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Sample records for countries france italy

  1. Italy Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Italy is the fourth largest energy consumer in Europe, after Germany, France, and United Kingdom. Italy's primary energy consumption is driven by oil and gas, which contributed to over three-quarters of Italy's total consumption. The remaining portion is made up of coal, hydro, and other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources, excluding hydroelectricity, have increased their share in Italy's energy consumption from less than 2% in 2005 to nearly 10% in 2015. As a net importer of crude oil and natural gas, Italy is heavily dependent on imports to meet about 90% of its oil and gas needs and to maintain its exports of refined petroleum products.

  2. People-flood interaction: victims throughout four Mediterranean countries (France, Italy, Spain, and Greece) in 34 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Aceto, Luigi; Boissier, Laurent; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Rosselló, Joan; Papagiannaki, Katerina; Aurora Pasqua, A.; Vinet, Freddy

    2017-04-01

    Floods and flash floods are widespread phenomena in Mediterranean countries, where they cause severe damage and pose a threat to the people. The aim of this work is to highlight similarities and differences, if any, among circumstances and people behavior in four Mediterranean countries frequently affected by fatal floods: France, Italy, Spain, and Greece. In order to do this, we collected and organized detailed information on victims caused by floods throughout the period 1981-2015. The database is made of different sections allowing: a) Event identification, in terms of time of occurrence and place where fatalities occurred, b) People identification, in terms of gender, age, and often even the name and surname of victims, c) People-event interaction, characterizing the circumstances in which fatalities occurred, including dangerous behaviors, d) External features that could have had some influence on the occurrence of fatalities, as the presence/absence of alert systems and prevention measures. We used the collected information to investigate the event dynamics that led to the loss of lives and we identified the most dangerous event circumstances. The aim is to understand how and why people are involved in these events, and the most dangerous conditions, places, activities and dynamics of people-event interaction. The results can improve the understanding of the impacts that floods pose to people and can increase risk awareness among administrators and citizens. The outcomes can also be used to understand and highlight similarities and differences, if existing, in the behaviors of people in the four analyzed countries, in order to strength the strategies aiming to save people and warn about risky behaviors. We think our study can improve the understanding on the impacts that geo-hydrological hazards pose to the population of analyzed places, and on their consequences, and we believe it could be an important step for increasing knowing and awareness among

  3. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  4. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Maternity rights, work, and health in France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the principles and the implementation of maternity rights (MR) in France and Italy. Results show that MR are well established in both countries, where about 80% of women employed during pregnancy were back to work 1 year after childbirth. Nevertheless, social inequalities were found. Less-educated women and those who had manual jobs or worked in small firms in the private sector or off-the-books were less likely to take an extended leave and to return to work. Despite differences in child care provisions, quality and accessibility of child care were common concerns for both French and Italian mothers. Employment was not related to any health problem in Italy 1 year after birth; in France, unemployed new mothers had high rates of psychological distress. Financial worries and marital problems were associated with several health problems in both countries. In conclusion, combining work and motherhood is possible in these 2 countries without too many costs for women, at least for the more privileged among them. However, this relative ease could vanish if social and economic conditions changed for the worse.

  6. Patterns of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and III colon cancer in France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Minicozzi, Pamela; Grosclaude, Pascale; Bouvier, Véronique; Faivre, Jean; Sant, Milena

    2013-08-01

    European guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer but not for stage II. To determine the extent to which adjuvant chemotherapy was used in Italy and France. A common retrospective database of 2186 colon cancers diagnosed between 2003 and 2005 was analysed according to age, stage and presenting features. 38.9% of patients with stage II and 64.6% with stage III received chemotherapy in Italy, 21.7% and 65.1% in France. For stage II, the association between country and chemotherapy was only significant in patients diagnosed out of emergency (ORItaly/France: 3.05 [2.12-4.37], p<0.001) whereas patients diagnosed in emergency were as likely to receive chemotherapy in both countries. For stage III, there was a trend to a higher administration of chemotherapy for elderly patients in France compared to Italy. French patients were more likely than Italian to receive chemotherapy (OR: 1.91[1.32-2.78], p=0.001). Chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer was as extensively used in Italy as in France for young patients. Its administration could be increased in patients over 75. Stage II patients with a lower risk of relapse received chemotherapy more often in Italy than in France. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Practices: A Cross-National Comparison of Canada, France, and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Michel; Perchec, Cyrille; Miranda, Dave; Benoit, Amelie; Bariaud, Francoise; Lanz, Margherita; Marta, Elena; Lacourse, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study compares two dimensions of parenting--emotional bonding and control--as perceived by adolescents living in three countries: Canada (province of Quebec), France, and Italy. A cross-sectional sample was composed of 1256 adolescents who filled out a self-report questionnaire. Multiple Correspondence Analyses provided a graphic synthesis of…

  8. EDEX Educational Expansion and Labour Market: A Comparative Study of Five European Countries--France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom with Special Reference to the United States. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Planas, Jordi

    The long-term economic and social impacts of the rise in levels of education on mechanisms of access to employment and on human resources management were examined in a comparative study of educational expansion and the labor markets of France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom, with special reference to the United States. Five teams of…

  9. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to... from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314, 317, and 379 (Third Review...

  10. Lake Geneva, France/Italy/Switzerland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-243-076 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- Parts of the Swiss Cantons of Vaud and Valois, the French province of Chablis and parts of northwestern Italy are seen in this widely stretching image photographed from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Pennine Alps, said to have been created 50 million years ago, have been reshaped by glaciers during Pleistocene. The glaciers created the wide valley of the Rhone River by scourting a pre-existing seam. The fertile Swiss Plateau runs northwest from the shore of Lake Geneva and is visible in lower left. The Franco-Swiss border is located in the center of the lake and follows a mountain divide east of Rhone Valley. Italy lies south of the Rhone.

  11. Preschool and Im/migrants in Five Countries: England, France, Germany, Italy and United States of America. Early Childhood and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    A significant and growing percentage of the children enrolled in early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs in Europe and the United States are children of recent im/migrants. For most young (3-5 years old) children of parents who have come from other countries, ECEC settings are the first context in which they come face to face with…

  12. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Caselli, G; Vallin, J; Vaupel, J W; Yashin, A

    1987-11-01

    The age/sex-specific mortality trends of France and Italy were studied over the 1899-1979 period in as much detail as possible in an effort to distinguish between cohort effects and those related to period changes. Complete series of mortality data by individual years of age and calendar years were available from 1869 to 1979 for Italy and from 1899 to 1982 for France. For both countries, these data include the military and civil deaths not registered in vital statistics during the war periods. They cover each national territory as defined by its present boundaries. The graphical representation method of mortality surfaces, elaborated by Vaupel, Gambill, and Yashin (1985), was adopted. The age/sex-specific mortality patterns of France and Italy have not followed the same trends, and the differences observed today are not those of 100 years ago. The mean death probabilities for the 1975-79 period were used to illustrate the age-specific patterns of mortality. Although infant mortality was higher in Italy than in France, the death probabilities at ages 1-15 for both sexes were roughly the same for both countries. At ages 15-23, they were much higher in France than in Italy, and they remained considerably higher in France up to age 55. From then on, the sexes differ: for males, the 2 countries showed similar patterns, whereas for females the probabilities were noticeably higher for France. The situation was very different for both countries at the beginning of the century. For both sexes, higher mortality was observed in Italy not only during infancy but throughout childhood and the adolescent years up to age 15. The 2 countries showed similar patterns from 15-25. Above age 25, the 2 countries had similar patterns for females, whereas male mortality was higher in France right up to the old age groups. Such differences in the age-specific mortality trends depend in part on a different development of health and social conditions but also may be due to factors concerning

  13. From Higher Education to Employment. Volume III: Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume III: Finlande, France, Italie, Japan, Norrege, Pays-Bas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document presents statistical data from the countries of France, Finland, the Netherlands, Japan, Italy, and Norway regarding the flows of graduates from higher education and their entry into the workforce. Among the statistical data presented are the trends and current situation in each country for such areas as college enrollments and…

  14. Snow covered Alps of France, Italy, and Switzerland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-07-30

    SL3-121-2438 (July-September 1973) --- The Alps of Switzerland, France and Italy are featured in this exceptional photograph taken by a hand-held camera from the Skylab space station during the second manned Skylab mission. Also visible in the out-the-window 70mm Hasselblad view are Lake Geneva, Lake of Lucerne, Rhone River and many other features. The Skylab 3 crewmen, astronauts Alan L. Bean, Owen K. Garriott and Jack R. Lousma completed a 59-day mission with a successful splashdown on Sept. 25, 1973. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Assessing Patient Organization Participation in Health Policy: A Comparative Study in France and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Agapidaki, Eirini; Evangelia Peppou, Lily; Tzavara, Chara; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Buonomo, Oreste Claudio; Debiais, Dominique; Hasurdjiev, Stanimir; Sarkozy, Francois

    2018-01-01

    Background: Even though there are many patient organizations across Europe, their role in impacting health policy decisions and reforms has not been well documented. In line with this, the present study endeavours to fill this gap in the international literature. To this end, it aims to validate further a previously developed instrument (the Health Democracy Index - HDI) measuring patient organization participation in health policy decision-making. In addition, by utilizing this tool, it aims to provide a snapshot of the degree and impact of cancer patient organization (CPO) participation in Italy and France. Methods: A convenient sample of 188 members of CPOs participated in the study (95 respondents from 10 CPOs in Italy and 93 from 12 CPOs in France). Participants completed online a self-reported questionnaire, encompassing the 9-item index and questions enquiring about the type and impact of participation in various facets of health policy decisionmaking. The psychometric properties of the scale were explored by performing factor analysis (construct validity) and by computing Cronbach α (internal consistency). Results: Findings indicate that the index has good internal consistency and the construct it taps is unidimensional. The degree and impact of CPO participation in health policy decision-making were found to be low in both countries; however in Italy they were comparatively lower than in France. Conclusion: In conclusion, the HDI can be effectively used in international policy and research contexts. CPOs participation is low in Italy and France and concerted efforts should be made on upgrading their role in health policy decision-making. PMID:29325402

  16. 77 FR 53844 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-801, A-427-801] Ball Bearings and... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France and Italy. The period of review is May... the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France and Italy in accordance...

  17. 76 FR 58299 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  18. 76 FR 35910 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations To..., Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to...

  19. Healthcare resource utilization among patients with relapsed multiple myeloma in the UK, France, and Italy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-McQuire, Sebastian; Yong, Kwee; Leleu, Henri; Mennini, Francesco S; Flinois, Alain; Gazzola, Carlotta; Schoen, Paul; Campioni, Marco; DeCosta, Lucy; Fink, Leah

    2018-05-01

    To assess the real-world healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs associated with different treatment regimens used in the management of patients with relapsed multiple myeloma in the UK, France, and Italy. Retrospective medical chart review of characteristics, time to progression, level of response, HRU during treatment, and adverse events (AEs). Data collection started on June 1, 2015 and was completed on July 15, 2015. In the 3 months before record abstraction, eligible patients had either disease progression after receiving one of their country's most commonly prescribed regimens or had received the best supportive care and died. Costs were calculated based on HRU and country-specific diagnosis-related group and/or unit reference costs, amongst other standard resources. Physicians provided data for 1,282 patients (387 in the UK, 502 in France, 393 in Italy) who met the inclusion criteria. Mean [median] total healthcare costs associated with a single line of treatment were €51,717 [35,951] in the UK, €37,009 [32,538] for France, and €34,496 [42,342] for Italy, driven largely by anti-myeloma medications costs (contributing 95.0%, 90.0%, and 94.2% of total cost, respectively). During active treatment, the highest costs were associated with lenalidomide- and pomalidomide-based regimens. Mean cost per month was lowest for patients achieving a very good partial response or better. Unscheduled events (i.e. not considered part of routine management, whether or not related to multiple myeloma, such as unscheduled hospitalization, AEs, fractures) accounted for 1-9% of total costs and were highest for bendamustine. The use of retrospective data means that clinical practice (e.g. use of medical procedures, evaluation of treatment response) is not standardized across participating countries/centers, and some data (e.g. low-grade AEs) may be incomplete or differently adjudicated/reported. The centers involved may not be fully representative of national practice

  20. Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Suzanne; Lesnard, Laurent; Nazio, Tiziana; Raley, Sara

    2014-07-11

    Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation. Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most "marriage like" and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States. Cohabitating men's and women's time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S.

  1. Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Suzanne; Lesnard, Laurent; Nazio, Tiziana; Raley, Sara

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation. OBJECTIVE Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most “marriage like” and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States. RESULTS Cohabitating men’s and women’s time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S. PMID:25404866

  2. Data on Income inequality in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the UK, and other affluent nations, 2012.

    PubMed

    Dorling, Danny

    2015-12-01

    This data article contains information on the distribution of household incomes in the five most populous European countries as surveyed in 2012, with data released in 2014 and published here aggregated and so further anonymized in 2015. The underlying source data is the already anonymized EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EUSILC) Microdata. The data include the annual household income required in each country to fall within the best-off 1% in that country, median and mean incomes, average (mean) incomes of the best off 1%, 0.1% and estimates for the 0.01%, 0.001% and so on for the UK, and of the 90% and worse-off 10%, the best-off 10% and best-off 1% of households for all countries. Average income from the state is also calculated by these income categories and the number of people working in finance and receiving over €1,000,000 a year in income is reported from other sources (the European Banking Authority). Finally income distribution data is provided from the USA and the rest of Europe in order to allow comparisons to be made. The data revealed the gross household (simple unweighted) median incomes in 2012 to have been (in order from best-off country by median to worse-off): France €39,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €36,300, Italy €33,400 and Spain €27,000. However the medians, once households are weighted to reflect the nation populations do differ although they are in the same order: France €36,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €31,300, Italy €31,000 and Spain €23,700. Thus weighting to increase representativeness of the medians reduces each by €3000, €0, €5000, €3300 and €3300 respectively. In short, the middle (weighted median) French household is €4700 a year better off than the middle UK family, and that is before housing costs are considered. This Data in Brief article accompanies Dorling, D. (2015) Income Inequality in the UK: Comparisons with five large Western European countries and the USA [1].

  3. Getting Skills Right: Good Practice in Adapting to Changing Skill Needs. A Perspective on France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances, based on five country-specific policy notes for France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom. It provides a comparative assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment…

  4. Patients' satisfaction ratings and their desire for care improvement across oncology settings from France, Italy, Poland and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Brédart, A; Robertson, C; Razavi, D; Batel-Copel, L; Larsson, G; Lichosik, D; Meyza, J; Schraub, S; von Essen, L; de Haes, J C J M

    2003-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in patient satisfaction assessment across nations recently. This paper reports on a cross-cultural comparison of the comprehensive assessment of satisfaction with care (CASC) response scales. We investigated what proportion of patients wanted care improvement for the same level of satisfaction across samples from oncology settings in France, Italy, Poland and Sweden, and whether age, gender, education level and type of items affected the relationships found. The CASC addresses patient's satisfaction with the care received in oncology hospitals. Patients are invited to rate aspects of care and to mention for each of these aspects, whether they would want improvement.One hundred and forty, 395, 186 and 133 consecutive patients were approached in oncology settings from France, Italy, Poland and Sweden, respectively. Across country settings, an increasing percentage of patients wanted care improvement for decreasing levels of satisfaction. However, in France a higher percentage of patients wanted care improvement for high-satisfaction ratings whereas in Poland a lower percentage of patients wanted care improvement for low-satisfaction ratings. Age and education level had a similar effect across countries. Confronting levels of satisfaction with desire for care improvement appeared useful in comprehending the meaning of response choice labels for the CASC across oncology settings from different linguistic and cultural background. Linguistic or socio-cultural differences were suggested for explaining discrepancies between countries. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Advance Directives in Some Western European Countries: A Legal and Ethical Comparison between Spain, France, England, and Germany.

    PubMed

    Veshi, Denard; Neitzke, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    We have studied national laws on advance directives in various Western European countries: Romance-speaking countries (Italy, France, Portugal, and Spain), English-speaking countries (Ireland and the United Kingdom), and German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland). We distinguish two potentially complementary types of advance medical declaration: the 'living will' and the nomination of a legal proxy. After examining the similarities and differences between countries, we analyse in detail the legislation of four countries (Spain, France, England, and Germany), since the other countries in this survey have similar legal principles and/or a similar political approach. In conclusion, we note that in all the countries examined, advance directives have been seen as an instrument to enable the patient's right to self-determination. Notwithstanding, in Romance-speaking countries, the involvement of physicians in the end-of-life process and risks arising from the execution of advance directives were also considered.

  6. 77 FR 24932 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Italy, Germany and Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ...-704] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Italy, Germany and Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty... Japan would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping, and the determinations by the... brass sheet and strip from France, Italy, Germany and Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff...

  7. 76 FR 60871 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Termination of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-391A-393A (Third Review)] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Termination of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United... parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  8. 75 FR 2108 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews AGENCY... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy...

  9. 77 FR 2511 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011).\\1\\ The preliminary...

  10. 77 FR 16537 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the... Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). See also Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the...

  11. Area Handbook Series: Italy, A Country Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    8217 stronrg luiNaltY toc their families. eslcecialI\\ toc their tI,- rrristii gricins..icontinunes toi prevail. The fenrlliikt nnrov~ernt arril cianirg 1catterr...quino, Il sistema politico italiano. is recommended. The PCI has been discussed in a number of excellent works. Communism in Italv and France. edited b...Pasquino, Gianfranco (ed.). Il sistema politico italiano. Bari. Italr: Laterza, 1985. Paterson, W.E. (ed.). Foreign Policv-Making in Western Europe

  12. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  13. Dispersant approval procedures in France and Italy: A comparative ecotoxicity study.

    PubMed

    Manfra, Loredana; Tornambè, Andrea; Guyomarch, Julien; Le Guerrogue, Pascale; Kerambrun, Loïc; Rotini, Alice; Savorelli, Federica; Onorati, Fulvio; Magaletti, Erika

    2017-09-01

    A research project has been performed to the request of the RAMOGE Executive Secretariat to identify differences between dispersant approval procedures in France and Italy and propose ways to harmonize them. A collaborative study has been conducted by CEDRE (Centre of Documentation, Research and Experimentation on Accidental Water Pollution) and ISPRA (Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) to: a) compare current approval procedures in Italy and France with identification of differences and commonalities; b) carry out toxicity tests using both procedures on two selected dispersants; c) propose a common approach between Italy and France. The results showed that, because of the differences in ecotoxicological tests and in the evaluation criteria used, the outcomes on the same products could be different in Italy and in France. Both tested dispersants met the French requirements for approval (LC 50 ≥ 10 times reference toxicant), while only one dispersant met the Italian approval criterion (EC 50 > 10mg/L). A possible way of harmonizing the approval procedures could be to increase the number of test organisms in the French procedure, which currently only uses one crustacean species. Furthermore, a common criterion for toxicity assessment should be discussed and agreed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s,…

  15. Parasites of the digestive tract in beef cattle imported from France to Italy.

    PubMed

    Stancampiano, L; Corradini, D; Bulgarelli, M; Micagni, G; Battelli, G

    2007-06-01

    Beef cattle heads (195 heads, 6 batches) imported for fattening from France to Italy were examined. Coprological qualitative and quantitative tests were performed, and the results analysed in relation to sex, breed, age, date of arrival, geographical origin (French department in which the animal was bred), and gathering centre (French department in which the animal was grouped with the others before travelling to Italy). The following parasites were identified: Eimeriidae (overall prevalence 60.5%); Strongyles (59%); Nematodirus spp. (14.3%); Trichuris spp. (4.1%); Capillaria spp. (2.0%); Paramphistomum spp. (27.6%); Dicrocoelium spp. (3.0%); Moniezia spp. (8.7%). All the observed parasites are widely reported in beef cattle either in Italy or in France. However, the seeming absence of Fasciola hepatica was unexpected, as well as the high prevalence of Paramphistomum spp. The variables that appeared to be more linked to parasite epidemiology were sex, altitude of the geographical origin and season.

  16. Innovation flow through social networks: productivity distribution in France and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.; Gallegati, M.

    2005-10-01

    From a detailed empirical analysis of the productivity of non financial firms across several countries and years we show that productivity follows a non-Gaussian distribution with `fat tails' in the large productivity region which are well mimicked by power law behaviors. We discuss how these empirical findings can be linked to a mechanism of exchanges in a social network where firms improve their productivity by direct innovation and/or by imitation of other firm's technological and organizational solutions. The type of network-connectivity determines how fast and how efficiently information can diffuse and how quickly innovation will permeate or behaviors will be imitated. From a model for innovation flow through a complex network we show that the expectation values of the productivity of each firm are proportional to its connectivity in the network of links between firms. The comparison with the empirical distributions in France and Italy reveals that in this model, such a network must be of a scale-free type with a power-law degree distribution in the large connectivity range.

  17. Cost of diabetic foot in France, Spain, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tchero, Huidi; Kangambega, Pauline; Lin, Lucien; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Brunet-Houdard, Solenne; Briatte, Christine; Retali, Gerald Reparate; Rusch, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Cost estimates for diabetic foot are available for developed countries based on cost data for different years. This study aimed to provide a comparison of the cost of diabetic foot in E5 (France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom) and its characteristics across different conditions. PubMed, Central and Embase databases were searched in February 2017 for English language publications. Bibliographies of relevant papers were also searched manually. Reviews and research papers from E5 regions reporting on cost of diabetic foot were included. Reported cost was converted to equivalent 2016 $ for comparison purposes. All the costs presented are mean cost per patient per year in 2016 $. Nine studies were included in the analysis. The total cost of amputation ranged from $ 15,046 in 2001 to $ 38,621 in 2005. The direct cost of amputation ranged from $ 13,842 in 2001 to $ 83,728 during 2005-2009. Indirect cost of amputation was more uniform, ranging from between $ 1,043 to $ 1,442. The direct cost of gangrene ranged from $ 3,352 in 2003 to $ 8,818 in Germany. Although, for the same year, 2003, the cost for Spain was almost double that for Germany. The total cost of an uninfected ulcer was $ 6,174 in 2002, but increased to $ 14,441 in 2005; for an infected ulcer the cost increased from $ 2,637 to $ 2,957. The different countries showed variations in the components used to calculate the cost of diabetic foot. The E5 incurs a heavy cost from diabetic foot and its complications. There is an unmet need for the identification of cost-cutting strategies, as diabetic foot costs more than major cardiac diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The Dynamics of Paid and Unpaid Activities Among People Aged 50–69 in Denmark, France, Italy, and England

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Emily

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the current policy emphasis on extending working lives, we investigate whether the relationship between participation in paid work, other formal, and informal activities among people aged 50–69 is complementary or competitive. We also investigate differences in associations between countries using comparable longitudinal data from Denmark, France, Italy, and England. We find positive associations between informal and formal engagement in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Paid work was negatively associated with formal and informal engagement, and respondents who stopped working were more likely to be engaged in formal (Denmark and France) and informal activities (England and Italy) at follow-up than respondents who continued working. However, the strongest predictor of formal and informal engagement at follow-up was baseline engagement. In the context of policy aims to extend working lives and broaden older people’s participation in other productive activities, new balances between work and other forms of engagement are still to be found. PMID:27302075

  19. Increasing Incidence of Listeriosis in France and Other European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Craig; Le Monnier, Alban; de Valk, Henriette

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 through 2005, the incidence of listeriosis in France declined from 4.5 to 3.5 cases/million persons. In 2006, it increased to 4.7 cases/million persons. Extensive epidemiologic investigations of clusters in France have ruled out the occurrence of large foodborne disease outbreaks. In addition, no increase has occurred in pregnancy-associated cases or among persons <60 years of age who have no underlying disease. Increases have occurred mainly among persons >60 years of age and appear to be most pronounced for persons >70 years of age. In 8 other European countries, the incidence of listeriosis has increased, or remained relatively high, since 2000. As in France, these increases cannot be attributed to foodborne outbreaks, and no increase has been observed in pregnancy-associated cases. European countries appear to be experiencing an increased incidence of listeriosis among persons >60 years of age. The cause of this selective increased incidence is unknown. PMID:18439354

  20. 76 FR 2647 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews AGENCY... administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus DNA testing in the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France, and Italy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane J; Wright, Thomas C; Goldie, Sue J

    2005-06-15

    European countries with established cytology-based screening programs for cervical cancer will soon face decisions about whether to incorporate human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing and what strategies will be most cost-effective. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of incorporating HPV DNA testing into existing cervical cancer screening programs in the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France, and Italy. We created a computer-based model of the natural history of cervical carcinogenesis for each using country-specific data on cervical cancer risk and compared each country's current screening policy with two new strategies: 1) cytology throughout a woman's lifetime, using HPV DNA testing as a triage strategy for equivocal cytology results ("HPV triage"), as well as 2) cytology until age 30 years and HPV DNA testing in combination with cytology in women more than 30 years of age ("combination testing"). Outcomes included reduction in lifetime cervical cancer risk, increase in life expectancy, lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, expressed as cost per year of life saved. We explored alternative protocols and conducted sensitivity analysis on key parameters of the model over a relevant range of values to identify the most cost-effective options for each country. Both HPV DNA testing strategies, HPV triage and combination testing, were more effective than each country's status quo screening policy. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for HPV triage were less than $13,000 per year of life saved, whereas those for combination testing ranged from $9800 to $75,900 per year of life saved, depending on screening interval. We identified options that would be very cost-effective (i.e., cost-effectiveness ratio less than the gross domestic product per capita) in each of the four countries. HPV DNA testing has the potential to improve health benefits at a reasonable cost compared with current screening policies in four European countries.

  2. 77 FR 75973 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... third columns, the table is corrected to read as set forth below. Margin Company (percent) France: Audi... GmbH 0.00 Robert Bosch GmbH Power Tools and Hagglunds Drives........ 0.00 Italy: Audi AG 0.00 Bosch...

  3. 75 FR 26920 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801, A-588-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews, Preliminary Results of Changed...

  4. Obesity-related mortality in France, Italy, and the United States: a comparison using multiple cause-of-death analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Magali; Egidi, Viviana; Demuru, Elena; Frova, Luisa; Meslé, France; Pappagallo, Marilena

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We investigate the reporting of obesity on death certificates in three countries (France, Italy, and the United States) with different levels of prevalence, and we examine which causes are frequently associated with obesity. Methods We use cause-of-death data for all deaths at ages 50–89 in 2010–2011. Since obesity may not be the underlying cause (UC) of death, we compute age- and sex- standardized death rates considering all mentions of obesity (multiple causes or MC). We use cluster analyses to identify patterns of cause-of-death combinations. Results Obesity is selected as UC in no more than 20% of the deaths with a mention of obesity. Mortality levels, whether measured from the UC or the MC, are weakly related to levels of prevalence. Patterns of cause-of-death combinations are similar across the countries. In addition to strong links with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, we identify several less familiar associations. Conclusions Considering all mentions on the deaths certificates reduces the underestimation of obesity-related mortality based on the UC only. It also enables us to describe the various mortality patterns involving obesity. PMID:28497238

  5. Obesity-related mortality in France, Italy, and the United States: a comparison using multiple cause-of-death analysis.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Magali; Désesquelles, Aline; Egidi, Viviana; Demuru, Elena; Frova, Luisa; Meslé, France; Pappagallo, Marilena

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the reporting of obesity on death certificates in three countries (France, Italy, and the United States) with different levels of prevalence, and we examine which causes are frequently associated with obesity. We use cause-of-death data for all deaths at ages 50-89 in 2010-2011. Since obesity may not be the underlying cause (UC) of death, we compute age- and sex-standardized death rates considering all mentions of obesity (multiple causes or MC). We use cluster analyses to identify patterns of cause-of-death combinations. Obesity is selected as UC in no more than 20% of the deaths with a mention of obesity. Mortality levels, whether measured from the UC or the MC, are weakly related to levels of prevalence. Patterns of cause-of-death combinations are similar across the countries. In addition to strong links with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, we identify several less familiar associations. Considering all mentions on the deaths certificates reduces the underestimation of obesity-related mortality based on the UC only. It also enables us to describe the various mortality patterns involving obesity.

  6. [Evolution of the literature on clinical neurology in Spain, France, Italy and Germany over the period 2000-2009].

    PubMed

    Inigo, Jesús; Iriarte, Jorge

    2011-11-16

    This study analyzes the productivity and visibility of Spanish publications in the area of clinical neurology in the period 2000-2009 and compared with those for Italy, France and Germany. We used the database Web of Science. The analysis (annual and in five-year) was restricted to the citable documents (original articles, reviews and proceedings papers). Bibliometric indicators used were the number of publications, citations received by publications and Hirsch's h-index. We also assessed the slope of the annual growth rate (b), the number of publications by language and the international collaboration. In the period 2000-2009 there were 46,114 publications in neurology clinic of which 6,998 were Spanish publications (h = 75), 11,629 in Italy (h = 101), French 9,745 (h = 102) and 20,143 in Germany (h = 124). The rate of increase in the total number of publications in Spain (b = 15) was lower than that observed in Italy (b = 65), Germany (b = 61) or France (b = 34). In the case of publications in English, the growth rate was higher for Spain (b = 37) than for France (b = 36) but lower than for Germany (b = 54) and Italy (b = 65). Although the total number of publications and the observed increase are lower in Spain compared to Italy, France or Germany, the Spanish publications in Clinical Neurology shows good trend indicators with regard to publications in English and international collaboration. This improvement was associated with greater visibility as showed by the five-year analysis of citations received by Spanish publications.

  7. Are women getting relevant information about mammography screening for an informed consent: a critical appraisal of information brochures used for screening invitation in Germany, Italy, Spain and France.

    PubMed

    Gummersbach, Elisabeth; Piccoliori, Giuliano; Zerbe, Cristina Oriol; Altiner, Attila; Othman, Cecile; Rose, Christine; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2010-08-01

    The aim was to find out if information brochures on mammography screening in Germany, Italy, Spain and France contain more information to facilitate informed consent than in similar studies carried out over the last few years in Sweden, Canada, USA and the UK, countries with different medical cultures. We generated a list of essential information items on mammography screening for the purpose of informed consent. We mostly used the same items of information as had been used in previous studies and analysed the information brochures of major national initiatives in Germany and France, and three brochures each from regionalized programmes in Italy and Spain. We cross-checked which of our items were covered in the brochures and if correct numbers were given. We found that the information brochures contained only about half of the information items we defined. Six of the eight brochures mentioned the reduction in breast-cancer fatalities. Four of the eight provided information on false positives, and four of the brochures highlighted the side-effects of radiation. The information on side-effects and risks provided by the brochures was generally of poor quality, and none of them referred to over diagnosis. When numbers were given, they were only indicated in terms of relative numbers. The information brochures currently being used in Germany, Italy, Spain and France are no better than the brochures analysed some years ago. Our results suggest that the providers of mammography screening programmes continue to conceal information from women that is essential when making an informed decision.

  8. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem.

  9. France. Country profile. [France's economy adjusts to a declining birth rate].

    PubMed

    Inserra, P

    1984-09-01

    This discussion of France focuses on regions and cities, age distribution, households and families, housing, labor force, consumption, education, and communications. France counted 54,334,871 citizens as of March 4, 1982. There were 250,000 more people than in 1975, yielding a 7-year growth rate of 3.3%. If present trends continue, there will be 56 million French by the end of the 1980s. Since 1975 when the last census was conducted, cities of more than 200,000 lost an average of 5% of their residents. For the 1st time in more than a century, urban areas of 20,000 or more did not gain population but merely held their own. France continues to experience the effects of the large-scale decimation of its male population during the 2 world wars. The World war i loss showed up March 1982 as a relatively smaller 60-74 group. Conversely the population aged 75 and over is growing, both in absolute numbers and as a percent of the population. There were 3.6 million aged 75 and over (6.6% of the population) in 1982 compared with 3 million (5.6%) in 1975. The 19 and under age group declined between 1975-85, from 31% (16.2 million) to 29% (15.6 million). The 20-59 year old group constitutes the largest segment of the population--about double the group aged 19 and under--and its growing. This group was 50% of the population in 1973 and 53% in 1982. The infant mortality rate has declined steadily in France, from 18.2 deaths/1000 births in 1970 to 13.6 in 1975 and 9.5 at present. The total fertility rate has continued to decline: 1.8 children/woman in the 1982 census a rate less than the number needed to replace the present French population. Between 1975-82 households grew 10.4% to a total of 19.6 million. The growth in the number of households is attributed to the increase in divorce and the tendency for French children to leave the parental home at an earlier age. France has nearly 23 million dwelling places. More than half of householders own their own homes. New housing starts

  10. What controls diffuse fractures in platform carbonates? Insights from Provence (France) and Apulia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenu, Arthur P. C.; Lamarche, Juliette

    2018-03-01

    Fractures are widespread in rocks and regional opening-mode arrays are commonly ascribed to major tectonic events. However, fractures occur in otherwise undeformed rocks. Some of these are early-developed features independent of tectonics and forming a background network at regional scale. To overcome this lack of understanding, two hydrocarbon reservoir analogues from platform carbonates have been targeted: the Provence (SE France), and the Apulian platform (SE Italy). In both areas, an early fracturing stage has been observed, made of high-angle-to-bedding opening-mode fractures, and bed-parallel stylolites. These features developed synchronously during the first burial stages and prior to major tectonic events. The fracture sets are not genetically related to the present-day layering. Contrarily, fractures developed in a brittle media where facies transitions were not sharp and did not act as mechanical discontinuities. Carbonate facies distribution and early diagenetic imprint constrained the mechanical stratigraphy when fractures occurred. In addition, we observed that fractures related to late tectonic inversion were partly inhibited. Indeed, rock mechanical properties change through time. Characterizing the temporal evolution of carbonate rocks has revealed that diagenesis and sedimentary facies are the prime actors for brittleness and mechanical layering in carbonates.

  11. Consumption of a High Quantity and a Wide Variety of Vegetables Are Predicted by Different Food Choice Motives in Older Adults from France, Italy and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Dinnella, Caterina; Spinelli, Sara; Morizet, David; Saulais, Laure; Hemingway, Ann; Monteleone, Erminio; Depezay, Laurence; Perez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; Hartwell, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Background: Consumption of a high quantity and wide variety of vegetables is currently recommended for health. Dietary variety can be low, however, particularly for older adults. This study investigated the affective factors associated with the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed by older adults in France, Italy and the UK. Methods: Adults aged 65 years plus completed questionnaires on self-reported vegetable intake (quantity and variety), liking for vegetables, attitudes towards intake, and demographic variables. Results: In 497 older adults (France, n = 187, Italy, n = 152, UK, n = 158), higher quantities of vegetables consumed were associated with a higher age, affluence score and liking for vegetables, and a lower importance in consumption of familiarity (smallest β = 0.11, p = 0.03). Greater variety was associated with a higher liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = −0.11, p < 0.01). Higher quantity and variety combined (quantity × variety) was associated with a higher age, liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = 0.14, p = 0.02). Country-specific effects were also found (smallest β = 0.20, p < 0.01). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a role for liking and a lower concern for eating familiar foods in vegetable consumption, and a particular role for concern for health benefits in the consumption of a greater variety of vegetables. PMID:28832549

  12. Consumption of a High Quantity and a Wide Variety of Vegetables Are Predicted by Different Food Choice Motives in Older Adults from France, Italy and the UK.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Katherine M; Dinnella, Caterina; Spinelli, Sara; Morizet, David; Saulais, Laure; Hemingway, Ann; Monteleone, Erminio; Depezay, Laurence; Perez-Cueto, Frederico J A; Hartwell, Heather

    2017-08-23

    Consumption of a high quantity and wide variety of vegetables is currently recommended for health. Dietary variety can be low, however, particularly for older adults. This study investigated the affective factors associated with the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed by older adults in France, Italy and the UK. Adults aged 65 years plus completed questionnaires on self-reported vegetable intake (quantity and variety), liking for vegetables, attitudes towards intake, and demographic variables. In 497 older adults (France, n = 187, Italy, n = 152, UK, n = 158), higher quantities of vegetables consumed were associated with a higher age, affluence score and liking for vegetables, and a lower importance in consumption of familiarity (smallest β = 0.11, p = 0.03). Greater variety was associated with a higher liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = -0.11, p < 0.01). Higher quantity and variety combined (quantity × variety) was associated with a higher age, liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = 0.14, p = 0.02). Country-specific effects were also found (smallest β = 0.20, p < 0.01). These findings demonstrate a role for liking and a lower concern for eating familiar foods in vegetable consumption, and a particular role for concern for health benefits in the consumption of a greater variety of vegetables.

  13. [Incidence of breast cancer in France and other industrialized countries].

    PubMed

    Estève, Jacques

    2007-02-01

    The incidence of breast cancer increased over the last 20 years of the 20(th) century in all industrialized countries. The shape of the trend varied according to country. The increase in the prevalence of risk factors associated with a "western" lifestyle has had a major influence on this increase in countries where incidence was low at the start of the study period. Generalized screening practices, on the other hand, has played a key role in countries where incidence was already elevated in the 1970s. This evolution over time, together with the cohort effect (associated with year of birth), makes analysis and interpretation of the available international data too complex to allow us to quantify the respective contributions of screening, treatments and risk factors to mortality trends, which are beginning to decrease substantially in most countries with elevated incidence rates.

  14. Burden of vasomotor symptoms in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Dibonaventura, Marco Dacosta; Chandran, Arthi; Hsu, Ming-Ann; Bushmakin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have documented a significant association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and a decrement in health outcomes among postmenopausal women, but these studies have mostly focused on the US. The aim of the current study was to broaden this investigation by examining the burden of VMS symptoms in the European Union with respect to both humanistic and economic outcomes. All women aged 40-75 years who completed the 2010 5EU (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) National Health and Wellness Survey were identified as potential respondents and invited to participate in an additional cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. Only postmenopausal women from 5EU were included in the current analyses (n = 3801). VMS was assessed using the Menopausal Rating Scale, and was used in multiple regression models as the primary predictor of health status (EQ-5D-3L), work productivity loss, and the number of physician visits due to menopause. Over half (50.3%) of postmenopausal women experienced either mild (24.6%), moderate (17.6%), or severe (8.1%) VMS. Controlling for confounding variables, mild (b = -0.03, P < 0.05), moderate (b = -0.07, P < 0.05), and severe VMS (b = -0.17, P < 0.05) were each associated with worse health utilities relative to women without VMS. Similarly, increased resource use (b = 1.04-2.39, all P < 0.05), overall work impairment (b = 8.71-19.69, all P < 0.05), and activity impairment (b = 11.22-24.54, all P < 0.05) were also observed as VMS severity increased (with each b representing the difference between each level of severity and the reference category). These results suggest a high prevalence of VMS in Western Europe. These symptoms are also associated with both humanistic and economic outcomes. Improved management of VMS may be able to increase the health status and ability to work productively as well as reduce societal direct costs.

  15. Teaching French from a Francophone Perspective: The Inclusion of Francophone Countries Other than France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Matthew Paul

    In an effort to expand the teaching of culture related to the French language, a high school French teacher undertook a project to teach francophone culture in countries other than France. The report begins with an extensive discussion and review of literature concerning the extent and diversity of the francophone world, the role of cultural…

  16. G-7 countries : transportation highlights

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-11-01

    This report provides summary statistics on the physical characteristics, use, and performance of transportation networks in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Japan--the Group of Seven (G-7) countries. Data on ...

  17. The Problem of Civic Cohesion and the Role of the State School in France and Italy: Historical, Religious and Secular Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The paper aims to investigate the role assigned to state schools in France and Italy in constructing social cohesion and a common citizenship. The theme will be treated by individuating three different stages of a process of progressive mutual rapprochement between state and civil society. From the separatist phase, passing through an intermediate…

  18. Support Policies for Business Start-ups and the Role of Training. National Reports from France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, and Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Jose Maria; And Others

    This publication contains four national studies, conducted in Spain, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy, that collected data on the role of training as an element of support for business start-up and as an essential factor for the survival of newly established businesses. The study of the Spanish situation examines public and private bodies…

  19. 76 FR 22372 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1, 2009, through April 30, 2010. We have preliminarily determined that sales have been made below normal value by certain companies subject to these reviews. We have also preliminarily determined that Schaeffler Technologies GmbH & Co. KG is the successor- in-interest to Schaeffler KG with respect to the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. We invite interested parties to comment on these preliminary results. Parties who submit comments in these reviews are requested to submit with each argument (1) a statement of the issue and (2) a brief summary of the argument.

  20. ISS Phase One Activities and Manufacturing in Russia, France and Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-07

    Photographs documenting International Space Station (ISS) Phase One activities at the Russian Space Agency's (RSA) Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Korolov Mission Control Center and Zvezda; and ISS and Soyuz manufacturing at RSA's Khrunichev Design Center and RSC Energiya in Moscow, Russia, the French Space Agency's (CNES) INTESPACE facility in Toulouse, France, and the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) Alenia Spazio facility in Torino, Italy. Photographs were taken by Johnson Space Center Imagery and Publications Office contractors travelling from October 7 to November 4, 1996. Includes: VIEWS FROM RSC ENERGIYA'S SPACE MUSEUM: Room with a Buran model and photographic displays (17372-374). Salyut Space Station mock-up (17376). Russian propulsion engines on display (17377-378). Russian spacecraft on display (17375, 17387-398). Graphic displays (17399-405). VIEWS FROM RSC ENERGIYA MANUFACTURING FACILITIES: Unidentified facility (17379). Mir 24 crew member Michael C. Foale, suited in a Soyuz pressure suit, ingresses the Soyuz TM-26 flight article at RSC Energiya for a fit check (17380-381). Closeups of Foale inside the Soyuz during the fit check (17382-383, 17466-467). Overhead views of RSC Energiya's Building 444 manufacturing floor where docking modules and Soyuz TM spacecraft are built (17495-498). Technicians on the Building 444 manufacturing floor assembling probe and drogue docking modules (17499-500, 17504). Technicians assembling Soyuz spacecraft (17437-439). Views of other Soyuz spacecraft (17440-441). Androgynous Peripheral Docking System (APDS) mock-up (17501-503). Closeups of a control panel, possibly for the APDS mock-up (17519-528). VIEWS FROM ZVEZDA, RSA CONTRACTOR FOR SUIT DESIGN AND SOYUZ SEAT LINERS: Mir 24 crew member Foale dons a "penguin" flight suit for a fit check (17454-456). Zvezda personnel adjust Foale's Soyuz seat and seat liner (17442). Closeup of Foale, suited in a Soyuz pressure suit, sitting on a chair (17444). Zvezda personnel strap

  1. Towards a detailed knowledge about Mediterranean flash floods and extreme floods in the catchments of Spain, France and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duband, D.

    2009-09-01

    It is important to remember that scientific research programs of the European Commission and contributors had implemented a multidisciplinary (geography, history, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, geomorphology, geology, paleohydrology, sociology, economy......) better knowledge and more understanding of the physical risk assessment of disastrous floods (particularly flash floods) with rising factors of vulnerability and perhaps climate change at the end of the XX1 century, in the triangular geographical area Zaragosa (Spain)-Orléans (France)-Firenze (Italy). With reference to historical floods events observed from last two centuries in Spain (Catalonia), France (Languedoc Roussillon - Provence Alpes Cote d’Azur-Corse-Rhone Alpes -Auvergne- Bourgogne) and in Italy (Ligurie - Piemont - Lombardie) we lay particular stress on a detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal scales of the physical dynamic process being at the origin of locals or extensive flash floods. This study requires to be based on the meteorology (atmospheric circulation patterns ,on west Europe- Atlantic and Mediterranean sea) responsible, with relief and sea surface temperature, of high precipitations (amounts, intensities), air temperature, discharges of high floods, observed in the past ,on large and coastal rivers. We will take example of the Rhone river catchments, in connexion with Po-Ebre-Loire-Seine rivers, based on the studies of thirty high historical floods occurred from 1840 to 2005, and characteristics of Oceanic and Mediterranean weather situations, sometime alternated. Since recent years we have the daily mean sea level pressure dataset (EMSLP) reconstructions for European-North Atlantic Region for the period 1850-2006. So it is now possible to allow us the selection in the complete meteorological dataset during 1950- 2009 period by an analog method (like operational daily applications from 1969, at Electricity of France) to select weather situations similar to

  2. Time trends in exposure of cattle to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and cohort effect in France and Italy: value of the classical Age-Period-Cohort approach.

    PubMed

    Sala, Carole; Ru, Giuseppe

    2009-09-18

    The Age-Period-Cohort (APC) analysis is routinely used for time trend analysis of cancer incidence or mortality rates, but in veterinary epidemiology, there are still only a few examples of this application. APC models were recently used to model the French epidemic assuming that the time trend for BSE was mainly due to a cohort effect in relation to the control measures that may have modified the BSE exposure of cohorts over time. We used a categorical APC analysis which did not require any functional form for the effect of the variables, and examined second differences to estimate the variation of the BSE trend. We also reanalysed the French epidemic and performed a simultaneous analysis of Italian data using more appropriate birth cohort categories for comparison. We used data from the exhaustive surveillance carried out in France and Italy between 2001 and 2007, and comparatively described the trend of the epidemic in both countries. At the end, the shape and irregularities of the trends were discussed in light of the main control measures adopted to control the disease. In Italy a decrease in the epidemic became apparent from 1996, following the application of rendering standards for the processing of specific risk material (SRM). For the French epidemic, the pattern of second differences in the birth cohorts confirmed the beginning of the decrease from 1995, just after the implementation of the meat and bone meal (MBM) ban for all ruminants (1994). The APC analysis proved to be highly suitable for the study of the trend in BSE epidemics and was helpful in understanding the effects of management and control of the disease. Additionally, such an approach may help in the implementation of changes in BSE regulations.

  3. [France, an attractive country for international clinical research: 2008 survey assessed by Leem (French association of pharmaceutical companies)].

    PubMed

    Lassale, Catherine; Sibenaler, Claire; Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Plétan, Yannick; Courcier, Soizic

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the attractiveness of France for conducting international clinical trials, a survey is performed every two years among pharmaceutical companies that are based in France or have affiliates in France. Nineteen companies (61.9 % of the French market) have participated in the current survey which included 385 international phase II and III clinical studies, 77 countries, 29,708 centres and 312,835 patients (included in 2006/2007). France (400 patients/million inhabitants) ranked among the best European recruiters in second position behind Scandinavia. Since 2006, France has improved administrative processes and reduced deadlines for hospital contracts. Protocols are now to be given the go-ahead by French Authorities (Afssaps and CPP) within 60 days, in accordance with European directive. Its performance in early phases, oncology/hematology and vaccines/anti-infectious contribute to the attractiveness of France in international clinical research.

  4. Estimation of the dietary intake of 13 priority additives in France, Italy, the UK and Ireland as part of the FACET project.

    PubMed

    Vin, Karine; Connolly, Aileen; McCaffrey, Tracy; McKevitt, Aideen; O'Mahony, Cian; Prieto, Miguel; Tennant, David; Hearty, Aine; Volatier, Jean Luc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary exposure of 13 priority additives in four European countries (France, Italy, the UK and Ireland) using the Flavourings, Additives and Contact Materials Exposure Task (FACET) software. The studied additives were benzoates (E210-213), nitrites (E249-250) and sulphites (E220-228), butylated hydroxytoluene (E321), polysorbates (E432-436), sucroses esters and sucroglycerides (E473-474), polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (E475), stearoyl-lactylates (E481-482), sorbitan esters (E493-494 and E491-495), phosphates (E338-343/E450-452), aspartame (E951) and acesulfame (E950). A conservative approach (based on individual consumption data combined with maximum permitted levels (Tier 2)) was compared with more refined estimates (using a fitted distribution of concentrations based on data provided by the food industry (Tier 3)). These calculations demonstrated that the estimated intake is below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nine of the studied additives. However, there was a potential theoretical exceedance of the ADI observed for four additives at Tier 3 for high consumers (97.5th percentile) among children: E220-228 in the UK and Ireland, E432-436 and E481-482 in Ireland, Italy and the UK, and E493-494 in all countries. The mean intake of E493-494 could potentially exceed the ADI for one age group of children (aged 1-4 years) in the UK. For adults, high consumers only in all countries had a potential intake higher than the ADI for E493-494 at Tier 3 (an additive mainly found in bakery wares). All other additives examined had an intake below the ADI. Further refined exposure assessments may be warranted to provide a more in-depth investigation for those additives that exceeded the ADIs in this paper. This refinement may be undertaken by the introduction of additive occurrence data, which take into account the actual presence of these additives in the different food groups.

  5. La punaise diabolique a la conquete de la France

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys is now present in France in Alsace and in several neighboring countries (Switzerland and Italy). The potential risk of invasion of H. halys throughout France is considered to be high. Through its natural dispersal, or with human assistance, this insect will likely colonize the majo...

  6. Parenthood, Gender and Work-Family Time in the United States, Australia, Italy, France, and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Lyn; Mullan, Killian

    2010-01-01

    Research has associated parenthood with greater daily time commitments for fathers and mothers than for childless men and women, and with deeper gendered division of labor in households. How do these outcomes vary across countries with different average employment hours, family and social policies, and cultural attitudes to family care provision?…

  7. Home and workplace smoking bans in Italy, Ireland, Sweden, France, and the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E.; Stücker, Isabelle; Allwright, Shane; Gritz, Ellen R.; Haglund, Margaretha; Healton, Cheryl G.; Králíková, Eva; Del Mazo, Sara Sanchez; Tamang, Elizabeth; Dresler, Carolyn M.; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report predictors and prevalence of home and workplace smoking bans in 5 European countries. We conducted a population-based telephone survey of 4977 women, ascertaining factors associated with smoking bans. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using unconditional logistic regression. A complete home smoking ban was reported by 59.5% of French, 63.5% of Irish, 61.3% of Italian, 74.4% of Czech, and 87.0% of Swedish women. Home smoking bans were associated with younger age and being bothered by secondhand smoke, and among smokers, inversely associated with greater tobacco dependence. Among nonsmokers, bans were also related to believing smoking is harmful (OR=1.20, CI: 1.11, 1.30) and having parents who smoke (OR=0.62, CI: 0.52, 0.73). Workplace bans were reported by 92.6% of French, 96.5% of Irish, 77.9% of Italian, 79.1% of Czech, and 88.1% of Swedish women. Workplace smoking bans were reported less often among those in technical positions (OR=0.64, CI: 0.50, 0.82) and among skilled workers (OR=0.53, CI: 0.32, 0.88) than among professional workers. Workplace smoking bans are in place for most workers in these countries. Having a home smoking ban was based on smoking behavior, demographics, beliefs, and personal preference. PMID:19926747

  8. Aging in Italy: The Need for New Welfare Strategies in an Old Country.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Paolo; Rimoldi, Stefania Maria Lorenza; Rossi, Paolo; Noale, Marianna; Rea, Federico; Facchini, Carla; Maggi, Stefania; Corrao, Giovanni; Annoni, Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    Italy, a Southern European country with 60.8 million inhabitants, has the largest proportion of elderly citizens (aged ≥65) in Europe of 21.4%. The aging of the population is due to a number of reasons, such as baby boomers growing old, an increase in longevity, and low birth rate. Although international migration has increased in recent years, the addition of a foreign segment of the population has neither compensated for nor significantly curtailed the aging phenomenon. The impact of aging on the economic sustainability concerns the progressive reduction of the workforce, high incidence of pension spending in the overall resources allocated to welfare, recent reform of the pension system, and the growing issue of "non-self-sufficiency" in the elderly. Despite limited financial measures dedicated to research, Italy is conducting important studies on aging, both at the national and international level. Physicians and researchers in the field of geriatrics and gerontology are not only promoting quality of life in the elderly, and healthy-active aging, but also contributing to economic stability and social organization. Finally, nutritional and lifestyle habits-and their role in preventing chronic diseases-are the focus of the current international event EXPO 2015, with many sections dedicated to the elderly. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Spain Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Spain is the fifth largest energy consumer in Europe, after Germany, France, United Kingdom, and Italy, and has virtually no domestic production of liquid fuels or natural gas. Government regulation limits the percent of total oil and gas that can be imported from any single country to ensure diversity of supply.

  10. [France, an attractive country for international clinical research: 2010 survey assessed by Leem (French association of pharmaceutical companies)].

    PubMed

    Lassale, Catherine; Sibenaler, Claire; Behier, Jehan-Michel; Pletan, Yannick; Courcier, Soizic

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the attractiveness of France for conducting international clinical trials, a survey is performed every two years among pharmaceutical companies that are based in France or have affiliates in France. Twenty-nine companies (72% of the French market) including 10 newly participants, have participated in the current survey which included 328 international phase II and III clinical studies, 79 countries, 24,337 centres and 249,704 patients (included in 2008/2009). France (291 patients/million inhabitants) ranked among the best European recruiters in second position behind Scandinavia. Since 2008, protocols are still to be given the go-ahead by French Authorities (Afssaps and CPP) within 60 days, in accordance with European directive. The continuation of reduction in deadlines for hospital contracts is encouraging and highlights the positive effect of CeNGEPS. French state-of-art is well recognized in Oncology/Hematology and Orphan disease which could be an example to improve the competitiveness of France in other key therapeutic areas such as Alzheimer's disease and Immuno-Inflammation. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Impact of the reversal of the migration situation on the social structures of certain countries: the case of Italy.

    PubMed

    Koch, L

    1989-06-01

    During the past 20 years, Italy has changed from being a country with well-established traditions of emigration to a country of destination. Italy had achieved 1 of the highest economic growth rates in the world. Conditions in Italy are favorable for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from developing countries. Most immigrants settle in large cities and in the South; most are in Italy illegally, performing jobs which Italians do not want. The Act n.943 of January 27, 1987, 1 of the most advanced and most liberal unilateral legal texts has 2 sections: 1) the 1st section establishes regulations governing the admission and residence of foreigners and conditions under which they may enter employment and 2) the 2nd section concerns the regularization of all situations involving the illegal presence of the hundreds of thousands of workers who arrived in Italy before 1987. During the 1st year of implementation, the Act proved to be ideologically enviable but unsuitable in practice. Specifically, Italian consulates in developing countries have received very few applications for permanent residence permits, while clandestine immigration is continuing. Also, only about 14% of clandestine immigrants who arrived before 1987 have regularized their situations. Insufficient information and excessive red tape in the regularization procedures contributed to these results. However, the fundamental cause of failure is economic: migrants know that regularization would keep them out of the labor market and be followed by loss of job and unemployment. Italians are uninterested in the role of immigrants as new members of society; the migrants, in turn, do everything possible not to draw attention to their presence and their diversity. Still, most Italians view immigrants with suspicion. To prepare for the future, account must be taken of possible fluctuations in the economic situation of expanding receiving countries and of the impact which these fluctuations may have on the degree of

  12. Serological evaluation for Chagas disease in migrants from Latin American countries resident in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pane, Stefania; Giancola, Maria Letizia; Piselli, Pierluca; Corpolongo, Angela; Repetto, Ernestina; Bellagamba, Rita; Cimaglia, Claudia; Carrara, Stefania; Ghirga, Piero; Oliva, Alessandra; Bevilacqua, Nazario; Al Rousan, Ahmad; Nisii, Carla; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Nicastri, Emanuele

    2018-05-08

    Chagas disease (CD) is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, whose chronic phase may lead to cardiac and intestinal disorders. Endemic in Latin America where it is transmitted mainly by vectors, large-scale migrations to other countries have turned CD into a global health problem because of its alternative transmission routes through blood transfusion, tissue transplantation, or congenital. Aim of this study was to compare the performance of two commercially available tests for serological diagnosis of CD in a group of Latin American migrants living in a non-endemic setting (Rome, Italy). The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of seroprevalence in this group. Epidemiological risk factors associated to CD were also evaluated in this study population. The present study was conducted on 368 subjects from the Latin American community resident in Rome. Following WHO guidelines, we employed a diagnostic strategy based on two tests to detect IgG antibodies against T. cruzi in the blood (a lysate antigen-based ELISA and a chemiluminescent microparticle CMIA composed of multiple recombinant antigens), followed by a third test (an immunochromatographic assay) on discordant samples. Our diagnostic approach produced 319/368 (86.7%) concordant negative and 30/368 (8.1%) concordant positive results after the first screening. Discrepancies were obtained for 19/368 (5.2%) samples that were tested using the third assay, obtaining 2 more positive and 17 negative results. The final count of positive samples was 32/368 (8.7% of the tested population). Increasing age, birth in Bolivia, and previous residence in a mud house were independent factors associated with T. cruzi positive serology. Serological diagnosis of CD is still challenging, because of the lack of a reference standard serological assay for diagnosis. Our results reaffirm the importance of performing CD screening in non-endemic countries; employing a fully automated and

  13. Conceptual design and quantification of phosphorus flows and balances at the country scale: The case of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Nesme, Thomas; Mollier, Alain; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2012-06-01

    Global biogeochemical cycles have been deeply modified by human activities in recent decades. But detailed studies analyzing the influence of current economic and social organizations on global biogeochemical cycles within a system perspective are still required. Country level offers a relevant scale for assessing nutrient management and identifying key driving forces and possible leaks in the nutrient cycle. Conceptual modeling helps to quantify nutrient flows within the country and we developed such an approach for France. France is a typical Western European country with intensive agriculture, trade and an affluent diet, all of which may increase internal and external P flows. Phosphorus (P) was taken as a case study because phosphate rock is a non-renewable resource which future availability is becoming increasingly bleak. A conceptual model of major P flows at the country scale was designed. France was divided into agriculture, industry, domestic, import and export sectors, and each of these sectors was further divided into compartments. A total of 25 internal and eight external P flows were identified and quantified on a yearly basis for a period of 16 years (from 1990 to 2006) in order to understand long-term P flows. All the P flows were quantified using the substance flow analysis principle. The results showed that the industrial sector remained the largest contributor to P flows in France, followed by the agriculture and domestic sectors. Soil P balance was positive. However, a positive P balance of 18 kg P ha-1 in 1990 was reduced to 4 kg P ha-1 in 2006, mainly due to the reduced application of inorganic P fertilizer. The overall country scale P balance was positive, whereas half of this additional P was lost to the environment mainly through the landfilling of municipal and industrial waste, disposal of treated wastewater from which P was partially removed, and P losses from agricultural soils though erosion and leaching. Consequences for global P

  14. Family Policy in the US, Japan, Germany, Italy and France: Parental Leave, Child Benefits/Family Allowances, Child Care, Marriage/Cohabitation, and Divorce. A Briefing Paper Prepared by the Council on Contemporary Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henneck, Rachel

    Within the last 50 years, the work-family-household arrangements upon which social policy systems in industrial nations were formulated have disappeared. This briefing paper examines how social policies of the United States, Japan, Germany, Italy, and France have responded. The paper is presented in two major sections. The first section describes…

  15. 76 FR 52937 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... programming and other errors in the margin calculations. Therefore, the final results are different from the... certain companies. We have corrected programming and other errors in the margins we included in the... Technologies GmbH; Italy--Schaeffler Italia S.r.l./WPB Water Pump Bearing GmbH & Co. KG/The Schaeffler Group...

  16. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country

    PubMed Central

    Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Bruno, Antonella; Marangi, Massimo; Grande, Romualdo; Armignacco, Orlando; Gradoni, Luigi; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR) and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs). A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20) of which 36 were visceral (VL) (16 HIV-coinfections) and 69 cutaneous (CL) cases; 85 cases (52 CL) were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL) from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants ‘visiting friends and relatives’ and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends on

  17. Pupil's Beliefs about the Transformations of Energy in Three Countries (Canada, France and Morocco)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Métioui, Abdeljalil; MacWillie, Mireille Baulu

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research approach was chosen to analyse the conceptions of pupils attending elementary school from Canada (N = 135), France (N = 30) and Morocco (N = 92) between 10 and 12 years of age. Their conceptions were identified while being mobilised on energy transformations during the working of a simple electric circuit made of a battery,…

  18. Beginning of viniculture in France

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500–475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425–400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  19. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  20. Are Some Countries More Honest than Others? Evidence from a Tax Compliance Experiment in Sweden and Italy.

    PubMed

    Andrighetto, Giulia; Zhang, Nan; Ottone, Stefania; Ponzano, Ferruccio; D'Attoma, John; Steinmo, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This study examines cultural differences in ordinary dishonesty between Italy and Sweden, two countries with different reputations for trustworthiness and probity. Exploiting a set of cross-cultural tax compliance experiments, we find that the average level of tax evasion (as a measure of ordinary dishonesty) does not differ significantly between Swedes and Italians. However, we also uncover differences in national "styles" of dishonesty. Specifically, while Swedes are more likely to be either completely honest or completely dishonest in their fiscal declarations, Italians are more prone to fudging (i.e., cheating by a small amount). We discuss the implications of these findings for the evolution and enforcement of honesty norms.

  1. Comparative analysis of medicolegal compensation for occupational cancers in France and other western European countries: development proposals.

    PubMed

    Clin, Bénédicte; Ferrant, Ophélie; Marquignon, Marie-France; Letourneux, Marc

    2009-12-01

    In France, contemporary medicolegal reparation system of occupational diseases--in particular occupational cancer--has been questioned, constantly, due to changes in the state's legal system. For a long time, associated legislation was considered as a genuine social breakthrough. However, it shall remain acknowledged that over the past 15 years, it has been the French legal system itself that generated a certain level of inequality among victims of occupational diseases.. This inequality came to exist following certain jurisdictional understandings of legal matters, as well as the creation of exceptional schemes for granting compensation for physical injuries. It is agreed by both, courts and compensatory funds, that full compensation must be granted for particular group of victims. Yet, this is not the case as for granting compensation over occupational diseases, where reparation is on a set lump sum basis. In light of this proved inequality in the France legal system, with regard to the medicolegal reparation for loss or damage, associated with a claimant's occupational activity, we aim at investigating the procedures as practiced in various European countries occupational cancer in order to identify optimal compensation for these disorders.

  2. Spatial and temporal analysis of fatal off-piste and backcountry avalanche accidents in Austria with a comparison of results in Switzerland, France, Italy and the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Christian; Höller, Peter; Zeileis, Achim

    2018-02-01

    In this article we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fatal Austrian avalanche accidents caused by backcountry and off-piste skiers and snowboarders within the winter periods 1967/1968-2015/2016. The data were based on reports of the Austrian Board for Alpine Safety and reports of the information services of the federal states. Using the date and the location of the recorded avalanche accidents, we were able to carry out spatial and temporal analyses applying generalized additive models and Markov random-field models. As a result of the trend analysis we noticed an increasing trend of backcountry and off-piste avalanche fatalities within the winter periods 1967/1968-2015/2016 (although slightly decreasing in recent years), which is in contradiction to the widespread opinion in Austria that the number of fatalities is constant over time. Additionally, we compared Austrian results with results of Switzerland, France, Italy and the US based on data from the International Commission of Alpine Rescue (ICAR). As a result of the spatial analysis, we noticed two hot spots of avalanche fatalities (Arlberg-Silvretta and Sölden). Because of the increasing trend and the rather narrow regional distribution of the fatalities, initiatives aimed at preventing avalanche accidents were highly recommended.

  3. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104

  4. Are Some Countries More Honest than Others? Evidence from a Tax Compliance Experiment in Sweden and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Andrighetto, Giulia; Zhang, Nan; Ottone, Stefania; Ponzano, Ferruccio; D'Attoma, John; Steinmo, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This study examines cultural differences in ordinary dishonesty between Italy and Sweden, two countries with different reputations for trustworthiness and probity. Exploiting a set of cross-cultural tax compliance experiments, we find that the average level of tax evasion (as a measure of ordinary dishonesty) does not differ significantly between Swedes and Italians. However, we also uncover differences in national “styles” of dishonesty. Specifically, while Swedes are more likely to be either completely honest or completely dishonest in their fiscal declarations, Italians are more prone to fudging (i.e., cheating by a small amount). We discuss the implications of these findings for the evolution and enforcement of honesty norms. PMID:27092092

  5. The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.

  6. Human-building interaction at work: Findings from an interdisciplinary cross-country survey in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    D'Oca, Simona; Pisello, Anna Laura; De Simone, Marilena

    This study presents results from an interdisciplinary survey assessing contextual and behavioral factors driving occupants’ interaction with building and systems in offices located across three different Mediterranean climates in Turin (Northern), Perugia (Central), and Rende (Southern) Italy. The survey instrument is grounded in an interdisciplinary framework that bridges the gap between building physics and social science environments on the energy- and comfort-related human-building interaction in the workspace. Outcomes of the survey questionnaire provide insights into four key learning objectives: (1) individual occupant's motivational drivers regarding interaction with shared building environmental controls (such as adjustable thermostats, operable windows, blinds and shades,more » and artificial lighting), (2) group dynamics such as perceived social norms, attitudes, and intention to share controls, (3) occupant perception of the ease of use and knowledge of how to operate control systems, and (4) occupant-perceived comfort, satisfaction, and productivity. The study attempts to identify climatic, cultural, and socio-demographic influencing factors, as well as to establish the validity of the survey instrument and robustness of outcomes for future studies. Also, the paper aims at illustrating why and how social science insights can bring innovative knowledge into the adoption of building technologies in shared contexts, thus enhancing perceived environmental satisfaction and effectiveness of personal indoor climate control in office settings and impacting office workers’ productivity and reduced operational energy costs.« less

  7. Human-building interaction at work: Findings from an interdisciplinary cross-country survey in Italy

    DOE PAGES

    D'Oca, Simona; Pisello, Anna Laura; De Simone, Marilena; ...

    2018-01-31

    This study presents results from an interdisciplinary survey assessing contextual and behavioral factors driving occupants’ interaction with building and systems in offices located across three different Mediterranean climates in Turin (Northern), Perugia (Central), and Rende (Southern) Italy. The survey instrument is grounded in an interdisciplinary framework that bridges the gap between building physics and social science environments on the energy- and comfort-related human-building interaction in the workspace. Outcomes of the survey questionnaire provide insights into four key learning objectives: (1) individual occupant's motivational drivers regarding interaction with shared building environmental controls (such as adjustable thermostats, operable windows, blinds and shades,more » and artificial lighting), (2) group dynamics such as perceived social norms, attitudes, and intention to share controls, (3) occupant perception of the ease of use and knowledge of how to operate control systems, and (4) occupant-perceived comfort, satisfaction, and productivity. The study attempts to identify climatic, cultural, and socio-demographic influencing factors, as well as to establish the validity of the survey instrument and robustness of outcomes for future studies. Also, the paper aims at illustrating why and how social science insights can bring innovative knowledge into the adoption of building technologies in shared contexts, thus enhancing perceived environmental satisfaction and effectiveness of personal indoor climate control in office settings and impacting office workers’ productivity and reduced operational energy costs.« less

  8. International Survey in Eight Countries about Teachers and Teaching Profession: Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Libya, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey, United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chistolini, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    An international team of experts from Belgium, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey and the USA employed a questionnaire to identify the deontology of teachers from infant to secondary school in eight countries. The survey was implemented between 2004 and 2007. The socio-cultural concept of "Verstehen" (understanding) as described in the work…

  9. [Livestock producer participation in the control of epizootics in developed countries: the experience of France].

    PubMed

    Cassagne, M H

    2004-04-01

    Based on the French experience of animal health defence groups (groupements de défense sanitaire), the author highlights the importance, for both Veterinary Services and livestock producers, of livestock producer health organisations acting as partners of the Veterinary Services to complement the actions of private veterinarians. Charged with the task of providing livestock producers with information and raising awareness of the health regulations, these organisations offer key support to Veterinary Services in carrying out regulatory prophylactic measures, monitoring their execution, supplementing public compensation measures, and even being delegated to manage all or part of such prophylactic measures. By designing and implementing plans, with the support of private veterinarians, to combat or control epizootics which have an economic or trade impact, and by participating in or carrying out animal identification and offering health and environmental services, these organisations help to improve herd health and support the livestock producing industry. Growing demand, from both European Union applicant members and countries to the south, shows that although the French experience is not transposable, it can serve as a useful example.

  10. Relationship between olive flowering and latitude in two Mediterranean countries (Italy and Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, F.; Msallem, M.; Bonofiglio, T.; Ben Dhiab, A.; Sgromo, C.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

    2010-11-01

    In phenological studies, the plant developments are analysed considering their relationships with seasonal meteorological conditions; moreover, the influences of geographical features on biological responses have to be also considered. Different studies analysed the influence of latitude on phenological phases to investigate the possible different magnitude of biological response. In our experience, this type of geographic evaluation was conducted considering one of the more important plant species of Mediterranean shrub, the olive ( Olea europaea L.) in fifteen olive monitoring stations, four located in Tunisia and eleven in Italy, from the southern Zarzis area at 33° to the northern Perugia area at 43° of latitude. The olive flowering phenomenon was studied, utilising an aerobiological monitoring method through appropriate pollen traps located inside olive groves from 1999 to 2008. The olive monitored pollen grains were recognised and evaluated to obtain daily pollen concentrations to define the flowering dates in the different study areas. The biometeorological statistical analysis showed the 7°C threshold temperature and the single triangle method for growing degree days (GDD) yearly computing as the better ones in comparison to others. Moreover, the regression analysis between the dates of full flowering and the GDD amounts at the different monitoring latitudes permitted us to evidence the biological response of olive species in geographic regions with different climate patterns. The specific biological response at different latitude was investigated, the slope results, as flowering days per heat amounts, evidenced that olive species behaviours are very constant in consequence to similar meteorological conditions independently to latitude variations. Averagely, the relationships between plant’s phenology, temperature trends and geographical features are very close, even if the yearly mesoscale meteorological variations force to consider, year by year

  11. Veterinary Public Health in Italy: From Healthy Animals to Healthy Food, Contribution to Improve Economy in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Cacaci, Margherita; Lelli, Rossella Colomba

    2018-01-01

    The role of the veterinarian as a public health officer is intrinsic to the history and the culture of veterinary organization in Italy. The Veterinary service being part of the Health administration since the birth of the Italian State in the XIX Century. In the second half of the last century the birth of the Italian National Health Service confirmed that the function of the Italian veterinary service was to analyze and reduce the risks for the human population connected to the relationship man-animal-environment, animal health, food safety and security. The Italian Veterinary Medicine School curricula, reflected this "model" of veterinarian as well. In the majority of countries in the world, Veterinary Services are organized within the Agriculture Administration with the main function to assure animal health and wellbeing. After the so-called "Mad-cow crisis" the awareness of the direct and essential role of veterinary services in the prevention of human illness has been officially recognized and in the third millennium the old concept of "one health" and "human-animal interface" has gained popularity worldwide.The concept of Veterinary Public Health, has evolved at International level and has incorporated the more than a century old vision of the Italian Veterinary medicine and it is defined as "the sum of the contributions to the physical, mental and social development of people through the knowledge and application of veterinary science" (WHO, Future trends in veterinary public health. Gruppo di lavoro OMS: TE, Italy, 1999, Available from: http://www.who.int/zoonoses/vph/en/ . Last visited 16 Feb 2016, 1999).On the subject of Cooperation, Sustainability and Public Health, the EXPO 2015 event and the activities of international organizations WHO, FAO and World Organization for Animal Health are refocusing at present their worldwide mandate to protect human health and the economy of both the poorest Countries and the developed countries, according to the "new

  12. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers at a hospital in Naples, Italy, a low-incidence country.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Monica; Muoio, Mariarosaria; Arnese, Antonio; Borrelli, Sharon; Di Lorenzo, Teresa; Garzillo, Elpidio Maria; Signoriello, Giuseppe; De Pascalis, Stefania; Coppola, Nicola; Nienhaus, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk than the general population of contracting tuberculosis (TB). Moreover, although subjects with latent TB infection (LTBI) are asymptomatic and are not infectious, they may eventually develop active disease. Thus, a fundamental tool of TB control programs for HCWs is the screening and treatment of LTBI. From January 2014 to January 2015, hospital personnel at Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Naples, Italy, were screened for TB. To this end, a tuberculin skin test (TST) was administered as an initial examination, unless when contraindicated, in which case the QuantiFERON® TB-Gold (QFT) assay was performed. Moreover, QFT was carried out on all TST-positive cases to confirm the initial result. Of 628 personnel asked to participate, 28 (4.5%) denied consent, 533 were administered TST as the baseline examination, and 67 were tested only with QFT. In the TST group, 73 (13.2%) individuals were found positive, 418 (78.4%) were negative, and 42 (7.9%) were absent for the reading window; QFT confirmed the result in 39 (53.4%) TST-positive individuals. In the QFT-only group, 44 (65.7%) individuals were found positive. All TST- and/or QFT-positive subjects were referred for chest X-ray and examination by an infectious diseases specialist. None were found to have active TB, and were thus diagnosed with LTBI. Although Italy is a low-incidence country regarding TB, our findings suggest that the prevalence of LTBI in HCWs may be relatively high. As a result, active screening for TB and LTBI is needed for these workers.

  13. Cost Effectiveness of the Long-Acting β2-Adrenergic Agonist (LABA)/Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonist Dual Bronchodilator Indacaterol/Glycopyrronium Versus the LABA/Inhaled Corticosteroid Combination Salmeterol/Fluticasone in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Analyses Conducted for Canada, France, Italy, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Reza Maleki-Yazdi, M; Molimard, Mathieu; Keininger, Dorothy L; Gruenberger, Jean-Bernard; Carrasco, Joao; Pitotti, Claudia; Sauvage, Elsa; Chehab, Sara; Price, David

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of the dual bronchodilator indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) compared with salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC) in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had a history of one or no exacerbations in the previous year, in Canada, France, Italy, and Portugal. A patient-level simulation was developed to compare the costs and outcomes of IND/GLY versus SFC based on data from the LANTERN trial (NCT01709903). Monte-Carlo simulation methods were employed to follow individual patients over various time horizons. Population and efficacy inputs were derived from the LANTERN trial. Considering the payers' perspective, only direct costs were included. Costs and health outcomes were discounted annually at 3.0 % for all countries. Unit costs were taken from publically available sources with all costs converted to euros (€). The cost base year was 2015. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to test the robustness of the model results. IND/GLY was found to be the dominant (more effective and less costly) treatment option compared with SFC in all four countries. The use of IND/GLY was associated with mean total cost savings per patient over a lifetime of €6202, €1974, €1611, and €220 in Canada, France, Italy, and Portugal, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that exacerbation rates had the largest impact on incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The probability of IND/GLY being cost effective was estimated to be >95 % for thresholds above €5000/QALY. In patients with moderate to severe COPD, IND/GLY is likely to be a cost-effective treatment alternative compared with SFC.

  14. Toscana Virus Epidemiology: From Italy to Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cusi, Maria G; Savellini, Gianni G; Zanelli, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus which is transmitted to humans by Phlebotomus spp sandflies. Infection is the cause of brain injuries, such as aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis, in Italy mainly during the summer. More recently some unusual clinical manifestations due to TOSV with severe sequelae, such as ischemic complications and hydrocephalus, have been reported. TOSV represents an important emerging pathogen and its presence is being investigated in several European countries on the Mediterranean basin, including Italy, France, Spain, Portugal and Cyprus. Phylogenetic analysis has distinguished two genotypes of TOSV, A and B; the first is circulating mainly in Italy and the second in Spain, indicating a different geographic distribution possibly related to the vector. This distribution, evolving with the climate, globalization and habitat modification, has implications for the epidemiology of TOSV. PMID:20517492

  15. Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-8 Countries: 2006. NCES 2007-006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David C.; Sen, Anindita; Malley, Lydia B.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes how the education system in the United States compares with education systems in the other Group of Eight (G-8) countries. The G-8 countries--Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States--are among the world's most economically developed countries. Comparative…

  16. Vocational Education and Training in Europe. A Four-Country Study in Four Employment Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This report provides an overview of vocational education and training systems in major European countries that is useful to practitioners and planners in further education. The first part provides brief descriptions of the vocational education and training systems in four countries: France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. By way of…

  17. 77 FR 38736 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Czech Republic (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Germany Greece Israel Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United... Egypt Finland France Germany Greece Israel Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden... Belgium Canada Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Finland France Germany Greece Israel Italy Luxembourg...

  18. Contribution of lifetime smoking habit in France and Northern Ireland to country and socioeconomic differentials in mortality and cardiovascular incidence: the PRIME Study.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, J W G; Patterson, C C; Arveiler, D; Amouyel, P; Ferrières, J; Woodside, J V; Haas, B; Montaye, M; Ruidavets, J B; Kee, F; Evans, A; Bingham, A; Ducimetière, P

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the contribution of lifetime smoking habit to the socioeconomic gradient in all-cause and smoking-related mortality and in cardiovascular incidence in two countries. 10,600 men aged 50-59 years were examined in 1991-4 in centres in Northern Ireland and France and followed annually for 10 years. Deaths and cardiovascular events were documented. Current smoking habit, lifetime smoking (pack-years) and other health behaviours were evaluated at baseline. As socio-occupational coding schemes differ between the countries seven proxy socioeconomic indicators were used. Lifetime smoking habit showed marked associations with most socioeconomic indicators in both countries, but lifetime smoking was more than 10 pack-years greater overall in Northern Ireland and smoking patterns differed. Total mortality was 49% higher in Northern Ireland than in France, and smoking-related mortality and cardiovascular incidence were 93% and 92% higher, respectively. Both lifetime smoking and fibrinogen contributed independently to these differentials, but together explained only 42% of the difference in total mortality between countries, adjusted for both biological and lifestyle confounders. Socioeconomic gradients were steeper for total and smoking-related mortality than for cardiovascular incidence. Residual contributions of lifetime smoking habit ranged from 6% to 34% for the seven proxy indicators of socioeconomic position for total and smoking-related mortality. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular incidence were minimal following adjustment for confounders. In Northern Ireland and France lifetime smoking appeared to explain a significant part of the gradients in total and smoking-related mortality between socioeconomic groups, but the contribution of smoking was generally small for cardiovascular incidence.

  19. Conceptions of Pupils of the Primary on the Topic of an Electric Circuit in Three Countries (Canada, France and Morocco)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Métioui, Abdeljalil; MacWillie, Mireille Baulu; Trudel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research conducted with 237 pupils from Canada, France, and Morocco, between 10 and 12 years of age, on the setting and functioning of simple electric circuits, demonstrates that similar explanatory systems of the students. For this, we had given them a paper and pencil questionnaire of a sixty minutes duration. The first question was…

  20. Convolute laminations and load structures in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections and decelerations against bounding slopes. Examples from the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinterri, R.; Muzzi Magalhaes, P.; Tagliaferri, A.; Cunha, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    This work discusses the significance of particular types of soft-sediment deformations very common within turbidite deposits, namely convolute laminations and load structures. Detailed facies analyses of the foredeep turbidites in the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France) show that these deformational structures tend to increase near morphological obstacles, concomitantly with contained-reflected beds. The lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures, as well as their geometry, has a well-defined depositional logic related to flow decelerations and reflections against bounding slopes. This evidence suggests an interaction between fine-grained sediment and the presence of morphologic relief, and impulsive and cyclic-wave loadings, which are produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to impinging bipartite turbidity currents.

  1. Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-8 Countries: 2009. NCES 2009-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David C.; Sen, Anindita; Malley, Lydia B.; Burns, Stephanie D.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes how the education system in the United States compares with education systems in the other Group of Eight (G-8) countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom) that are among the world's most economically developed countries and among the United States' largest economic partners.…

  2. Country Report: Civic and Citizenship Education in Italy--Thousands of Fragmented Activities Looking for a Systematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombardelli, Olga; Codato, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the present paper we describe how civic and citizenship education takes place in Italy, trying to identify strengths and weaknesses, with the aims both of understanding the situation and of identifying possible measures for improvement. Methods: The methodology implies an analysis of the official guidelines by the Ministry in this…

  3. Epidemiology of clinical trials of medicines in respiratory diseases in Europe and Italy.

    PubMed

    Bodini, Roberta; Santus, Pierachille; Di Marco, Fabiano; Aliberti, Stefano; Centanni, Stefano; Blasi, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Recchia, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Clinical trials play a key role in advancing medical knowledge, improving patient care and promoting economic growth in Europe. We have assessed the clinical trial activity in any respiratory diseases in Europe, with a specific focus on Italy. Information from public sources (EFPIA, clinicaltrials.gov, clinicaltrialsregister. eu, AIFA) was used to describe clinical trial activity of in respiratory diseases in Europe and by country. In 2015, 3908 clinical trials were reported in Europe, 386 in respiratory diseases (9.9%). Germany was the first country both as absolute number (76 trials) and as percentage within country trials (14%), followed by Poland. Spain, Italy and France were the countries with the lowest number and percentage of trials in respiratory diseases. In 2013, the Italian Drug Agency reported 9 trials with respiratory compounds in Italy (2.1% of overall trials, 12ˆ position in the therapeutic area rank), 33% in phase 2 and 66% in phase 3. No phase 1 or phase 4 trials were reported for respiratory trials. Prevalence of respiratory trials by non-profit sponsors (28.3%) was below the average for the country (38.3%). Europe has a greater potential for clinical research on drugs for respiratory diseases, particularly in countries with less activity, such as Spain, France and Italy, that should identify and implement actions to increase attractiveness for clinical trials of drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Why is the 'healthy immigrant effect' different between European countries?

    PubMed

    Moullan, Yasser; Jusot, Florence

    2014-08-01

    Even if health status of immigrants constitutes an important public health issue, the literature provides contradictory results on the existence of a 'healthy migrant' effect in Europe. This study proposes to explore the heterogeneity of the health gap between migrants and natives across four European countries. Based on several harmonized national health interview surveys, the association between migratory status and self-assessed health was firstly explored separately in Belgium, France, Spain and Italy. To explore whether differences in health gap between countries reflect differences in health status of immigrants between host countries or whether they are because of differences in health status of natives between host countries, the association between the host country and health was secondly analysed separately among a pooled sample of immigrants and one of natives, controlling for socio-economic status and country of origin. After controlling for socio-economic status, immigrants report a poorer health status than natives in France, Belgium and Spain, whereas they report a better health status than natives in Italy, among both women and men. A North-South gradient in immigrants' health status appears: their health status is better in Italy and in Spain than in France and Belgium. Conversely, health status of natives is poorer in Italy and in Belgium than in France and in Spain. Differences in health gap reflect differences in health status of both natives and immigrants between host countries. This suggests differences in health selection at migration and in immigrants' integration between European countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Are Skills the Answer? The Political Economy of Skill Creation in Advanced Industrial Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, Colin; Finegold, David; Sako, Mari

    This book analyzes vocational education and training (VET) systems in seven advanced industrial countries (AICs) to determine institutional arrangements for skills creation most promising in attaining the learning society. The AICs are France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States, and Sweden. Chapter 1 discusses special problems of…

  6. Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-8 Countries: 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Joel D.; Honegger, Steven D.; McGivern, Jennifer L.

    This report presents a set of education indicators that describes how the United States education system compares with those of the other G-8 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom. The data were collected from three main sources: the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's…

  7. Preconception care policy, guidelines, recommendations and services across six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Shawe, Jill; Delbaere, Ilse; Ekstrand, Maria; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Larsson, Margareta; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Stern, Jenny; Steegers, Eric; Stephenson, Judith; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Preconception care is important for the screening, prevention and management of risk factors that affect pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to investigate pre-pregnancy care policies, guidelines, recommendations and services in six European countries. In 2013, an electronic search and investigation was undertaken of preconception policy, guidelines, recommendations and services available to healthcare professionals and the general public in six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Findings were compared within five categories: Governmental policy and legislation; Professional bodies and organisations; Healthcare providers; Charitable organisations; Web-based public information and internet sites. All countries had preconception recommendations for women with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy. Recommendations for healthy women and men were fragmented and inconsistent. Preconception guidance was often included in antenatal and pregnancy guidelines. Differences between countries were seen with regard to nutritional and lifestyle advice particularly in relation to fish, caffeine and alcohol consumption, and vitamin supplementation. Current guidelines are heterogeneous. Collaborative research across Europe is required in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for preconception health and care. There is a need to establish a clear strategy for promoting advice and guidance within the European childbearing population.

  8. LiDAR, geophysical and field surveys at Ancient Epomanduodurum site and its surrounding country (Doubs, Eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplaige, Clement; Bossuet, Gilles; Thivet, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Integrated geophysical studies were carried out over several years, at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. The site is of major scientific interest to understand the territorial structure of earlier agglomerations in Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered rating second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through the Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site of the Ancient town includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins stretch on more than 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the Doubs River. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and non invasive geophysical methods (magnetic mapping and Automatic Restivity Profiling (ARP) were performed on large scale, both on the terrace and in the floodplain). Excavations associated to geophysical prospection allow to produce a general plan of the Gallo roman structures and to reconstruct the settlement evolution. While human occupation on open land is certified by a lot of indications, on the contrary, the forest-covered zones on table-land appear as less documented areas. The explanation is that some of the classic methods (such as aerial reconnaissance and field walking) are less efficient in the archaeological prospection of table-lands and hills, naturally marked by omnipresent forest. In our new research program (LIEPPEC and PCR Mandeure, 2008-2010), it appears necessary to better

  9. Development of the rules governing the strength of airplanes. Part III : loading conditions in France, Italy, Holland, and Russia - aims at standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Thalau, Karl

    1933-01-01

    The historical development of the rules for structural strength of aircraft in the leading countries is traced from the beginning of flight to date. The term "factor of safety" is critically analyzed; its replacement by probability considerations has been considered desirable.

  10. Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-8 Countries: 2006. NCES 2007-006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David C.; Sen, Anindita; Malley, Lydia B.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes how the education system in the United States compares with education systems in the other Group of Eight (G-8) countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom. The report draws on the most current information about education from three primary sources: the Indicators of…

  11. Socially Disadvantaged Students in Socially Disadvantaged Schools: Double Jeopardy in Mathematics Achievement in the G8 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas, Traci Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Using the G8 countries' (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States) samples from the 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study aimed to explore the phenomenon of double jeopardy in mathematics achievement for socially disadvantaged students. Double jeopardy…

  12. Climate Change Adaptation Practices in Various Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanik, A.; Tekten, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper will be a review work on the recent strategies of EU in general, and will underline the inspected sectoral based adaptation practices and action plans of 7 countries; namely Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Denmark, USA and Kenya from Africa continent. Although every countries’ action plan have some similarities on sectoral analysis, each country in accordance with the specific nature of the problem seems to create its own sectoral analysis. Within this context, green and white documents of EU adaptation to climate change, EU strategy on climate change, EU targets of 2020 on climate change and EU adaptation support tools are investigated.

  13. Modeling NAFLD Disease Burden in China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States for the period 2016-2030.

    PubMed

    Estes, Chris; Anstee, Quentin M; Arias-Loste, Maria Teresa; Bantel, Heike; Bellentani, Stefeno; Caballeria, Joan; Colombo, Massimo; Craxi, Antonio; Crespo, Javier; Day, Christopher P; Geier, Andreas; Kondili, Loreta A; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Loomba, Rohit; Manns, Michael P; Marchesini, Giulio; Negro, Francesco; Petta, Salvatore; Ratziu, Vlad; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Sanyal, Arun; Schattenberg, Jörn M; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Wei, Lai; Zeuzem, Stefan; Razavi, Homie

    2018-06-07

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with resulting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are increasingly a cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) globally. This burden is expected to increase as epidemics of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome continue to grow. The goal of this analysis was to use a Markov model to forecast NAFLD disease burden using currently available data. A model was used to estimate NAFLD and NASH disease progression in 8 countries based on data for adult prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Published estimates and expert consensus were used to build and validate the model projections. If obesity and DM level off in the future, we project a modest growth in total NAFLD cases (0-30%), between 2016-2030, with the highest growth in China as result of urbanization and the lowest growth in Japan as result of a shrinking population. However, at the same time, NASH prevalence will increase 15-56%, while liver mortality and advanced liver disease will more than double as result of an aging/increasing population. NAFLD and NASH represent a large and growing public health problem and efforts to understand this epidemic and to mitigate the disease burden are needed. If obesity and DM continue to increase at current and historical rates, both NAFLD and NASH prevalence are expected to increase. Since both are reversible, public health campaigns to increase awareness and diagnosis, and to promote diet and exercise can help manage the growth in future disease burden. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can lead to advanced liver disease, and are occurring in increasing numbers in tandem with epidemics of obesity and diabetes. A mathematical model was built to understand how the disease burden associated with NAFLD and NASH will change over time. Results suggest increasing numbers of cases of advanced liver disease and liver-related mortality in the coming years

  14. Key Role of Sequencing to Trace Hepatitis A Viruses Circulating in Italy During a Large Multi-Country European Foodborne Outbreak in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Roberto; Taffon, Stefania; Equestre, Michele; Chionne, Paola; Madonna, Elisabetta; Rizzo, Caterina; Tosti, Maria Elena; Alfonsi, Valeria; Ricotta, Lara; De Medici, Dario; Di Pasquale, Simona; Scavia, Gaia; Pavoni, Enrico; Losio, Marina Nadia; Romanò, Luisa; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo; Morea, Anna; Pacenti, Monia; Palù, Giorgio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Chironna, Maria; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) outbreaks are being recognized as an emerging public health problem in industrialized countries. In 2013 three foodborne HAV outbreaks occurred in Europe and one in USA. During the largest of the three European outbreaks, most cases occurred in Italy (>1,200 cases as of March 31, 2014). A national Task Force was established at the beginning of the outbreak by the Ministry of Health. Mixed frozen berries were early demonstrated to be the source of infection by the identity of viral sequences in patients and in food. In the present study the molecular characterization of HAV isolates from 355 Italian cases is reported. Molecular characterization was carried out by PCR/sequencing (VP1/2A region), comparison with reference strains and phylogenetic analysis. A unique strain was responsible for most characterized cases (235/355, 66.1%). Molecular data had a key role in tracing this outbreak, allowing 110 out of the 235 outbreak cases (46.8%) to be recognized in absence of any other link. The data also showed background circulation of further unrelated strains, both autochthonous and travel related, whose sequence comparison highlighted minor outbreaks and small clusters, most of them unrecognized on the basis of epidemiological data. Phylogenetic analysis showed most isolates from travel related cases clustering with reference strains originating from the same geographical area of travel. In conclusion, the study documents, in a real outbreak context, the crucial role of molecular analysis in investigating an old but re-emerging pathogen. Improving the molecular knowledge of HAV strains, both autochthonous and circulating in countries from which potentially contaminated foods are imported, will become increasingly important to control outbreaks by supporting trace back activities, aiming to identify the geographical source(s) of contaminated food, as well as public health interventions.

  15. Key Role of Sequencing to Trace Hepatitis A Viruses Circulating in Italy During a Large Multi-Country European Foodborne Outbreak in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Roberto; Taffon, Stefania; Equestre, Michele; Chionne, Paola; Madonna, Elisabetta; Rizzo, Caterina; Tosti, Maria Elena; Alfonsi, Valeria; Ricotta, Lara; De Medici, Dario; Di Pasquale, Simona; Scavia, Gaia; Pavoni, Enrico; Losio, Marina Nadia; Romanò, Luisa; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo; Morea, Anna; Pacenti, Monia; Palù, Giorgio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Chironna, Maria; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background Foodborne Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) outbreaks are being recognized as an emerging public health problem in industrialized countries. In 2013 three foodborne HAV outbreaks occurred in Europe and one in USA. During the largest of the three European outbreaks, most cases occurred in Italy (>1,200 cases as of March 31, 2014). A national Task Force was established at the beginning of the outbreak by the Ministry of Health. Mixed frozen berries were early demonstrated to be the source of infection by the identity of viral sequences in patients and in food. In the present study the molecular characterization of HAV isolates from 355 Italian cases is reported. Methods Molecular characterization was carried out by PCR/sequencing (VP1/2A region), comparison with reference strains and phylogenetic analysis. Results A unique strain was responsible for most characterized cases (235/355, 66.1%). Molecular data had a key role in tracing this outbreak, allowing 110 out of the 235 outbreak cases (46.8%) to be recognized in absence of any other link. The data also showed background circulation of further unrelated strains, both autochthonous and travel related, whose sequence comparison highlighted minor outbreaks and small clusters, most of them unrecognized on the basis of epidemiological data. Phylogenetic analysis showed most isolates from travel related cases clustering with reference strains originating from the same geographical area of travel. Conclusions In conclusion, the study documents, in a real outbreak context, the crucial role of molecular analysis in investigating an old but re-emerging pathogen. Improving the molecular knowledge of HAV strains, both autochthonous and circulating in countries from which potentially contaminated foods are imported, will become increasingly important to control outbreaks by supporting trace back activities, aiming to identify the geographical source(s) of contaminated food, as well as public health interventions. PMID

  16. [Medium- and long-term health effects of the L'Aquila earthquake (Central Italy, 2009) and of other earthquakes in high-income Countries: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Alesina, Marta; Pacelli, Barbara; Serrone, Dario; Iacutone, Giovanni; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Della Corte, Francesco; Allara, Elias

    2016-01-01

    to compare the methodological characteristics of the studies investigating the middle- and long-term health effects of the L'Aquila earthquake with the features of studies conducted after other earthquakes occurred in highincome Countries. a systematic comparison between the studies which evaluated the health effects of the L'Aquila earthquake (Central Italy, 6th April 2009) and those conducted after other earthquakes occurred in comparable settings. Medline, Scopus, and 6 sources of grey literature were systematically searched. Inclusion criteria comprised measurement of health outcomes at least one month after the earthquake, investigation of earthquakes occurred in high-income Countries, and presence of at least one temporal or geographical control group. out of 2,976 titles, 13 studies regarding the L'Aquila earthquake and 51 studies concerning other earthquakes were included. The L'Aquila and the Kobe/Hanshin- Awaji (Japan, 17th January 1995) earthquakes were the most investigated. Studies on the L'Aquila earthquake had a median sample size of 1,240 subjects, a median duration of 24 months, and used most frequently a cross sectional design (7/13). Studies on other earthquakes had a median sample size of 320 subjects, a median duration of 15 months, and used most frequently a time series design (19/51). the L'Aquila studies often focussed on mental health, while the earthquake effects on mortality, cardiovascular outcomes, and health systems were less frequently evaluated. A more intensive use of routine data could benefit future epidemiological surveillance in the aftermath of earthquakes.

  17. Turin, Italy 2006

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    City lights at night along the France-Italy border, Europe are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 23 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS). The brightly lit metropolitan areas of Torino (Italy), Lyon, and Marseille (both in France) stand out amidst numerous smaller urban areas in this dramatic photograph. The image captures the night time appearance of the France-Italy border area between the mountainous Alps to the north (not shown) and the island of Corsica in the Ligurian Sea to the south (top). The full moon reflects brightly on the water surface and also illuminates the tops of low patchy clouds over the border (center). This image was taken by an ISS crew member at approximately 11:55 p.m. local time when the station was located over the France-Belgium border near Luxembourg. Crew members orbiting Earth frequently collect images that include sunglint, or sunlight that reflects off a water surface at such an angle that it travels directly back towards the observer. Sunglint typically lends a mirror-like appearance to the water surface. During clear sky conditions reflected light from the moon can produce the same effect (moon glint) as illustrated in this view. The observer was looking towards the southeast at an oblique viewing angle at the time the image was taken; in other words, looking outwards from the ISS, not straight down towards Earth. Credit: NASA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. L'Enseignement scolaire des langues vivantes dans les pays membres de la communaute europeenne: bilan, reflexions et propositions (Modern Language Instruction in the Member Countries of the European Community: Evaluation, Reflections, and Proposals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deth, Jean-Pierre

    A review of the situation of modern language teaching in western Europe (Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, West Germany, and the United Kingdom) looks at the demography and multilingualism of the region, the organization of school systems in those countries, and the status of school-based modern language…

  19. Chateaubriant, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-08

    This image, acquired 11-05-2007 by NASA Terra spacecraft, shows the city of Chateaubriant, France, surrounded by very old farmsteads. The surrounding countryside presents an interesting pattern of randomly oriented, small individual farmsteads.

  20. Cost and economic burden of adverse events associated with metastatic melanoma treatments in five countries.

    PubMed

    Vouk, Katja; Benter, Ursula; Amonkar, Mayur M; Marocco, Alessia; Stapelkamp, Ceilidh; Pfersch, Sylvie; Benjamin, Laure

    2016-09-01

    To estimate per-event cost and economic burden associated with managing the most common and/or severe metastatic melanoma (MM) treatment-related adverse events (AEs) in Australia, France, Germany, Italy, and the UK. AEs associated with chemotherapy (dacarbazine, paclitaxel, fotemustine), immunotherapy (ipilimumab), and targeted therapy (vemurafenib) were identified by literature review. Medical resource use data associated with managing AEs were collected through two blinded Delphi panel cycles in each of the five countries. Published costs were used to estimate per-event costs and combined with AEs incidence, treatment usage, and MM prevalence to estimate the economic burden for each country. The costliest AEs were grade 3/4 events due to immunotherapy (Australia/France: colitis; UK: diarrhea) and chemotherapy (Germany/Italy: neutropenia/leukopenia). Treatment of AEs specific to chemotherapy (Australia/Germany/Italy/France: neutropenia/leukopenia) and targeted therapy (UK: squamous cell carcinoma) contributed heavily to country-specific economic burden. Economic burden was estimated assuming that each patient experienced an AE only once. In addition, the context of settings was heterogeneous and the number of Delphi panel experts was limited. Management costs for MM treatment-associated AEs can be substantial. Results could be incorporated in economic models that support reimbursement dossiers. With the availability of newer treatments, establishment of a baseline measure of the economic burden of AEs will be crucial for assessing their impact on patients and regional healthcare systems.

  1. Bordetella pertussis, Finland and France

    PubMed Central

    Elomaa, Annika; Brun, Delphine; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui; Guiso, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and genotyping to compare clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis recovered since the early 1990s in Finland and France, 2 countries with similar histories of long-term mass vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Isolates from both countries were similar genetically but varied temporally. PMID:16707058

  2. Lessons from U.S. Allies in Security Cooperation with Third Countries: The Cases of Australia, France, and the United Kingdom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Force 2030, Defence White Paper 2009, May 2, 2009c. b Commission du Livre blanc, Défense et Sécurité Nationale: Le Livre Blanc, Paris : Odile Jacob...Australia, France, the UK, and the United States. However, unless an exercise was part of the original training package, many times those skills are not...May 2, 2009c; Commission du Livre blanc, Défense et Sécurité Nationale: Le Livre Blanc, Paris : Odile Jacob/La Documentation Française, June 2008

  3. Italy seeks geothermal renaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2009-03-01

    Scientists in Italy are hoping to once again put their country at the forefront of geothermal energy research, by extracting power from one of the Earth's most explosive volcanic areas. Later this year they will drill a well 4 km deep into Campi Flegrei, a geological formation lying just to the west of Naples known as a caldera, which formed from the collapse of several volcanoes over thousands of years.

  4. Analytical performance of 17 general chemistry analytes across countries and across manufacturers in the INPUtS project of EQA organizers in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom and Spain.

    PubMed

    Weykamp, Cas; Secchiero, Sandra; Plebani, Mario; Thelen, Marc; Cobbaert, Christa; Thomas, Annette; Jassam, Nuthar; Barth, Julian H; Perich, Carmen; Ricós, Carmen; Faria, Ana Paula

    2017-02-01

    Optimum patient care in relation to laboratory medicine is achieved when results of laboratory tests are equivalent, irrespective of the analytical platform used or the country where the laboratory is located. Standardization and harmonization minimize differences and the success of efforts to achieve this can be monitored with international category 1 external quality assessment (EQA) programs. An EQA project with commutable samples, targeted with reference measurement procedures (RMPs) was organized by EQA institutes in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, UK, and Spain. Results of 17 general chemistry analytes were evaluated across countries and across manufacturers according to performance specifications derived from biological variation (BV). For K, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol and high-density density (HDL) cholesterol, the minimum performance specification was met in all countries and by all manufacturers. For Na, Cl, and Ca, the minimum performance specifications were met by none of the countries and manufacturers. For enzymes, the situation was complicated, as standardization of results of enzymes toward RMPs was still not achieved in 20% of the laboratories and questionable in the remaining 80%. The overall performance of the measurement of 17 general chemistry analytes in European medical laboratories met the minimum performance specifications. In this general picture, there were no significant differences per country and no significant differences per manufacturer. There were major differences between the analytes. There were six analytes for which the minimum quality specifications were not met and manufacturers should improve their performance for these analytes. Standardization of results of enzymes requires ongoing efforts.

  5. Trends in net survival from liver cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Stefano; Bossard, Nadine; Binder-Fouchard, Florence; Faivre, Jean; Bordoni, Andrea; Biavati, Patrizia; Frassoldati, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Liver cancer represents a major clinical challenge. The aim of the SUDCAN collaborative study was to compare the net survival from liver cancer between six European Latin countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland) and provide trends in net survival and dynamics of excess mortality rates (EMRs) up to 5 years after diagnosis. The data were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First, net survival was studied over the period 2000-2004 using the Pohar-Perme estimator. For trend analyses, the study period was specific to each country. Results are reported from 1992 to 2004 in France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland and from 2000 to 2004 in Belgium and Portugal. These trend analyses were carried out using a flexible excess-rate modeling strategy. There were little differences between the six countries in the 5-year age-standardized net survival (2000-2004): it ranged from 13% (France and Portugal) to 16% (Belgium). An increase in the net age-standardized survival was observed in all countries between 1992 and 2004, both at 1 year and at 5 years (the highest in Spain, the lowest in France). Generally, patients aged 60 years showed the highest increase. There was a progressive decrease in EMR over the 5-year- period following diagnosis. The study confirmed the poor prognosis of liver cancer. Innovative treatments might improve the prognosis as well as preventive screening of cirrhotic patients with good liver function. Efforts are also needed to improve registration practices.

  6. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  7. The current spectrum and prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Campania (region of southern Italy) and their relationship with migration from endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Belli, Alberta; Coppola, Maria Grazia; Petrullo, Luciana; Lettieri, Gennaro; Palumbo, Cristiana; Dell'Isola, Chiara; Smeraglia, Riccardo; Triassi, Maria; Spada, Enea; Amoroso, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    In Italy, the current clinical-epidemiological features of intestinal parasitosis and the impact of recent massive migration flows from endemic areas on their distribution are not very well known. An analysis was carried out involving 1766 patients (720 natives and 1046 immigrants) observed during the period 2009-2010 (the 'current group') and 771 native patients observed during the period 1996-1997 (the 'historical group'), a time at which immigration in the area was minimal. Patients were analyzed for intestinal parasitosis at four healthcare centres in Campania. A wide variety of intestinal parasites was detected in the study subjects. Immigrants had a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis and multiple simultaneous infections than natives in both groups. In both study groups of natives, the detection of at least one parasite was significantly associated with a history of travel to endemic areas. Among immigrants, we found an inverse correlation between the frequency of parasite detection and the amount of time spent in Italy. No circulation of parasites was found among contacts of parasitized patients. Intestinal parasites are still a cause of intestinal infection in Campania. Although immigrants have a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis than natives, this does not increase the risk of infection for that population. This is likely due to the lack of suitable biological conditions in our area. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioelectromagnetics Research in France--An Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-29

    to level of the Defense Department. He was 5 years. The latter will help demon- replaced in normal rotation by a manager strate the breadth and scope...engineering. Unless support is found Ondes Electromagnetiques et Biologie immediately in industry or in other (Jouy en Josas, France, 1980), countries, France...Bioelectromagnetics de URSI, Ondes Electromagnetiques et Journal, not one French paper has been Biologie (Jouy en Josas, France, published in it. Whether any were

  10. [Rabies in France: an update].

    PubMed

    Jaussaud, R; Strady, C; Liénard, M; Strady, A

    2000-08-01

    In 1996, rabies was responsible for more than 35,000 deaths worldwide. Three cases of human rabies that had been contracted abroad were diagnosed in France during the same year. Cases notified in 1997 followed exposure outside the country. Fox, bat, and dog rabies are reviewed on the basis of the latest epidemiological data obtained in France. Two cases of fox rabies diagnosed in 1998 occurred at the border between France and Germany, thus preventing five French departments bordering Germany from being officially declared rabies-free in 1999. The campaigns for oral immunization of foxes that are led since 1986 are responsible for the decrease in rabies incidence. Though not well known, bat rabies is a reality in France, involving either European virus strains (five cases all over the country) or African virus strains that are carried along by imported tropical bats. Dogs rabies is also today an imported disease. The decrease in risk for rabies has resulted from the conjunction of multiple efforts: extensive programs aimed at oral vaccination of foxes in France and its neighboring countries, efficient epidemiological survey, sanitary controls at borders, ban on importing tropical bats. Furthermore, recommendations for preventive pre-exposure immunization have recently been changed, leading to modifications of the French licensing form.

  11. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume II. Country data, CZ-KS

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. II, are Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany (East), Germany (West), Greece, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, and Korea (South). The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy use; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; andmore » international activities.« less

  12. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  13. The Impact of War on Child Health in the Countries of the Former Yugoslavia. A Report of a Workshop (Trieste, Italy, March 27-30, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    The wars that began in 1991 in the countries of the former Yugoslavia caused widespread child suffering. This workshop report presents the findings from the Workshop on the Impact of War on Child Health held for doctors from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. The workshop's goal was to address the common interest in the…

  14. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units: a policy survey in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice; Greisen, Gorm; Pierrat, Veronique; Warren, Inga; Haumont, Dominique; Westrup, Björn; Smit, Bert J; Sizun, Jacques; Cuttini, Marina

    2012-09-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out. Prospective multicenter survey. Neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Patients were not involved in this study. None. A structured questionnaire was mailed to 362 units (response rate 78%); only units with ≥50 very-low-birth-weight annual admissions were considered for this study. Facilities for parents such as reclining chairs near the babies' cots, beds, and a dedicated room were common, but less so in Italy and Spain. All units in Sweden, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Belgium reported encouraging parental participation in the care of the babies, whereas policies were more restrictive in Italy (80% of units), France (73%), and Spain (41%). Holding babies in the kangaroo care position was widespread. However, in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, many units applied restrictions regarding its frequency (sometimes or on parents request only, rather than routinely), method (conventional rather than skin-to-skin), and clinical conditions (especially mechanical ventilation and presence of umbilical lines) that would prevent its practice. In these countries, fathers were routinely offered kangaroo care less frequently than mothers (p < .001) and less often it was skin-to-skin (p < .0001). This study showed that, although the majority of units in all countries reported a policy of encouraging both parents to take part in the care of their babies, the intensity and ways of involvement as well as the role played by mothers and fathers varied within and between countries.

  15. Point-of-care screening, prevalence, and risk factors for hepatitis B infection among 3,728 mainly undocumented migrants from non-EU countries in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    El-Hamad, Issa; Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; Chiari, Erika; Scarcella, Carmelo; Vassallo, Francesco; Puoti, Massimo; Ciccaglione, Anna; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Scalzini, Alfredo; Castelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Screening migrants from areas where hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic is important to implement preventive measures in Europe. The aim of our study was to assess (1) the feasibility of point-of-care screening in a primary care clinic and (2) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence, associated risk factors, and its clinical and epidemiological implications in undocumented migrants in Brescia, northern Italy. A longitudinal prospective study was conducted from January 2006 to April 2010 to assess HBsAg reactivity and associated risk factors among consenting undocumented migrants who accessed the Service of International Medicine of Brescia's Local Health Authority. Genotyping assay was also performed in HBV DNA-positive patients. Screening was accepted by 3,728/4,078 (91.4%) subjects consecutively observed during the study period, 224 (6%) of whom were found to be HBsAg-positive. HBsAg reactivity was independently associated with the prevalence of HBsAg carriers in the geographical area of provenance (p < 0.001). On the contrary, current or past sexual risk behaviors (despite being common in our sample) were not associated with HBV infection. Half of the HBsAg patients (111/224) had either hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive or -negative chronic HBV infection with a possible indication for treatment. HBV genotypes were identified in 45 of 167 HBV-infected patients as follows: genotype D, 27 subjects; genotype A, 8; genotype B, 5; and genotype C, 5. The geographical distribution of genotypes reflected the geographic provenance. Our results suggest that point-of-care screening is feasible in undocumented migrants and should be targeted according to provenance. Case detection of HBV infection among migrants could potentially reduce HBV incidence in migrants' contacts and in the general population by prompting vaccination of susceptible individuals and care of eligible infected patients. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  16. Venice, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-24

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time. This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03860

  17. Liver transplant associated with paracetamol overdose: results from the seven-country SALT study

    PubMed Central

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Larrey, Dominique; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Bernuau, Jacques; Bissoli, Franco; Horsmans, Yves; Thorburn, Douglas; McCormick, P Aiden; Stricker, Bruno; Toussi, Massoud; Lignot-Maleyran, Séverine; Micon, Sophie; Hamoud, Fatima; Lassalle, Régis; Jové, Jérémy; Blin, Patrick; Moore, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Aims Acute drug overdose, especially with paracetamol, may cause acute liver failure leading to registration for transplantation (ALFT). Population statistics and between-country differences for ALFT related to overdose have been poorly described. The aim of the present study was to evaluate overdose ALFT in the multi-country Study of Acute Liver Transplantation (SALT). Methods All adult overdose-related ALFT, with or without suicidal intent, in France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and the UK between 2005 and 2007 were identified from liver transplant registries and hospital records. These were compared with whole-country and per capita use of paracetamol. Results Six hundred cases of ALFT were identified in 52 of 57 eligible transplant centres, of which 114 involved overdose (72 intentional, 10 non-intentional, 32 uncertain). Overdose represented 20% of all-cause ALFT: Ireland 52%, UK 28%, France 18%, the Netherlands 8%, and Italy 1%. Overdose ALFT were mostly females (61%), mean age 33.6 ± 10.9 years. A total of 111 (97%) of the overdoses involved paracetamol. Event rates ranged from one ALFT for 20.7 tons of paracetamol in Ireland, to one for 1074 tons in Italy and one case in 60 million inhabitants over 3 years in Italy to one case in 286 000 inhabitants per year in Ireland. Per-country event rates for non-overdose ALFT exposed to paracetamol were between 2.5 and 4.0 per million treatment-years sold. Conclusions Paracetamol overdose was found to represent one-sixth of all-cause ALFT. There was a 50-fold difference in Europe in the rates of paracetamol overdose ALFT, and a 200-fold difference per million inhabitants. PMID:26017643

  18. Liver transplant associated with paracetamol overdose: results from the seven-country SALT study.

    PubMed

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Larrey, Dominique; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Bernuau, Jacques; Bissoli, Franco; Horsmans, Yves; Thorburn, Douglas; McCormick, P Aiden; Stricker, Bruno; Toussi, Massoud; Lignot-Maleyran, Séverine; Micon, Sophie; Hamoud, Fatima; Lassalle, Régis; Jové, Jérémy; Blin, Patrick; Moore, Nicholas

    2015-09-01

    Acute drug overdose, especially with paracetamol, may cause acute liver failure leading to registration for transplantation (ALFT). Population statistics and between-country differences for ALFT related to overdose have been poorly described. The aim of the present study was to evaluate overdose ALFT in the multi-country Study of Acute Liver Transplantation (SALT). All adult overdose-related ALFT, with or without suicidal intent, in France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and the UK between 2005 and 2007 were identified from liver transplant registries and hospital records. These were compared with whole-country and per capita use of paracetamol. Six hundred cases of ALFT were identified in 52 of 57 eligible transplant centres, of which 114 involved overdose (72 intentional, 10 non-intentional, 32 uncertain). Overdose represented 20% of all-cause ALFT: Ireland 52%, UK 28%, France 18%, the Netherlands 8%, and Italy 1%. Overdose ALFT were mostly females (61%), mean age 33.6 ± 10.9 years. A total of 111 (97%) of the overdoses involved paracetamol. Event rates ranged from one ALFT for 20.7 tons of paracetamol in Ireland, to one for 1074 tons in Italy and one case in 60 million inhabitants over 3 years in Italy to one case in 286 000 inhabitants per year in Ireland. Per-country event rates for non-overdose ALFT exposed to paracetamol were between 2.5 and 4.0 per million treatment-years sold. Paracetamol overdose was found to represent one-sixth of all-cause ALFT. There was a 50-fold difference in Europe in the rates of paracetamol overdose ALFT, and a 200-fold difference per million inhabitants. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 Outbreak, Italy, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Garbuglia, Anna R.; Scognamiglio, Paola; Petrosillo, Nicola; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Sordillo, Pasquale; Gentile, Daniele; La Scala, Patrizia; Girardi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    During 2011, 5 persons in the area of Lazio, Italy were infected with a monophyletic strain of hepatitis E virus that showed high sequence homology with isolates from swine in China. Detection of this genotype in Italy parallels findings in other countries in Europe, signaling the possible spread of strains new to Western countries. PMID:23260079

  20. Osteoarthritis in Europe: impact on health status, work productivity and use of pharmacotherapies in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, Sarah R; Gross, Hillary J; Isherwood, Gina; Conaghan, Philip G

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the impact of peripheral joint OA across five large European countries and how people with OA use pharmacotherapies. People with self-reported peripheral joint OA were selected from the 2011 five European countries (5EU) National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS), which included 57 512 respondents from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Information was recorded on symptoms, health status, health care utilization, work productivity and medication usage. All variables were analysed descriptively for the total population and individual countries. A total of 3750 respondents met the inclusion criteria: 1635 (43.6%) UK, 961 (25.6%) France, 570 (15.2%) Germany, 316 (8.4%) Spain and 268 (7.1%) Italy. The majority were ages 55-74 years and most were overweight or obese. Health status [12-item Short Form version 2 (SF12v2)] was similar across all countries, with a mean (s.d.) of 40.53 (10.99); 21.5% self-reported experiencing depression. Most had visited a health care provider in the previous 6 months (n = 3537; 94.3%). One third were employed: 7% reported absenteeism and 24% presenteeism. The use of prescription medication for OA was reported by 46.9% of patients, over-the-counter (OTC) medication by 26.5%, and both by 9.4%. Medication use increased with pain severity. NSAIDs were the most commonly used medication. Opioid use varied from 1.8% in Italy to 54.5% in France. Fifty per cent reported full adherence (4-point Morisky Medication Adherence Scale), but only 30% reported satisfaction with their OA medication. Most used medication for half the days of the month. Despite some wide variations in pharmacotherapy for OA treatment, the impact of OA on health status and work productivity is substantial and looks largely similar across major European countries.

  1. Estimating prevalence of osteoporosis: examples from industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Wade, S W; Strader, C; Fitzpatrick, L A; Anthony, M S; O'Malley, C D

    2014-01-01

    In nine industrialized countries in North America, Europe, Japan, and Australia, country-specific osteoporosis prevalence (estimated from published data) at the total hip or hip/spine ranged from 9 to 38 % for women and 1 to 8 % for men. In these countries, osteoporosis affects up to 49 million individuals. Standardized country-specific prevalence estimates are scarce, limiting our ability to anticipate the potential global impact of osteoporosis. This study estimated the prevalence of osteoporosis in several industrialized countries (USA, Canada, five European countries, Australia, and Japan) using the World Health Organization (WHO) bone mineral density (BMD)-based definition of osteoporosis: BMD T-score assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ≤-2.5. Osteoporosis prevalence was estimated for males and females aged 50 years and above using total hip BMD and then either total hip or spine BMD. We compiled published location-specific data, using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III age and BMD reference groups, and adjusted for differences in disease definitions across sources. Relevant NHANES III ratios (e.g., male to female osteoporosis at the total hip) were applied where data were missing for countries outside the USA. Data were extrapolated from geographically similar countries as needed. Population counts for 2010 were used to estimate the number of individuals with osteoporosis in each country. For females, osteoporosis prevalence ranged from 9 % (UK) to 15 % (France and Germany) based on total hip BMD and from 16 % (USA) to 38 % (Japan) when spine BMD data were included. For males, prevalence ranged from 1 % (UK) to 4 % (Japan) based on total hip BMD and from 3 % (Canada) to 8 % (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain) when spine BMD data were included. Up to 49 million individuals met the WHO osteoporosis criteria in a number of industrialized countries in North America, Europe, Japan, and Australia.

  2. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  3. The Spirit of France

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    seemed to boost self esteem amongst the French , giving France a greater sense of dignity. Charles de Gaulle sought grandeur to unite France and give...overshadowed by the US, UK and Russia. The war had left France with little influence in Europe and had psychologically and morally weakened the French ... France as a way to increase the influence base of the French state. Influence, either perceived or real, meant power. Power represented independence

  4. France Without NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    and unstable France . Two decades of European peace and prosperity are causing the French to reevaluate the threat from the East and to question the...continued need for alliances in which France is not the dominate power. The French attacks on the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the...distracted or compromised in his belief of French greatness, stands the "man who is France ," President Charles de Gaulle. France has gained strength

  5. Social inequalities in obesity and overweight in 11 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Marion; Sassi, Franco

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of inequalities in obesity and overweight is available mostly from national studies. This article provides a broad international comparison of inequalities by education level and socio-economic status, in men and women and over time. Data from national health surveys of 11 OECD countries were used. The size of inequalities was assessed on the basis of absolute and relative inequality indexes. A regression-analysis approach was used to assess differences between social groups in trends over time. Of the countries examined, USA and England had the highest rates of obesity and overweight. Large social inequalities were consistently detected in all countries, especially in women. Absolute inequalities were largest in Hungary and Spain with a difference of 11.6 and 10% in obesity rates in men, and 18.3 and 18.9% in women, respectively, across the education spectrum. Relative inequalities were largest in France and Sweden with poorly educated men 3.2 and 2.8 times as likely to be obese as men with the highest education (18 and 17 times for women in Spain and Korea, respectively). Pro-poor inequalities in overweight were observed for men in USA, Canada, Korea, Hungary, Australia and England. Inequalities remained virtually stable during the last 15 years, with only small variations in England, Korea, Italy and France. Large and persistent social inequalities in obesity and overweight by education level and socio-economic status exist in OECD countries. These are consistently larger in women than in men.

  6. Imported Malaria in Children in Industrialized Countries, 1992–2002

    PubMed Central

    Stäger, Katrin; Legros, Fabrice; Krause, Gérard; Low, Nicola; Bradley, David; Desai, Meghna; Graf, Simone; D’Amato, Stefania; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Janzon, Ragnhild; Petersen, Eskild; Kester, John; Steffen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Children account for an appreciable proportion of total imported malaria cases, yet few studies have quantified these cases, identified trends, or suggested evidence-based prevention strategies for this group of travelers. We therefore sought to identify numbers of cases and deaths, Plasmodium species, place of malaria acquisition, preventive measures used, and national origin of malaria in children. We analyzed retrospective data from Australia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States and data provided by the United Nations World Tourism Organization. During 1992–2002, >17,000 cases of imported malaria in children were reported in 11 countries where malaria is not endemic; most (>70%) had been acquired in Africa. Returning to country of origin to visit friends and relatives was a risk factor. Malaria prevention for children should be a responsibility of healthcare providers and should be subsidized for low-income travelers to high-risk areas. PMID:19193261

  7. Prices and availability of pharmaceuticals: evidence from nine countries.

    PubMed

    Danzon, Patricia M; Furukawa, Michael F

    2003-01-01

    This study compares average price levels for pharmaceuticals in eight countries--Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and the United Kingdom--relative to the United States. Our most comprehensive indexes, adjusted for U.S. manufacturer discounts, show Japan's prices to be higher than U.S. prices, and other countries' prices ranging from 6 percent to 33 percent lower than U.S. prices. The decline of the Canadian dollar and rise of the U.K. pound contribute to the finding of lower Canadian prices and higher U.K. prices in 1999 than in 1992. Our findings suggest that U.S.-foreign price differentials are roughly in line with income and smaller for drugs than for other medical services.

  8. Spirits and liqueurs in European traditional medicine: Their history and ethnobotany in Tuscany and Bologna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Palazón, José Antonio

    2015-12-04

    fermented beverages, liqueurs, distilled spirits and aromatized wines. Among these, 37 ingredients (33 species) are used as medicinal remedies. 15 ingredients (14 species) are also used to prepare specific medicinal liqueurs. Most are addressed to the treatment of diseases of the digestive system, dyspepsia in particular, followed by diseases of the respiratory system symptoms, not elsewhere classified and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, fundamentally of allergic origin. Although medicinal wines, liqueurs and spirits are recorded in numerous classical herbals and pharmacopoeias in Italy and other countries of Europe these show in terms of formulations and ingredients little influence in the ethnobotanical formulations recorded in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy), they apparently play no role in present ethnobotanical knowledge in Appennino Tosco-Emiliano and similarly in other areas of Italy, France and Austria. No (or very poor) persistence was found of ancient uses, recipes and formulas for medicinal liqueurs from pharmacopoeias and herbals of the 16th century CE in later periods in the formulas in use in the pharmacies of Tuscany. Popular recipes are strongly dependent on the availability of local wild and cultivated plants. Overall, Alta Valle del Reno ethnobotanical formulations of medicinal wines and spirits are extremely simple involving from one single ingredient to a few, which are locally produced or collected and selected among relevant medicinal resources used for a wide range of diseases in form of non-alcoholic aqueous extracts. Fruits gathered in the forests are the main ingredients which in this aspect show similarities with those from Tyrol (Austria). Medicinal liqueurs and wines are in analyzed ethnobotanical data mainly employed as digestives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility and attractiveness of indication value-based pricing in key EU countries.

    PubMed

    Flume, Mathias; Bardou, Marc; Capri, Stefano; Sola-Morales, Oriol; Cunningham, David; Levin, Lars-Ake; Touchot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Indication value-based pricing (IBP) has been proposed in the United States as a tool to capture the differential value of drugs across indications or patient groups and is in the early phases of implementation. In Europe, no major country has experimented with IBP or is seriously discussing its use. We assessed how the reimbursement and pricing environment allows for IBP in seven European countries, evaluating both incentives and hurdles. In price setting countries such as France and Germany, the Health Technology Assessment and pricing process already accounts for differences of value across indications. In countries where differential value drives coverage decisions such as the United Kingdom and Sweden, IBP is likely to be used, at least partially, but not in the short-term. Italy is already achieving some form of differential value through managed entry agreements, whereas in Spain the electronic prescription system provides the infrastructure necessary for IBP but other hurdles exist.

  10. Occupational injuries in Italy.

    PubMed

    Baldasseroni, Alberto; Chellini, Elisabetta; Mantero, Silvia; Giovannetti, Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Data collected by the Italian Funds for Occupational Injuries and Diseases (INAIL) on incidence and mortality for occupational injuries in Italy during 1951-2001 are described with respect to the two main occupational sectors, Industry and Services, and Agriculture. Comparisons with other EU countries are included to place the current severe phenomenon in context. An ad hoc analysis aimed at verifying the completeness of the data on occupational fatal accidents collected by INAIL in Tuscany is reported: a linkage between the INAIL data and those registered by the Tuscan Regional Mortality Registry highlights that a number of working areas are not covered by INAIL, a problem whose solution would be useful for primary prevention.

  11. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  12. Common measure of quality of life for people with systemic sclerosis across seven European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ndosi, Mwidimi; Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Allanore, Yannick; Del Galdo, Francesco; Frerix, Marc; García-Díaz, Sílvia; Hesselstrand, Roger; Kendall, Christine; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Mueller-Ladner, Ulf; Sandqvist, Gunnel; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Schmeiser, Tim; Sierakowska, Matylda; Sierakowska, Justyna; Sierakowski, Stanslaw; Redmond, Anthony

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Systemic Sclerosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (SScQoL) into six European cultures and validate it as a common measure of quality of life in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This was a seven-country (Germany, France, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden and UK) cross-sectional study. A forward-backward translation process was used to adapt the English SScQoL into target languages. SScQoL was completed by patients with SSc, then data were validated against the Rasch model. To correct local response dependency, items were grouped into the following subscales: function, emotion, sleep, social and pain and reanalysed for fit to the model, unidimensionality and cross-cultural equivalence. The adaptation of the SScQoL was seamless in all countries except Germany. Cross-cultural validation included 1080 patients with a mean age 58.0 years (SD 13.9) and 87% were women. Local dependency was evident in individual country data. Grouping items into testlets corrected the local dependency in most country specific data. Fit to the model, reliability and unidimensionality was achieved in six-country data after cross-cultural adjustment for Italy in the social subscale. The SScQoL was then calibrated into an interval level scale. The individual SScQoL items have translated well into five languages and overall, the scale maintained its construct validity, working well as a five-subscale questionnaire. Measures of quality of life in SSc can be directly compared across five countries (France, Poland Spain, Sweden and UK). Data from Italy are also comparable with the other five countries although require an adjustment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Medical technology procurement in Europe: a cross-country comparison of current practice and policy.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Corinna; Kanavos, Panos

    2011-04-01

    Procurement policy can influence the diffusion of medical devices into national health systems, but limited comparative evidence exists on how countries procure such technologies. This paper discusses the procurement of select medical devices across five countries (England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain) based on a review of published and grey literature and policy documents, as well as expert interviews. All countries have introduced various regulatory or policy measures that implicitly or explicitly influence device procurement, from lists of devices for purchase to changes in financing mechanisms. There has also been movement toward more centralized procurement with the introduction of purchasing groups or consortiums, notably in England, France, Germany, and Italy. While a number of stakeholder groups are involved in purchasing activities, a greater, more formalized role for physicians and governments is needed to ensure that technologies procured best meet patient needs and align with national health care priorities and other sectoral objectives. A general theme across all national procurement systems was a focus on cost-containment, but like other areas of technology policy (e.g., coverage), basing purchasing decisions on a broader range of criteria, such as quality and health outcomes, might better allow governments to achieve value for money and support patient access to beneficial innovations. More research is needed, however, to substantiate the role and influence of procurement on balancing the adoption and affordability of medical technologies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of outpatients in France with stable coronary artery disease. Findings from the prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease (CLARIFY) registry.

    PubMed

    Danchin, Nicolas; Ferrieres, Jean; Guenoun, Maxime; Cattan, Simon; Rushton-Smith, Sophie K; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ferrari, Roberto; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in the treatment of coronary artery disease mean that an increasing number of patients survive acute cardiovascular events and live as outpatients with or without anginal symptoms. To determine the characteristics and management of contemporary outpatients with stable coronary artery disease in Western Europe, and to compare France with the other Western European countries. CLARIFY (prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease) is an international, prospective, observational, longitudinal study. Between November 2009 and July 2010, 32,954 adult outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (defined as a history of documented myocardial infarction [of >3 months], prior coronary revascularization, chest pain with myocardial ischaemia, or coronary stenosis of>50% proven by angiography) were enrolled in 45 countries. The demographics and management of CLARIFY patients enrolled in France were compared with those enrolled in other Western European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and the UK). Of the 14,726 patients enrolled in Western Europe (mean age 66.2 [10.2] years; 79.6% male), 2432 (16.5%) were from France. The use of aspirin was lower in France than in other Western European countries (74.5% vs. 86.9%, respectively), whereas use of thienopyridines (48.5% vs. 21.7%), oral anticoagulants (12.3% vs. 9.0%) and lipid-lowering drugs (95.8% vs. 92.5%) was higher. Beta-blockers were used in 73% of both groups. Angina was less prevalent in France (6.3% vs. 15.5%) and French patients showed higher levels of physical activity than their counterparts in Western Europe. The management of patients with stable CAD in France appears favourable, with good adherence to guideline-based therapies, but there remains room for improvement in terms of symptom and risk factor control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice.

  16. Evidence for bovine besnoitiosis being endemic in Italy--first in vitro isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from cattle born in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gentile, A; Militerno, G; Schares, G; Nanni, A; Testoni, S; Bassi, P; Gollnick, N S

    2012-03-23

    Until 2009, bovine besnoitiosis had never been considered endemic in Italy and the only report on the disease in this country referred to animals imported from France shortly before. However, recently, an autochthonous outbreak of bovine besnoitiosis was reported in four herds located at the intersection of the borders between Emilia-Romagna, Toscana and Marche (Northern Apennine Mountains), which has led to an increased awareness concerning this disease. The present study describes a further outbreak of bovine besnoitiosis in Italy. The afflicted herd was a dairy herd with no evidence for contact with cattle from regions known to be endemic for bovine besnoitiosis. The farm investigation was initiated after a three-year old Holstein Friesian dairy cow with generalized thickening and lichenification of the skin was diagnosed with bovine besnoitiosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, serology and PCR. Bradyzoites released from tissue cysts obtained from the skin of this animal enabled the first in vitro isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti in Italy. This isolate was named Bb-Italy1. Sequencing of a 2118 bp spanning region including the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 and parts of the 18S and the 5.8S rRNA gene from DNA extracted from skin-derived zoites revealed a 99.9% identity to sequences known for other B. besnoiti isolated from cattle in Europe. Two GKO mice which had been inoculated intraperitoneally with bovine skin-derived bradyzoites became ill 7 days post inoculation. Parasitophorous vacuoles with multiplying zoites were observed in the cell culture inoculated with peritoneal fluids of these mice and a B. besnoiti infection in the mice and in the cell culture could be confirmed by real-time PCR. A serological investigation in the afflicted herd using immunoblots and an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) revealed an overall herd seroprevalence of 9.7% (31/321), whereas within the female animals older than 2

  17. Recent circulation of West Nile virus and potentially other closely related flaviviruses in Southern France.

    PubMed

    Vittecoq, Marion; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Jourdain, Elsa; Thomas, Frédéric; Blanchon, Thomas; Arnal, Audrey; Lowenski, Steeve; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, the number of West Nile virus (WNV) cases reported in horses and humans has increased dramatically throughout the Mediterranean basin. Furthermore, the emergence of Usutu virus (USUV) in Austria in 2001, and its subsequent expansion to Hungary, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Germany, has given added cause for concern regarding the impact of the spread of flaviviruses on human and animal health in western Europe. Despite frequent detection of WNV and USUV cases in neighboring countries, no case of WNV has been detected in France since 2006 and USUV has never been reported. However, recent investigations focused on detecting the circulation of flaviviruses in France are lacking. We investigated the circulation of WNV and USUV viruses in wild birds in southern France on the basis of a serological survey conducted on a sentinel species, the magpie (Pica pica), in the Camargue area from November, 2009, to December, 2010. We detected WNV-neutralizing antibodies at a high titer (160) in a second-year bird showing recent exposure to WNV, although no WNV case has been detected in humans or in horses since 2004 in the Camargue. In addition, we observed low titers (10 or 20) of USUV-specific antibodies in six magpies, two of which were also seropositive for WNV. Such low titers do not give grounds for concluding that these birds had been exposed to USUV; cross-reactions at low titers may occur between antigenically closely related flaviviruses. But these results urge for further investigations into the circulation of flaviviruses in southern France. They also emphasize the necessity of undertaking epidemiological studies on a long-term basis, rather than over short periods following public health crises, to gain insight into viral dynamics within natural reservoirs.

  18. The stoma appliances market in five European countries: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornago, Dante; Garattini, Livio

    2002-01-01

    This comparative exercise analysed the domestic market for stoma appliances in five European countries--Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. National legislation, prescription procedures, delivery modalities and the market were investigated in each country. The analysis involved reviewing national and international literature on stoma appliances and interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country comprising at least one health authority representative, one distributor of medical devices and one manufacturer. No specific relationship was found between the health care system framework and the stoma market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. All five countries reimburse stoma bags, but the distribution of these appliances varies widely, ranging from Denmark, where home delivery is mandatory, to Italy, where any channel can be used. The comparative analysis underlined two important features of the stoma bag market: the discretion of enterostomists in directing patients towards a specific brand of bags, and the patients' high brand loyalty. Despite that, the analysis did not identify any single country that could be considered a benchmark for stoma bag regulation. Each country deals with stoma appliances in different ways, making this a very fragmented market.

  19. Germany, France and NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-17

    the Alliance. Ii. France and NATO. " The French position on NAI 0 has evolved since 1990. Rance has moved toward closer military cooperation with...NATO as demonstrated, for example, by the subcrdination c! French troops in the EUROCORPS io SACFUR when a crisis demands it, " Yet France has also...future. Greater cooperation may develop between France and the United Kingdom, particularly in nuclear matters, as indicated in the French White

  20. France and European Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    block number) In the 1960s, French defense policy emphasized the protection of French territory rather than the collective security of France and her... France and her European allies. This began to change in the late 1970s. The French contribution to European security is now a matter of considerable...independence. He interpreted independence in a specific manner. Although France would maintain ties and commitments to its allies, the French government

  1. Malaria in Italy - Migrants Are Not the Cause.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pombi, Marco; Otranto, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    Recently, five cases of malaria were reported in Italy. These people had not travelled abroad, prompting some media and political organizations to fuel a climate of fear by connecting the cases with migrants coming into the country. Here, we discuss scientific data highlighting the limited risk of malaria reintroduction in Italy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Measles in France].

    PubMed

    Mortamet, G; Dina, J; Freymuth, F; Guillois, B; Vabret, A

    2012-11-01

    Measles is one of the most contagious diseases implicated in an outbreak in Western Europe for a few years. In France, the outbreak began in 2008, especially in the southern regions. Most of the cases are mild but deleterious effects can occur in infants, during the pregnancy, or in immunosuppressive patients. Pneumonia and encephalitis are the major complications in these patients. Measles illness during pregnancy results in a higher risk of premature labor, spontaneous abortion, and low-birthweight infants. Death from measles was reported in approximately 0.3% of cases. The National Reference Center for measles and paramyxoviridae is implicated in biological confirmation of cases and epidemiologic surveillance. Virologic diagnosis consists in a direct detection of viral RNA (real time PCR), or indirect detection of the immune response (IgM and IgG) in saliva samples. The measles genotype is determined by sequencing a 450 nucleotids fragment of the N gene, as the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation. This molecular analysis helps determine the geographic origin of the virus and the viral strains circulating in the country. In 2011, 3105 specimens were received. PCR was positive for 1990 patients (64%), with a large majority of children younger than 2 years of age and young adults. The most important cause of measles resurgence is low vaccination coverage. The role of pediatricians is important in order to achieve the goal of 95% of vaccination coverage established by the WHO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Stochastic convergence of renewable energy consumption in OECD countries: a fractional integration approach.

    PubMed

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko; Al-Mulali, Usama

    2018-04-13

    In this article, we have examined the hypothesis of convergence of renewable energy consumption in 27 OECD countries. However, instead of relying on classical techniques, which are based on the dichotomy between stationarity I(0) and nonstationarity I(1), we consider a more flexible approach based on fractional integration. We employ both parametric and semiparametric techniques. Using parametric methods, evidence of convergence is found in the cases of Mexico, Switzerland and Sweden along with the USA, Portugal, the Czech Republic, South Korea and Spain, and employing semiparametric approaches, we found evidence of convergence in all these eight countries along with Australia, France, Japan, Greece, Italy and Poland. For the remaining 13 countries, even though the orders of integration of the series are smaller than one in all cases except Germany, the confidence intervals are so wide that we cannot reject the hypothesis of unit roots thus not finding support for the hypothesis of convergence.

  4. A comparative analysis of domiciliary oxygen therapy in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Garattini, L; Cornago, D; Tediosi, F

    2001-11-01

    This comparative study analyses the domestic market of domiciliary oxygen therapy in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, and the UK) according to a common checklist of subjects. Domestic legislation, prescription procedures, delivery, and the market situation concerning oxygen therapy were considered. The analysis involved (i) reviewing the literature on oxygen therapy in national and international journals, and (ii) interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country (composed of at least one civil servant, one physician, one distributor, and one oxygen manufacturer). The analysis did not find any specific relationship between the health care system framework and the oxygen therapy market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. In all these countries oxygen therapy is reimbursed, but the type of supply and its diffusion differ widely. The spread of domiciliary care has undermined the traditional role of pharmacies in the oxygen distribution chain in all countries except Italy. The study did not help identify any specific country that can be considered a benchmark for oxygen therapy, each one dealing with oxygen therapy in a different way. An economic evaluation of the different supply modalities could help improve decision making by public authorities.

  5. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  6. Emerging Heterogeneities in Italian Customs and Comparison with Nearby Countries

    PubMed Central

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Javarone, Marco Alberto; Pizzoferrato, Andrea; Tantari, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this work we apply techniques and modus operandi typical of Statistical Mechanics to a large dataset about key social quantifiers and compare the resulting behaviors of five European nations, namely France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. The social quantifiers considered are i. the evolution of the number of autochthonous marriages (i.e., between two natives) within a given territorial district and ii. the evolution of the number of mixed marriages (i.e., between a native and an immigrant) within a given territorial district. Our investigations are twofold. From a theoretical perspective, we develop novel techniques, complementary to classical methods (e.g., historical series and logistic regression), in order to detect possible collective features underlying the empirical behaviors; from an experimental perspective, we evidence a clear outline for the evolution of the social quantifiers considered. The comparison between experimental results and theoretical predictions is excellent and allows speculating that France, Italy and Spain display a certain degree of internal heterogeneity, that is not found in Germany and Switzerland; such heterogeneity, quite mild in France and in Spain, is not negligible in Italy and highlights quantitative differences in the habits of Northern and Southern regions. These findings may suggest the persistence of two culturally distinct communities, long-term lasting heritages of different and well-established customs. Also, we find qualitative differences between the evolution of autochthonous and of mixed marriages: for the former imitation in decisional mechanisms seems to play a key role (and this results in a square root relation between the number of autochthonous marriages versus the percentage of possible couples inside that country), while for the latter the emerging behavior can be recovered (in most cases) with elementary models with no interactions, suggesting weak imitation patterns between natives and migrants

  7. Emerging Heterogeneities in Italian Customs and Comparison with Nearby Countries.

    PubMed

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Javarone, Marco Alberto; Pizzoferrato, Andrea; Tantari, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this work we apply techniques and modus operandi typical of Statistical Mechanics to a large dataset about key social quantifiers and compare the resulting behaviors of five European nations, namely France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. The social quantifiers considered are i. the evolution of the number of autochthonous marriages (i.e., between two natives) within a given territorial district and ii. the evolution of the number of mixed marriages (i.e., between a native and an immigrant) within a given territorial district. Our investigations are twofold. From a theoretical perspective, we develop novel techniques, complementary to classical methods (e.g., historical series and logistic regression), in order to detect possible collective features underlying the empirical behaviors; from an experimental perspective, we evidence a clear outline for the evolution of the social quantifiers considered. The comparison between experimental results and theoretical predictions is excellent and allows speculating that France, Italy and Spain display a certain degree of internal heterogeneity, that is not found in Germany and Switzerland; such heterogeneity, quite mild in France and in Spain, is not negligible in Italy and highlights quantitative differences in the habits of Northern and Southern regions. These findings may suggest the persistence of two culturally distinct communities, long-term lasting heritages of different and well-established customs. Also, we find qualitative differences between the evolution of autochthonous and of mixed marriages: for the former imitation in decisional mechanisms seems to play a key role (and this results in a square root relation between the number of autochthonous marriages versus the percentage of possible couples inside that country), while for the latter the emerging behavior can be recovered (in most cases) with elementary models with no interactions, suggesting weak imitation patterns between natives and migrants

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in cause specific mortality among older people in France.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Leclerc, Annette; Chastang, Jean-François; Luce, Danièle

    2010-05-19

    European comparative studies documented a clear North-South divide in socioeconomic inequalities with cancer being the most important contributor to inequalities in total mortality among middle aged men in Latin Europe (France, Spain, Portugal, Italy). The aim of this paper is to investigate educational inequalities in mortality by gender, age and causes of death in France, with a special emphasis on people aged 75 years and more. We used data from a longitudinal population sample that includes 1% of the French population. Risk of death (total and cause specific) in the period 1990-1999 according to education was analysed using Cox regression models by age group (45-59, 60-74, and 75+). Inequalities were quantified using both relative (ratio) and absolute (difference) measures. Relative inequalities decreased with age but were still observed in the oldest age group. Absolute inequalities increased with age. This increase was particularly pronounced for cardiovascular diseases. The contribution of different causes of death to absolute inequalities in total mortality differed between age groups. In particular, the contribution of cancer deaths decreased substantially between the age groups 60-74 years and 75 years and more, both in men and in women. This study suggests that the large contribution of cancer deaths to the excess mortality among low educated people that was observed among middle aged men in Latin Europe is not observed among French people aged 75 years and more. This should be confirmed among other Latin Europe countries.

  9. Quality of blood culture testing - a survey in intensive care units and microbiological laboratories across four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Blood culture (BC) testing before initiation of antimicrobial therapy is recommended as a standard of care in international sepsis guidelines and has been shown to reduce intensive care unit (ICU) stay, antibiotic use, and costs in hospitalized patients. Whereas microbiological laboratory practice has been highly standardized, shortfalls in the preanalytic procedures in the ICU (that is indication, time-to-incubation, blood volume and numbers of BC sets) have a significant effect on the diagnostic yield. The objective of this study was to gain insights into current practices regarding BC testing in intensive care units. Methods Qualitative survey, data collection by 138 semi-structured telephone interviews in four European countries (Italy, UK, France and Germany) between September and November 2009 in 79 clinical microbiology laboratories (LABs) and 59 ICUs. Results Whereas BC testing is expected to remain the gold standard for sepsis diagnostics in all countries, there are substantial differences regarding preanalytic procedures. The decision to launch BC testing is carried out by physicians vs. ICU nurses in the UK in 92 vs. 8%, in France in 75 vs. 25%, in Italy in 88 vs. 12% and in Germany in 92 vs. 8%. Physicians vs. nurses collect BCs in the UK in 77 vs. 23%, in France in 0 vs. 100%, in Italy in 6 vs. 94% and in Germany in 54 vs. 46%. The mean time from blood collection to incubation in the UK is 2 h, in France 3 h, in Italy 4 h, but 20 h in German remote LABs (2 h in in-house LABs), due to the large number of remote nonresident microbiological laboratories in Germany. There were major differences between the perception of the quality of BC testing between ICUs and LABs. Among German ICU respondents, 62% reported that they have no problems with BC testing, 15% reported time constraints, 15% cost pressure, and only 8% too long time to incubation. However, the corresponding LABs of these German ICUs reported too many false positive results due

  10. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    PubMed

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  11. First report on entomological field activities for the surveillance of West Nile disease in Italy.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luciano; Cipriani, Micaela; Goffredo, Maria; Romi, Roberto; Lelli, Rossella

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is neuropathogenic for birds, horses and humans and is maintained in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly the Culex genus; horses and humans are considered to be incidental hosts. A surveillance plan was implemented in Italy in 1998, following a limited outbreak of WNV equine encephalomyelitis and a WNV outbreak in France very close to the Italian border. This plan to assess the risks of the virus being introduced again included entomological surveillance performed in 15 study areas considered 'at risk' of WNV introduction in the country. Entomological surveys conducted in Italy from 2003 to 2007 resulted in the capture of a total of 28,798 mosquitoes, of which there were 14,765 adults and 14,033 larvae belonging to 22 species. According to the literature, eight of the species identified have been found to be naturally infected with WNV or were successfully infected in the laboratory in some parts of Europe and in the United States, namely: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1897) (= Stegomiya albopicta), Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830), Anopheles maculipennis Meigen, 1818, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889), Culex modestus Ficalbi, 1889, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758, Culex theileri Theobald, 1903 and Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (= Aedes caspius).

  12. Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  13. [Utilization of methylphenidate(Ritalin) in France].

    PubMed

    Frances, C; Hoizey, G; Millart, H; Trenque, T

    2002-01-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the only psychostimulant approved in France and indicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children over 6 years. It is under restricted prescription and distribution conditions. As such, it requires a hospital initiated prescription from either a neurology, psychiatry or pediatric specialist and it is covered by the "narcotics" schedule. The French Pharmacovigilance database spontaneous adverse drug reactions reporting, since it was approved in 1995, were analyzed. 21 adverse drug reactions were reported. In 16 cases, methylphenidate was suspected. They were generally non-serious, mild side effects and in most cases promptly resolved. These results do not suggest methylphenidate misuse in France or an overuse in between 1300 and 4000 treated children, to date. Until more information is available concerning the long-term effects of methylphenidate, and in order to limit misuse, inappropriate or overuse, the current prescription and dispensing regulation should be maintained in France, and could well be developed in other countries.

  14. [Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden].

    PubMed

    Dezileaux, Barbara; Martinez, Florie

    2016-06-01

    Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden. Project compares quantitatively outpatient drug prescriptions in France, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Data were obtained from national databases; the unit of measurement was defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants. The five most prescribed drug classes were compared in each country in 2009, then benzodiazepines and antibiotics from 2006 to 2012. A literature review was focused on the context of prescriptions for each country. In 2009, the five most prescribed drug classes in the four countries represented seven classes in total. France was not the biggest prescriber of drugs, but from 2006 to 2012 benzodiazepines and antibiotics were prescribed much more in France than in the other countries. The evolution of prescriptions was different for each country, and very stable in France. In 2009, France was not the biggest drugs consumer of all classes, but was characterized by high prescriptions in some classes. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Algeria: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Algeria begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic, the Berber languages, and French. The country's return to Arabic as its official language after independence from France in 1962 is discussed along with the resultant language planning, issues of language of instruction at the elementary,…

  16. Determinants of the number of mammography units in 31 countries with significant mammography screening

    PubMed Central

    Autier, P; Ouakrim, D A

    2008-01-01

    In the 2000s, most of the female population of industrialised countries had access to mammography breast cancer screening, but with variable modalities among the countries. We assessed the number of mammography units (MUs) in 31 European, North American and Asian countries where significant mammography activity has existed for over 10 years, collecting data on the number of such units and of radiologists by contacting institutions in each country likely to provide the relevant information. Around 2004, there were 32 324 MU in 31 countries, the number per million women ranging from less than 25 in Turkey, Denmark, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Norway, Poland and Hungary to more than 80 in Cyprus, Italy, France, the United States and Austria. In a multivariate analysis, the number of MUs was positively associated with the number of radiologists (P=0.0081), the number of women (P=0.0023) and somewhat with the country surface area (P=0.077). There is considerable variation in the density of MU across countries and the number of MUs in service are often well above what would be necessary according to local screening recommendations. High number of MUs in some countries may have undesirable consequences, such as unnecessarily high screening frequency and decreased age at which screening is started. PMID:18781176

  17. Differences in lifetime use of services for mental health problems in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Brugha, Traolach S; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Haro, Josep Maria; Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine

    2007-02-01

    In Europe mental health services vary somewhat in the level of resources available and in their organization. The purpose of this study was to describe lifetime use of mental health services in six European countries, especially by individuals with a DSM-IV-defined psychiatric disorder (psychotic disorders were excluded), and to assess differences between countries as a function of resource availability. Data were obtained from 8,796 noninstitutionalized adults of six European countries by computer-assisted interviews with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0. Lifetime consultation rates varied between countries and according to mental health status. For depression, lifetime consultation rates ranged from 37.0% in Italy to 71.0% in the Netherlands. Among users of services, general practitioners were the professionals most frequently consulted in all countries (64.2% on average), followed by psychiatrists (consultation ranged from 25.5% in the Netherlands to 43.8% in Spain) and psychologists (consultation ranged from 23.3% in France to 64.8% in the Netherlands). The lowest rates were in the countries with the lowest availability of professionals, but the countries with the highest density of professionals did not necessarily have the highest consultation rates. Although there are important differences in mental health care between European countries, they seem to be only partially related to differences in overall health care provision.

  18. Ad Hoc Conference on the Education of Migrants: Introductory Report on Theme I, "The Position of the Immigrant and His Family on Arrival in the Host Country" (Strasbourg, France, November 5-8, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Emma

    Theme I of the Ad Hoc Conference on the Education of Migrants was "measures to improve the position of the immigrant and his family at the time of arrival in the host country (including measures taken in the sending country on behalf of those intending to emigrate), primarily in respect of their educational circumstances". This report…

  19. How much money is spent on vaccines across Western European countries?

    PubMed

    Ethgen, Olivier; Baron-Papillon, Florence; Cornier, Murielle

    2016-08-02

    Prevention programs, particularly vaccinations, remain highly vulnerable to budget cuts because their benefits may not be immediately identifiable. Seven Western European countries were selected (Germany, England, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Portugal) constituting a good mix of vaccine procurement modalities, with the objective to document the proportion of healthcare spending devoted to vaccines and its evolution. A data search was performed using the OECD online databases and official national sources from 2008 (2006 for England). No country spent more than 0.5% of its healthcare budget on vaccines. The proportion ranged from 0.25% in Spain (2012) and France (2013) to 0.47% in Germany (2014). Whereas healthcare spending increased in all countries but Spain (with increases ranging from +2.6% per year in France between 2008 and 2013 to +8.1% per year in England between 2006/07 and 2009/10), vaccine spending diminished markedly in Germany (-6.2% per year from 2008 to 2014), Spain (-6.7% per year from 2008 to 2012) and France (-4.2% per year from 2008 to 2013). Only Sweden (+5.9% per year from 2011 to 2013) and England (+18.9% per year from 2006/07 to 2009/10) increased their spending on vaccines. Vaccination involves relatively low levels of healthcare investment in Western Europe relative to the far-reaching public health benefits that it provides. We found a net trend toward a decrease in such spending in recent years, with the exception of Sweden and England. Vaccination budgets should be preserved or even increased to sustain a life-course approach to immunization with sufficient coverage rates.

  20. Management of snakebites in France.

    PubMed

    de Haro, Luc

    2012-09-15

    Although not a major health problem in Europe, snakebite in the old continent was the focus of recent studies to evaluate their overall incidence and define management techniques. The purpose of this three-part report is to present the experience of the Marseille Poison Centre with snakebite in France. The first section deals with viper envenomation that now benefits from a validated therapeutic protocol using of purified antivenom of proven efficacy and tolerance in patients showing grade 2 and 3 symptoms. The second section describes the highly variable snakebite situation in French overseas territories that include areas where local species require specialized management, e.g. Martinique and French Guiana. The third section involves the emerging problems associated with the keeping of exotic snakes as pets with problems related to the use of antivenoms from foreign countries. The exotic-snake pets fashion was at the origin of the creation of a national antivenom bank by two French poison centers (Angers and Marseille) to ensure prompt delivery of antivenoms for exotic snake envenomation anywhere in mainland France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative analysis of generics markets in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Garattini, L; Tediosi, F

    2000-04-01

    A generic medicine is a faithful copy of a mature drug--no longer under patent marketed with the chemical name of the active ingredient. This article analyses generics markets in five European countries: France, Germany Italy, The Netherlands and the U.K. The study investigate all the main issues--patent, approval to market, pricing and reimbursement, prescription and distribution--which affect the life cycle of a pharmaceutical product. The situation in the five countries varied widely. Because of European harmonization, patent legislation and approval procedures no longer affect much the development of generics. Only national legislation on patent protection approved before the EU directive came into force still plays a role. Approval differences seem to be due mainly to common practice, rather than to the regulations themselves. None of the countries have an efficient public information system on patent expiry. Generics have had more success in countries with more flexible pricing policies. Reimbursement has not yet been used widely to discriminate between generics and proprietary drugs. Financial incentives are based more on physicians' prescribing behaviour than on pharmacists. The freedom of pharmacy ownership and the consequent possibility of dispensing pharmaceuticals through different channels affects dramatically the structure of generics markets. A free market of wholesalers and retailers can enhance a comparative market, through horizontal and vertical integration all along the distribution chain. Such an environment has stimulate the success of unbranded generics by delegating strong purchasing power to distributors.

  2. European otorhinolaryngology training programs: results of a European survey about training satisfaction, work environment and conditions in six countries.

    PubMed

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, Naif H; Reichelt, A C; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, Andreas E

    2017-11-01

    ORL-students and residents have an ongoing debate about the "best" programme in Europe. Aim of this study was to comparatively assess differences among programmes in training, satisfaction, quality of life (QoL) of residents and recent otorhinolaryngologist (ORL) specialists in France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Austria, and Belgium. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, structured in ten sections including general information, provided guidance, working environment, training structure, teaching of medical students, publication work, QoL, and satisfaction with training, were emailed to residents and recent ORL specialists. 476 returned questionnaires from 6 countries revealed that daily work hours were the highest in France and Belgium with 11 and 10.4 h on average, respectively. QoL, work conditions, and salary were best in Germany followed by Austria in terms of possibility of part-time contracts, better respect for post-duty day off, and compensation for overtime. Satisfaction with training including support and guidance of seniors was lowest in Italy, but, on the other hand, the publication work and support had a more important place than in other countries. In Belgium, there was some gap between the quality of teaching and feedback from seniors as well as apprenticeship. The highest satisfaction with training was in France and Spain followed by Austria. The study results provide guidance before choosing an ORL training programme in Europe. Country-specific strengths could be included into future harmonization efforts to improve all programmes, facilitate professional exchange and, finally, establish standards-of-care carried out by well-trained doctors also looking after a satisfying work-life balance.

  3. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  4. Attitudes of women from five European countries regarding tobacco control policies.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Carolyn; Wei, Mei; Heck, Julia E; Allwright, Shane; Haglund, Margaretha; Sanchez, Sara; Kralikova, Eva; Stücker, Isabelle; Tamang, Elizabeth; Gritz, Ellen R; Hashibe, Mia

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco-related cancers and, in particular, lung cancer still represents a substantial public health epidemic across Europe as a result of high rates of smoking prevalence. Countries in Europe have proposed and implemented tobacco control policies to reduce smoking prevalence, with some countries being more progressive than others. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influenced women's attitudes across five European countries relative to comprehensive smokefree laws in their countries. A cross-sectional landline telephone survey on attitudes towards tobacco control laws was conducted in five European countries: France, Ireland, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Sweden. Attitudinal scores were determined for each respondent relative to questions about smokefree laws. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 5000 women were interviewed (1000 women from each country). The majority of women, regardless of smoking history, objected to smoking in public buses, enclosed shopping centers, hospitals, and other indoor work places. More women who had quit smoking believed that new tobacco control laws would prompt cessation - as compared with women who still smoked. In general, there is very high support for national smokefree laws that cover bars, restaurants, and public transport systems. As such laws are implemented, attitudes do change, as demonstrated by the differences between countries such as Ireland and the Czech Republic. Implementing comprehensive smokefree laws will gain high approval and will be associated with prompting people to quit.

  5. Later-life mental health in Europe: a country-level comparison.

    PubMed

    Ploubidis, George B; Grundy, Emily

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the influence of country of residence on depression and well-being among older Europeans, after establishing the between-country measurement invariance of both constructs. We used data from a cross-sectional nationally representative population-based sample of older Europeans, the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The analysis sample comprised 13,498 older Europeans from nine countries. The EURO-D was used to measure depression, and a well-being outcome was derived from self-report items available in SHARE. The between-country measurement invariance of both mental health outcomes was established using modern psychometric modeling techniques. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and the presence of chronic illness, Spain was the country scoring highest on depression and Denmark highest on well-being. Optimal mental health was associated with higher educational attainment and being married. There is considerable between-country heterogeneity in later-life mental health in Europe. The Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, and Austria, do best (low depression/high well-being), followed by Germany and France, whereas residents of Spain, Italy, and Greece report the worst mental health.

  6. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Brod, Meryl; Pohlman, Betsy; Lasser, Robert; Hodgkins, Paul

    2012-05-14

    The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Participants' statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus.

  7. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

  8. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  9. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, L.; Rollin, P.

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but notmore » cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.« less

  10. Linguistic Pluralism in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Jacques M.

    This paper suggests that a discussion of linguistic pluralism in France begins by chronicling the emergence of French as the primary language in early French history and the role of linguistic minorities at various periods in French history. It then focuses on growing linguistic activism in the second half of the twentieth century, when the…

  11. Getting Skills Right: France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in France. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment of skills acquisitions with labour market needs; policies stimulating skills demand and skills use; policies…

  12. ADULT EDUCATION IN FRANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TITMUS, COLIN J.

    A SURVEY OF NONVOCATIONAL ADULT EDUCATION IN FRANCE, THE FIRST FULL LENGTH STUDY, OUTLINES ITS HISTORY FROM THE FRENCH REVOLUTION THROUGH THE RESISTANCE, THE PRINCIPLES AND CONDITIONS OF POPULAR EDUCATION SINCE 1945, LOCAL AND GOVERNMENTAL PROGRAMS, SERVICES OF PRIVATE AND GENERAL ORGANIZATIONS, PROVISIONS FOR SPECIAL INTERESTS AND GROUPS,…

  13. [Anesthesiologists in France].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Hanaoka, Kazuo; Merckx, Paul; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Kavafyan, Juliette; Mantz, Jean

    2007-03-01

    We review some anesthesiologist's curriculum and demographic characteristics in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. To become a certified anesthesiologist and an intensive care physician currently requires six years' medical education, passing national medical examination, and five years' special training as an intern of anesthesiology and intensive care. This educational course was started in 1984. There are 7942 certified anesthesiologists in France in 1999. The average age is 45.9 years and the ratio of female is 35.3%. Approximately two thirds of certified anesthesiologists are working in public institutions. 89% is full-time workers. More than half of certified anesthesiologists actually participate in daily intensive care practice. The number of certified anesthesiologists has been increasing gradually totaling 10,062 persons in 2005. The number of certified anesthesiologists per ten thousands general population is 1.7 persons and the corresponding ratio to all medical doctors is 4.8%. Working hours and holidays are regulated by the French Labour Law. The anaesthesiologist often works in a team with a nurse anaesthetist. The number of certified anesthesiologists in France is larger than that in Japan. Management of anesthesia in France seems to have an advantage in manpower.

  14. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain. PMID:24558343

  15. [Are schizophrenic patients being told their diagnosis today in France?

    PubMed

    Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V

    2017-04-01

    The progressive shifts in the legal and social contexts, along with major changes in information seeking habits with the development of the Internet, have placed patients' information at the core of medical practice. This has to be applied to the psychiatric fields as well, and to questions about how schizophrenic patients are being told their diagnosis nowadays in France. This paper is a national and international literature review about schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure practices, from 1972 to 2014, using French and English languages and various psychology and medical databases. The used key words were "diagnosis", "disclosure", "communication", "breaking bad news", "information", "schizophrenia" and "psychosis". Proportions of diagnosis announcement: our results show that the proportion of psychiatrists delivering schizophrenia diagnosis to their patients varies between countries. Although we must acknowledge that the questionnaires and samples are diverse, we have found that psychiatrists are in general less prone to deliver diagnosis information in France (from 13,5% to 39% given the studies), Germany (28%), Italy (30%), and Japan (30%), than in Anglo-Saxon countries. Thus, 70% of the psychiatrists in North America and 56% in Australia claim that they disclose their diagnosis to schizophrenic patients. In the United-Kingdom, a study targeting psychotic patients themselves has shown that 47% of them had been told their diagnosis by their doctor. Even in the countries where the proportion of diagnosis disclosure is the highest, there remains a substantial difference with other mental illnesses such as affective or anxiety disorders, which are almost always labeled as such in the information communicated to the patient (90% in North America). Diagnostic information about schizophrenia continues therefore to appear problematic for health professionals, which can seem a paradox given the recent social and legal evolutions, the therapeutic progress, the proved

  16. The Icatibant Outcome Survey: experience of hereditary angioedema management from six European countries.

    PubMed

    Caballero, T; Aberer, W; Longhurst, H J; Maurer, M; Zanichelli, A; Perrin, A; Bouillet, L; Andresen, I

    2017-07-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare, potentially fatal, bradykinin-mediated disease. Icatibant is a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist originally approved in 2008 in the European Union and 2011 in the United States as an acute therapy option for HAE attacks in adults. To compare demographics, disease characteristics and treatment outcomes of icatibant-treated HAE attacks in patients with C1-INH-HAE enrolled in the Icatibant Outcome Survey across six European countries: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. The Icatibant Outcome Survey [IOS; Shire, Zug, Switzerland (NCT01034969)] is an international observational study monitoring the safety and effectiveness of icatibant. Descriptive, retrospective analyses compared IOS country data derived during July 2009-April 2015. Overall, 481 patients with C1-INH-HAE provided demographic data. A significant difference across countries in age at onset (P = 0.003) and baseline attack frequency (P < 0.001) was found although no significant differences were found with respect to gender (majority female; P = 0.109), age at diagnosis (P = 0.182) or delay in diagnosis (P = 0.059). Icatibant was used to treat 1893 attacks in 325 patients with majority self-administration in all countries. Overall, significant differences (all P < 0.001) were found across countries in time to treatment [median 1.8 h; median range: 0.0 (Germany-Austria) to 4.4 (France) h], time to resolution [median 6.5 h; median range: 3 (Germany-Austria) to 12 (France) h] and attack duration [median 10.5 h; median range: 3.1 (Germany-Austria) to 18.5 (France) h]. These data form the first European cross-country comparison of disease characteristics and icatibant use in patients with C1-INH-HAE who are enrolled in IOS. International variation in icatibant practice and treatment outcomes across the six European countries assessed highlight the need to further investigate the range of country-specific parameters

  17. [The Lebanese in France: population trends and characteristics].

    PubMed

    Abdulkarim, A

    1993-01-01

    Demographic characteristics, population trends, and the spatial distribution of Lebanese migrants to France are examined and compared with those of migrants from other countries. The focus is on the decision to migrate and its effect on life in France. The author concludes that Lebanese migration is primarily labor migration, even during times of political upheaval and war, and that this motivation contributes to the assimilation of the Lebanese into the middle and upper socioeconomic classes. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  18. Insufficient access to harm reduction measures in prisons in 5 countries (PRIDE Europe): a shared European public health concern.

    PubMed

    Michel, Laurent; Lions, Caroline; Van Malderen, Sara; Schiltz, Julie; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Holm, Karina; Kolind, Torsten; Nava, Felice; Weltzien, Nadja; Moser, Andrea; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Maguet, Olivier; Carrieri, Patrizia M; Brentari, Cinzia; Stöver, Heino

    2015-10-27

    Prisoners constitute a high-risk population, particularly for infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the level of infectious risk in the prisons of five different European countries by measuring to what extent the prison system adheres to WHO/UNODC recommendations. Following the methodology used in a previous French survey, a postal/electronic questionnaire was sent to all prisons in Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Italy to collect data on the availability of several recommended HIV-HCV prevention interventions and HBV vaccination for prisoners. A score was built to compare adherence to WHO/UNODC recommendations (considered a proxy of environmental infectious risk) in those 4 countries. It ranged from 0 (no adherence) to 12 (full adherence). A second score (0 to 9) was built to include data from a previous French survey, thereby creating a 5-country comparison. A majority of prisons answered in Austria (100 %), France (66 %) and Denmark (58 %), half in Belgium (50 %) and few in Italy (17 %), representing 100, 74, 89, 47 and 23 % coverage of the prison populations, respectively. Availability of prevention measures was low, with median adherence scores ranging from 3.5 to 4.5 at the national level. These results were confirmed when using the second score which included France in the inter-country comparison. Overall, the adherence score was inversely associated with prison overpopulation rates (p = 0.08). Using a score of adherence to WHO/UNODC recommendations, the estimated environmental infectious risk remains extremely high in the prisons of the 5 European countries assessed. Public health strategies should be adjusted to comply with the principle of equivalence of care and prevention with the general community.

  19. Individual factors associated with L- and H-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in France

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cattle with L-type (L-BSE) and H-type (H-BSE) atypical Bovine Spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) were identified in 2003 in Italy and France respectively before being identified in other countries worldwide. As of December 2011, around 60 atypical BSE cases have currently been reported in 13 countries, with over one third in France. While the epidemiology of classical BSE (C-BSE) has been widely described, atypical BSEs are still poorly documented, but appear to differ from C-BSE. We analysed the epidemiological characteristics of the 12 cases of L-BSE and 11 cases of H-BSE detected in France from January 2001 to late 2009 and looked for individual risk factors. As L-BSE cases did not appear to be homogeneously distributed throughout the country, two complementary methods were used: spatial analysis and regression modelling. L-BSE and H-BSE were studied separately as both the biochemical properties of their pathological prion protein and their features differ in animal models. Results The median age at detection for L-BSE and H-BSE cases was 12.4 (range 8.4-18.7) and 12.5 (8.3-18.2) years respectively, with no significant difference between the two distributions. However, this median age differed significantly from that of classical BSE (7.0 (range 3.5-15.4) years). A significant geographical cluster was detected for L-BSE. Among animals over eight years of age, we showed that the risk of being detected as a L-BSE case increased with age at death. This was not the case for H-BSE. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to describe the epidemiology of the two types of atypical BSE. The geographical cluster detected for L-BSE could be partly due to the age structure of the background-tested bovine population. Our regression analyses, which adjusted for the effect of age and birth cohort showed an age effect for L-BSE and the descriptive analysis showed a particular age structure in the area where the cluster was detected. No birth

  20. MRI in France: the French paradox.

    PubMed

    Lavayssière, R; Cabée, A E

    2001-04-01

    Although France is a modern, developed country, which spends nearly 10% of the gross national product on healthcare and has a highly praised level of medicine, the number of modern imaging scanners, such as CT (595), MRI (182), and PET (5), is quite low when compared to other European countries. Politics and a long-standing tradition of centralization are prominent among reasons for such an underdevelopment. This situation has resulted in another French paradox not linked to wine consumption. The French life expectancy is very high, but the number of imaging equipment is very low.

  1. Law of 22 April 2005 on patients' rights and the end of life in France: setting the boundaries of euthanasia, with regard to current legislation in other European countries.

    PubMed

    Clin, Bénédicte; Ophélie, Ferrant

    2010-10-01

    The term 'euthanasia' is not clearly defined. Euthanasia is evoked in many aspects of terminal care: interruption of curative treatment at the end of life, palliative care or the act of deliberately provoking death through compassion. A law on 'patients' rights and the end of life', promulgated in France on 22 April 2005, led to changes in the French Code of Public Health. In this work, we have first outlined the key provisions of this law and the changes it has brought, then we have compared current legislation on the subject throughout Europe, where a rapid overview of current practice in terminal patient care revealed four different types of legislation: the first authorizes euthanasia (in the sense of provoking death, if this choice is medically justified), the second legalizes 'assisted suicide', the third, which is sometimes referred to as 'passive euthanasia', consists of the non-administration of life-sustaining treatment and, finally, the fourth prohibits euthanasia in any form whatsoever. In the last section, we have attempted to clarify the as yet indistinct notion of 'euthanasia' in order to determine whether the conception of terminal care in the Law of 22 April 2005 was consistent with that put forward by the philosopher Francis Bacon, who claimed that, 'The physician's role is to relieve pain, not only when such relief can lead to healing, but also when it can proffer a calm and trouble-free death, thus putting an end to the suffering and the agony of death' (modern adaptation of the original quote).

  2. Bio-medicolegal scientific research in Europe. A country-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Viel, Guido; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Cecchi, Rossana; Bajanowski, Thomas; Vieira, Nuno Duarte; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2011-09-01

    The European mosaic of socio-cultural, economic and legal realities is reflected in forensic and legal medicine, in which a great variety of operational modes of forensic medical services, organisational systems, structures, functional competences and scientific research strategies can be observed. The present work analyses the European bio-medicolegal scientific output of the last 5.5 years (exact time window, January 1, 2005-June 1, 2010), categorising papers by nationality of the corresponding author and forensic sub-discipline in question, in order to identify the peculiarities of national sub-specialised competences and to build up international research projects. This country-based bibliometric analysis, based on the number of articles and the impact factor produced by each European country, also considering its economic profile (gross domestic product and per capita gross domestic product), highlights the prevailing productive role of Western and Southern Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Switzerland, Spain and France). Categorising scientific output by forensic sub-discipline and branch, significant in terms of impact factor are contributions from Germany (coming first in Pathology, Toxicology, Genetics, Anthropology and Biological Criminalistics), Great Britain (first in Clinical Forensic Medicine, Malpractice and Invalidity-Social Insurance), Switzerland (first in Criminology), Italy (second in Toxicology, Anthropology and Invalidity-Social Insurance), The Netherlands (third in Clinical Forensic Medicine and Medical Law and Ethics), Spain (third in Genetics, Criminalistics and Invalidity-Social Insurance) and France (third in Toxicology and Malpractice). Interestingly, several countries with low gross domestic product, such as Poland, Turkey and other Eastern European nations, show notable scientific production in specific sub-disciplines such as Pathology, Toxicology and Forensic Genetics, suggesting that fruitful international cooperation could be

  3. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  4. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  5. Molecular typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 clinical strains isolated in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Stefano; Scaturro, Maria; Rota, Maria Cristina; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2014-07-01

    Molecular typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates are essential epidemiological tools in prevention and control of Legionella infections and outbreaks. A selection of 56 out of 184 Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) clinical isolates, collected from different Italian regions between 1987 and 2012, and stored at the National Reference Laboratory for Legionella, were typed by monoclonal antibody (MAb) subgrouping, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and sequence based typing (SBT). These strains were isolated from 39 community (69.6%), 14 nosocomial (25%) and 3 travel associated (5.4%) Legionnaires'disease cases. MAb typing results showed a prevalence of MAb 3/1 positive isolates (75%) with the Philadelphia subgroup representing 35.7%, followed by Knoxville (23.2%), Benidorm (12.5%), Allentown/France (1.8%), Allentown/France-Philadelphia (1.8%). The remaining 25% were MAb 3/1 negative, namely 11 Olda (19.6%), 2 Oxford (3.6%) and 1 Bellingham (1.8%) subgroups. AFLP analysis detected 20 different genomic profiles. SBT analysis revealed 32 different sequence types (STs) with high diversity of STs (IODSTs=0.952) 12 of which were never described before. ST1 and ST23 were most frequently isolated as observed worldwide. A helpful analysis of data from SBT, MAb subgrouping and AFLP is provided, as well as a comparison to the Lp1 types investigated from other countries. This study describes the first Italian Lp1 strains database, providing molecular epidemiology data useful for future epidemiological investigations, especially of travel associated Legionnaires' diseases (TALD) cases, Italy being the country associated with the highest number of clusters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of influenza vaccination among nurses and ancillary workers in Italy: systematic review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Ursillo, Paolo; Bontempi, Claudio; Firenze, Alberto; Panico, Maria Grazia; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ronga, Chiara; D'Anna, Adele; Amodio, Emanuele; Romano, Nino; Boccia, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    Italian Ministry of Health, recommends vaccination for seasonal influenza to all healthcare workers (HCW), particularly to nurses who have an important interaction with patients. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review in order to estimate the pooled prevalence of influenza vaccinations among nurses and ancillary workers in Italy and analyse the enhancing and hindering factors. The review was performed using 15 articles, six containing the prevalence of vaccination for nurses and ancillary workers, while the others qualitative analysis. In all the selected articles the score calculation has been carried out by using a protocol for observational studies. The nurses and ancillary workers pooled proportion of influenza vaccination was respectively 13.47% (95%CI 9.58-17.90%) and 12.52% (95%CI 9.97-15.31%). The Italian mean of influenza vaccination prevalence appear low if compared to other European countries, ranging from 15% to 29% in Countries such as UK, Germany, France. This situation of weakness should be seen as an opportunity to improve the vaccination rate for seasonal influenza significantly This should be done by intervening on the category which affirms caring less. In fact, this category has a priority to receive vaccination, due to their numbers and closer contact to patients. Research was conducted using medical database Scopus, PubMed, the search engine Google Scholar and ISI web of knowledge, and was concluded February 1st 2011.

  7. Characterization of the large fire regime in SE France

    Treesearch

    Anne Ganteaume; Marielle Jappiot

    2015-01-01

    Southeastern France is the most wildfire prone region of the country, covering 14.7 percent of its land area-entire country, is the region most affected by wildfires, with 55 percent of the total number of fires recorded in the whole country from 2006 to 2008. It is a typical Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers, often with strong NW wind, and includes plant...

  8. Religious slaughter in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Mattiacci, C; De Angelis, G; Marini, P; Cuccurese, A; Rossi, R; Catanese, B

    2010-06-01

    This research aims to understand the prevalence of religious slaughter practices in Italy. Two different ways of slaughtering animals are identified. Conventional slaughter is performed with prior stunning; kosher slaughter is practiced without stunning. Halal slaughter is performed for most animals without stunning. Halal slaughter with prior stunning is acceptable for 5.90% of small ruminants. For Halal slaughter in Italy, the terms "religious slaughter with stunning" and "religious slaughter without stunning" should be used to differentiate religious slaughter practices, keeping animal welfare in perspective.

  9. New Terrorism In France

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-03-01

    transportation massacre at the hands of al-Qaeda backed militants. While France experienced social rioting in the summer of 2005, it still remained free from...did, I did of my own free will, without any influence by anyone who said to me one day ‘do this, do that.’ I did it all alone. I organized it all...157 Freeman, “Democracy,” 43. 158 The Washington Consensus refers to a set of broad free market economic

  10. Uranium mining in France

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.

    Since the onset of the first ''oil shock'' in 1974, France has pursued a policy of steadily increasing energy independence based on nuclear power for generation of electricity. In 1973, nuclear reactors supplied only 8% of France's electrical power. A strong development effort lifted the nuclear share to 23% in 1980, to 66% in 1985, and the plan is to raise the total to 75% by 1990. In 1976, Cogema (Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires) was organized from the production division of France's Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) to handle fuel supply and spent fuel reprocessing for the expanding industrymore » (see subsequent article on Cogema). In parallel with growth of the French nuclear power, Cogema has become a world leader in all aspects of the fuel cycle, providing services not only domestically but internationally as well. As a uranium mining company, Cogema has steadily developed domestic and foreign sources of supply, and over the years it has maintained the world's strongest uranium exploration effort throughout the ups and downs of the market. As a result, the company has become the world's leading uranium supplier, with about 20% of total production contributed either by its domestic mining divisions or overseas subsidiaries.« less

  11. Cost-effectiveness of alendronate in the treatment of postmenopausal women in 9 European countries--an economic evaluation based on the fracture intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Ström, O; Borgström, F; Sen, S S; Boonen, S; Haentjens, P; Johnell, O; Kanis, J A

    2007-08-01

    Treatment with alendronate (Fosamax) has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of fragility fractures. Cost-effectiveness of treatment was assessed in nine European countries in a Markov model and was generally found to be cost effective in women with a previous spine fracture. Treatment with alendronate (Fosamax) reduces the risk of osteoporotic fractures at the spine, hip and wrist in women with and without prevalent vertebral fracture. Cost-effectiveness estimates in one country may not be applicable elsewhere due to differences in fracture risks, costs and drug prices. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of treating postmenopausal women with alendronate in nine European countries, comprising Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. A Markov model was populated with data for the nine European populations. Effect of treatment was taken from the Fracture Intervention Trial, which recruited women with low BMD alone or with a prior vertebral fracture. The cost per QALY gained of treating postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fractures ranged in the base case from "cost saving" in the Scandinavian countries to 15,000 in Italy. Corresponding estimates for women without prior vertebral fractures ranged from "cost saving" to 40,000. In relation to thresholds generally used, the analysis suggests that alendronate is very cost effective in the treatment of women with previous vertebral fracture, and in women without previous vertebral fracture, cost-effectiveness depends on the country setting, discount rates, and chosen monetary thresholds.

  12. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  13. Getting Skills Right: Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in Italy. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment of skills acquisitions with labour market needs; the design of education and training systems and their…

  14. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  15. Bay of Naples, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The modern city of Naples (41.0N, 14.5E) and the ancient volcano of Mount Vesuvius on the shores of the Bay of Naples, Italy are the most striking features in this scene. The Roman city of Pompei, buried in the AD 79 volcano eruption can be seen on the coast just to the south of Vesuvius.

  16. Language Testing, "Integration" and Subtractive Multilingualism in Italy: Challenges for Adult Immigrant Second Language and Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Stephanie V.

    2015-01-01

    Since Italy's unification in 1861, the establishment and diffusion of the standard Italian language at the expense of all other linguistic varieties has dominated language and education policy discourses. Today, as Italy has transformed from a country of mass "emigration" to a country of mass "immigration," the language…

  17. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  18. City of Paris, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-20

    STS047-94-010 (12 - 20 Sept 1992) --- This 250mm Hasselblad color photo of Paris, France recorded during this mission, shows urban land uses in great detail. Several airports are clear, including the two major international airports of Orly and Le Bourget. Paris was founded in pre-Roman times on an island in the Seine River and continued as a Roman outpost. The easily defensible location was one of the keys to the growth of this island city. The city expanded from its island state to become a major urban center in Europe because of its location, its easy access by river traffic, and its productive hinterland.

  19. Medical dominance in Italy: a partial decline.

    PubMed

    Tousijn, Willem

    2002-09-01

    In the last three decades, a number of changes in health systems has been challenging medical dominance in many countries. It has been widely debated whether the medical profession has been able to cope with these changes and maintain its power or, rather, has been deprofessionalised or proletarianised. In this paper, the effects of these changes in Italy are examined, by using a multi-dimensional concept of medical dominance. As a result of this analysis. medical dominance in Italy is depicted as declining on some dimensions while changing its nature on others. The final part of the paper discusses some current explanations of this trend and suggests that the transition to post-modern society and the "late modernity" argument (Giddens, 1990; The consequences of modernity, Polity Press, Cambridge; Beck, 1992; Risk society: towards a new modernity, Sage, London) may provide an entry into more adequate explanations.

  20. Hepatitis E and blood donation safety in selected European countries: a shift to screening?

    PubMed

    Domanović, Dragoslav; Tedder, Richard; Blümel, Johannes; Zaaijer, Hans; Gallian, Pierre; Niederhauser, Christoph; Sauleda Oliveras, Silvia; O'Riordan, Joan; Boland, Fiona; Harritshøj, Lene; Nascimento, Maria São José; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita; Politis, Constatina; Adlhoch, Cornelia; Flan, Benoit; Oualikene-Gonin, Wahiba; Rautmann, Guy; Strengers, Paul; Hewitt, Patricia

    2017-04-20

    The public health implications of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Europe have changed due to increasing numbers of hepatitis E cases and recent reports of chronic, persistent HEV infections associated with progression to cirrhosis in immunosuppressed patients. The main infectious risk for such immunosuppressed patients is exposure to undercooked infected pork products and blood transfusion. We summarised the epidemiology of HEV infections among blood donors and also outlined any strategies to prevent transfusion-transmitted HEV, in 11 European countries. In response to the threat posed by HEV and related public and political concerns, most of the observed countries determined seroprevalence of HEV in donors and presence of HEV RNA in blood donations. France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK) reported cases of transfusion-transmitted HEV. Ireland and the UK have already implemented HEV RNA screening of blood donations; the Netherlands will start in 2017. Germany and France perform screening for HEV RNA in several blood establishments or plasma donations intended for use in high-risk patients respectively and, with Switzerland, are considering implementing selective or universal screening nationwide. In Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain, the blood authorities are evaluating the situation. Denmark decided not to implement the HEV screening of blood donations. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  1. Hepatitis E and blood donation safety in selected European countries: a shift to screening?

    PubMed Central

    Domanović, Dragoslav; Tedder, Richard; Blümel, Johannes; Zaaijer, Hans; Gallian, Pierre; Niederhauser, Christoph; Sauleda Oliveras, Silvia; O’Riordan, Joan; Boland, Fiona; Harritshøj, Lene; Nascimento, Maria São José; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita; Politis, Constatina; Adlhoch, Cornelia; Flan, Benoit; Oualikene-Gonin, Wahiba; Rautmann, Guy; Strengers, Paul; Hewitt, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The public health implications of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Europe have changed due to increasing numbers of hepatitis E cases and recent reports of chronic, persistent HEV infections associated with progression to cirrhosis in immunosuppressed patients. The main infectious risk for such immunosuppressed patients is exposure to undercooked infected pork products and blood transfusion. We summarised the epidemiology of HEV infections among blood donors and also outlined any strategies to prevent transfusion-transmitted HEV, in 11 European countries. In response to the threat posed by HEV and related public and political concerns, most of the observed countries determined seroprevalence of HEV in donors and presence of HEV RNA in blood donations. France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK) reported cases of transfusion-transmitted HEV. Ireland and the UK have already implemented HEV RNA screening of blood donations; the Netherlands will start in 2017. Germany and France perform screening for HEV RNA in several blood establishments or plasma donations intended for use in high-risk patients respectively and, with Switzerland, are considering implementing selective or universal screening nationwide. In Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain, the blood authorities are evaluating the situation. Denmark decided not to implement the HEV screening of blood donations. PMID:28449730

  2. Update on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Conversano, Michele

    2014-05-01

    As in many countries in Western Europe, in Italy tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease. In the last decade its incidence has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants, the threshold considered to define a country as low prevalence. The epidemiological picture, however, is very different in the countries of Eastern Europe and in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the incidence of TB continues to increase and in some cases is accompanied by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant TB. The present review describes the epidemiology of TB in Italy. In 2008, the incidence rate was 3.8 cases per 100,000 for people born in Italy, and 50-60 cases per 100,000 for those born abroad. There was an increase in cases from Eastern Europe. The crude mortality rate for TB in 2006 was 0.7 deaths per 100,000 residents. Although TB is a low-prevalence disease in Italy, its epidemiology is changing. Since 1955, more than 160,000 people in Italy have died from this potentially preventable and curable disease.

  3. Country-level assessment of future risk of water scarcity in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana; Granados, Alfredo

    2018-06-01

    A methodology for regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe is presented in this study. The methodology is based on a proposed indicator of risk of water scarcity based on the projections of runoff and water availability for European countries. The risk of water scarcity is the combined result of hydrological processes, which determine streamflow in natural conditions, and human intervention, which determines water management using the available hydraulic infrastructure and establishes water supply conditions through operating rules. Model results show that changes in runoff and availability obtained for individual GCM projections can be large and even contradictory. These heterogeneous results are summarized in the water scarcity risk index, a global value that accounts for the results obtained with the ensemble of model results and emission scenarios. The countries at larger risk are (in this order) Spain, Portugal, Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, France and Italy. They are mostly Mediterranean countries already exposed to significant water scarcity problems. There are countries, like Slovakia, Ireland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Croatia and Romania, with mild risk. Northern Arctic countries, like Sweden, Finland, Norway and Russia, show a robust however mild increase in water availability.

  4. Population exposed to landslide risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Munafò, Michele; Baiocco, Fabio; Marinosci, Ines; Chiocchini, Raffaella; Mugnoli, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides counting over 486,000 mass movements with a total area of 20,700 square kilometres equal to 6.9% of the national territory. Moreover Italy is a densely urbanized country: 8101 municipalities, about 200 inhabitants per sq. km, 16,000 km of rail network and 180,000 km of road network. Landslides caused more than 5000 fatalities in the last century and considerable damage to urban areas, transport infrastructure and facilities, environmental and cultural heritage. The aim of this work is to estimate the population exposed to landslide risk in Italy. The input data are: the Italian Landslide Inventory, the Italian Population Census data and the high-resolution Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer (Geoland2). The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) realised by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-governing Provinces, identifies landslides occurred in the national territory in accordance with standardized methods and using a detailed landslide mapping (1:10,000 scale). The 14th Population Census, made by ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) in 2001, contains data of resident population for the 382,534 census tracts in which Italy is divided. The pan-European high-resolution (HR) Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer, realized using remote sensing data within the GMES initiative (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) by European Commission and European Space Agency, contains the degree of imperviousness (between 0 and 100%). GIS overlay of this information layer (20 x 20 m grid) with census tracts has allowed the spatialization of population within urban settlements of each census tract. This methodology has been particularly useful in the case of rural census tracts characterized by large surface area and low population density. The methodology could be also applied to estimate the population exposed to

  5. Availability of hepatitis C diagnostics and therapeutics in European and Eurasia countries.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Arends, Joop E; Ozaras, Resat; Corti, Giampaolo; Santos, Lurdes; Boesecke, Christoph; Ustianowski, Andrew; Duberg, Ann-Sofi; Ruta, Simona; Salkic, Nermin N; Husa, Petr; Lazarevic, Ivana; Pineda, Juan A; Pshenichnaya, Natalia Yurievna; Tsertswadze, Tengiz; Matičič, Mojca; Puca, Edmond; Abuova, Gulzhan; Gervain, Judit; Bayramli, Ramin; Ahmeti, Salih; Koulentaki, Mairi; Kilani, Badreddine; Vince, Adriana; Negro, Francesco; Sunbul, Mustafa; Salmon, Dominique

    2018-02-01

    Treatment with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has provided sustained virological response rates in >95% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However treatment is costly and market access, reimbursement and governmental restrictions differ among countries. We aimed to analyze these differences among European and Eurasian countries. A survey including 20-item questionnaire was sent to experts in viral hepatitis. Countries were evaluated according to their income categories by the World Bank stratification. Experts from 26 countries responded to the survey. As of May 2016, HCV prevalence was reported as low (≤1%) in Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK; intermediate (1-4%) in Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Kosovo, Greece, Kazakhstan, Romania, Russia, Serbia and high in Georgia (6.7%). All countries had national guidelines except Albania, Kosovo, Serbia, Tunisia, and UK. Transient elastography was available in all countries, but reimbursed in 61%. HCV-RNA was reimbursed in 81%. PegIFN/RBV was reimbursed in 54% of the countries. No DAAs were available in four countries: Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Serbia, and Tunisia. In others, at least one DAA combination with either PegIFN/RBV or another DAA was available. In Germany and the Netherlands all DAAs were reimbursed without restrictions: Sofosbuvir and sofosbuvir/ledipasvir were free of charge in Georgia. Prevalence of HCV is relatively higher in lower-middle and upper-middle income countries. DAAs are not available or reimbursed in many Eurasia and European countries. Effective screening and access to care are essential for reducing liver-related morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Online information about risks and benefits of screening mammography in 10 European countries: An observational Web sites analysis.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Laura; Navaro, Monica; Ferrara, Pietro; Del Prete, Viola; Attena, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Most publications about breast cancer do not provide accurate and comprehensive information, giving few or no data about risk/benefit ratios. We conducted a comparative study among 10 European countries about health information on breast cancer screening, assessing the first 10 Web sites addressing the general public that appeared following an Internet search.With the help of medical residents involved in the EuroNet MRPH Association, we analyzed the first 30 results of an Internet search in 10 European countries to determine the first 10 sites that offered screening mammography. We searched for the following information: source of information, general information on mammography and breast cancer screening, potential harms and risks (false positives, false positives after biopsy, false negatives, interval cancer, overdiagnosis, lead-time bias, and radiation exposure), and potential benefits (reduced mortality and increased survival).The United Kingdom provided the most information: 39 of all 70 possible identified risks (56%) were reported on its sites. Five nations presented over 35% of the possible information (United Kingdom, Spain, France, Ireland, and Italy); the others were under 30% (Portugal, Poland, Slovenia, Netherlands, and Croatia). Regarding the benefits, sites offering the most complete information were those in France (95%) and Poland (90%).Our results suggest that, despite consensus in the scientific community about providing better information to citizens, further efforts are needed to improve information about breast cancer screening. That conclusion also applies to countries showing better results. We believe that there should be greater coordination in this regard throughout Europe.

  7. Self-reported mental health in children ages 6-12 years across eight European countries.

    PubMed

    Husky, Mathilde M; Boyd, Anders; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Chan-Chee, Christine; Goelitz, Dietmar; Koç, Ceren; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Pez, Ondine; Shojaei, Taraneh; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2018-06-01

    Worldwide, approximately one in eight children or adolescents suffers from a mental disorder. The present study was designed to determine the self-reported prevalence of mental health problems in children aged 6-11 years across eight European countries including Italy, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Data were drawn from 6245 children participating in the School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCHME) study and a large cross-sectional survey in France. Self-reported child mental health was assessed using the Dominique Interactive (DI). Overall, 22.0% of children were identified per their own evaluation as having at least one mental disorder, ranging from 16.4% in the Netherlands to 27.9% in Bulgaria. The prevalence of internalizing disorders was 18.4% across countries and ranged from 11.8% in the Netherlands to 24.3% in Turkey. The prevalence of externalizing disorders was lower with an average of 7.8%, ranging from 3.5% in Turkey to 10.5% in Bulgaria. Combining samples across European countries, 1 in 5 children reported internalizing problems and 1 in 12 children externalizing problems. The net completion rates of 4.1-74.3% preclude conclusions about national differences in prevalence rates.

  8. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11091

  10. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  11. Unemployment in the United States and Eight Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrentino, Constance; Moy, Joyanna

    1974-01-01

    Presented in this article are approximate comparative statistics on labor force and unemployment for the United States and Canada, Great Britain, Italy, France, Sweden, Australia, Japan, and Germany through 1972. Although unemployment rates indicate a decline in Canada and the United States, they remain high compared with most industrial…

  12. Student Participation in the CCC Member Countries in 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, E.

    The status of student participation in Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) nations is examined, based on questionnaire replies from Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Iceland, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. After a brief review of the situation from…

  13. Structure and Governance of Universities in France, the United States of America, and Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acostaromero, Salvador

    This thesis reviews the main elements of university governance in France, the United States, and Mexico. A brief historical overview of higher education in the three countries precedes an individual analysis. The analysis of university governance in France focuses on the 1968 reform of higher education prompted by student protests and the 1983…

  14. [Aedes albopictus in Italy: an underestimated health problem].

    PubMed

    Romi, R

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, Ae. albopictus has spread in 9 regions and 30 provinces of the country. This species was introduced in Italy in shipments of scrap tires form the USA. In Italy, Ae. albopictus is the major biting pest throughout much of its range and, although there is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the country, the species might be involved in the transmission of some arboviruses which have been reported in the Mediterranean Basin. Aim of this paper is to provide an update on the distribution of Ae. albopictus in Italy and to renew the interest in a problem frequently underestimated. Public health implications after a ten-year presence of the species are also discussed.

  15. Provision of mental health care in general practice in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Tansella, M; Bellantuono, C

    1991-01-01

    The main features of the psychiatric system and of the general practice system in Italy since the psychiatric reform and the introduction of a national health service are briefly described. Research conducted in Italy confirms that a large proportion of patients seen by general practitioners have psychological disorders and that only some of those patients whose psychological problems are identified by general practitioners are referred to specialist psychiatric care. Thus, the need to identify the best model of collaboration between psychiatric services and general practice services is becoming increasingly urgent. The chances of improving links between the two services and of developing a satisfactory liaison model are probably greater in countries such as Italy where psychiatric services are highly decentralized and community-based, than in countries where the psychiatric services are hospital-based. PMID:1807308

  16. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  17. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  18. 76 FR 15209 - 150th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... millions of American women and men of Italian descent who strengthen and enrich our Nation. Italy and the..., and the universal human rights our countries both respect and uphold. As we mark this important...

  19. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  20. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  1. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  2. Napoleon: His Interest in Books and the Libraries of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Dorothy R.

    Napoleon Bonaparte had both a personal and national interest in books, and he exerted a tremendous influence on the country's libraries during his 16 years as leader of France. In addition to collecting books for his personal libraries (including a traveling library that he took with him on his campaigns), he instituted an accelerated program for…

  3. Oak silviculture, management, and defoliation effects in France and Germany

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    A study tour of four areas of France and Germany (two in each country) was conducted to examine oak silvicultural and managerial practices and the influence of insect defoliators on the ecology and management of oak forests. The French and German situations may provide useful information for managing oak forests and gypsy moth in the United States, especially the...

  4. Educational Inequality and Academic Achievement in England and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Lynn Hollen

    1994-01-01

    In both France and England, students scored in the middle-to-high ranks on the International Assessment of Educational Progress, with large gaps between low and high achievers. Despite attempts to democratize education, educational achievement in both countries continues to be strongly linked to parents' social background, with limited access to…

  5. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  6. Italy feels the effect of another deadly quake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Using radar data from the Copernicus Sentinel-1 satellites, the European Space Agency has released images showing the devastating effect of the 6.5-magnitude earthquake that struck central Italy on 30 October - the largest in the country for over three decades.

  7. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federighi, Paolo; And Others

    Nine adult education programs being conducted in Italy are described in the case studies in this packet. The courses range from adult basic education to continuing education courses in languages and management. Most are described in connection with the area of the country in which they are offered. The following programs are profiled: (1) public…

  8. Situation Reports--Guadeloupe, Italy, Nigeria, and Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning are presented in these situation reports for four foreign countries: Guadeloupe, Italy, Nigeria, and Norway. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups, language, religion,…

  9. Infants in Italy: An Evaluation of Other Than Mother Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Helen Warren

    As more and more women return to the work force while their children are but infants, care other than by the mothers and outside the families' own homes has become an issue of major importance in the United States. In Europe, however, most governments subsidize infant care for mothers working outside the home. One country, Italy, has provided…

  10. [The high-molecular glutenins of the soft winter wheats from European countries and their relationship to the glutenin composition of the ancient and modern wheat varieties of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, S V; Fedak, G; Lukov, O

    2000-01-01

    The sources of high-quality components of HMW glutenines determining grain quality, as initial material for breeding in the conditions of Ukraine were revealed on the base of analysis of 75 literature sources data about composition of high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin and pedigrees of 598 European wheats from 12 countries, bred in 1923-1997, including, 449 cultivars from West and 149 East Europe. Origin of these components was observed in varieties of Great Britain, France and Germany from ancient Ukrainian wheat Red Fife and it derivative spring wheats of Canada--Marquis, Garnet, Regent, Saunders, Selkirk and of USA--spring wheat Thatcher and winter wheats--Kanred and Oro--as directly as via cultivars of European countries and Australia; in wheats of East European countries from winter wheats Myronivs'ka 808 and Bezostaya 1 (derivative of Ukrainian cultivars Ukrainka and Krymka) and their descendants; in wheats of Austria and Italy--from the both genetical sources.

  11. Comparison of rehospitalization rates in France and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gusmano, Michael; Rodwin, Victor; Weisz, Daniel; Cottenet, Jonathan; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To compare rates of 30-day all-cause rehospitalization in France and the US among patients aged 65 years and older and explain any difference between the countries. To calculate rehospitalization rates in France, we use an individual identifying variable in the national hospital administrative dataset to track unique individuals aged 65 years or more hospitalized in France in 2010. To calculate the proportion of rehospitalized patients (65+) who received outpatient visits between the time of initial discharge and rehospitalization, we linked the hospital database with a database that includes all medical and surgical admissions. We used step by step regression models to predict rehospitalization. Rates of rehospitalization in France (14.7%) are lower than among Medicare beneficiaries in the US (20%). We find that age, sex, patient morbidity and the ownership status of the hospital are all correlated with rehospitalization in France. Lower rates of rehospitalization in France appear to be due to a combination of better access to primary care, better health among the older French population, longer lengths of stay in French hospitals and the fact that French nursing homes do not face the same financial incentive to rehospitalize residents. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Archaeomagnetic results from southern Italy and their bearing on geomagnetic secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Hoye, G. S.

    2005-07-01

    Archaeodirectional results from kilns and other baked structures in southern Italy are presented. They are generally compatible with the much larger data sets from France and Bulgaria. In particular, a summary of all the results associated with the well-known eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed Pompeii ( n = 9, D = 355°, I = 58°, α95 = 1.5°) provides a reliable archaeomagnetic anchor point supporting the French and Bulgarian master curves. It is extremely well-constrained in time and it comprises independent studies carried out in four different countries. Furthermore, it is derived from a diverse set of features agreement amongst which argues strongly against significant perturbations due to magnetic refraction, structural disturbance, or depositional shallowing. In terms of geomagnetic secular variation, we interpret the western European archaeomagnetic data summarized here in terms of an open loop caused by westward drift, followed by an inclination low spanning the first few centuries CE representing the signal of a static flux pulse that reaches a maximum magnetic moment of a few percent of the earth's main central dipole.

  13. [Advance directives in Italy: a goal not yet reached but already passed?].

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Luigi; Gristina, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The advance directives (ADs) have been adopted in many countries to defend patients' autonomy. In Italy, in the past, this topic gave rise to a heated debate involving philosophers, theologians, and politicians. In 2009, the government presented a bill of law on ADs firmly criticized from a scientific, moral and juridical point of view because the bill's content is against the principles of Italian Constitution, Italian Code of Medical Ethics, Oviedo Convention, and official statements of many scientific societies. Although the bill has passed the Low Chamber it lies, even since, in the Senate, lacking in regard any agreement among the political parties. The purpose of this article is to highlight that, in our country, patients, relatives and doctors deserve a law not only related to the specific topic of ADs, but - as in other European countries (Germany, Spain, France, UK) - aimed to deal with the complex issue of end of life care as a whole. This law should take into account the sound evidence existing in regard to the four fundamental principles supporting the best scientific and ethical approaches to the end of life issues: shared decision making process between doctors and patients/relatives; rejection of dying process marked by the suffering; withholding/withdrawing futile treatments together with palliative sedation as two crucial contributions to suppress the patient suffering and pain; clear-cut difference between these clinical/ethical options and euthanasia. At the same time, this law should be able to provide physicians with a legal coverage to make all the clinical and ethical decisions more and more complex because of the continuous evolution of medical science on one hand, and the impressive development of biotechnology on the other hand.

  14. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarcat, Noel; Lafon, Alain; Perves, Jean-Pierre; Rosengard, Alex; Sauzay, Guy

    1993-05-01

    France has developed a very complete nuclear industry, from mining to reprocessing and radwastes management, and now has a major electro-nuclear park, with 55 power reactors, supplying 75% of the nation's electricity and representing 32% of its energy requirements. The modern multinational EURODIF enrichment plant in Pierrelatte in the south of the country supplies these reactors with enriched uranium as well as foreign utilities (30% exports). It works smoothly and has continuously been improved to reduce operating costs and to gain flexibility and longevity. Investment costs will be recovered at the turn of the century. The plant will be competitive well ahead of an aging production park, with large overcapacity, in other countries. Meanwhile, world needs will increase only slightly during the next 15 years, apart from the Asian Pacific area, but many world governments are becoming well aware of the necessity to progressively resume nuclear energy development worldwide from the year 2000 on.

  15. Bay of Naples, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-04-14

    STS001-13-442 (14 April 1981) --- This photograph showing much of Italy was taken with a handheld 70mm camera from 276 kilometers above Earth as the NASA space shuttle Columbia and its crew were marking their last few hours in space on the historic first space mission utilizing a reusable vehicle. Included in the area of the frame are Golfo de Napoli, Napoli (Naples), Castellammare, Amalfi, Capri, Sorrento, Mt. Vesuvius and the ruins of Pompei. Astronauts John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen exposed eight magazines of color 70mm film during their two and one-third days in Earth orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Tetanus immunity in construction workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, V; Bracci, M; Nunnari, G; Ferrante, M; Ledda, C

    2014-04-01

    Tetanus is a serious vaccine-preventable disease that remains a significant health risk in certain occupations. Since 2006, Italy has reported the highest number of cases in Europe. Some professions, such as construction workers, are more exposed to tetanus. To evaluate tetanus immunity status and associated factors in construction workers in Italy. A cross-sectional study of construction workers attending for periodic occupational health surveillance at one site in Italy between September 2011 and January 2013. Serum tetanus antitoxin levels were measured and analysed according to demographic and clinical variables. All 5275 workers attending for health surveillance between September 2011 and January 2013 agreed to participate. Protective tetanus antitoxin levels (>0.1 IU/ml) were found in 4116 workers (78%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the following risk factors were significantly associated with inadequate immunization status: older age (age >58 years, odds ratio [OR] 1.78, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 1.76-1.84), poor education (no formal education: OR 3.74, 95% CI: 3.69-3.78), unskilled work tasks (OR 2.71, 95% CI: 2.67-2.77) and country of origin (Egypt: OR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.67-1.77; Morocco: OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.62-1.76). In this study, a significant proportion of construction workers in Italy were not adequately immunized against tetanus, as required by Italian law. Occupational health professionals should promote and implement vaccination campaigns, especially among migrant workers, for public health and legal reasons.

  17. Hospitalisation among immigrants in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Cacciani, Laura; Baglio, Giovanni; Rossi, Lorenza; Materia, Enrico; Marceca, Maurizio; Geraci, Salvatore; Spinelli, Angela; Osborn, John; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2006-01-01

    Background Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in hospitalisation between immigrants and the resident population during the year 2000 in the Lazio region. Methods Hospital admissions of immigrants from Less Developed Countries were compared to those of residents. We measured differences in hospitalisation rates and proportions admitted. Results Adult immigrants have lower hospitalisation rates than residents (134.6 vs. 160.5 per thousand population for acute care; 26.4 vs. 38.3 for day care). However, hospitalisation rates for some specific causes (injuries, particularly for men, infectious diseases, deliveries and induced abortions, ill-defined conditions) were higher for immigrants than for residents. Immigrants under 18 years seem to be generally healthy; causes of admission in this group are similar to those of residents of the same age (respiratory diseases, injuries and poisoning). The only important differences are for infectious and parasitic diseases, with a higher proportion among immigrant youths. Conclusion The low hospitalisation rates for foreigners may suggest that they are a population with good health status. However, critical areas, related to poor living and working conditions and to social vulnerability, have been identified. Under-utilisation of services and low day care rates may be partially due to administrative, linguistic, and cultural barriers. As the presence of foreigners becomes an established phenomenon, it is important to evaluate their epidemiological profile, develop instruments to monitor and fulfil their specific health needs and plan health services for a multi-ethnic population. PMID:16689988

  18. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - An example of 7 countries.

    PubMed

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas H; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-11-01

    An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies. The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering the benefits of recycling of materials and recovering and utilization of energy. Environmental benefits come from paper recycling and, to a lesser extent, the recycling of metals and glass. Waste-to-energy plants can lead to an environmental load (as in France) or a saving (Germany and Denmark), depending mainly on the composition of the energy being substituted. Sensitivity analysis and a data quality assessment identified a range of critical parameters, suggesting from where better data should be obtained. The study concluded that household waste management is environmentally the best in European countries with a minimum reliance on landfilling, also induced by the implementation of the Waste Hierarchy, though environmental performance does not correlate clearly with the rate of material recycling. From an environmental point of view, this calls for a change in the waste management paradigm, with less focus on where the waste is routed and more of a focus on the quality and utilization of recovered materials and energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parental attitudes toward new dosage forms of desloratadine in an online survey: results from four European countries.

    PubMed

    Valovirta, Erkka; Scadding, Glenis

    2009-08-01

    Allergic disease affects an estimated 50% of children worldwide and causes considerable impairment in academic performance and daily activities. Pediatric formulations for allergy treatment are often highly sugared or contain ingredients to improve palatability, appearance, and patient acceptance/adherence. These excipients, however, are associated with dental caries, gastrointestinal intolerance, and dermatologic reactions. To assess the appeal of new sugar-free/dye-free syrup and orodispersible formulations of the second-generation antihistamine desloratadine to parents of children with allergy in four European countries. In an online survey of households with children aged < or =12 years with allergies in France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain, respondents were asked to consider one of two desloratadine product concepts: a sugar-free, dye-free oral solution or an orodispersible tablet. Eligible households had to have at least one child aged < or =12 years with symptomatic seasonal, pet, or indoor allergies or hives for > or =1 week/year. Respondents had to be the decision makers regarding their child's allergy medication and to be likely to treat symptoms with prescription medication some of the time. There were 627 eligible households. Most (88%) parents in Spain were likely to ask their physician about and to consider trying sugar-free, dye-free desloratadine syrup, followed by 76% of those in France, 68% in Italy, and 56% in the Netherlands. About three-quarters of parents in France, Spain, and Italy and more than half of those in the Netherlands were likely to ask their physician about and to consider trying the orodispersible formulation. There is no control group for comparisons between the study's online responses and those that would have resulted from another survey methodology. Further, response biases do exist across countries based on cultural norms. Survey respondents were generally receptive to the new sugar-free, dye-free syrup and

  20. Temporal Trends in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in France: FRANCE 2 to FRANCE TAVI.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Vincent; Lefevre, Thierry; Van Belle, Eric; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Iung, Bernard; Koning, René; Motreff, Pascal; Leprince, Pascal; Verhoye, Jean Philippe; Manigold, Thibaut; Souteyrand, Geraud; Boulmier, Dominique; Joly, Patrick; Pinaud, Frédéric; Himbert, Dominique; Collet, Jean Philippe; Rioufol, Gilles; Ghostine, Said; Bar, Olivier; Dibie, Alain; Champagnac, Didier; Leroux, Lionel; Collet, Frédéric; Teiger, Emmanuel; Darremont, Olivier; Folliguet, Thierry; Leclercq, Florence; Lhermusier, Thibault; Olhmann, Patrick; Huret, Bruno; Lorgis, Luc; Drogoul, Laurent; Bertrand, Bernard; Spaulding, Christian; Quilliet, Laurent; Cuisset, Thomas; Delomez, Maxence; Beygui, Farzin; Claudel, Jean-Philippe; Hepp, Alain; Jegou, Arnaud; Gommeaux, Antoine; Mirode, Anfani; Christiaens, Luc; Christophe, Charles; Cassat, Claude; Metz, Damien; Mangin, Lionel; Isaaz, Karl; Jacquemin, Laurent; Guyon, Philippe; Pouillot, Christophe; Makowski, Serge; Bataille, Vincent; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Gilard, Martine; Le Breton, Hervé

    2017-07-04

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is standard therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk. However, national data regarding procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes over time are limited. The aim of this study was to assess nationwide performance trends and clinical outcomes of TAVR during a 6-year period. TAVRs performed in 48 centers across France between January 2013 and December 2015 were prospectively included in the FRANCE TAVI (French Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) registry. Findings were further compared with those reported from the FRANCE 2 (French Aortic National CoreValve and Edwards 2) registry, which captured all TAVRs performed from January 2010 to January 2012 across 34 centers. A total of 12,804 patients from FRANCE TAVI and 4,165 patients from FRANCE 2 were included in this analysis. The median age of patients was 84.6 years, and 49.7% were men. FRANCE TAVI participants were older but at lower surgical risk (median logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation [EuroSCORE]: 15.0% vs. 18.4%; p < 0.001). More than 80% of patients in FRANCE TAVI underwent transfemoral TAVR. Transesophageal echocardiography guidance decreased from 60.7% to 32.3% of cases, whereas more recent procedures were increasingly performed in hybrid operating rooms (15.8% vs. 35.7%). Rates of Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined device success increased from 95.3% in FRANCE 2 to 96.8% in FRANCE TAVI (p < 0.001). In-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were 4.4% and 5.4%, respectively, in FRANCE TAVI compared with 8.2% and 10.1%, respectively, in FRANCE 2 (p < 0.001 for both). Stroke and potentially life-threatening complications, such as annulus rupture or aortic dissection, remained stable over time, whereas rates of cardiac tamponade and pacemaker implantation significantly increased. The FRANCE TAVI registry provided reassuring data regarding trends in TAVR performance in an all

  1. [Is the rate of medical publication from Israel similar to other countries? A comparative study of three medical specialties].

    PubMed

    Zer, Matan; Lindner, Arie; Greenstein, Alexander; Leibovici, Dan

    2011-07-01

    Academic careers of individual doctors are commonly evaluated by examining the number and quality of authored publications. Similarly, the extent and quality of medical research may be assessed nationwide by measuring the number of publications originating from the country of interest over time. This in turn, may indicate on the quality of medicine practiced. To evaluate the extent and quality of IsraeLi publications we measured the rate and quality of medical publications originating from Israel for two decades in the fields of urology, cardiology and orthopedics, and compared the data to those of other countries. Leading journals in urology, cardiology, and orthopedics were selected. A Medline search (http://www.ncbi.ntm.nih.gov/sites/entrez] was conducted for all the publications originating in Israel between the years 1990-2009 in the selected journals. Data from Israel was compared to those from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey. The change in rate of publications was tested using Linear regression. The quality of publications was calculated by multiplying the number of publications by the relevant impact factor. While the urology publications rate in Israel increased by 32.7% in the second study decade as compared with the first, the urology publication rates during the same time period from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey were 199%, 115%, 184%, 180% and 227% respectively. The regression coefficient for the urology publication rate was 0.51 for Israel, and 0.78, 0.95, 0.78, 0.87 and 0.97 for the other countries, respectively. The regression coefficient for the change in the quality of publications from Israel was 0.31 and 0.81, 0.75, 0.92, 0.73, and 0.92 for the other countries, respectively. In cardiology, the Israeli publication rate increased by 26% during the second study decade, whereas in the other countries the increments were 46%, 35%, 76%, 80% and 309% respectively. The regression coefficient for Israeli pubLication rate was 0.45, and

  2. Ecology of West Nile virus across four European countries: review of weather profiles, vector population dynamics and vector control response.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; L'Ambert, Gregory; Petric, Dusan; Bellini, Romeo; Zgomba, Marija; Groen, Thomas A; Marrama, Laurence; Bicout, Dominique J

    2016-09-02

    West Nile virus (WNV) represents a serious burden to human and animal health because of its capacity to cause unforeseen and large epidemics. Until 2004, only lineage 1 and 3 WNV strains had been found in Europe. Lineage 2 strains were initially isolated in 2004 (Hungary) and in 2008 (Austria) and for the first time caused a major WNV epidemic in 2010 in Greece with 262 clinical human cases and 35 fatalities. Since then, WNV lineage 2 outbreaks have been reported in several European countries including Italy, Serbia and Greece. Understanding the interaction of ecological factors that affect WNV transmission is crucial for preventing or decreasing the impact of future epidemics. The synchronous co-occurrence of competent mosquito vectors, virus, bird reservoir hosts, and susceptible humans is necessary for the initiation and propagation of an epidemic. Weather is the key abiotic factor influencing the life-cycles of the mosquito vector, the virus, the reservoir hosts and the interactions between them. The purpose of this paper is to review and compare mosquito population dynamics, and weather conditions, in three ecologically different contexts (urban/semi-urban, rural/agricultural, natural) across four European countries (Italy, France, Serbia, Greece) with a history of WNV outbreaks. Local control strategies will be described as well. Improving our understanding of WNV ecology is a prerequisite step for appraising and optimizing vector control strategies in Europe with the ultimate goal to minimize the probability of WNV infection.

  3. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  4. Fifty years of successful MCT research and production in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensussan, Philippe; Tribolet, Philippe; Destéfanis, Gérard; Sirieix, Michel

    2009-05-01

    France has a long and fruitful history regarding Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) research and production and is still one of the leading countries for the production of MCT IR detectors. To give a historical account of its development and progress, SAGEM Défense Sécurité will describe the early days of MCT developments in France. CEA-Leti (the French Atomic Energy Commission and a leading applied research center in electronics) will then present the research carried out on second- and third-generation MCT technologies, followed by Sofradir who will discuss the production of these new detector types.

  5. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-21

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake. The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02671

  6. Outreach in southern France

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1992-12-09

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mermore » site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year.« less

  7. State-of-the-art of waste wood supply chain in Germany and selected European countries.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos A; Hora, Guido

    2017-12-01

    According to the statistic office of the European Union (Eurostat), Germany is the main producer of waste wood in Europe followed by France, United Kingdom, Italy and Finland. Based on the characteristics of the waste wood, it can be classified in four (4) categories: A I, A II, A III and A IV. This paper focuses in the A I waste wood since is the only category able to be used directly for both material and energy purposes without a previously pre-treatment. Currently, most of this waste wood is used for direct energy production due to the previous government legislation that promoted its use directly in incineration facilities. However, the newest Renewable Energy Act (EEG 2017) may promote the cascade-use of A I waste wood prior to be intended for energy purposes. Nonetheless, the government incentives to the energy sector is not the only bottleneck that the use of A I waste wood as raw material in the wood-based industry has to overcome. The peak availability, collection logistics (collection centers and transportation) and recycling facility location are some of the parameters that must be considered in order to design the "best" supply chain network for A I waste wood. This work presents a detailed description of the effect of the hierarchical strategic decision in the proper design of the waste wood supply chain. Additionally, the global picture of waste wood recycling in different European countries (UK, Italy and Finland) is briefly presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The family in Italy: cultural changes and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Mario; Sampogna, Gaia; del Vecchio, Valeria; Giacco, Domenico; Mulè, Alice; de Rosa, Corrado; Fiorillo, Andrea; Maj, Mario

    2012-04-01

    In Italy family is characterized by strong ties and is based on mutual aid of all its members. In the last 20 years, the structure of families has been significantly influenced by demographic, economic and professional changes, determining a transition from a patriarchal to a nuclear family model, with a higher number of single-parent families, single-person households, childless couples, same-sex couples. However, this transition has been slower than that occurring in other countries, probably as an ongoing impact of prevalent Catholic ideology. Major demographic changes in Italian families include, 1) a decrease in the number of marriages, delays in getting married and an high number of civil ceremonies, 2) a reduced birth rate; Italy is becoming one of the European countries with lowest growth rate, and with an increasing number of births out of wedlock, 3) an increased marital instability, with a constantly growing number of legal separations. Like many countries, relatives in Italy are highly involved in the care of patients with physical and mental disorders. There are a number of psychosocial interventions used in Italy including the 'Milan Systemic Approach' and family psycho-educational interventions. However, there are difficulties in implementing these interventions which are highlighted in this paper. We recommend research strategies to identify the best options to involve families in the care of mentally ill patients and to adequately support them.

  9. The potential for reducing differences in life expectancy between educational groups in five European countries: the effects of obesity, physical inactivity and smoking.

    PubMed

    Mäki, Netta E; Martikainen, Pekka T; Eikemo, Terje; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, Olle; Ostergren, Olof; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2014-07-01

    This study assesses the effects of obesity, physical inactivity and smoking on life expectancy (LE) differences between educational groups in five European countries in the early 2000s. We estimate the contribution of risk factors on LE differences between educational groups using the observed risk factor distributions and under a hypothetically more optimal risk factor distribution. Data on risk factor prevalence were obtained from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe study, and data on mortality from census-linked data sets for the age between 50 and 79 according to sex and education. Substantial differences in LE of up to 2.8 years emerged between men with a low and a high level of education in Denmark, Austria and France, and smaller differences among men in Italy and Spain. The educational differences in LE were not as large among women. The largest potential for reducing educational differences was in Denmark (25% among men and 41% among women) and Italy (14% among men). The magnitude of the effect of unhealthy behaviours on educational differences in LE varied between countries. LE among those with a low or medium level of education could increase in some European countries if the behavioural risk factor distributions were similar to those observed among the highly educated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. A surgical sabbatical in France.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, F; Launois, B

    2000-06-01

    During my stay in France I had the unique opportunity to meet surgical professors from all over the world and made many friends and contacts in the field of hepatobiliary surgery. Brittany is a beautiful province of France, having unique way of life and approach to social and societal problems. The cultural enrichment that I received from my year there will last a lifetime, as well the many fond memories of the people, the culinary delights and the spectacular seashore.

  11. Medical Malpractice: The Experience in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over €10 billion (~US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians’ approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18985423

  12. Influence of rheumatoid arthritis-related morning stiffness on productivity at work: results from a survey in 11 European countries.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Kalle; Buttgereit, Frank; Tuominen, Risto

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of morning stiffness on productivity at work and to estimate the work-related economic consequences of morning stiffness among patients with RA-related morning stiffness in 11 European countries. The original sample comprised 1061 RA patients from 11 European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden and UK). They had been diagnosed with RA and experience morning stiffness three or more times per week. Data were collected by interviews. Women comprised 77.9 % of the sample, the average age was 50.4 years, and 84.3 % had RA diagnosed for more than 2 years. Overall costs of RA-related morning stiffness was calculated to be 27,712€ per patient per year, varying from 4965€ in Spain to 66,706€ in Norway. On average, 96 % of the overall production losses were attributed to early retirement, with a markedly lower level (77 %) in Italy than in other countries (p < 0.0001). The proportion of patients who reported retirement due to morning stiffness and productivity losses due to late work arrivals and working while sick showed considerable variation across the countries represented in the study. Overall, the average annual cost of late arrivals (0.8 % of the total costs) was approximately half of the costs attributed to sick leave (1.7 %) and working while sick (1.5 %). Morning stiffness due to RA causes significant production losses and is a significant cost burden throughout Europe. There seem to be notable differences in the impact of morning stiffness on productivity between European countries.

  13. OCEANEXPO 󈨔 Bordeaux, France.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    altogether necessary prior to actual recovery operations beginning, are expected to cost about $150M. 32 C-3-80 JE Figure 12 USSR 1. Ministry for Geology ...Latin Ame rica . Primnarily Ilteigsocse for the opulent Arabian DD I 31473>- EDITION Of’ I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED $IN 102LF-14-601SECURITY...Sensing seafloor mining shipyards/shipbuilding USSR Minister of Geology 20. (con’t) --countries, conference discussions ranged from seabed mining

  14. Educational Achievement Gaps between Immigrant and Native Students in Two “New Immigration Countries”: Italy and Spain in comparison

    PubMed Central

    Azzolini, Davide; Schnell, Philipp; Palmer, John

    2013-01-01

    We use PISA 2009 data to determine how immigrant children in Italy and Spain compare with native students in reading and mathematics skills. Drawing on the vast empirical literature in traditional immigration countries, we test the extent to which the most well-established patterns and hypotheses of immigrant/native educational achievement gaps also apply to these new immigration countries. Findings show that both first- and second-generation immigrant students underperform natives in both countries. Although socioeconomic background and language skills contribute to the explanation of achievement gaps, significant differences remain within countries. While modeling socioeconomic background reduces the observed gaps to a very similar extent in the two countries, language spoken at home is more strongly associated with achievement in Italy. School-type differentiation, such as tracking in Italy and school ownership in Spain, do not reduce immigrant/native gaps, although in Italy tracking is strongly associated with students’ test scores. PMID:23493944

  15. [The attractive position of France in international clinical research: 2006 survey assessed by Leem (French pharmaceutical companies)].

    PubMed

    Courcier, Soizic; Sibenaler, Claire; Couderc, Monique; Trinquet, Françoise; Plétan, Yannick; Lassale, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the attractiveness of France for conducting international clinical trials, a survey is performed every two years among pharmaceutical companies that are based in France or have affiliates in France. Initiated in 2006, the current survey was much more representative than the previous ones with 20 companies accounting for 61% of the French market. This survey included 352 international phase II and III clinical studies carried out in 2004 and 2005, 74 countries, 17 345 centres and 137 989 patients. France has participated to half of the overall number of international clinical trials. France ranked among the best European recruiters (0,19 patient/1000 inhabitants) at the second position behind Scandinavian countries, taking in account numbers of inhabitants. Protocols are now to be given the go-ahead by Ethics Committee (CCPPRB) within 60 days. With a high productivity in phase IIb and in oncology, France is still an attractive place to locate clinical research.

  16. Price comparison of high-cost originator medicines in European countries.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, high-cost medicines have increasingly been challenging the public health budget in all countries including high-income economies. In this context, this study aims to survey, analyze and compare prices of medicines that likely contribute to high expenditure for the public payers in high-income countries. We chose the following 16 European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Slovakia, Spain and United Kingdom. The ex-factory price data of 30 medicines in these countries were collected in national databases accessible through the Pharmaceutical Price Information (PPI) service of Gesundheit Österreich GmbH (Austrian Public Health Institute). The ex-factory prices (median) per unit (e.g. per tablet, vial) ranged from 10.67 cent (levodopa + decarboxylase inhibitor) to 17,000 euro (ipilimumab). A total of 53% of the medicines surveyed had a unit ex-factory price (median) above 200 Euro. For two thirds of the medicines, price differences between the highest-priced country and lowest-priced country ranged between 25 and 100%; the remaining medicines, mainly low-priced medicines, had higher price differential, up to 251%. Medicines with unit prices of a few euros or less were medicines for the treatment of diseases in the nervous system (anti-depressants, medicines to treat Parkinson and for the management of neuropathic pain), of obstructive airway diseases and cardio-vascular medicines (lipid modifying agents). High-priced medicines were particularly cancer medicines. Medicine prices of Greece, Hungary, Slovakia and UK were frequently at the lower end, German and Swedish, as well as Danish and Irish prices at the upper end. For high-priced medicines, actual paid prices are likely to be lower due to confidential discounts and similar funding arrangements between industry and public payers. Pricing authorities refer to the higher undiscounted prices when they use

  17. Standardised pre-competitive screening of athletes in some European and African countries: the SMILE study.

    PubMed

    Assanelli, Deodato; Deodato, Assanelli; Ermolao, Andrea; Andrea, Ermolao; Carre, François; François, Carré; Deligiannis, Asterios; Asterios, Deligiannis; Mellwig, Klaus; Mellwig, Klaus; Klaus, Mellwig; Tahmi, Mohamed; Mohamed, Tahmi; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Mario, Cesana Bruno; Levaggi, Rosella; Rosella, Levaggi; Aliverti, Paola; Paola, Aliverti; Sharma, Sanjay; Sanjay, Sharma

    2014-06-01

    Most of the available data on the cardiovascular screening of athletes come from Italy, with fewer records being available outside of Italy and for non-Caucasian populations. The goals of the SMILE project (Sport Medicine Intervention to save Lives through ECG) are to evaluate the usefulness of 12-lead ECGs for the detection of cardiac diseases in athletes from three European countries and one African country and to estimate how many second-level examinations are needed subsequent to the initial screening in order to classify athletes with abnormal characteristics. A digital network consisting of Sport Centres and second and third opinion centres was set up in Greece, Germany, France and Algeria. Standard digital data input was carried out through the application of 12-lead ECGs, Bethesda questionnaires and physical examinations. Two hundred ninety-three of the 6,634 consecutive athletes required further evaluation, mostly (88.4 %) as a consequence of abnormal ECGs. After careful evaluation, 237 were determined to be healthy or apparently healthy, while 56 athletes were found to have cardiac disorders and were thus disqualified from active participation in sports. There was a large difference in the prevalence of diseases detected in Europe as compared with Algeria (0.23 and 4.01 %, respectively). Our data confirmed the noteworthy value of 12-lead resting ECGs as compared with other first-level evaluations, especially in athletes with asymptomatic cardiac diseases. Its value seems to have been even higher in Algeria than in the European countries. The establishment of a digital network of Sport Centres for second/third opinions in conjunction with the use of standard digital data input seems to be a valuable means for increasing the effectiveness of screening.

  18. The ``exceptional'' earthquake of 3 January 1117 in the Verona area (northern Italy): A critical time review and detection of two lost earthquakes (lower Germany and Tuscany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Comastri, Alberto; Boschi, Enzo

    2005-12-01

    In the seismological literature the 3 January 1117 earthquake represents an interesting case study, both for the sheer size of the area in which that event is recorded by the monastic sources of the 12th century, and for the amount of damage mentioned. The 1117 event has been added to the earthquake catalogues of up to five European countries (Italy, France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Iberian peninsula), and it is the largest historical earthquake for northern Italy. We have analyzed the monastic time system in the 12th century and, by means of a comparative analysis of the sources, have correlated the two shocks mentioned (in the night and in the afternoon of 3 January) to territorial effects, seeking to make the overall picture reported for Europe more consistent. The connection between the linguistic indications and the localization of the effects has allowed us to shed light, with a reasonable degree of approximation, upon two previously little known earthquakes, probably generated by a sequence of events. A first earthquake in lower Germany (I0 (epicentral intensity) VII-VIII MCS (Mercalli, Cancani, Sieberg), M 6.4) preceded the far more violent one in northern Italy (Verona area) by about 12-13 hours. The second event is the one reported in the literature. We have put forward new parameters for this Veronese earthquake (I0 IX MCS, M 7.0). A third earthquake is independently recorded in the northwestern area of Tuscany (Imax VII-VIII MCS), but for the latter event the epicenter and magnitude cannot be evaluated.

  19. Gambling and gambling-related problems in France.

    PubMed

    Valleur, Marc

    2015-12-01

    To provide an overview of the gambling landscape and gambling-related problems in France, including the history, legislation, gambling policy and epidemiological data on excessive gambling. A literature review, using Medline, PsycInfo and Toxibase/OFDT databases, based on the systematic monitoring of scientific literature since 2008 (including French and international papers). Since 1776 and the creation of the royal lottery, state monopoly has been the main pillar of gambling policy in France. Increases in gambling venues and opportunities, growing evidence of gambling-related problems, pressures from the European Commission and the growth of on-line gambling have led to major changes in this policy: while land-based gambling remains mainly in the form of a state monopoly, on-line gambling was partially liberalized in 2010, and regulation authorities were established. The first epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010. Rates of problematic gambling in France are within the average of other European countries. Treatment has begun to be made available within addiction centres. A majority of on-line gamblers in France use legal websites, which was one of the initial goals of liberalization. Recent studies confirm that the prevalence of problem gambling in France is far higher among on-line gamblers than among land-based gamblers; however, this difference cannot be attributed only to greater addictiveness of on-line gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in France].

    PubMed

    Vigoureux, S

    2016-12-01

    Conduct a synthesis of existing knowledge about the frequency of induced abortion or termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies, the exposure factors of unplanned pregnancies and abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality. Consultation of The Medline database, and national and international reports on abortions in France and in developed countries. Voluntary termination of pregnancy is an induced abortion, opted for non-medical reasons, which in France can be performed before 14 weeks of gestation. Abortion is a common procedure, with rare complications, amounting to about 220,000 procedures per year in France with a stable rate over decades. Similarly to births, women aged 20 to 24 are most affected. The possibility of an abortion exists for all women; this potential event, however, is not equal for each and varies by age of women, socio-professional situations, geographical origins, marital status and past or present domestic and sexual violence. The French historical analysis shows that for 50 years the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate is associated with a decrease in the frequency of unplanned pregnancies. It is therefore possible that the prevention of unplanned pregnancy through early uptake of contraception and contraception options by women is related to a woman's lifestyle. Nonetheless, the number of abortion remains stable since its decriminalization despite the large increase in medicalized contraceptive prevalence rate. Good knowledge of the epidemiology of voluntary termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies is a prerequisite to better adopt prevention and case management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Job insecurity and health: A study of 16 European countries

    PubMed Central

    László, Krisztina D.; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S.; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45–70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. PMID:20060634

  2. Health service costs in Europe: cost and reimbursement of primary hip replacement in nine countries.

    PubMed

    Stargardt, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses variations in the cost of primary hip replacement between and within nine member states of the European Union (EU). It also compares the cost of service with public-payer reimbursements. To do so, data on cost and reimbursement were surveyed at the micro-level in 42 hospitals in Denmark, England, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. The total cost of treatment ranged from 1290 euros (Hungary) to 8739 euros (The Netherlands), with a mean cost of 5043 euros (STD +/- 2071 euros). The main cost drivers were found to be implants (34% of total cost on average) and ward costs (20.9% of total cost on average). A one-way random effects analysis of variance model indicated that 74.0% of variation was between and only 26% of variation was within countries. In a two-level random-intercept regression model, purchasing-power parities explained 79.4% of the explainable between-country variation, while the percentage of uncemented implants used and the number of beds explained 12.1 and 1.6% of explainable within-country variation, respectively. The large differences in cost and reimbursement between Poland, Hungary, and the other EU member states shows that primary total hip replacement is a highly relevant case for cross-border care. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Economic burden of toxicities associated with treating metastatic melanoma in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Wehler, Elizabeth; Zhao, Zhongyun; Pinar Bilir, S; Munakata, Julie; Barber, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Information on costs of managing adverse events (AEs) associated with current treatments in metastatic melanoma is limited. This study estimates costs of AEs in eight countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA), France (FR), Germany (GE), Italy (IT), the Netherlands (NL), Spain (ES), and the UK. A literature search was conducted to identify grade 3/4 AEs from product label, published trials, conference abstracts, and treatment guidelines. Resource utilization for the management of each type of AE was determined via interviews with 5 melanoma clinicians in each country. Outpatient and inpatient costs were estimated for each type of AE using country-specific tariffs or government/published sources. In outpatient settings, the most costly AEs per incident included cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) (€1063, £720; NL/UK), anemia (€1443, €1329, €1285; ES/IT/FR), peripheral neuropathy (€1289; ES), and immune-related diarrhea (AUS$1,121; AU). In inpatient settings, the most costly AEs per hospitalization included hypophysitis (€10,265; €5316; CAN$9735; AUS$7231: ES/FR/CA/AU), dyspnea (€9077; GE), elevated liver enzymes (€6913, CAN$8030, AUS$6594; FR/CA/AU), CSCC (CAN$8934; CA), peripheral neuropathy (€6977, €4144, CAN$9472; NL/ES/CA), and diarrhea (£4284, €4113; UK/ES). Costs of managing AEs can be significant, and thus effective treatments with lower rates of severe AEs would be valuable.

  4. Pricing and reimbursement of in-patent drugs in seven European countries: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Garattini, Livio; Cornago, Dante; De Compadri, Paola

    2007-08-01

    The main objective of this comparative analysis was to assess regulations applied by EU governments to reward potentially innovative drugs. We focused on the pharmaceutical policy for in-patent drugs in seven EU countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and the UK. A common scheme was applied to all seven countries: first, pricing and reimbursement procedures for new and innovative drugs were investigated; secondly, we focused on the use in the regulatory process of economic evaluations. The analysis involved reviewing the literature and interviewing a selected panel of local experts in each country. According to our comparative analysis, a first sensible step might be to classify active ingredients as those addressing neglected pathologies and those for diseases that are already successfully treated, thus offering more limited therapeutic gains by definition. A reasonable solution to reward real innovation could be to admit a premium price for very innovative drugs according to their estimated cost-effectiveness. New drugs with modest improvement could be grouped in therapeutic clusters and submitted to a common reference price, despite patent expiration. Such a "dual approach" could be a sensible compromise to restrict pharmaceutical expenditure while at the same time rewarding companies that invest in high-risk basic research.

  5. Longitudinal Patent Analysis for Nanoscale Science and Engineering: Country, Institution and Technology Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zan; Chen, Hsinchun; Yip, Alan; Ng, Gavin; Guo, Fei; Chen, Zhi-Kai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and related areas have seen rapid growth in recent years. The speed and scope of development in the field have made it essential for researchers to be informed on the progress across different laboratories, companies, industries and countries. In this project, we experimented with several analysis and visualization techniques on NSE-related United States patent documents to support various knowledge tasks. This paper presents results on the basic analysis of nanotechnology patents between 1976 and 2002, content map analysis and citation network analysis. The data have been obtained on individual countries, institutions and technology fields. The top 10 countries with the largest number of nanotechnology patents are the United States, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Korea, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Australia. The fastest growth in the last 5 years has been in chemical and pharmaceutical fields, followed by semiconductor devices. The results demonstrate potential of information-based discovery and visualization technologies to capture knowledge regarding nanotechnology performance, transfer of knowledge and trends of development through analyzing the patent documents.

  6. Development of a cross-cultural deprivation index in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Lillini, Roberto; Vercelli, Marina; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández Fontelo, Amanda; Borrell, Carme; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; de Pina, Maria Fatima; Mayer, Alexandra; Delpierre, Cyrille; Rachet, Bernard; Launoy, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a concerted policy effort in Europe, social inequalities in health are a persistent problem. Developing a standardised measure of socioeconomic level across Europe will improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and causes of inequalities. This will facilitate developing, implementing and assessing new and more effective policies, and will improve the comparability and reproducibility of health inequality studies among countries. This paper presents the extension of the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a standardised measure first developed in France, to four other European countries—Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, using available 2001 and 1999 national census data. Methods and results The method previously tested and validated to construct the French EDI was used: first, an individual indicator for relative deprivation was constructed, defined by the minimal number of unmet fundamental needs associated with both objective (income) poverty and subjective poverty. Second, variables available at both individual (European survey) and aggregate (census) levels were identified. Third, an ecological deprivation index was constructed by selecting the set of weighted variables from the second step that best correlated with the individual deprivation indicator. Conclusions For each country, the EDI is a weighted combination of aggregated variables from the national census that are most highly correlated with a country-specific individual deprivation indicator. This tool will improve both the historical and international comparability of studies, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in health and implementation of intervention to tackle social inequalities in health. PMID:26659762

  7. State of the Art of the Development and Application of Anti-Seismic Systems in Europe and Other Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Alessandro; Forni, Massimo

    2008-07-01

    followed by Taiwan, France (including its Martinique island), New Zealand and Armenia. In addition, significant applications also concern: Canada in North America; Mexico in Central America; Chile and Venezuela in South America; Turkey, South Korea and Indonesia in Asia; and Greece, Cyprus, Portugal and Macedonia in Europe. More recently, the installation of the aforesaid systems also began in further countries, such as Argentina, Israel, India and Iran. Devices manufactured in Italy have been frequently used even abroad. Finally, to be stressed are the somewhat increasing use of SI in nuclear and high risk chemical plants (e.g. the liquefied natural gas tanks) and the already significant application of the SVPC systems to cultural heritage, in particular in Italy

  8. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  9. The perverse impact of external reference pricing (ERP): a comparison of orphan drugs affordability in 12 European countries. A call for policy change

    PubMed Central

    Young, K. E.; Soussi, I.; Toumi, M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The study compared the relative cost differences of similar orphan drugs among high and low GDP countries in Europe: Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, UK. Methods: Annual treatment costs per patient were calculated. Relative costs were computed by dividing the costs by each economic parameter: nominal GDP per capita, GDP in PPP per capita, % GDP contributed by the government, government budget per inhabitant, % GDP spent on healthcare, % GDP spent on pharmaceuticals, and average annual salary. An international comparison of the relative costs was done using UK as the reference country and results were analysed descriptively. Results: 120 orphan drugs were included. The median annual costs of orphan drugs in all countries varied minimally (cost ratios: 0.87 to 1.08). When the costs were adjusted using GDP per capita, the EU-5 and Nordic countries maintained minimal difference in median cost. However, the lower GDP countries showed three to six times higher relative costs. The same pattern was evident when costs were adjusted using the other economic parameters. Conclusion: When the country’s ability to pay is taken into consideration, lower GDP countries pay relatively higher costs for similarly available orphan drugs in Europe. PMID:29081920

  10. Snow in Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-24

    NASA image acquired February 24, 2012 By late February, 2012, the great European cold wave had begun to loosen its frigid grip, but significant snow still remained in the region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of snow in Italy on February 24 at 12:35 UTC (1:30 p.m. local time). In the north of the image, bright white clouds blanket the region in a broad arc. Snow, which tends to be generally less bright that clouds, covers the Alps in the north of Italy. The Apennine Mountains, which form the backbone of the Italian peninsula, also carry a blanket of snow. Although clouds and snow can, at times, be distinguished visually in a true-color image, sometimes they can appear very similar. When it is important to clearly define snow from cloud, false color images are often helpful. Rome, which can be seen as a gray smudge on the southwestern coast of the peninsula, recorded highs of a spring-like 50°F the day this image was captured, but earlier in the month the temperatures dove as low as 26°F on February 5. During that cold snap a rare intense snowfall blanketed Rome, causing the closure of the Colosseum, the Roman Forum and the Palatine Hill due to concerns of the risk of icy footing for tourists, and roads became impassible. Further north, temperatures plummeted to −21 °C (−6 °F) on 7 February. On February 11, news media reported over 2 meters (6.5 feet) of snow had fallen in Urbino, a walled town situated on a high sloping hillside on the eastern side of the Apennine Mountains. That same snowfall cut access to many remote towns in the Apennines, blocking roads and trapping some people in the homes. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA

  11. Italy of censuses.

    PubMed

    Rey, G M

    1983-06-01

    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  12. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic.

  13. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France.

    PubMed

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  14. Nardo Ring, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Nardo Ring is a striking visual feature from space, and astronauts have photographed it several times. The Ring is a race car test track; it is 12.5 kilometers long and steeply banked to reduce the amount of active steering needed by drivers. The Nardo Ring lies in a remote area on the heel of Italy's 'boot,' 50 kilometers east of the naval port of Taranto. The Ring encompasses a number of active (green) and fallow (brown to dark brown) agricultural fields. In this zone of intensive agriculture, farmers gain access to their fields through the Ring via a series of underpasses. Winding features within the southern section of the Ring appear to be smaller, unused race tracks.

    The image covers an area of 18.8 x 16.4 km, was acquired on August 17. 2007, and is located at 49.3 degrees north latitude, 17.8 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Accidental introduction into Italy and establishment of Aprostocetus fukutai (Hym.: Eulophidae) in citrus longhorned beetle infestations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (CLB), was accidentally introduced from Asia into 11 European countries, putting at risk a wide range of broadleaf trees. It was eradicated in 9 countries, but Italy still has residual populations. The gregarious egg parasitoid Aprostocetus fukutai, wh...

  16. The GMO case in France: politics, lawlessness and postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-07-03

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents' strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a "modern" to a "postmodern" framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs.

  17. Organization of Higher Environmental Education in Universities of Ukraine and France: Comparative Pedagogical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasova, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the organization of higher environmental education in France and Ukraine. The main elements of the pedagogical comparison between the two countries have been defined. Scientific and educational literature analysis devoted to the study of specific aspects of environmental education in universities of both countries has been…

  18. Situation Report--Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General…

  19. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  20. [The Cagliari (Italy) Court authorizes the preimplantation genetic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Jorqui Azofra, María

    2007-01-01

    Today, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been greatly accepted within the framework of positive law of many European countries. Nevertheless, in other countries, such as Italy, it is forbidden by law. The ruling of the Civil Court of Cagliari which has authorized its use to a Sardinian couple, has opened, in this way, a small crack to be able to asses possible modifications to the Italian regulation on this matter. This article analyses the ruling of the Civil Court of Cagliari (Italy) from an ethical and legal perspective. The criteria which is used to analyse the legitimacy or illegitimacy of the practice of PGD is analysed. That is, on reasons which could justify or not the transfer of embryos in vitro to the woman. With this objective in mind, the Italian and Spanish normative models which regulates this controversial subject are looked at. As a conclusion, a critical evaluation of the arguments presented is made.

  1. Egg-related Salmonella enteritidis, Italy, 1991

    PubMed Central

    Binkin, N.; Scuderi, G.; Novaco, F.; Giovanardi, G. L.; Paganelli, G.; Ferrari, G.; Cappelli, O.; Ravaglia, L.; Zilioli, F.; Amadei, V.; Magliani, W.; Viani, I.; Riccò, D.; Borrini, B.; Magri, M.; Alessandrini, A.; Bursi, G.; Barigazzi, G.; Fantasia, M.; Filetici, E.; Salmaso, S.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, Salmonella enteritidis has become an increasingly important public health problem in Italy. In some parts of the country, the fraction of total human salmonella isolates accounted for by S. enteritidis has risen from 3-4% in the mid-1980s to more than 30% in 1990. Between 1990 and 1991, the number of reported S. enteritidis outbreaks increased more than sixfold. The 33 outbreaks reported in 1991 occurred in seven contiguous regions in northern and central Italy and were clustered in time between June and October; in the majority, products containing raw or undercooked shell eggs were implicated. Five of the egg-related outbreaks that occurred within a 30 kilometre radius over a 7-week period were investigated in detail. A phage type 1 strain containing a 38·9 MDa plasmid appeared responsible for three of the outbreaks, while in the remaining two a phage type 4 strain, also with a 38·9 MDa plasmid was isolated. Efforts are being made to enhance epidemiological surveillance and laboratory evaluation, and the use of pasteurized eggs has been recommended for high-risk populations. PMID:8472765

  2. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  3. Recherche En Matiere D'Education Enquete Europeenne 1970, Volume III, Belgique, France, Italie, Suisse (Educational Research European Survey 1970, Volume III, Belgium, France, Italy, Switzerland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    The answers to questionnaires sent to members of the Council of Europe to obtain details of Government policy on educational research, descriptions of the principal educational research organizations, and summaries of the major studies completed or in progress in 1970 are summarized in this compilation prepared by the Documentation Center for…

  4. The Role of the Social Partners in Vocational Training. CEDEFOP Round-Table Conference (Paris, France, November 7-8, 1989). CEDEFOP Flash 8/89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazin, B.; Sellin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The November 1989 conference described in this document was about social dialogue in vocational education. An introduction summarizes the conference as a whole, pointing out that participants were able to hear reports of the situation in Denmark, Spain, Italy, France, and the European Community as a whole. Summaries of 10 individual presentations…

  5. Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Tyler; Schaefer, Caroline; Chandran, Arthi; Zlateva, Gergana; Winkelmann, Andreas; Perrot, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU) and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany) with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9), 51.2 (9.5), and 49.2 (9.8), respectively (P = 0.085). Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany) (P < 0.001). Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087) than in France ($481, P < 0.001) or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001). Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431) than in France ($8718) or Germany ($10,001), but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. Conclusion The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany. PMID:23637545

  6. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in France in 2010.

    PubMed

    Antona, D; Lepoutre, A; Fonteneau, L; Baudon, C; Halftermeyer-Zhou, F; LE Strat, Y; Lévy-Bruhl, D

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains the leading cause of congenital virus infection in developed countries. Measuring the national prevalence of this infection, especially among women of childbearing age, is of great value to estimate the risk of congenital CMV infection, as well as to identify risk groups that should be targeted for behavioural interventions and/or vaccination once a CMV vaccine finally becomes available. In order to fulfil these objectives, a seroprevalence survey was conducted in 2010, using a nationally representative, population-based sample of 2536 people aged between 15 and 49 years, living in metropolitan France and attending private microbiological laboratories for blood testing. All blood samples were analysed in the same laboratory and screened for CMV-specific IgG using an enzyme-linked immunoassay technique (Elisa PKS Medac Enzyme immunoassay). The overall point estimate of CMV infection seroprevalence for individuals aged 15-49 years was 41.9%. The estimates were higher in women than in men (respectively 45.6% and 39.3%), and people born in a non-Western country were more likely to be CMV seropositive than those born in France or in another Western country (93.7% vs. 37.7%). Our results showed that a substantial percentage of women of childbearing age in France are CMV seronegative and therefore at risk of primary CMV infection during pregnancy. Educational measures and future vaccine are key issues to prevent infection in pregnant women and congenital CMV disease.

  7. Incentives for telehealthcare deployment that support integrated care: a comparative analysis across eight European countries

    PubMed Central

    Lluch, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health care systems are struggling to deal with the increasing demands of an older population. In an attempt to find a solution to these demands, there has been a shift towards integrated care supported by information and communication technologies. However, little is understood about the role played by incentives and reimbursement schemes in the development of integrated care and information and communication technologies uptake. The objective of this paper is to investigate this question, specifically as regards telehealthcare. Methods In order to identify the deployment of telehealthcare applications and their role in supporting integrated care, a case study approach was used. A clustering exercise was carried out and eight European countries were selected for in-depth study: Denmark, Estonia, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK. In total, 31 telehealthcare initiatives across eight countries involving over 20,000 patients were investigated. Results Reflecting on specific examples in each initiative, drivers promoting integrated care delivery supported by telehealthcare mainstreaming and associated incentive mechanisms were identified. Attention was also paid to other factors which acted as barriers for widespread deployment. Discussion and conclusions Trends towards telehealthcare mainstreaming were found in Denmark, the UK, and in some regions of Spain, Italy and France. Mainstreaming often went hand-in-hand with progress towards integrated care delivery and payment reforms. A general trend was found towards outcomes-based payments and bundled payment schemes, which aimed to promote integrated care supported by telehealthcare deployment. Their effectiveness in achieving these goals remains to be seen. In addition, a form of outpatient diagnostic-related group reimbursement for telehealthcare services was found to have emerged in a few countries. However, it is questionable how this incentive could promote integrated care

  8. Women and Divorce in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Family Therapy, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history and current status of women and divorce in France. Recent statistics are noted and changes in the status of women are outlined. Issues related to single women and working women are discussed. Other topics include women and the family, women and politics, divorce laws and ramifications. (RC)

  9. Parent "cocoon" immunization to prevent pertussis-related hospitalization in infants: the case of Piemonte in Italy.

    PubMed

    Meregaglia, Michela; Ferrara, Lorenza; Melegaro, Alessia; Demicheli, Vittorio

    2013-02-06

    Pertussis incidence in Piemonte (Italy) is now at the lowest level ever reached (0.85 per 100,000 in 2010) but the disease is still endemic in infants (54 per 100,000 in 2005-2010). Parental "cocoon" immunization has been proposed in some countries (i.e. United States, France) as a measure to protect newborns from serious pertussis outcomes. We assessed the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent hospital admissions in infants (<12 months) and the potential cost-effectiveness of this strategy in Piemonte. The NNV for parental immunization was at least 5000 to prevent one infant hospitalization in the latest epidemic cycle (2005-2010) at the cost of >€100,000. The "cocoon" programme leads to net costs from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective (ROI<1). In contexts of low incidence and without reliable data on a high parent-attributable infant risk, the parental "cocoon" programme is poorly efficient and very resource intensive in preventing pertussis in infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence and spread in Italy of Aedes albopictus, with implications for its introduction into other parts of Europe.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, A B; Romi, R; Majori, G

    1996-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is considered second only to Ae. aegypti in its importance to man as a disease vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The first sighting in 1979 of the vector species in Europe came from Albania; however, it was only when Ae. albopictus was introduced into Italy in 1990, through the importation of used tires, followed by its subsequent spread, that the species was considered as a threat to public health. At the close of 1995, Ae. albopictus infestations have been reported from 10 Italian regions and 19 provinces. The risk for greater distribution of Ae. albopictus in Europe can potentially be projected, based on well-established criteria such as: where the winter monthly mean temperature is 0 degree C, where at least 50 cm of mean annual rainfall occurs, and where the mean summer temperature is approximately 20 degrees C. Those countries where climatic conditions meet such criteria and that may be vulnerable to a potential introduction of Ae. albopictus include Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, France, Albania, and the former Republic of Yugoslavia. The Italian plan of action, established for the surveillance and control of Ae. albopictus, is presented in detail.

  11. Trends in incidence of breast cancer among women under 40 in seven European countries: a GRELL cooperative study.

    PubMed

    Leclère, Brice; Molinié, Florence; Trétarre, Brigitte; Stracci, Fabrizio; Daubisse-Marliac, Laetitia; Colonna, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Young women are not usually screened for breast cancer (BC). The trends in incidence in this population may better reflect changes in risk factors. However, studies on this subject are scarce and heterogeneous. The aim of this study was to describe the trends in incidence of BC in women under 40 from 1990 to 2008, using pooled European data. Thirty-seven European population-based cancer registries from Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland participated in this study. World age-standardized incidence rates were first analyzed graphically and then using a Poisson regression model, in order to estimate average annual percent changes (AAPCs). The overall incidence rate of BC in the area covered increased linearly during the study period by 1.19% (0.93; 1.46) on average per year. This increase varied between countries from 0.20% (-0.53; 0.64) in Bulgaria to 2.68% (1.97; 3.40) in Portugal. In Italy, after a significant rise of 2.33% (1.14; 3.54) per year, BC incidence began decreasing in 2002 by -2.30% (-4.07; -0.50) yearly. The rise in incidence was greater for women under 35 and for ductal carcinomas. This increase can be due to a rise in risk factors and/or changes in diagnosis and surveillance practices, but we could not clearly distinguish between these two non-exclusive explanations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Entre Reproduction et Mobilisation: les Rapports de Genre EN Formation Continue EN France et AU Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourner, Christine; Béret, Pierre; Doray, Pierre; Bélanger, Paul

    2009-01-01

    REPRODUCTION OR MOBILISATION? GENDER PROPORTIONS IN CONTINUING EDUCATION IN FRANCE AND CANADA - Initial education provisions for women have evolved greatly over the past 40 years. But what about their situation within adult education and training? This article, comparing Canada and France, shows that, while it is well known that more women than men participate in adult education, their greater presence in professional training courses is a new development. The analysis highlights certain particular findings, such as the growing demand for continuing education in Canada and the increased rate of participation by full-time employees in France. In both countries, a number of social factors continue to influence women's participation.

  13. Prevalence of prelingual deafness in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bubbico, L; Rosano, A; Spagnolo, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary Neonatal hearing loss is the most frequent sensorial congenital defect in newborns. No data are available on worldwide prevalence of congenital deafness. World Health Organization (WHO) data indicate 1-4 cases per 1,000 individuals, with a considerable increase in developing countries. A prevalence exceeding 1 per 1,000 however, indicates a serious public health problem calling for urgent attention. Aim of the study was the evaluate the prevalence of prelingual deafness in the Italian population and determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the condition. Data were provided by the National Institute of Social Insurance (INPS) and the Italian Central Statistics Institute (ISTAT) and were collected in 18 out of the 20 Italian regions (98.2% of total population). All subjects recognized as deaf-mute by a special medical committee were included. According to law No. 509/1988, they had to present a mean bilateral sensorineural-hearing impairment, detected in neonatal age, which caused the damage in speech development and equal to 60 dB or more for 500-, 1,000- and 2,000-Hz frequency tones in the better ear. Prevalence rates were calculated according to region and age bracket using updated population data from census 2001. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package. A total of 40,887 cases of prelingual profound sensorineural hearing loss ≥ 60 dB were detected in Italy in 2003, for a total prevalence rate of 0.72 per 1,000. The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to sex. The overall prevalence is 0.78 per 1,000 for males and 0.69 per 1,000 for females (p < 0.001). The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to region of residence (p < 0.001). The geographic distribution of prelingual deafness was found to be: North 15,644 cases (0.63 per 1,000), Central Italy 7,111 cases (0.64 per 1,000), South and Islands 18,132 (0.87 per 1,000). The prelingual hearing loss is highly prevalent in South Italy

  14. Symptom recognition of heart attack and stroke in nine European countries: a representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Jutta; Frank, Ronald; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death and a source of chronic disability. Objectives  To assess recognition of and reaction to symptoms of heart attack and stroke, and how recognition is related to the frequency of consulting physicians and other information sources. Design  Face‐to‐face computer‐assisted personal interviews. Participants  Representative sample of 10 228 persons in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Spain and UK, aged 14–98. Main Outcome Variables  Recognition of heart attack and stroke symptoms and proper reaction to symptoms. Results  Chest pain was the only heart attack symptom recognized by more than 50% of participants. Eight percent knew no symptoms. Of 14 stroke symptoms, none was recognized by more than 50% of participants; 19% could not identify any symptom. For both heart attack and stroke, Germans and Austrians recognized the largest number of symptoms. Persons in Italy, Poland, Russia and Spain knew only about half as many symptoms as in Germany or Austria. Only 51% of Europeans would call an ambulance when someone suffers a stroke, the fewest (33 and 34%) in Germany and Austria. In most countries, people who consulted their physician more frequently had no better recognition of heart attack or stroke symptoms. Conclusions  The majority of persons in nine European countries recognize few heart attack and stroke symptoms; many do not know how to react. This low level of knowledge constitutes a major health risk and likely leads to delay in treatment, contributing to the high mortality and morbidity from these diseases. PMID:22390229

  15. Symptom recognition of heart attack and stroke in nine European countries: a representative survey.

    PubMed

    Mata, Jutta; Frank, Ronald; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death and a source of chronic disability. To assess recognition of and reaction to symptoms of heart attack and stroke, and how recognition is related to the frequency of consulting physicians and other information sources. Face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Representative sample of 10,228 persons in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Spain and UK, aged 14-98. Recognition of heart attack and stroke symptoms and proper reaction to symptoms. Chest pain was the only heart attack symptom recognized by more than 50% of participants. Eight percent knew no symptoms. Of 14 stroke symptoms, none was recognized by more than 50% of participants; 19% could not identify any symptom. For both heart attack and stroke, Germans and Austrians recognized the largest number of symptoms. Persons in Italy, Poland, Russia and Spain knew only about half as many symptoms as in Germany or Austria. Only 51% of Europeans would call an ambulance when someone suffers a stroke, the fewest (33 and 34%) in Germany and Austria. In most countries, people who consulted their physician more frequently had no better recognition of heart attack or stroke symptoms. The majority of persons in nine European countries recognize few heart attack and stroke symptoms; many do not know how to react. This low level of knowledge constitutes a major health risk and likely leads to delay in treatment, contributing to the high mortality and morbidity from these diseases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The hierarchical cluster analysis of oral health attitudes and behaviour using the Hiroshima University--Dental Behavioural Inventory (HU-DBI) among final year dental students in 17 countries.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Kawamura, Makoto; Kim, Kang-Ju; Wright, Fredrick A C; Declerck, Dominique; Goiâs, Maria do Carmo Matias Freire; Hu, De-Yu; Honkala, Eino; Lévy, Gérard; Kalwitzki, Matthias; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Yip, Kevin Hak-Kong; Eli, Ilana; Kinirons, Martin J; Petti, Stefano; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Kwan, Stella Y L; Centore, Linda S

    2006-10-01

    To explore and describe international oral health attitudes/ behaviours among final year dental students. Validated translated versions of the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioural Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire were administered to 1,096 final-year dental students in 17 countries. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted within the data to detect patterns and groupings. The overall response rate was 72%. The cluster analysis identified two main groups among the countries. Group 1 consisted of twelve countries: one Oceanic (Australia), one Middle-Eastern (Israel), seven European (Northern Ireland, England, Finland, Greece, Germany, Italy, and France) and three Asian (Korea, Thailand and Malaysia) countries. Group 2 consisted of five countries: one South American (Brazil), one European (Belgium) and three Asian (China, Indonesia and Japan) countries. The percentages of 'agree' responses in three HU-DBI questionnaire items were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1. They include: "I worry about the colour of my teeth."; "I have noticed some white sticky deposits on my teeth."; and "I am bothered by the colour of my gums." Grouping the countries into international clusters yielded useful information for dentistry and dental education.

  17. The efficacy of different models of smoke-free laws in reducing exposure to second-hand smoke: a multi-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mark; Currie, Laura M; Kabir, Zubair; Clancy, Luke

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke is a serious public health concern and while all EU Member States have enacted some form of regulation aimed at limiting exposure, the scope of these regulations vary widely and many countries have failed to enact comprehensive legislation creating smoke-free workplaces and indoor public places. To gauge the effectiveness of different smoke-free models we compared fine particles from second-hand smoke in hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoking bans in France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Turkey, and Scotland. Data on PM2.5 fine particle concentration levels were recorded in 338 hospitality venues across these countries before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. Changes in mean PM2.5 concentrations during the period from pre- to post-legislation were then compared across countries. While a reduction in PM2.5 was observed in all countries, those who had enacted and enforced more fully comprehensive smoke-free legislation experienced the greatest reduction in second-hand tobacco smoke. Comprehensive smoke-free laws are more effective than partial laws in reducing exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Also, any law, regardless of scope must be actively enforced in order to have the desired impact. There is continued need for surveillance of smoke-free efforts in all countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Dog tourism and import: an inquiry in Germany on the extent as well as on the spectrum and preference of countries of residence and origin respectively].

    PubMed

    Glaser, B; Gothe, R

    1998-05-01

    A survey was conducted among practicing veterinarians and at pet clinics in Germany in order to estimate the extent of tourism with dogs and import of dogs and to determine the range and preference of the foreign countries involved. The survey covered the years from 1985 to 1995 and included 5240 dogs, of which 4567 (87.2%) were born in Germany and 673 (12.8%) were born abroad. Among the latter, 263 (39.1%) originated from Mediterranean countries and Portugal, 344 (51.1%) were born in other European countries and 66 (9.8%) were from non-European countries. Of all 5240 dogs surveyed, 2894 (55.2%) had been taken abroad at least once between 1985 and 1995. Of these, 2424 (53.1%) were born in Germany, 470 (69.8%) were born abroad. Of the 2894 dogs taken abroad, 1929 (66.7%) travelled to Mediterranean countries or Portugal and 1152 of these had additional travels to other countries as well. The spectrum of all countries travelled to was very broad, but numerous dogs were taken regularly, repeatedly and exclusively to Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Spain or France. Other countries were visited only once for the majority of dogs. The analysis of the annual survey data revealed a steady increase of dogs along on trips from Germany to other countries, rising from 31.1% in 1990 to 40.8% in 1994. In any of these years, always more than 56% of these dogs were taken to Mediterranean countries.

  19. [The management of foreign workers in Italy].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Sergio; Valenti, Antonio; Persechino, Benedetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, the globalisation and important geopolitical changes have widened the spatial boundaries of international migrations which have reached a so global scope today that they influence the economic, political and social trend of countries of origin, transit and destination. According to the UN, the international labour mobility involved more than 200 million people in 2010, that is approximately 10% of the world's total population. In Italy, in the beginning of 2010 foreign residents amounted to 4.2 million, that is to say, 7% of the total population (ISTAT, 2011). Host countries have been forced to implement a series of policies aimed at combating illegal immigration and employment of foreign people. Special attention must be given to the issue of migrant workers who have become increasingly important actors in the social and productive sectors and, as a consequence, the need for preventive and protective measures taking into consideration the specific work-related hazards is growing more and more urgent. With this respect, the regulatory framework for occupational health and safety now contains explicit references to migrant workers as provided in the Leg. Decree 81/08 with subsequent integrations and modifications. First of all, the issue of occupational health and safety for migrant workers must take into account of the linguistic, social and cultural problems of the different ethnical groups that are present in our country.

  20. Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Dofková, Marcela; Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida; Dubuisson, Carine; Favret, Sandra; Havard, Sabrina; Trolle, Ellen; Van't Veer, Pieter; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2018-03-28

    Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmark and France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall. Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the mean of two randomly selected days. There was clear geographical variability, with a between-country range for mean fruit intake from 118 to 199 g/day, for vegetables from 95 to 239 g/day, for fish from 12 to 45 g/day, for dairy from 129 to 302 g/day, for sweet beverages from 48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmark for dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (< 20 g/day), and nuts and seeds (< 5 g/day), but high for red and processed meat (> 80 g/day). Within countries, food intakes also varied by socio-economic factors such as age, gender, and educational level, but less pronounced by anthropometric factors such as overweight status. For nutrients, intakes were low for dietary fibre (15.8-19.4 g/day) and vitamin D (2.4-3.0 µg/day) in all countries, for potassium (2288-2938 mg/day) and magnesium (268-285 mg/day) except in Denmark, for vitamin E in Denmark (6.7 mg/day), and for folate in Czech Republic (212 µg/day). There is considerable variation in food and nutrient intakes across Europe, not only between, but also within countries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supply data, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and

  1. A varied pattern of change of the sex differential in survival in the G7 countries.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Frank; Heyen, Nils B

    2006-05-01

    Over the course of the 20th century the sex differential in life expectancy at birth in the industrialized countries has widened considerably in favour of women. Starting in the early 1970s, the beginning of a reversal in the long-term pattern of this differential has been noted in some high-income countries. This study documents a sustained pattern of narrowing of this measure into the later part of the 1990s for six of the populations that comprise the G7 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, England and Wales (as representative of the United Kingdom) and USA. For Japan, a persistence of widening sex differences in survival is noted. The sex differences in life expectancy are decomposed over roughly three decades (early 1970s to late 1990s) from the point of view of four major cause-of-death categories: circulatory diseases, cancers, accidents/violence/suicide, and 'other' (residual) causes. In the six countries where the sex gap has narrowed, this has resulted primarily from reduced sex differences in circulatory disease mortality, and secondarily from reduced differences in male and female death rates due to accidents, violence and suicide combined. In some of the countries sex differentials in cancer mortality have been converging lately, and this has also contributed to a narrowing of the difference in life expectancy. In Japan, males have been less successful in reducing their survival disadvantage in relation to Japanese women with regard to circulatory disease and cancer; and in the case of accidents/violence/suicide, male death rates increased during the 1990s. These trends explain the divergent pattern of the sex difference in life expectation in Japan as compared with the other G7 nations.

  2. Time trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring European countries 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Feller, Anita; Mark, Michael Thomas; Steiner, Annik; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2015-01-01

    What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries? Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population <75 years old by sex for the following groups of cancer deaths: (1) avoidable through primary prevention; (2) avoidable through early detection and treatment; (3) avoidable through improved treatment and medical care; and (4) remaining cancer deaths. To assess time trends in ASMRs, estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. In Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons <75 years old continuously decreased 1996-2010. Avoidable cancer mortality decreased in all groups of avoidable cancer deaths in both sexes, with one exception. ASMRs for causes avoidable through primary prevention increased in females in all countries (in Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010. Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.

  3. An Analysis of Unemployment and Other Labor Market Indicators in 10 Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Joyanna

    1988-01-01

    Compares unemployment, employment, and related labor market statistics in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Introduces employment-to-population ratios by sex and discusses unemployment rates published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and…

  4. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France

    PubMed Central

    Adida, Claire L.; Laitin, David D.; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences’ 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin. PMID:21098283

  5. Association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Guerrero, Luis; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected through the TRUEFOOD pan-European consumer survey (n = 4828) with samples representative for age, gender and region in Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. Importance attached to familiarity with a product is found to be strongly and positively associated with general attitude toward traditional food as well as traditional food consumption. The importance attached to convenience was negatively related to both general attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption, while the importance of weight control negatively influenced the general attitude. Natural content of food was positively associated with the attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption. The importance of price when purchasing food failed to be significantly related with general attitude and traditional food consumption both for the pooled sample as well as within each country except in Spain. The proposed model contributes to a better understanding of factors shaping the image and influencing the consumption of traditional foods in Europe. General attitude toward traditional foods, familiarity, and importance of food naturalness emerged as drivers for traditional food consumption. Importance attached to convenience and health acted as direct barriers to traditional food consumption, whereas importance of weight control emerged as an indirect barrier through lowering general attitude toward traditional foods.

  6. The gender gap in sickness absence: long-term trends in eight European countries.

    PubMed

    Mastekaasa, Arne

    2014-08-01

    Most studies show that women have considerably higher rates of sickness absence than men, but little is known on how the gender gap has developed over time. Data are taken from the EU Labour Force Surveys. The dependent variable is whether the respondent reports being away from work the entire reference week or not. Trends are shown from 1980 onwards. Poisson regression is used to estimate relative risks for women vs. men, with various sets of control variables. Increasing gross differences in sickness absence between women and men are found in five countries: Spain, Ireland, France, Belgium and the UK. No trend in the gender gap is found in Netherlands and Portugal, and probably even in Italy. The trends in the gender gap have been largely the same for men and women without children at home as in the population as a whole. The trends are little affected by control for detailed occupation and industry. The gender gap in sickness absence has increased in five out of eight countries. This is not due to increased labour force participation by mothers of small children, and neither can it be explained as a result of changes in how women and men are distributed across occupations or industries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Oil inventory capacity in selected countries and estimates of global inventory fluctuations: 1978 to 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Krapels, E.N.

    1983-07-01

    The principal objective of this project has been to determine the feasibility of constructing a data base on world primary secondary, and tertiary oil storage capacity. This objective was inspired by the view that surges in stock levels - i.e. sudden changes in the amount of oil storage owners desire to hold - can have a substantial impact on supply, demand, and prices in the world oil market. Those interested in improving their understanding of the market would benefit from a better picture of the storage situation. This report presents the fruits of research into the storage scene in sevenmore » industrial countries: the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands. One finding of this project is that it is indeed possible to construct a useful data base. A major obstacle, however, is the poor quality of information on secondary and tertiary capacity in some countries. The cooperation of government and industry is essential to overcome this handicap. Our research was greatly aided by such cooperation.« less

  8. Country-specific antibiotic use practices impact the human gut resistome

    PubMed Central

    Forslund, Kristoffer; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kultima, Jens Roat; Mende, Daniel R.; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Typas, Athanasios; Bork, Peer

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing concerns over inappropriate use of antibiotics in medicine and food production, population-level resistance transfer into the human gut microbiota has not been demonstrated beyond individual case studies. To determine the “antibiotic resistance potential” for entire microbial communities, we employ metagenomic data and quantify the totality of known resistance genes in each community (its resistome) for 68 classes and subclasses of antibiotics. In 252 fecal metagenomes from three countries, we show that the most abundant resistance determinants are those for antibiotics also used in animals and for antibiotics that have been available longer. Resistance genes are also more abundant in samples from Spain, Italy, and France than from Denmark, the United States, or Japan. Where comparable country-level data on antibiotic use in both humans and animals are available, differences in these statistics match the observed resistance potential differences. The results are robust over time as the antibiotic resistance determinants of individuals persist in the human gut flora for at least a year. PMID:23568836

  9. Italy flags scientific shortcomings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-04-01

    The land that gave us Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo Galilei and Enrico Fermi does not regard science as part of culture, but it must do so if it is to avoid being left behind economically and intellectually. That is the message from a working group of 18 academics, sponsored by the Italian government, to find ways of improving the quantity, quality and public perception of science in the country. The group has now put forward a range of measures to combat what the group's chair, left-wing politician and Siena University law professor Luigi Berlinguer, describes as a "national emergency".

  10. [Air quality surveillance in France].

    PubMed

    Téton, S; Robin, D; Genève, C

    2009-10-01

    As air quality has a direct impact on human health, its monitoring is imperative. In France, this task was entrusted by the government (Air Law of 1996) to organisations with territorial responsibility: the Registered Associations for the Surveillance of Air Quality. The type and level of pollution evolve: from industrial and sulphur pollution in the seventies, to urban and photochemical pollution today and to nanoparticles, pesticides and pollutants in buildings tomorrow. The tools, the skills and the roles of the different people involved in air quality control follow these sometimes rapid transitions in connection with an increasingly precise understanding of the relationship between health and the environment and of the considerable research on the subject. This article describes the mechanisms of air quality monitoring in France.

  11. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  12. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 20th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME 09) (Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009) Selected papers from the 20th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME 09) (Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    This special section of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 20th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2009), which was held in Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009. The MME workshop series started in 1989 in Twente and was the first European event created in the field of micro machining technology for developing micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. Over the last two decades the MEMS community has grown considerably, and the MME workshops have sustained this progress through annual meetings all around Europe: Twente (The Netherlands, 1989), Berlin (Germany, 1990), Leuven (Belgium, 1992), Neuchatel (Switzerland, 1993), Pisa (Italy, 1994), Copenhagen (Denmark, 1995), Barcelona (Spain, 1996), Southampton (United Kingdom, 1997), Ulvik (Norway, 1998), Gif-sur-Yvette (France, 1999), Uppsala (Sweden, 2000), Cork (Ireland, 2001), Sinaia (Romania, 2002), Delft (The Netherlands, 2003), Leuven (Belgium, 2004), Goteborg (Sweden, 2005), Southampton (United Kingdom, 2006), Guimaraes (Portugal, 2007) and Aachen (Germany, 2008). For twenty years, MME conferences have provided an excellent opportunity to bring together many, predominantly European, scientists and engineers to present and discuss the latest developments in this field. For the 20th anniversary of the MicroMechanics Europe Workshop, 115 papers from 23 countries were submitted. Selected contributions were presented during four poster sessions, including short oral presentations. A very interesting feature of the MME workshops is their ability to promote young researchers. Six invited speakers from research centres and industry also gave an overview on advanced technological, characterization and simulation tools. The two day workshop was attended by 185 delegates from 22 countries all over Europe, and from Japan, Taiwan, USA and Mexico. On behalf of the MME 2009 Program Committee, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all authors of

  13. Empirical evidence for an invariant three-factor structure of the Parental Bonding Instrument in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Heider, Dirk; Matschinger, Herbert; Bernert, Sebastian; Vilagut, Gemma; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Dietrich, Sandra; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2005-06-30

    The objective of the present study was to test the Parental Bonding Instrument's (PBI) three-factor structure (care, overprotection, and authoritarianism) found by [Cox, B.J., Enns, M.W., Clara, I.P. 2000, The Parental Bonding Instrument: confirmatory evidence for a three-factor model in a psychiatric clinical sample and in the National Comorbidity Survey, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 35 (2000) 353-357.] on an eight-item short form of the scale. A total of 8813 respondents from the six European countries participating in the ESEMeD project (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and Spain) completed either the PBI-paternal or the PBI-maternal scale. Maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the original factor model of Cox et al. with a three-factor solution that emerged from an exploration of the structure with principal component factor analysis. When gender and age subgroups, as well as different countries, were taken into account, the accuracy of the model was confirmed. The fit indices for the new model indicated a generally better model fit than the ones for the model originally developed by Cox et al. Further efforts should be directed to the modeling of the dimension authoritarianism. The results provide the opportunity to estimate the influence of the extracted factors on mental disorders in different countries. The application of the short form of the PBI seems suitable primarily for large epidemiological studies.

  14. Trends in smoking, diet, physical exercise, and attitudes toward health in European university students from 13 countries, 1990-2000.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Cui, Weiwei; Bellisle, France; Zotti, Anna-Maria; Baranyai, Reka; Sanderman, Robert

    2002-08-01

    Smoking, diet, and physical exercise are key determinants of health. This study assessed changes over 10 years and their relationship to changes in health beliefs and risk awareness. A survey was carried out of university students from 13 European countries (Belgium, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Spain) in 1990 (4,701 men, 5,729 women) and repeated in 2000 (4,604 men, 5,732 women). We assessed smoking, exercise, fruit and fat intake, beliefs in the importance of behaviors for health, and awareness of the influence of behaviors on heart disease risk. Smoking prevalence increased and fruit consumption decreased between 1990 and 2000, while physical exercise and fat intake were more stable. There were large variations between country samples. Health beliefs weakened, with marked decreases in beliefs about smoking and diet. Across country samples, changes in beliefs correlated with changes in the prevalence of behaviors. Awareness of the effects of smoking and exercise was stable, but knowledge of the role of fat intake increased over the decade. The differences in health behaviors, beliefs, and risk awareness between the two surveys were disappointing in this educated sector of young adult Europeans. The association between changes in beliefs and prevalence of behavior emphasizes the importance of enhancing positive attitudes to healthier lifestyles.

  15. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-08-06

    51F-32-024 (29 July - 6 August 1985) --- Italy's “boot heel" surrounded by waters of the Ionian Sea/Golfo di Taranto and the Adriatic Sea is very clearly visible in this scene made with a handheld 70mm camera. Spacelab 2's versatile instrument pointing system (IPS) protrudes from the cargo bay.

  16. Nardò Ring, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-08

    The Nardò Ring is a striking visual feature from space, and astronauts have photographed it several times. The Ring is a race car test track in Italy. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on August 17. 2007.

  17. Migration, violence, and the role of psychiatry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Bellomo, Antonello; Vitrani, Giovanna; Stella, Eleonora; Gentile, Alessandro; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2017-08-01

    Immigration to Italy has been increasing exponentially in the last decades due to the international political changes and conflicts in the Middle East. The relationship between immigration and crimes is a debated issue, and violent radicalization of second or third generations of migrants is under increased scrutiny. Consequently, many politicians and political parties use nationalist and xenophobic language. Inevitably, this will have an impact on reactions of the larger population, as well as that of migrants. Psychiatry can have a major role in dealing with immigrants' health needs, and also assessing risk and preventing violent behaviours due to mental disorders. It is possible to prevent some radicalization by employing strategies of education, leading to better integration of immigrants in the community (based on education, housing, work, etc.). However, often specialist services for migrants are lacking, and mental healthcare professionals may remain poorly trained. Italy is one of the major countries in Southern Europe with a large number of illegal and legal migrants; thereby, creating a major pressure on the resources. It is important to understand the links between globalization, migration, and violence in Italy, in order to prevent future radicalization. It is also useful for psychiatrists to act as advocates for migrants to help reduce xenophobia and discrimination supported by some national cultural and political movements. Ethno-psychiatric facilities should be promoted, as well as policies of support, integration, and prevention should be employed to promote legal migration through the European countries.

  18. [A survey on the position of France in international clinical research as assessed by pharmaceutical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Courcier-Duplantier, Soizic; Bouhours, Philippe; Pinton, Philippe; Sibenaler, Claire; Lassale, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate the attractiveness of France for conducting international clinical trials, a survey was performed among pharmaceutical companies that are based in France or that have affiliates in France. The survey concerned international phase II and III clinical studies carried out in 2002 and 2003. Ten pharmaceutical companies representing 36% of the French market completed the survey. 134 trials were analysed in total. France recruited 8.3% of the overall number of patients recruited, and 15.0% of those recruited within Europe. France was within the overall mean with regard to the percentage of active centres (78.5% versus 79.5%) and the percentage of patients evaluable according to protocol (86.8% versus 87.3%). In contrast, France ranked within the last third of analysed countries with respect to the speed of recruitment (1.5 versus 1.9 patients/centre/month), and the number of queries per observation (16.8 versus 10.9). The analysis of the qualitative indicators of performance showed that, although the perception of pharmaceutical companies towards the quality of French medicine and administrative authorities is positive, France notably needs to improve the productivity of its clinical research in order to enhance its attractiveness for the pharmaceutical sponsors of clinical trials.

  19. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) in 32 countries. Review of the general methodology.

    PubMed

    Ruperto, N; Ravelli, A; Pistorio, A; Malattia, C; Cavuto, S; Gado-West, L; Tortorelli, A; Landgraf, J M; Singh, G; Martini, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this project was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the American English version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and of the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) in the 32 different member countries of the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO). This effort forms part of an international study supported by the European Union to evaluate the health-related quality of life in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as compared to their healthy peers. A total of 6,644 subjects were enrolled from 32 countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Korea, Latvia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. A total of 3,235 patients had JIA (20% systemic onset, 33% polyarticular onset, 17% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 30% persistent oligoarticular subtype) while 3,409 were healthy children. This introductory paper describes the methodology used by all the participants. The results and the translated version of both the CHAQ and the CHQ for each country are fully reported in the following papers. The results of the present study show that cross-cultural adaptation is a valid process to obtain reliable instruments for the different socio-economic and socio-demographic conditions of the countries participating in the project.

  2. Education and Self-Reported Health: Evidence from 23 Countries on the Role of Years of Schooling, Cognitive Skills and Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examine the contribution of human capital to health in 23 countries worldwide using the OECD Survey of Adult Skills, a unique large-scale international assessment of 16–65 year olds that contains information about self-reported health, schooling, cognitive skills and indicators of interpersonal trust, which represents the cognitive dimension of social capital. We identify cross-national differences in education, skill and social capital gradients in self-reported health and explore the interaction between human capital and social capital to examine if and where social capital is a mediator or a moderator of years of schooling and cognitive abilities. We find large education gaps in self-reported health across all countries in our sample and a strong positive relationship between self-reported health and both literacy and trust in the majority of countries. Education and skill gradients in self-reported health appear to be largest in the United States and smallest in Italy, France, Sweden and Finland. On average around 5.5% of both the schooling gap in self-reported health and the literacy gap in self-reported health can be explained by the higher levels of interpersonal trust that better educated/more skilled individuals have, although the mediating role of trust varies considerably across countries. We find no evidence of a moderation effect: the relationships between health and years of schooling and health and cognitive skills are similar among individuals with different levels of trust. PMID:26901130

  3. Treatment decision-making for advanced non-small cell lung cancer and differences among European countries: 1st AIOT-ETOP meeting.

    PubMed

    Gridelli, Cesare; Stahel, Rolf; Besse, Benjamin; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Felip, Enriqueta; Gasparini, Stefano; Graziano, Paolo; Rossi, Antonio; de Marinis, Filippo

    2011-12-01

    The Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology (AIOT) and the European Thoracic Oncology Platform (ETOP) realized the first conjunct educational meeting, open to European oncologists involved in the treatment of thoracic malignancies, entitled "Advanced non-small cell lung cancer: new perspectives in first-line setting". The educational meeting included 8 interactive talks, held by European key opinion leaders, and 5 related clinical cases in which the attendees, divided in working tables based on their country origin, were involved for interactive discussion. The aim of this course was to elucidate the differences or similarities among the European countries in the first-line treatment of patients affected by advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Twenty-two attendees of the following countries participated: Austria, France, Italy, Spain, Swiss, and UK. As expected, some discrepancies between the groups were identified concerning the approach to the diagnostic phase, the choice of first-line regimen, the duration of treatment and the use of maintenance therapy. These discrepancies were mainly due to familiarity with specific therapies and lack of access to certain therapies due to local regulatory issues. The European Medicine Agency grants marketing of drugs in all Europe, regulatory agency of each country can register the drug, but can also deny public reimbursement thus restricting the options of the oncologist. The European Oncology Associations should join to their effort to achieve a uniform access to the cancer therapy for all patients in Europe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional variation in the hedonic evaluation of lamb meat from diverse production systems by consumers in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Sañudo, C; Alfonso, M; San Julián, R; Thorkelsson, G; Valdimarsdottir, T; Zygoyiannis, D; Stamataris, C; Piasentier, E; Mills, C; Berge, P; Dransfield, E; Nute, G R; Enser, M; Fisher, A V

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the responses of consumers in six European countries (Greece, Italy, Spain, France, Iceland and United Kingdom) tasting meat from twelve different local types of lambs produced in those same six countries. Animals represented 10 breeds and crossbreeds, three sexes, several diets composed of either milk, concentrates and various forages as main ingredients and different slaughter ages, from 1 and 12 months, and carcass weights, from 5.5 to 30.4kg. Tests were conducted by 36 volunteer families in each of the six countries involved in the study. Families were asked to roast the joints using their own cooking criteria, evaluating (from "dislike extremely" to "like extremely") flavour, tenderness, juiciness and overall liking. Also the cook was asked to rate the odour during cooking. Country and lamb type and their interaction were statistically significant for all the variables analysed. Results suggest a link between the assessments of a given lamb type and the consumers' culinary background, showing clear associations between country and lamb type preferences. It was possible to separate, independently of the country, different groups of families with similar preferences. Five family groups, which included 88 families (40.74%), had a clear Mediterranean origin and preferred types of lamb fed either milk or mainly concentrate diets. Seven family groups, which included 93 families (43.06%) with a clear northern origin, preferred types reared on grass or with grass included in the diet. The rest of the groups (four) that included 35 families (16.20%) had no clear composition (northern or Mediterranean), and they had a wider taste preference. It can clearly be seen that there are two categories of consumers of lamb in the analysed European market: those who prefer "milk or concentrate taste" and those who prefer "grass taste".

  5. Producing citizens, reproducing the "French race": immigration, demography, and pronatalism in early twentieth-century France.

    PubMed

    Camiscioli, E

    2001-01-01

    This essay examines how, in the context of depopulation and mass immigration, members of the French pronatalist movement advanced a policy favouring immigrants from Italy, Spain, and Poland. Because the 'demographic crisis' created a shortage of citizens as well as workers, pronatalists held that foreign workers must also be assimilable, and able to produce French offspring. While the racial difference of colonial subjects was deemed immutable, pronatalists called for the immigration of white foreigners whose less 'modern' condition promoted fecundity, traditionalism, and gender dimorphism. Evidence is drawn from demographic studies, the press of France's largest pronatalist movement, and a pronatalist advisory committee created by the Ministry of Health in 1920.

  6. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  7. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  8. Development of a cross-cultural deprivation index in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Elodie; Pornet, Carole; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Lillini, Roberto; Vercelli, Marina; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández Fontelo, Amanda; Borrell, Carme; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Pina, Maria Fatima de; Mayer, Alexandra; Delpierre, Cyrille; Rachet, Bernard; Launoy, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Despite a concerted policy effort in Europe, social inequalities in health are a persistent problem. Developing a standardised measure of socioeconomic level across Europe will improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and causes of inequalities. This will facilitate developing, implementing and assessing new and more effective policies, and will improve the comparability and reproducibility of health inequality studies among countries. This paper presents the extension of the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a standardised measure first developed in France, to four other European countries-Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, using available 2001 and 1999 national census data. The method previously tested and validated to construct the French EDI was used: first, an individual indicator for relative deprivation was constructed, defined by the minimal number of unmet fundamental needs associated with both objective (income) poverty and subjective poverty. Second, variables available at both individual (European survey) and aggregate (census) levels were identified. Third, an ecological deprivation index was constructed by selecting the set of weighted variables from the second step that best correlated with the individual deprivation indicator. For each country, the EDI is a weighted combination of aggregated variables from the national census that are most highly correlated with a country-specific individual deprivation indicator. This tool will improve both the historical and international comparability of studies, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in health and implementation of intervention to tackle social inequalities in health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. [Health and politics in France].

    PubMed

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  10. [Violence against persons in France].

    PubMed

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The violence against persons in France are various, from those inflicted by society against human groups or individuals, from those, almost unrecognizable, occurring inside the families. It is an important public health problem and need population-based surveys to evaluate and to prevent it. The numerous publications about violence, and particularly about violence against women which have been recently published reflect the actual awareness. But they demonstrate also the diversity and the evolution of the policies which do not simplify the the ways to find solutions.

  11. Place of death in the population dying from diseases indicative of palliative care need: a cross-national population-level study in 14 countries.

    PubMed

    Pivodic, Lara; Pardon, Koen; Morin, Lucas; Addington-Hall, Julia; Miccinesi, Guido; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Naylor, Wayne; Ruiz Ramos, Miguel; Van den Block, Lieve; Wilson, Donna M; Loucka, Martin; Csikos, Agnes; Rhee, Yong Joo; Teno, Joan; Deliens, Luc; Houttekier, Dirk; Cohen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Studying where people die across countries can serve as an evidence base for health policy on end-of-life care. This study describes the place of death of people who died from diseases indicative of palliative care need in 14 countries, the association of place of death with cause of death, sociodemographic and healthcare availability characteristics in each country and the extent to which these characteristics explain country differences in the place of death. Death certificate data for all deaths in 2008 (age ≥1 year) in Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, England, France, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Spain (Andalusia), the USA and Wales caused by cancer, heart/renal/liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diseases of the nervous system or HIV/AIDS were linked with national or regional healthcare statistics (N=2,220,997). 13% (Canada) to 53% (Mexico) of people died at home and 25% (the Netherlands) to 85% (South Korea) died in hospital. The strength and direction of associations between home death and cause of death, sociodemographic and healthcare availability factors differed between countries. Differences between countries in home versus hospital death were only partly explained by differences in these factors. The large differences between countries in and beyond Europe in the place of death of people in potential need of palliative care are not entirely attributable to sociodemographic characteristics, cause of death or availability of healthcare resources, which suggests that countries' palliative and end-of-life care policies may influence where people die. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Country News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  13. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  15. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  16. [Austrian Low Countries, Europe's animal health pioneer, 1769-1776].

    PubMed

    Vallat, F

    2006-12-01

    Two previously unpublished manuscripts reveal how innovative the Austrian Low Countries were when they introduced an animal health policy to control rinderpest in 1769. The policy was novel in that it replaced the slaughter of individual sick animals with herd slaughter. Unfortunately, a number of neighbouring countries failed to emulate this sure-fire method of controlling rinderpest, among them France.

  17. Employment Profile of the Service Sector in Selected Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarzik, Robert W.

    The rise of the service sector is a major trend common to all western, industrialized countries. Employment in the service sector has increased in 1960-1986 in all 10 countries participating in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Human Resources project (Japan, Belgium, France,…

  18. [Reasons for General Practitioner Shortage – a Comparison Between France and Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Cerny, Thomas; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan; Chmiel, Corinne

    2016-05-25

    Both France and Switzerland face a general practitioner (GP) shortage. What differences or parallels exist between the two countries with regard to the causes for this shortage? What conclusions might be drawn from a systematic comparison? Literature review with qualitative and semi-quantitative content analysis. Parallels exist in the comparing categories work contents, working structure, income and social status, medical school formation, private life, psychological motives. Differences are found in the categories biography and social selection, medical socialisation, residency. In Switzerland, residency is not uniformly structured, rarely institutionally organised and contains only few elements specific to general medicine. In France, medical socialisation not only exalts the specialists, but also strongly devaluates the GPs. By systematic analysis and comparison of both countries' pertinent literature, France and Switzerland can deepen their understanding of GP shortage. This paper identifies possible fields of action from medical school through residency up to workplace conditions that are pivotal in addressing the shortage of GPs.

  19. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  20. The GMO case in France: Politics, lawlessness and postmodernism

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents’ strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a “modern” to a “postmodern” framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs. PMID:25437234

  1. [Female employment and emigration: from the countries of Africa and Asia to Rome].

    PubMed

    Arena, G

    1983-06-01

    Recent trends in female labor migration from third world countries to Rome, Italy, are analyzed. The impact of the demand for various types of labor and of religious background is considered. (summary in ENG, FRE)

  2. Molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 ICUs from eight European countries.

    PubMed

    Hetem, D J; Derde, L P G; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M; Kozińska, A; Hryniewicz, W; Goossens, H; Bonten, M J M

    2016-01-01

    The European epidemiology of MRSA is changing with the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA during 2 years in 13 ICUs in France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain. Surveillance cultures for MRSA from nose and wounds were obtained on admission and twice weekly from all patients admitted to an ICU for ≥3 days. The first MRSA isolate per patient was genotyped in a central laboratory by MLST, spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec (sub)typing. Risk factors for patients with an unknown history of MRSA colonization were identified. Overall, 14 390 ICU patients were screened, of whom 8519 stayed in an ICU for ≥3 days. Overall MRSA admission prevalence was 3.9% and ranged from 1.0% to 7.0% for individual ICUs. Overall MRSA acquisition rate was 2.5/1000 patient days at risk and ranged from 0.2 to 8/1000 patient days at risk per ICU. In total, 557 putative MRSA isolates were submitted to the central laboratory for typing, of which 511 (92%) were confirmed as MRSA. Each country had a distinct epidemiology, with ST8-IVc (UK-EMRSA-2/-6, USA500) being most prevalent, especially in France and Spain, and detected in ICUs in five of eight countries. Seventeen (3%) and three (<1%) isolates were categorized as CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA, respectively. Risk factors for MRSA carriage on ICU admission were age >70 years and hospitalization within 1 year prior to ICU admission. The molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 European ICUs in eight countries was homogeneous within, but heterogeneous between, countries. CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA genotypes and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing isolates were detected sporadically. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Agricultural resources investigations in northern Italy and southern France (Agreste Project)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The vegetation structure of rice was investigated and interpreted in dynamic terms as a significant factor governing the distribution of solar energy thoughout the canopy and therefore conditions the final yield. Radiometric characteristics of rice culture were described for various stages of development in relation to the vegetation structure in an attempt to establish correlations between data of total biomass and of grain yield. Qualitative classification results were encouraging although the discrimination achieved was far from complete.

  4. Newspaper Coverage of Women's Sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-01-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly under-reported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French,…

  5. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... conditions or business cycle for the Domestic Like Product that have occurred in the United States or in the... of business proprietary information (BPI) under an administrative protective order (APO) and APO... to This Notice of Institution: If you are a domestic producer, union/worker group, or trade/business...

  6. AGRESTE project: Agricultural resources investigations in northern Italy and southern France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, A. (Principal Investigator); Flouzat, G.; Deparatesi, S. G.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Recognition of rice varieties at the flowering stage by using airborne scanner data at low altitude (1500 m) seems to be feasible. The accuracies obtained on a reduced test area (3 sq km) range from 65% to 83%. Variations of a single cultural factor, such as nitrogen fertilization, induce variations of the total rice biomass at harvest, which can be correlated closely to the values of the reflectance ratio at earing. When grain production is correlated to total biomass, prediction of yield can be achieved based on reflectance data measured two months before harvest.

  7. ISS Phase One Activities and Manufacturing in Russia, France and Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-07

    S96-17447 (October 1996) --- Astronaut William M. Shepherd, Expedition One commander, works out in a gymnasium at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Russia. The crew has been in training for the mission since late 1996 with training segments held in both the United States and Russia.

  8. ISS Phase One Activities and Manufacturing in Russia, France and Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-07

    S96-17384 (October 1996) --- Astronaut William M. Shepherd, Expedition One commander, works out in a gymnasium at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Russia. The crew has been in training for the mission since late 1996 with training segments held in both the United States and Russia.

  9. Quantifying the Eocene to Pleistocene topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps, France and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauquette, Séverine; Bernet, Matthias; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Grosjean, Anne-Sabine; Guillot, Stéphane; van der Beek, Peter; Jourdan, Sébastien; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Bertini, Adele; Pittet, Bernard; Tricart, Pierre; Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Zheng, Zhuo; Roche, Emile; Pavia, Giulio; Gardien, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    We evaluate the topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps using Eocene to Pleistocene pollen data combined with existing sedimentological, petrographic and detrital geo- and thermochronological data. We report 32 new pollen analyses from 10 sites completed by an existing dataset of 83 samples from 14 localities situated across the southwestern Alps, including both the pro- and the retro-foreland basins. The presence of microthermic tree pollen (mainly Abies, Picea) indicates that this part of the mountain belt attained elevations over 1900 m as early as the Oligocene. Inferred rapid surface uplift during the mid-Oligocene coincided with a previously documented brief phase of rapid erosional exhumation, when maximum erosion rates may have reached values of up to 1.5-2 km/Myr. Slower long-term average exhumation rates of ∼0.3 km/Myr since the Late Oligocene helped maintaining the high Alpine topography of the southwestern Alps until today. The relative abundances of meso-microthermic tree pollen (Cathaya, Cedrus and Tsuga) and microthermic tree pollen (Abies, Picea) in the pro- and retro-foreland basin deposits, indicate that the present-day asymmetric topography, with a relatively gentle western flank and steeper eastern flank, was established early in the southwestern Alps, at least since the Early Miocene, and possibly since the Oligocene or Late Eocene. Therefore, the high topography and asymmetric morphology of this part of the Alps has been maintained throughout the past ∼30 Ma.

  10. 77 FR 33159 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... procedures including the examination of relevant sales and financial records and the selection and review of... instant reviews, we have reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that sales by all of the above companies... respondent's sales of a given product during the period of review were at prices less than the COP, we...

  11. LOW-BACK PAIN DISORDERS AS OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND 22 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES: COMPARISON OF NATIONAL SYSTEMS, RELATED DIAGNOSES AND EVALUATION CRITERIA.

    PubMed

    Laštovková, Andrea; Nakládalová, Marie; Fenclová, Zdenka; Urban, Pavel; Gad'ourek, Petr; Lebeda, Tomáš; Ehler, Edvard; Ridzoň, Petr; Hlávková, Jana; Boriková, Alena; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Bátora, Igor; Scholz-Odermatt, Stefan M; Moldovan, Horatiu; Godderis, Lode; Leijon, Ola; Campo, Giuseppe; Vaněčková, Manuela; Bonneterre, Vincent; Stikova, Elisaveta Jasna; Pelclová, Daniela

    2015-09-01

    Low-back pain diseases (LBPD) belong to the most frequent diagnoses determined by general practitioners, and constitute one of the most common reasons for sick leave and permanent disability pension in the Czech Republic and other European countries. Epidemiological studies have shown a statistically significant association between LBPD and certain types of occupational burden. However, in the Czech Republic, LBPD caused by overload and/or whole-body vibrations have not yet been included in the list of occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to collect and compare the systems, criteria and diagnoses used to recognize LBPD as occupational diseases in other European countries. A questionnaire focused on LBPD was distributed and answered by specialists in occupational diseases in European countries. It included items concerning LBPD in the national list of occupational diseases, and work-related and diagnostic criteria that need to be fulfilled for recognizing LBPD as occupational diseases and possible awarding compensations to the patients. In 13 countries out of the 23 countries studied, LBPD caused by overload can be recognized as occupational, providing that the diagnosis is sufficiently proven and exposure criteria and/or listed occupation are met and duration of exposure is confirmed (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, and Switzerland). LBPD due to vibrations can be also recognized as occupational in 14 countries. In 8 countries LBPD are not accepted as occupational unless they are caused by an injury at work. Specific criteria to evaluate occupational exposure of patients with LBPD were set in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, and Slovakia. In other countries, the evaluation is done at an individual basis. In practice, the assessment of occupational overload and its contribution to the development of LBPD as well as its inclusion in the

  12. Periodicities of hail precipitation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Hierro, Rodrigo; Wu, Xueke; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The wavelet analysis is a powerful tool appropriated for studying multiscale and non-stationary processes that occur in finite spatial and temporal domains. Its development began with Morlet and, since then, the wavelet transform (WT) has had better applications in Geophysics. However, the characterization of hail precipitation is not exempt from difficulty, since it deals with phenomenon on a small scale, with elevated spatial and temporal variation. The extreme variability of the frequency and distribution of hail is attributed, among other things, to the same process of its formation. The conditions that influence hail formation span from air masses climatology to lower-scale factors such as orography, wind fields, concentration of ice nuclei or temperature. This last factor is important both from a point of view of convective activity as well as its influence in the height of the freezing point. Thus, it would be possible to do comparative analysis between time series of temperature and diverse hail variables; or, rather, to try to establish a relationship between periodicities found and phenomenon such as ENSO (El Niño, Southern Oscillation) or NAO (North-Atlantic Oscillation). France is one of the European countries that is most affected by hail precipitation. Previous climatic studies have been done with the objective of characterizing the long-term variability of distinct variables of this hydrometeor that is present in the time series. These measurements are obtained using networks of hailpads distributed in French territory and managed by ANELFA. Berthet et al. (2011) observed the annual hail frequency in France, finding successions of three years with high values followed by three years of low values; this being calculated as the number of hailfalls per year divided by the number of hailpad stations that were in use during said year. In the present paper, a wavelet analysis was carried out with the objective of detecting the possible existence of

  13. The Role of Universities in Supporting Local Agroindustry: The Case of the Piceno District in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavoletti, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of universities in supporting local agroindustry using the case of the Piceno agroindustrial district in Italy. Emerging countries' comparative advantages, made stronger by increased international trade and the rediscovery of local traditions and typicality, do not signify that there will be a less knowledge-intensive…

  14. Teachers' Guidance, Family Participation and Track Choice: The Educational Disadvantage of Immigrant Students in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Romito, Marco; Cavallo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In Italy, as in other European countries, students of foreign origin are over-represented in the vocational school tracks, with relevant consequences on their limited chances of attaining a university degree. While research has long underlined the weight that a family's social, cultural and economic capital has on a child's school performance,…

  15. Structural Support, Networking and Individual Survival: Career Changes in Italy and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasch, Antje; Merrill, Barbara; Zanazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Southern European countries, like Italy and Spain, have been severely affected by the recent economic crisis. This has affected their labour market in terms of increased unemployment, while many of those in employment feel more insecure. As a consequence, many individuals turn to education as a step to making a career change. The opportunities and…

  16. Southern-European Signposts for Critical Popular Adult Education: Italy, Portugal and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula; Lucio-Villegas, Emilio; Mayo, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on three Southern European countries, Italy, Portugal and Spain, to explore examples of projects that provide signposts for a critical popular education that contributes to an ongoing democratic process--one whereby citizens are developed as social actors and members of a collectivity rather than simply passive…

  17. Modern Languages and Interculturality in the Primary Sector in England, Greece, Italy and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezal, Fernando

    1997-01-01

    Addresses concerns and issues regarding modern language teaching and learning at primary schools in Greece, Italy, Spain, and England. It focuses on the optimal age for learning and acquiring languages and to the educational reforms which have been undertaken in each country relating to early modern language teaching and learning and…

  18. Recent Personnel Reforms of Public Universities in China and in Italy: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Sha

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of the present research is an investigation of the most recent personnel reforms of higher education institutions in China and in Italy. A one-to-one comparison between the two realities would have been unrealistic, given the enormous differences between the two Countries in size and historical development. We focused our analysis on some…

  19. Arsenic: geochemical distribution and health risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzolo, Daniela; Cicchella, Domenico; Albanese, Stefano; Catani, Vittorio; Dinelli, Enrico; Lima, Annamaria; Valera, Paolo; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of risks to human health is determinant for risk management and population surveillance. This study represent the first work at national scale for Italy about arsenic occurrence, distribution and health impact. We analyzed the As geochemical distribution in different environmental matrices on the whole Italian territory, and assessed both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for different exposure routes and age groups. The results demonstrate that, in Italy, arsenic is present in significant concentrations both in water (up to 27.2 µg/L) and soils (up to 70 mg/kg). Its presence is mainly controlled by geological processes and locally reflects the industrial history of the Country. The population of the Central Italy, where high content of arsenic in the analyzed samples is due to the presence of alkaline volcanics, are the most exposed to the health risk. Based on the results of our work, it is clear that the consumption of tap water for potable use is the most impactful route for As daily exposure and play an important role in governing potential cancer and non-cancer risks for the considered population. It is interesting to observe that the Incremental Life Cancer Risk through water ingestion show that almost 80% of data falls above the internationally accepted benchmark value of 1 x 10-5. Moreover it was demonstrated that childhood is the most susceptible age stage to As exposure. Geochemical mapping provided a useful tool to spatially analyze and represent data and to highlight the most critic areas and the most exposed population to arsenic at national scale. In conclusion, this study improve knowledge about As occurrence for an entire Country, recognizing an health emerging problem. It might be a good starting point to support the urgently needed policy actions, in order to prevent and reduce the health risk. Moreover, the performed method in this case study research is potentially generalizable and applicable in other countries.

  20. Patterns of alcohol consumption in middle-aged men from France and Northern Ireland. The PRIME study.

    PubMed

    Marques-Vidal, P; Arveiler, D; Evans, A; Montaye, M; Bingham, A; Ruidavets, J B; McMaster, D; Haas, B; Amouyel, P; Ducimetière, P

    2000-04-01

    To assess the patterns of alcohol consumption in France and Northern Ireland. Four cross-sectional studies. Sample of 50-59 y old men living in France and Northern Ireland, consuming at least one unit of alcoholic beverage per week. 5363 subjects from France and 1367 from Northern Ireland. None. Consumption of wine was higher in France whereas consumption of beer and spirits was higher in Northern Ireland. Alcohol drinking was rather homogeneous throughout the week in France, whereas Fridays and Saturdays accounted for 60% of total alcohol consumption in Northern Ireland. In both countries, current smokers had a higher consumption of all types of alcoholic beverages than non-smokers. Similarly, obese and hypertensive subjects had a higher total alcohol consumption than non-obese or normotensive subjects, but the type of alcoholic beverages differed between countries. In Northern Ireland, subjects which reported some physical activity consumed significantly less alcoholic beverages than sedentary subjects, whereas no differences were found in France. Conversely, subjects with dyslipidemia consumed more alcoholic beverages than normolipidemic subjects in France, whereas no differences were found in Northern Ireland. In France, total alcohol, wine and beer consumption was negatively related to socioeconomic status and educational level. In Northern Ireland, total alcohol, beer and spirits consumption was negatively related whereas wine consumption was positively related to socioeconomic status and educational level. Alcohol drinking patterns differ between France and Northern Ireland, and also according to cardiovascular risk factors, socioeconomic and educational levels. Merck, Sharp & Dohme-Chibret (France), the NICHSA and the Department of Health and Social Service (Northern Ireland).

  1. Vocational Education and Training in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, Jean-Pierre

    This monograph gives an overview of the vocational education and training system in France. It contains the following information: (1) a presentation of the administrative, demographic, and economic background in which the training system in France exists; (2) a brief historical review of the development of the training systems; (3) a presentation…

  2. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France... U.S.C. 1675d(c)) (the Act), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on sorbitol from France... views of the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4164 (June 2010), entitled Sorbitol from...

  3. From Equivalence to Transparency of Vocational Diplomas: The Case of France and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine

    2000-01-01

    The decision to establish equivalencies between vocational training diplomas in France and Germany is a legal act subject to publication in the official gazettes of both countries. The procedure for establishing the equivalence and forms of implementation is defined in arrangements adopted by the committee of Franco-German experts in application…

  4. Pathways Fostering Mobility to Higher Education for Vulnerable Immigrants in France, Switzerland and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Jake; Guégnard, Christine; Koomen, Maarten; Imdorf, Christian; Kamanzi, Canisius; Meyer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wish to clarify not only if, but also how--through which institutional settings--higher education (HE) is accessed by students from vulnerable immigrant groups in France, Switzerland and Canada. We are interested in the possible educational mobility that immigrant youths can experience arising from country-specific educational…

  5. The Evolution of Minehunting in France (L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-13

    The Necessity of Minehunting in France And why are the French , Ohl such a small number of experts, interested in minehunting? The coasts of France are...AD-A132 532 THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE IL’EVOLUTION DE I/1 LA CHASSE AUX MINES EN FRANCE )(U) NAVAL INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT CENTER WASHINGTON...MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE AUTHOR: DE DREZIGUE TRANSLATEO gY: LCDR ROBERT AUGELLI, USNR-R NISC TRANSLATION UNIT 0166 eei o DTIC MI’S OR&I DfIC T ELECTE Ja~tinoati

  6. Similar and yet so different: cash-for-care in six European countries' long-term care policies.

    PubMed

    Da Roit, Barbara; Le Bihan, Blanche

    2010-09-01

    In response to increasing care needs, the reform or development of long-term care (LTC) systems has become a prominent policy issue in all European countries. Cash-for-care schemes-allowances instead of services provided to dependents-represent a key policy aimed at ensuring choice, fostering family care, developing care markets, and containing costs. A detailed analysis of policy documents and regulations, together with a systematic review of existing studies, was used to investigate the differences among six European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden). The rationale and evolution of their various cash-for-care schemes within the framework of their LTC systems also were explored. While most of the literature present cash-for-care schemes as a common trend in the reforms that began in the 1990s and often treat them separately from the overarching LTC policies, this article argues that the policy context, timing, and specific regulation of the new schemes have created different visions of care and care work that in turn have given rise to distinct LTC configurations. A new typology of long-term care configurations is proposed based on the inclusiveness of the system, the role of cash-for-care schemes and their specific regulations, as well as the views of informal care and the care work that they require. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  7. Psychosocial work environment and intention to leave the nursing profession: a cross-national prospective study of eight countries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Shang, Li; Galatsch, Michael; Siegrist, Johannes; Miüller, Bernd Hans; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2013-01-01

    Many countries throughout the world are facing a serious nursing shortage, and retention of nurses also is a challenge. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive contribution of a broad spectrum of psychosocial work factors, including job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and alternative employment opportunity, to the probability of intention to leave the nursing profession. A total of 7,990 registered female nurses working in hospitals in eight countries (Germany, Italy, France, The Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, Slovakia, and China) were included in the one-year prospective study. A standardized questionnaire on job strain, effort-reward imbalance, employment opportunity, and intention to leave the nursing profession was used in the survey. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that an imbalance between high effort and low reward (in particular, poor promotion prospects) and good employment opportunity at baseline were independently associated with a new intention to leave the nursing profession at follow-up. However, job strain appeared to have relatively less explanatory power. Findings suggest that interventions to improve the psychosocial work environment, especially the reciprocity experienced between effort and reward, may be effective in improving retention of nurses and tackling the international nursing shortage.

  8. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  9. Vatican beats Italy 1-0 in the tobacco endgame.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Gorini, Giuseppe; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2018-04-25

    'The Holy See cannot be cooperating with a practice that is clearly harming the health of people'. This is the reason behind Pope Francis banning the sale of tobacco products inside the Vatican in January 2018. Just outside the Holy See, in Italy, cigarette sales produce around €13 billion of fiscal revenues every year. In Italy, proposals to increase tobacco taxation are systematically rejected and new tobacco company plants have been officially inaugurated in recent years by representatives of State. The national branch of the Red Cross also shows ambivalent attitudes towards the tobacco industry, from which it has accepted significant funding in disregard of the recommendations of the International Federation of Red Cross. Against this backdrop, it is wishful thinking to imagine that tobacco sales and consumption in Italy will be substantially reduced in the near future. To counteract this situation, more than 30 Italian scientific associations/organisations launched a Manifesto, so far ignored by public authorities, indicating a set of measures whose gradual implementation at country level may lead to a tobacco endgame within the next few decades. Authors of this article would like to express their support for Pope Francis' enlightened decision and plead with politicians worldwide to follow his example, thus acting more decisively against tobacco. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. A study of personal income distributions in Australia and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor

    2006-03-01

    The study of income distribution has a long history. A century ago, the Italian physicist and economist Pareto proposed that income distribution obeys a universal power law, valid for all time and countries. Subsequent studies proved that only the top 1-3% of the population follow a power law. For USA, the rest 97-99% of the population follow the exponential distribution [1]. We present the results of a similar study for Australia and Italy. [1] A. C. Silva and V. M. Yakovenko, Europhys. Lett.69, 304 (2005).

  11. Economic impact of a triptan Rx-to-OTC switch in six EU countries.

    PubMed

    Millier, Aurelie; Cohen, Joshua; Toumi, Mondher

    2013-01-01

    Triptans have been safely and effectively used in the management of migraine for more than fifteen years, and it seems reasonable to wonder what would be the economic impact of moving a specific triptan to OTC availability. The objective of this study was then to examine the economic impact of payer policies of a triptan Rx-to-OTC switch in six EU countries (France, UK, Spain, Italy, Germany and Poland). A decision model was used to model the budgetary impact of a triptan Rx-to-OTC switch from the third-party payer (TPP) and the societal perspectives, using a one-year timeframe. From the TPP perspective, it is estimated that the current overall direct spending on the management of migraine attacks across the 6 EU Member States is €582 million annually, and that the savings would reach €75 million (13% of the overall direct economic burden of migraine). From the societal perspective, €86 million annually would be added. Given evidence of effectiveness and safety, and given the potential savings, a triptan Rx-to-OTC switch is a reasonable public policy decision.

  12. Inequalities in health by social class dimensions in European countries of different political traditions.

    PubMed

    Espelt, Albert; Borrell, Carme; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Muntaner, Carles; Pasarín, M Isabel; Benach, Joan; Schaap, Maartje; Kunst, Anton E; Navarro, Vicente

    2008-10-01

    To compare inequalities in self-perceived health in the population older than 50 years, in 2004, using Wright's social class dimensions, in nine European countries grouped in three political traditions (Social democracy, Christian democracy and Late democracies). Cross-sectional design, including data of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (Sweden, Denmark, Austria, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Greece). The population aged from 50 to 74 years was included. Absolute and relative social class dimension inequalities in poor self-reported health and long-term illness were determined for each sex and political tradition. Relative inequalities were assessed by fitting Poisson regression models with robust variance estimators. Absolute and relative health inequalities by social class dimensions are found in the three political traditions, but these differences are more marked in Late democracies and mainly among women. For example the prevalence ratio of poor self-perceived health comparing poorly educated women with highly educated women, was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.39-2.21) in Late democracies and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.21-1.52) in Social democracies. The prevalence differences were 24.2 and 13.7%, respectively. This study is one of the first to show the impact of different political traditions on social class inequalities in health. These results emphasize the need to evaluate the impact of the implementation of public policies.

  13. History of Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation, With Special Emphasis on German-Speaking Countries.

    PubMed

    Margreiter, R

    2016-10-01

    The first experimental lung transplants were performed in 1947 by the Russian surgeon V.P. Demikhov. Thereafter, various aspects associated with lung transplantation were studied by groups from Italy, France, and mainly the United States. The first clinical lung transplant took place in Jackson, Mississippi, in 1963 and was performed by D. Hardy. Until 1983, a total of 45 lung transplants were carried out at various centers, but only one patient transplanted in Ghent by F. Derom in 1968 survived for 10 months, whereas all other patients survived only hours to a few days. In 1983 at Toronto General Hospital, a single-lung transplant was performed that survived almost 7 years. From the same institution, the first long-term survivor after double-lung transplantation was reported in 1986. The first lobar transplant from a live donor was performed by V.A. Starnes at Stanford in 1990. The first heart-lung transplantation was performed in Houston by D.A. Cooley in 1968. Even though the girl who received this transplant survived only for 14 hours, this case showed that this kind of procedure can work. The first long-term survival was achieved by B. Reitz in 1981 in Stanford. In the German-speaking countries, successful lung and lung-heart transplants were reported between 1984 and 1993 and are described in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Forest fires in Mediterranean countries: CO2 emissions and mitigation possibilities through prescribed burning.

    PubMed

    Vilén, Terhi; Fernandes, Paulo M

    2011-09-01

    Forest fires are an integral part of the ecology of the Mediterranean Basin; however, fire incidence has increased dramatically during the past decades and fire is expected to become more prevalent in the future due to climate change. Fuel modification by prescribed burning reduces the spread and intensity potential of subsequent wildfires. We used the most recently published data to calculate the average annual wildfire CO(2) emissions in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain following the IPCC guidelines. The effect of prescribed burning on emissions was calculated for four scenarios of prescribed burning effectiveness based on data from Portugal. Results show that prescribed burning could have a considerable effect on the carbon balance of the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector in Mediterranean countries. However, uncertainty in emission estimates remains large, and more accurate data is needed, especially regarding fuel load and fuel consumption in different vegetation types and fuel layers and the total area protected from wildfire per unit area treated by prescribed burning, i.e. the leverage of prescribed burning.

  15. Echinococcosis/hydatidosis: a severe threat in Mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Dakkak, A

    2010-11-24

    Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Both cystic hydatidosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by E. multilocularis have been reported in several countries of the Mediterranean region (MR). E. granulosus has always been present in the MR and is the most common species. This parasite depends on the dog-sheep cycle and is actively transmitted in all pastoral regions where sheep, cattle and camelids predominate. E. multilocularis occurs only sporadically in limited areas of France, Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey, Tunisia and Morocco. However recent evidence indicates that it is spreading into other regions of the Mediterranean. Due to the lack of well-documented data, and to the fact that CE is not a notifiable disease in the majority of M countries, the precise incidence and prevalence of CE in humans and animals are not known. Published data suggests that prevalence is rather high in North Africa, Turkey, Greece, and in several regions of Italy and Spain. CE is an increasing public health and socio-economic concern due to the considerable morbidity rates that give rise to high economic losses both in the public health sector and in the livestock industry. Hospitalisation for human CE lasts from 2 weeks to more than 1 month in case of surgery. A number of factors contribute to the increase of prevalence and to the spreading of CE in the MR. These include the diversity of livestock production systems (predominantly extensive, traditional animal husbandry), small, ill-equipped and unsupervised slaughter-houses, illegal and family slaughtering, low public awareness of hydatid diseases, and the high population of stray dogs. Cyprus is the only country where an eradication programme has been successfully implemented. There have been, however, important developments in the last decade in CE epidemiology, in the diagnosis of canine infection, in strain characterisation

  16. France: Nukes Stuck between NATO and EU

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    answer to the original question of whether or not Italy would want Paris providing regional deterrence is “No.” Italy would rather eradicate nuclear...financial affairs, defense, and, specifically, it has signified that Paris would offer regional nuclear deterrence for Europe. On the one hand, such...wanted to play a decisive role within European politics, financial affairs, defense, and, specifically, it has signified that Paris would offer

  17. Forensic mental health assessment in France: recommendations for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Combalbert, Nicolas; Andronikof, Anne; Armand, Marine; Robin, Cécile; Bazex, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The quality of forensic mental health assessment has been a growing concern in various countries on both sides of the Atlantic, but the legal systems are not always comparable and some aspects of forensic assessment are specific to a given country. This paper describes the legal context of forensic psychological assessment in France (i.e. pre-trial investigation phase entrusted to a judge, with mental health assessment performed by preselected professionals called "experts" in French), its advantages and its pitfalls. Forensic psychiatric or psychological assessment is often an essential and decisive element in criminal cases, but since a judiciary scandal which was made public in 2005 (the Outreau case) there has been increasing criticism from the public and the legal profession regarding the reliability of clinical conclusions. Several academic studies and a parliamentary report have highlighted various faulty aspects in both the judiciary process and the mental health assessments. The heterogeneity of expert practices in France appears to be mainly related to a lack of consensus on several core notions such as mental health diagnosis or assessment methods, poor working conditions, lack of specialized training, and insufficient familiarity with the Code of Ethics. In this article we describe and analyze the French practice of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists in criminal cases and propose steps that could be taken to improve its quality, such as setting up specialized training courses, enforcing the Code of Ethics for psychologists, and calling for consensus on diagnostic and assessment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioactive waste management in France and international cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Marque, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Long-term industrial management of radioactive waste in France is carried out by the Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs. (ANDRA), which is a public body responsible mainly for siting, design, construction, and operation of the disposal facilities for every kind of radioactive waste produced in the country. Furthermore, ANDRA has to define and control the required quality of waste packages delivered for disposal. As far as disposal is concerned, it is customary in France to classify waste in two main categories. The first category includes all the so-called short-lived low-level waste (LLW) containing mainly radioactive substances have countries seem to be similar. International cooperation is already a matter of fact within the framework of international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Commission of European Communities.« less

  19. USA-France: Confronting two perspectives on shale gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, C.; Fellous, J.

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting shale gas and oil can be seen from very different perspectives, whether you live in the US where it is a decade long reality shaping the country's energy landscape or in France, where it is banned by law since 2011. Beyond this situation, the overall legal framework that regulates (or not) environmental and water protection, the use of chemicals, land ownership and the exploitation of underground mineral resources, the attribution of licenses for exploration and exploitation, etc. in Europe (and particularly in France, the only European country with Bulgaria where hydraulic fracturation is strictly forbidden) and in the US is at complete variance. This presentation will discuss subsequent attitudes vis-à-vis exploration, exploitation, scientific research on shale gas and fracking, and public activism that has arisen as a result of environmental, socioeconomic and human concerns. It will compare and contrast the different views and look at lessons that can be learned from those differences. This work is building upon the experience of the authors who have studied the issues relating to energy, water, population and climate and their connections, as seen from both sides of the Atlantic.

  20. Earthquake Forecasting System in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, G.; Marzocchi, W.; Murru, M.; Taroni, M.; Faenza, L.

    2017-12-01

    In Italy, after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, a procedure was developed for gathering and disseminating authoritative information about the time dependence of seismic hazard to help communities prepare for a potentially destructive earthquake. The most striking time dependency of the earthquake occurrence process is the time clustering, which is particularly pronounced in time windows of days and weeks. The Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF) system that is developed at the Seismic Hazard Center (Centro di Pericolosità Sismica, CPS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is the authoritative source of seismic hazard information for Italian Civil Protection. The philosophy of the system rests on a few basic concepts: transparency, reproducibility, and testability. In particular, the transparent, reproducible, and testable earthquake forecasting system developed at CPS is based on ensemble modeling and on a rigorous testing phase. Such phase is carried out according to the guidance proposed by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP, international infrastructure aimed at evaluating quantitatively earthquake prediction and forecast models through purely prospective and reproducible experiments). In the OEF system, the two most popular short-term models were used: the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequences (ETAS) and the Short-Term Earthquake Probabilities (STEP). Here, we report the results from OEF's 24hour earthquake forecasting during the main phases of the 2016-2017 sequence occurred in Central Apennines (Italy).

  1. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  2. France 2017 welcomes the 11th International Earth Science Olympiad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenguer, Jean Luc

    2017-04-01

    The International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO) is the latest of the great scientific olympics. It offers high-school students from all around the world the possibility of participating in a competition in a different country every year. About 30 countries took part in the last edition of IESO in Japan. France has participated in this event for the past four years with a certain amount of success, with many students winning medals. In 2017, the IESO will take place in France for the first time in the technopole of Sophia- Antipolis, under the watchful eyes and responsibility of the " Université Côte d'Azur ". The IESO typically lasts for about a week. Each country sends a maximum of four student participants, accompanied by two mentors. Guest students and observers may also form part of the national team. Outer space, atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere… The Olympiad programme highlights the cross-curricular dimensions of geoscience, mainly in English. The candidates participate in a written test in every focus area of the programme as well as in several practical tests. A last activity brings candidates of different nationalities together for team fieldwork, followed by an oral presentation of their findings. The IESO is the perfect opportunity for young people to discover the culture of the host country. With this in mind, the agenda includes trips to cultural or natural sites of interest, and festive events. The participants would also get a flavour of their peers' cultures. The spirit of this competition is to promote discussion and exchange to find collective solutions to the planet's problems.

  3. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... standing water appear in blue or purple-blue hues, because sun glitter (an ensemble of specular reflection points, see below) causes ... to look brighter to a camera that is pointing toward the Sun. The purple-blue areas indicate the extensive irrigation network that ...

  4. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  5. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  6. Fertilizer consumption trend in developing countries vs. developed countries.

    PubMed

    Motesharezadeh, Babak; Etesami, Hassan; Bagheri-Novair, Sepideh; Amirmokri, Hormoz

    2017-03-01

    The study of the chemical fertilizer consumption in different countries provides basal data for the decision-making of fertilizer production and for the environmental impact assessment of fertilizer application. Hence, the aim of this research was to study and compare the trend of the chemical fertilizer consumption from 1980 to 2012 in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA. For this purpose, various indices such as application rates (kg ha -1 ) of N, P, and K, arable land, and total fertilizer consumption were analysed. Results showed that the application rates of nutrients (N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O) in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA in 2012 were 100-42-7, 100-42-7, 100-94-60, 100-17-25, 100-13-38, and 100-33-35, respectively. The lowest and highest area under production were observed in Japan with 4.0 million ha (0.033 ha/person) and in the USA with 155.0 million ha (0.51 ha/person) during 2008-2015, respectively. In addition, the highest and lowest application rates of net nutrient consumption were recorded in France and Germany (285 and 285 kg ha -1 ) and in Iran (66 kg ha -1 ), respectively. Overall, the average net consumption of fertilizers in the studied countries in three recent decades (million tonnes) decreased in the order: the USA (19.282) > France (4.601) > Germany (3.302) > Turkey (1.825) > Japan (1.604) > Iran (1.130). Regarding an estimated 9.2 billion people by 2050, the balanced consumption of nutrients (N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O) and the principles of optimal consumption of fertilizers are keys for achieving the increased food production, food security, and environmental conservation.

  7. Insomnia in long-term care facilities: a comparison of seven European countries and Israel: the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care study.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Jacob; Shochat, Tamar; Chetrit, Angela; Epstein, Shulamit; Ben Israel, Yehoshua; Levi, Sarah; Onder, Graziano; Carpenter, Ian; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; van Hout, Hein; Henrard, Jean-Claude; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Topinkova, Eva; Fialová, Daniela; Bernabei, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    To assess insomnia and its correlates as part of the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care (SHELTER) study, funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. Cross-cultural investigation. Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in eight European countries (Czech Republic, France, Finland, Germany, England, the Netherlands, Italy) and one non-European country (Israel). Elderly residents (N = 4,156) of 57 LTCFs. Information on insomnia, age, sex, activities of daily living (ADLs), cognitive status, depression, major stressful life events, physical activity, fatigue, pain, and sleep medication use was extracted from the International Resident Assessment Instrument (interRAI)LTCF instrument. Rates of insomnia and its correlates were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with insomnia, controlling for demographic variables. The prevalence of insomnia was 24% (range 13-30%), with significant differences between countries (P < .001). More insomnia complaints were reported in older than younger residents (P < .001). Higher rates of insomnia were associated with hypnosedatives and depression in all countries (P < .001) and with stressful life events, fatigue, and pain in most countries (P < .001). No associations were found between insomnia and ADLs, physical activity, or cognitive status. Age, depression, stressful life events, fatigue, pain and hypnosedatives were independent significant predictors of insomnia, controlling for all other variables and for country. Hypnosedatives and depression were strong predictors of insomnia beyond cultural differences. Overall, psychosocial variables were more strongly related to insomnia than functional and mental capacities. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long

  9. "Willing to Pay?" Tax Compliance in Britain and Italy: An Experimental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Andrighetto, Giulia; Ottone, Stefania; Ponzano, Ferruccio; Steinmo, Sven

    2016-01-01

    As shown by the recent crisis, tax evasion poses a significant problem for countries such as Greece, Spain and Italy. While these societies certainly possess weaker fiscal institutions as compared to other EU members, might broader cultural differences between northern and southern Europe also help to explain citizens’ (un)willingness to pay their taxes? To address this question, we conduct laboratory experiments in the UK and Italy, two countries which straddle this North-South divide. Our design allows us to examine citizens’ willingness to contribute to public goods via taxes while holding institutions constant. We report a surprising result: when faced with identical tax institutions, redistribution rules and audit probabilities, Italian participants are significantly more likely to comply than Britons. Overall, our findings cast doubt upon “culturalist” arguments that would attribute cross-country differences in tax compliance to the lack of morality amongst southern European taxpayers. PMID:26919201

  10. "Willing to Pay?" Tax Compliance in Britain and Italy: An Experimental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Andrighetto, Giulia; Ottone, Stefania; Ponzano, Ferruccio; Steinmo, Sven

    2016-01-01

    As shown by the recent crisis, tax evasion poses a significant problem for countries such as Greece, Spain and Italy. While these societies certainly possess weaker fiscal institutions as compared to other EU members, might broader cultural differences between northern and southern Europe also help to explain citizens' (un)willingness to pay their taxes? To address this question, we conduct laboratory experiments in the UK and Italy, two countries which straddle this North-South divide. Our design allows us to examine citizens' willingness to contribute to public goods via taxes while holding institutions constant. We report a surprising result: when faced with identical tax institutions, redistribution rules and audit probabilities, Italian participants are significantly more likely to comply than Britons. Overall, our findings cast doubt upon "culturalist" arguments that would attribute cross-country differences in tax compliance to the lack of morality amongst southern European taxpayers.

  11. Epidemiological situation of measles in Romania, Italy, and Hungary: On what threats should we focus nowadays?

    PubMed

    Orosz, László; Gáspár, Gábor; Rózsa, Ágnes; Rákos, Nóra; Sziveri, Szilárd; Bosnyákovits, Tünde

    2018-02-28

    Although the prevalence of wild-type measles virus infection has decreased by >90% in Europe, the disease is still not eliminated and has even reemerged with recurrent outbreaks in different countries, including Romania and Italy. Minor outbreaks of Romanian origin were reported from Hungary as well. In Romania, an outbreak has been ongoing since February 2016. As of October 2017, 9,670 measles cases and 35 deaths were registered in the country. The three most affected counties are located next to the Hungarian border. In Italy, until the end of August 2017, 4,477 cases were reported to the surveillance system. The outbreak affected most of the Italian administrative regions. Until October 2017, three minor measles outbreaks were also detected in Hungary. All of these outbreaks were derived from Romanian cases. Although in these countries, there are vaccination programs running, the spread of the disease raises the possibility of secondary vaccine failure.

  12. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dana Lofgren (202...

  13. Curriculum Placement and Educational Stratification in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hout, Michael; Garnier, Maurice A.

    1979-01-01

    Maintains that curriculum differentiation in France is the keystone of educational, and, consequently, social stratification. Factors which influence curriculum differentiation include father's occupation, academic performance, parents' expectations, and teachers' expectations. (DB)

  14. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.

    PubMed

    Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2012-06-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations

  15. Third-party reproductive assistance around the Mediterranean: comparing Sunni Egypt, Catholic Italy and multisectarian Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale; Serour, Gamal I

    2010-12-01

    The article examines religious and legal restrictions on third-party reproductive assistance in three Mediterranean countries: Sunni Egypt, Catholic Italy and multisectarian Lebanon. In Egypt, assisted reproduction treatments are permitted, but third parties are banned, as in the rest of the Sunni Islamic world. Italy became similar to Egypt with a 2004 law ending third-party reproductive assistance. In multisectarian Lebanon, however, the Sunni/Catholic ban on third-party reproductive assistance has been lifted, because of Shia rulings emanating from Iran. Today, third-party reproductive assistance is provided in Lebanon to both Muslims and Christians, unlike in neighbouring Egypt and Italy. Such comparisons point to the need for understanding the complex interactions between law, religion, local moralities and reproductive practices for global bioethics. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours. PMID:27247655

  17. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.

  18. Individual Differences in Faculty Research Time Allocations across 13 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Peter James; Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    In research universities, research time is often too scarce to satiate the wishes of all faculty and must be allocated according to guidelines and principles. We examine self-reported research hours for full-time faculty at research universities in 13 countries (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Italy, Malaysia,…

  19. Underreporting of musculoskeletal disorders in 10 regions in France in 2009.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Stéphanie; Penven, Emmanuelle; Cadéac-Birman, Hélène; Roquelaure, Yves; Valenty, Madeleine

    2014-10-01

    Underreporting of occupational diseases (OD) has been quantified, in particular in the United States, but little information is available in other countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate underreporting of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in France in 2009. We calculated an indicator that approximated the underreporting rate of MSD in 10 regions of France. Two databases were used: data on OD compensated by insurance funding and data from the surveillance program for uncompensated work-related diseases. Analyses were performed for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and elbow, shoulder, and lumbar spine MSD. The underreporting rate was estimated at 59% (range 52-64%) for CTS, 73% (range 67-79%) for elbow MSD, 69% (range 63-74%) for shoulder MSD, and 63% (range 50-76%) for lumbar spine MSD. This study revealed that MSD are substantially underreported in France, as in the United States, despite the differences in workers' compensation systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Neonatal end-of-life decision making: Physicians' attitudes and relationship with self-reported practices in 10 European countries.

    PubMed

    Rebagliato, M; Cuttini, M; Broggin, L; Berbik, I; de Vonderweid, U; Hansen, G; Kaminski, M; Kollée, L A; Kucinskas, A; Lenoir, S; Levin, A; Persson, J; Reid, M; Saracci, R

    2000-11-15

    The ethical issues surrounding end-of-life decision making for infants with adverse prognoses are controversial. Little empirical evidence is available on the attitudes and values that underlie such decisions in different countries and cultures. To explore the variability of neonatal physicians' attitudes among 10 European countries and the relationship between such attitudes and self-reported practice of end-of-life decisions. Survey conducted during 1996-1997 in 10 European countries (France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Estonia, Hungary, and Lithuania). A total of 1391 physicians (response rate, 89%) regularly employed in 142 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Scores on an attitude scale, which measured views regarding absolute value of life (score of 0) vs value of quality of life (score of 10); self-report of having ever set limits to intensive neonatal interventions in cases of poor neurological prognosis. Physicians more likely to agree with statements consistent with preserving life at any cost were from Hungary (mean attitude scores, 5.2 [95% confidence interval ¿CI¿, 4.9-5.5]), Estonia (4.9 [95% CI, 4.3-5.5]), Lithuania (5.5 [95% CI, 4.8-6.1]), and Italy (5.7 [95% CI, 5.3-6.0]), while physicians more likely to agree with the idea that quality of life must be taken into account were from the United Kingdom (attitude scores, 7.4 [95% CI, 7.1-7.7]), the Netherlands (7. 3 [95% CI, 7.1-7.5]), and Sweden (6.8 [95% CI, 6.4-7.3]). Other factors associated with having a pro-quality-of-life view were being female, having had no children, being Protestant or having no religious background, considering religion as not important, and working in an NICU with a high number of very low-birth-weight newborns. Physicians with scores reflecting a more quality-of-life view were more likely to report that in their practice, they had set limits to intensive interventions in cases of poor neurological prognosis, with an adjusted odds

  1. NATO-Advances Study Institute, Diamond and Diamond-Like Films and Coatings, Held in Il Ciocco, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Italy on July 22-August 3, 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    Coimbra P-3000 Coimbra, Portugal Phone: FAX: 351-39-29158 Dr. Jean - Jacques Dubray Ccrarnic Science & Engineering Department 217, Steidle Building...Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 10129 Torino, Italy Phone: 39-11-3358240 FAX: 39-11-5567399 Ms. Filomena Pinto DosSantos Physics Department University of...474223 Mr. Jean Mercier IEPES BP 166 38092 Grenoble Cedex, France Phone: 33-76-881183 FAX: 33-76-887988 Dr. Koichi Miyata Kobe Steel Research

  2. Identification and characterization of extraordinary rainstorms in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libertino, Andrea; Ganora, Daniele; Claps, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    Despite its generally mild climate, Italy, as most of the Mediterranean region, is prone to the development of "super-extreme" events with extraordinary rainfall intensities. The main triggering mechanisms of these events is nowadays quite well known, but more research is needed to transform this knowledge in directions to build updated rainstorm hazard maps at the national scale. Moreover, a precise definition of "super-extremes" is still lacking, since the original suggestion of a second specific EV1 component made with the TCEV distribution. The above considerations led us to consider Italy a peculiar and challenging case study, where the geographic and orographic settings, associated with recurring storm-induced disasters, require an updated assessment of the "super-extreme" rainfall hazard at the country scale. Until now, the lack of a unique dataset of rainfall extremes has made the above task difficult to reach. In this work we report the results of the analysis made on a comprehensive and uniform set of rainfall annual maxima, collected from the different authorities in charge, representing the reference dataset of extremes from 1 to 24 hours duration. The database includes more than 6000 measuring points nationwide, spanning the period 1916 - 2014. Our analysis aims at identifying a meaningful population of records deviating from an "ordinary" definition of extreme value distribution, and assessing the stationarity in the timing of these events at the national scale. The first problems that need to be overcome are related to the not uniform distribution of data in time and space. Then the evaluation of meaningful relative thresholds aimed at selecting significant samples for the trend assessment has to be addressed. A first investigation attempt refers to the events exceeding a threshold that identify an average of one occurrence per year all over Italy, i.e. with a 1/1000 overall probability of exceedance. Geographic representation of these "outliers

  3. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    speleogenesis. Geology, 32: 369-372. De Waele J., Audra P., Madonia G., Vattano M., Plan L., D'Angeli I.M., Bigot J.-Y., Nobécourt J.-C., 2016 - Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily. Geomorphology, 253: 452-467. Furlani S., Cucchi F., Odorico R., 2010 - A new method to study micro-topographical changes in the intertidal zone: one year of TMEM measurements on a limestone removable slab (RRS). Z. Geomorph., 54(2): 137-151. Galdenzi S., 1997 - Initial geological observations in caves bordering the Sibari plain (southern Italy). J. Cave Karst Stud., 59: 81-86. Galdenzi S., 2012 - Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications. Int. J. Spel., 41(2): 149-159. Galdenzi S., Menichetti M., 1995 - Occurrence of hypogenic caves in a karst region: examples from central Italy. Environmental Geology, 26: 39-47. Galdenzi S., Cocchioni F., Filipponi G., Selvaggio R., Scuri S., Morichetti L., Cocchioni M., 2010 - The sulfidic thermal caves of Acquasanta Terme (central Italy). J. Cave Karst Stud. 72(1): 43-58. Jones, D.S., Polerecky, L., Galdenzi, S., Dempsey, B.A., Macalady, J.L., 2015 - Fate of sulfide in the Frasassi cave system and implications for sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Chemical Geology, 410: 21-27.

  4. Banking cord blood stem cells: attitude and knowledge of pregnant women in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Katz, Gregory; Mills, Antonia; Garcia, Joan; Hooper, Karen; McGuckin, Colin; Platz, Alexander; Rebulla, Paolo; Salvaterra, Elena; Schmidt, Alexander H; Torrabadella, Marta

    2011-03-01

    This study explores pregnant women's awareness of cord blood stem cells and their attitude regarding banking options in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Questionnaires were distributed in six maternities. This anonymous and self-completed questionnaire included 29 multiple-choice questions based on: 1) sociodemographic factors, 2) awareness and access to information about cord blood banking, 3) banking option preferences, and 4) donating cord blood units (CBUs) to research. A total of 79% of pregnant women had little awareness of cord blood banking (n = 1620). A total of 58% of women had heard of the therapeutic benefits of cord blood, of which 21% received information from midwives and obstetricians. A total of 89% of respondents would opt to store CBUs. Among them, 76% would choose to donate CBUs to a public bank to benefit any patient in need of a cord blood transplant. Twelve percent would choose a mixed bank, and 12%, a private bank. A total of 92% would donate their child's CBU to research when it is not suitable for transplantation. The study reveals a strong preference for public banking in all five countries, based on converging values such as solidarity. Attitudes of pregnant women are not an obstacle to the rapid expansion of allogeneic banking in these EU countries. Banking choices do not appear to be correlated with household income. The extent of commercial marketing of cord blood banks in mass media highlights the importance for obstetric providers to play a central role in raising women's awareness early during their pregnancy with evidence-based medical information about banking options. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. The Cost of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis in 5 European Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Pol, R; Martínez-Sesmero, J M; Ventura-Cerdá, J M; Elías, I; Caloto, M T; Casado, M Á

    2016-09-01

    While the introduction of biologics has improved the quality of life of patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, it may have increased the economic burden of these diseases. To perform a systematic review of studies on the costs associated with managing and treating psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in 5 European countries: Germany, Spain, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We undertook a systematic review of the literature (up to May 2015) using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The methodological quality of the studies identified was evaluated using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist. We considered both direct costs (medical and nonmedical) and indirect costs, adjusted for country-specific inflation and converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity exchange rates for 2015 ($US PPP). The search retrieved 775 studies; 68.3% analyzed psoriasis and 31.7% analyzed psoriatic arthritis. The total annual cost per patient ranged from US $2,077 to US $13,132 PPP for psoriasis and from US $10,924 to US $17,050 PPP for psoriatic arthritis. Direct costs were the largest component of total expenditure in both diseases. The severity of these diseases was associated with higher costs. The introduction of biologics led to a 3-fold to 5-fold increase in direct costs, and consequently to an increase in total costs. We have analyzed the economic burden of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and shown that costs increase with the treatment and management of more severe disease and the use of biologics. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Mortality and economic instability: detailed analyses for Britain and comparative analyses for selected industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M H

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses a first-stage analysis of the link of unemployment rates, as well as other economic, social and environmental health risk factors, to mortality rates in postwar Britain. The results presented represent part of an international study of the impact of economic change on mortality patterns in industrialized countries. The mortality patterns examined include total and infant mortality and (by cause) cardiovascular (total), cerebrovascular and heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and suicide, homicide and motor vehicle accidents. Among the most prominent factors that beneficially influence postwar mortality patterns in England/Wales and Scotland are economic growth and stability and health service availability. A principal detrimental factor to health is a high rate of unemployment. Additional factors that have an adverse influence on mortality rates are cigarette consumption and heavy alcohol use and unusually cold winter temperatures (especially in Scotland). The model of mortality that includes both economic changes and behavioral and environmental risk factors was successfully applied to infant mortality rates in the interwar period. In addition, the "simple" economic change model of mortality (using only economic indicators) was applied to other industrialized countries. In Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Sweden, the simple version of the economic change model could be successfully applied only if the analysis was begun before World War II; for analysis beginning in the postwar era, the more sophisticated economic change model, including behavioral and environmental risk factors, was required. In France, West Germany, Italy, and Spain, by contrast, some success was achieved using the simple economic change model.

  7. [Attractiveness of France for clinical trials: evaluation of laboratories and promoters].

    PubMed

    d'Enfert, Jérôme; Lassale, Catherine; Prod'homme, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Questions have been raised regarding the attractiveness of France versus other countries for performing clinical trials. A questionnaire was sent to pharmaceutical companies with offices in France to assess their level of activity and to get information on the pros and cons of performing phase I-IV international clinical trials in France. Eleven companies, of large to medium size and representing 44% of the shared market returned answers. In 2001, they spent 131 million euros on clinical trials--53% for phase I-III, with a staff of 1469 (not including Contact Research Organisations)--and involved 21,000 investigators recruiting 98,000 patients on local budgets, and 2257 investigators recruiting 10,270 patients on international budgets. France ranked well as regards size of market or resource availability, with an intermediate rank as regards costs, access to patients and disease prevalence, and was weak with regard to speed of recruitment and quality of investigators. Ways of improving France's attractiveness will be discussed.

  8. Socioeconomic Segregation in Large Cities in France and the United States.

    PubMed

    Quillian, Lincoln; Lagrange, Hugues

    2016-08-01

    Past cross-national comparisons of socioeconomic segregation have been undercut by lack of comparability in measures, data, and concepts. Using IRIS data from the French Census of 2008 and the French Ministry of Finance as well as tract data from the American Community Survey (2006-2010) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Picture of Subsidized Households, and constructing measures to be as similar as possible, we compare socioeconomic segregation in metropolitan areas with a population of more than 1 million in France and the United States. We find much higher socioeconomic segregation in large metropolitan areas in the United States than in France. We also find (1) a strong pattern of low-income neighborhoods in central cities and high-income neighborhoods in suburbs in the United States, but varying patterns across metropolitan areas in France; (2) that high-income persons are the most segregated group in both countries; (3) that the shares of neighborhood income differences that can be explained by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition are similar in France and the United States; and (4) that government-assisted housing is disproportionately located in the poorest neighborhoods in the United States but is spread across many neighborhood income levels in France. We conclude that differences in government provision of housing assistance and levels of income inequality are likely important contributing factors to the Franco-U.S. difference in socioeconomic segregation.

  9. Questionnaire-based survey on distribution of canine ocular thelaziosis in southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Mérindol, Isabelle; Ravier, Jean-François; Halos, Lénaïg; Guillot, Jacques

    2018-04-15

    The distribution of Thelazia callipaeda, commonly known as "oriental eyeworm'', has been considered for a long time to be confined to the former soviet Republics and Asia where the nematode causes infections in domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and sometimes humans. However, since 2000, thelaziosis has been diagnosed in dogs and sometimes in cats from a growing number of European countries, including France. In 2006, a survey demonstrated that many autochthonous cases of canine thelaziosis were present in the department of Dordogne (southwestern France) in three hyperenzootic counties where strawberry production was predominant. The objective of the present study was to obtain an updated evaluation of the enzootic occurrence of T. callipaeda in France. In April 2016, an electronic questionnaire was sent to 1670 veterinary clinics from 24 French departments of southwestern France. Among 279 responses, 97 veterinary clinics reported cases of canine thelaziosis during the last 12 months. Most of them (72/97, 74.2%) reported a limited number of cases. Two veterinary clinics in previously-identified hyperenzootic counties of Dordogne reported the higher incidence (50 and 68 new cases annually). Noteworthly, two clinics located in another department (Landes) also reported many autochthonous cases (30 cases annually) demonstrating the existence of new enzootic foci. The present investigation confirmed that Dordogne is still an enzootic area of ocular thelaziosis and that the disease is spreading in new areas of southwestern France since a decade. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Kidney transplantation epidemiology in France].

    PubMed

    Hiesse, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Kidney transplantation activity in France is among the most important worldwide: in 2011, 2976 transplants have been performed (47.5 per million population), and the number of patients living with a functional graft is estimated around 30,000, representing 44.7% of all patients (n = 67,270) treated for end-stage renal failure. However, the rate of preemptive kidney transplants remains very low, only 3.3% of incident patients starting renal replacement therapy. The analysis of demand showed a progressive increase in recent years, as demonstrated by the registration rate on the kidney transplantation waiting list, increasing by 5% yearly between 2006 and 2010, but with huge differences according to age categories and regional registration areas, reflecting discrepant appreciations in indications for kidney transplantation. The median waiting time between registration and transplantation increased progressively in recent years, reaching 22.3 months with considerable variations according to regional areas and transplantation teams. Kidney transplantation activity, while increasing continuously, is far to cover the rising demand, and inexorably patients accumulate on the waiting list (around 9000 patients were registered by January 2012). This situation is the consequence of insufficient organ procurement activity. The deceased organ procurement rate remained high: 1572 harvested donors in 2011 (24.1 per million population), but the proportion of older donors rose in recent years, to reach the rate of 26% of donors older than 65 years in 2011. The procurement activity of donors after cardiac arrest was reintroduced in 2006, but increased slowly: 65 transplants were performed in 2011 using kidney procured in non heart-beating donors. The living donor kidney transplantation activity has markedly increased recently: 302 living donor transplantations were performed in 2011, representing 10.1% of the kidney transplantations. Facing the predictable increase in the number of

  11. [Determinants of the evolution of hospital pharmacy in France and Quebec: Perception of hospital pharmacists].

    PubMed

    Guérin, A; Lebel, D; Marando, N; Prot-Labarthe, S; Bourdon, O; Bussières, J-F

    2014-05-01

    Hospital pharmacy practice has evolved differently between France and Quebec. While this development is part of broader systems, French and Quebec hospitals have undergone significant changes over the years to cope with challenges, among others, the economic and demographic realities. The main objective is to evaluate and compare the perception of French and Quebec hospital pharmacists about the factors that have contributed to the evolution of pharmacy practice in their respective context. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study focuses on a sample of experienced hospital pharmacists in France and Quebec. We targeted a convenience sample of 50 respondents per country. An online questionnaire with 15 pharmaceutical activities to which are connected nine factors that may have influenced the implementation of each of these activities in each country was used. The mean score was calculated for each of the nine factors for each activity. The perception of French and Quebec hospital pharmacists was then compared. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Two hundred and sixty hospital pharmacists were directly contacted in France and 79 in Quebec. Seventy-eight French pharmacists and 77 Quebec pharmacists responded to the survey, that is a respective response rate of 30% and 97%, respectively. The hierarchy of factors that contributed to the evolution of pharmacy practice was similar between the two countries, legislative and regulatory factors as well as the concern for risk management and quality dominate; scientific human, economic factors and training have a relatively similar position. For cons, the news factor (6th in France against the 10th position in Quebec) and the academic factor (10th position in France against the 6th position in Quebec) obtained inverse scores between France and Quebec. There are few data on the determinants of the evolution of hospital pharmacy in France and Quebec. The hierarchy of factors that

  12. Trends in inequalities in premature mortality: a study of 3.2 million deaths in 13 European countries.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Menvielle, Gwenn; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Costa, Giuseppe; Deboosere, Patrick; Esnaola, Santiago; Kalediene, Ramune; Kovacs, Katalin; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Eikemo, Terje A; Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle

    2015-03-01

    Over the last decades of the 20th century, a widening of the gap in death rates between upper and lower socioeconomic groups has been reported for many European countries. For most countries, it is unknown whether this widening has continued into the first decade of the 21st century. We collected and harmonised data on mortality by educational level among men and women aged 30-74 years in all countries with available data: Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England and Wales, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Hungary, Lithuania and Estonia. Relative inequalities in premature mortality increased in most populations in the North, West and East of Europe, but not in the South. This was mostly due to smaller proportional reductions in mortality among the lower than the higher educated, but in the case of Lithuania and Estonia, mortality rose among the lower and declined among the higher educated. Mortality among the lower educated rose in many countries for conditions linked to smoking (lung cancer, women only) and excessive alcohol consumption (liver cirrhosis and external causes). In absolute terms, however, reductions in premature mortality were larger among the lower educated in many countries, mainly due to larger absolute reductions in mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer (men only). Despite rising levels of education, population-attributable fractions of lower education for mortality rose in many countries. Relative inequalities in premature mortality have continued to rise in most European countries, and since the 1990s, the contrast between the South (with smaller inequalities) and the East (with larger inequalities) has become stronger. While the population impact of these inequalities has further increased, there are also some encouraging signs of larger absolute reductions in mortality among the lower educated in many countries. Reducing inequalities in mortality critically depends upon speeding up mortality declines among the lower

  13. National funding for mental health research in Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Gandré, Coralie; Leboyer, Marion; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Belli, Stefano; McDaid, David; Park, A-La; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Wykes, Til; van Os, Jim; Haro, Josep Maria; Chevreul, Karine

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Roamer project, we aimed at revealing the share of health research budgets dedicated to mental health, as well as on the amounts allocated to such research for four European countries. Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom national public and non-profit funding allocated to mental health research in 2011 were investigated using, when possible, bottom-up approaches. Specifics of the data collection varied from country to country. The total amount of public and private not for profit mental health research funding for Finland, France, Spain and the UK was €10·2, €84·8, €16·8, and €127·6 million, respectively. Charities accounted for a quarter of the funding in the UK and less than six per cent elsewhere. The share of health research dedicated to mental health ranged from 4·0% in the UK to 9·7% in Finland. When compared to the DALY attributable to mental disorders, Spain, France, Finland, and the UK invested respectively €12·5, €31·2, €39·5, and €48·7 per DALY. Among these European countries, there is an important gap between the level of mental health research funding and the economic and epidemiologic burden of mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of general practitioners versus mental health professionals in six European countries: the decisive role of the organization of mental health-care systems.

    PubMed

    Dezetter, Anne; Briffault, X; Bruffaerts, R; De Graaf, R; Alonso, J; König, H H; Haro, J M; de Girolamo, G; Vilagut, G; Kovess-Masféty, V

    2013-01-01

    To investigate patterns of use of general practitioners (GPs) and/or mental health professionals (MHPs) for mental health reasons, across six European countries, and the extent to which these patterns of use are associated with differences in mental health-care delivering systems. Data are based on the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD): a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 8,796 non-institutionalized adults from six European countries, conducted between 2001 and 2003 using computer-assisted interviews with the CIDI-3.0. Countries were classified into: MHP- for countries where access to medical professionals tends to predominate (Belgium, France, Italy), and MHP+ where access to non-medical MHPs predominates (Germany, Spain, The Netherlands). Among respondents consulting GPs and/or MHPs in the past year (n = 1,019), respondents from the MHP- group more often consulted GPs (68 vs. 55 % in MHP+ group), GPs and psychiatrists (23 vs. 14 %). People from the MHP+ group more often used MHPs only (45 vs. 32 %), GPs and non-medical MHPs (16 vs. 8 %). GPs from the MHP+ group were more inclined to refer patients to MHPs. Factors associated with use of GPs versus MHPs were: being over 49 years, not highly educated, lower income and suffering from mood or severe mental disorders. Differences in the use of GPs versus MHPs are markedly linked to individual as well as organizational factors. Interventions are needed, in countries fostering medical access, to reimburse sessions with non-medical MHPs and improve cooperation between professionals to obtain better practice in access to care.

  15. A prospective study on the variation in falling and fall risk among community-dwelling older citizens in 12 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Franse, Carmen B; Rietjens, Judith AC; Burdorf, Alex; van Grieken, Amy; Korfage, Ida J; van der Heide, Agnes; Mattace Raso, Francesco; van Beeck, Ed; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The rate of falling among older citizens appears to vary across different countries, but the underlying aspects causing this variation are unexplained. We aim to describe between-country variation in falling and explore whether intrinsic fall risk factors can explain possible variation. Design Prospective study on data from the cross-national Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Setting Twelve European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland). Participants Community-dwelling persons aged ≥65 years (n=18 596). Measurements Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, education level and living situation) and intrinsic fall risk factors (less than good self-rated health (SRH), mobility limitations, limitations with activities of daily living (ADL), dizziness, impaired vision, depression and impaired cognition) were assessed in a baseline interview. Falling was assessed 2 years later by asking whether the participant had fallen within the 6 months prior to the follow-up interview. Results There was significant between-country variation in the rate of falling (varying from 7.9% in Switzerland to 16.2% in the Czech Republic). The prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors varied twofold to fourfold between countries. Associations between factors age ≥80 years, less than good SRH, mobility limitations, ADL limitations, dizziness and depression, and falling were different between countries (p<0.05). Between-country differences in falling largely persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic differences but strongly attenuated after adjusting for differences in intrinsic fall risk factors. Conclusion There is considerable variation in the rate of falling between European countries, which can largely be explained by between-country variation in the prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors. There are also country-specific variations in the

  16. A prospective study on the variation in falling and fall risk among community-dwelling older citizens in 12 European countries.

    PubMed

    Franse, Carmen B; Rietjens, Judith Ac; Burdorf, Alex; van Grieken, Amy; Korfage, Ida J; van der Heide, Agnes; Mattace Raso, Francesco; van Beeck, Ed; Raat, Hein

    2017-06-30

    The rate of falling among older citizens appears to vary across different countries, but the underlying aspects causing this variation are unexplained. We aim to describe between-country variation in falling and explore whether intrinsic fall risk factors can explain possible variation. Prospective study on data from the cross-national Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Twelve European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland). Community-dwelling persons aged ≥65 years (n=18 596). Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, education level and living situation) and intrinsic fall risk factors (less than good self-rated health (SRH), mobility limitations, limitations with activities of daily living (ADL), dizziness, impaired vision, depression and impaired cognition) were assessed in a baseline interview. Falling was assessed 2 years later by asking whether the participant had fallen within the 6 months prior to the follow-up interview. There was significant between-country variation in the rate of falling (varying from 7.9% in Switzerland to 16.2% in the Czech Republic). The prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors varied twofold to fourfold between countries. Associations between factors age ≥80 years, less than good SRH, mobility limitations, ADL limitations, dizziness and depression, and falling were different between countries (p<0.05). Between-country differences in falling largely persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic differences but strongly attenuated after adjusting for differences in intrinsic fall risk factors. There is considerable variation in the rate of falling between European countries, which can largely be explained by between-country variation in the prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors. There are also country-specific variations in the association between these intrinsic risk factors and falling. These findings

  17. Understanding increases in smoking prevalence: case study from France in comparison with England 2000-10.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Ann; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Marteau, Rosie; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-03-01

    In France, following a long-term decline in smoking prevalence, an increase in smoking was observed between 2005 and 2010, an unusual occurrence in countries in the 'mature' stage of the smoking epidemic. By contrast, smoking prevalence in England, the neighbouring country, continued its long-term decline. We identified and translated recent reports on smoking and tobacco control in France and using these assessed the main data sources on smoking and compared them with similar sources in England, in order to explore possible explanations. In France, national smoking prevalence data are collected 5-yearly, minimizing opportunities for fine-grained analysis; the comparable study in England is implemented annually. We identified several probable causes of the recent increased prevalence of smoking in France, the primary one being the absence of sufficient price rises between 2005 and 2010, due probably to the lack of a robust tobacco control strategy, which also appeared to have empowered tobacco industry influence. Funding to compensate tobacconists appears to incentivize tobacco sales and is significantly higher than tobacco control funding. Mindful of the limitations of a case-study approach, the absence of sufficient price rises in the context of a weak tobacco control strategy seems the most likely explanation for the recent increase in smoking prevalence in France. A new cancer control plan and a national smoking reduction programme have been proposed by the French government in 2014 which, depending on implementation, may reverse the trend. In both countries, the higher levels of smoking among the more disadvantaged groups are of great concern and require greater political leadership for effective action. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Medical consumption and costs during a one-year follow-up of patients with LUTS suggestive of BPH in six european countries: report of the TRIUMPH study.

    PubMed

    van Exel, N J A; Koopmanschap, M A; McDonnell, J; Chapple, C R; Berges, R; Rutten, F F H

    2006-01-01

    To determine the medical consumption and associated treatment costs of patients with LUTS suggestive of BPH. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational survey in six European countries: France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom, with a one-year follow-up of incident and prevalent patients. Treatment costs were estimated for 5,057 patients with a mean age of 66 years and a mean IPSS score at inclusion of 11.5. In 30% of patients watchful waiting was the therapy of choice for the full follow-up period, 57% were prescribed alpha-lockers, 11% finasteride and 10% phytotherapy at any moment during the follow-up (including switches and combination of treatment). Surgery rate was 4.9%. Mean one-year treatment costs were 858 per patient, three quarters of which concerned medication costs. Multivariate regression analysis showed that medication choice, complications and undergoing surgery were associated with higher costs. Treatment costs for patients with LUTS suggestive of BPH were moderate and largely consisted of medication costs. Daily practice and associated costs varied considerably across the six countries.

  19. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada.

    PubMed

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having 'some university' was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors.

  20. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Methods Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Results Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having ‘some university’ was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. Conclusions and Implications for Practice While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors. PMID:27902741

  1. Cohort changes in educational disparities in smoking: France, Germany and the United States.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred; Legleye, Stephane; Goffette, Céline; Piontek, Daniela; Kraus, Ludwig; Khlat, Myriam

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the evolution of educational disparities in smoking uptake across cohorts for men and women in three countries. Nationally representative surveys of adults in France, Germany and the United States in 2009-2010 include retrospective measures of age of uptake that are compared for three cohorts (born 1946-1960, 1961-1975, and 1976-1992). Discrete logistic regressions and a relative measure of education are used to model smoking histories until age 34. The following patterns are found: a strengthening of educational disparities in the timing of uptake from older to younger cohorts; an earlier occurrence of the strengthening for men than women and for the United States than France or Germany; a faster pace of the epidemic in France than in the United States, and; a divide between the highest level of education and the others in the United States, as opposed to a gradient across categories in France. Those differences in smoking disparities across cohorts, genders and countries help identify the national and temporal circumstances that shape the size and direction of the relationship between education and health and the need for policies that target educational disparities. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Diverse Approaches to Implement and Monitor River Restoration: A Comparative Perspective in France and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, Bertrand; Kail, Jochem; Toedter, Anne; Wolter, Christian; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    River restoration is a main emphasis of river management in European countries. Cross-national comparisons of its implementation are still rare in scientific literature. Based on French and German national censuses, this study compares river restoration practices and monitoring by analysing 102 French and 270 German projects. This comparison aims to draw a spatial and temporal framework of restoration practices in both countries to identify potential drivers of cross-national similarities and differences. The results underline four major trends: (1) a lag of almost 15 years in river restoration implementation between France and Germany, with a consequently higher share of projects in Germany than in France, (2) substantial similarities in restored reach characteristics, short reach length, small rivers, and in "agricultural" areas, (3) good correspondences between stressors identified and restoration measures implemented. Morphological alterations were the most important highlighted stressors. River morphology enhancement, especially instream enhancements, were the most frequently implemented restoration measures. Some differences exist in specific restoration practices, as river continuity restoration were most frequently implemented in French projects, while large wood introduction or channel re-braiding were most frequently implemented in German projects, and (4) some quantitative and qualitative differences in monitoring practices and a significant lack of project monitoring, especially in Germany compared to France. These similarities and differences between Germany and France in restoration application and monitoring possibly result from a complex set of drivers that might be difficult to untangle (e.g., environmental, technical, political, cultural).

  3. Cohort changes in educational disparities in smoking: France, Germany and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred; Legleye, Stephane; Goffette, Celine; Piontek, Daniela; Kraus, Ludwig; Khlat, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of educational disparities in smoking uptake across cohorts for men and women in three countries. Nationally representative surveys of adults in France, Germany and the United States in 2009–2010 include retrospective measures of age of uptake that are compared for three cohorts (born 1946–1960–1961–1975, and 1976–1992). Discrete logistic regressions and a relative measure of education are used to model smoking histories until age 34. The following patterns are found: a strengthening of educational disparities in the timing of uptake from older to younger cohorts; an earlier occurrence of the strengthening for men than women and for the United States than France or Germany; a faster pace of the epidemic in France than in the United States, and; a divide between the highest level of education and the others in the United States, as opposed to a gradient across categories in France. Those differences in smoking disparities across cohorts, genders and countries help identify the national and temporal circumstances that shape the size and direction of the relationship between education and health and the need for policies that target educational disparities. PMID:25037853

  4. Diverse Approaches to Implement and Monitor River Restoration: A Comparative Perspective in France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Bertrand; Kail, Jochem; Toedter, Anne; Wolter, Christian; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    River restoration is a main emphasis of river management in European countries. Cross-national comparisons of its implementation are still rare in scientific literature. Based on French and German national censuses, this study compares river restoration practices and monitoring by analysing 102 French and 270 German projects. This comparison aims to draw a spatial and temporal framework of restoration practices in both countries to identify potential drivers of cross-national similarities and differences. The results underline four major trends: (1) a lag of almost 15 years in river restoration implementation between France and Germany, with a consequently higher share of projects in Germany than in France, (2) substantial similarities in restored reach characteristics, short reach length, small rivers, and in "agricultural" areas, (3) good correspondences between stressors identified and restoration measures implemented. Morphological alterations were the most important highlighted stressors. River morphology enhancement, especially instream enhancements, were the most frequently implemented restoration measures. Some differences exist in specific restoration practices, as river continuity restoration were most frequently implemented in French projects, while large wood introduction or channel re-braiding were most frequently implemented in German projects, and (4) some quantitative and qualitative differences in monitoring practices and a significant lack of project monitoring, especially in Germany compared to France. These similarities and differences between Germany and France in restoration application and monitoring possibly result from a complex set of drivers that might be difficult to untangle (e.g., environmental, technical, political, cultural).

  5. Bishop plays down report on condoms / AIDS in France.

    PubMed

    1996-02-26

    Individual bishops in France and other European countries have argued that condom use can save lives by preventing the spread of HIV. The French Bishops' Conference social commission published a 200-page report which in which agreement was expressed with widespread medical opinion that condom use is the sole and necessary barrier against the sexual spread of HIV. Extensive media coverage ensued and led to Bishop Albert Rouet, the bishop of Poitiers and chairman of the French Bishops' Conference, being interviewed by the Holy See's official radio. In the interview, Bishop Rouet distanced the Roman Catholic Church in France from the report, claiming that the media had exaggerated the issue and that his commission was not bound by the reference. The Vatican remains staunchly opposed to condom use against HIV infection and preaches abstinence outside of marriage and fidelity within marriage as the only true ways to avoid HIV infection. In 1995, the Vatican fired Jacques Gaillot, the former bishop of Evreux in Normandy, for his outspoken endorsement of condom use against HIV.

  6. Representatives of countries participating in the International Space Station toured KSC's Space Sta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Senior government officials from 15 countries participating in the International Space Station (ISS) signed agreements in Washington D.C. on Jan. 29 to establish the framework of cooperation among the partners on the design, development, operation and utilization of the Space Station. Acting Secretary of State Strobe Talbott signed the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on Space Station Cooperation with representatives of Russia, Japan, Canada, and participating countries of the European Space Agency (ESA), including Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Some of these officials then toured KSC's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) with NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, at front, sixth from the left. They are, left to right, front to back: Hidetoshi Murayama, National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Louis Laurent, Embassy of France; Haakon Blankenborg, Norwegian Parliament Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs; His Excellency Joris Vos, ambassador of the Netherlands; His Excellency Tom Vraalsen, ambassador of Norway; Daniel Goldin; Luigi Berlinguer, Italian minister for education, scientific, and technological research; Antonio Rodota, director general, European Space Agency (ESA); Yvan Ylieff, Belgian minister of science and chairman of the ESA Ministerial Council; Jacqueline Ylieff; Masaaki Komatsu, KSC local NASDA representative and interpreter; Serge Ivanets, space attache, Embassy of Russia; Hiroshi Fujita, Science and Technology Agency of Japan; Akira Mizutani, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Peter Grognard, science attache, Royal Embassy of Belgium; Michelangelo Pipan, Italian diplomatic counselor to the minister; His Excellency Gerhard Fulda, German Federal Foreign Office; Jorg Feustel-Buechl, ESA director of manned space flight and microgravity; A. Yakovenko, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director for Advanced Development

  7. The state and health in France.

    PubMed

    Steudler, F

    1986-01-01

    The Health Service in France (as indeed must be the case in many other countries) has been affected by a new technical dimension, which now adds its weight to the two main criteria, social and economic, which influence health provision. In the technical domain, new methods in research and treatment have transformed the nature of medical practice, which is more and more prey to disruption at the sudden appearance of ever more complex technologies. Medical treatment can be said to have become fragmented in some sense, and the process of division of labour within medicine to have undergone considerable development. As a result of these modifications, but also because of changes in society as a whole (the ageing of the population, altered needs and expectations), the amounts spent on health provision are growing at a higher rate than the Gross Domestic Product. This is leading the participants who control and finance the system (the State, Social Security) to think in terms of selectivity and efficiency and the medical profession itself to be willing to consider the economic implications of its activities. Moreover, the Health Service is highly valued by public opinion, as shown by a number of polls. It is a major social priority for the population, represented by the health insurance organizations whose function is to make use of their funds, raised by obligatory contributions, to strive to ensure equal access for all to the most advanced treatments and techniques. It can be shown that the evolution of the Health Service has been shaped by three differing types of underlying logic: the professional (because the technical side is chiefly represented by the professionals who personify the scientific and technical aspects of health problems), the social and the economic. Until about 1968, the social and professional rationales prevailed. From then until the change in political majority that culminated in the arrival in power of the left in May 1981, economic criteria

  8. What determines treatment satisfaction of patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy? An observational study in eight European countries.

    PubMed

    Boels, Anne Meike; Vos, Rimke C; Hermans, Tom G T; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Müller, Nicolle; Khunti, Kamlesh; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2017-07-11

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on insulin therapy are less satisfied with their diabetes treatment than those on oral hypoglycaemic therapies or lifestyle advice only. Determinants of satisfaction in patients with T2DM on insulin therapy are not clearly known. The aim of this study was to determine the association of treatment satisfaction with demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with T2DM. For this study we used data from the GUIDANCE (Guideline Adherence to Enhance Care) study, a cross-sectional study among 7597 patients with T2DM patients from Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK. The majority of patients were recruited from primary care. Treatment satisfaction was assessed by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ, score 0-36; higher scores reflecting higher satisfaction). To determine which patient characteristics and laboratory values were independently associated with treatment satisfaction, a linear mixed model analysis was used. In total, 1984 patients on insulin were analysed; the number of included patients per country ranged from 166 (the Netherlands) to 384 (Italy). The mean DTSQ score was 28.50±7.52 and ranged from 25.93±6.57 (France) to 30.11±5.09 (the Netherlands). Higher DTSQ scores were associated with having received diabetes education (β 1.64, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.32), presence of macrovascular complications (β 0.76, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.31) and better health status (β 0.08 for every one unit increase on a 0-100 scale, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.10). Lower DTSQ scores were associated with more frequently perceived hyperglycaemia (β -0.32 for every 1 unit increase on a seven-point Likert scale, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.13), and higher glycated haemoglobin (β -0.52 for every percentage increase, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.29). A number of factors including diabetes education, perceived and actual hyperglycaemia and macrovascular complications are associated with treatment

  9. Angiostrongylus vasorum in wolves in Italy: prevalence and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Grifoni, Goffredo; Lorenzetti, Raniero; Meoli, Roberta; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Mastromattei, Antonio; Scholl, Francesco; Rombolà, Pasquale; Calderini, Pietro; Bruni, Gianpaolo; Eleni, Claudia

    2017-08-11

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode residing in the heart and pulmonary vessels of dogs and wild carnivores. In Europe the red fox is its reservoir, while only three records from wolves have been published. Angiostrongylus vasorum has a worldwide distribution, and many pieces of evidence demonstrate that it is spreading from endemic areas to new ones. In Italy, A. vasorum was reported with increasing frequency in dogs and foxes in the last decades, and now it is considered endemic throughout the country. Angiostrongylus vasorum can be asymptomatic or cause respiratory and circulatory disorders, at times causing severe disseminated infections. Between February 2012 and December 2016, 25 wolves found dead in central Italy were submitted to the Istituto Zooprofilattico del Lazio e della Toscana for post-mortem examination. Samples of lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, mediastinic lymph nodes and brain were collected from each animal for histological examination. When adult and larval nematodes were microscopically seen in lungs, the other organs were processed, and five histological sections for each organ were examined. To confirm parasite identification, lung samples were submitted to a PCR-sequencing protocol targeting the ITS2 region of A. vasorum. Seven wolves (28.0%) harboured nematode larvae in lung sections. In two of the positive wolves, adult nematodes were visible in pulmonary arteries, in four animals larvae were also detected in other organs. DNA sequencing reactions confirmed parasite identification as A. vasorum in all the cases. As a result of the high prevalence of A. vasorum reported in wolves in the present study, a focus of high circulation could be hypothesised in central Italy. Nevertheless, the similarly high prevalence in foxes originating from the same areas were reported in previous papers. Histopathological evidence highlights the pathogenic potential of A. vasorum in the wolf, especially in juvenile animals.

  10. A review of nasal cancer in furniture manufacturing and woodworking in North Carolina, the United States, and other countries.

    PubMed

    Imbus, H R; Dyson, W L

    1987-09-01

    Nasal adenocarcinoma in the High Wycombe furniture industry of England during 1956-1965 had an annual incidence of 500 to 1,000 times greater than that of the general population. Excesses of nasal cancer have also been described in France, Australia, Denmark, Finland, Italy, and Holland. Interestingly, one limited study in Canada revealed no excess, whereas a more recent one showed a slight excess. In contrast to the strikingly large excesses of nasal adenocarcinoma in other countries, there has never been any evidence of similarly large excesses in the US woodworking and furniture industry. Modern manufacturing conditions may not present the same degree of risk of developing nasal cancer as was present in the English furniture manufacturing industry. The incidence of nasal cancer associated with furniture manufacturing in the United States is examined in considerable detail in North Carolina, the leading furniture manufacturing state. Furniture manufacturing in the state began around 1890 and has grown steadily since. Utilizing statistics available from the North Carolina Department of Vital Statistics, the absolute mortality of nasal cancer in North Carolina was calculated from 1964 to 1977. The average mortality was approximately 3.5 times greater in the furniture manufacturing industry than in the general population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. [Emigration and immigration in Italy. (1861-2011)].

    PubMed

    Pasini, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The creation of the Italian Kingdom was characterized by the mass emigration of Italian people, mainly peasants towards European and American destinations. Poverty, unemployment, diseases, like pellagra, malaria and tubercolosis forced millions of Italians to leave the Country. The phenomenon of emigration is usually divided in three periods: the mass emigration from 1976 to 1914, the second one between the two world wars, the third one from 1946 to 1976. In the last quarter of the 20th century the number of repatriations overcome expatriations and the number of immigrants from Albania, Romania, Senegal, Tunisia, China, Philippines grew up becoming more and more important. Italy was a country of emigrants, now is a country of immigrants. It is difficult to compare the work conditions of the Italian emigrants with the new immigrants. At the end of the 19th Century or in the first decades of the 20th Century there were no consideration for human rights, no legislations to protect workers. Immigration from North Africa and from all the low and middle income countries should be studied in all its aspects because it will characterize our future. In the new era of economical globalization, Universities should prepare the new medical doctors to extend their professional culture to a international dimension to be able to cope with the new challenges of our time.

  12. Physics in the Andean Countries: A Perspective from Condensed Matter, Novel Materials and Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, P.

    2009-05-01

    We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This

  13. Perspective View, Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-01

    Italy's Mount Etna is the focus of this perspective view made from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Emission Radiometer (ASTER) image from NASA's Terra spacecraft overlaid on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography. The image is looking south with dark lava flows from the 1600's (center) to 1981 (long flow at lower right) visible in the foreground and the summit of Etna above. The city of Catania is barely visible behind Etna on the bay at the upper left. In late October 2002, Etna erupted again, sending lava flows down the north and south sides of the volcano. The north flows are near the center of this view, but the ASTER image is from before the eruption. In addition to the terrestrial applications of these data for understanding active volcanoes and hazards associated with them such as lava flows and explosive eruptions, geologists studying Mars find these data useful as an analog to martian landforms and geologic processes. In late September 2002, a field conference with the theme of Terrestrial Analogs to Mars focused on Mount Etna, allowing Mars geologists to see in person the types of features they can only sample remotely. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03371

  14. [Urinalysis in Italy in 2006].

    PubMed

    Gai, M; Lanfranco, G

    2007-01-01

    Urinalysis and proteinuria testing represent fundamental tests for the clinician, even though they too often lack standardization. Through the Italian Society of Nephrology Mailing List we sent a questionnaire to 282 centers, in order to assess the state of the art in Italy in the year 2006. 82% of the questionnaires were completed (nephrology laboratories: 64%, general laboratories: 36%). The questionnaire dealt with the main steps of preparation, analysis and report of urinalysis, and proteinuria / microalbuminuria measurement. 85% of the centers use first morning urine, and 7% second morning urine; only 57% of the centers supply with written instructions, 189 laboratories (82%) have only one bright field microscope, rate and time of centrifugation are very varied among centers, different units of measurement are used in reports. Few laboratories measure routinely the proteinuria / creatininuria ratio, there is no agreement on the urine sample type for microalbuminuria assay, total urinary proteins are measured through different methods. 92% of the centers is endowed with an internal quality control system, but only 47% participate in an external quality control program. These data confirm the lack of standardization for urine analysis methods and procedures.

  15. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [A case of donovanosis acquired in France].

    PubMed

    Okhremchuk, I; Marmottant, E; Abed, S; Nguyen, A-T; Fournier, B; Boye, T; Morand, J-J

    2016-11-01

    Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) is a bacterial infection caused by Klebsiella granulomatis that occurs mainly in the genital area and is primarily sexually transmitted; it is seen predominantly in the tropics. Herein, we report a case of the disease contracted in metropolitan France. A 47-year-old man presented with painless ulceration of the glans, present for one month, with progressive extension; there was no history of any recent trip abroad. Skin biopsy with Whartin-Starry and Giemsa staining revealed Donovan bodies in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Based on these findings, further questioning of the patient revealed unprotected sexual contact two months earlier in France. Treatment was initiated with azithromycin 1g on the first day followed by 500mg per day for three weeks. The clinical outcome was spectacular, with almost complete regression of the ulcer at 7 days. This case demonstrates that donovanosis can occur in metropolitan France. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Situation Reports--Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data pertaining to population and family planning in seventeen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. Information is…

  18. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  19. Labour Market Outcomes of National Qualifications Frameworks in Six Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allais, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the major findings of an international study that attempted to investigate the labour market outcomes of qualifications frameworks in six countries--Belize, France, Ireland, Jamaica, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia, as well as the regional framework in the Caribbean. It finds limited evidence of success, but fairly strong support for…

  20. Work Values Similarities among Students from Six Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebo, R. Brad; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines high school students' selected work values in the United States, Norway, Finland, Canada, Australia, and France. Findings indicated that selected work values were more similar than dissimilar across countries and cultures, and that there is a higher degree of transnational agreement among girls than among their male peers. (JPS)

  1. Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France

    PubMed Central

    Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Floret, Daniel; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Although few measles cases were reported in France during 2006 and 2007, suggesting the country might have been close to eliminating the disease, a dramatic outbreak of >20,000 cases occurred during 2008–2011. Adolescents and young adults accounted for more than half of cases; median patient age increased from 12 to 16 years during the outbreak. The highest incidence rate was observed in children <1 year of age, reaching 135 cases/100,000 infants during the last epidemic wave. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalized, including 1,023 for severe pneumonia and 27 for encephalitis/myelitis; 10 patients died. More than 80% of the cases during this period occurred in unvaccinated persons, reflecting heterogeneous vaccination coverage, where pockets of susceptible persons still remain. Although vaccine coverage among children improved, convincing susceptible young adults to get vaccinated remains a critical issue if the target to eliminate the disease by 2015 is to be met. PMID:23618523

  2. Implementing Cognitive Remediation Programs in France: The "Secret Sauce".

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabelle; Sederer, Lloyd I

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive remediation (CR) is a psychosocial therapy that seeks to restore patients' cognitive abilities by providing strategies to improve functioning in cognitive domains and helping them transfer acquired capabilities to everyday life. Since 2008, CR programs have been introduced in several regional health ministry areas in France. This column describes that implementation initiative, which includes creation of a network of the most active CR programs to conduct multicenter trials; establishment of a university degree in CR, awarded after completion of a one-year clinical training program; and implementation activities of regional health agencies. The authors describe three core elements of a "secret sauce"-a common language, timing, and leadership-that has helped ensure the success of the implementation efforts and that may be useful in other countries.

  3. [Therapeutic management of bipolar disorder in France and Europe: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd)].

    PubMed

    Bellivier, F; Delavest, M; Coulomb, S; Figueira, M L; Langosch, J M; Souery, D; Vieta, E

    2014-10-01

    Bipolar disorder is a complex disease which requires multiple healthcare resources and complex medical care programs including pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment. If mood stabilizers remain the corner stone for bipolar disorder treatment, the development of atypical antipsychotics and their use as mood stabilizers has significantly modified therapeutic care. At the present time, psychiatrists have a large variety of psychotropic drugs for bipolar disorder: mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics… However, despite the publication of guidelines on pharmacological treatment, with a high degree of consensus, everyday clinical practices remain heterogeneous. Moreover, there are few longitudinal studies to describe therapeutic management of bipolar disorder, whatever the phase of the disease is. Indeed, most of the studies are carried out on a specific phase of the disease or treatment. And there is no study comparing French and European practices. In this paper, we aim to present the comparison of the management of pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder between France and Europe, using the data of the observational Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder (WAVE-bd study). The WAVE-bd study is a multinational, multicentre and non-interventional cohort study of patients diagnosed with BD type I or type II, according to DSM IV-TR criteria, in any phase of the disorder, who have experienced at least one mood event during the 12 months before enrolment. In total, 2507 patients have been included across 8 countries of Europe (480 in France). Data collection was retrospective (from 3 to 12 months), but also prospective (from 9 to 15 months) for a total study length of 12 to 27 months. Main outcome measures were the healthcare resource use and pharmacological treatments. Our results show differences in the therapeutic management of bipolar disorder between France and other European

  4. Fatal case of human rabies imported to Italy from India highlights the importance of adequate post-exposure prophylaxis, October 2011.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, P; Perboni, G; Gentili, C; Gaetti, L; Zaffanella, F; Mutinelli, F; Capua, I; Cattoli, G

    2012-05-10

    In October 2011, an Indian man resident in Italy was admitted to a hospital in Mantua, Italy with symptoms of acute encephalitis. Due to a recent history of bite by a suspected rabid dog in India, where he had received incomplete post-exposure treatment, rabies was suspected. The patient died after 22 days of intensive care treatment and rabies was confirmed post mortem. This report stresses the need of appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis in rabies-endemic countries.

  5. Development of Guidelines for Health Impact Assessment in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Di Stanislao, Francesco; Siliquini, Roberta; Tozzi, Quinto; Pizzuti, Renato; Rizzo, Liliana; Scondotto, Salvatore; Bux, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary method aimed at assessing the health effects of policies, plans, and projects using quantitative, qualitative, and participatory techniques. In many European countries, such as in Italy, there is a lack of implementation of HIA procedures and it would be necessary to develop instruments and protocols in order to improve the specific skills of professionals involved in the assessment process. This article aims to describe the development and implementation of HIA guidelines, promoted by the Italian National Agency for Regional Health Services (AGENAS), in 4 Southern Italian regions. Public health search engine and institutional Web sites were consulted to collect international data existing in this field. Monthly workshops were then organized with regional representatives to discuss the scientific literature and to identify the guidelines' contents: source of data, stakeholders, screening- and scoping-phase checklist tools, priority areas, monitoring, and reporting plans. Four regions (Calabria, Campania, Puglia, and Sicilia) took part in the project. This article describes the methodology of development and implementation of HIA guidelines in the Italian context. The tools created to collect data and assess health consequences (such as screening and scoping grids) are reported. This project represents the first structured initiative proposed and supported by the Ministry of Health aiming to introduce HIA in Italy. HIA should be considered a priority in the public health agenda, as a fundamental instrument in helping decision makers to make choices about alternatives to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health.

  6. Workplace health promotion programs for older workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Magnavita, Nicola; Capitanelli, Ilaria; Garbarino, Sergio; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Moscato, Umberto; Pira, Enrico; Poscia, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter

    2017-10-27

    Italy is the European country with the highest number of citizens over the age of sixty. In recent years, the unsustainability of the social security system has forced the Italian government to raise the retirement age and reduce the chances of early exit, thus sharply increasing the age of the workforce. Consequently, a significant proportion of older workers are currently obliged to do jobs that were designed for young people. Systematic health promotion intervention for older workers is therefore essential. The European Pro Health 65+ project aims at selecting and validating best practices for successful/active aging. In this context we set out to review workplace health promotion projects carried out in Italy. To ascertain examples of workplace health promotion for older workers (WHPOW), we carried out a review of the scientific and grey literature together with a survey of companies. We detected 102 WHPOW research studies conducted in conjunction with supranational organizations, public institutions, companies, social partners, NGOs and educational institutions. The main objectives of the WHPOW were to improve the work environment, the qualifications of older workers and attitudes towards the elderly, and, in many cases, also to improve work organization. The best way to promote effective WHPOW interventions is by disseminating awareness of best practices and correct methods of analysis. Our study suggests ways of enhancing WHPOW at both a national and European level.

  7. Health websites in Italy: use, classification and international policy.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Maceratini, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss international policy in relation to the use of health websites and we describe the results obtained from application of a search engine to the recognition and classification of health websites in Italy. We then compare the results with health websites in other countries. Effective use of technology has led to medical advances that have not only extended life expectancy, but also fuelled an increasingly well-informed public to expect more and more from today's healthcare providers. As a consequence of the Web's rapid, chaotic growth, the resulting network of information lacks organization and structure and the quest for a method of quickly finding relevant and reliable information is spawning the growth of Internet portal sites. The US and the European Union and now Italy, have established the importance of rules to check the quality of health sites both for the non-professional users (citizens), mainly for privacy and security (for example, of medical records); and for health operators (physicians and others), where the most important thing is to evaluate the quality of content. In June 2001, the search engine used here found 2627 Italian health sites, of which only 46 exhibited the HON Code, and they can be classified into: 1% personal medical sites, 17% health portals, 18%, metasites, 27% documental sites and 37% information sites for health operators and/or for citizens.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits are still increasing in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Accordini, Simone; Nguyen, Giang; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marcello; Antonicelli, Leonardo; Attena, Francesco; Bellisario, Valeria; Bono, Roberto; Briziarelli, Lamberto; Casali, Lucio; Corsico, Angelo Guido; Fois, Alessandro; Panico, MariaGrazia; Piccioni, Pavilio; Pirina, Pietro; Villani, Simona; Nicolini, Gabriele; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-08-27

    Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits have stabilized in many Western countries. This study aimed at evaluating whether socioeconomic disparities in smoking habits are still enlarging in Italy and at comparing the impact of education and occupation. In the frame of the GEIRD study (Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases) 10,494 subjects, randomly selected from the general population aged 20-44 years in seven Italian centres, answered a screening questionnaire between 2007 and 2010 (response percentage = 57.2%). In four centres a repeated cross-sectional survey was performed: smoking prevalence recorded in GEIRD was compared with prevalence recorded between 1998 and 2000 in the Italian Study of Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Current smoking was twice as prevalent in people with a primary/secondary school certificate (40-43%) compared with people with an academic degree (20%), and among unemployed and workmen (39%) compared with managers and clerks (20-22%). In multivariable analysis smoking habits were more affected by education level than by occupation. From the first to the second survey the prevalence of ever smokers markedly decreased among housewives, managers, businessmen and free-lancers, while ever smoking became even more common among unemployed (time-occupation interaction: p = 0.047). At variance, the increasing trend in smoking cessation was not modified by occupation. Smoking prevalence has declined in Italy during the last decade among the higher socioeconomic classes, but not among the lower. This enlarging socioeconomic inequality mainly reflects a different trend in smoking initiation.

  9. A benefit-risk analysis of rotavirus vaccination, France, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lamrani, Adnane; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Hill, Catherine; Escolano, Sylvie

    2017-12-01

    IntroductionTwo vaccines available for protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), Rotarix and RotaTeq, have contributed to a large decrease in the incidence of paediatric diarrhoea in countries where they have been used. However, they have also led to a small increase in the risk of intussusception. Methods: We compare the number of prevented hospitalisations for RVGE to the number of vaccine-induced hospitalised intussusceptions in France. Results: With 9.5% coverage (French 2015 estimation), vaccination was estimated to prevent, annually, a median of 1,074 hospitalisations (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles (2.5th-97.5th): 810-1,378) and 1.4 deaths (2.5th-97.5th: 1.2-1.6) from RVGE. It was also estimated to cause, annually, 5.0 hospitalisations (2.5th-97.5th: 3.2-7.7) and 0.005 deaths (2.5th-97.5th: 0.001-0.015) from intussusception. The benefit-risk ratio is therefore 214 (2.5th-97.5th: 128-362) for hospitalisations and 273 (2.5th-97.5th: 89-1,228) for deaths. Under a hypothetical 92% coverage, rotavirus vaccination with Rotarix would avoid 10,459 (2.5th-97.5th: 7,702-13,498) hospitalisations for RVGE and induce 47.0 (2.5th-97.5th: 25.1-81.4) hospitalisations for intussusception annually, thereby preventing 13.7 (2.5th-97.5th: 11.1-15.2) deaths and inducing 0.05 (2.5th-97.5th: 0.01-0.15) deaths. Conclusion: The benefit-risk ratio in France is similar to that of other European countries.

  10. Long-term care financing: lessons from France.

    PubMed

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: France's model of third-party coverage for long-term services and supports (LTSS) combines a steeply income-adjusted universal public program for people 60 or older with voluntary supplemental private insurance. French and US policies differ: the former pay cash; premiums are lower; and take-up rates are higher, in part because employer sponsorship, with and without subsidization, is more common-but also because coverage targets higher levels of need and pays a smaller proportion of costs. Such inexpensive, bare-bones private coverage, especially if marketed as a supplement to a limited public benefit, would be more affordable to those Americans currently most at risk of "spending down" to Medicaid. An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States' long-term care financing reform efforts. We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income

  11. Trade-Off or Convergence? The Role of Food Security in the Evolution of Food Discourse in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunori, Gianluca; Malandrin, Vanessa; Rossi, Adanella

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role that "food security" has played in the evolution of the food discourse in Italy, a country with a strong and internationally recognized food culture. We identify three phases of this evolution: in the first phase, from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1980s, the "modernization"…

  12. Public attitudes toward stuttering in Europe: Within-country and between-country comparisons.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Junuzović-Žunić, Lejla; Tomaiuoli, Donatella; Del Gado, Francesca; Caparelli, Emilia; Theiling, Mareen; Flobakk, Cecilie; Helmen, Lise Nesbakken; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene; Nilsson, Sofia; Wetterling, Tobias; Lundström, Cecilia; Daly, Ciara; Leahy, Margaret; Tyrrell, Laila; Ward, David; Węsierska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research methods have been shown to be useful in determining factors that might predict commonly reported negative public attitudes toward stuttering. Previous research has suggested that stuttering attitudes of respondents from North America and Europe (i.e., "The West"), though characterized by stereotypes and potential stigma, are more positive than those from several other regions of the world. This inference assumes that public attitudes within various regions characterized by "The West" are similar. This study aimed to determine the extent to which public stuttering attitudes are similar or different both within regions of three different European countries and between or among five different European countries or similar geographic areas. It also aimed to compare these European attitudes to attitudes from 135 samples around the world using a standard measure. Using convenience sampling, 1111 adult respondents from eight different investigations completed the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) in the dominant language of each country or area. In Study I, the authors compared attitudes within three different regions of Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway. In Study II, the authors compared attitudes between combined samples from Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway (with additional respondents from Sweden), and two other samples, one from Germany and the other from Ireland and England. Attitudes of adults from the three samples within Bosnia & Herzegovina, Italy, and Norway were remarkably similar. By contrast, attitudes between the five different countries or area were quite dramatically different. Demographic variables on the POSHA-S did not predict the rank order of these between-country/area differences. Compared to the POSHA-S worldwide database, European attitudes ranged from less positive than average (i.e., Italians) to more positive than average (i.e., Norwegians and Swedes). Factors related to

  13. Perception of oral contraceptives among women of reproductive age in Japan: a comparison with the USA and France.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuyo; Yamabe, Shingo; Sugishima, Toru; Geronazzo, Dan

    2011-07-01

    In order to reveal the differences between oral contraceptives (OC) perceptions and actual needs, we performed a web-based study in the USA, France, and Japan. The study was carried out using a web-based questionnaire in May 2009. Two hundred women each from the three countries who were in their 20s, 30s, or 40s were randomly selected and asked about contraception. The most frequently used contraceptive method was OC in the USA and France and condoms in Japan. The most commonly used OC information source was doctors in the USA and France, but the media in Japan. The main reason for taking OC was 'contraception' in the USA and France, but it was relief from menstruation-related problems in Japan. Partner agreement was highest in France, and partner disagreement was highest in the USA. The most common reason for discontinuing OC use was 'contraception became unnecessary' in all three countries. The second most common reason was 'troublesome to take everyday' in the USA and France but 'troublesome to get a doctor's prescription' in Japan. The most common reason for never taking OC was also 'troublesome to get a doctor's prescription' in Japan. As a non-contraceptive benefit, 'relief of dysmenorrhea' was well known in all three countries; however, other non-contraceptive benefits were little known among Japanese. There are several differences in the patterns of OC use in the three countries studied. Providers should know more about current OC usage patterns in order to improve the quality of care. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Ongoing nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona associated with internationally distributed infant milk products, France, December 2017.

    PubMed

    Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie; Fabre, Laetitia; Robinson, Eve; Fournet, Nelly; Nisavanh, Athinna; Bruyand, Mathias; Mailles, Alexandra; Serre, Estelle; Ravel, Magali; Guibert, Véronique; Issenhuth-Jeanjean, Sylvie; Renaudat, Charlotte; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Septfons, Alexandra; de Valk, Henriette; Le Hello, Simon

    2018-01-01

    On 1 December 2017, an outbreak of Salmonella Agona infections among infants was identified in France. To date, 37 cases (median age: 4 months) and two further international cases have been confirmed. Five different infant milk products manufactured at one facility were implicated. On 2 and 10 December, the company recalled the implicated products; on 22 December, all products processed at the facility since February 2017. Trace-forward investigations indicated product distribution to 66 countries.

  15. [Female migrants: Moroccan women in Northern Italy. A study in Venice].

    PubMed

    Schmidt Di Friedberg, O; Saint-blancat, C

    1998-09-01

    "Immigration of Moroccan women has only recently become in Italy the object of specific studies. Female migrants, although representing a minority when compared to their male counterparts, have drawn the attention of local society...because of their demands in the field of public health, family planning and education. This is the case of the Venetian Region." Differences between the immigrants' values and cultural background, and those of the receiving country, are considered. (EXCERPT)

  16. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  17. Comparison of University Governance USA, UK, France and Japan: Report of the International Seminar on University Governance, 2012. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In contrast with that basic understanding of university autonomy, in most continental European countries, such as France, and also in Japan, the government has tightly controlled universities, in terms of both their organization and activities. In these countries, the concept of "governance" is often lacking, as institutions were not…

  18. Changes in Work Patterns: A Synthesis of Five National Reports on the Service Sector. France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    An analysis of the service sector in five countries (France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United States) was made through synthesis of earlier research on work patterns in the countries. Some of the findings and issues discovered concerned the following: (1) the heterogeneity of the service sector; (2) the progress of part-time work; (3)…

  19. The Impact of New Technologies on Occupational Profiles in the Banking Sector. Case Studies in Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitali, Laurence; Freiche, Jeanine; Matthews, Alison; Warmerdam, John

    The impact of new technologies on occupational profiles in the banking sector was examined through case studies in four European countries: Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and France. In each country, three types of banking institutions were studied: merchant (Eurobank); "counter" (universal) bank; and telebank (bank…

  20. Survey on the Policy of Continuing Training in Large Firms. Case Studies in Belgium, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Georges; Reis, Fernanda

    A study examined employee training policies and their implementation in four or five large companies in five countries (Belgium, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom). Data were gathered through interviews by an expert in each of the countries using an interviewer's guide developed for the project (resulting in approximately 30…

  1. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it; Ragazzi, Marco; Istrate, Irina Aura

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review on data regarding WEEE management in Italy and in Romania. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems that countries that will enter in the EU will have to solve facing with the WEEE management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot experiences useful for the awareness campaign of the population. - Abstract: The paper presents some data regarding waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) management in one of the founding countries of the EU, Italy, and in a recent entry into the EU, Romania. The aim of this research was to analyze some problems that countries entering the EU will have to solve with respect to WEEE management.more » The experiences of Italy and Romania could provide an interesting reference point. The strengths and weaknesses that the two EU countries have encountered can be used in order to give a more rational plan for other countries. In Italy the increase of WEEE collection was achieved in parallel with the increase of the efficiency of selective Municipal Solid Waste collection. In Romania, pilot experiences were useful to increase the awareness of the population. The different interests of the two populations towards recyclable waste led to a different scenario: in Romania all types of WEEE have been collected since its entrance into the EU; in Italy the 'interest' in recycling is typically related to large household appliances, with a secondary role of lighting equipment.« less

  2. Climate risk index for Italy.

    PubMed

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Torresan, Silvia; Bosello, Francesco; Mistry, Malcolm; Amadio, Mattia; Marzi, Sepehr; Furlan, Elisa; Sperotto, Anna

    2018-06-13

    We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity. We use standardized anomalies of selected extreme climate indices derived from high-resolution regional climate model simulations of the EURO-CORDEX initiative as proxies of climate change-altered weather and climate-related hazards. The exposure and sensitivity assessment is based on indicators of manufactured, natural, social and economic capital assets exposed to and adversely affected by climate-related hazards. The MC refers to material goods or fixed assets which support the production process (e.g. industrial machines and buildings); Natural Capital comprises natural resources and processes (renewable and non-renewable) producing goods and services for well-being; Social Capital (SC) addressed factors at the individual (people's health, knowledge, skills) and collective (institutional) level (e.g. families, communities, organizations and schools); and Economic Capital (EC) includes owned and traded goods and services. The results of the climate risk analysis are used to rank the subnational administrative and statistical units according to the climate risk challenges, and possibly for financial resource allocation for climate adaptation.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Authors.

  3. Climate risk index for Italy

    PubMed Central

    Torresan, Silvia; Bosello, Francesco; Mistry, Malcolm; Amadio, Mattia; Marzi, Sepehr; Furlan, Elisa; Sperotto, Anna

    2018-01-01

    We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity. We use standardized anomalies of selected extreme climate indices derived from high-resolution regional climate model simulations of the EURO-CORDEX initiative as proxies of climate change-altered weather and climate-related hazards. The exposure and sensitivity assessment is based on indicators of manufactured, natural, social and economic capital assets exposed to and adversely affected by climate-related hazards. The MC refers to material goods or fixed assets which support the production process (e.g. industrial machines and buildings); Natural Capital comprises natural resources and processes (renewable and non-renewable) producing goods and services for well-being; Social Capital (SC) addressed factors at the individual (people's health, knowledge, skills) and collective (institutional) level (e.g. families, communities, organizations and schools); and Economic Capital (EC) includes owned and traded goods and services. The results of the climate risk analysis are used to rank the subnational administrative and statistical units according to the climate risk challenges, and possibly for financial resource allocation for climate adaptation. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy’. PMID:29712797

  4. Climate risk index for Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Torresan, Silvia; Bosello, Francesco; Mistry, Malcolm; Amadio, Mattia; Marzi, Sepehr; Furlan, Elisa; Sperotto, Anna

    2018-06-01

    We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity. We use standardized anomalies of selected extreme climate indices derived from high-resolution regional climate model simulations of the EURO-CORDEX initiative as proxies of climate change-altered weather and climate-related hazards. The exposure and sensitivity assessment is based on indicators of manufactured, natural, social and economic capital assets exposed to and adversely affected by climate-related hazards. The MC refers to material goods or fixed assets which support the production process (e.g. industrial machines and buildings); Natural Capital comprises natural resources and processes (renewable and non-renewable) producing goods and services for well-being; Social Capital (SC) addressed factors at the individual (people's health, knowledge, skills) and collective (institutional) level (e.g. families, communities, organizations and schools); and Economic Capital (EC) includes owned and traded goods and services. The results of the climate risk analysis are used to rank the subnational administrative and statistical units according to the climate risk challenges, and possibly for financial resource allocation for climate adaptation. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  5. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years. PMID:20386624

  6. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  7. Tensions between Cultural and Utilitarian Dimensions of Language: A Comparative Analysis of "Multilingual" Education Policies in France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Through a comparison of France and Germany, this article investigates why the overall conception of multilingualism promoted by the education systems of the two countries favours the teaching of "useful" European standard languages over that of minority and migrant languages that are conceived in merely cultural terms. Adopting a…

  8. Human Resources and Corporate Strategy. Technological Change in Banks and Insurance Companies: France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Olivier; Noyelle, Thierry

    Twelve financial institutions (nine banks and three insurance companies) from five countries (France, West Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United States) were studied to determine the directions in which financial service markets and firms are moving as a result of increasing competition and technological change. Data were collected from…

  9. The Politics of Aborted Reform: Education and the Legitimacy of the State in France and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.

    As this paper demonstrates, studying abortive educational reforms reveals a great deal about the complex political dynamics involved in making (and unmaking) key policy decisions. Using case studies of France and West Germany, the paper argues that the state in advanced industrial countries tends to maximize the political gains derived from…

  10. Psycho-social influences on food choice in Southern France and Central England.

    PubMed

    Pettinger, C; Holdsworth, M; Gerber, M

    2004-06-01

    This study used attitudinal scales to investigate the nature of attitudes to diet and health in a northern European country (Central England) and a southern European country (Mediterranean France). Cross-sectional studies were conducted using self-administered postal questionnaires that were distributed simultaneously in April 2001 in Montpellier, France and Nottingham, England. A stratified random sample of 1000 males and 1000 females aged 18-65 years was generated from the electoral roll in each country. The final sample comprised England: n = 826 (58% male and 42% female; mean age=44 years) and France: n = 766 (42% male and 58% female; mean age=42 years). This study has demonstrated that the pleasurable and social aspects of eating, certain food quality issues, as well as health as a value were regarded as priorities by French respondents. On the other hand, English respondents reported that organic and ethical issues and convenience were important factors influencing their food choices. In conclusion, the two populations can be differentiated overall in their attitudes and beliefs to food choice.

  11. [Catch-up vaccination of worldwide newcoming (adopted, refugee or migrant) children in France].

    PubMed

    de Monléon, J-V; Regnier, F; Ajana, F; Baptiste, C; Callamand, P; Cheymol, J; Gillet, Y; Hau-Rainsard, I; Lorrot, M; Reinert, P; Marchand, S; Okaïs, C; Picherot, G

    2014-03-01

    In France, international adoption includes around to 90,000 children since 1980 and near 300,000 immigrant children were counted in 2008. This population is heterogeneous, according to age and country of origin, and its large number. It is not easy to completely and surely assess the vaccine status of the child. Due to a great variability of individual situations, it is not possible to have systematic and unchangeable rules. This article aims to give an update of catch-up vaccination of internationally adopted or refugee or migrant children in France. The vaccination status of a child who recently arrived in France is complex and has to be adapted to his country of origin. Some of them were never vaccinated whereas the vaccine status of others is uncertain or unknown. Three parameters have to be considered: the age of the child, the country of origin, and sometimes serology in the case of doubts of his vaccine status. Catch-up vaccination of foreign children has to be adapted to French vaccine recommendations, as a reference, and to vaccines already administered to the child. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Achieving value for money in health: a comparative analysis of OECD countries and regional countries.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Yusuf; Khan, Mahmud; Hikmet, Neşet

    2017-10-01

    To measure efficiency gains in health sector over the years 1995 to 2013 in OECD, EU, non-member European countries. An output-oriented DEA model with variable return to scale, and residuals estimated by regression equations were used to estimate efficiencies of health systems. Slacks for health care outputs and inputs were calculated by using DEA multistage method of estimating country efficiency scores. Better health outcomes of countries were related with higher efficiency. Japan, France, or Sweden were found to be peer-efficient countries when compared to other developed countries like Germany and United States. Increasing life expectancy beyond a certain high level becomes very difficult to achieve. Despite declining marginal productivity of inputs on health outcomes, some developed countries and developing countries were found to have lowered their inefficiencies in the use of health inputs. Although there was no systematic relationship between political system of countries and health system efficiency, the objectives of countries on social and health policy and the way of achieving these objectives might be a factor increasing the efficiency of health systems. Economic and political stability might be as important as health expenditure in improving health system goals. A better understanding of the value created by health expenditures, especially in developed countries, will require analysis of specific health interventions that can increase value for money in health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Indian nurses in Italy: a qualitative study of their professional and social integration.

    PubMed

    Stievano, Alessandro; Olsen, Douglas; Tolentino Diaz, Ymelda; Sabatino, Laura; Rocco, Gennaro

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the lived subjective experiences of immigrant Indian nurses in Italy and specifically their professional and social integration. To study the worldwide, nursing flux is a health priority in the globalised world. The growth in migration trends among nurses, not only from Philippines or India, has proliferated in recent years. The research on nurses' mobility for Southern European countries is underexplored, and in Italy, the out-migration flows of Indian nurses were never analysed. Qualitative methodological approach. Semi-structured interviews (n = 20) were completed with Indian clinical nurses working in Italy for more than one year mainly in private organisations. A purposive sampling technique was used for recruitment. The data were then content-analysed using an inductive method. The findings were categorised into four themes: (1) aspects of professional integration and working experience, (2) intra- and interprofessional relationships and perceptions of the IPASVI Regulatory Nursing Board, (3) initial nursing education and continuous professional development and (4) perceptions of social integration. The results show that for Indian nurses in Italy emigration is important to gain opportunities to expand economic and social privileges as well as escape from historical assumptions of stigma associated with nursing work, especially for women. However, these conclusions have to be seen in wider socio-cultural complexities that are at the basis of transnational fluxes (Prescott & Nichter ). The research offers an insight into the complicated reasons for Indian nurses out-migration to Italy. Without comprehending the interwoven textures of the political and social relations that are continually constructed and re-constructed among different nations, it is difficult to understand nurses out-migration and consequently have a better and safer collaborative teamwork in the host countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Vaccine storage in the community: a study in central Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, M.; Ripabelli, G.; Sammarco, M. L.; Manfredi Selvaggi, T. M.; Quaranta, A.

    1999-01-01

    Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunization programme, but in developed countries faulty procedures may occur more commonly than is generally believed. A survey was conducted in a health district in central Italy to assess the methods of vaccine transportation and storage. Of 52 primary vaccination offices inspected, 39 (76.5%) had a refrigerator for vaccine storage but only 17 (33.3%) kept records of received and stored doses. None of the seven main offices selected for monitoring had a maximum and minimum thermometer and none monitored the internal temperature of the refrigerator. Moreover, other faulty procedures, such as the storage of food and laboratory specimens in vaccine refrigerators and the storage of vaccines on refrigerator door shelves, indicated that the knowledge and practice of vaccine storage and handling were often inadequate. PMID:10327715

  15. Progress in industrial holography in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Industrial applications of holography in France are briefly reviewed. Particular attention is given to nondestructive testing of helicopter blades at Aerospatiale Central Laboratory, the use of holography at Renault for car-engine vibration study, vibration characterization of turbo-jet engine components at SNECMA, and vibration analysis of plates in an industrial hemodynamic tunnel.

  16. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  17. World Foods. The Flavor of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Helen; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of France and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of French geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies French food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  18. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  19. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Socolovschi, Cristina; Moiton, Marie-Pierre; Kuli, Barbara; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Wartel, Guillaume; Audin, Héla; Raoult, Didier; Filleul, Laurent; Parola, Philippe; Pagès, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin. PMID:25625653

  20. The Status of Women in France Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Margaret Collins

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the women's movement in France during the past two centuries. A discussion of the process by which French women acquired political rights and access to education and the professions leads to examination of the question of future directions. An annotated listing of French women's movements is appended. (AMH)