E.; Huda, Tanvir M.; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  11. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). Design In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay

  12. Determinants of residential water consumption: Evidence and analysis from a 10-country household survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Ward, Michael B.; To, Hang; Kompas, Tom

    2011-08-01

    Household survey data for 10 countries are used to quantify and test the importance of price and nonprice factors on residential water demand and investigate complementarities between household water-saving behaviors and the average volumetric price of water. Results show (1) the average volumetric price of water is an important predictor of differences in residential consumption in models that include household characteristics, water-saving devices, attitudinal characteristics and environmental concerns as explanatory variables; (2) of all water-saving devices, only a low volume/dual-flush toilet has a statistically significant and negative effect on water consumption; and (3) environmental concerns have a statistically significant effect on some self-reported water-saving behaviors. While price-based approaches are espoused to promote economic efficiency, our findings stress that volumetric water pricing is also one of the most effective policy levers available to regulate household water consumption.

  13. A Latent Class Growth Analysis of School Bullying and Its Social Context: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%),…

  14. The adoption of sustainable remediation behaviour in the US and UK: a cross country comparison and determinant analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Deyi; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Guthrie, Peter

    2014-08-15

    The sustainable remediation concept, aimed at maximizing the net environmental, social, and economic benefits in contaminated site remediation, is being increasingly recognized by industry, governments, and academia. However, there is limited understanding of actual sustainable behaviour being adopted and the determinants of such sustainable behaviour. The present study identified 27 sustainable practices in remediation. An online questionnaire survey was used to rank and compare them in the US (n=112) and the UK (n=54). The study also rated ten promoting factors, nine barriers, and 17 types of stakeholders' influences. Subsequently, factor analysis and general linear models were used to determine the effects of internal characteristics (i.e. country, organizational characteristics, professional role, personal experience and belief) and external forces (i.e. promoting factors, barriers, and stakeholder influences). It was found that US and UK practitioners adopted many sustainable practices to similar extents. Both US and UK practitioners perceived the most effectively adopted sustainable practices to be reducing the risk to site workers, protecting groundwater and surface water, and reducing the risk to the local community. Comparing the two countries, we found that the US adopted innovative in-situ remediation more effectively; while the UK adopted reuse, recycling, and minimizing material usage more effectively. As for the overall determinants of sustainable remediation, the country of origin was found not to be a significant determinant. Instead, organizational policy was found to be the most important internal characteristic. It had a significant positive effect on reducing distant environmental impact, sustainable resource usage, and reducing remediation cost and time (p<0.01). Customer competitive pressure was found to be the most extensively significant external force. In comparison, perceived stakeholder influence, especially that of primary stakeholders

  15. Therapeutic Process in the Context of Third Party Determined Time Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tracey; Simpson-Young, Virginia; Lennings, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological services are increasingly provided within a context in which third party payers impose limits on the number of sessions available to the client and therapist. Considerable research has addressed the effect of time limits on therapeutic outcomes, while effects on therapeutic process have received less attention. This…

  16. Determinant of Mobile Devices Acceptance for Learning among Students in Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajudeen, Shittu Ahmed; Basha, Madarsha Kamal; Michael, Fakomogbon O.; Mukthar, Alhaji Liman

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand the determinant of mobile devices for learning among students in the developing world. A sample of 247 undergraduate students from Malaysia and Nigeria were involved in the study. An adapted but modified survey instrument was used to gather the data of the study. The variable of the study are perceived…

  17. Genetic Determinism in School Textbooks: A Comparative Study Conducted among Sixteen Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castera, Jeremy; Clement, Pierre; Abrougui, Mondher; Nisiforou, Olympia; Valanides, Nicos; Turcinaviciene, Jurga; Sarapuu, Tago; Agorram, Boujemaa; Calado, Florbela; Bogner, Franz; Carvalho, Graca

    2008-01-01

    Genetic concepts have significantly evolved over the last ten years, and are now less connected to innate ideas and reductionism. Unique reference to genetic determinism has been replaced by the interaction between the genes and their environment (epigenetics). Our analyses relate to how current school biology textbooks present this new paradigm…

  18. Quality Differences of Higher Education and Its Determinants in a Less-Developed Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento Espinel, Jaime Andrés; Silva Arias, Adriana Carolina; Van Gameren, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Two key measures to determine the quality of higher education are the performance of students and the accreditation of a programme's quality. We analyse the difference in the distributions of the student's scores in a standardised test of economics knowledge between accredited and non-accredited undergraduate economics programmes in a…

  19. What Determines Basic School Attainment in Developing Countries? Evidence from Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Meng; Glewwe, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes recent household survey data from Gansu, a less developed province in Northwest China, to examine school attainment in a poor rural area of China. Censored ordered probit regressions are used to estimate the determinants of years of schooling. Child nutritional status, as measured by height-for-age Z-scores, and household…

  20. An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2011-01-01

    Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p = 0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p = 0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p = 0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:21589928

  1. Analysis of Classical Time-Trial Performance and Technique-Specific Physiological Determinants in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas; Skattebo, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann M.; Tønnessen, Espen; Kocbach, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA) techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r = 0.98) and flat (r = 0.91) sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p < 0.05). Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p < 0.001). Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r = 0.66–0.78), with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p < 0.05). Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power. PMID:27536245

  2. Analysis of Classical Time-Trial Performance and Technique-Specific Physiological Determinants in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas; Skattebo, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann M; Tønnessen, Espen; Kocbach, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA) techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r = 0.98) and flat (r = 0.91) sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p < 0.05). Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p < 0.001). Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r = 0.66-0.78), with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p < 0.05). Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power.

  3. Determinants and consequences of smoke‐free homes: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Borland, R; Yong, H‐H; Cummings, K M; Hyland, A; Anderson, S; Fong, G T

    2006-01-01

    Objective To report on prevalence, trends and determinants of smoke‐free home policies in smokers' homes in different countries and to estimate the effects of these policies on smoking cessation. Design Two waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey (ITC‐4), a cohort survey of smokers conducted by telephone. Wave 1 was conducted in October/December 2002 with broadly representative samples of over 2000 adult (⩾ 18 years) cigarette smokers in each of the following four countries: Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, 75% of whom were followed up at Wave 2 on average seven months later. Key measures Levels of smoking restrictions in homes (both waves). Results Australian smokers were most likely to live in smoke‐free homes and UK smokers least likely (34% v 15% at Wave 1). Levels of smoke‐free homes increased between waves. Logistic regressions indicated that the main independent predictors of smokers reporting smoke‐free homes or implementation of a smoke‐free policy between waves included household factors such as having a child, particularly a young child, and having other non‐smoking adults in the household. Positive attitudes to smoke‐free public places and/or reported presence of smoke‐free public places were independent predictors of having or implementing smoke‐free homes, supporting a social diffusion model for smoking restrictions. Intentions to quit at Wave 1 and quitting activity between survey waves were associated with implementing bans between Waves 1 and 2. Presence of bans at Wave 1 was associated with significantly greater proportions of quit attempts, and success among those who tried at Wave 2. There was no significant interaction between the predictive models and country. Conclusions Smoke‐free public places seem to stimulate adoption of smoke‐free homes, a strategy associated with both increased frequency of quit attempts, and of the success of those attempts. PMID

  4. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolutife A.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Owoaje, Eme T.; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M.; Ajayi, Benedictus G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the factors that determine the utilization of eye care services in a rural community in South-Western Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique was conducted. The main outcome measure was self-reported previous consultation of an orthodox medical facility for eye care. Results: The study sample included 643 participants. Only 122 (19%) respondents had previously visited orthodox facilities in search of eye care and 24% of those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 had sought eye care. Characteristics associated with previous utilization of eye care services were age of =70 years (odds ratio [OR] ≥ 1.7, P = 0.02); male gender (OR = 1.5, P = 0.04); literacy (OR = 1.7, P = 0.007); and residing close to an eye care facility (OR = 2.8, P < 0.001). Blind respondents were three times more likely to seek eye care (P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that factors associated with increased likelihood of utilization of eye care services included age ≥70 years; literacy; residence close to an eye facility; being diabetic or hypertensive; history of ocular symptoms, and blindness. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a significant proportion (75%) of adults in the study area are not utilizing eye care services and that blindness is an important determinant of utilization of eye care services. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of seeking eye care early, and the provision of community-based eye care programs are essential to boost the uptake of eye care services in this community as well as other rural areas of West Africa. PMID:26957847

  5. Salivary cortisol determination in patients from the Basque Country with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Conde-Llamosas, Rafael; López-Vicente, José; Uribarri-Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre-Urizar, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Stress and anxiety are controversial factors involved in the complex pathogenesis of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS). The determination of salivary cortisol is a useful, simple and safe test to detect states of high stress or anxiety. The aim of this study is to check for changes in salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS during periods of active disease. Study design: A measurement of cortisol employing Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was carried out in samples of unstimulated saliva from 20 patients with active lesions of RAS and 10 healthy individuals used as controls. Results: Increased levels of salivary cortisol were detected in 3 cases, all of them within the group of patients with RAS. In none of the control group patients the level of salivary cortisol was increased. The mean level of salivary cortisol was 0.64 mg / dl (range 0.2 to 1.62) for patients with RAS and 0.57 mg / dl (range 0.25 to 1.09) for controls. Conclusion: Salivary cortisol levels are not statistically higher in patients with active lesions of RAS. Key words:Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, cortisol, oral ulcers, canker sores, salivary cortisol. PMID:23385495

  6. Aerosol-cloud interaction determined by satellite data over the Baltic Sea countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, Giulia; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the use of long-term satellite data to assess the influence of aerosols upon cloud parameters over the Baltic Sea region. This particular area offers the contrast of a very clean environment (Fennoscandia) against a more polluted one (Germany, Poland). The datasets consists of Collection 6 Level 3 daily observations from 2002 to 2014 collected by the NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on-board the Aqua platform. The MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is used as a proxy for the number concentration of aerosol particles while the cloud effective radius (CER) and cloud optical thickness (COT) describe cloud microphysical and optical properties respectively. Satellite data have certain limitations, such as the restriction to summer season due to solar zenith angle restrictions and the known problem of the ambiguity of the aerosol-cloud interface, for instance. Through the analysis of a 12-years dataset, distribution maps provide information on a regional scale about the first aerosol indirect effect (AIE) by determining the aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI). The ACI is defined as the change in cloud optical depth or effective radius as a function of aerosol load for a fixed liquid water path (LWP). The focusing point of the current study is the evaluation of regional trends of ACI over the observed area of the Baltic Sea.

  7. The Double Edged Sword: A Brief Comparison of IT and Internet Development in Malaysia and Some Few Neighboring Countries in the Context of Digital Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samad, Ramli Abdul

    This paper shows that, although a digital divide exists between developed and developing countries, the development of information technology (IT) and the Internet has had a profound political, social, and economic impact on developing countries. IT and the Internet revolution are shaping the world into new polarized entities due to the uneven…

  8. Determinants, consequences and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity: An Indian context.

    PubMed

    Ranjani, Harish; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mehreen, T S; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Anand, Krishnan; Garg, Renu; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adolescents and children has risen to alarming levels globally, and this has serious public health consequences. Sedentary lifestyle and consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value are speculated to be two of the most important etiological factors responsible for escalating rate of childhood overweight in developing nations. To tackle the childhood obesity epidemic we require comprehensive multidisciplinary evidence-based interventions. Some suggested strategies for childhood obesity prevention and management include increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary time including television viewing, personalized nutrition plans for very obese kids, co-curriculum health education which should be implemented in schools and counseling for children and their parents. In developing countries like India we will need practical and cost-effective community-based strategies with appropriate policy changes in order to curb the escalating epidemic of childhood obesity.

  9. Determinants, consequences and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity: An Indian context

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Harish; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mehreen, T. S.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Anand, Krishnan; Garg, Renu; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adolescents and children has risen to alarming levels globally, and this has serious public health consequences. Sedentary lifestyle and consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value are speculated to be two of the most important etiological factors responsible for escalating rate of childhood overweight in developing nations. To tackle the childhood obesity epidemic we require comprehensive multidisciplinary evidence-based interventions. Some suggested strategies for childhood obesity prevention and management include increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary time including television viewing, personalized nutrition plans for very obese kids, co-curriculum health education which should be implemented in schools and counseling for children and their parents. In developing countries like India we will need practical and cost-effective community-based strategies with appropriate policy changes in order to curb the escalating epidemic of childhood obesity. PMID:25538874

  10. Fiocruz as an actor in Brazilian foreign relations in the context of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries: an untold story.

    PubMed

    Roa, Alejandra Carrillo; Baptista e Silva, Felipe Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian foreign policy paradigms and changes in the global scenario since the Cold War created conditions for stronger ties between Brazil and Portuguese-speaking African countries. Recently, Brazil took the lead in regional integration processes and in South-South cooperation initiatives. These strategies and Fiocruz's acknowledged technical expertise resulted in its direct involvement in Brazilian foreign public health policy in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Fiocruz developed cooperation projects in various areas, sharing its know-how and best practices in the most critical fields in partner countries, consolidating "public health framework cooperation" and contributing to diversifying Brazil's partners and promoting Brazil as a global actor.

  11. Tuberculosis stigma as a social determinant of health: a systematic mapping review of research in low incidence countries.

    PubMed

    Craig, G M; Daftary, A; Engel, N; O'Driscoll, S; Ioannaki, A

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB)-related stigma is an important social determinant of health. Research generally highlights how stigma can have a considerable impact on individuals and communities, including delays in seeking health care and adherence to treatment. There is scant research into the assessment of TB-related stigma in low incidence countries. This study aimed to systematically map out the research into stigma. A particular emphasis was placed on the methods employed to measure stigma, the conceptual frameworks used to understand stigma, and whether structural factors were theorized. Twenty-two studies were identified; the majority adopted a qualitative approach and aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about TB. Few studies included stigma as a substantive topic. Only one study aimed to reduce stigma. A number of studies suggested that TB control measures and representations of migrants in the media reporting of TB were implicated in the production of stigma. The paucity of conceptual models and theories about how the social and structural determinants intersect with stigma was apparent. Future interventions to reduce stigma, and measurements of effectiveness, would benefit from a stronger theoretical underpinning in relation to TB stigma and the intersection between the social and structural determinants of health.

  12. Pairing context determines condition-dependence of song rate in a monogamous passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    David, Morgan; Auclair, Yannick; Dall, Sasha R. X.; Cézilly, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Condition-dependence of male ornaments is thought to provide honest signals on which females can base their sexual choice for genetic quality. Recent studies show that condition-dependence patterns can vary within populations. Although long-term association is thought to promote honest signalling, no study has explored the influence of pairing context on the condition-dependence of male ornaments. In this study, we assessed the influence of natural variation in body condition on song rate in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in three different situations: during short and long encounters with an unfamiliar female, and within heterosexual mated pairs. We found consistent individual differences in male directed and undirected song rate. Moreover, body condition had a positive effect on song rate in paired males. However, male song rate was not influenced by body condition during short or long encounters with unfamiliar females. Song rate appears to be an unreliable signal of condition to prospective females as even poor-condition birds can cheat and sing at a high rate. By contrast, paired females can reliably use song rate to assess their mate's body condition, and possibly the genetic quality. We propose that species' characteristics, such as mating system, should be systematically taken into account to generate relevant hypotheses about the evolution of condition-dependent male ornaments. PMID:23256191

  13. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    PubMed

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  14. Longitudinal Test of Self-Determination Theory's Motivation Mediation Model in a Naturally Occurring Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hyungshim; Kim, Eun Joo; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2012-01-01

    This study provides the first longitudinally designed, classroom-based empirical test of self-determination theory's motivation mediation model. Measures of perceived autonomy support, motivation (autonomy need satisfaction), engagement, and achievement were collected from 500 (257 females, 243 males) 8th-grade students in Korea in a 3-wave…

  15. Determinants of Successful Public-Private Partnerships in the Context of Overweight Prevention in Dutch Youth

    PubMed Central

    Leenaars, Karlijn; Renders, Carry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A public-private partnership (PPP) is an essential component of the Dutch community-based approach toward overweight prevention, Youth on Healthy Weight (JOGG). Beginning in 2010, 25 Dutch municipalities have implemented JOGG, but little is known about determinants of successful partnerships. This study aims to identify these determinants to guide other municipalities or communities in creating successful partnerships. Methods Semistructured interviews were held in Veghel, a town in the southeast of the Netherlands, with private (n = 7) and public (n = 5) partners from the PPP involved in JOGG. We developed a themes and topics list that fit the purpose of our study. The interviews focused on the formation, functioning, and output of the partnership. Results Recruitment of partners was facilitated by using preexisting networks. Corporate social responsibility, belief in the JOGG approach, importance of the health issue, and strengthened contacts with other partners were important motivations for partners to participate. In addition to partnership functioning and output, enthusiastic and decisive management, shared commitment, joint responsibility, and effective internal communication were important to the partners, as were clear goals and concrete actions to achieve these goals. Conclusion To create successful partnerships, the program and its goals should appeal to the motivations of the partners. Involving partners in defining local program objectives can help to create shared commitment and joint responsibility. Further evaluation of partnerships’ impact on achieving program goals is a subsequent step to be taken to identify long-term determinants of successful PPPs. PMID:23845178

  16. Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2013-09-01

    Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ≥ 6 points greater than their counterparts (p < 0.05). Obese children who were first born with birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ≥5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role.

  17. Epistemic motives and cultural conformity: need for closure, culture, and context as determinants of conflict judgments.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jeanne Ho-ying; Morris, Michael W; Lee, Sau-lai; Chao, Melody; Chiu, Chi-yue; Hong, Ying-yi

    2007-02-01

    Three studies support the proposal that need for closure (NFC) involves a desire for consensual validation that leads to cultural conformity. Individual differences in NFC interact with cultural group variables to determine East Asian versus Western differences in conflict style and procedural preferences (Study 1), information gathering in disputes (Study 2), and fairness judgment in reward allocations (Study 3). Results from experimental tests indicate that the relevance of NFC to cultural conformity reflects consensus motives rather than effort minimization (Study 2) or political conservatism (Study 3). Implications for research on conflict resolution and motivated cultural cognition are discussed.

  18. Inverting the Biot-Savart integral in the context of stellarator coil determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Ronald Frederick

    The design of power-efficient stellarator coils that are practical to engineer and allow access to the plasma is a difficult task that involves mathematical and physics issues in addition to the engineering concerns. The complexity of stellarator coils is a major factor in the cost and viability of stellarator fusion reactors. Coil determination is a complex inverse problem with many subtleties. The problem of coil determination is tantamount to inverting the Biot-Savart integral of magnetostatics. The inverse of the Biot-Savart operator tends to be ill-conditioned, dramatically emphasizing high-order Fourier modes. Using a simplistic method to invert this integral results in coils of impracticable shape and current magnitude. Two methods are introduced to optimize stellarator coil determination. The first technique involves the application of linear perturbation theory to the coil design problem. First, the flux modes that cause the N0 largest perturbations are determined, where N0 is an adjustable parameter that in practice is much smaller than the total number of Fourier modes. The next step is to project the coil equations into the smaller mathematical space of these dominant modes. This technique reduces the constraints on the coils such that the set of equations only includes those flux modes that are needed to approximate the shape of the plasma surface. This technique aims to produce smoother coils by avoiding the over-constrained nature of other methods. The second technique involves rank-ordering and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of the Fourier modes, Gmn (theta p, ϕp), of the Biot-Savart integral between two surfaces. The rank-ordering of the modes in terms of magnitude, |Gmn|, gives a natural way to decompose the current in terms of the most influential modes. The solution for the coil current is then constrained to only use the most influential modes. The two methods are applied to the extant Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) stellarator and

  19. Historical Trends in Educational Decentralization in the United States and Developing Countries: A Periodization and Comparison in the Post-WWII Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; DeMatthews, Davis E.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we fill a gap in the writing on the decentralization of educational governance by periodizing and comparing trends that have fallen under this label in both the United States and developing countries in the post-WWII period (1945-present). The findings are informed by a review of 127 decentralization-related studies from seven…

  20. Economic implications of mercury exposure in the context of the global mercury treaty: Hair mercury levels and estimated lost economic productivity in selected developing countries.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; DiGangi, Joseph; Evers, David C; Petrlik, Jindrich; Buck, David G; Šamánek, Jan; Beeler, Bjorn; Turnquist, Madeline A; Regan, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Several developing countries have limited or no information about exposures near anthropogenic mercury sources and no studies have quantified costs of mercury pollution or economic benefits to mercury pollution prevention in these countries. In this study, we present data on mercury concentrations in human hair from subpopulations in developing countries most likely to benefit from the implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. These data are then used to estimate economic costs of mercury exposure in these communities. Hair samples were collected from sites located in 15 countries. We used a linear dose-response relationship that previously identified a 0.18 IQ point decrement per part per million (ppm) increase in hair mercury, and modeled a base case scenario assuming a reference level of 1 ppm, and a second scenario assuming no reference level. We then estimated the corresponding increases in intellectual disability and lost Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY). A total of 236 participants provided hair samples for analysis, with an estimated population at risk of mercury exposure near the 15 sites of 11,302,582. Average mercury levels were in the range of 0.48 ppm-4.60 ppm, and 61% of all participants had hair mercury concentrations greater than 1 ppm, the level that approximately corresponds to the USA EPA reference dose. An additional 1310 cases of intellectual disability attributable to mercury exposure were identified annually (4110 assuming no reference level), resulting in 16,501 lost DALYs (51,809 assuming no reference level). A total of $77.4 million in lost economic productivity was estimated assuming a 1 ppm reference level and $130 million if no reference level was used. We conclude that significant mercury exposures occur in developing and transition country communities near sources named in the Minamata Convention, and our estimates suggest that a large economic burden could be avoided by timely implementation of measures to

  1. Local chromosome context is a major determinant of crossover pathway biochemistry during budding yeast meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Darpan; Goldman, Alastair SH; Lichten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast genome contains regions where meiotic recombination initiates more frequently than in others. This pattern parallels enrichment for the meiotic chromosome axis proteins Hop1 and Red1. These proteins are important for Spo11-catalyzed double strand break formation; their contribution to crossover recombination remains undefined. Using the sequence-specific VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE) to initiate recombination in meiosis, we show that chromosome structure influences the choice of proteins that resolve recombination intermediates to form crossovers. At a Hop1-enriched locus, most VDE-initiated crossovers, like most Spo11-initiated crossovers, required the meiosis-specific MutLγ resolvase. In contrast, at a locus with lower Hop1 occupancy, most VDE-initiated crossovers were MutLγ-independent. In pch2 mutants, the two loci displayed similar Hop1 occupancy levels, and VDE-induced crossovers were similarly MutLγ-dependent. We suggest that meiotic and mitotic recombination pathways coexist within meiotic cells, and that features of meiotic chromosome structure determine whether one or the other predominates in different regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19669.001 PMID:27855779

  2. Social Determinants of Non-Return: Foreign Students from Developing Countries in the United States. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Orlando

    Data on the problem of the loss of professional manpower by developing countries to develop countries is reported and analyzed from a survey of over 1,300 foreign students in over 30 U. S. colleges and universities. The ideological and scholarly debate generated by the brain drain and approaches to the study of professional migration are reviewed,…

  3. 77 FR 59016 - Report on the Criteria and Methodology for Determining the Eligibility of Candidate Countries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... the purposes of candidacy and funding. MCC implemented this change through the FY 2013 Candidate Country Report, approved by the board on August 21, 2012. This change affects how MCC may fund countries..., Inflation, Regulatory Quality, Trade Policy, Gender in the Economy, Land Rights and Access, Access to...

  4. Non-Medical Risk Factors as Avoidable Determinants of Excess Mortality in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study in Nicaragua, a Model Low Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Edefonti, Alberto; Galán, Yajaira Silva; Sandoval Díaz, Mabel; Medina Manzanarez, Marta; Marra, Giuseppina; Robusto, Fabio; Tognoni, Gianni; Sereni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Background The widely recognized clinical and epidemiological relevance of the socioeconomic determinants of health-disease conditions is expected to be specifically critical in terms of chronic diseases in fragile populations in low-income countries. However, in the literature, there is a substantial gap between the attention directed towards the medical components of these problems and the actual adoption of strategies aimed at providing solutions for the associated socioeconomic determinants, especially in pediatric populations. We report a prospective outcome study on the independent contribution and reciprocal interaction of the medical and socioeconomic factors to the hard end-point of mortality in a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua. Methods and Findings Every child (n = 309) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and referred to the tertiary unit of Pediatric Nephrology in Managua (Nicaragua) from a network of nine hospitals serving 80% of the country’s pediatric population was registered between January 2005 and December 2013. The three main socioeconomic determinants evaluated were family income, living conditions and the family’s level of education. Further potential determinants of the outcomes included duration of exposure to disease, CKD stage at the first visit as suggested by the KDOQI guidelines in children, the time it took the patients to reach the reference centre and rural or urban context of life. Well-defined and systematically collected medical and socioeconomic data were available for 257 children over a mean follow-up period of 2.5±2.5 years. Mortality and lost to follow-up were considered as outcome end-points both independently and in combination, because of the inevitably progressive nature of the disease. A high proportion (55%) of children presented in the advanced stages of CKD (CKD stage IV and V) at the first visit. At the end of follow-up, 145 (57%) of the 257 cohort children were alive, 47 (18

  5. Correlational selection on personality and social plasticity: morphology and social context determine behavioural effects on mating success.

    PubMed

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wey, Tina W; Chang, Ann T; Fogarty, Sean; Sih, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Despite a central line of research aimed at quantifying relationships between mating success and sexually dimorphic traits (e.g., ornaments), individual variation in sexually selected traits often explains only a modest portion of the variation in mating success. Another line of research suggests that a significant portion of the variation in mating success observed in animal populations could be explained by correlational selection, where the fitness advantage of a given trait depends on other components of an individual's phenotype and/or its environment. We tested the hypothesis that interactions between multiple traits within an individual (phenotype dependence) or between an individual's phenotype and its social environment (context dependence) can select for individual differences in behaviour (i.e., personality) and social plasticity. To quantify the importance of phenotype- and context-dependent selection on mating success, we repeatedly measured the behaviour, social environment and mating success of about 300 male stream water striders, Aquarius remigis. Rather than explaining individual differences in long-term mating success, we instead quantified how the combination of a male's phenotype interacted with the immediate social context to explain variation in hour-by-hour mating decisions. We suggest that this analysis captures more of the mechanisms leading to differences in mating success. Males differed consistently in activity, aggressiveness and social plasticity. The mating advantage of these behavioural traits depended on male morphology and varied with the number of rival males in the pool, suggesting mechanisms selecting for consistent differences in behaviour and social plasticity. Accounting for phenotype and context dependence improved the amount of variation in male mating success we explained statistically by 30-274%. Our analysis of the determinants of male mating success provides important insights into the evolutionary forces that shape

  6. Determinants of a simulated cross-country skiing sprint competition using V2 skating technique on roller skis.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance-predicting factors of a simulated cross-country (XC) skiing sprint competition on roller skis, on a slow surface. Sixteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated sprint competition (4 x 850 m heat with a 20-minute recovery) using V2 skating technique on an indoor tartan track. Heat velocities, oxygen consumption, and peak lactate were measured during or after the heats. Maximal skiing velocity was measured by performing a 30-m speed test. Explosive and maximal force production in the upper body was determined by bench press (BP). Subjects also performed maximal anaerobic skiing test (MAST) and the 2 x 2-km double poling (DP) test. The maximal velocity of MAST (VMAST) and velocities at 3 (V3), 5 (V5), 7 (V7) mmol.L lactate levels in MAST were determined. In the 2 x 2-km test, DP economy (VO2SUBDP) and maximal 2-km DP velocity (VDP2KM) were determined. The best single performance-predicting factors for the sprint performance were VDP2KM (r = 0.73, p < 0.01), V7 (r = 0.70, p < 0.01), and VO2SUBDP (r = -0.70, p < 0.01). Faster skiers in sprint simulation had a higher absolute VO2 (L.min) (p < 0.05-0.01) during sprint heats, and higher anaerobic skiing power (VMAST, p < 0.05) and better anaerobic skiing economy (V3, V5, V7, p < 0.05-0.001) than slower skiers. Faster skiers were also stronger in BP, with regard to both absolute (p < 0.01) and relative (p < 0.05) values. In addition, anaerobic characteristics seem to be of importance at the beginning of the XC skiing sprint competition, whereas the aerobic characteristics become more important as the XC skiing sprint competition progressed. This study indicates that sprint skiers should emphasize sport-specific upper body training, and training skiing economy at high speeds.

  7. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC), at the second administrative level or lower. Methodology A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health). Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a ‘proxi-indicator’ of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted. Principal Findings One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%). Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult. Conclusions There is a need for

  8. Determiners, Entities, and Contexts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    on this paper from John Dowdinc, Lynette Hirechman, Marci• Linebarger, Marth• Palmer, Rebecc• SchiS’man, and Bonnie Webber . O c t o b e r 1, 1986...V~, September 1982. [P*Imer1988] ]V~artha S. Palmer, Deborah ~ Dahl, Rebecca J. SchiEman, Lynette Hirscbman, 1VIarcia Linebarger, and John Dowding

  9. Determinants of efficiency in reducing child mortality in developing countries. The role of inequality and government effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Bienvenido; Sanjuán, Jesús; Casquero, Antonio

    2016-05-03

    The main aim of this article was to analyze the relationship of income inequality and government effectiveness with differences in efficiency in the use of health inputs to improve the under-five survival rate (U5SR) in developing countries. Robust Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and regression analysis were conducted using data for 47 developing countries for the periods 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2012. The estimations show that countries with a more equal income distribution and better government effectiveness (i.e. a more competent bureaucracy and good quality public service delivery) may need fewer health inputs to achieve a specific level of the U5SR than other countries with higher inequality and worse government effectiveness.

  10. 78 FR 57885 - Report on the Criteria and Methodology for Determining the Eligibility of Candidate Countries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...). Secondary Education Enrollment (LMICs). Child Health. Sources: Sources: Sources: Freedom House IMF World... as the rights of people with disabilities, the treatment of women and children, workers' rights, and... such country, particularly women and children, including programs that-- (A) Promote...

  11. 'Not our war, not our country': contents and contexts of Scottish political rhetoric and popular understandings during the invasion of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Elcheroth, Guy; Reicher, Steve

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has questioned the traditional assumption that populations inevitably rally round their national leaders in times of war and suggested instead that whether this occurs depends upon political communication and mass media coverage. In this study, we provide systematic analysis of the debate in Scotland over the invasion of Iraq in 2003. We examine how the conflict was construed as either for or against the national interest, and how the way this is done is linked to different dimensions of context. First, we provide a mixed-methods analysis of debates in the Scottish Parliament. We show that anti-war speakers from Scottish separatist parties map opposition to the war onto a series of collectively consistent and temporarily flexible categorical oppositions, starting with a familiar antinomy between Scottish people and British rulers (before the invasion), and then shifting to broader oppositions between subjugated people and imperial powers (after the invasion). By contrast, speakers from other parties appear less consistent and less flexible in the nature of their arguments. Second, we examine the opinions of a population sample on the war, how these opinions relate to understandings of Scottish identity and how the media context is pivotal in the translation of anti-war opinions into votes for separatist/anti-war political parties.

  12. Reliability of accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior in school-aged children: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Tudor-Locke, C; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Focused on the accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary time metrics in 9–11-year-old children, we sought to determine the following: (i) number of days that are necessary to achieve reliable estimates (G⩾0.8); (ii) proportion of variance attributed to different facets (participants and days) of reliability estimates; and (iii) actual reliability of data as collected in The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: The analytical sample consisted of 6025 children (55% girls) from sites in 12 countries. Physical activity and sedentary time metrics measures were assessed for up to 7 consecutive days for 24 h per day with a waist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+. Generalizability theory using R software was used to investigate the objectives i and ii. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using SAS PROC GLM to inform objective iii. Results: The estimated minimum number of days required to achieve a reliability estimate of G⩾0.8 ranged from 5 to 9 for boys and 3 to 11 for girls for light physical activity (LPA); 5 to 9 and 3 to 10, for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); 5 to 10 and 4 to 10 for total activity counts; and 7 to 11 and 6 to 11 for sedentary time, respectively. For all variables investigated, the ‘participant' facet accounted for 30–50% of the variability, whereas the ‘days' facet accounted for ⩽5%, and the interaction (P × D) accounted for 50–70% of the variability. The actual reliability for boys in ISCOLE ranged from ICCs of 0.78 to 0.86, 0.73 to 0.85 and 0.72 to 0.86 for LPA, MVPA and total activity counts, respectively, and 0.67 to 0.79 for sedentary time. The corresponding values for girls were 0.80–0.88, 0.70–0.89, 0.74–0.86 and 0.64–0.80. Conclusions: It was rare that only 4 days from all participants would be enough to achieve desirable reliability estimates. However, asking participants to wear the device for 7 days and requiring

  13. Countries population determination to test rice crisis indicator at national level using k-means cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Y.; Purwandari, T.; Sukono; Ariska, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain information on the population of the countries which is have similarities with Indonesia based on three characteristics, that is the democratic atmosphere, rice consumption and purchasing power of rice. It is useful as a reference material for research which tested the strength and predictability of the rice crisis indicators Unprecedented Restlessness (UR). The similarities countries with Indonesia were conducted using multivariate analysis that is non-hierarchical cluster analysis k-Means with 38 countries as the data population. This analysis is done repeatedly until the obtainment number of clusters which is capable to show the differentiator power of the three characteristics and describe the high similarity within clusters. Based on the results, it turns out with 6 clusters can describe the differentiator power of characteristics of formed clusters. However, to answer the purpose of the study, only one cluster which will be taken accordance with the criteria of success for the population of countries that have similarities with Indonesia that cluster contain Indonesia therein, there are countries which is sustain crisis and non-crisis of rice in 2008, and cluster which is have the largest member among them. This criterion is met by cluster 2, which consists of 22 countries, namely Indonesia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Japan, Korea South, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Suriname.

  14. Quantifying the Ebbinghaus figure effect: target size, context size, and target-context distance determine the presence and direction of the illusion.

    PubMed

    Knol, Hester; Huys, Raoul; Sarrazin, Jean-Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, visual illusions, like the Ebbinghaus figure, have become widespread to investigate functional segregation of the visual system. This segregation reveals itself, so it is claimed, in the insensitivity of movement to optical illusions. This claim, however, faces contradictory results (and interpretations) in the literature. These contradictions may be due to methodological weaknesses in, and differences across studies, some of which may hide a lack of perceptual illusion effects. Indeed, despite the long history of research with the Ebbinghaus figure, standardized configurations to predict the illusion effect are missing. Here, we present a complete geometrical description of the Ebbinghaus figure with three target sizes compatible with Fitts' task. Each trial consisted of a stimulus and an isolated probe. The probe was controlled by the participant's response through a staircase procedure. The participant was asked whether the probe or target appeared bigger. The factors target size, context size, target-context distance, and a control condition resulted in a 3 × 3 × 3+3 factorial design. The results indicate that the illusion magnitude, the perceptual distinctiveness, and the response time depend on the context size, distance, and especially, target size. In 33% of the factor combinations there was no illusion effect. The illusion magnitude ranged from zero to (exceptionally) 10% of the target size. The small (or absent) illusion effects on perception and its possible influence on motor tasks might have been overlooked or misinterpreted in previous studies. Our results provide a basis for the application of the Ebbinghaus figure in psychophysical and motor control studies.

  15. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  16. PTEN loss is a context-dependent outcome determinant in obese and non-obese endometrioid endometrial cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Westin, Shannon N.; Ju, Zhenlin; Broaddus, Russell R.; Krakstad, Camilla; Li, Jane; Pal, Navdeep; Lu, Karen H.; Coleman, Robert L.; Hennessy, Bryan T.; Klempner, Samuel J.; Werner, Henrica M. J.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Mills, Gordon B.; Myers, Andrea P.

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer incidence is increasing, due in part to a strong association with obesity. Mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, the central relay pathway of insulin signals, occur in the majority of endometrioid adenocarcinomas, the most common form of endometrial cancer. We sought to determine the impact of PI3K pathway alterations on progression free survival in a cohort of endometrioid endometrial cancers. Prognostic utility of PIK3CA, PIK3R1, and PTEN mutations, as well as PTEN protein loss by immunohistochemistry, was explored in the context of patient body mass index. Reverse-phase protein arrays were utilized to assess protein expression based on PTEN status. Among 187 endometrioid endometrial cancers, there were no statistically significant associations between PFS and PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN mutation or loss. When stratified by body mass index, PTEN loss was associated with improved progression free survival (P<0.006) in obese (body mass index ≥ 30) patients. PTEN loss resulted in distinct protein changes: Canonical PI3K pathway activation was observed only in the non-obese population while decreased expression of β-CATENIN and phosphorylated FOXO3A was observed in obese patients. These data suggest the impact of PTEN loss on tumor biology and clinical outcomes must be interpreted in the context of body mass index, and provide a potential explanation for discrepant reports on the effect of PTEN status and obesity on prognosis in endometrial cancer. This reveals a clinically important interaction between metabolic state and tumor genetics that may unveil the biologic underpinning of obesity-related cancers and impact ongoing clinical trials with PI3K pathway inhibitors. PMID:26045339

  17. Determinants of government HIV/AIDS financing: a 10-year trend analysis from 125 low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trends and predictors of domestic spending from public sources provide national authorities and international donors with a better understanding of the HIV financing architecture, the fulfillment of governments’ commitments and potential for long-term sustainability. Methods We analyzed government financing of HIV using evidence from country reports on domestic spending. Panel data from 2000 to 2010 included information from 647 country-years amongst 125 countries. A random-effects model was used to analyze ten year trends and identify independent predictors of public HIV spending. Results Low- and middle-income countries spent US$ 2.1 billion from government sources in 2000, growing to US$ 6.6 billion in 2010, a three-fold increase. Per capita spending in 2010 ranged from 5 cents in low-level HIV epidemics in the Middle East to US$ 32 in upper-middle income countries with generalized HIV epidemics in Southern Africa. The average domestic public spending per capita was US$ 2.55. The analysis found that GDP per capita and HIV prevalence are positively associated with increasing levels of HIV-spending from public sources; a 10 percent increase in HIV prevalence is associated with a 2.5 percent increase in domestic funding for HIV. Additionally, a 10 percent increase in GDP per capita is associated with an 11.49 percent increase in public spending for HIV and these associations were highly significant. Conclusion Domestic resources in low- and middle-income countries showed a threefold increase between 2000 and 2010 and currently support 50 percent of the global response with 41 percent coming from sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic spending in LMICs was associated with increased economic growth and an increased burden of HIV. Sustained increases in funding for HIV from public sources were observed in all regions and emphasize the increasing importance of government financing. PMID:23870494

  18. Non-communicable diseases and the social determinants of health in the Nordic countries: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Balaj, Mirza; Huijts, Tim; McNamara, Courtney L; Stornes, Per; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies examining non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and determinants of health in the Nordic countries are scarce, outdated and focus only on a limited range of NCDs and health determinants. This study is the first to present a comprehensive overview of the distribution of social and behavioural determinants of health and of physical and mental NCDs in the Nordic population. We examined regional, country and gender differences for 17 health outcomes and 20 determinants of health. We use data from the 7th wave of the European Social Survey. All results were age-standardised by weighting up or down the unstandardized (crude) prevalence rates for five year age groups in each country to a common standard. We present pooled estimates for the combined regional samples as well as country-specific results for the Nordic region. Overall, the population of the Nordic region reported among the highest prevalence for one or both genders in 10 out of 17 health outcomes. Despite being the region with the highest prevalence for most health outcomes, overall self-rated health levels tend to be better in the Nordic region. Similarly, we found that the Nordic countries adhere to a healthier lifestyle and have better access to health care. Future studies should consider investigating further the association between health outcomes and determinants of health and how they are distributed in the Nordic societies.

  19. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2017-04-01

    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development.

  20. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL FAMILY SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.5 U.S... out of wedlock in a foreign country of an American citizen father and an alien mother does not... mother may be required in order for the child to acquire U.S. citizenship. The father also must...

  1. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL FAMILY SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.5 U.S... out of wedlock in a foreign country of an American citizen father and an alien mother does not... mother may be required in order for the child to acquire U.S. citizenship. The father also must...

  2. A latent class growth analysis of school bullying and its social context: the self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P H; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%), victims (3.0%), bully-victims (9.4%), and typical students (77.8%). There was a significant association between academic tracking and group membership. Students from the school with the lowest academic performance had a greater chance of being victims and bully-victims. Longitudinal data showed that all 4 groups tended to report less victimization over the years. The victims and the typical students also had a tendency to report less bullying over the years, but this tendency was reversed for bullies and bully-victims. Perceived support from teachers for relatedness significantly predicted membership of the groups of bullies and victims. Students with higher perceived support for relatedness from their teachers had a significantly lower likelihood of being bullies or victims. The findings have implications for the theory and practice of preventive interventions in school bullying.

  3. The determinations of remote sensing satellite data delivery service quality: A positivistic case study in Chinese context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiahua; Yan, Xiangbin; Tan, Qiaoqiao; Li, Yijun

    2014-03-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, remote-sensing satellite has been widely used in many aspects of national construction. Big data with different standards and massive users with different needs, make the satellite data delivery service to be a complex giant system. How to deliver remote-sensing satellite data efficiently and effectively is a big challenge. Based on customer service theory, this paper proposes a hierarchy conceptual model for examining the determinations of remote-sensing satellite data delivery service quality in the Chinese context. Three main dimensions: service expectation, service perception and service environment, and 8 sub-dimensions are included in the model. Large amount of first-hand data on the remote-sensing satellite data delivery service have been obtained through field research, semi-structured questionnaire and focused interview. A positivist case study is conducted to validate and develop the proposed model, as well as to investigate the service status and related influence mechanisms. Findings from the analysis demonstrate the explanatory validity of the model, and provide potentially helpful insights for future practice.

  4. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Methods Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response “yes” to one or more of three questions, such as “Do you currently smoke cigarettes?” Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by ‘svy’ command. Results Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Conclusion Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts. PMID:25183954

  5. Robust analysis of the determinants of healthcare expenditure growth: evidence from panel data for low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Younsi, Moheddine; Chakroun, Mohamed; Nafla, Amine

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the determinants of healthcare expenditure for low-, middle- and high-income countries, and it quantifies their influences in order to assess policies for achieving universal health coverage. We elaborate two models, a fixed-effect model and the dynamic panel model, to estimate the factors associated with the total health expenditure growth as well as its major components for 167 countries over the period of 1993-2013. The panel data on total health expenditure per capita and its components were taken from the World Development Indicators. Overall, our results showed that total health expenditure per capita is rising in all countries over time as a result of rising incomes. However, our estimates showed that the income elasticity of health expenditure ranged from 0.75 to 0.96 in the fixed-effect static panel model, while in the dynamic panel model, it was smaller and ranged from 0.16 to 0.47. Our empirical findings indicate that development assistance for health reduced government domestic spending on health but increased total government health spending. Our results also indicate that the trend in health expenditure growth is significantly depending with the country's economic development. In addition, out-of-pocket expenditure is powerfully influenced by a country's capacity to increase general government revenues and social insurance contributions. Knowledge of factors associated to health expenditure might help policy makers to make wise judgments, plan health reforms and allocate resources efficiently. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs, Self-Determined Exercise Motivation, and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers Exercising in Group-Based Versus Individual-Based Contexts.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Geoff P; Gordon, James A R; Mueller, Marcus B; Mulgrew, Kate; Sharman, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    We compared mothers who exercised predominantly in group settings, those who exercised predominantly in individual settings, and those who exercised equally in group and individual contexts among the following: (a) satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness); (b) self-determined exercise motivation; and (c) psychological well-being. With clear implications for mothers' exercise interventions we found that exercising either predominantly in group contexts or in mixed group and individual settings was associated with mothers having significantly higher satisfaction of basic psychological needs and self-determined exercise motivation than those exercising predominantly alone.

  7. Determinants of Healthcare Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Payments in the Context of Free Public Primary Healthcare in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Masiye, Felix; Kaonga, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background: Access to appropriate and affordable healthcare is needed to achieve better health outcomes in Africa. However, access to healthcare remains low, especially among the poor. In Zambia, poor access exists despite the policy by the government to remove user fees in all primary healthcare facilities in the public sector. The paper has two main objectives: (i) to examine the factors associated with healthcare choices among sick people, and (ii) to assess the determinants of the magnitude of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments related to a visit to a health provider. Methods: This paper employs a multilevel multinomial logistic regression to model the determinants of an individual’s choice of healthcare options following an illness. Further, the study analyses the drivers of the magnitude of OOP expenditure related to a visit to a health provider using a two-part generalised linear model. The analysis is based on a nationally representative healthcare utilisation and expenditure survey that was conducted in 2014. Results: Household per capita consumption expenditure is significantly associated with increased odds of seeking formal care (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = .000). Living in a household in which the head has a higher level of education is associated with increased odds of seeking formal healthcare (OR = 1.54, P = .000) and (OR = 1.55, P = .01), for secondary and tertiary education, respectively. Rural residence is associated with reduced odds of seeking formal care (OR = 0.706, P = .002). The magnitude of OOP expenditure during a visit is significantly dependent on household economic well-being, distance from a health facility, among other factors. A 10% increase in per capita consumption expenditure was associated with a 0.2% increase in OOP health expenditure while every kilometre travelled was associated with a K0.51 increase in OOP health expenditure. Conclusion: Despite the removal of user fees on public primary healthcare in Zambia, access to

  8. Proceedings of a workshop, held in Constanta, Romania on 22 May 2014, on Oral Health of Children in the Central and Eastern European Countries in the context of the current economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hysi, Dorjan; Eaton, Kenneth A; Tsakos, George; Vassallo, Paula; Amariei, Corneliu

    2016-07-25

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop held in Constanta, Romania on 22 May 2014. During the workshop, representatives from 18 Central and Eastern European countries gave oral presentations on the current oral health of children and young adults aged 16 years and younger. The aim of the workshop was to collect and present data relating to the oral health of children from Central and Eastern European countries and to discuss them in the context of the political changes that have taken place over the last two decades and the recent economic crisis.The presenters had previously completed a series of questions on oral epidemiological studies, prevention of oral disease, treatment and payment, dental personnel, uptake of oral health care and other considerations and structured their presentations on these topics plus the influence of the economic crisis on oral health. It should be remembered that this paper is a report of the proceedings of a workshop and not a study. Ethics approval is not required for workshops.After the 18 oral presentations a 90 min discussion took place during which further points were raised. The presentations, the discussion and the conclusions which were reached are reported in this manuscript.

  9. The socioeconomic determinants of health: economic growth and health in the OECD countries during the last three decades.

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

    2014-01-08

    In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries' economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980-2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis.

  10. Tobacco use and its determinants in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in West African countries

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Ekouevi, Didier-Koumavi; Aboubakrine, Maiga; Bashi, Jules; Messou, Eugène; Maiga, Moussa; Traore, Hamar-Alassane; Zannou, Marcel; Guehi, Calixte; Ba-Gomis, Franck-Olivier; Minga, Albert; Allou, Gérard; Eholie, Serge-Paul; Dabis, Francois; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Sasco, Annie-Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tobacco smoking is common in HIV-infected patients from industrialized countries. In West Africa, few data exist concerning tobacco consumption. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) network in West Africa. Health workers administered to patients receiving antiretroviral treatment a questionnaire assessing tobacco and cannabis consumption. Regular smokers were defined as present smokers who smoked >1 cigarette per day for ≥1 year. RESULTS Overall, 2920 patients were enrolled in three countries. The prevalence of ever smokers and present smokers were 46.2% (95% CI 42.8–49.5) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2–18.0) in men and 3.7% (95% CI 2.9–4.5) and 0.6% (95% CI 0.3–0.9) in women, respectively. Regular smoking was associated being from Côte d’Ivoire or Mali compared to Benin (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.9–7.3 and 7.7; 95% CI 4.4–13.6), a severely impaired immunological status at HAART initiation (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1–2.2) and a history of tuberculosis (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–3.0). CONCLUSION Marked differences of smoking prevalence exist between these West African countries. This survey approach also provides evidences concerning the association between cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients, a major public health issue in this part of the world. PMID:19861019

  11. Identifying Vulnerable Populations Using a Social Determinants of Health Framework: Analysis of National Survey Data across Six Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO called for research on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper analyses four key SDH (social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security) across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Methods Population surveys were undertaken using a validated instrument in 2009-10, with sample sizes around 1000 in each country. The four SDH were analysed using multivariate binomial logistic regression to identify socio-demographic predictors in each country. Results Low socio-economic security was associated with low income in all six study countries and with poor subjective health in Japan, South Korea and Thailand and with being married or cohabiting in Australia and Hong Kong. Low social cohesion was associated with low income in all countries and with undertaking household duties in South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. Low social inclusion was associated with low income in Australia, South Korea and Taiwan and with poor subjective health in Australia, Japan and South Korea. Older people had lower social inclusion in Taiwan (50-59 years) and Hong Kong (retired), younger people in Japan and South Korea (20-29 years in both countries) and younger and middle-aged people in Australia. Low social empowerment was associated with low income in Australia, Thailand and Taiwan, with being aged 60 years or over in Australia, Hong Kong and South Korea, and over 50 years in Thailand. Conclusions This paper provides baseline measures for identifying where and how policy should be altered to improve the SDH. Furthermore, these data can be used for future policy evaluation to identify whether changes in policy have indeed improved the SDH, particularly for marginalised and vulnerable populations. PMID:24349417

  12. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  13. Perception of Lay People Regarding Determinants of Health and Factors Affecting It: An Aggregated Analysis from 29 Countries

    PubMed Central

    ZAHRA, Aqeela; LEE, Eun-Whan; SUN, Li-Yuan; PARK, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the perception of lay people regarding determinants of health at global level and factors affecting it. Methods: Data was collected from International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and World Bank website. Multilevel regression analysis was done and lay people’s perception regarding health behavior, environment, poverty and genes as health determinants was assessed. Various socio demographic factors were used as independent variables. Results: The highest percentage of people agreed environment as determinant of health. An inverse relationship was observed between GNI quartiles and an individual’s agreement with poverty, health behavior, and environment as health determinant. There was a significant negative association of females with health damaging behavior (P<0.05) and positive association with environment and genes (P<0.05) as health determinants. Elderly people agreed with poverty as determinant of health (P<0.05). GNI was negatively related to environment (P<0.05) and poverty (P<0.05) as health determinant. Conclusion: The common public is now becoming aware of a broadened concept of health and people belonging to different backgrounds have different perceptions regarding determinants of health. Our results show that highest percentage of people agreed with environment as determinant of health, which is consistent with scientific view of increased burden of disease, caused by environmental factors. Thus, tailored health programs and policies that address an individual’s specific problems are likely to induce a change in behavior and attitude, hence decreasing the disease burden. PMID:26811813

  14. An Investigation of Statistical Thinking in Two Different Contexts: Detecting a Signal in a Noisy Process and Determining a Typical Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    The study describes students' patterns of thinking for statistical problems set in two different contexts. Fifteen students representing a wide range of experiences with high school mathematics participated in problem-solving clinical interview sessions. At one point during the interviews, each solved a problem that involved determining the…

  15. Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

  16. Sensory determinants of stated liking for vegetable names and actual liking for canned vegetables: A cross-country study among European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dinnella, Caterina; Morizet, David; Masi, Camilla; Cliceri, Danny; Depezay, Laurence; Appleton, Katherine M; Giboreau, Agnés; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Hartwell, Heather; Monteleone, Erminio

    2016-12-01

    Sensory properties are reported as one of the main factors hindering an appropriate vegetable intake by the young. In the present work the sensory determinants of likings for vegetables were explored in adolescents of four European countries (Denmark, n = 88; France, n = 206; Italy, n = 110 and United Kingdom, n = 93). A questionnaire was designed to study cross country differences in stated liking for and familiarity with a list of vegetables popular among European markets (between-vegetable approach). A within-vegetable comparison approach with actual tasting was used to analyze differences and similarities in liking for canned pea and sweet corn samples across the countries. A close positive relationship between stated liking and familiarity was found. Irrespective of the country, one group of highly liked vegetables (carrots, tomatoes, green salad) was identified, characterized by innately liked tastes (sweet, umami), delicate flavour and bright appealing colour. A second group of highly disliked vegetables consists of cauliflowers and broccoli, characterized by disliked sensations such as bitter taste and objectionable flavour. Internal Preference Maps from actual liking scores indicate that the generally disliked tastes (bitter, sour), are clearly correlated with a negative hedonic response for both peas and sweet corn. The hedonic valence of a generally well accepted taste such as salty and texture descriptors depends on the type of vegetable. Internal preference maps from actual liking data indicate that flavour and appearance descriptors of the distinct sensory properties of each type of vegetable positively affect liking, while the intensity of unusual flavours is related to sample disliking.

  17. Heterogeneity in the costs of type 1 diabetes in a developing country: what are the determining factors?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Regional differences in the clinical care of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Brazil have been recently described. This study aimed to estimate the costs of T1D from the public health care system’s perspective across the regions of Brazil and to determine the components that influence these costs. Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional and nationwide multicenter study conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. The study included 3,180 T1D subjects receiving healthcare from the National Brazilian Healthcare System (NBHCS) with a follow-up of at least one year. The direct medical costs were derived from the costs of medications, supplies, examinations, visits to the center, medical procedures and hospitalizations that occurred during the previous year. Clinical and demographic factors that determined the differences in the cost across four geographic regions (southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west) were investigated. Results The per capita mean annual direct medical costs of T1D in US$ were 1,466.36, 1,252.83, 1,148.09 and 1,396.30 in southeast, south, north/northeast and mid-west regions, respectively. The costs of T1D in the southeast region were higher compared to south (p < 0.001) and north/northeast regions (p = < 0.001), but not to the mid-west (p = 0.146) region. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was different across the regions as well as the daily number of SMBG, use of insulin pumps or basal or prandial insulin analogs. Age, ethnicity, duration of diabetes, level of care, socioeconomic status and the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications differed among the regions. In a regression model the determinants of the costs were the presence of microvascular diabetes-related complications (p < 0.001), higher economic status (p < 0.001), and being from the southeast region (p < 0.001). Conclusions The present data reinforce the regional

  18. Pattern and Determinants of Gestational Weight Gain an Important Predictor of Infant Birth Weight in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Esimai, Olapeju Adefunke; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to determine correlates of gestational weight gain and infant birth weight of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in public primary health care facilities in lfe Central and East Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Over 1000 women were recruited during booking and antenatal clinic and followed up till delivery. Chi square was used in the bivariate analysis of association between gestational weight gain, pre pregnancy BMI and demographic characteristics. The correlates of gestational weight gain and infant birth weight were determined by linear regression analysis. Eight percent are underweight, 10.3% are overweight or obese, 78% had a weight gain less than 7kg and 0.5% had a weight gain above 11.5kg. Ninety seven percent gained less than recommended weight, only 3% of the women gained the recommended weight for their pre pregnant BMI mostly the obese women. Twenty eight percent of the women had infant weight within normal (2.5kg and above). The infant weight increases with the gestational age, maternal age and parity but decreases with gestational weight gain though not significant. Maternal age and parity were significant predictors of gestational weight gain and pre pregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of infant birth weight. The gestational weight gain and infant weight reduces as the pre pregnant BMI increases. Most of the women had low birth weight babies. There is a need to educate mothers on good weight before conception in order to improve birth outcome in view of other factors not looked into in the present study. PMID:24999149

  19. DNA sequence context as a determinant of the quantity and chemistry of guanine oxidation produced by hydroxyl radicals and one-electron oxidants.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Yelena; Shafirovich, Vladimir; Geacintov, Nicholas E; DeMott, Michael S; Dedon, Peter C

    2008-12-19

    DNA sequence context has emerged as a critical determinant of the location and quantity of nucleobase damage caused by many oxidizing agents. However, the complexity of nucleobase and 2-deoxyribose damage caused by strong oxidants such as ionizing radiation and the Fenton chemistry of Fe2+-EDTA/H2O2 poses a challenge to defining the location of nucleobase damage and the effects of sequence context on damage chemistry in DNA. To address this problem, we developed a gel-based method that allows quantification of nucleobase damage in oxidized DNA by exploiting Escherichia coli exonuclease III to remove fragments containing direct strand breaks and abasic sites. The rigor of the method was verified in studies of guanine oxidation by photooxidized riboflavin and nitrosoperoxycarbonate, for which different effects of sequence context have been demonstrated by other approaches (Margolin, Y., Cloutier, J. F., Shafirovich, V., Geacintov, N. E., and Dedon, P. C. (2006) Nat. Chem. Biol. 2, 365-366). Using duplex oligodeoxynucleotides containing all possible three-nucleotide sequence contexts for guanine, the method was used to assess the role of DNA sequence context in hydroxyl radical-induced guanine oxidation associated with gamma-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA/H2O2. The results revealed both differences and similarities for G oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and by one-electron oxidation by riboflavin-mediated photooxidation, which is consistent with the predominance of oxidation pathways for hydroxyl radicals other than one-electron oxidation to form guanine radical cations. Although the relative quantities of G oxidation produced by hydroxyl radicals were more weakly correlated with sequence-specific ionization potential than G oxidation produced by riboflavin, damage produced by both hydroxyl radical generators and riboflavin within two- and three-base runs of G showed biases in location that are consistent with a role for electron transfer in defining the location of the damage

  20. Determinants of prenatal care use: evidence from 32 low-income countries across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Guliani, Harminder; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Serieux, John

    2014-08-01

    While much has been written on the determinants of prenatal care attendance in low-income countries, comparatively little is known about the determinants of the frequency of prenatal visits in general and whether there are separate processes generating the decisions to use prenatal care and the frequency of use. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys data for 32 low-income countries (across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America) and appropriate two-part and multilevel models, this article empirically assesses the influence of a wide array of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics on a woman's decision to use prenatal care and the frequency of that use, while controlling for unobserved community level factors. The results suggest that, though both the decision to use care and the number of prenatal visits are influenced by a range of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics, the influence of these determinants vary in magnitude for prenatal care attendance and the frequency of prenatal visits. Despite remarkable consistency among regions in the association of individual, household and community indicators with prenatal care utilization, the estimated coefficients of the risk factors vary greatly across the three world regions. The strong influence of household wealth, education and regional poverty on the use of prenatal care suggests that safe motherhood programmes should be linked with the objectives of social development programmes such as poverty reduction, enhancing the status of women and increasing primary and secondary school enrolment rate among girls. Finally, the finding that teenage mothers and unmarried women and those with unintended pregnancies are less likely to use prenatal care and have fewer visits suggests that safe mother programmes need to pay particular attention to the disadvantaged and vulnerable subgroups of population whose reproductive health issues are often fraught with

  1. Autonomy and self-determination theory in different contexts: A comparison of middle school science teachers' motivation and instruction in China and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Laura Elizabeth

    This study examined factors that contribute to Chinese and United States middle school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Autonomy is one component of self-determination theory and has been associated with intrinsic motivation. The study used a mixed methods design including quantitative data collected through an online survey and qualitative data collected through open-ended interview questions. The online survey consisted of four assessments related to teachers' self-determination, perceptions of constraints at work, perceptions of students' self-determination, and level of autonomy support for students and allowed for the testing of the structural model developed by Pelletier, Seguin-Levesque, and Legault (2002). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of responses for the combined teacher sample (n=201) was carried out for each of the survey assessments. Significance testing for Chinese (n=107) and U.S. (n=94) teachers, based on the factors resulting from EFA, revealed significant differences in teachers' self-determination and perceptions of constraints at work. No significant differences were found for teachers' perceptions of students' self-determination or level of autonomy support for students. Multiple regression was used to predict teachers' autonomy support for students. For the Chinese teachers, perceptions of constraints at work, teachers' self-determination, and teachers' perceptions of student motivation were found to significantly predict teachers' autonomy support. For the U.S. teachers, teacher motivation was the only significant predictor of teachers' autonomy support. A sub-sample of the Chinese and U.S. science teachers (n=19) were interviewed about their perceived levels of autonomy support, constraints at work, and their students' self determination. The analyses of the interviews showed that teachers in both countries reported that autonomy was important to their motivation and the quality of instruction they provided to students

  2. Fickle or Faithful: The Roles of Host and Environmental Context in Determining Symbiont Composition in Two Bathymodioline Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Laming, Sven R.; Szafranski, Kamil M.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Gaudron, Sylvie M.; Cunha, Marina R.; Hilário, Ana; Le Bris, Nadine; Duperron, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea and adjoining East Atlantic Ocean host a diverse array of small-sized mussels that predominantly live on sunken, decomposing organic remains. At least two of these, Idas modiolaeformis and Idas simpsoni, are known to engage in gill-associated symbioses; however, the composition, diversity and variability of these symbioses with changing habitat and location is poorly defined. The current study presents bacterial symbiont assemblage data, derived from 454 pyrosequencing carried out on replicate specimens of these two host species, collected across seven sample sites found in three oceanographic regions in the Mediterranean and East Atlantic. The presence of several bacterial OTUs in both the Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic suggests that similar symbiont candidates occur on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. The results reveal markedly different symbiotic modes in the two species. Idas modiolaeformis displays high symbiont diversity and flexibility, with strong variation in symbiont composition from the East Mediterranean to the East Atlantic. Idas simpsoni displays low symbiont diversity but high symbiont fidelity, with a single dominant OTU occurring in all specimens analysed. These differences are argued to be a function of the host species, where subtle differences in host evolution, life-history and behaviour could partially explain the observed patterns. The variability in symbiont compositions, particularly in Idas modiolaeformis, is thought to be a function of the nature, context and location of the habitat from which symbiont candidates are sourced. PMID:26710314

  3. Self-Determination in Context: An Examination of Factors that Influence School Performance among African American Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Leroy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine self-determination and achievement motivation as predictors of successful school performance for high school African American males enrolled in an urban Texas school district. The students (N = 108) were placed into two distinct groups: higher-performing and lower-performing African American males based…

  4. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Beníšek, Martin; Kukučka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Luděk

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22μg (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts.

  5. The three-dimensional context of a double helix determines the fluorescence of the internucleoside-tethered pair of fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Metelev, Valeri; Zhang, Surong; Tabatadze, David; Kumar, Anand T N; Bogdanov, Alexei

    2013-10-01

    We report a general phenomenon of the formation of either a fluorescent or an entirely quenched oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) duplex system by hybridizing pairs of complementary ODNs with identical chemical composition. The ODNs carried internucleoside tether-linked cyanines, where the cyanines were chosen to form a Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor-acceptor pair. The fluorescent and quenched ODN duplex systems differed only in that the cyanines linked to the respective ODNs were linked either closer to the 5'- or 3'-ends of the molecule. In either case, however, the dyes were separated by an identical number (7 or 8) of base pairs. Characterization by molecular modeling and energy minimization using a conformational search algorithm in a molecular operating environment (MOE) revealed that linking of the dyes closer to the 5'-ends resulted in their reciprocal orientation across the major groove which allowed a closely interacting dye pair to be formed. This overlap between the donor and acceptor dye molecules resulted in changes in absorbance spectra consistent with the formation of H-aggregates. Conversely, dyes linked closer to 3'-ends exhibited emissive FRET and formed a pair of dyes that interacted with the DNA helix only weakly. Induced CD spectra analysis suggested that interaction with the double helix was weaker than in the case of the closely interacting cyanine dye pair. Linking the dyes such that the base pair separation was 10 or 0 favored energy transfer with subsequent acceptor emission. Our results suggest that when interpreting FRET measurements from nucleic acids, the use of a "spectroscopic ruler" principle which takes into account the 3D helical context of the double helix will allow more accurate interpretation of fluorescence emission.

  6. The three-dimensional context of a double helix determines fluorescence of the internucleoside-tethered pair of fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Metelev, Valeri; Zhang, Surong; Tabatadze, David; Kumar, Anand T.N.

    2014-01-01

    We report a general phenomenon of the formation of either a fluorescent, or of an entirely quenched oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) duplex system by hybridizing pairs of complementary ODNs with identical chemical composition. The ODNs carried internucleoside tether-linked cyanines, where the cyanines were chosen to form a Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) doner/acceptor pair. The fluorescent and quenched ODN duplex systems differed only in that the cyanines linked to the respective ODNs s were linked either closer to the 5′-, or closer to the 3′-ends of the molecule. In either case however, the dyes were separated by an identical number (7 or 8) of base pairs. Characterization by molecular modeling and energy minimization using a conformational search algorithm in a molecular operating environment (MOE) revealed that linking of the dyes closer to the 5′-ends resulted in their reciprocal orientation across the major groove which allowed a closely interacting dye pair to be formed. This overlap between the donor and acceptor dye molecules resulted in changes of absorbance spectra consistent with the formation of H-aggregates. Conversly, dyes linked closer to 3′-ends exhibited emissive FRET and formed a pair of dyes that interacted with the DNA helix only weakly. Induced CD spectra analysis suggested that interaction with the double helix was weaker than in the case of the closely interacting cyanine dye pair. Linking the dyes such that the base pair separation was 10 or 0 favored energy transfer with subsequent acceptor emission. Our results suggest that when interpreting FRET measurements from nucleic acids, the use of a “spectroscopic ruler” principle which takes into account the 3D helical context of the double helix will allow more accurate interpretation of fluorescence emission. PMID:23925269

  7. Country News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  8. Moving forward monitoring of the social determinants of health in a country: lessons from England 5 years after the Marmot Review.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Background England has a long history of government-commissioned reviews of national inequalities. The latest review, the Marmot Review, was commissioned by a government headed by the same party (the Labour Party) that had introduced the National Health Service in 1948, but the review was implemented by a coalition of different parties (Conservatives and Liberal Democrats). At the same time, a government reform of health services took place, and the monitoring of the existing inequality strategy was changed. Objectives This paper examines the lessons that can be learned about indicators for monitoring social determinants of health inequalities from the Marmot Review and recent health inequality strategies in England. Design The paper provides a narrative review of key findings on the collection, presentation, and analysis of routine data in England in the past 5 years, comparing what has been learned from the Marmot Review and other evaluations of the first health inequality strategy in England. Results The emphasis on monitoring has progressively shifted from monitoring a small number of targets and supporting information to frameworks that monitor across a wide range of determinants of both the causes of ill-health and of health service performance. As these frameworks become ever larger, some consideration is being given to the key indicators. Conclusions Although the frameworks used in England for monitoring health inequality strategies have developed considerably since the first strategy began, lessons continue to be learned about how monitoring could be improved. Many of these are applicable to countries initiating or reviewing their strategies.

  9. Determination of growth stages and metabolic profiles in Brachypodium distachyon for comparison of developmental context with Triticeae crops

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Hashimoto, Kei; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yuji; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Toyooka, Kiminori; Mochida, Keiichi; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging model plant for studying biological phenomena in temperate grasses. Study of the growth scale is essential to analyse spatio-temporal changes in molecular factors throughout the life cycle. For sensitive and robust staging based on morphology in B. distachyon, we demonstrated the utility of the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and CHemical industry) scale, which is comparable to the Zadoks scale conventionally used for Triticeae crops. We compared the chronological progression of B. distachyon accessions Bd21 and Bd3-1, in addition to the progression of Chinese Spring wheat. The comparison of growth stages illustrates the morphological similarities and differences in the timing of life cycle events. Furthermore, we compared metabolite accumulation patterns across different growth stages and across different stress conditions using a widely targeted metabolome analysis. Metabolic profiling determined commonalities and specificities in chemical properties that were dependent on organisms, growth stages and/or stress conditions. Most metabolites accumulated equivalently in B. distachyon and wheat. This qualitative similarity indicated the superiority of B. distachyon as a model for Triticeae crops. The growth scale of B. distachyon should provide a conceptual framework for comparative analysis and for knowledge integration between this model grass and crops in the Pooideae subfamily. PMID:26156770

  10. Determination of growth stages and metabolic profiles in Brachypodium distachyon for comparison of developmental context with Triticeae crops.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Hashimoto, Kei; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yuji; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Toyooka, Kiminori; Mochida, Keiichi; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2015-07-22

    Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging model plant for studying biological phenomena in temperate grasses. Study of the growth scale is essential to analyse spatio-temporal changes in molecular factors throughout the life cycle. For sensitive and robust staging based on morphology in B. distachyon, we demonstrated the utility of the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and CHemical industry) scale, which is comparable to the Zadoks scale conventionally used for Triticeae crops. We compared the chronological progression of B. distachyon accessions Bd21 and Bd3-1, in addition to the progression of Chinese Spring wheat. The comparison of growth stages illustrates the morphological similarities and differences in the timing of life cycle events. Furthermore, we compared metabolite accumulation patterns across different growth stages and across different stress conditions using a widely targeted metabolome analysis. Metabolic profiling determined commonalities and specificities in chemical properties that were dependent on organisms, growth stages and/or stress conditions. Most metabolites accumulated equivalently in B. distachyon and wheat. This qualitative similarity indicated the superiority of B. distachyon as a model for Triticeae crops. The growth scale of B. distachyon should provide a conceptual framework for comparative analysis and for knowledge integration between this model grass and crops in the Pooideae subfamily.

  11. The role of housing in determining HIV risk among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: considering women's life contexts.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Gupta, Jhumka; Biradavolu, Monica; Devireddy, Vasavi; Blankenship, Kim M

    2011-03-01

    Recent research on HIV prevention, regardless of the population, has increasingly recognized the relevance of contextual factors in determining HIV risk. Investigating such factors among female sex workers (FSW) is especially relevant in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where HIV rates are among the highest across Indian states and where HIV has largely affected FSW. Stable housing is a particular contextual challenge experienced by female sex workers in this region (as well as elsewhere); however, local studies have not examined the impact of this issue on HIV risk. In this paper, we examine residential instability, defined as a high frequency of reported evictions, among FSW and relation to experiences of violence (as a factor increasing risk for HIV) and sexual risk factors for HIV. Women were recruited through respondent-driven sampling for a survey on HIV risk. Using logistic regression models, we assessed: (1) residential instability and association with HIV sexual risk variables (including unprotected sex, reported STIs, and recent physical and sexual victimization) and (2) whether the association between residential instability and reported STI (as an indicator of HIV risk) was attenuated by individual risk behaviors and violence. In adjusted logistic regression models, FSW who reported residential instability were more likely to report: sexual violence, physical violence, accepting more money for unprotected sex, and a recent STI symptom. Violence associated with residential instability contributed to reported STIs; however, residential instability remained significantly associated with STIs beyond the influence of both violence and unprotected sex with clients. Findings highlight the interrelation among residential instability, violence, and HIV risk. Residential instability appears to be associated with women's HIV risk, above and beyond its association with individual risky sexual behaviors.

  12. Country Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    The reports from five countries participating at a seminar on teacher training in environmental education for Asia are compiled in this document. The objectives of the seminar were: (1) to familiarize teacher educators with the contents of the series of teacher training modules in environmental education prepared by the International Environmental…

  13. Sexual behaviour in context: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Wellings, Kaye; Collumbien, Martine; Slaymaker, Emma; Singh, Susheela; Hodges, Zoé; Patel, Dhaval; Bajos, Nathalie

    2006-11-11

    Research aimed at investigating sexual behaviour and assessing interventions to improve sexual health has increased in recent decades. The resulting data, despite regional differences in quantity and quality, provide a historically unique opportunity to describe patterns of sexual behaviour and their implications for attempts to protect sexual health at the beginning of the 21st century. In this paper we present original analyses of sexual behaviour data from 59 countries for which they were available. The data show substantial diversity in sexual behaviour by region and sex. No universal trend towards earlier sexual intercourse has occurred, but the shift towards later marriage in most countries has led to an increase in premarital sex, the prevalence of which is generally higher in developed countries than in developing countries, and is higher in men than in women. Monogamy is the dominant pattern everywhere, but having had two or more sexual partners in the past year is more common in men than in women, and reported rates are higher in industrialised than in non-industrialised countries. Condom use has increased in prevalence almost everywhere, but rates remain low in many developing countries. The huge regional variation indicates mainly social and economic determinants of sexual behaviour, which have implications for intervention. Although individual behaviour change is central to improving sexual health, efforts are also needed to address the broader determinants of sexual behaviour, particularly those that relate to the social context. The evidence from behavioural interventions is that no general approach to sexual-health promotion will work everywhere and no single-component intervention will work anywhere. Comprehensive behavioural interventions are needed that take account of the social context in mounting individual-level programmes, attempt to modify social norms to support uptake and maintenance of behaviour change, and tackle the structural factors

  14. The Effect of Context-Based Chemical Equilibrium on Grade 11 Students' Learning, Motivation and Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ilhan, Nail; Yildirim, Ali; Yilmaz, Sibel Sadi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many countries have adopted a context-based approach for designing science curricula for education at all levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Context-Based Chemistry Course (CBCC) as compared with traditional/existing instruction, on 11th grade students' learning about chemical equilibrium,…

  15. Inequalities in the Education System and the Reproduction of Socioeconomic Disparities in Voting in England, Denmark and Germany: The Influence of Country Context, Tracking and Self-Efficacy on Voting Intentions of Students Age 16-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Bryony; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Han, Christine; Muijs, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article performs exploratory research using a mixed-methods approach (structural equation modelling and a thematic analysis of interview data) to analyse the ways in which socioeconomic disparities in voting patterns are reproduced through inequalities in education in different national contexts, and the role of self-efficacy in this process.…

  16. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  17. Affordability of adult HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries: modelling price determinants for a better insight of the market functioning

    PubMed Central

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Singh, Sauman; Dongmo-Nguimfack, Boniface; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to provide a landscape of the global antiretroviral (ARV) market by analyzing the transactional data on donor-funded ARV procurement between 2003 and 2015, and the ARV price determinants. Design The data were obtained from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism (GPRM) managed by the AIDS Medicines and Diagnostics Service of the WHO, and it consists of information that covers approximately 80% of the total donor-funded adult ARV transactions procurement. Methods ExWorks prices and procured quantities were standardized according to the guidelines in terms of yearly doses. Descriptive statistics on quantities and prices show the main trends of the ARV market. Ordinary least squares estimation was carried out for the whole sample, then stratified according to the type of supplier (originator and generic) and controlled for time and geographical fixed-effects. Given that analyses were carried out on a public dataset on ARV transactional prices from the GPRM, ethics are respected and consent was not necessary. Results Originator medicines are on average the least expensive in the sub-Saharan Africa region, where at the same time, generic medicines are on average the most expensive. By contrast, originator medicines are the most expensive in Europe and Central Asia, and generic medicines are the least expensive. In fact, the data suggest mixed strategies by ARV suppliers to exploit opportunities for profit maximization and to adapt to the specific conditions of market competition in each region. Our results also suggest that the expiration of patents is not sufficient to boost additional developments in generic competition (at least in the ARV market) and that formal or informal agreements between generic firms may de facto slow down or even reverse long-term trends towards price decreases. Conclusions Our findings provide an improved understanding of the ARV market that can help countries strengthen policy measures to increase their bargaining

  18. Metal-specific control of gene expression mediated by Bradyrhizobium japonicum Mur and Escherichia coli Fur is determined by the cellular context.

    PubMed

    Hohle, Thomas H; O'Brian, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum Mur and Escherichia coli Fur are manganese- and iron-responsive transcriptional regulators, respectively, that belong to the same protein family. Here, we show that neither Mur nor Fur discriminate between Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) in vitro nor is there a metal preference for conferral of DNA-binding activity on the purified proteins. When expressed in E. coli, B. japonicum Mur responded to iron, but not manganese, as determined by in vivo promoter occupancy and transcriptional repression activity. Moreover, E. coli Fur activity was manganese-dependent in B. japonicum. Total and chelatable iron levels were higher in E. coli than in B. japonicum under identical growth conditions, and Mur responded to iron in a B. japonicum iron export mutant that accumulated high levels of the metal. However, elevated manganese content in E. coli did not confer activity on Fur or Mur, suggesting a regulatory pool of manganese in B. japonicum that is absent in E. coli. We conclude that the metal selectivity of Mur and Fur depends on the cellular context in which they function, not on intrinsic properties of the proteins. Also, the novel iron sensing mechanism found in the rhizobia may be an evolutionary adaptation to the cellular manganese status.

  19. One Mathematics for All: Can It Be Realized in a Multicultural, Multilingual Country?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramanian, Jayasree

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, situated in the context of elementary and secondary school mathematics curriculum in India, I argue that centrally determined uniform curriculum would have very little to offer a large majority of students in a country that is diverse in many ways.

  20. Determining the Effects of Pre-College STEM Contexts on STEM Major Choices in 4-Year Postsecondary Institutions Using Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ahlam

    2013-01-01

    Many STEM studies have focused on traditional learning contexts, such as math- and science-related learning factors, as pre-college learning predictors for STEM major choices in colleges. Few studies have considered a progressive learning activity embedded within STEM contexts. This study chose computer-based learning activities in K-12 math…

  1. Health workforce planning in Europe: Creating learning country clusters.

    PubMed

    Batenburg, Ronald

    2015-12-01

    In this article, the different dimensions and determinants of health workforce planning (HWF) are investigated to improve context-sensitivity and mutual learning among groups of countries with similar HWF characteristics. A novel approach to scoring countries according to their HFW characteristics and type of planning is introduced using data collected in 2012 by a large European Union project involving 35 European countries (the 'Matrix Study' [8]). HWF planning is measured in terms of three major dimensions: (1) data infrastructure to monitor the capacities and dynamics of health workforces, (2) the institutions involved in defining and implementing labour market regulations, and (3) the availability of models to estimate supply-demand gaps and to forecast imbalances. The result shows that the three dimensions of HWF planning are weakly interrelated, indicating that countries invest in HWF in different ways. Determinant analysis shows that countries with larger health labour markets, National Healthcare Service (NHS), mobility, and strong primary health care score higher on HWF planning dimensions than others. Consequently, the results suggest that clustering countries with similar conditions in terms of HWF planning is a way forward towards mutual and contextual learning.

  2. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  3. Social epidemiology of hypertension in middle-income countries: determinants of prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and control in the WHO SAGE study.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Millett, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    Large-scale hypertension screening campaigns have been recommended for middle-income countries. We sought to identify sociodemographic predictors of hypertension prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and control among middle-income countries. We analyzed data from 47 443 adults in all 6 middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa) sampled in nationally representative household assessments from 2007 to 2010 as part of the World Health Organization Study on Global Aging and Adult Health. We estimated regression models accounting for age, sex, urban/rural location, nutrition, and obesity, as well as hypothesized covariates of healthcare access, such as income and insurance. Hypertension prevalence varied from 23% (India) to 52% (Russia), with between 30% (Russia) and 83% (Ghana) of hypertensives undiagnosed before the survey and between 35% (Russia) and 87% (Ghana) untreated. Although the risk of hypertension significantly increased with age (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-7.1; among aged, 60-79 versus <40 years), the risk of being undiagnosed or untreated fell significantly with age. Obesity was a significant correlate to hypertension (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-6.8 for obese versus normal weight), and was prevalent even among the lowest income quintile (13% obesity). Insurance status and income also emerged as significant correlates to diagnosis and treatment probability, respectively. More than 90% of hypertension cases were uncontrolled, with men having 3 times the odds as women of being uncontrolled. Overall, the social epidemiology of hypertension in middle-income countries seems to be correlated to increasing obesity prevalence, and hypertension control rates are particularly low for adult men across distinct cultures.

  4. [The drug trade between European countries and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Bruneton, C; Naboulet, P; van der Heide, B; Rey, J L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of medicinal products marketed in developing countries has recently become the focus of lively debate and new interest. This report describes a survey conducted among officials from exporting and importing countries designed to evaluate the content and enforcement of current regulations. Resulting data indicated that, despite the high volume of trading in medicinal products between European and developing countries, regulations are poorly applied and many infractions occur. The most obvious abnormalities involve definition of market status. A list of banned is issued by the WHO but not by the European Economic Community. Regulations regarding generic products differ from one country to another and, since determination of the exact origin of a product may be difficult, compliance with good manufacturing practices is often unverifiable. A more cooperative attitude on the part of exporting countries and standardization of formalities on the part of importing countries will be necessary to stem the growing tendency to consider medicinal products as ordinary goods.

  5. Country profile: Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  6. Country profile: Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  7. Generative Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  8. LRRK2 G2019S and R1441G mutations associated with Parkinson's disease are common in the Basque Country, but relative prevalence is determined by ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Gorostidi, A; Ruiz-Martínez, J; Lopez de Munain, A; Alzualde, A; Martí Massó, J F

    2009-04-01

    Mutations in LRRK2 gene are the most frequent cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) described, but their prevalence varies between populations. Patients, 418, with PD and 138 unrelated controls from the Basque Country were screened for LRRK2 G2019S and R1441G mutations. Of the patients, 3.82% were heterozygous carriers of G2019S and 13.15% of R1441G. G2019S frequency was higher in non-Basque population (6.0%), while R1441G was more common in Basque origin population (22.4%). Our conclusion is that both G2019S and R1441G mutations' frequency varies markedly between Basque and non-Basque origin population reinforcing the importance of ethnicity consideration when establishing mutation prevalence.

  9. Determinants of Children's Risk-Taking in Different Social-Situational Contexts: The Role of Cognitions and Emotions in Predicting Children's Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Matheis, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive and emotion-based factors in predicting school-age children's risk-taking decisions when the social-situational context did, and did not, pressure for risk-taking. Using drawings of play situations that depicted three possible paths of travel that varied in injury risk and pitted convenience…

  10. Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

  11. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P < 0.001). Similar trend was found in females, except suicidal injury mortalities that also increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P < 0.001), homicide (coefficient = 0.36; P < 0.001), and other violence (coefficient = 0.41; P < 0.001) increased with increase in unemployment rate among males. However, among females only accidental falls (coefficient = 0.36; P = 0.01) were found significantly associated with increasing unemployment rate. GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on

  12. Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in a country of traditionally low fruit and vegetable consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kristjansdottir, Asa G; Thorsdottir, Inga; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Due, Pernille; Wind, Marianne; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2006-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable consumption is traditionally low in Iceland. The results of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey showed that the consumption was lowest among children in Iceland. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in Iceland. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in Iceland in the autumn of 2003 as a part of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey. The survey was designed to provide information on actual consumption levels of vegetables and fruits by 11-year-old school children and to assess potential determinants of consumption patterns. A total of 1235 Icelandic children (89%) from 32 randomly chosen schools participated. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine the explained variance of the children's fruit and vegetable intake. In these analyses socio-demographic background variables were entered as a first block, perceived physical-environmental variables as a second block, perceived socio-environmental variables as a third block and personal variables as a fourth block. Results 64% of the children ate fruit less than once a day, and 61% ate vegetables less than once a day. Respectively, 31% and 39% of the variance in children's fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the determinants studied. About 7% and 13% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the perceived physical-environmental determinants, mainly by availability at home. About 18% and 16% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the personal determinants. For both fruit and vegetable intake, the significant personal determinants were preferences, liking, knowledge of recommendations and self-efficacy. Conclusion Interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake among children should aim at both environmental factors such as greater availability of fruit and vegetables, and personal factors as self-efficacy and knowledge levels

  13. The effectiveness of HIV prevention and the epidemiological context.

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, N. C.; Garnett, G. P.; Schwartländer, B.; Gregson, S.; Anderson, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Planning an intervention to prevent infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should be guided by local epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions. The socioeconomic setting and existing public service capacity determine whether an intervention can have a significant outcome in terms of a reduction in a defined risk. The epidemiological context determines whether such risk reduction translates into a measurable impact on HIV incidence. Measurement of variables describing the epidemiological context can be used to determine the local suitability of interventions, thereby guiding planners and policy-makers in their choice of intervention. Such measurements also permit the retrospective analysis of the impact of interventions where HIV incidence was not recorded. The epidemiological context is defined for four different categories of intervention, shown to be effective in lower-income countries by randomized controlled trials. Appropriate indicators for the epidemiological context and methodological guidelines for their measurement are proposed. Their use in the transfer of a successful intervention from one context to another and in scaling up the effort to control HIV infection is explored. These indicators should provide a useful resource for those involved in planning HIV prevention interventions. PMID:11799444

  14. "Bridgers" in the Third Space: An In-Country Investigation of the Leadership Practices of US-Educated Chinese Nationals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    This in-country grounded theory study examined the lived experiences of 24 Chinese returnees who completed advanced degrees in the United States. The study found that the four types of organizations in mainland China determine the social context of the application of Western education of the Chinese returnees. Returnees working in multinational…

  15. The income-climate trap of health development: a comparative analysis of African and Non-African countries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kam Ki; Petrie, Dennis; Rao, D S Prasada

    2009-10-01

    This article conducts a comparative analysis of the interrelationship between climate, life expectancy and income between African and non-African countries. To put the analysis in a broader context of development, the paper develops an income-climate trap model that explains the multi-directional interaction between income, climate and life expectancy. It is suggested that the interaction can give rise to either a virtuous cycle of prosperity or a vicious cycle of poverty. Applying the model to a data set of 158 countries, we find that climate is a more important determinant of life expectancy in African countries than in non-African countries. We provide further empirical evidence that while climate is important in determining both life expectancy and income, income can in turn moderate the adverse effects of climate on life expectancy. In the past two decades, the income level of non-African countries has grown significantly while that of African countries has largely been stagnant, implying that the future development of African countries remains highly vulnerable to adverse climatic conditions. These findings have important implications in the context of climate change, as global warming is likely to create worsening climatic conditions that could see many less developed countries sinking deeper into an income-climate trap of underdevelopment in health.

  16. Spatial and non-spatial determinants of successful tuberculosis treatment outcomes: An implication of Geographical Information Systems in health policy-making in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Salarilak, Shaker; Shoghli, Alireza; Khosravi, Nasim

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to address whether or to what extent spatial and non-spatial factors with a focus on a healthcare delivery system would influence successful tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes in Urmia, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, data of 452 new TB cases were extracted from Urmia TB Management Center during a 5-year period. Using the Geographical Information System (GIS), health centers and study subjects' locations were geocoded on digital maps. To identify the statistically significant geographical clusters, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) index was used. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association of spatial and non-spatial variables on the occurrence of adverse treatment outcomes. The spatial clusters of TB cases were concentrated in older, impoverished and outskirts areas. Although there was a tendency toward higher odds of adverse treatment outcomes among urban TB cases, this finding after adjusting for distance from a given TB healthcare center did not reach statistically significant. This article highlights effects of spatial and non-spatial determinants on the TB adverse treatment outcomes, particularly in what way the policies of healthcare services are made. Accordingly, non-spatial determinants in terms of low socio-economic factors need more attention by public health policy makers, and then more focus should be placed on the health delivery system, in particular men's health.

  17. Huntington's Disease in Arab Countries.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Heba M

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Involuntary choreaform movements are the main symptom. The prevalence of HD in Arab countries is not fully understood, as there are only a few reports indicating disease incidence. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an investigation to determine the frequency of HD in the Middle East, especially within Arab countries, and at the same time enhance people's awareness of the disease.

  18. Country Assessments and the Philippines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Secretary of Defense. It formulates a new, and potentially more effective approach to political risk analysis and assessment of country instability. It...and Corazon Aquino took office. Our primary purpose was to determine whether political risk analysis can be used to integrate country assessments and...examine the usefulness of assessments for forecasting short- term developments. Political risk analysis can provide a framework for distinguishing among

  19. Determinants of customer satisfaction with the health care system, with the possibility to choose a personal physician and with a family doctor in a transition country.

    PubMed

    Kersnik, J

    2001-08-01

    Many Eastern and Central European counties are reforming their health care systems. The aim of this study was to determine customer satisfaction with a reformed health care system, with the possibility of free choice of a family physician and patient satisfaction with the family physician in Slovenia and their major determinants. We used a postal survey of the patients who attended their family physician's offices during the study period. We obtained an 84% response rate. Some 72.9% of the respondents were satisfied with the current organisation of health care services, 95.5% of the respondents were satisfied with the possibility of choosing their own family physician and 58% of participants were very satisfied with the level of care received from their personal family practitioners. It was shown that higher patient satisfaction with the family physician was the most powerful predictor of patients' satisfaction with the health care system. The results show that health care reform in Slovenia has a positive impact on the consumers' perceptions of health care quality, measured in terms of consumer satisfaction with the health care system, the possibility to choose a family physician and the overall satisfaction with the family physician.

  20. Interchangeability of Electrocardiography and Blood Pressure Measurement for Determining Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Free-Moving Domestic Pigs in Various Behavioral Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Annika; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interchangeability between heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures derived from a series of interbeat intervals (IBIs) recorded via electrocardiogram (ECG) and intra-arterial blood pressure (BP) in various behavioral contexts. Five minutes of simultaneously recorded IBIs from ECG and BP signals in 11 female domestic pigs during resting, feeding, and active behavior were analyzed. Comparisons were made for measures of HR, the standard deviation of IBIs, and the root mean of the squared distances of subsequent IBIs derived from ECG and BP signals for each behavior category using statistical procedures with different explanatory power [linear regression, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland and Altman plots, and analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. Linear regression showed a strong relationship for HR during all behaviors and for HRV during resting. Excellent ICCs [lower 95% confidence intervals (CI) >0.75] and narrow limits of agreement in all behavior categories were found for HR. ICCs for HRV reached the critical lower 95% CI value of 0.75 only during resting. Using Bland and Altman plots, HRV agreement was unacceptable for all of the behavior categories. ANOVA showed significant differences between the methods in terms of HRV. BP systematically overestimated HRV compared with ECG. Our findings reveal that HR data recorded via BP agree well those recorded using ECG independently of the activity of the subject, whereas ECG and BP cannot be used interchangeably in the context of HRV in free-moving domestic pigs. PMID:26664979

  1. A Comparison of Physical Activity Levels in Childcare Contexts among Finnish and Dutch Three-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Gubbels, Jessica; Sääkslahti, Arja; Villberg, Jari; Kremers, Stef; Van Kann, Dave; Mehtälä, Anette; De Vries, Nanne; Poskiparta, Marita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine Finnish and Dutch three-year-old preschool children's physical activity (PA) levels and how levels vary across gender, location, time of day and social contexts in both countries. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used to…

  2. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-04-15

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  3. Visibility and Differentiation: Systemic Testing in a Developing Country Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula; Muller, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Why has large-scale standardised testing attracted such a bad press? Why has pedagogic benefit to be derived from test results been downplayed? The paper investigates this question by first surveying the pros and cons of testing in the literature, and goes on to examine educators' responses to standardised, large-scale tests in a sample of low…

  4. Expression of the Idefix retrotransposon in early follicle cells in the germarium of Drosophila melanogaster is determined by its LTR sequences and a specific genomic context.

    PubMed

    Tcheressiz, S; Calco, V; Arnaud, F; Arthaud, L; Dastugue, B; Vaury, C

    2002-04-01

    Retrotransposons are transcriptionally activated in different tissues and cell types by a variety of genomic and environmental factors. Transcription of LTR retrotransposons is controlled by cis-acting regulatory sequences in the 5' LTR. Mobilization of two LTR retroelements, Idefix and ZAM, occurs in the unstable RevI line of Drosophila melanogaster, in which their copy numbers are high, while they are low in all other stocks tested. Here we show that both a full-length and a subgenomic Idefix transcript that are necessary for its mobilization are present in the Rev1 line, but not in the other lines. Studies on transgenic strains demonstrate that the 5' LTR of Idefix contains sequences that direct the tissue-specific expression of the retroelement in testes and ovaries of adult flies. In ovaries, expression occurs in the early follicle and in other somatic cells of the germarium, and is strictly associated with the unstable genetic context conferred by the RevI line. Control of tissue-specific Idefix expression by interactions between cis-acting sequences of its LTR and trans-acting genomic factors provides an opportunity to use this retroelement as a tool for the study of the early follicle cell lineage in the germarium.

  5. The use of wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence and discriminant analysis in the identification of the elemental composition of cumin samples and the determination of the country of origin.

    PubMed

    Hondrogiannis, E; Peterson, K; Zapf, C M; Roy, W; Blackney, B; Dailey, K

    2012-12-15

    Sixteen elements found in 33 cumin spice samples from China, India, Syria, and Turkey were analysed by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy using the commercially available Bruker - AXS S4 Explorer for the purpose of using the elements to discriminate among country of origin. Pellets were prepared of the samples and elemental concentrations calculated from calibration curves constructed using four National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards. A separate NIST tomato standard (1573a) was used as a validation check, while the WDXRF data for six of the cumin samples was further validated using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The elements measured included Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Al, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, Na, Mn, Rb, Sr, Cu, and Zn and were detected in the range from an average mean of 4.3 mg kg(-1) for Ba up to 19223.8 mg kg(-1) for K. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine which elemental concentrations were statistically different from one another, and discriminant analysis was used to classify the cumin samples by country of origin. Using only eight elements (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Na, Mn, Sr, and Zn) we were able to differentiate among cumin samples from four different geographic origins. Validation of the model with the validation set yielded 87.50% accuracy. Successful discrimination with just eight elements will allow for higher throughput in the screening of cumin samples using WDXRF for origin verification in less time.

  6. Determining the Reach of a Home-Based Physical Activity Program for Older Adults within the Context of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the reach of physical activity (PA) programs is challenging due to inconsistent reporting across studies. The purpose of this study was to document multiple indicators of program reach for a 6-month, Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)-delivered home-based PA program. Radio, newspaper and direct mailing advertisements were tracked to…

  7. Autonomy and Self-Determination Theory in Different Contexts: A Comparison of Middle School Science Teachers' Motivation and Instruction in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined factors that contribute to Chinese and United States middle school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Autonomy is one component of self-determination theory and has been associated with intrinsic motivation. The study used a mixed methods design including quantitative data collected through an online survey and…

  8. Variables of the Family, School, and Social Environment Context That Determine Bullying in Adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higuita-Gutiérrez, Luis Felipe; Cardona-Arias, Jaiberth Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the prevalence of bullying and the variables that explain the phenomenon in adolescents from educational institutions in Medellín. A survey involving school climate, family functionality, and bullying was applied in a representative sample of 3,460 adolescents. The information was analyzed with descriptive measures, Z-test,…

  9. Genome-wide effects of MELK-inhibitor in triple-negative breast cancer cells indicate context-dependent response with p53 as a key determinant

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Marisa; Mesmar, Fahmi; Helguero, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, highly recurrent breast cancer subtype, affecting approximately one-fifth of all breast cancer patients. Subpopulations of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within the tumors are considered to contribute to disease recurrence. A potential druggable target for such cells is the maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK). MELK expression is upregulated in mammary stem cells and in undifferentiated cancers, where it correlates with poor prognosis and potentially mediates treatment resistance. Several MELK inhibitors have been developed, of which one, OTSSP167, is currently in clinical trials. In order to better understand how MELK and its inhibition influence TNBC, we verified its anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in claudin-low TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM-159 using MTS assays and/or trypan blue viability assays together with analysis of PARP cleavage. Then, using microarrays, we explored which genes were affected by OTSSP167. We demonstrate that different sets of genes are regulated in MDA-MB-231 and SUM-159, but in both cell lines genes involved in cell cycle, mitosis and protein metabolism and folding were regulated. We identified p53 (TP53) as a potential upstream regulator of the regulated genes. Using western blot we found that OTSSP167 downregulates mutant p53 in all tested TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, SUM-159, and BT-549), but upregulates wild-type p53 in the luminal A subtype MCF-7 cell line. We propose that OTSSP167 might have context-dependent or off-target effects, but that one consistent mechanism of action could involve the destabilization of mutant p53. PMID:28235006

  10. Genome-wide effects of MELK-inhibitor in triple-negative breast cancer cells indicate context-dependent response with p53 as a key determinant.

    PubMed

    Simon, Marisa; Mesmar, Fahmi; Helguero, Luisa; Williams, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, highly recurrent breast cancer subtype, affecting approximately one-fifth of all breast cancer patients. Subpopulations of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within the tumors are considered to contribute to disease recurrence. A potential druggable target for such cells is the maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK). MELK expression is upregulated in mammary stem cells and in undifferentiated cancers, where it correlates with poor prognosis and potentially mediates treatment resistance. Several MELK inhibitors have been developed, of which one, OTSSP167, is currently in clinical trials. In order to better understand how MELK and its inhibition influence TNBC, we verified its anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in claudin-low TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM-159 using MTS assays and/or trypan blue viability assays together with analysis of PARP cleavage. Then, using microarrays, we explored which genes were affected by OTSSP167. We demonstrate that different sets of genes are regulated in MDA-MB-231 and SUM-159, but in both cell lines genes involved in cell cycle, mitosis and protein metabolism and folding were regulated. We identified p53 (TP53) as a potential upstream regulator of the regulated genes. Using western blot we found that OTSSP167 downregulates mutant p53 in all tested TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, SUM-159, and BT-549), but upregulates wild-type p53 in the luminal A subtype MCF-7 cell line. We propose that OTSSP167 might have context-dependent or off-target effects, but that one consistent mechanism of action could involve the destabilization of mutant p53.

  11. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    PubMed

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation.

  12. Country logistics performance and disaster impact.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations.

  13. [The problems of less developed countries].

    PubMed

    Vargas Salcedo, H

    1988-04-01

    confronted by such countries in their efforts to develop. Finally, the international context is much less favorable today than it was for countries developing in the past. Private foreign investment from the rich countries to the poor is a dribble in relation to the real needs. Most American investors prefer to use their capital in familiar and safe regions, to the detriment of the developing countries.

  14. America's Country Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Andrew

    The book examines the one-room schoolhouse and the memories of this important part of the American past through sections on the country school legacy, country school architecture, and country school preservation. The architectural and historical significance of this distinctive building type is evocatively portrayed by more than 400 photographs.…

  15. Decision-making of older patients in context of the doctor-patient relationship: a typology ranging from "self-determined" to "doctor-trusting" patients.

    PubMed

    Wrede-Sach, Jennifer; Voigt, Isabel; Diederichs-Egidi, Heike; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Junius-Walker, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Background. This qualitative study aims to gain insight into the perceptions and experiences of older patients with regard to sharing health care decisions with their general practitioners. Patients and Methods. Thirty-four general practice patients (≥70 years) were asked about their preferences and experiences concerning shared decision making with their doctors using qualitative semistructured interviews. All interviews were analysed according to principles of content analysis. The resulting categories were then arranged into a classification grid to develop a typology of preferences for participating in decision-making processes. Results. Older patients generally preferred to make decisions concerning everyday life rather than medical decisions, which they preferred to leave to their doctors. We characterised eight different patient types based on four interdependent positions (self-determination, adherence, information seeking, and trust). Experiences of a good doctor-patient relationship were associated with trust, reliance on the doctor for information and decision making, and adherence. Conclusion. Owing to the varied patient decision-making types, it is not easy for doctors to anticipate the desired level of patient involvement. However, the decision matter and the self-determination of patients provide good starting points in preparing the ground for shared decision making. A good relationship with the doctor facilitates satisfying decision-making experiences.

  16. Determining the reach of a home-based physical activity program for older adults within the context of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Harden, Samantha M.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the reach of physical activity (PA) programs is challenging due to inconsistent reporting across studies. The purpose of this study was to document multiple indicators of program reach for a 6-month, Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)-delivered home-based PA program. Radio, newspaper and direct mailing advertisements were tracked to determine costs as well as the number and representativeness of older adults exposed and responding to recruitment. It was estimated that all older adults in the recruitment area (n = 105 515) may have been exposed to at least one of the recruitment strategies—563 responded and 383 were screened as eligible. Of those that enrolled (n = 307), the DVD reached between 81% and 97% of the participants over each month within the 6 month period. Newspaper advertisements were most effective (n = 222) at a cost of $78 per participant enrolled. Conclusion: Using multiple indicators of reach supports the accurate calculation and generalizability of recruiting older adults into PA programs. PMID:25122617

  17. The Challenge of Assessing Microcephaly in the Context of the Zika Virus Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Quintó, Llorenç; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Bardají, Azucena; González, Raquel; Padilla, Norma; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor E; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Macete, Eusébio; Menéndez, Clara

    2017-03-10

    The present article examines the impact of the current limitations of the microcephaly definition in the context of the Zika virus outbreak. It highlights its dependence on the method used for determining gestational age and other anthropometric parameters, and includes original results of prevalence of microcephaly in four countries from two different continents (Mozambique, Brazil, Guatemala and Colombia). Alternative definitions of microcephaly are proposed to allow the identification of true cases of microcephaly in a more accurate manner.

  18. Determinants of Utilization of Health Extension Workers in the Context of Scale-Up of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illnesses in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Bryan; Amouzou, Agbessi; Miller, Nathan P.; Tsui, Amy O.; Bryce, Jennifer; Tafesse, Mengistu; Surkan, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia has invested significant resources in integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness. In Oromia Region, iCCM scale-up was phased in, allowing for comparisons between districts providing iCCM and routine services. We assessed the determinants of utilization of health extension workers (HEWs) delivering iCCM services at rural health posts by caregivers of sick, under-five children in a cross-sectional survey. We found low utilization of HEWs with only 9.3% of caregivers of a child sick with diarrhea, fever, and/or pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks taking their child to HEWs in both iCCM and routine areas. There was a higher likelihood of utilization of HEWs in iCCM areas (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 0.97–2.12; P = 0.07), but this effect disappeared after accounting for confounders. In iCCM areas, maternal education, illness type, and distance were associated with utilization. Perceptions of illness severity and service quality were the primary reasons given for not utilizing the health post. Our findings suggest that though iCCM is reaching some vulnerable populations, there remain significant barriers to use of HEWs delivering iCCM services. Efforts for demand generation and minimization of remaining barriers are urgently needed for the sustained success of the iCCM strategy in Ethiopia. PMID:26195461

  19. What influences government adoption of vaccines in developing countries? A policy process analysis.

    PubMed

    Munira, Syarifah Liza; Fritzen, Scott A

    2007-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework for examining the process by which government consideration and adoption of new vaccines takes place, with specific reference to developing country settings. The cases of early Hepatitis B vaccine adoption in Taiwan and Thailand are used to explore the relevance of explanatory factors identified in the literature as well as the need to go beyond a variable-centric focus by highlighting the role of policy context and process in determining the pace and extent of adoption. The cases suggest the feasibility and importance of modeling 'causal diversity'-the complex set of necessary and sufficient conditions leading to particular decisional outcomes-in a broad range of country contexts. A better understanding of the lenses through which government decision-makers filter information, and of the arenas in which critical decisions are shaped and taken, may assist both analysts (in predicting institutionalization of new vaccines) and advocates (in crafting targeted strategies to accelerate their diffusion).

  20. Endocrine disrupting activities in sewage effluent and river water determined by chemical analysis and in vitro assay in the context of granular activated carbon upgrade.

    PubMed

    Grover, D P; Balaam, J; Pacitto, S; Readman, J W; White, S; Zhou, J L

    2011-09-01

    As part of endocrine disruption in catchments (EDCAT) programme, this work aims to assess the temporal and spatial variations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in River Ray, before and after the commissioning of a full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant at a sewage treatment works (STW). Through spot and passive sampling from effluent and river sites, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were determined by chemical analysis and in vitro bio-assay. A correlation was found between chemical analyses of the most potent estrogens (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) measurement, both showing clearly a reduction in estrogenic activity after the commissioning of the GAC plant at the STW. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of E1, E2 and EE2 had decreased from 3.5 ng L(-1), 3.1 ng L(-1) and 0.5 ng L(-1) to below their limit of detection (LOD), respectively, with a concentration reduction of at least 91%, 81% and 60%. Annual mean estrogenic activity measured by YES of spot samples varied from 1.9 ng L(-1) to 0.4 ng L(-1) E2 equivalent between 2006 and 2008 representing a 79% reduction. Similarly, anti-androgenic activity measured by yeast anti-androgen screen (anti-YAS) of spot samples was reduced from 148.8 to 22.4 μg flutamide L(-1), or by 85%. YES and anti-YAS values were related to each other, suggesting co-existence of both types of activities from chemical mixtures in environmental samples. The findings confirm the effectiveness of a full-scale GAC in removing both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities from sewage effluent.

  1. Comparison of Literacy Campaigns in Socialistic and Democratic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauder, Ruth

    The literature on mass literacy campaigns conducted in various countries over the past several decades was surveyed to determine if efforts in socialist countries were more successful than those in democratic countries. Five socialist and five democratic countries were matched on the basis of population, geographic proximity, or size. The pairs…

  2. Finding the "Right-Size" Physical Therapy Workforce: International Perspective Across 4 Countries.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Tiago S; Koh, Gerald; Landry, Michel; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Lopes, António M F; Green, Peter L; Hoenig, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Finding the "right-size" physical therapy workforce is an increasingly important issue, but it has had limited study, particularly across nations. This perspective article provides a comprehensive examination of physical therapy workforce issues across 4 countries (United States, Singapore, Portugal, and Bangladesh), which were deliberately selected to allow consideration of key contextual factors. This investigation provides a theoretical model uniquely adapted to focus on variables most likely to affect physical therapy workforce needs. This theoretical model was used to guide acquisition of public domain data across the respective countries. The data then were used to provide a contextualized interpretation about the physical therapy workforce supply (ie, physical therapists per capita) across the 4 countries in light of the following factors: indicators of physical therapy need, financial and administrative barriers affecting physical therapy access and demand, the proportion of physical therapy graduates (with varying trends over time across the countries), and the role of emigration/immigration in supply inequalities among countries of lower and higher income. In addition, both the physical therapy workforce supply and scope of practice were analyzed in the context of other related professions across the 4 countries. This international comparison indicated that there may not be a "one-size-fits-all" recommendation for physical therapy workforce supply across countries or an ideal formula for its determination. The optimal, country-specific physical therapy workforce supply appears to be affected by discipline-specific health care and contextual factors that may vary across countries, and even within the same country. This article provides a conceptual framework and basis for such contextualized evaluations of the physical therapy workforce.

  3. Company size distribution in different countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsden, J. J.; Kiss-Haypál, Gy.

    2000-03-01

    The distribution of companies in a country, ranked in order of size (annual net revenue) s, follows the simplified canonical law s r∼(r+ρ) -1/θ remarkably well, where r is the rank, and θ and ρ are the parameters of the distribution. These parameters have been determined for 20 countries in America, Asia and Europe. Significant differences between countries are found. Neither θ nor ρ appears to correlate well with traditional economic indicators; indeed some countries often thought to be economically and politically, but not necessarily socially, similar show surprising differences, suggesting that wealth and prosperity are influenced by hidden layers hitherto inaccessible through standard economic theory.

  4. Health policy in less developed countries: past trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Zwi, A B; Mills, A

    1995-01-01

    Health policies worldwide have changed dramatically over the past few decades. Currently, practically every country is engaged in or considering health sector reform. The authors reflect upon those changes, highlight current trends, and identify key issues and challenges. They comment upon the concepts of health and policy and the historical developments which have influenced policy. The context in which health policies in low-income countries are formulated and implemented is discussed, including macropolitical and macroeconomic developments, health needs and determinants, financing, approaches to health planning and priority setting, and the key international health policy actors. An overview of the content of current health policy proposals in less developed countries is presented, with key issues identified for the future. Reference is made to the 1993 World Bank Development Report, Investing in Health, and other health sector reform efforts.

  5. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  6. Country Profiles, Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John K.; Moore, Richard V.

    A profile of Iran is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, number of households, women of reproductive age, growth patterns, role of women, urban/rural distribution,…

  7. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  8. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  9. Measurement Invariance of the Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire across Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievens, Filip; Anseel, Frederik; Harris, Michael M.; Eisenberg, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, pay satisfaction has been increasingly studied in an international context, prompting the importance of examining whether the Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) is invariant across countries other than the United States. This study investigated the measurement invariance across three countries, namely, the United States (N =…

  10. Islamic Schools in Three Western Countries: Policy and Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare Islamic schools in three countries: the United States, the Netherlands, and Belgium. In each country, the authors take care to situate Islamic schools within the broader context of educational policy and practice. In particular, the authors examine the mechanisms for funding, choice and control, noting that for…

  11. Political economy of tobacco control in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Thailand and Zimbabwe. Global Analysis Project Team.

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; Collin, J.; Dodgson, R.; Lee, K.; McCargo, D.; Seddon, D.; Vaughan, P.; Woelk, G.

    2000-01-01

    Crucial to the success of the proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control will be an understanding of the political and economic context for tobacco control policies, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Policy studies in Thailand and Zimbabwe employed the analytical perspective of political economy and a research strategy that used political mapping, a technique for characterizing and evaluating the political environment surrounding a policy issue, and stakeholder analysis, which seeks to identify key actors and to determine their capacity to shape policy outcomes. These policy studies clearly revealed how tobacco control in low-income and middle-income countries is also being shaped by developments in the global and regional political economy. Hence efforts to strengthen national control policies need to be set within the context of globalization and the international context. Besides the transnational tobacco companies, international tobacco groups and foreign governments, international agencies and nongovernmental organizations are also playing influential roles. It cannot be assumed, therefore, that the tobacco control strategies being implemented in industrialized countries will be just as effective and appropriate when implemented in developing countries. There is an urgent need to expand the number of such tobacco policy studies, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Comprehensive guidelines for tobacco policy analysis and research are required to support this process, as is a broader international strategy to coordinate further tobacco policy research studies at country, regional and global levels. PMID:10994265

  12. Cross-Country Skiing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  13. Obesity in gulf countries.

    PubMed

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%-55% and in adult males 1%-30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances - cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region.

  14. Obesity in Gulf Countries

    PubMed Central

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% and in adult males 1%–30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances – cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region. PMID:24899882

  15. Hemovigilance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    Hemovigilance like quality systems and audits has become an integral part of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) in the developed world and has contributed greatly to the development of the blood service. However developing countries are still grappling with donor recruitment and efforts towards sufficiency and safety of the blood supply. In these countries the BTS is generally fragmented and a national hemovigilance program would be difficult to implement. However a few developing countries have an effective and sustainable blood program that can deliver equitable, safe and sufficient blood supply to the nation. Different models of hemovigilance program have been introduced with variable success. There are deficiencies but the data collected provided important information that can be presented to the health authorities for effective interventions. Hemovigilance program modeled from developed countries require expertise and resources that are not available in many developing countries. Whatever resources that are available should be utilized to correct deficiencies that are already apparent and obvious. Besides there are other tools that can be used to monitor the blood program in the developing countries depending on the need and the resources available. More importantly the data collected should be accurate and are used and taken into consideration in formulating guidelines, standards and policies and to affect appropriate interventions. Any surveillance program should be introduced in a stepwise manner as the blood transfusion service develops.

  16. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  17. Hypertension in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tibazarwa, Kemi B; Damasceno, Albertino A

    2014-05-01

    The past 2 decades have seen a considerable global increase in cardiovascular disease, with hypertension remaining by far the most common. More than one-third of adults in Africa are hypertensive; as in the urban populations of most developing countries. Being a condition that occurs with relatively few symptoms, hypertension remains underdetected in many countries; especially in developing countries where routine screening at any point of health care is grossly underutilized. Because hypertension is directly related to cardiovascular disease, this has led to hypertension being the leading cause of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as a result of patients living, often unknowingly, with uncontrolled hypertension for prolonged periods of time. In Africa, hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure; whereas at global levels, hypertension is responsible for more than half of deaths from stroke, just less than half of deaths from coronary artery disease, and for more than one-tenth of all global deaths. In this review, we discuss the escalating occurrence of hypertension in developing countries, before exploring the strengths and weaknesses of different measures to control hypertension, and the challenges of adopting these measures in developing countries. On a broad level, these include steps to curb the ripple effect of urbanization on the health and disease profile of developing societies, and suggestions to improve loopholes in various aspects of health care delivery that affect surveillance and management of hypertension. Furthermore, we consider how the industrial sectors' contributions toward the burden of hypertension can also be the source of the solution.

  18. Allometric scaling of countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Tongkui

    2010-11-01

    As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, and urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with the GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic (labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to the population between countries and cities were pointed out. First, population increases sub-linearly with area in countries. Second, the GDP increases linearly in countries but not super-linearly as in cities. Finally, electricity or oil consumption per capita increases with population faster than cities.

  19. Exploring the Global/Local Boundary in Education in Developing Countries: The Case of the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, June; Lewis, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on education in developing countries in the context of globalization and with specific reference to the Caribbean. It examines the concept of globalization and related concepts and positions developing countries within this context. It explores the possibility of the creation of a third space where the local and the global can…

  20. The Roles of English Language Education in Asian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2011-01-01

    This study surveys the history of English language and the roles of English language education in Asian context. Through the historical survey on English dispersal in Asian countries, the first section of this study traces the dispersal of English from the 18th century and the development of English in Asian countries. The second section of this…

  1. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  2. The School Improvement Policy Context in Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    There have been appeals within the educational change (EC) and school improvement (SI) literature for research to explore more non-westernized and developing country contexts (Dimmock, 2000; Harris, 2009; Harris & Chrispeels, 2006; McMahon, 2006). This article is a response to those appeals. The study maps the SI educational policy contexts of…

  3. Brazil: A Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-19

    7 AOAB B89 ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA F/G 5/5 BRAZIL : A COUNTRY STUOY.(Ul UNLSIID APR 82 W L STEININSER I U LASIEEEEEEEE S E C U R I T Y...COVERED Brazil ; A Country Study Student Essay G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) W. L. Steininger Jr. Colonel...reverse aide if necessy and Identify by block number) "Assesses, the political, economic and military factors in Brazil highlighting the Lountry’s drive

  4. Renal transplantation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2011-07-01

    Patients with established renal failure, living in developing countries, face many obstacles including lack of access to transplantation centers, quality and safety issues, and exploittation associated with transplant tourism. This review aims to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation performed in developing countries and to recommend some solutions. The lack of suitable legislation and infrastructure has prevented growth of deceased donor programs; so, living donors have continued to be the major source of transplantable kidneys. Transplant tourism and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection, which cause major morbidity and mortality. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving the results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool, making transplant tourism unnecessary and granting various governments the moral courage to fight unacceptable practices. A private-public partnership underpinned by transparency, public audit and accountability is a prerequisite for effective transplant services in the developing world. Finally, lack of dialysis facilities coupled with better outcomes in patients spending <6 months on dialysis prior to transplantation favor pre-emptive transplantation in developing countries.

  5. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptationfor horizontal saccades, using a variety of contexts. Our overall goal was to assess the efficacy of different context cues in switching between adapted states. A standard double-step paradigm was used to adapt saccade gain. In each experiment, we asked for a simultaneous gain decrease in one context and gain increase in another context, and then determined if a change in the context would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal eye position worked well as a context cue: saccades with the eyes deviated to the right could be made to have higher gains while saccades with the eyes deviated to the left could be made to have lower gains. Vertical eye position was less effective. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is. Roll tilt of the head, and upright versus supine orientations, were somewhat effective in context switching; these paradigms contain orientation of gravity with respect to the head as part of the context.

  6. Imagining another context during encoding offsets context-dependent forgetting.

    PubMed

    Masicampo, E J; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting effect (e.g., Smith & Vela, 2001). Importantly, some participants imagined another mental context during encoding. Some of these participants imagined Context B during encoding, and when they were later tested in Context B or even in a completely new Context C, they did not show forgetting, confirming our predictions. Other participants imagined a new context during encoding simply by transforming the current context (i.e., by imagining that it was snowing in the room), and this likewise counteracted context-dependent forgetting. These data suggest a moderator of context-dependent forgetting. When the context surrounding a memory is largely mentally generated, context-dependent forgetting is eliminated.

  7. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Rachael E; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  8. Algeria: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Algeria begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic, the Berber languages, and French. The country's return to Arabic as its official language after independence from France in 1962 is discussed along with the resultant language planning, issues of language of instruction at the elementary,…

  9. Documenting America's Country Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Andrew

    Oral history plays a vital role in accurate preservation of the rural school experience and the actual restoration of some of the country's 212,000 one-room school buildings. Oral histories provide valuable, first-hand information on who taught in and who attended one-room schools, what the curriculum included, what the building looked like, and…

  10. USSR Country Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    The United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) is the largest country in area in the world and ranks third in world population. The geography and the people of the USSR are documented in a series of reproducible black and white maps and graphs designed for use as classroom instructional materials. Maps, graphs, charts, and tables with information…

  11. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  12. Population Education Country Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various population education programs in Afghanistan, China, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Also describes population education programs at primary and secondary levels in Thailand, curriculum and instructional materials development in this country, and teaching units and curriculum outlines developed from a workshop for…

  13. Greece. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  14. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  15. Algeria: country profile.

    PubMed

    Harding, J

    1987-12-01

    Data are presented on the economy, the people, the population's health, and the culture in this country profile of Algeria. The population numbers 21.7 million. The infant mortality rate, used as a health indicator, is 81/1000 live births. Algeria's gross national product per capita is $2410 (US$15,390). Its main imports are machinery, transport equipment, food, tobacco, and consumer goods. The primary exports include oil, petroleum products, liquified natural gas, wine, and tobacco. Algeria's traditional Berber culture has survived occupation by Phoenicians, Romans, Arabs, and Europeans. The country is made up of an assortment of different social groups and ethnicities, and modern Algeria realized its unitary identity from the anti-colonial struggle. Recent laws allow freedom of association, an indication of growing pluralism in a state where opposition traditionally has been proscribed. 1987 marks the 25th anniversary of Algeria's independence, obtained after a long and bitter war with France. The victory of the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) was a signal for French settlers to leave in droves, and much of the country's managerial and technical expertise left with them. Yet, the FLN inherited a sound infrastructure on which to build a modern post-colonial society. Additionally, the country also was to benefit from plentiful hydrocarbon reserves, which guaranteed good foreign exchange earnings. One of the country's goals is to feed itself by investing in a long-neglected agricultural sector, yet presently oil and gas revenues continue to be the driving force behind development. The plans for increasing food production include greater scope for private farmers. A widening gap exists between those who espouse the old values forged by the liberation struggle and a younger generation, for whom the FLN's founding precepts and the leadership's old authoritarian style mean considerably less.

  16. Somalia: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Somalia begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Somali, the official language, and three languages previously used officially: English, Italian, and Arabic. The cultural context that for many years has supported the usage of a single native language for communication and administration is also…

  17. Effects of simple- and complex-place contexts in the multiple-context paradigm.

    PubMed

    Isarida, Takeo; Isarida, Toshiko K

    2010-12-01

    In four experiments, a total of 384 undergraduates incidentally learned a list of 24 nouns twice in the same context (same-context repetition) or different contexts (different-context repetition). Free recall was measured in a neutral context. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 used a context repetition (same- or different-context repetition) × inter-study and retention intervals (10 min or 1 day) between-participants design. Context was manipulated by the combination of place, social environment, and encoding task (Experiment 1), place and social environment (Experiment 2), or place alone (Experiment 3). Experiment 4 used a context repetition × type of context (context manipulated by place or by place, social environment, and encoding task) between-participants design, with a 10-min inter-study interval and a one-day retention interval. The present results indicate that the determinant of the superiority of same- or different-context repetition in recall is the type of context. Implications of the results were discussed.

  18. Caliper Context Annotation Library

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-30

    To understand the performance of parallel programs, developers need to be able to relate performance measurement data with context information, such as the call path / line numbers or iteration numbers where measurements were taken. Caliper provides a generic way to specify and collect multi-dimensional context information across the software stack, and provide ti to third-party measurement tools or write it into a file or database in the form of context streams.

  19. Community Participation in Schools in Developing Countries: Characteristics, Methods and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how communities participate in schools across diverse contexts in developing countries and the results attributed to community participation. It reviews evaluations of participatory approaches to education in developing countries to answer two basic questions: 1) How do communities participate in school in developing countries?…

  20. Using Context to Resolve Temporal Ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Molet, Mikaël; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Miguez, Gonzalo; Miller, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats examined the role of the context in the selection and integration of independently acquired interval relationships. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to separate CS1-CS2 pairings with two different interval relationships, each in its own distinctive context, X or Y. The resultant integration was determined by the training context (X or Y) in which US-CS2 backward pairings occurred, as assessed in a third neutral context (Z). In Experiment 2, rats experienced CS1-CS2 pairings with two different interval relationships as in Experiment 1, and then received US-CS2 pairings in both contexts X and Y. The testing context (i.e., X or Y) determined the resultant integration. In Experiment 3, rats were exposed to CS1-CS2 pairings in two different interval relationships each in different phases (i.e., Phases 1 and 2), and then in Phase 3 received US-CS2 pairings. The temporal context of testing (i.e., short or long retention interval) determined the resultant integration. Thus, context can be used to disambiguate conflicting temporal information. PMID:20141323

  1. User Situational Context: An Essential Challenge to Context Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowafi, Yaser Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Existing research on context and context awareness has broadly focused on the technical aspects of context acquisition and interpretation of users' surroundings, also called physical or sensor-based context. Such an approach has lacked from reconciling the perception of real-world context exhibited by humans, also known as user context, and…

  2. Country breakout session highlights.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Angelo; Filli, Linard; Solaro, Claudio; Mekies, Claude; Landete, Lamberto; Lycke, Jan

    2016-12-01

    At the 2016 MS Experts Summit, country-relevant aspects pertaining to the management of symptoms and disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), with emphasis on those associated with spasticity, were explored in interactive country breakout sessions chaired by selected MS experts. Attendees had the opportunity to review and discuss topics in their own native language. After feedback from each session leader, key messages were collated and presented in a Plenary Session by Summit chair, Professor Angelo Ghezzi. Topics at this year's Summit included: gait tracking (Germany/Switzerland); the Care Alliance against MS spasticity (Italy); MS spasticity and associated symptoms (France); improvement in MS symptoms and functionality and patients' independence (Spain); Swedish MS guidelines (Sweden/Rest of World).

  3. Kyrgyzstan Country Profile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Contents: Location 1 Capital 1 Independence from the USSR 2 Territory 4 Weather 4...a land of Kyrgyz (Stan – land). Until recently the country used to be referred as the “island of democracy” and “Switzerland of Asia.” CAPITAL ... Capital city Bishkek (called Frunze during the Soviet era) is located in the north, in the Chuy valley near the Kyrgyz-Kazakh border, at an

  4. Argentina: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  5. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  6. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  7. Chapter Three: Investigating Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with the statement that all talk happens somewhere, somehow, at some time and is produced by somebody for some purpose, and the approach that practice theorists have taken is that talk and its context are inseparable. The challenges that face an analyst of practice are then to describe the context, describe the talk, and…

  8. Contexts as Shared Commitments.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  9. Selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs at sense codons: the size of the tRNA variable loop determines whether the immediate 3' nucleotide to the codon has a context effect.

    PubMed Central

    Curran, J F; Poole, E S; Tate, W P; Gross, B L

    1995-01-01

    Codon context can affect translational efficiency by several molecular mechanisms. The base stacking interactions between a codon-anticodon complex and the neighboring nucleotide immediately 3' can facilitate translation by amber suppressors and the tRNA structure is also known to modulate the sensitivity to context. In this study the relative rates of aminoacyl-tRNA selection were measured at four sense codons (UGG, CUC, UUC and UCA), in all four 3' nucleotide contexts, through direct competition with a programmed frameshift at a site derived from the release factor 2 gene. Two codons (UGG and UUC) are read by tRNAs with small variable regions and their rates of aminoacyl-tRNA selection correlated with the potential base stacking strength of the 3' neighboring nucleotide. The other two codons (CUC and UCA) are read by tRNAs with large variable regions and the rate of selection of the aminoacyl-tRNAs in these cases varied little among the four contexts. Re-examination of published data on amber suppression also revealed an inverse correlation between context sensitivity and the size of the variable region. Collectively the data suggest that a large variable loop in a tRNA decreases the influence of the 3' context on tRNA selection, probably by strengthening tRNA-ribosomal interactions. PMID:7479072

  10. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a foundation for ethical disability and health research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Durham, Jo; Brolan, Claire E; Mukandi, Bryan

    2014-11-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has foregrounded disability as a human rights and equity issue, elevating it to a priority global research area. Academics from Western universities are likely to play an increasing role in disability health research in developing countries. In such contexts, there is a need to bridge the gap between procedural ethics and the realities of disability research in cross-cultural contexts. We provide guidance on engaging in ethical disability health research that intersects with and upholds the CRPD. We highlight challenges and tensions in doing so, underscoring the need to be sensitive to the sociocultural and political context of disability that determines how ethical research should proceed. We conclude with 5 recommendations.

  11. The Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities: A Foundation for Ethical Disability and Health Research in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Brolan, Claire E.; Mukandi, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has foregrounded disability as a human rights and equity issue, elevating it to a priority global research area. Academics from Western universities are likely to play an increasing role in disability health research in developing countries. In such contexts, there is a need to bridge the gap between procedural ethics and the realities of disability research in cross-cultural contexts. We provide guidance on engaging in ethical disability health research that intersects with and upholds the CRPD. We highlight challenges and tensions in doing so, underscoring the need to be sensitive to the sociocultural and political context of disability that determines how ethical research should proceed. We conclude with 5 recommendations. PMID:25211760

  12. Changes in social inequalities in health in the Basque Country

    PubMed Central

    Anitua, C.; Esnaola, S.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the extent of the inequalities in self reported health between socioeconomic groups and its changes over time in the Basque Country (Spain).
DESIGN—Cross sectional data on the association between occupation, education and income and three health indicators was obtained from the Basque Health Surveys of 1986 and 1992. Representative population samples were analysed. In 1986 the number of respondents was 24 657 and in 1992, 13 277.
SETTING—Basque Country, Spain. 
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The effect of socioeconomic position on health and the magnitude of social inequalities in health were quantified using the odds ratios based on logistic regression analysis, and the Relative Index of Inequality.
RESULTS—As was expected, social inequalities in self reported health existed in both surveys, but the social gradient was greater in 1992. Social differences varied according to gender and health indicator. According to education an increase in social inequalities was observed consistently in all the health indicators except long term conditions in women. A consistent increase in inequalities in limiting longstanding illness was also observed according to all socioeconomic indicators.
CONCLUSIONS—These results agree to a large extent with those of previous studies in other countries. In this context the unequal distribution of material circumstances and working conditions between socioeconomic groups seem to play a major part in health inequalities. The worsening of the labour market during this period and the onset of a new economic recession may explain the increase in social inequalities over time.


Keywords: health inequalities; trends; social class; Spain PMID:10818119

  13. Measuring School Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Chandra L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities. PMID:27158640

  14. Firearms regulation: Canada in the international context.

    PubMed

    Cukier, W

    1998-01-01

    Gun deaths and injuries in Canada are a serious public health problem, claiming more than 1200 lives each year and resulting in over 1000 hospitalizations. While the issue has been hotly debated in recent years, considerable research in an international context suggests that there is a relationship between access to firearms and deaths and injuries caused by firearms. Interventions to reduce access to firearms include regulation, education and engineering. Legislative reforms aimed at reducing gun deaths and injuries have been introduced recently in Canada and in many other countries. Although domestic controls can affect the supply of guns, efforts are being co-ordinated increasingly on an interjurisdictional basis to decrease the illegal trafficking of firearms. As well, the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Commission recently passed a resolution encouraging all countries who have not done so to strengthen their domestic gun controls since weak controls in one country can affect security in others.

  15. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  16. Country watch: international.

    PubMed

    Dionne, P

    1998-01-01

    The International Tribunal for Children's Rights (ITCR) was established to conduct individual and public inquiries and propose concrete solutions to violations of children's rights. This article reports on the efforts of the ITCR to enforce extraterritorial laws in response to the international dimension of child sex exploitation. The primary message being advocated is that travelers cannot go to foreign countries to engage in sexual crimes against children, evade criminal prosecution in the countries where the crimes are committed and then expect to return home without any consequences. In its first public hearings held in Paris, France to the address the effectiveness of extraterritorial legislation, governments and nongovernmental organizations informed the ITCR about their attempts to halt child sexual exploitation. Several changes needed to make extraterritorial laws more effective were cited. These include public awareness-raising; supporting existing instruments; application of preventive approaches to child abuse; and sensitizing and motivating judicial, police and administrative authorities to provide for the needs to fight child sex tourism.

  17. The extinction context enables extinction performance after a change in context

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, James Byron; Gregory, Pamela; Sanjuan, Maria del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    One experiment with human participants determined the extent to which recovery of extinguished responding with a context switch was due to a failure to retrieve contextually-controlled learning, or some other process such as participants learning that context changes signal reversals in the meaning of stimulus – outcome relationships. In a video game, participants learned to suppress mouse clicking in the presence of a stimulus that predicted an attack. Then, that stimulus underwent extinction in a different context (environment within the game). Following extinction, suppression was recovered and then extinguished again during testing in the conditioning context. In a final test, participants that were tested in the context where extinction first took place showed less of a recovery than those tested in a neutral context, but they showed a recovery of suppression nevertheless. A change in context tended to cause a change in the meaning of the stimulus, leading to recovery in both the neutral and extinction contexts. The extinction context attenuated that recovery, perhaps by enabling retrieval of the learning that took place in extinction. Recovery outside an extinction context is due to a failure of the context to enable the learning acquired during extinction, but only in part. PMID:22521549

  18. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  19. Is the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Health Stronger for Older Children in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    CAMERON, LISA; WILLIAMS, JENNY

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the relationship between child health and income in developed countries reveals a positive gradient that is more pronounced for older children, suggesting that the impact of income upon health accumulates. This article examines whether the same is true in a developing country. Using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey on children aged 0 to 14 years, we find that although low income adversely affects health, its impact does not differ by age. This finding is robust to the use of both subjective and objective health measures, controlling for selective mortality, the use of alternative measures of households’ resources, and the inclusion of indicators of health at birth and parental health. One explanation for the constancy of the health-income relationship that we explore is the dominant role played by acute illness in determining the general health status of children in a developing-country context compared with the more central role played by chronic conditions in developed countries. PMID:21305395

  20. Making targeted screening for infant hearing loss an effective option in less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2011-03-01

    Developing countries account for a disproportionate burden of infant hearing loss globally but the prospects of the more ideal universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) have been debated. The Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH) of USA has consistently proposed targeted newborn hearing screening (TNHS) for such countries. This study therefore set out to examine the appropriateness of JCIH risk factors as a basis for TNHS in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. From a review of relevant literature published in PubMed in the last 10 years, evidence on the effectiveness of TNHS based on JCIH or other risk factors is sparse or limited. Consistent with the prevailing epidemiological profile of these countries additional putative risk factors not listed or more prevalent than those listed by JCIH such as maternal hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, lack of skilled attendant at delivery, non-elective cesarean delivery and infant undernutrition have been demonstrated besides consanguinity. While TNHS has intuitive appeal in resource-poor settings, it is likely to be fraught with diverse operational constraints that could significantly curtail its effectiveness in these two regions. Well-conducted pilot UNHS studies to determine context-specific risk factors, screening efficiency and the potential trade-offs are warranted in each country prior to embarking on TNHS where UNHS is not immediately practicable.

  1. Country profile: Mali.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    More than half of Mali's population is under age 20 years. Living conditions have improved considerably over the last 35 years and the average life expectancy has improved from 35 in 1960 to 50 in 1987. Marrying early, women have a low status in Mali. They have their first sexual intercourse at mean age 15.7 years, bear many children, and often lack adequate resources to care for their families. Women have easy access to neither education nor social services despite their important role in development. Only 35% of primary school students are female. In 1992, the government published its policy on promoting women's welfare. The government of Mali has many programs which address the family planning and population needs of the country. However, lack of education, sociocultural traditions, the minority Catholic population, poor communication in the northwest region, and economic and administrative factors are obstacles to the practice of family planning.

  2. The Functioning of Context-Based Physics Instruction in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural, Guner

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the context-based approach have been discussed in educational settings as one of the innovative instructional approaches. Many countries throughout the world have implemented context-based physics projects or programs to make physics more relevant to students' lives. This paper examined the effects of context-based physics…

  3. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Country Note. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This country note analyzes main issues concerning adult learning and policy responses in Finland. Section 2 describes the political, economic, and social context in which adult learning fits. Sections 3-6 follow these four themes impinging on adult participation in learning: inadequate incentives and motivations; complex pathways between learning…

  4. Literacy for Revitalization in the SADCC Countries of Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    The role of literacy in the revitalization of societies is particularly meaningful in the context of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), a group of nine countries (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) surrounding or surrounded by the Republic of South Africa (RSA).…

  5. Low-Cost Computers for Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the distribution of computer use in a comparison between two of the most dominant suppliers of low-cost computers for education in developing countries (partly because they involve diametrically opposite ways of tackling the problem). The comparison is made in the context of an analytical framework which traces the changing…

  6. Balance across contexts: importance of balanced need satisfaction across various life domains.

    PubMed

    Milyavskaya, Marina; Gingras, Isabelle; Mageau, Geneviève A; Koestner, Richard; Gagnon, Hugo; Fang, Jianqun; Boiché, Julie

    2009-08-01

    Self-determination theory posits that satisfaction of three basic psychological needs-autonomy, competence, and relatedness-are required for psychological well-being, and a recent study showed that the balance in the satisfaction of these three needs independently affects well-being. The present investigation builds on these findings by examining the balance of adolescents' need satisfaction across distinct life contexts. The results of three studies show that adolescents who experience a balance of need satisfaction across important life contexts, including at school, at home, with friends, and in part-time jobs, reported higher well-being and better school adjustment. This finding emerged consistently across four countries and across multiple measures of school adjustment, including teacher reports. Together, these results support previous research that highlights the importance of consistency for psychological functioning.

  7. Why should the poor insure? Theories of decision-making in the context of health insurance.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Pia

    2004-11-01

    Increasingly, low- and middle-income countries are looking to community-based health insurance (CBHI) as a means of ensuring access to health care for the poor. However, little evidence exists about the determining factors that affect poor individuals' insurance decisions. This article reviews the economic and social literature on theories of decision-making, and presents empirical findings from different socio-economic contexts to describe individuals' insurance enrolment decisions in a low-income environment. Evidence from these studies suggests that several factors may explain poor households' decision to insure or remain uninsured. Combining empirical evidence with theories may serve to develop health policies to address issues related to the insurance design, the socio-economic and the informational context; with the overall objective of improving access to care for the poor.

  8. Association between Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Mortality: An Explorative Study across Three European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Malmusi, Davide; Juel, Knud; Rey, Grégoire; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To integrate immigrants into their societies, European countries have adopted different types of policies, which may influence health through both material and psychosocial determinants. Recent studies have suggested poorer health outcomes for immigrants living in countries with poorly rated integration policies. Objective To analyse mortality differences of immigrants from the same country of origin living in countries with distinct integration policy contexts. Methods From the mortality dataset collected in the Migrant Ethnic Health Observatory (MEHO) project, we chose the Netherlands (linked data from 1996-2006), France (unlinked; 2005-2007) and Denmark (linked; 1992-2001) as representatives of the inclusive, assimilationist and exclusionist policy models, respectively, based on the Migrant Integration Policy Index. We calculated for each country sex- and age-standardized mortality rates for Turkish-, Moroccan- and local-born populations aged 20-69 years. Poisson regression was used to estimate the mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for cross-country and within-country comparisons. The analyses were further stratified by age group and cause of death. Results Compared with their peers in the Netherlands, Turkish-born immigrants had higher all-cause mortality in Denmark (MRR men 1.92; 95% CI 1.74-2.13 and women 2.11; 1.80-2.47) but lower in France (men 0.64; 0.59-0.69 and women 0.58; 0.51-0.67). A similar pattern emerged for Moroccan-born immigrants. The relative differences between immigrants and the local-born population were also largest in Denmark and lowest in France (e.g., Turkish-born men MRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.38-1.67 and 0.62; 0.58-0.66, respectively). These patterns were consistent across all age groups, and more marked for cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Although confounders and data comparability issues (e.g., French cross-sectional data) may affect the findings, this study suggests that different macro-level policy contexts may influence

  9. Country focus: Lesotho.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Since Lesotho was reached relatively late by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the reported number of AIDS cases remains relatively low. Levels of awareness about the disease also remain low. With its high level of migrant labor, however, and very unequal gender relations, Lesotho has conditions which are highly conducive to the development of a major epidemic. The increasing incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases affirm the existence of high risk of HIV transmission in the country. By the end of 1995, 936 AIDS cases had been reported in Lesotho, including 68 pediatric cases. The head of the government's disease control division instead estimates that more than 4400 AIDS-related deaths had already occurred by the end of 1995 in a total population of a little more than 2 million. Women are dying at a 54.5:45.5 ratio to men, with female incidence being particularly high in the 20-39 year old age group. Having sex with multiple sex partners is the main risk factor for HIV transmission among adults in Lesotho. The most common presenting symptoms are described and the early stage impact of the epidemic discussed.

  10. Swaziland: country profile.

    PubMed

    Carrington, L

    1988-06-01

    Although Swaziland had been independent from colonialism for 20 years, a powerful monarch, King Mswati II, continues to control the country's political, religious, and social system. Swaziland has a population of 676,000, half of whom are under 15 years of age. The infant mortality rate is 105/1000 live births and 25% of children die before they reach their 5th birthday. Life expectancy is 54 years. Tribal chiefs, representing the king, hold and distribute about half of the national land. Most of the fertile land remains in the hands of white settler farmers. The concentration of income in foreign companies and urban centers has exacerbated poverty in rural areas. Depreciation of rand-linked local currency has boosted export earnings, but it has also raised the price of food and medical imports. Swaziland's main exports are sugar, wood pulp, chemicals, and fruit, most of which go to the UK and South Africa. The major food crops are maize, beans, groundnuts, and sorghum. About half of the working population is engaged in small-scale subsistence farming, but food yields are declining. The major producers are foreign companies attracted by Swaziland's low taxes and cheap labor supply.

  11. Country watch. Brazil.

    PubMed

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere.

  12. Technology in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeans, Nick; Manches, Andrew; Stokes, Eleanor; Balmer, Kim

    2011-01-01

    People frequently hear competing media and research claims about the educational value of new technologies. But too often it is not clear how, if at all, these technologies are supporting learning. And there is not enough attention paid to the challenges of trying to introduce these technologies successfully into an educational context. To what…

  13. Context, Learning, and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Blei, David M.; Niv, Yael

    2010-01-01

    A. Redish et al. (2007) proposed a reinforcement learning model of context-dependent learning and extinction in conditioning experiments, using the idea of "state classification" to categorize new observations into states. In the current article, the authors propose an interpretation of this idea in terms of normative statistical inference. They…

  14. From Context to Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    At Campus Technology 2008, Arizona State University Technology Officer Adrian Sannier mesmerized audiences with his mandate to become more efficient by doing only the "core" tech stuff--and getting someone else to slog through the context. This article presents an excerpt from Sannier's hour-long keynote address at Campus Technology '08. Sannier…

  15. Formative Assessment in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  16. Community Contexts for Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hirsch, Barton J.; Hughes, Jan; King, Jacqueline; Maton, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Mentoring programs attempt to foster a relationship that is too often missing from the lives of disadvantaged children and youth. However, in view of both the power and the limitations of mentoring programs, it is important to understand how mentoring occurs naturally. Assuming an ecological perspective, we examine mentoring in four contexts:…

  17. Putting tumours in context

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process progresses

  18. Recovery in river country.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, P J

    1988-07-01

    As the 3rd largest sub-Saharan African country with a highly developed and diversified economy, Zairian's life expectancy rose from 43.5 to 51.5 years between 1965-85. A larger medical staff which in 1980 equated 1 doctor/15,000 people contributed to an increase in health care. Zaire's Project SIPA, one of the largest AIDS programs in Africa, uses, e.g., TV messages to publicize public health messages to the population. Food production increased by 10% into the 1980s; 1982 marked the beginning of an upward trend in per capita income. Between 1984-85, the gross national product (GNP) of US $5.7 billion increased by 2.5%, or US $170/capita. Rich natural resources contributed to exports of US $1.87 billion in 1986 and imports of US $1.5 billion. But, hyperinflation abounds with a family of 6 in 1982 requiring US $330 dollars/month when minimum wage was US $70/month for unskilled workers and US $104 for skilled workers. Basic reforms in 1982 to deal with the foreign-debt of US $5 billion reduced inflation to 30% in 1985 from 76% in 1983 and created aa 1% GNP surplus. However, 50% of the government's annual budget was required recently to meet debt repayment schedules. New investment codes protect foreign investment and efforts are underway to channel this into timber (250 million acres), horticulture, and aquaculture. Favorable assets include low labor costs, well-run air cargo transport, and fertile land. Population data are limited, at present, to un demographic projections.

  19. Country profile: Chile.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The first case of AIDS in Chile was diagnosed in 1984. There have been 1060 cases reported since then throughout the country, or 8.2 cases for every 100,000 Chileans. 92.8% of all people with AIDS in Chile are male, with the male:female AIDS patient ratio increasing from 12.9:1 for the period 1984-1991 to 15.2:1 currently. This increase in the proportion of male AIDS cases suggests the existence of a rapidly increasing male HIV infection rate. 82% of reported cases are the result of unprotected sexual intercourse, 66.8% of which are among males who identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual. The 7.2:1 ratio of homosexual/bisexual transmission to heterosexual transmission for 1984-1989, however, declined to 3.9:1 for 1990-1994, indicating an increase in the extent of HIV/AIDS transmission through sex between men and women. Heterosexual sex is the reported means of transmission for 15.2% of currently identified AIDS cases in Chile. The mode of transmission was unknown for 10% of reported cases, due to vertical transmission among 1%, and the result of the direct exchange of blood among 7%. 60% of these latter cases were reported among IV drug users, 20% were reported as the result of blood transfusion, and 16% were reported in hemophiliacs. Most transmissions by blood transfusion occurred before 1987, when blood product controls were implemented. Infection due to IV drug use grew to 69.8% of such blood-related cases in 1990-94, compared to just 29.4% of cases in 1984-89. 81.5% of all cases are among people aged 20-49 years, with 64.1% of cases among individuals aged 30-49. Those under age 20 comprise 2.3% of total cases and those aged 20-29 years comprise 17.4%.

  20. Family policies in OECD countries: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Thévenon, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the diversity of family policy models in 28 OECD countries in terms of the balance between their different objectives and the mix of instruments adopted to implement the policies. Cross-country policy differences are investigated by applying a principal component analysis to comprehensive country-level data from the OECD Family database covering variables such as parental leave conditions, childcare service provision, and financial support to families. The results find persistent differences in the family policy patterns embedded in different contexts of work-family "outcomes." Country classifications of family policy packages only partially corroborate categorizations in earlier studies, owing to considerable within-group heterogeneity and the presence of group outliers. The Nordic countries outdistance the others with comprehensive support to working parents with very young children. Anglo-Saxon countries provide much less support for working parents with very young children, and financial support is targeted on low-income and large families and focuses on preschool and early elementary education. Continental and Eastern European countries form a more heterogeneous group, while the support received by families in Southern Europe and in Asian countries is much lower in all its dimensions.

  1. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts.

  2. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  3. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  4. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  5. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  6. Potential effectiveness of anti-smoking advertisement types in ten low and middle income countries: do demographics, smoking characteristics and cultural differences matter?

    PubMed

    Durkin, Sarah; Bayly, Megan; Cotter, Trish; Mullin, Sandra; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-12-01

    Unlike high income countries, there is limited research to guide selection of anti-tobacco mass media campaigns in low and middle income countries, although some work suggests that messages emphasizing serious health harms perform better than other message types. This study aimed to determine whether certain types of anti-smoking advertisements are more likely to be accepted and perceived as effective across smokers in 10 low to middle income countries. 2399 18-34 year old smokers were recruited in Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Turkey and Vietnam to view and rate 10 anti-tobacco ads. Five ads were shown in all countries and five ads were chosen by country representatives, providing a total of 37 anti-smoking ads across all countries (10 graphic health effects ads, 6 simulated health effects, 8 emotional stories of health effects, 7 other health effects and 6 non-health effects). Smokers rated ads on a series of 5-point scales containing aggregated measures of Message Acceptance and Perceived Effectiveness. All ads and materials were translated into the local language of the testing regions. In multivariate analysis, graphic health effects ads were most likely to be accepted and perceived as effective, followed by simulated health effects ads, health effects stories, other health effects ads, and then non-health effects ads. Interaction analyses indicated that graphic health effects ads were less likely to differ in acceptance or perceived effectiveness across countries, gender, age, education, parental status and amount smoked, and were less likely to be affected by cultural differences between characters and contexts in ads and those within each country. Ads that did not emphasize the health effects of smoking were most prone to inconsistent impact across countries and population subgroups. Graphic ads about the negative health effects of smoking may be most suitable for wide population broadcast in low and middle income

  7. China: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    D. 265-420), but the j in could not long con- tain the invasions of the nomadic peoples. In A.D. 317 the, ,in court was forced to flee from Luovang...to Qing rule. The Qing regime was determined to protect itself not only from internal rebellion but also from foreign invasion . After China Proper had...expectancy has more than doubled. and infant mortality has dropped significantly. On the negative side, the incidence of cancer , cerebrovascular disease. and

  8. Reaching Out to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Stirling

    1984-01-01

    Some Canadian teachers play a special role in developing the teaching profession internationally. They participate in helping teachers in developing countries and promoting understanding worldwide. (MD)

  9. Refugees in Africa: A Country by Country Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations High Commission for Refugees, Washington, DC.

    The status of the refugees in Africa and the work of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is charted on a country by country basis in this report. The size of the refugee population and their needs are described along with various assistance efforts directed at improving their situation. Sums of money spent by UNHCR office are…

  10. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  11. [Contraception and abortion in the countries of eastern Europe].

    PubMed

    Hassoun, D; Jourdain, A

    1995-01-01

    For various reasons, including the population policies of the former Socialist countries, abortion is much more frequent than contraception in Central and Eastern Europe. The contrary occurs in Western countries. In the current context, countries in Central and Eastern Europe should improve abortion services and this should be a priority target in their health policy. The study does not detect a clear-cut advantage as concerns substituting contraception to abortion in these countries in terms for instance of reducing maternal mortality. In fact a health policy favouring contraception instead of abortion is firstly inspired by political or ethical reasons. If implemented in Central and Eastern Europe, it would require several decades to bear evident results.

  12. Image Acquisition Context

    PubMed Central

    Bidgood, W. Dean; Bray, Bruce; Brown, Nicolas; Mori, Angelo Rossi; Spackman, Kent A.; Golichowski, Alan; Jones, Robert H.; Korman, Louis; Dove, Brent; Hildebrand, Lloyd; Berg, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To support clinically relevant indexing of biomedical images and image-related information based on the attributes of image acquisition procedures and the judgments (observations) expressed by observers in the process of image interpretation. Design: The authors introduce the notion of “image acquisition context,” the set of attributes that describe image acquisition procedures, and present a standards-based strategy for utilizing the attributes of image acquisition context as indexing and retrieval keys for digital image libraries. Methods: The authors' indexing strategy is based on an interdependent message/terminology architecture that combines the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard, the SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine) vocabulary, and the SNOMED DICOM microglossary. The SNOMED DICOM microglossary provides context-dependent mapping of terminology to DICOM data elements. Results: The capability of embedding standard coded descriptors in DICOM image headers and image-interpretation reports improves the potential for selective retrieval of image-related information. This favorably affects information management in digital libraries. PMID:9925229

  13. Cross-Country Skiing Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, John

    This book presents changes in cross country skiing which have taken place in the last several years and is directed toward both beginning and seasoned tour skiers. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the cross-country revolution (new fiberglass skis); (2) equipment (how to choose from the new waxless touring skis); (3) care of equipment; (4)…

  14. How Other Countries "Do Discipline"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arum, Richard; Ford, Karly

    2012-01-01

    It's a challenge for schools in every country: How to provide the right kind of discipline and create a climate that nurtures learning. This challenge may look different in different countries. A school's disciplinary climate not only is the product of educators' beliefs and actions, students' beliefs and actions, and the interaction of these, but…

  15. Context effects: the role of collectivism as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2011-02-01

    Social cognition experts have shown that participants' answers to research questions can be influenced by previous questions, something known as context effects. It has been suggested that participants from collectivist cultures pay more attention to the context, resulting in larger context effects. The present investigation examined context effects in an experiment that involved manipulating the order in which two questions, one about satisfaction with life as a whole and one about satisfaction with romantic life, were answered by a representative sample of participants from Mexico City. The results were consistent with other investigations that used samples from collectivistic cultures. Participants' responses to questions about satisfaction are influenced by a previous question, and country of origin affects the amount of attention given to the context. The implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Implementation of mobile satellite services in developing countries: The Mexican experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Alexis; Weitzner, Jorge

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the differences between Developing Countries (DCs) and Industrialized Countries (ICs), in the context of Mobile Satellite Services (MSSs) providers and regulators, is presented. Additionally, a series of recommendations that may improve the odds for a successful implementation of MSSs in DCs are provided.

  17. [Clinical studies in developing countries].

    PubMed

    van den Munkhof, Hanna E

    2013-01-01

    In general, clinical trials in developing countries are met with resistance because the people are particularly vulnerable and medical assistance is often unaffordable. The prospect of free medication can then lead to exploitation since the local population can be persuaded to participate in trials that would never be allowed in Western countries due to ethical concerns. Placebo-controlled research that tests cheaper alternatives for treatments already registered could greatly improve the situation in developing countries, however. Expensive registered treatments are often unavailable in these countries. Therefore, I call for allowing such studies when the registered treatment is locally unavailable. This should be based on the four most important principles of medical ethics: the duty to help patients, avoid harm, justice and respect for autonomy. On the condition, however, that the population in developing countries benefits in the long term.

  18. Motor interference in interactive contexts

    PubMed Central

    Chinellato, Eris; Castiello, Umberto; Sartori, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Action observation and execution share overlapping neural substrates, so that simultaneous activation by observation and execution modulates motor performance. Previous literature on simple prehension tasks has revealed that motor influence can be two-sided: facilitation for observed and performed congruent actions and interference for incongruent actions. But little is known of the specific modulations of motor performance in complex forms of interaction. Is it possible that the very same observed movement can lead either to interference or facilitation effects on a temporally overlapping congruent executed action, depending on the context? To answer this question participants were asked to perform a reach-to-grasp movement adopting a precision grip (PG) while: (i) observing a fixation cross, (ii) observing an actor performing a PG with interactive purposes, (iii) observing an actor performing a PG without interactive purposes. In particular, in the interactive condition the actor was shown trying to pour some sugar on a large cup located out of her reach but close to the participant watching the video, thus eliciting in reaction a complementary whole-hand grasp. Notably, fine-grained kinematic analysis for this condition revealed a specific delay in the grasping and reaching components and an increased trajectory deviation despite the observed and executed movement’s congruency. Moreover, early peaks of trajectory deviation seem to indicate that socially relevant stimuli are acknowledged by the motor system very early. These data suggest that interactive contexts can determine a prompt modulation of stimulus–response compatibility effects. PMID:26113835

  19. Multilingualism in Post-Soviet Countries: Language Revival, Language Removal, and Sociolinguistic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Since the post-Soviet context is not particularly well known to the majority of readers, the author uses this introduction to provide a general background against which developments in particular post-Soviet countries can be better understood. The author begins by placing these developments in the sociohistoric context of language policies of the…

  20. Troubling Literacy: Monolingual Assumptions, Multilingual Contexts, and Language Teacher Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The current educational context in many English speaking countries is one where literacy is understood to be essentially monolingual in orientation; that is, an understanding of literacy around a single common language, with the emphasis on identifying universal, normative "standards" and "benchmarks", such as the…

  1. Intellectual Disability in the Context of a South African Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromberg, Jennifer; Zwane, Esther; Manga, Prashiela; Venter, Andre; Rosen, Eric; Christianson, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Childhood disabilities, including intellectual disabilities (ID), are thought to occur in 5-17% of children in developing countries around the world. In order to identify and describe the childhood disabilities occurring in a rural South African population, as well as the context in which they occur, a study was carried out in the Bushbuckridge…

  2. Cultural Context and the New Communication Principles for Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waner, Karen K.; Winter, Janet K.

    This paper discusses the problems surrounding intercultural business communication as well as approaches to teaching college level business students appropriate communication skills for intercultural settings. Considered are the classification of countries by cultural context, i.e. how large a role culture, social values, and traditional social…

  3. Promoting Lifelong Learning in Multilingual Context: A Case from Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Nepal is a multilingual country with low adult literacy rate (about 57% in 2008). Through different policy documents and motivation from some of the transnational organizations such as UNESCO, Nepal is on the process of adopting lifelong learning perspective as a major educational policy. In this context the article raises two issues: how to…

  4. Social Entrepreneurship in South Africa: Context, Relevance and Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Kobus

    2011-01-01

    In its broadest context, "social entrepreneurship" refers to individuals and organizations that engage in entrepreneurial activities with social objectives. Whereas this concept and its constituent elements are well-researched and acknowledged in industrialized countries (such as the USA and UK) (Thompson, Alvy and Lees, 2000, p 328) and…

  5. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  6. A comparison of trends in caesarean section rates in former communist (transition) countries and other European countries

    PubMed Central

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.; Gorman, Dermot R.; Leyland, Alastair H.

    2013-01-01

    Caesarean section rates are rising across Europe, and concerns exist that increases are not clinically indicated. Societal, cultural and health system factors have been identified as influential. Former communist (transition) countries have experienced radical changes in these potential determinants, and we, therefore, hypothesized they may exhibit differing trends to non-transition countries. By analysing data from the WHO Europe Health for All Database, we find transition countries had a relatively low caesarean section rate in 2000 but have since experienced more rapid increases than other countries (average annual percentage change 7.9 vs. 2.4). PMID:23204216

  7. Sustainable solid waste management: an integrated approach for Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Shekdar, Ashok V

    2009-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has been an integral part of every human society. The approaches for SWM should be compatible with the nature of a given society, and, in this regard, Asian countries are no exception. In keeping with global trends, the systems are being oriented to concentrate on sustainability issues; mainly through the incorporation of 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) technologies. However, degree and nature of improvements toward sustainability are varying and depend on the economic status of a country. High-income countries like Japan and South Korea can afford to spend more to incorporate 3R technologies. Most of the latest efforts focus on "Zero Waste" and/or "Zero Landfilling" which is certainly expensive for weaker economies such as those of India or Indonesia. There is a need to pragmatically assess the expectations of SWM systems in Asian countries. Hence, in this paper, we analyze the situation in different Asian countries, and explore future trends. We conceptually evaluate issues surrounding the sustainability of SWM. We propose a multi-pronged integrated approach for improvement that achieves sustainable SWM in the context of national policy and legal frameworks, institutional arrangement, appropriate technology, operational and financial management, and public awareness and participation. In keeping with this approach, a generic action plan has been proposed that could be tailored to suit a situation in a particular country. Our proposed concept and action plan framework would be useful across a variety of country-specific scenarios.

  8. Comparative study of meningitis dynamics across nine African countries: a global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Broutin, Hélène; Philippon, Solenne; Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Courel, Marie-Françoise; Sultan, Benjamin; Guégan, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Background Meningococcal meningitis (MM) represents an important public health problem especially in the "meningitis belt" in Africa. Although seasonality of epidemics is well known with outbreaks usually starting in the dry season, pluri-annual cycles are still less understood and even studied. In this context, we aimed at study MM cases time series across 9 sahelo-sudanian countries to detect pluri-annual periodicity and determine or not synchrony between dynamics. This global and comparative approach allows a better understanding of MM evolution in time and space in the long-term. Results We used the most adapted mathematical tool to time series analyses, the wavelet method. We showed that, despite a strong consensus on the existence of a global pluri-annual cycle of MM epidemics, it is not the case. Indeed, even if a clear cycle is detected in all countries, these cycles are not as permanent and regular as generally admitted since many years. Moreover, no global synchrony was detected although many countries seemed correlated. Conclusion These results of the first large-scale study of MM dynamics highlight the strong interest and the necessity of a global survey of MM in order to be able to predict and prevent large epidemics by adapted vaccination strategy. International cooperation in Public Health and cross-disciplines studies are highly recommended to hope controlling this infectious disease. PMID:17623084

  9. Galaxies in the Cosmological Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Gabriella De

    In the last decades, a number of observational experiments have converged to establish the cold dark matter model as the "de facto" standard model for structure formation. While the cosmological paradigm appears to be firmly established, a theory of galaxy formation remains elusive, and our understanding of the physical processes that determine the observed variety of galaxy properties and their evolution as a function of cosmic time and environment is far from complete. Although much progress has been made, both on the theoretical and observational side, understanding how galaxies form and evolve remains one of the most outstanding questions of modern astrophysics. This chapter provides an introduction to ideas and concepts that underpin modern models of galaxy formation and evolution, in the currently favoured cosmological context.

  10. Political Impetus: Towards a Successful Agenda-Setting for Inclusive Health Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Comment on "Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam".

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Qian, Xu

    2016-02-04

    Agenda-setting is a crucial step for inclusive health policies in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Enlightened by Ha et al manuscript, this commentary paper argues that 'political impetus' is the key to the successful agenda-setting of health policies in LMICs, though other determinants may also play the role during the process. This Vietnamese case study presents a good example for policy-makers of other LMICs; it offers insights for contexts where there are limited health resources and poor health performance. Further research which compares various stages of the health policy process across countries, is much needed.

  11. The functions of contexts in associative learning.

    PubMed

    Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-05-01

    Although contexts play many roles during training and also during testing, over the last four decades theories of learning have predominantly focused on one or the other of the two families of functions served by contexts. In this selective review, we summarize recent data concerning these two functions and their interrelationship. The first function is similar to that of discrete cues, and allows contexts to elicit conditioned responses and compete with discrete events for behavioral control. The second function is modulatory, and similar to that of discrete occasion setters in that in this role contexts do not elicit conditioned responses by themselves, but rather modulate instrumental responding or responding to Pavlovian cues. We first present evidence for these two functions, and then suggest that the spacing of trials, amount of training, and contiguity are three determinants of the degree to which the context will play each function. We also conclude that these two functions are not mutually exclusive, and that future research would benefit from identifying the conditions under which their functions dominate behavioral control. We close by discussing some misconceptions concerning contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SQAB 2013: Contextual Con.

  12. Renewal, resurgence, and alternative reinforcement context.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-07-01

    Resurgence, relapse induced by the removal of alternative reinforcement, and renewal, relapse induced by a change in contextual stimuli, are typically studied separately in operant conditioning paradigms. In analogous treatments of operant problem behavior, aspects of both relapse phenomena can operate simultaneously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a novel method for studying resurgence and renewal in the same experimental preparation. An alternative source of reinforcement was available during extinction for one group of rats (a typical resurgence preparation). Another group experienced an operant renewal preparation in which the extinction context was distinguished via olfactory and visual stimuli. A third group experienced alternative reinforcement delivery in the new context, a novel combination of typical resurgence and renewal preparations. Removal of alternative reinforcement and/or a change in context induced relapse relative to an extinction-only control group. When alternative reinforcement was delivered in a novel context, the alternative response was less persistent relative to when extinction of the alternative response took place in the context in which it was trained. This methodology might be used to illustrate shared (or distinct) mechanisms of resurgence and renewal, and to determine how delivering alternative reinforcement in another context may affect persistence and relapse.

  13. The functions of contexts in associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2014-01-01

    Although contexts play many roles during training and also during testing, over the last four decades theories of learning have predominantly focused on one or the other of two families of functions served by contexts. In this selective review, we summarize recent data concerning these two functions and their interrelationship. The first function is similar to that of discrete cues, and allows contexts to elicit conditioned responses and compete with discrete events for behavioral control. The second function is modulatory, and similar to that of discrete occasion setters in that in this role contexts do not elicit conditioned responses by themselves, but rather modulate instrumental responding or responding to Pavlovian cues. We first present evidence for these two functions, and then suggest that the spacing of trials, amount of training, and contiguity are three determinants of the degree to which the context will play each function. We also conclude that these two functions are not mutually exclusive, and that future research would benefit from identifying the conditions under which their functions dominate behavioral control. We close by discussing some misconceptions concerning contexts. PMID:24614400

  14. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-01-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations. PMID:8781389

  15. Japan (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  16. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  17. Putting teamwork in context.

    PubMed

    Boaden, N; Leaviss, J

    2000-11-01

    Multidisciplinary teamwork is becoming more important in both the delivery of health care and in the organization and management of that delivery. The first of these has been accepted but traditional professional education has done little to address the challenge it presents to professionals. Recent reforms in the British NHS have made the challenge more urgent. Professionals must work together but in increasingly flexible and innovatory ways. They are also required to play more formal roles in NHS management and policy. Where teamwork has been addressed in professional education it has concentrated on the inter-personal dynamics of working teams. This remains important but to respond effectively to the new challenges curricula and educational practice will have to be clearer about the variety of teams involved and the importance of the context within which teams work. One view is offered as to how that context might be understood in order to map team diversity. Two models are offered to help develop multidisciplinary team learning. One of these deals with key aspects of the organizational setting and the other with factors that affect team processes. It is argued that both should help to facilitate multidisciplinary curriculum development but also suggest learning needs to be met within unidisciplinary professional education. Concentration on team dynamics alone will not deliver the teamwork required in the new NHS.

  18. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology.

  19. Endeavour Crater in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The largest crater in this mosaic of images taken by the Context Camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is Endeavour Crater, which is 22 kilometers (14 miles) in diameter.

    The team operating NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars chose to drive the rover toward Endeavour after Opportunity ascended out of smaller Victoria Crater in August 2008.

    Opportunity caught its first glimpse of Endeavour's rim on March 7, 2008, during the 1,820th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. The rover was about 12 kilometers (7 miles) from the closest point of the crater.

    Annotations on Figure 1 show vectors from Opportunity's position on that date toward the portions of the rim seen in images that Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) took from the Sol 1820 location. In addition to three portions of Endeavour's rim, the rim of a smaller, more distant crater, Iazu, appears faintly on the horizon in the Pancam images.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, provided and operates the Context Camera.

  20. Identifying Context Variables in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Carolyn L.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies context variables in written composition from theoretical perspectives in cognitive psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Considers how multiple views of context from across the disciplines can build toward a broader definition of writing. (JD)

  1. Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices.

  2. The Determining Role of Finish Cooling Temperature on the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Behavior in an Nb-V-Ti Microalloyed Steel in the Context of Newly Developed Ultrafast Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Zhaodong; Deng, Xiangtao; Wang, Guodong; Misra, R. D. K.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied here the impact of finish cooling temperature on the microstructural evolution and precipitation behavior in Nb-V-Ti microalloyed steel through thermo-mechanical simulation in the context of newly developed ultrafast cooling system. The microstructural evolution was studied in terms of morphology and crystallography of precipitates using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. At finish cooling temperature of 933 K and 893 K (660 °C and 620 °C), the microstructure primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite, together with a small amount of wedge-shaped acicular ferrite and lamellar pearlite, while, at 853 K and 813 K (580 °C and 540 °C), the microstructure consisted of lath bainite with fine interlath cementite and granular bainite with martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent. In all the finish cooling temperatures studied, the near-spherical precipitates of size range ~2 to 15 nm were randomly dispersed in ferrite and bainite matrix. The carbide precipitates were identified as (Nb,V)C with NaCl-type crystal structure. With a decrease in the finish cooling temperature, the size of the precipitates was decreased, while the number density first increased with a peak at 893 K (620 °C) and then decreased. Using Ashby-Orowan model, the contribution of the precipitation strengthening to yield strength was ~149 MPa at the finish cooling temperature of 893 K (620 °C).

  3. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources.

  4. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    PubMed

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase.

  5. Moving towards universal health coverage: lessons from 11 country studies.

    PubMed

    Reich, Michael R; Harris, Joseph; Ikegami, Naoki; Maeda, Akiko; Cashin, Cheryl; Araujo, Edson C; Takemi, Keizo; Evans, Timothy G

    2016-02-20

    In recent years, many countries have adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a national aspiration. In response to increasing demand for a systematic assessment of global experiences with UHC, the Government of Japan and the World Bank collaborated on a 2-year multicountry research programme to analyse the processes of moving towards UHC. The programme included 11 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam), representing diverse geographical, economic, and historical contexts. The study identified common challenges and opportunities and useful insights for how to move towards UHC. The study showed that UHC is a complex process, fraught with challenges, many possible pathways, and various pitfalls--but is also feasible and achievable. Movement towards UHC is a long-term policy engagement that needs both technical knowledge and political know-how. Technical solutions need to be accompanied by pragmatic and innovative strategies that address the national political economy context.

  6. Child development in developing countries: child rights and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context for development of the youngest children in the majority world using one of the only data sets to study these contexts across countries. Using the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular the Rights to Survival, Development and Protection, findings are explained with implications for international and national-level social policies. Implications are also discussed, with respect to policy makers and the larger international community, who have the obligation to uphold these rights.

  7. Breast health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.

  8. The HFEA in context.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    While the regulatory role of the HFEA, its independence and its shortcomings are debated in the context of a fiscal economic crisis, the larger sociological importance of the Authority may be overlooked. Harder to calculate than its annual budget and more elusive than its technical remit as a licensing body, the cultural value of the HFEA as a historical and symbolic entity that was born out of a pioneering debate unique to the UK must be included in a discussion of its future role. Against its perceived shortcomings as an expensive and outdated quango is the importance of the Authority as a public instrument for enhancing the future of translational bioscience. From this point of view, the HFEA is crucial not only to ensuring the successful realization of a domestic bioscience agenda but also to protecting the international reputation of UK Plc as a best-practice model of publicly supported bioinnovation.

  9. Personality and social context.

    PubMed

    Webster, Mike M; Ward, Ashley J W

    2011-11-01

    There has been considerable interest among biologists in the phenomenon of non-human animal personality in recent years. Consistent variations among individuals in their behavioural responses to ecologically relevant stimuli, often relating to a trade-off between level of risk and reward, have been recorded in a wide variety of species, representing many animal taxa. Research into behavioural variation among individuals has major implications for our understanding of ecological patterns and processes at scales from the level of the individual to the level of the population. Until recently, however, many studies that have considered the broader ecological implications of animal personality have failed to take into account the crucial moderating effect of social context. It is well documented that social processes, such as conformity and facilitation, exert considerable influence on the behaviour of grouping animals and hence that isolated individuals may often behave in a qualitatively as well as quantitatively different manner to those in groups. Recently, a number of studies have begun to address aspects of this gap in our knowledge and have provided vital insights. In this review we examine the state of our knowledge on the relationship between individual personality and sociality. In doing so we consider the influence of the social context on individual personality responses, the interaction between the collective personalities of group members and the expression of those personalities in the individual, and the influence of the personalities of group members on group structure and function. We propose key areas of focus for future studies in order to develop our understanding of this fundamentally important area.

  10. Violence against women in South Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Niaz, U

    2003-08-01

    In South Asian countries the amalgamation of Buddhist, Confucian, Hindu, Islamic and Christian traditions have shaped the personalities of women and determined their social status. Rigid cultures and patriarchal attitudes which devalue the role of women, result in the wide spread occurrence of violence against women. The family structure, in which the man is the undisputed ruler of the household, and activities within the family are seen as private, allows violence to occur at home. As well as traditional forms of violence such as wife-battering and sexual assault, women in these countries are also exposed to dowry crimes such as bride burning, kidnapping for the purposes of prostitution, and "honour killings". Laws permit discrimination against women and discourage reporting of violent acts. Efforts to remedy this situation must include changes in local laws as well as assistance from the United Nations and the international community.

  11. Biomedical engineering education in developing countries: research synthesis.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Tania S

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical engineering (BME) contributes to development through improving human health. This paper examines BME education to address the needs of developing countries. Components of different BME programs described in the literature are synthesized to represent what has been proposed or implemented for the production of graduates able to address health problems in a manner suited to the local environment in which they occur. Published research on BME education is reviewed with reference to problem context, interventions and their mechanisms, and intended outcomes.

  12. Modelling the Sociocultural Contexts of Science Education: The Teachers' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2013-02-01

    A growing body of research argues that teachers' beliefs and practices should be studied within the sociocultural contexts of their work because the relationship between their beliefs and practices is both complex and context-dependent. There is a need for further research in this area in understudied contexts such as developing countries, in order to promote effective education in schools and the professional development of teachers. This paper argues that if this `black box' of sociocultural contexts in which science teachers are embedded is better understood, it may be possible to identify specific aspects of these contexts related to educational organizations that act as either supports or barriers to pedagogical reform or to implementing innovations in science education. Consequently, the main purpose of this study is to explore the sociocultural contexts of ten Egyptian science teachers and to what extent these sociocultural contexts help in understanding teachers' pedagogical beliefs and practices. This paper, by utilizing a multi-grounded theory approach and qualitative methods, reveals a variety of sociocultural contexts that are related to teachers' pedagogical beliefs and practices.

  13. Impact of health system factors on changes in human resource and expenditures levels in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Narine, L

    2000-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the system factors responsible for changes in the health workforce, this study undertook an empirical examination of the determinants of the size of the health workforce and overall health expenditures across fifteen OECD countries. Specifically, using the latest release of OECD data, the analysis estimated and evaluated the effects of variables such as the proportion of female physicians and the elderly, expenditures on ambulatory care, enrollment levels in training programs, level of public financing, and per capita income on the size of the health workforce and level of health spending between 1970-1991. The findings of this study help to place the problem of the changing health workforce within the context of the complexity of health systems. It confirms any understanding of what accounts for changes in the size of the health labor force and expenditures require disentangling the effects of variables which needs to be taken into account when considering health system reforms.

  14. Measuring local context as context-word probabilities.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Lance W

    2012-06-01

    Context enables readers to quickly recognize a related word but disturbs recognition of unrelated words. The relatedness of a final word to a sentence context has been estimated as the probability (cloze probability) that a participant will complete a sentence with a word. In four studies, I show that it is possible to estimate local context-word relatedness based on common language usage. Conditional probabilities were calculated for sentences with published cloze probabilities. Four-word contexts produced conditional probabilities significantly correlated with cloze probabilities, but usage statistics were unavailable for some sentence contexts. The present studies demonstrate that a composite context measure based on conditional probabilities for one- to four-word contexts and the presence of a final period represents all of the sentences and maintains significant correlations (.25, .52, .53) with cloze probabilities. Finally, the article provides evidence for the effectiveness of this measure by showing that local context varies in ways that are similar to the N400 effect and that are consistent with a role for local context in reading. The Supplemental materials include local context measures for three cloze probability data sets.

  15. Management challenges of context-aware learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The work covers different definitions of context and the explanation of the context value for university learning organization and management. The thesis of the paper is as follows: students' focus on sources of context has impact on their knowledge acquisition and determines students' profiles and learning process, within which the teachers support de-contextualization, i.e., generalization of experience and knowledge. The work emphasizes the meaning of mobile devices in university learning process. The paper presents the value of BYOD (bring-your-own-device) strategy at universities and opportunities for m-education. The student survey results are presented to emphasize the value of that strategy. Beyond that, the students' preferences towards open source software and open learning materials are also discussed and evaluated by student survey. Finally, the process of contextualization and de-contextualization is developed for support the learning at university level.

  16. Physics teaching in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talisayon, V. M.

    1984-05-01

    The need for endogeneous learning materials that will relate physics to the student's culture and environment spurred countries like India, Thailand, The Philippines and Indonesia to develop their own physics curriculum materials and laboratory equipment. Meagre resources and widespread poverty necessitated the development of laboratory materials from everyday items, recycled materials and other low-cost or no-cost local materials. The process of developing learning materials for one's teaching-learning needs in physics and the search from within for solutions to one's problems contribute in no small measure to the development of self-reliance in physics teaching of a developing country. Major concerns of developing countries are food supply, livelihood, health, nutrition and growth of economy. At the level of the student and his family, food, health, and livelihood are also primary concerns. Many physics teaching problems can be overcome on a large scale, given political support and national will. In countries where national leadership recognises that science and technology developed is essential to national development and that science education in turn is crucial to science and technology development, scarce resources can be allocated to science education. In developing countries where science education receives little or no political support, the most important resource in the physics classroom is the physics teacher. A highly motivated and adequately trained teacher can rise above the constraining circumstances of paucity of material resources and government apathy. In developing countries the need is great for self-reliance in physics teaching at the country level, and more importantly at the teacher level.

  17. Vocational Guidance within the Context of the Democratization of Education. Rapports, etudes...S.129.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebel, Anselm

    This paper, based on information concerning the current status of vocational guidance in various countries, describes the main trends in its development in the context of the democratization of education. The experiences of the following countries are reviewed: Austria, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, France, German…

  18. Intercultural Education in the European Context: Key Remarks from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catarci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on some findings of a comparative study carried out by a network of scholars and researchers who are active in the field of intercultural education in the European context in the main "old immigration countries" (United Kingdom, France and Germany), "new immigration countries" (Italy, Spain and Greece) and…

  19. Abortion policy and women's health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, R

    1990-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half a million women in developing countries die in pregnancy and childbirth every year. Unsafe induced abortion is responsible for perhaps one-quarter of these deaths. In this article, the author reviews the legal, medical, and social contexts in which women in developing countries resort to clandestine abortion. Despite intensified international concern with reducing high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, national policy makers and participants at international conferences on maternal health--with a few important exceptions--have not recommended that safe, legal services for terminating unwanted pregnancies be offered as an essential element of basic reproductive health care. United States international policy on funding abortion-related activities in maternal health and family planning programs is especially restrictive. A new policy approach is clearly needed if unacceptably high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in many countries are to be reduced.

  20. Providing ethical guidance for collaborative research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Experience has shown that the application of ethical guidelines developed for research in developed countries to research in developing countries can be, and often is, impractical and raises a number of contentious issues. Various attempts have been made to provide guidelines more appropriate to the developing world context; however, to date these efforts have been dominated by the fields of bioscience, medical research and nutrition. There is very little advice available for those seeking to undertake collaborative social science or natural science research in developing countries and what is there tends to be held within disparate sources. Charting the development of a set of ethics documentation for future use by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme research community, this paper outlines past and present attitudes towards ethics procedures amongst this community and suggests ways in which ethics procedures might be made more relevant and user-friendly to researchers working in this area. PMID:26640509

  1. Drug design and discovery: translational biomedical science varies among countries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian N; Weaver, Donald F

    2013-10-01

    Drug design and discovery is an innovation process that translates the outcomes of fundamental biomedical research into therapeutics that are ultimately made available to people with medical disorders in many countries throughout the world. To identify which nations succeed, exceed, or fail at the drug design/discovery endeavor--more specifically, which countries, within the context of their national size and wealth, are "pulling their weight" when it comes to developing medications targeting the myriad of diseases that afflict humankind--we compiled and analyzed a comprehensive survey of all new drugs (small molecular entities and biologics) approved annually throughout the world over the 20-year period from 1991 to 2010. Based upon this analysis, we have devised prediction algorithms to ascertain which countries are successful (or not) in contributing to the worldwide need for effective new therapeutics.

  2. Socio-Economic Resilience to Floods in 90 Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, S.; Bangalore, M.; Vogt-Schilb, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global losses from floods are increasing, with renewed calls for action to reduce their impact. In each country, region or city, many actions can protect the population and help rebuild and recover: building dikes and restoring mangroves; land-use planning; early warning and evacuation; insurance and social safety nets. What should be the priorities? How to build a comprehensive strategy? Is progress being made? We propose a tool - a national-level scorecard based on welfare economics - to assess a country's socio-economic resilience to river floods and identify the most promising policy options in different contexts to reduce the impact of floods on well-being. The tool is applied to 90 countries using open databases, and can serve as a starting point for designing policies and more in-depth local studies.

  3. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  4. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale for South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, Michelle; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    The Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS) is a screening questionnaire that focuses on parents' perceptions of children's speech in different contexts. Originally developed in English, it has been translated into 60 languages and the validity and clinical utility of the scale has been documented in a range of countries. In South Africa, there are…

  5. Determining Prevalence of Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy in Developing Countries

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-11

    Demonstrate BIND II Score of >=5, is Valid for Detecting Moderate to Severe ABE in Neonates <14 Days Old.; Demonstrate Community-BIND Instrument, a Modified BIND II, is a Valid and Reliable Tool for Detecting ABE.; Demonstrate That Community-BIND Can be Used for Acquiring Population-based Prevalence of ABE in the Community.

  6. Evaluation of Students' Understanding of Thermal Concepts in Everyday Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Yeo, Shelley; Zadnik, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the underlying conceptual structure of the thermal concept evaluation (TCE) questionnaire, a pencil-and-paper instrument about everyday contexts of heat, temperature, and heat transfer, to investigate students' conceptual understanding of thermal concepts in everyday contexts across several school years and…

  7. Constraining Assertion: An Account of Context-Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva Chigne, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Many philosophers believe that if "S" is an unambiguous, context-sensitive, declarative sentence and "p" is a proposition asserted (without conversational implicatures) by a literal utterance of "S" in a context "c," then "p" is fully determined by the linguistic meaning of "S" in…

  8. Generation disrupts memory for intrinsic context but not extrinsic context.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W

    2011-08-01

    Although generation typically enhances item memory, the effect is subject to a number of theoretically important limitations. One potential limitation concerns context memory but there has been debate about whether generation actually enhances or disrupts memory for contextual details. Five experiments assessed the effect of generation on context memory for perceptual attributes of the study stimulus (intrinsic context). The results indicate that despite enhancing item memory, generation disrupts memory for intrinsic context. This result generalized over different intrinsic details (print colour and font), different generation manipulations, and several methodological factors identified in earlier research as potential moderators of this negative generation effect. Despite the negative generation effect on intrinsic context, contextual details external to the target item (extrinsic context) are not disrupted. In a sixth experiment, a visually based generation task (letter transposition) enhanced context memory for the extrinsic detail of location. Coupled with earlier research, the results indicate that generation disrupts context memory for intrinsic details but either does not harm or enhances memory for extrinsic context.

  9. Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission.

    PubMed

    Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2015-01-17

    Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks.

  10. A performance evaluation of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) processes within the South African context

    SciTech Connect

    Retief, Francois . E-mail: ggffpr@puk.ac.za

    2007-01-15

    SEA has been described as being more about process than about product. Yet very little research has been conducted to gain a better understanding of how SEA processes perform within developing country contexts. To address this gap in knowledge the research underlying this paper aimed to evaluate the quality of SEA processes within the South African context against specifically designed key performance indicators. Comparison of the different data patterns revealed general SEA process features as well as three broad models, namely the 'stand alone', 'central to decision making' and 'integrated' models. The research results suggest a particularly poor performance in terms of process quality for the SEA case studies investigated. Moreover, it shows that there is no one understanding of SEA process within the South African context. The main limitations related to a weak understanding of the decision making processes SEA aimed to inform, as well as an inability to incorporate flexibility into process design. To take the debate forward it is proposed that SEA follow-up and effectiveness research be explored to determine which of these models (if any) ultimately contributed to influencing decision making and promote sustainability.

  11. Linking national contexts with intellectual capital: a comparison between Spain and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan-Gabriel; Sánchez-Polo, Maria Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The 'national environment', which includes belief and value systems, shapes the way individuals, groups and organisations perceive the world around them and determines how they react to ongoing changes. This paper analyses the role of different context's effects on intellectual capital by means of an empirical investigation of 112 Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the Spanish and Moroccan telecommunication industries. Within the investigation, repeated ANOVA were used, which were validated by factor analysis. Results support that Spanish SMEs are more positively associated with higher levels of human, structural and relational capital. The meaningful differences are clearly found in the 'structural capital'. Our findings open avenues for further research to explore how governments can facilitate learning and unlearning environments in SME communities. These findings have important implications for general intellectual capital theories, as they suggest that there is no guarantee that intellectual capital theories developed within the cultural context of one particular country can be applied in another with good effect. National contexts provide the environment for learning, which in turn may have the effect of adequately improving intellectual capital.

  12. Male Sex Workers: Practices, Contexts, and Vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M. Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E.; Chan, Roy; Caceres, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Summary Male sex workers (MSW) who sell/exchange sex for money or goods comprise an extremely diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterizing their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is very limited, as these men are generally included as subsets of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. MSW, regardless of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men, and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. There is growing evidence of a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some MSW in the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. There are several synergistic facilitator spotentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among MSW, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. The criminalization and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all increase HIV and STI risk for MSW and decrease their likelihood of accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among MSW, define them as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. PMID:25059939

  13. Classroom Contexts for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Various factors influence the development of creative potential, including everything from individual differences to the kinds of experiences and opportunities that creators experience throughout the lifespan. When it comes to nurturing creativity in the classroom, the learning environment is one of the most important factors--determining, in…

  14. Cancer mortality in various countries

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A. J.; Owchar, Margaret

    1957-01-01

    A statistical analysis by sexes was made of the deaths in 1950 and 1951 in eight countries (Australia, Canada, England and Wales, France, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands and the USA) from cancer in the following sites: buccal cavity and pharynx, digestive organs and peritoneum, respiratory system, breast (female), uterus, genital organs (male) and urinary organs. Comparisons between countries were made on the basis of age-adjusted and age-specific death rates. Substantial variations were found for the specific sites of the disease: they are presented in detail in the tables and graphs. PMID:13426758

  15. The Health Impact of Child Labor in Developing Countries: Evidence From Cross-Country Data

    PubMed Central

    Roggero, Paola; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Bustreo, Flavia; Rosati, Furio

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Research on child labor and its effect on health has been limited. We sought to determine the impact of child labor on children’s health by correlating existing health indicators with the prevalence of child labor in selected developing countries. Methods. We analyzed the relationship between child labor (defined as the percentage of children aged 10 to14 years who were workers) and selected health indicators in 83 countries using multiple regression to determine the nature and strength of the relation. The regression included control variables such as the percentage of the population below the poverty line and the adult mortality rate. Results. Child labor was significantly and positively related to adolescent mortality, to a population’s nutrition level, and to the presence of infectious disease. Conclusions. Longitudinal studies are required to understand the short- and long-term health effects of child labor on the individual child. PMID:17194870

  16. Disagreeing in context

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues for contextualism about predicates of personal taste and evaluative predicates in general, and offers a proposal of how apparently resilient disagreements are to be explained. The present proposal is complementary to others that have been made in the recent literature. Several authors, for instance (López de Sa, 2008; Sundell, 2011; Huvenes, 2012; Marques and García-Carpintero, 2014; Marques, 2014a), have recently defended semantic contextualism for those kinds of predicates from the accusation that it faces the problem of lost disagreement. These authors have proposed that a proper account of the resilient disagreement in the cases studied is to be achieved by an appeal to pragmatic processes, and to conflicting non-doxastic attitudes. It is argued here that the existing contextualist solutions are incomplete as they stand, and are subject to objections because of this. A supplementation of contextualism is offered, together with an explanation of why failed presuppositions of commonality (López de Sa), disputes over the appropriateness of a contextually salient standard (Sundell), and differences in non-doxastic attitudes (Sundell, Huvenes, Marques, and García-Carpintero) give rise to conflicts. This paper claims that conflicts of attitudes are the reason why people still have impressions of disagreement in spite of failed commonality presuppositions, that those conflicts drive metalinguistic disputes over the selection of appropriate standards, and hence conflicting non-doxastic attitudes demand an explanation that is independent of those context dependent pragmatic processes. The paper further argues that the missing explanation is 2-fold: first, disagreement prevails where the properties expressed by taste and value predicates are response-dependent properties, and, secondly, it prevails where those response-dependent properties are involved in evolved systems of coordination that respond to evolutionarily recurrent situations. PMID

  17. Flavor comparison of natural cheeses manufactured in different countries.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Chambers, Delores H

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the main flavor components of different natural aged cheese types from various countries and determine whether a unique sensory characteristic exists within specific countries for European cheeses. The flavor of 152 cheeses from Estonia, France, Italy, Germany, Holland, Austria, England, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium, and Denmark were described during 4 independent studies. The sensory data from these studies were combined. The cheeses were sorted according to milk type and texture, and flavor characteristics of these groups were described. The main flavor characteristics of the cheeses tested were salty, sweet, sour, astringent, biting, pungent, sharp, nutty, musty/earthy, dairy fat, buttery, and dairy sweet. The cluster analysis divided the cheeses into 4 clusters: clusters 1 and 2 were sour, dairy sour, salty, astringent, biting, and varied in buttery (cluster 1) and sharp notes (cluster 2). Cluster 1 and 2 were mainly composed of French cheeses, while clusters 3 and 4 represented cheeses from various countries. Cluster 3 and 4 were sweet, with cooked milk and nutty characteristics and varied from buttery (cluster 3) to sharp notes (cluster 4). Cheeses from some countries, for example, France and Estonia, generally exhibited common sensory characteristics within the specific country, but cheeses from some other countries, such as Italy, varied widely, and seemed to have no common sensory theme. Most regional cheese standards are not specific about flavor profiles and these results suggest it may be possible to start a further characterization of cheeses in some countries.

  18. The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Schultz, Tim

    2006-09-01

    these papers, meta-synthesis of the results was not possible. For this reason, this section of the review is presented in narrative form. In this review, a descriptive study and a textual opinion paper examined the cultural relevancy of borrowed curriculum models, and the global influence of American nursing. Another two opinion papers evaluated the adaptability of another country curriculum models in their countries. Conclusion  The evidence regarding the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries is weak because of the paucity of high-quality studies. However, some lower-level evidence suggesting that direct transfer of the curriculum model from one country to another is not appropriate without first assessing the cultural context of both countries. Second, the approach of considering international, regional and local experiences more feasible and presumably a more effective strategy for adapting of a country's curriculum into a culturally or economically different country.

  19. Non-context-free grammars generating context-free languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    If G is a grammar such that in each non-context-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side, then the language generated by G is context free. Six previous results follow as corollaries of this theorem.

  20. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  1. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  2. Country Paper--Japan (Employers').

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiyama, Narumi

    Japanese industrialization started later than in other countries and thus relied at first on foreign-trained persons. Soon, however, Japanese companies began systems of in-house training for their employees. Eventually, some companies paid tuition for their employees to attend night schools at educational institutions and even to study abroad.…

  3. Hampshire Country School Staff Commitments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampshire Country School, Rindge, NH.

    Intended for professional personnel of the Hampshire Country School, which treats gifted children with immobilizing emotional dysfunctions, the handbook specifies staff commitments. The Code of Ethics, adapted from the National Education Association Code as supplemented by The Council for Exceptional Children, sets forth four principles:…

  4. Screening, Deschooling and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Keith

    1975-01-01

    Examines the present debate surrounding deschooling (abolition or non-setting up of schools) particularly hypotheses regarding the use of schooling as a screening device for occupational selection. Analyzes its relevance for low-income, low-schooling countries in light of recent data from Northern Nigeria on education and labor productivity. (JT)

  5. Knowledge Translation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, Nancy; Tugwell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the application of knowledge in developing countries is failing. One reason is the woeful shortage of health workers, but as this is redressed, it is also crucial that we have an evidence base of what works to minimize the "know-do gap." The World Health Organization and other international organizations are…

  6. Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen Jr.; Howell, James C.; Mendenhall, Barbara; Armstrong, Troy

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has surveyed law enforcement agencies across the nation about youth gang activity. Because tribal police departments were not included in earlier surveys, however, youth gang activities in Indian country have been largely absent from survey findings. This Bulletin describes the nature and makeup…

  7. Gasoline demand in developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents econometric estimates of motor gasoline demand in eleven developing countries of Asia. The price and GDP per capita elasticities are estimated for each country separately, and for several pooled combinations of the countries. The estimated elasticities for the Asian countries are compared with those of the OECD countries. Generally, one finds that the OECD countries have GDP elasticities that are smaller, and price elasticities that are larger (in absolute value). The price elasticities for the low-income Asian countries are more inelastic than for the middle-income Asian countries, and the GDP elasticities are generally more elastic. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. [Female employment and fertility in developing countries: what does the World Fertility Survey tell us?].

    PubMed

    Poirier, J; Piche, V; Neill, G

    1989-01-01

    This work reviews the general objectives of the World Fertility Survey (WFS), the theoretical basis and objectives of the questions on female employment and fertility, and their results and interpretations in an effort to assess the usefulness of the WFS in understanding the links between female employment and fertility in developing countries. 42 developing countries participated in the WFS from 1974-82. The 14 questions on female employment were the only ones in the basic questionnaire that had an explicit theoretical foundation. The questions reflected 2 interrelated approaches to differential fertility behavior prevalent in social demography, those of role incompatibility and of sex role orientation. The WFS definition of work as including all productive activity except household occupations was accepted by only 26 of the 42 developing countries. The results of major studies comparing WFS results from at least 10 countries using multivariate analytical techniques have been confusing and contradictory in the area of female employment and fertility. The studies have used varying dependent and independent variables and have defined work status in different ways in attempts to distinguish between paid and unpaid work, work at home or outside the home, and work at different stages of the life cycle. Some analysts have concluded on the basis of WFS data that there is no systematic relationship between female employment and fertility in developing countries and that a detailed focus on questions about employment represents a misuse of resources. It appears more likely that the concepts chosen and their application were responsible for the lack of clear results. The exclusion of "house occupations" in the definition of work may have serious consequences in the context of developing countries, where such work may be essential to the survival of most households. Interviewers had responsibility for determining the principal occupation of women with more than 1 and juding

  9. Smiling virtual agent in social context.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Magalie; Niewiadomski, Radoslaw; Brunet, Paul; Pelachaud, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    A smile may communicate different communicative intentions depending on subtle characteristics of the facial expression. In this article, we propose an algorithm to determine the morphological and dynamic characteristics of virtual agent's smiles of amusement, politeness, and embarrassment. The algorithm has been defined based on a virtual agent's smiles corpus constructed by users and analyzed with a decision tree classification technique. An evaluation, in different contexts, of the resulting smiles has enabled us to validate the proposed algorithm.

  10. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Roberts, Dale C.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gains) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. Our earlier work demonstrated this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for saccadic eye movements: we asked for gain decrease in one context state and gain increase in another context state, and then determined if a change in the context state would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal and vertical eye position and head orientation could serve, to varying degrees, as cues for switching between two different saccade gains. In the present study, we asked whether gravity magnitude could serve as a context cue: saccade adaptation was performed during parabolic flight, which provides alternating levels of gravitoinertial force (0 g and 1.8 g). Results were less robust than those from ground experiments, but established that different saccade magnitudes could be associated with different gravity levels.

  11. Loss of nondrug reinforcement in one context produces alcohol seeking in another context.

    PubMed

    Pyszczynski, Adam D; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    In the resurgence preparation, extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increases when food reinforcement introduced into the same context during extinction is also subsequently removed. However, drug and nondrug reinforcers may often be obtained in separate specific contexts. Accordingly, we aimed to determine whether extinguished behavior previously maintained by alcohol would increase upon elimination of nondrug reinforcement within a multiple schedule arranging distinct discriminative stimulus contexts of food and alcohol availability. In Experiment 1, rats earned food or alcohol in alternating stimulus contexts within a multiple schedule. First, alcohol-maintained responding was extinguished and then food deliveries in the alternating component were also discontinued. Extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increased upon discontinuation of food deliveries. However, periods of alcohol availability alternated with periods of extinction during a portion of training; thus, elimination of food reinforcers during the resurgence test may have inadvertently served as a cue for alcohol availability. In Experiment 2, the training phase that complicated interpretation of the results of Experiment 1 was eliminated. Alcohol-maintained responding again increased when food-maintained responding was placed on extinction in the other component. The present results indicate that loss of nondrug reinforcement in one discriminative context can increase extinguished alcohol seeking in another context and that multiple schedules of reinforcement might be useful for examining such effects.

  12. Climate change and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Antle, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Most analysts agree that the poorest countries` agricultures are likely to be the most vulnerable to-and least capable of adapting to-climate change or other environmental disruptions. Research has only recently begun to assess what the likely impacts of climate change on developing countries` agricultures may be, how these agricultures might adapt to climate change, and how policies might be designed to facilitate adaptation. This paper begins with a discussion of what researchers currently believe the impacts of climate change could be on developing country agriculture, principally tropical agriculture. Climate changes are expected to occur from thirty to more than one hundred years in the future. These time horizons mean that predictions of the key factors determining impacts and adaptation-population, income, institutions, and technology-are probably as uncertain as predictions of climate change itself. Rates of productivity growth and technological adaptation will be critical to future food supplies, with or without climate change. Continuation of the trend of the past forty years could make so abundant that climate change effects would be inconsequential, but lower rates of growth could result in population growth outstripping food supplies. The second section of this paper addresses the critical issue of predicting the long-term trend in productivity by building on the substantial knowledge we have about the economic factors determining agricultural innovation and adaptation. Considering the time horizons and uncertainties involved in climate change, the wise policy strategy is to pursue investments that are economically justified, whether or not climate change occurs. A better understanding of managed ecosystems would improve our understanding of agricultural sustainability as well as climate change impacts and adaptation. The third section of this paper outlines an economic approach to modeling managed ecosystems. 21 refs.

  13. Interval Recognition in Minimal Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzkin, Merton

    1984-01-01

    Music majors were asked to identify interval when it was either preceded or followed by a tone moving in the same direction. Difficulties in interval recognition in context appear to be an effect not just of placement within the context or of tonality, but of particular combinations of these aspects. (RM)

  14. Popular Culture, Methods, and Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Responds to an earlier article that argues that the dominance of communicative language teaching (CLT) has led to the neglect of one crucial aspect of language pedagogy, namely the context in which that pedagogy takes place. Suggests that it is time to replace CLT as the central paradigm in language teaching with a context approach. (Author/VWL)

  15. Language Teaching and Its Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The title of this new journal provides opportunity to review the many contexts which need to be taken into account in reflecting upon foreign language teaching. These contexts include the educational, the fact that much language teaching takes place within general educational and often compulsory educational settings and institutions. Learners…

  16. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  17. The Context Oriented Training Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavrini, Andrea

    The Context Oriented Training (COT) method is introduced and explored in this paper. COT is a means of improving the training process, beginning with the observation and analysis of current corporate experiences in the field. The learning context lies between the development of professional competencies in training and the operational side in the…

  18. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  19. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  20. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  1. Social Determinants of Infectious Diseases in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ide, Seydou; Ghosh, Sharmistha

    2014-01-01

    South Asian countries have developed infectious disease control programs such as routine immunization, vaccination, and the provision of essential drugs which are operating nationwide in cooperation with many local and foreign NGOs. Most South Asian countries have a relatively low prevalence of HIV/AIDS until now, but issues like poverty, food insecurity, illiteracy, poor sanitation, and social stigma around AIDS are widespread and are creating formidable challenges to prevention of further spread of this epidemic. Besides that, resurgence of tuberculosis along with the emergence of the drug resistant (MDR-TB and XDRTB) strains and the coepidemic of TB and HIV are posing ever-growing threats to the underdeveloped healthcare infrastructure. The countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition where the disease burden is gradually shifting to noncommunicable diseases, but the infectious diseases still account for almost half of the total disease burden. Despite this huge burden of infectious diseases in South Asia, which is second only to Africa, there is yet any study on the social determinants of infectious diseases in a local context. This paper examines various issues surrounding the social determinants of infectious diseases in South Asian countries with a special reference to HIV and tuberculosis. And, by doing so, it attempts to provide a framework for formulating more efficient prevention and intervention strategies for the future. PMID:27350969

  2. Context-driven expectations about focus alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Christina S.; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Runner, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    What is conveyed by a sentence frequently depends not only on the descriptive content carried by its words, but also on implicit alternatives determined by the context of use. Four visual world eye-tracking experiments examined how alternatives are generated based on aspects of the discourse context and used in interpreting sentences containing the focus operators only and also. Experiment 1 builds on previous reading time studies showing that the interpretations of only sentences are constrained by alternatives explicitly mentioned in the preceding discourse, providing fine-grained time course information about the expectations triggered by only. Experiments 2 and 3 show that, in the absence of explicitly mentioned alternatives, lexical and situation-based categories evoked by the context are possible sources of alternatives. While Experiments 1-3 all demonstrate the discourse dependence of alternatives, only explicit mention triggered expectations about alternatives that were specific to sentences with only. By comparing only with also, Experiment 4 begins to disentangle expectations linked to the meanings of specific operators from those generalizable to the class of focus-sensitive operators. Together, these findings show that the interpretation of sentences with focus operators draws on both dedicated mechanisms for introducing alternatives into the discourse context and general mechanisms associated with discourse processing. PMID:25797456

  3. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  4. Ethical considerations for designing GBS maternal vaccine efficacy trials in low-middle income countries.

    PubMed

    White, Amina; Madhi, Shabir A

    2015-11-25

    Many in the scientific community agree that a randomized, placebo-controlled trial would offer the most scientifically rigorous study design for establishing the efficacy of a Group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccine administered to pregnant women for the prevention of invasive GBS disease in young infants. There are compelling reasons to conduct such a trial in low-middle income countries (LMICs) with a high burden of disease, such as South Africa, and to adopt an add-on trial design in which participants are randomized to receive the GBS vaccine or placebo in addition to the locally available standard of care. Yet there is a longstanding debate about whether trials in LMICs should offer participants the worldwide best available standard of care. In this article, we examine both the risk-benefit profile and the potential for exploitation with an add-on trial design in the context of the locally available standard of care in South Africa. Our analysis suggests that providing the local standard of care to participants in this case may be not only more scientifically valuable but also more ethically acceptable than attempting to provide the worldwide best available standard of care in the South African setting. Moreover, the example of GBS in the South African setting can help to elucidate important ethical considerations for determining the acceptability of testing vaccine efficacy in the context of locally available rather than the worldwide best available standard of care in Phase III trials of other new maternal vaccines.

  5. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity.

  6. Appraisal of Risk Perception in Occupational Health and Safety Research in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Hilhorst

    1996-10-01

    This paper addresses scientists in the field of occupational health and safety, with a special emphasis on research in developing countries. The article is based on findings of and a method used in a recent study of occupational health and safety in mines in Africa and Latin America. Dialog between technical experts and social scientists is needed to synthesize the values of society and the facts of nature into policy decisions that are both politically legitimate and consistent with the current state of technical knowledge. The author asks how researchers in the field of occupational health can take two axioms of the social sciences into account: 1) the concept of human agency, and 2) the notion that risk perception is socially constructed: rather than being determined by "real" risks, it is shaped by the adversarial context of, among other factors, the nature of labor relations, values in society, and personal histories. With regard to first axiom, it is shown why actors' risk perceptions and their context need indeed to be taken seriously. With regard to the second, a methodologic outline is given to complement technical research on occupational hygiene with risk-perception appraisal. The method is actor-oriented, building on the perceptions, views, and opinions of the different groups of relevant actors. Systematic integration of this method into technological studies could enrich them, contributing substantially to their applicability.

  7. THPI: Its Role in the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Handicapped in the Context of Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Thakur V. Hari

    The paper reports on efforts of the Thakur Hari Prasad Institute (THPI), an Indian voluntary agency, to improve services to persons with mental retardation in the developing nation of India. THPI is involved in both institutional and non-institutional activities, development of national policy, and action research. One project has provided early…

  8. New Perspectives on the Pedagogy of Programming in a Developing Country Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Programming education is a widely researched and intensely discussed topic. The literature proposes a broad variety of pedagogical viewpoints, practical approaches, learning theories, motivational vehicles, and other elements of the learning situation. However, little effort has been put on understanding cultural and contextual differences in…

  9. Adolescents and Youth in Developing Countries: Health and Development Issues in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatusi, Adesegun O.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of transition, marked by physical, psychological, and cognitive changes underpin by biological factors. Today's generation of young people--the largest in history--is approaching adulthood in a world vastly different from previous generations; AIDS, globalisation, urbanisation, electronic communication, migration, and…

  10. Country Road-Level Bureaucracy: Special Education in the Context of Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capper, Colleen A.

    Rural poverty causes implementation of P.L. 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, to be uniquely different from urban implementation. Rural areas may try to emulate urban policies, where it is possible to identify and group severely handicapped children for appropriate services, but in rural areas the availability of…

  11. Social Capital, Cultural Values, Immigration, and Academic Achievement: The Host Country Context and Contradictory Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankston, Carl L., III

    2004-01-01

    Social-capital explanations of school outcomes, particularly of the school outcomes of immigrant children and children of immigrants, have come into wide use in recent years. These explanations attempt to account for individual or group variations in school performance by viewing the family and community relations that surround children as forms…

  12. Understanding HMIS Implementation in a Developing Country Ministry of Health Context - an Institutional Logics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Asangansi, Ime

    2012-01-01

    Globally, health management information systems (HMIS) have been hailed as important tools for health reform (1). However, their implementation has become a major challenge for researchers and practitioners because of the significant proportion of failure of implementation efforts (2; 3). Researchers have attributed this significant failure of HMIS implementation, in part, to the complexity of meeting with and satisfying multiple (poorly understood) logics in the implementation process. This paper focuses on exploring the multiple logics, including how they may conflict and affect the HMIS implementation process. Particularly, I draw on an institutional logics perspective to analyze empirical findings from an action research project, which involved HMIS implementation in a state government Ministry of Health in (Northern) Nigeria. The analysis highlights the important HMIS institutional logics, where they conflict and how they are resolved. I argue for an expanded understanding of HMIS implementation that recognizes various institutional logics that participants bring to the implementation process, and how these are inscribed in the decision making process in ways that may be conflicting, and increasing the risk of failure. Furthermore, I propose that the resolution of conflicting logics can be conceptualized as involving deinstitutionalization, changeover resolution or dialectical resolution mechanisms. I conclude by suggesting that HMIS implementation can be improved by implementation strategies that are made based on an understanding of these conflicting logics. PMID:23569646

  13. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  14. Transition in Education: Policy Making and the Key Educational Policy Areas in the Central-European and Baltic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rado, Peter

    This report examines transition in educational systems and identifies key policy areas in Central-Eastern European countries. It summarizes policy implications of the transition process within the educational context of these countries. Chapter 1, "Transition and Education," outlines key characteristics of the transition process and…

  15. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  16. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  17. A Pattern-Based Definition of Urban Context Using Remote Sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Benza, Magdalena; Weeks, John R; Stow, Douglas A; López-Carr, David; Clarke, Keith C

    2016-09-15

    In Sub-Saharan Africa rapid urban growth combined with rising poverty is creating diverse urban environments, the nature of which are not adequately captured by a simple urban-rural dichotomy. This paper proposes an alternative classification scheme for urban mapping based on a gradient approach for the southern portion of the West African country of Ghana. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and European Remote Sensing Satellite-2 (ERS-2) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are used to generate a pattern based definition of the urban context. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is used to classify a Landsat scene into Built, Vegetation and Other land covers. Landscape metrics are estimated for Built and Vegetation land covers for a 450 meter uniform grid covering the study area. A measure of texture is extracted from the SAR imagery and classified as Built/Non-built. SMA based measures of Built and Vegetation fragmentation are combined with SAR texture based Built/Non-built maps through a decision tree classifier to generate a nine class urban context map capturing the transition from unsettled land at one end of the gradient to the compact urban core at the other end. Training and testing of the decision tree classifier was done using very high spatial resolution reference imagery from Google Earth. An overall classification agreement of 77% was determined for the nine-class urban context map, with user's accuracy (commission errors) being lower than producer's accuracy (omission errors). Nine urban contexts were classified and then compared with data from the 2000 Census of Ghana. Results suggest that the urban classes appropriately differentiate areas along the urban gradient.

  18. Pneumonia in low and middle income countries: progress and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zar, H J; Madhi, S A; Aston, S J; Gordon, S B

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia remains the leading cause of childhood mortality and the most common reason for adult hospitalisation in low and middle income countries, despite advances in preventative and management strategies. In the last decade, pneumonia mortality in children has fallen to approximately 1.3 million cases in 2011, with most deaths occurring in low income countries. Important recent advances include more widespread implementation of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae, implementation of case-management algorithms and better prevention and treatment of HIV. Determining the aetiology of pneumonia is challenging in the absence of reliable diagnostic tests. High uptake of new bacterial conjugate vaccines may impact on pneumonia burden, aetiology and empiric therapy but implementation in immunisation programmes in many low and middle income countries remains an obstacle. Widespread implementation of currently effective preventative and management strategies for pneumonia remains challenging in many low and middle income countries. PMID:23956020

  19. The influence of educational context on science learning: a cross-national analysis of PISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Dahsah, Chanyah; Faikhamta, Chatree

    2010-04-01

    The literature is replete with studies about the importance of context in relation to teaching and learning. Major international studies such as PISA, among others, attempt to develop an understanding of achievement in science learning in a variety of educational contexts. Here we explore the influence of educational context itself on science learning as measured by PISA. Comparison is made between two countries: one developed or 'western' nation, New Zealand, and one non-western developing nation from southeast Asia, Thailand. In this work the authors seek to establish links between the nature of the educational context (based on Lave's notion of situated cognition) and achievement in the PISA science evaluation exercise.

  20. Faculty research productivity in six Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-10-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The study revealed a lack of capacity of HEIs to provide quality data, raising issues concerning institutional excellence and transparency. Those data which were available were analysed using a number of statistical methods. The result is that faculty research output in the Arab world is relatively low, confirming the existing notion of a lagging knowledge sector in the region. While traditional scholarship has focused on institutional factors such as budgetary allocation as one prime determinant of research productivity, this study claims that other factors need to be considered in explaining the low output, with broad implications for policy formulation. Such factors include overall satisfaction levels of academic staff, socialisation of faculty staff members into a research climate, and university mission vis-à-vis academic research. Given the distinct paucity of studies on faculty research productivity in HEIs in the Arab region, this study seeks to bridge this gap in the literature by providing original data derived from six Arab countries. The authors aim to provide a basis for further research into this topic.

  1. The bioethics of medical research in very poor countries.

    PubMed

    Tausig, Mark; Subedi, Sree; Subedi, Janardan

    2007-04-01

    Sociologists have had only a marginal effect on the development of bioethical principles for medical research despite their interest in the effects of social and economic inequality on health and its implications for issues of social and individual justice. In this article we review existing bioethical standards for conducting medical research in very poor countries. Given the substantial differences in individual exposure to health risks and the availability of health protective resources as well as differences in the disease burden and mortality and morbidity at the population level, it is clear that illness in poor countries can be better understood using a social causation of illness perspective. In turn we suggest that such a perspective can be useful for identifying bioethical standards that better apply in this context.

  2. Considerations for sustainable influenza vaccine production in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nannei, Claudia; Chadwick, Christopher; Fatima, Hiba; Goldin, Shoshanna; Grubo, Myriam; Ganim, Alexandra

    2016-10-26

    Through its Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the United States Department of Health and Human Services has produced a checklist to support policy-makers and influenza vaccine manufacturers in identifying key technological, political, financial, and logistical issues affecting the sustainability of influenza vaccine production. This checklist highlights actions in five key areas that are beneficial for establishing successful local vaccine manufacturing. These five areas comprise: (1) the policy environment and health-care systems; (2) surveillance systems and influenza evidence; (3) product development and manufacturing; (4) product approval and regulation; and (5) communication to support influenza vaccination. Incorporating the checklist into national vaccine production programmes has identified the policy gaps and next steps for countries involved in GAP's Technology Transfer Initiative. Lessons learnt from country experiences provide context and insight that complement the checklist's goal of simplifying the complexities of influenza prevention, preparedness, and vaccine manufacturing.

  3. Key statistics related to CO/sub 2/ emissions: Significant contributing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kellogg, M.A.; Edmonds, J.A.; Scott, M.J.; Pomykala, J.S.

    1987-07-01

    This country selection task report describes and applies a methodology for identifying a set of countries responsible for significant present and anticipated future emissions of CO/sub 2/ and other radiatively important gases (RIGs). The identification of countries responsible for CO/sub 2/ and other RIGs emissions will help determine to what extent a select number of countries might be capable of influencing future emissions. Once identified, those countries could potentially exercise cooperative collective control of global emissions and thus mitigate the associated adverse affects of those emissions. The methodology developed consists of two approaches: the resource approach and the emissions approach. While conceptually very different, both approaches yield the same fundamental conclusion. The core of any international initiative to control global emissions must include three key countries: the US, USSR, and the People's Republic of China. It was also determined that broader control can be achieved through the inclusion of sixteen additional countries with significant contributions to worldwide emissions.

  4. Strengthening International Collaboration: Geosciences Research and Education in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2009-05-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches and global integration. Global warming, increasing CO2 levels and increased needs of mineral and energy resources emphasize impact of human activities. The planetary view of our Earth as a deeply complex interconnected system also emphasizes the need of international scientific cooperation. International collaboration presents an immense potential and is urgently needed for further development of geosciences research and education. In analyzing international collaboration a relevant aspect is the role of scientific societies. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities and can further assist communities in developing countries providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems. Most countries urgently require improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources and identification of major problems and needs. Questions may include what are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? what and how should international collaboration do? and what are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to examine some of these questions with reference to case examples and AGU role. We focus on current situation, size and characteristics of research community, education programs, facilities, economic support, and then move to perspectives for potential development in an international context.

  5. Addressing the Challenges of Conducting Research in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Amerson, Roxanne M.; Strang, Cecily W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the unique challenges that occur when conducting research in developing countries so the reader can consider approaches for providing ethically and culturally-appropriate research strategies applicable for the context of the host country. Organizing Construct This article presents an overview of the challenges, which are organized based on the phases of the research period: pre-enrollment, enrollment, and post-enrollment. At each stage, examples of adaptation to meet the challenges are presented and recommendations are posited. Conclusions Strategies for research should protect the rights of the most vulnerable and disadvantaged populations while balancing the needs of society at-large, provide culturally relevant ethical informed consent while balancing institutional review board requirements, and conduct research in a culturally-appropriate manner for the host country while balancing the principles of ethical research established by developed countries. Clinical Relevance Researchers are implored to focus on the ethical and cultural appropriateness of each aspect of the study process to afford the highest level of research credibility and validity. PMID:26444697

  6. Disability in low-income countries: issues and implications.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Penny; Cameron, Debra; Christie, Nancy; Cockburn, Lynn; Hashemi, Goli; Yoshida, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted for the Canadian International Development Agency by The International Centre for Disability and Rehabilitation at the University of Toronto. We critically examined the broad literature in the area of disability and development and in this article we identify the key issues which emerged. Most of the data were collected from existing literature in the academic and practice settings and from the publications of key NGOs and governments. We first, examine disability in the context of low-income countries, and then discuss key critical issues: disability and poverty, disability and health, disability and education, disability and gender, disability and children/youth, disability and conflict/natural disasters and disability and human rights. In all these areas we find reports of discrimination, stigmatisation and marginalisation. We conclude that, as we address issues of multi-cultural disability services in developed countries, it is important to bear in mind the various issues that many people with disabilities and their families bring with them as the result of immigrating from a developing country. Although we address these issues within our own countries, we must bear in mind the changes that are occurring due to globalisation.

  7. Economic impact of transgenic crops in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Raney, Terri

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic crops are being adopted rapidly at the global level, but only a few developing countries are growing them in significant quantities. Why are these crops so successful in some countries but not in others? Farm level profitability ultimately determines whether farmers adopt and retain a new technology, but this depends on much more than technical performance. Recent economic studies in developing countries find positive, but highly variable, economic returns to adopting transgenic crops. These studies confirm that institutional factors such as national agricultural research capacity, environmental and food safety regulations, intellectual property rights and agricultural input markets matter at least as much as the technology itself in determining the level and distribution of economic benefits.

  8. Population and growth causality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kapuria-foreman, V

    1995-07-01

    This study empirically tests the null hypotheses of no causality between population growth and economic growth and of no causality between economic growth and population growth in 15 developing countries. The model follows the Cheng Hsiao form with lag lengths to minimize Akaike's Final Prediction Error (FPE). Equations are run separately for each country. Lag lengths and Granger causality test were chosen according to three steps. 1) Each of the variables was regressed on its own lagged values with a maximum lag of five years. A lag length was chosen that minimized FPE, which was calculated for each regression. 2) Bivariate regressions were run with a fixed lag length for population growth and mixed lag lengths for the other variable, until the lag length which minimized FPE was determined. 3) The last step involved checking the lag length of population growth by keeping the lag fixed for economic growth. The economic growth measure was gross domestic product per capita. Findings indicate that in seven countries the null hypothesis of no causality between population growth and economic growth, either positive or negative, cannot be rejected (Ghana, Sri Lanka, Bolivia, Philippines, Syria, Thailand, and Argentina). In Nepal, India, China, Guatemala, Peru, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico lagged values of population growth improve predictions of economic growth. Higher economic growth has no significant effect on population growth rates in Nepal, Bolivia, Philippines, Guatemala, Peru, Thailand, Argentina, and Mexico. Interaction between economic growth and population growth was found in India, China, Turkey, and Chile. The direction of causation tests indicate that population growth has a significant positive impact on income growth in China, Guatemala, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico. India shows a negative impact of population growth on income. A significant negative impact of economic growth on population growth is evident only in Sri Lanka. There is weak evidence of a

  9. Context Switch Effects and Context Experience in Rats' Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Samuel P.; Callejas-Aguilera, Jose E.; Rosas, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Context specificity of rats' conditioned taste aversion as a function of context experience was assessed in two experiments. Rats received a single pairing between a flavor X and a LiCl injection in a distinctive context (context A) being subsequently tested either in the same context or in a different but equally familiar context (context B).…

  10. Transfer from classical mechanics context to electricity and magnetism context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Maria D.; Kanim, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    Some classical mechanics concepts, like density, vectors use, conservative fields, 3^rd Newton Law, velocity and acceleration physical and mathematical relations, are the basis for the development of related concepts that are central to the subsequent electricity and magnetism course. We believe that if students and instructors involved recognize the underlying features that are common to the two contexts, a better understanding and performance will be achieved. We are developing a pre- and post-test that is intended to measure the extent to which (1) students enter the electricity and magnetism course with a sufficient mechanics foundation; (2) there is a correlation between student responses to similar questions in mechanics and electrostatics contexts; and (3) mechanics understanding is strengthened through reintroduction of physics principles in a second context. We will give examples of ``paired'' questions and give data from administrations of the pre- and post-tests.

  11. Gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged in Europe: the role of social context and women’s empowerment

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Borrell, Carme; Bartroli, Montse; Guitart, Anna M.; Villalbí, Joan R.; Brugal, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged people and to analyse whether these differences are associated with contextual factors, such as public policies or socioeconomic factors. Methods: Cross-sectional design. The study population included 50- to 64-year-old residents of 16 European countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project conducted in 2010–12 (n = 26 017). We estimated gender differences in hazardous drinking in each country. To determine whether different social context or women’s empowerment variables were associated with gender differences in hazardous drinking, we fitted multilevel Poisson regression models adjusted for various individual and country-level variables, which yielded prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Prevalence of hazardous drinking was significantly higher in men than women [30.2% (95% CI: 29.1–31.4%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 17.7–19.4%), respectively] in most countries, although the extent of these differences varied between countries. Among individuals aged 50–64 years in Europe, risk of becoming a hazardous drinker was 1.69 times higher (95% CI: 1.45–1.97) in men, after controlling for individual and country-level variables. We also found that lower values of the gender empowerment measure and higher unemployment rates were associated with higher gender differences in hazardous drinking. Conclusion: Countries with the greatest gender differences in hazardous drinking were those with the most restrictions on women’s behaviour, and the greatest gender inequalities in daily life. Lower gender differences in hazardous drinking seem to be related to higher consumption among women. PMID:25616593

  12. 75 FR 3248 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1... industry in the United States is threatened with material injury by reason of imports from China of certain... Commerce ] (Commerce) to be subsidized by the Government of China. 2 3 \\1\\ The record is defined in...

  13. Designing Political Institutions for Multi-Ethnic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Kurt

    Although the American political system is characterized by commitment to democracy and self-determination, the American government has traditionally taken an interest in the political development of other countries. The recent intervention of the U.S. in the political development of Southwest Africa/Namibia is an example. In the body of this paper…

  14. An outbreak of Q fever in the Basque country.

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre Errasti, C; Montejo Baranda, M; Hernandez Almaraz, J L; de la Hoz Torres, C; Martinez Gutierrez, E; Villate Navarro, J L; Sobradillo Peña, V

    1984-01-01

    The main clinical manifestations of 42 cases of Q fever occurring in an outbreak in Valmaseda, Spain during March, April and May 1982 are described in this paper. The benign character of the acute disease is emphasized. Further epidemiologic studies must be done to determine the incidence of Q fever in the Basque country. PMID:6733648

  15. Economic Roles of Children in Low-Income Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Gerry; Standing, Guy

    1981-01-01

    Proposes a classification into nine categories of children's work activities in low-income countries. Considers the structural determinants of child work and its principal economic consequences. Critically assesses the potential role of labor and welfare policies in reducing, if not eliminating child labor. (Author/CT)

  16. Caste Structures and E-Governance in a Developing Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de', Rahul

    Castes, or endogamous kinship relationships, are prevalent in communities across the world and particularly in developing countries. Caste plays a strong role in determining community structures and political power. However, the role of caste as a factor in shaping e-governance design and outcomes is absent in the literature. This paper addresses this particular gap by examining some cases from India.

  17. Occupational Safety and Health Systems: A Three-Country Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    This article compares the occupational safety and health systems of Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, looking at the origins of their legislation and its effects on occupational safety and health, with a view to determining what lessons may emerge, particularly for developing countries. (Author/SSH)

  18. Importance of work environments on hospital outcomes in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Clarke, Sean; Poghosyan, Lusine; Cho, Eunhee; You, Liming; Finlayson, Mary; Kanai-Pak, Masako; Aungsuroch, Yupin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of hospital work environments on hospital outcomes across multiple countries. Design Primary survey data using a common instrument were collected from separate cross sections of 98 116 bedside care nurses practising in 1406 hospitals in 9 countries between 1999 and 2009. Main Outcome Measures Nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, patient readiness for hospital discharge and quality of patient care. Results High nurse burnout was found in hospitals in all countries except Germany, and ranged from roughly a third of nurses to about 60% of nurses in South Korea and Japan. Job dissatisfaction among nurses was close to 20% in most countries and as high as 60% in Japan. Close to half or more of nurses in every country lacked confidence that patients could care for themselves following discharge. Quality-of-care rated as fair or poor varied from 11% in Canada to 68% in South Korea. Between one-quarter and one-third of hospitals in each country were judged to have poor work environments. Working in a hospital with a better work environment was associated with significantly lower odds of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction and with better quality-of-care outcomes. Conclusions Poor hospital work environments are common and are associated with negative outcomes for nurses and quality of care. Improving work environments holds promise for nurse retention and better quality of patient care. PMID:21561979

  19. Spectroscopy methods for identifying the country of origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondrogiannis, Ellen; Ehrlinger, Erin; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2013-05-01

    There is a need in many industries and government functions to identify the source of origin for various materials. For example, the food industry needs to ensure that the claimed source of some of the food products (e.g. coffee, spices) are in fact legitimate due to the variation of quality from different source locations world-wide. Another example is to identify the source country for imported commodities going through Customs so as to assess the correct tariff which varies depending on the source country. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) holds promise for being a field-portable tool for rapid identification of the country of origin of various materials. Recent research at Towson University has identified the elemental markers needed for discrimination of select spices back to their country of origin using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The WDXRF device, however, is not particularly suitable for convenient and fast field analysis. We are extending this study to evaluate the potential of a benchtop commercial LIBS device that could be located at ports of entry and to compare its performance with WDXRF. Our initial study on the spice cumin has demonstrated that discriminant function models can not only be created with 100% separation between the 4 countries of origin (China, India, Syria, and Turkey), but also when tested they show 100% correct matching to the country of origin. This study adds to the growing number of publications that indicate the power of LIBS elemental fingerprinting for provenance determinations.

  20. A bottom-up assessment method of limitations to and vulnerability of energy supply in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissner, Tabea; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Sufficient energy access is essential for development and adequate livelihood conditions, as the majority of societal activities depend on reliable and sufficient energy. Especially in developing and threshold countries, energy access remains limited and intermittent. Moreover, compared to developed countries, often the expenditures for energy constitute a huge part of the available money. The vulnerability of energy systems to the impacts of climate change differs depending on the utilized source of energy. A special characteristic of developing and threshold countries is the fact that the spatial heterogeneity of the energy supply structure, especially between urban and rural regions, is generally larger than in developed countries, while the adaptive capacity of people is often much lower. A sound consideration of these complex conditions is a necessary basis for determining in how far climate change impacts can further diminish energy access in regions, where energy access is already limited. The topic of energy vulnerability has often been addressed for developed countries, but assessments for less developed countries remain scarce. On the one hand, data needed for energy vulnerability assessments, as they exist for the developed world, is usually not available. On the other hand, existing assessment methods for the developed world are often not transferable because they focus on specific supply infrastructure or energy carriers. Transferability is also hindered by the large differences in energy access and energy use patterns. We propose a novel approach to assess domestic energy supply vulnerability, by reversing the usual chain of assessment. On the basis of a basket of household energy needs for different purposes, we first assess which sources are used in order to fulfil specific energy needs. By focussing on the regionally specific energy carriers, we are able to significantly reduce data needs and assess directly, how energy vulnerability may play out

  1. Social capital and health in the least developed countries: A critical review of the literature and implications for a future research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Story, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the linkage between social capital and health has grown in recent years; however, there is a dearth of evidence from resource-poor countries. This review examines the association between social capital and physical health (including health behaviours) in the least developed countries (LDCs). Citations were searched using three databases from 1990 to 2011 using the keyword ‘social capital’ combined with the name of each of the 48 LDCs. Of the 14 studies reviewed, 12 took place in Africa and two in South Asia. All used cross-sectional study designs, including five qualitative and nine quantitative studies. The literature reviewed suggests that social capital is an important factor for improving health in resource-poor settings; however, more research is needed in order to determine the best measures for social capital and elucidate the mechanisms through which social capital affects health in the developing world. Future research on social capital and health in the developing world should focus on applying appropriate theoretical conceptualizations of social capital to the developing country context, adapting and validating instruments for measuring social capital, and examining multilevel models of social capital and health in developing countries. PMID:24172027

  2. The colour red affects time perception differently in different contexts.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiaxin; Huang, Xiting

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have found that psychological and behavioural functions of the colour red vary according to context. In this research, we used the verbal estimation paradigm to determine if the colour red affects individuals' perception of interval duration. In our results, perceived duration was shorter in a red condition than in a blue one; additionally, only in the red condition, perceived duration was shorter in an online dating context than in an online interviewing context. The contribution and limitations of this study and future research directions are discussed.

  3. Validation of public health competencies and impact variables for low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of Master of Public Health (MPH) programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing, but questions have been raised regarding the relevance of their outcomes and impacts on context. Although processes for validating public health competencies have taken place in recent years in many high-income countries, validation in LMICs is needed. Furthermore, impact variables of MPH programmes in the workplace and in society have not been developed. Method A set of public health competencies and impact variables in the workplace and in society was designed using the competencies and learning objectives of six participating institutions offering MPH programmes in or for LMICs, and the set of competencies of the Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice as a reference. The resulting competencies and impact variables differ from those of the Council on Linkages in scope and emphasis on social determinants of health, context specificity and intersectoral competencies. A modified Delphi method was used in this study to validate the public health competencies and impact variables; experts and MPH alumni from China, Vietnam, South Africa, Sudan, Mexico and the Netherlands reviewed them and made recommendations. Results The competencies and variables were validated across two Delphi rounds, first with public health experts (N = 31) from the six countries, then with MPH alumni (N = 30). After the first expert round, competencies and impact variables were refined based on the quantitative results and qualitative comments. Both rounds showed high consensus, more so for the competencies than the impact variables. The response rate was 100%. Conclusion This is the first time that public health competencies have been validated in LMICs across continents. It is also the first time that impact variables of MPH programmes have been proposed and validated in LMICs across continents. The high degree of consensus between

  4. Immigrant Arab adolescents in ethnic enclaves: physical and phenomenological contexts of identity negotiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Revathy; Seay, Nancy; Karabenick, Stuart A

    2015-04-01

    Ecologically embedded social identity theories were used to examine the risk and protective factors associated with the identity negotiation and adjustment of recent immigrant Arab (IA) adolescents to the United States residing in ethnic enclaves. Yemeni, Lebanese, and Iraqi 8th-graders (n = 45) from 4 ethnic enclave schools participated in focus-group interviews. In-depth analyses of interviews revealed that living in an ethnic enclave enhanced IA adolescents' feelings of belonging to the community. However, the new immigrant status coupled with country of origin determined the permeability of intergroup boundaries with well-established Arab and Arab American peers. Their identity negotiations and social identity salience (national, religious, and pan-Arab) were informed by transitional experiences from home to host country and the prevailing political and cultural tensions between the two, recognition of national hierarchy within the Arab community, perceptions of discrimination by the larger society, changed educational aspirations consequent to immigration, and current physical (school and community) and phenomenological contexts. Findings suggest that current theoretical perspectives should be extended to incorporate phenomenological representations of past spaces and places not currently occupied to understand adolescents' multifaceted identity.

  5. Conditionals, Context, and the Suppression Effect.

    PubMed

    Cariani, Fabrizio; Rips, Lance J

    2016-02-01

    Modus ponens is the argument from premises of the form If A, then B and A to the conclusion B (e.g., from If it rained, Alicia got wet and It rained to Alicia got wet). Nearly all participants agree that the modus ponens conclusion logically follows when the argument appears in this Basic form. However, adding a further premise (e.g., If she forgot her umbrella, Alicia got wet) can lower participants' rate of agreement-an effect called suppression. We propose a theory of suppression that draws on contemporary ideas about conditional sentences in linguistics and philosophy. Semantically, the theory assumes that people interpret an indicative conditional as a context-sensitive strict conditional: true if and only if its consequent is true in each of a contextually determined set of situations in which its antecedent is true. Pragmatically, the theory claims that context changes in response to new assertions, including new conditional premises. Thus, the conclusion of a modus ponens argument may no longer be accepted in the changed context. Psychologically, the theory describes people as capable of reasoning about broad classes of possible situations, ordered by typicality, without having to reason about individual possible worlds. The theory accounts for the main suppression phenomena, and it generates some novel predictions that new experiments confirm.

  6. [Drug access in poor countries].

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Robert

    2007-11-01

    As a responsible player in the global pharmaceutical industry, Sanofi-Aventis recognizes its special responsibility to provide poor countries with access to drugs and vaccines. This is a key component of the Group's approach to sustainable development. As such, the Access to Medicines department draws on Sanofi-Aventis' expertise in order to address major public health issues, starting with the treatment of malaria, tuberculosis, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and epilepsy, as well as access to vaccines. The department has four main activities: research and development of new drugs; improvement of existing treatments; information, communication and education of patients and healthcare professionals; and development of a differential pricing and distribution policy adapted to patients' income, with a "no profit-no loss" equilibrium.

  7. Republic of Italy (country profile).

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Italy focuses on the following: cities and regions; population growth; households and families; housing and construction; ethnicity and religion; education; economy and labor force; consumption; and transport and communications. Italy, with its total area of 116,374 square miles, is about the size of Florida and Georgia combined. Its 56.6 million people form the 2nd largest population in Western Europe, after West Germany, but slightly larger than Great Britain and France. The main administrative divisions are 20 regions, subdivided into 95 provinces. The provinces in turn are divided into 8090 "comuni" or municipalities. The 6 cities with more than 500,000 people are Roma, Milano, Napoli, Torino, Genova, and Palermo. They account for 14% of the population. The 43 cities with between 100,000-500,000 account for another 13%. There are 373 middle-sized communities with between 20,000 and 100,000 people, accounting for 26% of population. Italy has a regional problem. The line separating the regions of Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, and Lazio from the regions to the south and east is important. The regions north of it hold 62% of the population but are responsible for 73% of the gross national product (GNP) and 78% of the industrial product. The regions to the south are economically much weaker. At the time of the last Italian census on October 25, 1981, the country counted 56.6 million inhabitants. Compared to 33.5 million at the turn of the century, this implies an average annual growth rate of .61%. Between 1900-70, nearly 20 million Italians left their country. Most settled in the US, Argentina, and Brazil. Beginning in the 1960s, a new sort of migration was added as young Italians temporarily left to work in the more prosperous countries of northern Europe. The birthrate, which had declined slowly to 18/1000 during the 1960s, fell more rapidly during the 1970s, to 10.9/1000 in 1981 and 10.3 in 1984. The death rate in Italy has changed little

  8. Republic of Botswana. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Tarver, J

    1985-08-01

    A summary of Botswana's population characteristics, population distribution, labor force characteristics, health situation, and transportation and communication facilities is provided. 87% of the country's 941,027 inhabitants live in the catchment area of the Limpopo River in the eastern region of the country. Much of the remaining area is covered by the Kalahari Desert. The population is growing at an annual rate of 3.6%, the birth rate is 50 and the total fertility rate is 6.6. The government has no official population policy. Major ethnic groups are the cattle raising Tswanas, which make up 50% of the population, the Herero, and the Basarwa, or Bushmen, of the Kalahri Desert. Urban areas are officially defined as population centers which contain 5000 or more residents and in which at least 75% of the inhabitants are engaged in nonagricultural work. According to this classification, 84% of the population is rural; however, most rural inhabitants live in agrotowns and temporarily move to outlying cattle and land posts during part of the year. Some of the agrotowns have almost 25,000 inhabitants. Major urban centers include 1) Gaborone, the capital and major administrative center, with a popualtion of 59,657; 2) Francistown, a large commercial center, with a population of 31,065; 3) Selebi-Phikwe, a mining center, populated by 29,469; and 4) Lobatse, a livestock marketing and processing center, with 19,034 residents. The urban population increased from 54,416 to 150,021 between 1971-81. The population has a young age structure. A large number of working aged males migrate temporarily to the Republic of South Africa to work in the gold mines. 37% of the economically active population is engaged in government services, 26% in mining, manufacturing, and construction, 21% in trade and finance, 6% in transportation, utilities, and communication, and 4.5% in agriculture. Only 1.3% of the land is cultivatable. The working age population is expected to double by the end of

  9. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  10. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  11. Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the Context of Economic Reform. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennell, Paul; Bendera, Shane; Kanyenze, Godfrey; Kimambo, Emrode; Kiwia, Sixtus; Mbiriyakura, Tichafa; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Munetsi, N.; Muzulu, Jo; Parsalaw, Willy; Temu, John

    Developments in vocational education and training (VET) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe since the 1980s were examined in the context of economic reform. Formal VET provision in each country's public and private sectors was reviewed, and case studies of one firm in each country's manufacturing and tourism industries were conducted. The research identified…

  12. Teaching Economic Geography in Two Contrasting Asian Contexts: Decentering Anglo-American Economic Geography in China and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Henry Wai-Chung; Liu, Weidong

    2006-01-01

    Teaching economic geography outside Anglo-American countries presents a particular pedagogical challenge, as theories and concepts developed in these countries might not be directly applicable outside their intellectual and national contexts. In this paper, the authors show how the peculiar institutional and development environments in China and…

  13. One for all: workplace social context and drinking among railway workers in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrianna; Roberts, Bayard; McGowan, Catherine; Kizilova, Kseniya; Kizilov, Alexiy; Rhodes, Tim; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in countries of the former Soviet Union, but little is known about its social determinants. Recent research has suggested that workplace contexts may play a role. Using qualitative methods, we investigate the relationship between workplace social contexts and drinking in Ukraine. We conducted 24 individual semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions in Lviv and Kharkiv, Ukraine, with male railway employees aged 18+ years. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Men in our sample expressed strong feelings of interdependence and trust towards their co-workers which we defined as 'social solidarity'. Drinking with co-workers was often seen as obligatory and an integral part of co-worker social occasions. Engagement in sport or family obligations seemed to act as a deterrent to drinking among some workers. A strong sense of solidarity exists between railway co-workers in Ukraine, perhaps a remnant of the Soviet era when individuals relied on informal networks for support. Alcohol may be used as a means of expressing this solidarity. Our findings point to factors, namely engagement in sports and family, which may offer opportunities for interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among workers in Ukraine.

  14. Fertilizer consumption trend in developing countries vs. developed countries.

    PubMed

    Motesharezadeh, Babak; Etesami, Hassan; Bagheri-Novair, Sepideh; Amirmokri, Hormoz

    2017-03-01

    The study of the chemical fertilizer consumption in different countries provides basal data for the decision-making of fertilizer production and for the environmental impact assessment of fertilizer application. Hence, the aim of this research was to study and compare the trend of the chemical fertilizer consumption from 1980 to 2012 in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA. For this purpose, various indices such as application rates (kg ha(-1)) of N, P, and K, arable land, and total fertilizer consumption were analysed. Results showed that the application rates of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA in 2012 were 100-42-7, 100-42-7, 100-94-60, 100-17-25, 100-13-38, and 100-33-35, respectively. The lowest and highest area under production were observed in Japan with 4.0 million ha (0.033 ha/person) and in the USA with 155.0 million ha (0.51 ha/person) during 2008-2015, respectively. In addition, the highest and lowest application rates of net nutrient consumption were recorded in France and Germany (285 and 285 kg ha(-1)) and in Iran (66 kg ha(-1)), respectively. Overall, the average net consumption of fertilizers in the studied countries in three recent decades (million tonnes) decreased in the order: the USA (19.282) > France (4.601) > Germany (3.302) > Turkey (1.825) > Japan (1.604) > Iran (1.130). Regarding an estimated 9.2 billion people by 2050, the balanced consumption of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) and the principles of optimal consumption of fertilizers are keys for achieving the increased food production, food security, and environmental conservation.

  15. Informational and Cultural Situation in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadirova, Goulnar

    Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…

  16. Integrating Risk Context into Risk Assessments: The Risk Context Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroner, Daryl G.; Gray, Andrew L.; Goodrich, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The context in which offenders are released is an important component of conducting risk assessments. A sample of 257 supervised male parolees were followed in the community ("M" = 870 days) after an initial risk assessment. Drawing on community-based information, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the recently developed Risk…

  17. The HBsAg Prevalence Among Blood Donors From Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Babanejad, Mehran; Izadi, Neda; Najafi, Farid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Context The world health organization (WHO) recommends that all blood donations should be screened for evidence of infections, such as hepatitis B. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors at the eastern Mediterranean region office (EMRO) of the WHO and middle eastern countries. Evidence Acquisition A meta-analysis was carried out based on the results of an electronic literature search of PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles published from January 1, 2000, to August 31, 2015. In accordance with a significant homogeneity test and a large value of I2, the random effects model was used to aggregate data from the studies and produce the pooled estimates using the “Metan” command. Results We included 66 eligible studies. The pooled prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors of both EMRO and middle eastern (E and M) countries was 2.03% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79 – 2.26). In addition, the prevalence rates in the EMRO countries was 1.99% (95% CI: 1.84 – 2.14) and 1.62% in the Middle Eastern countries (95% CI: 1.36 – 1.88). The prevalence among blood donors with more than one study was 1.58% in Egypt, 0.58% in Iran, 0.67% in Iraq, 2.84% in Pakistan, 3.02% in Saudi Arabia, 1.68% in Turkey, and 5.05% in Yemen. Conclusions Based on the WHO classification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, the prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors from E and M countries reached an intermediate level. However, there were low prevalence levels in some E and M countries. PMID:27226804

  18. The relationship between health expenditures and the age structure of the population in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, J M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse national health expenditures of OECD countries relative to their age structures. Using econometric techniques designed to analyse cross-sectional time series data, the ageing of the population was found to affect health spending in several countries while having no effect in others. In addition, the effect of income on health spending was lower than that generally reported in the literature. These findings suggest that unobserved country-specific factors play a major role in determining the amount of resources allocated to health services in a country. Such factors also determine if the ageing of the population with increased health spending.

  19. Country, School and Students Factors Associated with Extreme Levels of Science Literacy Across 25 Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alivernini, F.; Manganelli, S.

    2015-08-01

    A huge gap in science literacy is between students who do not show the competencies that are necessary to participate effectively in life situations related to science and technology and students who have the skills which would give them the potential to create new technology. The objective of this paper is to identify, for 25 countries, distinct subgroups of students with characteristics that appear to be associated with this proficiency gap. Data were based on the answers of 46,131 PISA 2006 students with scores classified below level 2 or above level 4, as well as the answers of their principals to school questionnaire and the OECD indicators of the financial and human resources invested in education at the national level for secondary school. The dependent variable of the analysis was a dichotomous variable the values of which represent the two different groups of students. The independent variables were the OECD indicators, and the items and indices derived from the student and school questionnaires. The analysis was based on classification trees and the findings were replicated and extended by the means of a multilevel logistic regression model. The results show that very specific levels of teachers' salaries, parental pressure on schools, school size, awareness of environmental issues, science self-efficacy and socio-economic status have a very important role in predicting whether 15 year olds in OECD countries will belong to the lower or the highest proficiency groups as regards their aptitude in the context of life situations involving problems of a scientific nature.

  20. Reaching the Unreached for Library and Information Science Education: A Perspective for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, S. B.

    Open and distance learning is seen as a viable alternative to provide education for all, particularly in the context of developing countries. Open learning is basically a philosophy, while distance learning is a method of flexible education for the unreached, i.e., socially, economically, physically, and geographically disadvantaged groups of the…

  1. The Struggle to Develop a "Research Culture" in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    During the past 20 years, English language teaching and learning has grown phenomenally in Cambodia as the country has opened up to the outside world following more than two decades of civil war. As a result, the standard of English spoken today in Cambodia has also risen dramatically. One feature of this context of dynamic change has been the…

  2. Geographical Education in Brazil: Past and Present in "The Country of the Future"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastoria, Andrea Coelho; Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the past, present and future context of geographical education in Brazil and the issues that, in our view, are relevant to understand its ebb and flow in the complex reality of the country. Various trends have affected the development of geographical education since the 1970s. Two pillars of training and school practice reflect…

  3. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  4. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  5. New Evidence of the Causal Effect of Family Size on Child Quality in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponczek, Vladimir; Souza, Andre Portela

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence of the causal effect of family size on child quality in a developing-country context. We estimate the impact of family size on child labor and educational outcomes among Brazilian children and young adults by exploring the exogenous variation of family size driven by the presence of twins in the family. Using the…

  6. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in Bulgaria. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgarian National Observatory on Vocational Education and Training and the Labour Market, Sofia.

    This report provides an overview of the state of vocational education and training systems in Bulgaria, in the context of the history and the present economic development of the country. The report is organized in nine sections that cover the following topics: (1) political and socioeconomic background information, including economic development,…

  7. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in the Czech Republic. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory, Prague (Czech Republic).

    This report provides an overview of the state of vocational education and training systems in the Czech Republic, in the context of the history and the present economic development of the country. The report is organized in nine sections that cover the following topics: (1) political and socioeconomic background information, including economic…

  8. Family and Reading in 41 Countries: Differences across Cultures and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Family characteristics' links to literacy learning and their differences across macrosystems (economic and cultural contexts) were explored in multilevel analyses of the reading tests and questionnaire responses of 193,841 fifteen-year-olds across 41 countries. Students who had two parents, had higher family socioeconomic status (SES), were native…

  9. International Quality Review and Distance Learning: Lessons from Five Countries. CHEA Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin; Woodfield, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This is a report on the quality review of distance learning in a sample of five countries. The report was commissioned by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation's (CHEA's) International Commission in order to understand better the nature of existing regulatory arrangements in the context of growth in electronically supported learning and…

  10. Implementation of Large-Scale Science Curricula: A Study in Seven European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, G. M.; Waddington, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Salters Chemistry courses, context-led curricula for 13-16 and 17-18 year old students, first developed by the Science Education Group at the University of York in the UK, have now been translated and/or adapted in seven other European countries. This paper describes and discusses the different reasons for taking up the courses, the ways in…

  11. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  12. Investigating Gender Differential Item Functioning across Countries and Test Languages for PISA Science Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Luc T.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses PISA cycle 3 field trial data to investigate the relationships between gender differential item functioning (DIF) across countries and test languages for science items and their formats and the four other dimensions defined in PISA framework: focus, context, competency, and scientific knowledge. The data used were collected from 60…

  13. Challenging Ideological Environments: International Teachers' Experiences in an Outside-of-Country Teacher Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Teacher training for developing nation contexts is often conducted in short, intensive inside and outside-of-country programmes. Concerns have been raised in relation to the uncritical take-up of the western-centric material provided by these programmes, which are usually funded by national and international government organizations. This paper…

  14. Integrated Resources and Training Facilitation--A Strategic Priority When Promoting ICT in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Saifuddin; Islam, Kamrul; Nyvang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In a rural context in a developing country purchasing a computer and connecting it to the Internet is in itself difficult, even when the lack of money is a minor issue. These issues prevent individuals in rural communities from familiarizing themselves with educational technology and ICT in general. The present study investigates the specific…

  15. Understanding social context on TB cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyanto, Y.; Wati, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) nowadays still becomes one of the world’s deadliest communicable disease. More than half were in South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions, including Indonesia. As developing country, Indonesia remains classic problems in overcoming TB, that is discontinuation on treatment. Most of discontinuation on treatment among TB patients are affected by diagnostic delay that caused by patient delay. These phenomena occur in many areas, rural to suburb, coastal to plantation, and so on, and they are related with social context among community that could be social capital for each community to deal with TB. Jember as one of county in East Java is known as plantation area. It also has a high prevalence of TB. This study focused on understanding about social context among community, especially on plantation area. This cross-sectional study involved in three districts of Jember, those are Tanggul, Pakusari, and Kalisat. The data were obtained directly from the TB patients, local community, and Primary Health Care (PHC) where the patients recorded. Spatial analysis and social network analysis (SNA) were applied to obtain health seeking behavior pattern among the TB patients coincide the community. Most of TB patients had already chosen health professionals to lead the treatment, although some of them remained to choose self-medication. Meanwhile, SNA showed that religious leader was considered as main part of countermeasures of TB. But they didn’t ever become central figures. So it can be concluded that there are other parts among community who can contribute due to combatting on TB.

  16. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  17. Reliability worth assessment in a developing country - residential survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Billinton, R.; Pandey, M.

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a residential customer survey conducted in service areas of the Nepal Integrated Electric Power System (NPS). The objective was to determine the power interruption costs incurred by the residential customers of a developing country, and extend the customer survey approach to reliability worth evaluation in a developing environment. Interruption cost estimates were obtained using in-person interviews with 944 sample customers. The results indicate the implications of service reliability to residential customers of Nepal, and show that reliability worth evaluation in a developing country is both possible and practical.

  18. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    PubMed

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  19. Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for the Arab Gulf Countries

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Takruri, Hamed R.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    The concept of food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) has been promoted by several international organizations. However, there are no FBDG for the countries in the Arab region. As the Arab Gulf countries share similar a socioeconomic and nutrition situation, an attempt was made to develop FBDG for these countries. This paper summarizes the steps taken to develope such guidelines by the Arab Center for Nutrition. The FBDG were developed through 6 steps: (1) determination of the purpose and goals for establishing FBDG, (2) characteristics of FBDG, (3) determination of the food consumption patterns, (4) review the current nutrition situation, (5) determination of the lifestyle patterns that are associated with diet-related diseases and (6) formulating the FBDG. The FBDG consist of 14 simple and practical pieces of advice taking into consideration the sociocultural status and nutritional problems in the Arab Gulf countries. The FBDG can be a useful tool in educating the public in healthy eating and prevention of diet-related chronic diseases. PMID:22347625

  20. Teaching Context in Information Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates teaching the application of technical ideas by non-technical means, especially by using puzzles to engage students. After discussing the need to teach students to evaluate contexts in which decisions about computer security must be made, we suggest questions and scenarios drawn from political science, history, as well as…