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Sample records for county bioterrorism response

  1. Summary and results of the joint WMD-DAC/Alameda County bioterrorism response plan exercise.

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Lipkin, Joel; West, Todd H.; Tam, Ricky; Hirano, Howard H.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.

    2003-11-01

    On June 12,2003, the Alameda County Public Health Department and Sandia National Laboratories/CA jointly conducted an exercise that used a Weapons of Mass Destruction-Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) bioterrorism attack simulation to test the effectiveness of the county's emergency response plan. The exercise was driven by an assumed release (in the vicinity of the Berkeley Marina), and subsequent spread, of a small quantity of aerosolized, weapons-grade anthrax spores. The simulation used several key WMD-DAC capabilities, namely: (1) integration with an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate expected dose levels in the affected areas, (2) a individual-tracking capability for both infected and non-infected persons as they made decisions, sought treatment, and received prophylaxis drugs, and (3) a user interface that allows exercise participants to affect the scenario evolution and outcome. The analysis of the county's response plan included documenting and reviewing the decisions made by participants during the exercise. Twenty-six local and regional officials representing the health care system, emergency medical services and law enforcement were involved in responding to the simulated attack. The results of this joint effort include lessons learned both by the Alameda County officials regarding implementation of their bioterrorism response plan and by the Sandia representatives about conducting exercises of this type. These observations are reviewed in this report, and they form a basis for providing a better understanding of group/individual decision processes and for identifying effective communication options among decision makers.

  2. Preparedness and response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R C; Lightfoot, N F

    2001-08-01

    As we enter the 21st century the threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism (so called asymmetric threats) appear to be more real than ever before. Historical evidence suggests that biological weapons have been used, with varying degrees of success, for many centuries. Despite the international agreements to ban such weapons, namely the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, there is no effective international mechanism for challenging either the development of biological weapons or their use. Advances in technology and the rise of fundamentalist terror groups combine to present a significant threat to western democracies. A timely and definitive response to this threat will require co-operation between governments on a scale never seen before. There is a need for proper planning, good communication between various health, home office, defence and intelligence agencies and sufficient financial support for a realistic state of preparedness. The Department of Health has produced guidelines for responding to real or suspected incidents and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) has produced detailed protocols to inform the actions required by microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control. These protocols will be published on the Department of Health and PHLS web sites. PMID:11676515

  3. Assessing bioterrorism preparedness and response of rural veterinarians: experiences and training needs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Jacobson, Holly; Feldman, Katherine; Miller, Jerry A; Rodriguez, Lori; Soto Mas, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Veterinarians play a unique role in emergency preparedness and response, and federal agencies and academic institutions therefore allocate considerable resources to provide training to enhance their readiness. However, the level of preparedness of veterinarians in many rural regions is yet to be improved. This article reports an assessment of the bioterrorism preparedness, specifically the experience and training needs, of rural veterinarians in North Texas. The study employed a cross-sectional design with a study population that included all veterinarians (N = 352) in the 37 counties within Texas Department of State Health Services Regions 2 and 3. Data on veterinarians practicing or residing in the target region were obtained from the Texas State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners. The response rate was 35% (n = 121). Results indicate that chemical exposure was the condition most frequently seen and treated, followed by botulism and anthrax. The majority (80%) of respondents indicated that they had not previously participated in training related to bioterrorism preparedness, and many (41%) also indicated a willingness to participate in a state health department-initiated bioterrorism response plan. However, only 18% were confident in their ability to diagnose and treat bioterrorism cases. These results suggest that many North Texas veterinarians practicing in rural regions could benefit from additional training in bioterrorism preparedness and response. An area in particular need of further training is the diagnosis and treatment of Category A agents. Federal, state, and local health agencies are urged to increase training opportunities and to make additional efforts to involve veterinarians in bioterrorism preparedness and response.

  4. Planning the bioterrorism response supply chain: learn and live.

    PubMed

    Brandeau, Margaret L; Hutton, David W; Owens, Douglas K; Bravata, Dena M

    2007-01-01

    Responses to bioterrorism require rapid procurement and distribution of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, trained personnel, and information. Thus, they present significant logistical challenges. On the basis of a review of the manufacturing and service supply chain literature, the authors identified five supply chain strategies that can potentially increase the speed of response to a bioterrorism attack, reduce inventories, and save money: effective supply chain network design; effective inventory management; postponement of product customization and modularization of component parts; coordination of supply chain stakeholders and appropriate use of incentives; and effective information management. The authors describe how concepts learned from published evaluations of manufacturing and service supply chains, as well as lessons learned from responses to natural disasters, naturally occurring outbreaks, and the 2001 US anthrax attacks, can be applied to design, evaluate, and improve the bioterrorism response supply chain. Such lessons could also be applied to the response supply chains for disease outbreaks and natural and manmade disasters.

  5. Laboratory Response to Anthrax Bioterrorism, New York City, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Michael B.; France, Martin E.B.; Niemeyer, Debra M.; Peruski, Leonard; Naimi, Tim; Talboy, Phillip M.; Murray, Patrick H.; Pietz, Harald W.; Kornblum, John; Oleszko, William; Beatrice, Sara T.

    2002-01-01

    In October 2001, the greater New York City Metropolitan Area was the scene of a bioterrorism attack. The scale of the public response to this attack was not foreseen and threatened to overwhelm the Bioterrorism Response Laboratory’s (BTRL) ability to process and test environmental samples. In a joint effort with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the cooperation of the Department of Defense, a massive effort was launched to maintain and sustain the laboratory response and return test results in a timely fashion. This effort was largely successful. The development and expansion of the facility are described, as are the special needs of a BTRL. The establishment of a Laboratory Bioterrorism Command Center and protocols for sample intake, processing, reporting, security, testing, staffing, and quality assurance and quality control are also described. PMID:12396923

  6. Identification and analysis of obstacles in bioterrorism preparedness and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincavage, Suzanne Michele

    The focus of this study was to identify and analyze the obstacles to bioterrorism preparedness and response facing emergency management agencies and public authorities. In order to establish the limits of this discussion, the obstacles will examine a combined conceptual framework of public health, environmental security and social response. The interdisciplinary characteristics of this framework are ideal for addressing the issue of bioterrorism because of its simultaneous impact, which encompasses the complex interrelationships that pertain to public health and national security and social response. Based on a review of literature, the obstacles presented range from the absence of an effective surveillance system for biological terrorism related diseases to the inadequate training of first responders in bioterrorism preparedness and the difficult challenges of a mass casualty situation and the intense pressures associated with the crisis response. Furthermore, the impending reality of bioterrorism will further illustrate a close examination of the characteristics and management of three major biowarfare agents---anthrax, plague and smallpox. Finally, to provide a realistic understanding of the impact of bioterrorism, three case studies of actual events and two hypothetical scenarios will be discussed. Specifically, the discussion will provide the following three unconventional terrorist attacks: the recent anthrax attacks of 2001, the Aum Shinrikyo's attack of the Tokyo subway in 1995, and the Rajneeshees' use of salmonella poisoning in 1994. The inclusion of the hypothetical scenarios of two massive outbreaks of smallpox and anthrax will be presented to illuminate the seriousness and magnitude of the threat of bioterrorism and the probable consequences of failing to overcome the obstacles presented in this study. The importance of this research cannot be overemphasized, the threat is undeniably serious, and the potential for biological agents to cause devastating

  7. CDC's strategic plan for bioterrorism preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Koplan, J

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has played a critical lead role over the past two years in fostering activities associated with the medical and public health response to bioterrorism. Based on a charge from Secretary Donna Shalala in 1998, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading public health efforts to strengthen the nation's capacity to detect and respond to a bioterrorist event. As a result of our efforts, federal, state, and local communities are improving their public health capacities to respond to these types of emergencies. For many of us in public health, developing plans and capacities to respond to acts of bioterrorism is an extension of our long-standing roles and responsibilities. These are stated in the CDC Mission Statement: to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability, and the Bioterrorism Mission: to lead the public health effort in enhancing readiness to detect and respond to bioterrorism. CDC's infectious diseases control efforts are summarized below: --Initially formed to address malaria control in 1946; --Established the epidemic Intelligence Service in 1951; --Participated in global smallpox eradication and other immunization programs; --Estimated 800-1,000 + field investigations/year since late 1990s; --New diseases: Legionnaire's Disease, toxic shock syndrome, Lyme disease, HIV, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, West Nile, etc. -- Today: focus on emerging infections and bioterrorism. Over the past 50 years, CDC has seen a decline in the incidence of some infectious diseases and an increase in some, whereas others continue to present on a more unpredictable basis (i.e., hantavirus). Outbreak identification, investigation, and control have been an integral part of what we do for more than 50 years. We estimate that 800 to 1,000 field investigations have occurred every year since the late 1990s. Today, however, we have a new focus on emerging

  8. Emotional and Behavioral Consequences of Bioterrorism: Planning a Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Bradley D; Tanielian, Terri L; Eisenman, David P; Keyser, Donna J; Burnam, M Audrey; Pincus, Harold A

    2004-01-01

    Millions of dollars have been spent improving the public health system's bioterrorism response capabilities. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to precisely how the public will respond to bioterrorism and how emotional and behavioral responses might complicate an otherwise successful response. This article synthesizes the available evidence about the likely emotional and behavioral consequences of bioterrorism to suggest what decision makers can do now to improve that response. It examines the emotional and behavioral impact of previous “bioterrorism-like” events and summarizes interviews with experts who have responded to such events or conducted research on the effects of communitywide disasters. The article concludes by reflecting on the evidence and experts’ perspectives to suggest actions to be taken now and future policy and research priorities. PMID:15330972

  9. Bioterrorism preparedness and response in European public health institutes.

    PubMed

    Coignard, B

    2001-11-01

    The terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and the deliberate release of anthrax in the United States had consequences for public health not only there, but also in Europe. Europe's public health systems had to manage numerous postal materials possibly contaminated with anthrax. Our survey aimed to document the response of European public health institutes to recent bioterrorist events to identify the gaps that need to be addressed; 18 institutes from 16 countries participated in this Euroroundup. Bioterrorist threats in Europe were hoaxes only, and should be considered as a "preparedness exercise" from which three lessons can be drawn. Firstly, because of inadequate preparedness planning and funding arrangements, Europe was not ready in October 2001 to respond to bioterrorism. Secondly, although European institutes reacted quickly and adapted their priorities to a new type of threat, they need adequate and sustained support from national governments to maintain their overall capacity. Thirdly, the recent crisis demonstrated the need for increased investment in epidemiology training programmes and the establishment of a technical coordination unit for international surveillance and outbreak response in the European Union. PMID:11891386

  10. Biowarfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Christian, Michael D

    2013-07-01

    Bioterrorism is not only a reality of the times in which we live but bioweapons have been used for centuries. Critical care physicians play a major role in the recognition of and response to a bioterrorism attack. Critical care clinicians must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of the most likely bioterrorism agents, and also be adequately prepared to manage a mass casualty situation. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most likely agents of biowarfare and bioterrorism.

  11. A Comprehensive Evaluation System for Military Hospitals' Response Capability to Bio-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Shao, Sicong; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Literature research and Delphi method were utilized to establish the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Questionnaires were designed and used to survey the status quo of 134 military hospitals' response capability to bio-terrorism. Survey indicated that factor analysis method was suitable to for analyzing the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. The constructed evaluation system was consisted of five first-class and 16 second-class indexes. Among them, medical response factor was considered as the most important factor with weight coefficient of 0.660, followed in turn by the emergency management factor with weight coefficient of 0.109, emergency management consciousness factor with weight coefficient of 0.093, hardware support factor with weight coefficient of 0.078, and improvement factor with weight coefficient of 0.059. The constructed comprehensive assessment model and system are scientific and practical.

  12. Kairos as Indeterminate Risk Management: The Pharmaceutical Industry's Response to Bioterrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. Blake

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's response to the threat of bioterrorism following 9-11 invoked the rhetorical notion of kairos as an urgent and ongoing opportunity not only to protect the nation but also to improve the industry's reputation and fortify its political power. Yet the notion of kairos as seizing an advantage--grounded in modernist…

  13. Missouri nurses' bioterrorism preparedness.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri; Mohr, Lisa Buettner

    2008-09-01

    Nurses are the largest group of healthcare providers and will be at the forefront during a response to a bioterrorism attack in the U.S. However, nurses' bioterrorism risk perceptions and their participation in bioterrorism preparedness activities, such as bioterrorism-related exercises or drills, have not been evaluated. We mailed a survey to all members of the Missouri Nurses Association in July 2006, consisting of 1,528 registered nurses. The instrument measured risk perception, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, bioterrorism education received, participation in exercises/drills, and personal response plan thoroughness. The response rate was 31% (474/1,528). Most respondents believe that a bioterrorism attack will occur in the U.S. (82.3%; n = 390), but few (21.3%; n = 101) believe that one will occur in their community. The majority of nurses reported that they believe that a bioterrorism attack would have serious consequences (96.1%, n = 448), including having a serious impact on U.S. citizens' safety (90.7%, n = 446) and on their own safety (84.3%, n = 379). Most (60%, n = 284) reported that they had not received any bioterrorism-related education nor participated in any drills/exercises (82.7%, n = 392). Of those who had received education, most had participated in 3 or fewer programs and in only 1 drill. Few nurses (3.6%, n = 15) reported having all aspects of a personal bioterrorism response plan; approximately 20% (19.4%, n = 81) did not have any components of a plan. Most of the registered nurses in Missouri who were surveyed are not receiving bioterrorism education, participating in bioterrorism exercises, or developing thorough personal response plans. Nurses need to be aware of and encouraged to participate in the many education and training opportunities on bioterrorism and infectious disease disasters.

  14. Community response grids: using information technology to help communities respond to bioterror emergencies.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Paul T; Fleischmann, Kenneth R; Preece, Jennifer; Shneiderman, Ben; Wu, Philip Fei; Qu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    Access to accurate and trusted information is vital in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency. To facilitate response in large-scale emergency situations, Community Response Grids (CRGs) integrate Internet and mobile technologies to enable residents to report information, professional emergency responders to disseminate instructions, and residents to assist one another. CRGs use technology to help residents and professional emergency responders to work together in community response to emergencies, including bioterrorism events. In a time of increased danger from bioterrorist threats, the application of advanced information and communication technologies to community response is vital in confronting such threats. This article describes CRGs, their underlying concepts, development efforts, their relevance to biosecurity and bioterrorism, and future research issues in the use of technology to facilitate community response.

  15. Emergency preparedness and bioterrorism response: development of an educational program for public health personnel.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Karen; Lamantia, Joanne; Prozialeck, Linda; Proziack, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Public health departments are under increasing pressure to provide emergency preparedness and bioterrorism response education to public health personnel. The challenge that health departments face is to provide cost-efficient, timely education to a large number of multidisciplinary personnel. This article describes an innovative strategy for providing this education to public health personnel using the health department's intranet system. The intranet system provided confidential information specific to the staff role and allowed for concurrent access to the program by multiple individuals at different service sites. Knowledge acquisition was tested through short multiple-choice questions that followed the specific information modules. The intranet system faced a number of challenges during the pilot-testing phase, primarily related to changes in the role of the public health nurse and limitations in funding and public health staff to maintain and monitor the bioterrorism response program and the intranet system. The design of the program may prove useful for other public health organizations when a need exists for quick delivery of information to a large number of personnel. It may especially be useful in providing basic emergency preparedness and bioterrorism education to new personnel in health departments.

  16. Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness: improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Knutsson, Rickard; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter; Rasmusson, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification--that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis--so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents.

  17. Role of law enforcement response and microbial forensics in investigation of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Beaudry, Jodi A; Barnaby, Neel G; Giusti, Alan M; Bannan, Jason D; Keim, Paul

    2007-08-01

    The risk and threat of bioterrorism and biocrime have become a large concern and challenge for governments and society to enhance biosecurity. Law enforcement plays an important role in assessing and investigating activities involved in an event of bioterrorism or biocrime. Key to a successful biosecurity program is increased awareness and early detection of threats facilitated by an integrated network of responsibilities and capabilities from government, academic, private, and public assets. To support an investigation, microbial forensic sciences are employed to analyze and characterize forensic evidence with the goal of attribution or crime scene reconstruction. Two different molecular biology-based assays--real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and repetitive element PCR--are described and demonstrate how molecular biology tools may be utilized to aid in the investigative process. Technologies relied on by microbial forensic scientists need to be properly validated so that the methods used are understood and so that interpretation of results is carried out within the limitations of the assays. The three types of validation are preliminary, developmental, and internal. The first is necessary for rapid response when a threat is imminent or an attack has recently occurred. The latter two apply to implementation of routinely used procedures. PMID:17696298

  18. Analyzing bioterror response logistics: the case of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Edward H; Craft, David L; Wein, Lawrence M

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate existing and alternative proposals for emergency response to a deliberate smallpox attack, we embed the key operational features of such interventions into a smallpox disease transmission model. We use probabilistic reasoning within an otherwise deterministic epidemic framework to model the 'race to trace', i.e., attempting to trace (via the infector) and vaccinate an infected person while (s)he is still vaccine-sensitive. Our model explicitly incorporates a tracing/vaccination queue, and hence can be used as a capacity planning tool. An approximate analysis of this large (16 ODE) system yields closed-form estimates for the total number of deaths and the maximum queue length. The former estimate delineates the efficacy (i.e., accuracy) and efficiency (i.e., speed) of contact tracing, while the latter estimate reveals how congestion makes the race to trace more difficult to win, thereby causing more deaths. A probabilistic analysis is also used to find an approximate closed-form expression for the total number of deaths under mass vaccination, in terms of both the basic reproductive ratio and the vaccination capacity. We also derive approximate thresholds for initially controlling the epidemic for more general interventions that include imperfect vaccination and quarantine.

  19. Bioterrorism: Challenges and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Nilima; Sharada, P; Pradeep, GL

    2010-01-01

    Bioterrorism, the deliberate, private use of biological agents to harm and frighten the people of a state or society, is related to the military use of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. Attacks with biological agents are among the most insidious and breed the greatest fear. Attacks could go undetected for a long time, potentially exposing a vast number of people, who are unaware of the threat. Dentist's responses to catastrophes have been redefined by bioterrorism. Accurate and substantial information given to the public by credible public health and medical experts can do much to allay their fears and encourage their cooperation and participation in constructive, organized community response efforts. The dental profession could potentially play a significant role in the emergency response to a major bioterrorism attack. PMID:21731341

  20. [The strategic plan for preparedness and response to bioterrorism in Korea].

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun Soon

    2008-07-01

    Following the Anthrax bioterrorism attacks in the US in 2001, the Korean government established comprehensive countermeasures against bioterrorism. These measures included the government assuming management of all infectious agents that cause diseases, including smallpox, anthrax, plaque, botulism, and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers (ebola fever, marburg fever, and lassa fever) for national security. In addition, the Korean government is reinforcing the ability to prepare and respond to bioterrorism. Some of the measures being implemented include revising the laws and guidelines that apply to the use of infectious agents, the construction and operation of dual surveillance systems for bioterrorism, stockpiling and managing products necessary to respond to an emergency (smallpox vaccine, antibiotics, etc.) and vigorously training emergency room staff and heath workers to ensure they can respond appropriately. In addition, the government's measures include improved public relations, building and maintaining international cooperation, and developing new vaccines and drugs for treatments of infectious agents used to create bioweapons.

  1. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-03-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination.

  2. Bioterrorism: Health sector alertness

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Violet N.

    2013-01-01

    The global events of the last two decades indicate that the threat of biological warfare is not a myth, but a harsh reality. The successive outbreaks caused by newly recognized and resurgent pathogens and the risk that high-consequence pathogens might be used as bioterrorism agents amply demonstrate the need to enhance capacity in clinical and public health management of highly infectious diseases. This review article provides a concise overview of bioterrorism, the agents used, and measures to counteract it, with a relevant note on India's current scenario of surveillance systems, laboratory response network, and the need for preparedness. PMID:23633831

  3. Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-11-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The final rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002."

  4. Exposure to Bioterrorism and Mental Health Response among Staff on Capitol Hill

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Vythilingam, Meena; Martin, Gregory J.; Schorr, John K.; Boudreaux, Angela S.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Hong, Barry A.

    2009-01-01

    The October 2001 anthrax attacks heralded a new era of bioterrorism threat in the U.S. At the time, little systematic data on mental health effects were available to guide authorities' response. For this study, which was conducted 7 months after the anthrax attacks, structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 137 Capitol Hill staff workers, including 56 who had been directly exposed to areas independently determined to have been contaminated. Postdisaster psychopathology was associated with exposure; of those with positive nasal swab tests, PTSD was diagnosed in 27% and any post-anthrax psychiatric disorder in 55%. Fewer than half of those who were prescribed antibiotics completed the entire course, and only one-fourth had flawless antibiotic adherence. Thirty percent of those not exposed believed they had been exposed; 18% of all study participants had symptoms they suspected were symptoms of anthrax infection, and most of them sought medical care. Extrapolation of raw numbers to large future disasters from proportions with incorrect belief in exposure in this limited study indicates a potential for important public health consequences, to the degree that people alter their healthcare behavior based on incorrect exposure beliefs. Incorrect belief in exposure was associated with being very upset, losing trust in health authorities, having concerns about mortality, taking antibiotics, and being male. Those who incorrectly believe they were exposed may warrant concern and potential interventions as well as those exposed. Treatment adherence and maintenance of trust for public health authorities may be areas of special concern, warranting further study to inform authorities in future disasters involving biological, chemical, and radiological agents. PMID:20028246

  5. Wake-up call: a bioterrorism exercise.

    PubMed

    Tyre, T E

    2001-12-01

    Operation Wake-Up Call was a simulated bioterrorism exercise conducted in Waukesha County, Wisconsin (Metropolitan Milwaukee) on November 6, 1999. The purpose of the exercise was to test and evaluate the emergency response capability of local municipal, county, state, federal, and reserve military agencies to a weapons of mass destruction terrorist act. The exercise simulated a biological agent (Bacillus anthracis spores) release, a hostage-taking event, and the management of multiple biological and conventional weapons casualties that overwhelmed local first responders' capability. The exercise involved local, county, state, and federal agencies in a joint operational environment featuring integrated command and control systems. This report describes the primary purpose, goals, and assumptions of the exercise and reports on the evaluation of Wake-Up Call by the participating agencies.

  6. Bioterrorism in the United States: a balanced assessment of risk and response.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2003-01-01

    There are many definitions of terrorism and numerous examples of the use of explosives and small arms, especially against civilians and with the objective of instilling fear. Although chemical and biological agents have only rarely been used by terrorists, there has recently been much concern about the threat of bioterrorism and the role of future health personnel in counteracting it. Rational setting of priorities requires the balance of risks against benefits in prevention and preparedness. Adverse effects of preparedness include inappropriate warnings, diversion of resources from other public health measures, both in the United States and overseas and constraints on civil rights. It is argued that the US should counteract the threat of bioterrorism by dealing with its root causes and by strengthening civil rights, international arms control and international law rather than by a self-defeating 'war on terrorism'. PMID:14703129

  7. Establishment and maintenance of records under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2004-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the establishment and maintenance of records by persons who manufacture, process, pack, transport, distribute, receive, hold, or import food in the United States. Such records are to allow for the identification of the immediate previous sources and immediate subsequent recipients of food. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), and is necessary to help address credible threats of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals. The requirement to establish and maintain records is one of several tools that will help improve FDA's ability to respond to, and further contain, threats of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals from accidental or deliberate contamination of food. In the event of an outbreak of foodborne illness, such information will help FDA and other authorities determine the source and cause of the event. In addition, the information will improve FDA's ability to quickly notify the consumers and/or facilities that might be affected by the outbreak.

  8. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  9. Predicting Response to Reassurances and Uncertainties in Bioterrorism Communications for Urban Populations in New York and California

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L.; Truman, Benedict I.; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.’s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N = 320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent

  10. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  11. Surge capacity for response to bioterrorism in hospital clinical microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Daniel S

    2003-12-01

    Surge capacity is the ability to rapidly mobilize to meet an increased demand. While large amounts of federal funding have been allocated to public health laboratories, little federal funding has been allocated to hospital microbiology laboratories. There are concerns that hospital laboratories may have inadequate surge capacities to deal with a significant bioterrorism incident. A workflow analysis of a clinical microbiology laboratory that serves an urban medical center was performed to identify barriers to surge capacity in the setting of a bioterrorism event and to identify solutions to these problems. Barriers include a national shortage of trained medical technologists, the inability of clinical laboratories to deal with a dramatic increase in the number of blood cultures, a delay while manufacturers increase production of critical products and then transport and deliver these products to clinical laboratories, and a shortage of class II biological safety cabinets. Federal funding could remedy staffing shortages by making the salaries of medical technologists comparable to those of similarly educated health care professionals and by providing financial incentives for students to enroll in clinical laboratory science programs. Blood culture bottles, and possibly continuous-monitoring blood culture instruments, should be added to the national antibiotic stockpile. Federal support must ensure that companies that manufacture essential laboratory supplies are capable of rapidly scaling up production. Hospitals must provide increased numbers of biological safety cabinets and amounts of space dedicated to clinical microbiology laboratories. Laboratories should undertake limited cross-training of technologists, ensure that adequate packaging supplies are available, and be able to move to a 4-day blood culture protocol.

  12. Bioterrorism: Implications for the Clinical Microbiologist

    PubMed Central

    Klietmann, Wolfgang F.; Ruoff, Kathryn L.

    2001-01-01

    The specter of bioterrorism has captured the attention of government and military officials, scientists, and the general public. Compared to other sectors of the population, clinical microbiologists are more directly impacted by concerns about bioterrorism. This review focuses on the role envisioned for clinical laboratories in response to a bioterrorist event. The microbiology and clinical aspects of the biological agents thought to be the most likely tools of bioterrorists are presented. The historical background of the problem of bioterrorism and an overview of current U.S. preparedness planning, with an emphasis on the roles of health care professionals, are also included. PMID:11292643

  13. Hawaii veterinarians' bioterrorism preparedness needs assessment survey.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alan R; Nekorchuk, Dawn M; Holck, Peter S; Hendrickson, Lisa A; Imrie, Allison A; Effler, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the objective bioterrorism-related knowledge base and the perceived response readiness of veterinarians in Hawaii to a bioterrorism event, and also to identify variables associated with knowledge-based test performance. An anonymous survey instrument was mailed to all licensed veterinarians residing in Hawaii (N = 229) up to three times during June and July 2004, using numeric identifiers to track non-respondents. The response rate for deliverable surveys was 59% (125 of 212). Only 12% (15 of 123) of respondents reported having had prior training on bioterrorism. Forty-four percent (55 of 125) reported being able to identify a bioterrorism event in animal populations; however, only 17% (21 of 125) felt able to recognize a bioterrorism event in human populations. Only 16% (20 of 123) felt they were able to respond effectively to a bioterrorist attack. Over 90% (106 of 116) expressed their willingness to provide assistance to the state in its response to a bioterrorist event. Veterinarians scored a mean of 70% correct (5.6 out of 8 questions) on the objective knowledge-based questions. Additional bioterrorism preparedness training should be made available, both in the form of continuing educational offerings for practicing veterinarians and as a component of the curriculum in veterinary schools.

  14. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  15. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern. PMID:23011963

  16. [Biological security confronting bioterrorism].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    A review is made on Biosecurity at both local and global level in relationship with Bioterrorism as a real threat and its control and prevention. The function of the network of High Security Laboratories around the world able to make immediate diagnosis, research on vaccines, fundamental and urgent epidemiological studies, conform a steady basis to control natural infections and also the possible bioterrorism attacks. PMID:12197209

  17. Collaboration Between Public Health and Law Enforcement: New Paradigms and Partnerships for Bioterrorism Planning and Response

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mitchell L.; Friedman, Cindy R.; Scripp, Robert M.; Watz, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    The biological attacks with powders containing Bacillus anthracis sent through the mail during September and October 2001 led to unprecedented public health and law enforcement investigations, which involved thousands of investigators from federal, state, and local agencies. Following recognition of the first cases of anthrax in Florida in early October 2001, investigators from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) were mobilized to assist investigators from state and local public health and law enforcement agencies. Although public health and criminal investigations have been conducted in concert in the past, the response to the anthrax attacks required close collaboration because of the immediate and ongoing threat to public safety. We describe the collaborations between CDC and FBI during the investigation of the 2001 anthrax attacks and highlight the challenges and successes of public health and law enforcement collaborations in general. PMID:12396931

  18. Incorporating bioterrorism content in the nursing curriculum: a creative approach.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melondie R; Gaskins, Susan W

    2010-07-01

    The community health faculty has developed a creative and comprehensive approach with community agencies to present bioterrorism content that could be useful to community health faculty in other schools of nursing. Since September 11, 2001, the United States has recognized that the threat of bioterrorism is real. Nurses are recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing as key players in disaster response efforts. However, bioterrorism knowledge among nurses and nursing students has been reported to be low, and textbooks do not include comprehensive information about bioterrorism preparedness. Our college of nursing has collaborated with the U.S. Public Health Department to design a creative educational experience for community health students on bioterrorism and disaster preparedness. Content areas include the National Stockpile, the Planned Response to Pandemic Influenza provided by the U.S. Public Health Department, recognition and treatment of biological threats, and the care of patients with smallpox. PMID:20210283

  19. Incorporating bioterrorism content in the nursing curriculum: a creative approach.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melondie R; Gaskins, Susan W

    2010-07-01

    The community health faculty has developed a creative and comprehensive approach with community agencies to present bioterrorism content that could be useful to community health faculty in other schools of nursing. Since September 11, 2001, the United States has recognized that the threat of bioterrorism is real. Nurses are recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing as key players in disaster response efforts. However, bioterrorism knowledge among nurses and nursing students has been reported to be low, and textbooks do not include comprehensive information about bioterrorism preparedness. Our college of nursing has collaborated with the U.S. Public Health Department to design a creative educational experience for community health students on bioterrorism and disaster preparedness. Content areas include the National Stockpile, the Planned Response to Pandemic Influenza provided by the U.S. Public Health Department, recognition and treatment of biological threats, and the care of patients with smallpox.

  20. A Rural County's Response to Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, Elizabeth Lee; White, Priscilla

    This paper describes the response of one locality, a rural county in Western Massachusetts, to the reality of rural homelessness. Jessie's House, in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, is a short-term emergency shelter providing meals, housing, and advocacy to homeless families and individuals. The shelter has a staff of three full-time residents and…

  1. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  2. [Practical strategies against bioterrorism].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2007-12-01

    Bioterrorism is terrorism by intentional release of viruses, bacteria, toxins or other agents to cause illness or death in people. Especially, anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers are important illness due to biological agents with a high potential for adverse public health impact. These biological agents can be spread through the air, through water, or in food and may cause disasters in the society. Furthermore, difficulties in detection and identification of the bioterrorism agents may result in immense harm. Then we need to take actions for the preparation for unexpected events to keep the damage to a minimum.

  3. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  4. Bioterrorism: an overview.

    PubMed

    Peralta, L A

    2000-01-01

    How real is the threat of bioterrorism? Experts may disagree on the likelihood of use, but the possibility cannot be totally dismissed. Complacent ignorance of a low-probability, high-cost risk is dangerous and can result in devastating global consequences. PMID:10818958

  5. Bioterrorism: an overview.

    PubMed

    Peralta, L A

    2001-10-01

    How real is the threat of bioterrorism? Experts may disagree on the likelihood of use, but the possibility cannot be totally dismissed. Complacent ignorance of a low-probability, high-cost risk is dangerous and can result in devastating global consequences. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use. PMID:15129614

  6. Bioterrorism. Implications for the occupational and environmental health nurse.

    PubMed

    Gwerder, L J; Beaton, R; Daniell, W

    2001-11-01

    1. Bioterrorism is the intentional release of a biological agent--bacterial, viral, or genetically altered--to instill fear or create chaos, massive casualities, illness, and death in humans, animals, or plants. 2. The threat of bioterrorism is real. Although every community is vulnerable, terrorists seek densely populated, highly visible targets. 3. Occupational and environmental health nurses must to be able to recognize and report signs and symptoms of an early bioweapons outbreak in their workplaces and communities. Only thorough preparedness and planning will result in effective mitigation and treatment. 4. The Bioterrorism Readiness Plan (at http://www.apic.org and http://www.CDC.gov/ncidod/hip) is a template for health care professionals to help plan a realistic response to bioterrorism. It serves as a tool for successful collaboration and communication among all disciplines and public health agencies for the best possible outcomes. PMID:11760706

  7. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  8. [Bioterrorism, parasites as potential bioterrorism agents and biosecurity studies].

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    A variety of agents have a potential risk for being use as weapons of biological terrorism. However, the use of parasites as bioterrorism agents has not received so much attention. Parasites could contribute to the installation of fear in human population upon intentional addition to their food and water supplies. On the other hand, vector-borne parasites can also constitute risk of bioterrorism. Biosecurity issues are gaining importance as a consequence of globalization. Surveillance is critical in maintaining biosecurity and early detection of infectious disease agents is essential. In this review article, bioterrorism, the role of parasites as potential bioterrorism agents, studies on biosecurity and laboratory design for biosafety have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  9. John Bartlett and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2014-09-15

    Until 1997, the subject of bioterrorism was not discussed within the medical community and deliberately ignored in national planning efforts. Biological weapons were regarded as "morally repulsive." This complacency stemmed from a 1972 Biological Weapons Convention where all countries agreed to cease offensive biological weapons research. In the 1990s, however, the Soviet Union was discovered to have an extensive bioweapons program and a Japanese religious cult sought to launch an anthrax attack on Tokyo. Biological weapons such as smallpox and anthrax had the potential to cause a national catastrophe. However, little was done until John Bartlett in 1997 led a symposium and program to educate the medical community and the country of the need for definitive bioweapons programs. It was highly persuasive and received a final stimulus when the anthrax attack occurred in the United States in 2001.

  10. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  11. John Bartlett and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2014-09-15

    Until 1997, the subject of bioterrorism was not discussed within the medical community and deliberately ignored in national planning efforts. Biological weapons were regarded as "morally repulsive." This complacency stemmed from a 1972 Biological Weapons Convention where all countries agreed to cease offensive biological weapons research. In the 1990s, however, the Soviet Union was discovered to have an extensive bioweapons program and a Japanese religious cult sought to launch an anthrax attack on Tokyo. Biological weapons such as smallpox and anthrax had the potential to cause a national catastrophe. However, little was done until John Bartlett in 1997 led a symposium and program to educate the medical community and the country of the need for definitive bioweapons programs. It was highly persuasive and received a final stimulus when the anthrax attack occurred in the United States in 2001. PMID:25151482

  12. Strengthening bioterrorism prevention: global biological materials management.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Reynolds M; Hickok, Lauren T

    2007-06-01

    The anthrax attacks of 2001 demonstrated that bioterrorism poses a significant threat to U.S. national security. This threat is increasing as a result of the rapid expansion in scale and technical capabilities of the global biotechnology industry, which is broadening the availability of materials, technologies, and expertise needed to produce a biological weapon and is lowering the barriers to biological weapons terrorism and proliferation. At the same time, there has been a rise of sophisticated yet loosely networked transnational terrorist groups that have shown an interest in bioterrorism. The United States must confront this convergence. Although the U.S. government pursues many different biodefense programs to bolster its ability to detect and respond to a bioterrorist attack, these efforts must be augmented with preventive measures to meet today's international challenges. U.S. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10 of April 2004 defines "Prevention and Protection" as one of the four essential pillars of the U.S. response to the bioterrorist threat. However, while bioscience and policy experts have proposed a variety of preventive initiatives, the creation of such programs has been slow and limited. Global biological materials management, which would focus on identifying and protecting those biological materials at the greatest risk of being used maliciously, is one potential solution. Such an approach would augment current U.S. biodefense efforts, provide the international community an effective means of mitigating the global threat of bioterrorism, and strengthen the international community's battle against emerging infectious disease.

  13. Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

    2013-09-01

    Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control.

  14. Strengthening bioterrorism prevention: global biological materials management.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Reynolds M; Hickok, Lauren T

    2007-06-01

    The anthrax attacks of 2001 demonstrated that bioterrorism poses a significant threat to U.S. national security. This threat is increasing as a result of the rapid expansion in scale and technical capabilities of the global biotechnology industry, which is broadening the availability of materials, technologies, and expertise needed to produce a biological weapon and is lowering the barriers to biological weapons terrorism and proliferation. At the same time, there has been a rise of sophisticated yet loosely networked transnational terrorist groups that have shown an interest in bioterrorism. The United States must confront this convergence. Although the U.S. government pursues many different biodefense programs to bolster its ability to detect and respond to a bioterrorist attack, these efforts must be augmented with preventive measures to meet today's international challenges. U.S. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10 of April 2004 defines "Prevention and Protection" as one of the four essential pillars of the U.S. response to the bioterrorist threat. However, while bioscience and policy experts have proposed a variety of preventive initiatives, the creation of such programs has been slow and limited. Global biological materials management, which would focus on identifying and protecting those biological materials at the greatest risk of being used maliciously, is one potential solution. Such an approach would augment current U.S. biodefense efforts, provide the international community an effective means of mitigating the global threat of bioterrorism, and strengthen the international community's battle against emerging infectious disease. PMID:17608597

  15. Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

    2013-09-01

    Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control. PMID:23971813

  16. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  17. A model curriculum for public health bioterrorism education.

    PubMed Central

    Dembek, Zygmunt; Iton, Anthony; Hansen, Holger

    2005-01-01

    Beginning with the spring semester of 2001, a course designed to prepare future public health leaders for potential bioterrorism events has been offered by the University of Connecticut Graduate Program in Public Health. Entitled "The Public Health Response to Bioterrorism," this popular course was one of the few developed by academic programs in the United States prior to the attack of September 11, 2001. The course utilizes innovative teaching methods and presentations by distinguished guest speakers to educate public health personnel, public health and medical students, and physicians and nurses about the complex issues involved in the public health response to bioterrorism. The instructional methods and curriculum can serve as prototypes for similar efforts. PMID:15736326

  18. Bioterrorism : A Public Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Kataria, V K

    2010-07-01

    The intentional release or threat of release of biologic agents (i.e. viruses, bacteria, fungi or their toxins) in order to cause disease or death among human population or food crops and livestock to terrorize a civilian population or manipulate the government in the present scenario of increased terrorist activity has become a real possibility. The most important step in the event of a bioterrorist attack is the identification of the event. This can be achieved by generating awareness, having high degree of suspicion and having a good surveillance system to assist quick detection. Bioterrorist attacks could be covert or announced and caused by virtually any pathogenic microorganism. Bioterrorist agents of major concern have been categorized as A, B and C based on the priority of the agents to pose a risk to the national security and the ease with which they can be disseminated. The five phases of activities in dealing with a bioterrorist attack are preparedness phase, early warning phase, notification phase, response phase and recovery phase. A bioterrorism attack in a public place is a public health emergency. Early detection and rapid investigation is the key to contain such attacks. The role of public health epidemiologist is critical not only in determining the scope and magnitude of the attack but also in effective implementation of interventions. PMID:27408313

  19. Smallpox and bioterrorism.

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Smallpox was declared to be eradicated on 8 May 1980, during the Thirty-third World Health Assembly. However, concerns about the possible use of the virus as a weapon of bioterrorism have increased in recent years. Governments have responded by initiating selective vaccination programmes and other public health measures. This review uses historical data from 20th century outbreaks to assess the risks to current populations (which have declining immunity) from a deliberate release of virus. The data presented supports the conclusion of a previous reviewer (Mack) that "smallpox cannot be said to live up to its reputation. Far from being a quick-footed menace, it has appeared as a plodding nuisance with more bark than bite." Its R value (the average number of secondary cases infected by a primary case) is lower than that for measles, human parvovirus, chickenpox, mumps, rubella, and poliomyelitis; only the value for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is lower. Like SARS, close person-to-person contact is required for effective spread of the disease, and exposure to the virus in hospitals has played an important role in transmission for both viruses. In the present paper the dangers of mass vaccination are emphasized, along with the importance of case isolation, contact tracing, and quarantine of close contacts for outbreak control. The need for rapid diagnosis and the continued importance of maintaining a network of electron microscopes for this purpose are also highlighted. PMID:14758439

  20. Francisella tularensis as a potential agent of bioterrorism?

    PubMed

    Maurin, Max

    2015-02-01

    Francisella tularensis is a category A bioterrorism agent. It is the etiological agent of tularemia, a zoonotic disease found throughout the northern hemisphere. The intentional spread of F. tularensis aerosols would probably lead to severe and often fatal pneumonia cases, but also secondary cases from contaminated animals and environments. We are not ready to face such a situation. No vaccine is currently available. A few antibiotics are active against F. tularensis, but strains resistant to these antibiotics could be used in the context of bioterrorism. We need new therapeutic strategies to fight against category A bioterrorism agents, including development of new drugs inhibiting F. tularensis growth and/or virulence, or enhancing the host response to infection by this pathogen.

  1. Bioterrorism: a laboratory who does it?

    PubMed

    Craft, David W; Lee, Philip A; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire

    2014-07-01

    In October 2001, the first disseminated biological warfare attack was perpetrated on American soil. Initially, a few clinical microbiology laboratories were testing specimens from acutely ill patients and also being asked to test nasal swabs from the potentially exposed. Soon after, a significant number of clinical microbiology and public health laboratories received similar requests to test the worried well or evaluate potentially contaminated mail or environmental materials, sometimes from their own break rooms. The role of the clinical and public health microbiology laboratory in response to a select agent event or act of bioterrorism is reviewed.

  2. Bioterrorism: a Laboratory Who Does It?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Philip A.; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire

    2014-01-01

    In October 2001, the first disseminated biological warfare attack was perpetrated on American soil. Initially, a few clinical microbiology laboratories were testing specimens from acutely ill patients and also being asked to test nasal swabs from the potentially exposed. Soon after, a significant number of clinical microbiology and public health laboratories received similar requests to test the worried well or evaluate potentially contaminated mail or environmental materials, sometimes from their own break rooms. The role of the clinical and public health microbiology laboratory in response to a select agent event or act of bioterrorism is reviewed. PMID:24648550

  3. Tabletop scenarios for realism in bioterrorism and threat preparedness.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rachel T; Walls, Richard T; Fischer, Mark; Markovic-Reed, Sandra; Solovieva, Tatiana I; Russell, Floyd K; Ducatman, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    Five realistic tabletop scenarios were designed to facilitate threat preparedness training of Medical, Public Health, Nursing, Emergency Services, Mental Health, Allied Health, and Pharmacy personnel. Training scenarios were (1) student contaminates lettuce (Act) in a state university with Shigella sonnei (Agent), (2) dismissed athlete contaminates ice (Act) at the basketball tournament with Escherichia coli (Agent), (3) workers fail to report abandoned backpacks (Act) at a state fair that contain smallpox virus (Agent), (4) terrorists expose county residents (Act) to Pneumonic plague bacterium (Agent), and (5) infected birds expose field-trip participants (Act) to Avian influenza virus (Agent). Evaluation of the tabletops yielded positive ratings of educational outcomes in these domains: well-structured, organized, plausible, realistic, engaging, on-target, useful, and multidisciplinary. Attendees with previous blended-learning courses on bioterrorism and threat preparedness enhanced performance in the tabletop exercises. Evaluative data indicated a new level of competence and self-confidence about being part of a coordinated, local-level, interdisciplinary response.

  4. Hospital bioterrorism planning and burn surge.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B; Rich, Preston B; Hultman, C Scott; Charles, Anthony G; Jones, Samuel W; Schmits, Grace L; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity.

  5. Hospital Bioterrorism Planning and Burn Surge

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B.; Rich, Preston B.; Hultman, C. Scott; Charles, Anthony G.; Jones, Samuel W.; Schmits, Grace L.; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H.; Cairns, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

  6. Hospital bioterrorism planning and burn surge.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B; Rich, Preston B; Hultman, C Scott; Charles, Anthony G; Jones, Samuel W; Schmits, Grace L; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

  7. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: 1. A Primer on Bioterrorism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerville, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the history of and describes what biology educators should know about the topic of bioterrorism. Suggests materials that can be used to communicate more effectively with students and the community and prepare a classroom discussion on bioterrorism. (KHR)

  8. [Analysis of policies in activating the Infectious Disease Specialist Network (IDSN) for bioterrorism events].

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang Soo

    2008-07-01

    Bioterrorism events have worldwide impacts, not only in terms of security and public health policy, but also in other related sectors. Many countries, including Korea, have set up new administrative and operational structures and adapted their preparedness and response plans in order to deal with new kinds of threats. Korea has dual surveillance systems for the early detection of bioterrorism. The first is syndromic surveillance that typically monitors non-specific clinical information that may indicate possible bioterrorism-associated diseases before specific diagnoses are made. The other is infectious disease specialist network that diagnoses and responds to specific illnesses caused by intentional release of biologic agents. Infectious disease physicians, clinical microbiologists, and infection control professionals play critical and complementary roles in these networks. Infectious disease specialists should develop practical and realistic response plans for their institutions in partnership with local and state health departments, in preparation for a real or suspected bioterrorism attack.

  9. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade.

  10. The 2005 'Last Chance Bravo' bioterrorism exercise.

    PubMed

    Balch, David; Rosenthal, David; Taylor, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 'Last Chance Bravo' bioterrorism exercise provided a forum for testing advanced technologies in a simulated disaster. The four-day exercise included a 2-day simulated pneumonic plague outbreak, with 50 participants from the Montana Department of Health and Human Services, 20 participants from various hospital organizations and approximately 150 participants from over 40 telemedicine sites. Telephone communications and Web tools supported much of the critical information exchange. Videoconferencing added an element of image sharing for pathology, radiology and geospatial mapping. During the exercise three telehealth networks facilitated a telemedicine session to over 40 sites across Montana. Because of the large number of telehealth sites participating, the videoconference session became more like an informational news broadcast. The ability of telemedicine to support image and data sharing may be a significant advantage over simple telephone communications in disaster response.

  11. Plague: from natural disease to bioterrorism

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, an enzootic vectorborne disease usually infecting rodents (rats) and fleas. Humans can become infected after being bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents. In humans, the disease usually occurs in the form of bubonic plague. In rare cases, the infection spreads to the lungs via the bloodstream and causes secondary pneumonic plague. Person-to-person transmission has been described for pneumonic plague but is rare in primary bubonic plague. Bubonic plague can usually be treated successfully with antibiotics; however, pneumonic plague develops rapidly and carries a high fatality rate despite immediate treatment with antibiotics. Plague is also recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism. It has been used, or considered for use, as a biologic weapon on several occasions. It is important for the medical community to be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and symptoms of plague so it can deliver an appropriate and calm response should the unthinkable happen. PMID:16200159

  12. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade. PMID:21809759

  13. Legal preparedness for bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Gene W; Benjamin, Georges; Mills, S Peter; Parmet, Wendy; Misrahi, James J

    2002-01-01

    Responding to a terrorist biological weapon attack poses new challenges not only for the public health response community but also to the very construct of public health police powers as we know them today. States are debating the merits of revising and updating these powers in order to ensure an effective and legally appropriate response. This article covers three aspects of the policy debate: the experience in one state from a legislative perspective, a discussion from an academic viewpoint, and one example of the role of enhanced powers from the response perspective. PMID:12508503

  14. Bioterrorism and the Fermi Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    We proffer a contemporary solution to the so-called Fermi Paradox, which is concerned with conflict between Copernicanism and the apparent paucity of evidence for intelligent alien civilizations. In particular, we argue that every community of organisms that reaches its space-faring age will (1) almost immediately use its rocket-building computers to reverse-engineer its genetic chemistry and (2) self-destruct when some individual uses said technology to design an omnicidal pathogen. We discuss some of the possible approaches to prevention with regard to Homo sapiens' vulnerability to bioterrorism, particularly on a short-term basis.

  15. Pathogenic rickettsiae as bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abdu F

    2007-07-15

    Because of their unique biological characteristics, such as environmental stability, small size, aerosol transmission, persistence in infected hosts, low infectious dose, and high associated morbidity and mortality, Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii have been weaponized. These biological attributes would make the pathogenic rickettsiae desirable bioterrorism agents. However, production of highly purified, virulent, weapon-quality rickettsiae is a daunting task that requires expertise and elaborate, state-of-the art laboratory procedures to retain rickettsial survival and virulence. Another drawback to developing rickettsial pathogens as biological weapons is their lack of direct transmission from host to host and the availability of very effective therapeutic countermeasures against these obligate intracellular bacteria.

  16. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  17. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advent of deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has furnished guidelines for microbiological...

  18. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  19. Bioterrorism

    MedlinePlus

    ... but many more become afraid and change their behavior because of their fear. What is anthrax? Anthrax is an infection caused by the spores of a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in hooved animals such as cattle and sheep. It is rare ...

  20. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. PMID:24890710

  1. Biodefense and Bioterrorism - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Biodefense and Bioterrorism URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... XYZ List of All Topics All Biodefense and Bioterrorism - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. [Bioterrorism agents: getting ready for the unthinkable].

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S.A. demonstrated our vulnerability to terrorist raids. Furthermore, in the same year inhalational anthrax cases in humans caused by the intentional [corrected] release of Bacillus anthracis spores via the U.S.A. postal system inflicted a lot of panic and terror over the civilian population. The succeeding terrorist events scattered in several other countries are continuous reminders of our frailness [corrected] and of the risk that terrorists attempts in the future may be implemented by means of deliberate evil release of biological agents. These events may be perpetrated by either the release of an infectious agent or any of its products in order to spread death or sickness in humans, animals, or plants with the obnoxius purpose of scaring governments and societies for the profit of particular ideological causes. In the current article, we present a review of the main bioterrorism agents, as well as a historical and clinical aspects and their significance for public health preparedness and response.

  3. Bioterrorism Preparedness: What School Counselors Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer N.; Rank, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the safety of school-aged children and adolescents, school counselors must not ignore or deny the public health threat of bioterrorism (Henderson, 1998). Rather, school counselors must be prepared with knowledge about bioterrorism and intervention skills. Bioterrorism within the United States is a continuing threat. Because children and…

  4. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  5. Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?

    PubMed

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2005-09-01

    Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches. PMID:16229381

  6. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department o...

  7. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  8. Bioterrorism and Real-World Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla

    2003-01-01

    Recent events, such as the anthrax scares and the SARS outbreak, have forced teachers to focus on issues such as disease control and bioterrorism in their own backyards. Students are aware of the current biological issues in the news and are curious about infectious diseases and the issues relating to biological warfare. In order to address the…

  9. Risk of Disease Spread through Bioterrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Richard E.

    2006-08-01

    Bioterrorism is seen as a clear and present danger, although historically, acts of bioterrorism have been relatively unpredictable, rare and, thus far, small-scale events. The risk of an event is elevated by increasing contact among species and a global connectivity that provides rapid dissemination of infectious diseases regardless of origin. Virtually any pathogenic microbe could be used by bioterrorists. An attack may be difficult to distinguish from a naturally occurring infectious disease outbreak; however, consequences are likely to be similar. The U.S. agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to bioterrorist attacks because our animals and plants have little or no innate resistance to foreign pathogens and are not vaccinated or otherwise protected against these diseases. It is also important to note that weapons or delivery systems are not an issue because the animals and plants themselves are the primary vector for transferring agents. Most bioterrorism agents are zoonotic in origin, thus an attack on animal populations could pose a health risk to humans. Additionally, disease outbreaks resulting from bioterrorism could jump to wildlife species, persist in the environment, replace locally adapted enzootic strains, expand their range, or emerge as a new zoonotic disease in naïve human and animal populations.

  10. Science Publishing in the Age of Bioterrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlas, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax bioterrorism mailings, the science community and others worried that technical articles might inadvertently aid those planning acts of terrorism. Some authors asked the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) for permission to withhold critical information from…

  11. Emergency mental health management in bioterrorism events.

    PubMed

    Benedek, David M; Holloway, Harry C; Becker, Steven M

    2002-05-01

    The United States has not suffered significant psychosocial or medical consequences from the use of biological weapons within its territories. This has contributed to a "natural" state of denial at the community level. This denial could amplify the sense of crisis, anxiety, fear, chaos, and disorder that would accompany such a bioterrorist event. A key part of primary prevention involves counteracting this possibility before an incident occurs. Doing so will require realistic information regarding the bioterrorism threat followed by the development of a planned response and regular practice of that response. Unlike in natural disasters or other situations resulting in mass casualties, emergency department physicians or nurses and primary care physicians (working in concert with epidemiologic agencies), rather than police, firemen, or ambulance personnel, will be most likely to first identify the unfolding disaster associated with a biological attack. Like community leaders, this group of medical responders must be aware of its own susceptibility to mental health sequelae and performance decrement as the increasing demands of disaster response outpace the availability of necessary resources. A bioterrorist attack will necessitate treatment of casualties who experience neuropsychiatric symptoms and syndromes. Although symptoms may result from exposure to infection with specific biological agents, similar symptoms may result from the mere perception of exposure or arousal precipitated by fear of infection, disease, suffering, and death. Conservative use of psychotropic medications may reduce symptoms in exposed and uninfected individuals, as may cognitive-behavioral interventions. Clear, consistent, accessible, reliable, and redundant information (received from trusted sources) will diminish public uncertainty about the cause of symptoms that might otherwise prompt persons to seek unnecessary treatment. Training and preparation for contingencies experienced in an

  12. [Confronting bioterrorism: Epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive aspects of smallpox].

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; del Río, Carlos; Nava-Frías, Margarita; Rangel-Frausto, Sigfrido; Téllez, Ildefonso; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    The worldwide eradication of smallpox, a major achievement in public health, is currently threatened by the risk of bioterrorism. The debate on the destruction of the Variola virus in the two reference laboratories of the World Health Organization has dramatically switched to the preservation of the remaining virus after the September 2001 terrorist events in the U.S. along with the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the U.S. The risk of intentional release of Variola virus constitutes a minimal, yet possible risk. A smallpox epidemic could have a devastating impact due to its elevated morbidity and mortality that would inflict in non-immune human population, in addition to the ensuing panic and social unrest. Therefore, the development of national preparedness and response plans along with the availability of smallpox vaccine to be used in the post-exposure phase represent a fundamental part of the preventive efforts to cope with bioterrorism. Reestablishing a preventive vaccination program was recently recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). However, the vaccine currently available has historically been associated with serious adverse reactions, even death. Thus, this recommendation has not been universally accepted. To counter an epidemic of smallpox, medical personnel in the frontline need to be prepared with updated smallpox information to identify, diagnose, isolate, and treat cases if a bioterrorist attack should occur. Herein we present an indepth review for health care personnel with relevant epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive information on smallpox.

  13. Bioterrorism and the Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagar, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Regular review of the management of bioterrorism is essential for maintaining readiness for these sporadically occurring events. This review provides an overview of the history of biological disasters and bioterrorism. I also discuss the recent recategorization of tier 1 agents by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Laboratory Response Network (LRN), and specific training and readiness processes and programs, such as the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Laboratory Preparedness Exercise (LPX). LPX examined the management of cultivable bacterial vaccine and attenuated strains of tier 1 agents or close mimics. In the LPX program, participating laboratories showed improvement in the level of diagnosis required and referral of isolates to an appropriate reference laboratory. Agents which proved difficult to manage in sentinel laboratories included the more fastidious Gram-negative organisms, especially Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia spp. The recent Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic provided a check on LRN safety processes. Specific guidelines and recommendations for laboratory safety and risk assessment in the clinical microbiology are explored so that sentinel laboratories can better prepare for the next biological disaster.

  14. Bioterrorism and the Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagar, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Regular review of the management of bioterrorism is essential for maintaining readiness for these sporadically occurring events. This review provides an overview of the history of biological disasters and bioterrorism. I also discuss the recent recategorization of tier 1 agents by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Laboratory Response Network (LRN), and specific training and readiness processes and programs, such as the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Laboratory Preparedness Exercise (LPX). LPX examined the management of cultivable bacterial vaccine and attenuated strains of tier 1 agents or close mimics. In the LPX program, participating laboratories showed improvement in the level of diagnosis required and referral of isolates to an appropriate reference laboratory. Agents which proved difficult to manage in sentinel laboratories included the more fastidious Gram-negative organisms, especially Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia spp. The recent Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic provided a check on LRN safety processes. Specific guidelines and recommendations for laboratory safety and risk assessment in the clinical microbiology are explored so that sentinel laboratories can better prepare for the next biological disaster. PMID:26656673

  15. [Bioterrorism: data of a recent history of risks and uncertainties].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Dora Rambauske; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Today, bioterrorism is a real threat in the whole world. Considering the actions of bioterrorism by using biological agents capable of promoting great epidemics and overload in the health systems of any city, state or country, the bioterrorism is not only a health professional concern, but government and military also. This article discusses a bibliographical review done in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO and REPIDISCA databases, during the period of 1997 the 2007, the characteristics of related national publications to the bioterrorism, the type of biological agents studied, and the existing knowledge in the country to face a bioterrorism event, in order to feed with information the professionals who will act in first reply to the bioterrorism events and that are essential to reduce the number of victims. PMID:21503429

  16. [Bioterrorism: data of a recent history of risks and uncertainties].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Dora Rambauske; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Today, bioterrorism is a real threat in the whole world. Considering the actions of bioterrorism by using biological agents capable of promoting great epidemics and overload in the health systems of any city, state or country, the bioterrorism is not only a health professional concern, but government and military also. This article discusses a bibliographical review done in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO and REPIDISCA databases, during the period of 1997 the 2007, the characteristics of related national publications to the bioterrorism, the type of biological agents studied, and the existing knowledge in the country to face a bioterrorism event, in order to feed with information the professionals who will act in first reply to the bioterrorism events and that are essential to reduce the number of victims.

  17. [Bioterrorism--a public and health threat].

    PubMed

    Jezek, Z

    2000-11-01

    In recent years the fear of bioterrorism, of secret modernization and dissemination of biological weapons is increasing. Facts detected recently in Iran, Japan and the former Soviet Union provide evidence that there are countries and dissident groups which have access to modern technology of cultivation of dangerous pathogens as well as motivation for their use in acts of terrorism or war. The menace of biological terrorism is nowadays, as compared with the past, much greater. The most feared candidates as regards production of biological weapons are the pathogens of smallpox, anthrax and plague. The author discusses the serious character of possible events associated with terrorist dissemination of these pathogens. It is much esier to produce and use biological weapons than to create effective systems of defence against them. The menace of bioterrorism and bioweapons must not be exaggerated nor underestimated. The possible terrorist use of bioweapons is real. At present even the most advanced industrial countries cannot quarantee effective protection of their populations. Fortunately they are however aware of their present vulnerability. Our society is not equipped to cope with bioterrorism. Preparation and reinforcement of the health services, in particular of sections specialized in the control of infectious diseases is an effective step to divert the sequelae and suffering associated with terrorist use of biological agents. It is essential to be prepared. This calls for time and funds which unfortunately are not plentiful. PMID:11188765

  18. Bioterrorism and Smallpox: Policies, Practices, and Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackelprang, Romel W.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Thirkill, Ashley D.

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist acts and the fear of terrorism have become a part of everyday life in the early 21st century. Among the threats most feared is bioterrorism, including the intentional release of smallpox. With the invasion of Iraq and toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime, acute bioterrorism fears have abated; however, an ongoing threat remains. This…

  19. Infectious agents of bioterrorism: a review for emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Kman, Nicholas E; Nelson, Richard N

    2008-05-01

    The terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001 and the anthrax release soon after brought the issue of bioterrorism to the forefront in the medical community. Bioterrorism is the use of a biologic weapon to create terror and panic. Biologic weapons, or bioweapons, can be bacteria, fungi, viruses, or biologic toxins. Because the emergency department represents the front line of defense for the recognition of agents of bioterrorism, it is essential that emergency physicians have the ability to quickly diagnose victims of bioterrorism. This review examines the most deadly and virulent category A agents of bioterrorism, that is, anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, hemorrhagic fever viruses, and tularemia. The focus is on epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  20. The next target of bioterrorism: your food.

    PubMed Central

    Pellerin, C

    2000-01-01

    One of the many forms that biological warfare may take is the targeting of major food crops. In a poor country where millions of citizens depend on staple crops such as rice, an act of bioterrorism that destroys the crop would create a famine, resulting not only in malnutrition and starvation but also in reduced immune resistance to a range of common illnesses. To reduce the potential of deliberate introductions of crop pathogens as acts of terrorism, researchers must be able to "fingerprint" pathogens at the molecular level and discriminate between naturally occurring and deliberately introduced outbreaks. Several domestic and international surveillance, tracking, and reporting efforts are under way. PMID:10706540

  1. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  2. Brucella as a potential agent of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Gizem D; Doganay, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Perception on bioterrorism has changed after the deliberate release of anthrax by the postal system in the United States of America in 2001. Potential bioterrorism agents have been reclassified based on their dissemination, expected rate of mortality, availability, stability, and ability to lead a public panic. Brucella species can be easily cultured from infected animals and human materials. Also, it can be transferred, stored and disseminated easily. An intentional contamination of food with Brucella species could pose a threat with low mortality rate. Brucella spp. is highly infectious through aerosol route, making it an attractive pathogen to be used as a potential agent for biological warfare purposes. Recently, many studies have been concentrated on appropriate sampling of Brucella spp. from environment including finding ways for its early detection and development of new decontamination procedures such as new drugs and vaccines. There are many ongoing vaccine development studies; some of which recently received patents for detection and therapy of Brucella spp. However, there is still no available vaccine for humans. In this paper, recent developments and recent patents on brucellosis are reviewed and discussed.

  3. Bioterrorism preparedness--Part II. Smallpox vaccination in a hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lenworth M; Emanuelsen, Kathy; McKay, Charles; Burns, Karyl

    2004-01-01

    The threat of using smallpox as an agent for bioterrorism resulted in a directive for the creation of smallpox response teams. In Connecticut, The Commissioner of the Department of Public Health convened public health and hospital leadership to plan for the vaccination of these teams. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the vaccination program at Hartford Hospital, a Center of Excellence for Bioterrorism Preparedness, and to report the results of a survey of the vaccinees regarding the vaccination experience. Ninety persons were vaccinated. Six individuals experienced low-grade fever and 10 had axillary node swelling. One individual experienced significant fatigue. A total of six persons lost time from work. Four lost one day and two persons lost between four to five days of work. There was no autoinoculation, transfer inoculation, vaccinia or any other significant complication. Survey results indicate that most vaccinees felt positive about the experience.

  4. Indian Point Nuclear Power Station: verification analysis of County Radiological Emergency-Response Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, J.; Whitfield, R.

    1983-05-01

    This report was developed as a management tool for use by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region II staff. The analysis summarized in this report was undertaken to verify the extent to which procedures, training programs, and resources set forth in the County Radiological Emergency Response Plans (CRERPs) for Orange, Putnam, and Westchester counties in New York had been realized prior to the March 9, 1983, exercise of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station near Buchanan, New York. To this end, a telephone survey of county emergency response organizations was conducted between January 19 and February 22, 1983. This report presents the results of responses obtained from this survey of county emergency response organizations.

  5. Reducing mortality from anthrax bioterrorism: strategies for stockpiling and dispensing medical and pharmaceutical supplies.

    PubMed

    Bravata, Dena M; Zaric, Gregory S; Holty, Jon-Erik C; Brandeau, Margaret L; Wilhelm, Emilee R; McDonald, Kathryn M; Owens, Douglas K

    2006-01-01

    A critical question in planning a response to bioterrorism is how antibiotics and medical supplies should be stockpiled and dispensed. The objective of this work was to evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative strategies for maintaining and dispensing local and regional inventories of antibiotics and medical supplies for responses to anthrax bioterrorism. We modeled the regional and local supply chain for antibiotics and medical supplies as well as local dispensing capacity. We found that mortality was highly dependent on the local dispensing capacity, the number of individuals requiring prophylaxis, adherence to prophylactic antibiotics, and delays in attack detection. For an attack exposing 250,000 people and requiring the prophylaxis of 5 million people, expected mortality fell from 243,000 to 145,000 as the dispensing capacity increased from 14,000 to 420,000 individuals per day. At low dispensing capacities (<14,000 individuals per day), nearly all exposed individuals died, regardless of the rate of adherence to prophylaxis, delays in attack detection, or availability of local inventories. No benefit was achieved by doubling local inventories at low dispensing capacities; however, at higher dispensing capacities, the cost-effectiveness of doubling local inventories fell from 100,000 US dollars to 20,000 US dollars/life year gained as the annual probability of an attack increased from 0.0002 to 0.001. We conclude that because of the reportedly rapid availability of regional inventories, the critical determinant of mortality following anthrax bioterrorism is local dispensing capacity. Bioterrorism preparedness efforts directed at improving local dispensing capacity are required before benefits can be reaped from enhancing local inventories. PMID:16999586

  6. Responding to the threat of bioterrorism: a microbial ecology perspective--the case of anthrax.

    PubMed

    Atlas, R M

    2002-12-01

    Anthrax is a disease of herbivores caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It can affect cattle, sheep, swine, horses and various species of wildlife. The routes for the spread among wildlife are reviewed. There are three kinds of human anthrax--inhalation, cutaneous, and intestinal anthrax--which differ in their routes of infection and outcomes. In the United States, confirmation of cases is made by the isolation of B. anthracis and by biochemical tests. Vaccination is not recommended for the general public; civilians who should be vaccinated include those who, in their work places, come in contact with products potentially contaminated with B. anthracis spores, and people engaged in research or diagnostic activities. After September 11, 2001, there were bioterrorism anthrax attacks in the United States: anthrax-laced letters sent to multiple locations were the source of infectious B. anthracis. The US Postal Service issued recommendations to prevent the danger of hazardous exposure to the bacterium. B. anthracis spores can spread easily and persist for very long times, which makes decontamination of buildings very difficult. Early detection, rapid diagnosis, and well-coordinated public health response are the key to minimizing casualties. The US Government is seeking new ways to deter bioterrorism, including a tighter control of research on infectious agents, even though pathogens such as B. anthracis are widely spread in nature and easy to grow. It is necessary to define the boundary between defensive and offensive biological weapons research. Deterring bioterrorism should not restrict critical scientific research. PMID:12497181

  7. Bioterrorism: a challenge to public health and medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M A

    2000-07-01

    Only a few years ago, an attack with a biological agent would have been considered almost unthinkable. Today, however, the threat of bioterrorism is real and growing. This article will provide a brief overview of the threat of bioterrorism, the special role of public health and medicine, and some of the critical issues that need to be addressed as this nation prepares for this disturbing and potentially catastrophic threat. PMID:10977611

  8. Challenges of Detecting Bioterrorism Agents in Complex Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    This chapter offers an overview of the shift from the use of mass ­spectrometry for studying purified bioterrorism agents to the development of methods for rapid detection thereof in environmental and clinical samples. We discuss the difficulties of working with such complex matrices and present methods for quickly and effectively reducing complexity through sample preparation. Finally, we examine a success story wherein the common pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent norovirus is detected at clinically relevant levels in human stool.

  9. The impact of federal bioterrorism funding programs on local health department preparedness activities.

    PubMed

    Avery, George H; Zabriskie-Timmerman, Jennifer

    2009-06-01

    Using the 2005 National Association of County and City Health Officers Profile of Local Health Departments data set, bivariate probit and Heckman selection models were used to test the hypothesis that the level of federal funding received for bioterrorism preparedness is related to the preparedness activities undertaken by local health departments. Overall budget, leadership, and crisis experience are found to be the most important determinants of local preparedness activity, but Centers for Disease Control and Prevention preparedness funding plays a mediating role by building capacity through the hiring of one key leadership position, the emergency preparedness coordinator. Additional research is needed to determine the potential impact of these funds on other aspects of the local public health system, such as the scope of services delivered, to determine secondary effects of the program.

  10. The pitfalls of bioterrorism preparedness: the anthrax and smallpox experiences.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hillel W; Gould, Robert M; Sidel, Victor W

    2004-10-01

    Bioterrorism preparedness programs have contributed to death, illness, and waste of public health resources without evidence of benefit. Several deaths and many serious illnesses have resulted from the smallpox vaccination program; yet there is no clear evidence that a threat of smallpox exposure ever existed. The anthrax spores released in 2001 have been linked to secret US military laboratories-the resultant illnesses and deaths might not have occurred if those laboratories were not in operation. The present expansion of bioterrorism preparedness programs will continue to squander health resources, increase the dangers of accidental or purposeful release of dangerous pathogens, and further undermine efforts to enforce international treaties to ban biological and chemical weapons. The public health community should acknowledge the substantial harm that bioterrorism preparedness has already caused and develop mechanisms to increase our public health resources and to allocate them to address the world's real health needs. PMID:15451727

  11. First Case of Bioterrorism-Related Inhalational Anthrax, Florida, 2001: North Carolina Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Maillard, Jean-Marie; McKee, Kelly T.; Turner, Lou F.; Cline, J. Steven

    2002-01-01

    The index case of inhalational anthrax in October 2001 was in a man who lived and worked in Florida. However, during the 3 days before illness onset, the patient had traveled through North Carolina, raising the possibility that exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores could have occurred there. The rapid response in North Carolina included surveillance among hospital intensive-care units, microbiology laboratories, medical examiners, and veterinarians, and site investigations at locations visited by the index patient to identify the naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related source of his exposure. PMID:12396911

  12. Bioterrorism: relevance to allergy and immunology in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Stephen B; Singer, Andrew M; Revan, Vidyashankar B; Baker, James R

    2002-02-01

    It has become clear in recent months that the threat of bioterrorism is very real. All physicians need to be aware of the presenting signs and symptoms of the most likely agents. Allergists and immunologists care for a unique population of patients with several alterations of their immune system that might change the expected course of illnesses from biologic terror agents. In this review, we discuss specific bioterrorism agents, focusing on their presentation, pathogenesis, and immunology. In addition, we describe how these illnesses might differ in the population of patients followed by allergists and immunologists. PMID:11842289

  13. Undergraduate teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism at medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stephen T; Cladi, Lorenzo; Morris, Paul; Forde, Donall

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if individual undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and the Republic of Ireland provide any teaching to medical students about biological weapons, bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation, if they perceive them to be relevant issues and if they figure them in their future plans. Design A cross-sectional study utilising an internet-based questionnaire sent to key figures responsible for leading on the planning and delivery of undergraduate medical teaching at all schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland. Setting All identified undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland between August 2012 and December 2012. Outcome measures Numerical data and free text feedback about relevant aspects of undergraduate teaching. Results Of the 38 medical schools approached, 34 (28 in UK, 6 in Ireland) completed the questionnaire (89.47%). 4 (all in UK) chose not to complete it. 6/34 (17.65%) included some specific teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism. 7/34 (20.59%) had staff with bioterrorism expertise (mainly in microbiological and syndromic aspects). 4/34 (11.76%) had plans to introduce some specific teaching on bioterrorism. Free text responses revealed that some felt that because key bodies (eg, UK's General Medical Council) did not request teaching on bioterrorism, then it should not be included, while others regarded this field of study as a postgraduate subject and not appropriate for undergraduates, or argued that the curriculum was too congested already. 4/34 (11.76%) included some specific teaching on chemical weapons, and 3/34 (8.82%) on weaponised radiation. Conclusions This study provides evidence that at the present time there is little teaching at the undergraduate level in the UK and Ireland on the subjects of biological weapons and bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation and signals that this situation is unlikely to change unless there were to be high-level policy guidance. PMID

  14. 7 CFR 1940.308 - Environmental responsibilities at the District and County Office levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental responsibilities at the District and County Office levels. 1940.308 Section 1940.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. Hurricane Floyd. Response of the Pitt County Medical Community.

    PubMed

    Franklin, J A; Wiese, W; Meredith, J T; Lalikos, J F; Dolezal, J M; Brigham, D; Wooden, W A; Ohl, C

    2000-01-01

    The financial impact of Hurricane Floyd on the medical community is still being tabulated. Initial estimates indicate a $5.8 million loss to UHS in operating revenue. Additional hospital costs include $568,000 for overtime pay, $310,000 for special equipment including helicopters and general supplies, and $1.2 million in "bonus pay" to the hospital's 6000 employees. The ECU School of Medicine suffered losses estimated at $3.6 million, including lost revenue, overtime, and salaries paid when clinics and services were shut down. Most private offices suffered from lost revenues and occasionally from flood damage to property. Hurricane Floyd was the most costly disaster to hit Eastern North Carolina and the Mid-Atlantic United States. The medical community and its patients were severely challenged from the terrible effects of flooding, but the collaborative efforts of a great number of individuals and a spirit of teamwork came together to provide continued health care to the region. It is very likely that the preventive measures enacted both before and after the storm averted illness and injury, and saved lives. Ingenuity, innovation, and optimal use of available resources allowed Pitt County Memorial Hospital and its surrounding medical community to stay in operation. We have learned a great deal from these experiences that will help us plan for future natural disasters. PMID:10647255

  16. The Delivery: A Case Study in Bioterrorism Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosh, Judith; Davis, Kim; Fullwood, Angela; Lippek, Maryann; Middleton, Jill

    This paper describes a bioterrorism incident at a Connecticut elementary school. Flowers sent to a teacher were permeated with anthrax spores that infected the teacher, 12 of her students, 3 office staff members, and an administrator. The teacher subsequently died. The Connecticut Department of Public Health confirmed that the students and staff…

  17. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of ...

  18. Evaluation of an Online Bioterrorism Continuing Medical Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebeer, Linda; Andolsek, Kathryn; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Green, Joseph; Weissman, Norman; Pryor, Erica; Zheng, Shimin; Terndrup, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Much of the international community has an increased awareness of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear threats and the need for physicians to rapidly acquire new knowledge and skills in order to protect the public's health. The present study evaluated the educational effectiveness of an online bioterrorism continuing medical…

  19. Public health and bioterrorism: renewed threat of anthrax and smallpox.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Arūne; Luksiene, Zivile; Zagminas, Kestutis; Surkiene, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism is one of the main public health categorical domains. According to sociological analytics, in postmodern society terrorism is one of the real threats of the 21st century. While rare, the use of biological weapons has a long history. Recently, anthrax has been evaluated as one of the most dangerous biological weapons. Naturally occurring anthrax in humans is a disease acquired from contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products. Usually anthrax infection occurs in humans by three major routes: inhalational, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal. Inhalational anthrax is expected to account for most serious morbidity and most mortality. The clinical presentation of inhalation anthrax has been described as a two-stage illness. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis. Antibiotics, anthrax globulin, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, vaccine are possible tools of therapy. Smallpox existed in two forms: variola major, which accounted for most morbidity and mortality, and a milder form, variola minor. Smallpox spreads from person to person primarily by droplet nuclei or aerosols expelled from the oropharynx of infected persons and by direct contact. In the event of limited outbreak with few cases, patients should be admitted to the hospital and confined to rooms that are under negative pressure and equipped with high-efficiency particulate air filtration. In larger outbreaks, home isolation and care should be the objective for most patients. Progress in detection, suitable vaccines, postexposure prophylaxis, infection control, and decontamination might be serious tools in fight against the most powerful biological weapon. To assure that the public health and healthcare system can respond to emergencies, the government should direct resources to strengthen the emergency-response system, create medication stockpiles, and improve the public health infrastructure. PMID:17485954

  20. Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Tod J; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N; Waldmann, Thomas A; Mosca, Joseph D; Perera, Liyanage P

    2010-10-19

    Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain as to the deployability of these vaccines, especially in the aftermath of a bioterror attack involving these pathogens. We have developed a single vaccine (Wyeth/IL-15/PA) using the licensed Wyeth smallpox vaccine strain that is efficacious against both smallpox and anthrax due to the integration of immune-enhancing cytokine IL-15 and the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis into the Wyeth vaccinia virus. Integration of IL-15 renders Wyeth vaccinia avirulent in immunodeficient mice and enhances anti-vaccinia immune responses. Wyeth/IL-15/PA conferred sterile protection against a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Ames strain spores in rabbits. A single dose of Wyeth/IL-15/PA protected 33% of the vaccinated A/J mice against a lethal spore challenge 72 h later whereas a single dose of licensed anthrax vaccine protected only 10%. Our dual vaccine Wyeth/IL-15/PA remedies the inadequacies associated with the licensed vaccines, and the inherent ability of Wyeth vaccinia virus to be lyophilized without loss of potency makes it cold-chain independent, thus simplifying the logistics of storage, stockpiling, and field delivery in the event of a bioterror attack involving smallpox or anthrax. PMID:20921397

  1. Meeting the challenge of bioterrorism: lessons learned from West Nile virus and anthrax.

    PubMed

    Crupi, Robert S; Asnis, Deborah S; Lee, Christopher C; Santucci, Thomas; Marino, Mark J; Flanz, Bruce J

    2003-01-01

    Hospital emergency departments (EDs) and ambulatory clinics may be the first to recognize illness related to a bioterrorist event. Every health-care institution must develop a weapons-of-mass- destruction (WMD) preparedness plan as part of its all-hazards disaster planning. As part of an all-hazards disaster plan, WMD preparedness should use the incident-command model to insure the required chain of command for effectively coordinating activities between hospital departments and external agencies. Preparedness for bioterrorism poses unique challenges. In the event of a biological attack, the hospital infection control staff and administration must already have in place the means to communicate with local and state public health agencies, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), local law-enforcement agencies, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Local and regional planners must consider how to coordinate the responses of emergency medical services (EMS), police, and fire departments with healthcare providers and the news media. Most hospitals are ill equipped to deal with a catastrophic event caused by WMD. The burden of responding to such events will fall initially on ED physicians and staff members. The severity of such an incident might be mitigated with careful planning, training and education. The responses of one hospital network to the outbreak of West Nile virus and, more recently, to the threat of anthrax, are presented as guides for bioterrorism preparedness. PMID:12563588

  2. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.

  3. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817

  4. A program against bacterial bioterrorism: improved patient management and acquisition of new knowledge on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld; Christensen, Jens Jørgen E

    2012-06-01

    In 2002 it was decided to establish laboratory facilities in Denmark for diagnosing agents associated with bioterrorism in order to make an immediate appropriate response to the release of such agents possible. Molecular assays for detection of specific agents and molecular and proteomic techniques for identification of bacteria were introduced as part of the program. All assays and techniques were made accessible for use in diagnosing patients, even when an intentional release was not suspected. Medical expertise on different diseases was established at the department as an integrated part of the program. The analyses included PCR assays for specific bacteria, identification of isolated bacteria by DNA sequencing, detection and identification of bacteria in clinical sample material by universal bacterial PCR and DNA sequencing, and identification of bacteria by mass spectrometry. The established analyses formed a basis on which a series of further developments was built. In addition to reducing the time for obtaining diagnoses and improving the accuracy of diagnosis of individual infected patients, the analyses provided new knowledge on the frequency and distribution of some bacterial infections, including Q fever, tularemia, trench fever, brucellosis, and melioidosis. The implementation of an antibioterrorism program in a clinical diagnostic setting improved the diagnostic possibilities for patients in Denmark and provided new epidemiologic information. It also introduced a number of diagnostic assays for bacterial infections not associated with bioterrorism that are difficult to culture or identify.

  5. Bioterrorism and emerging infectious disease - antimicrobials, therapeutics and immune-modulators. SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Shurtleff, Amy C

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum for expert presentations and discussion about the threats of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases, and to address the issues relating to epidemics, prevention of infection and treatment of some of these emerging infectious diseases classified as potential agents of bioterror. Included in the talks were state-of-the-art presentations about infectious clone technology and recombinant viruses, pathogen and receptor interactions at the cellular and molecular level, genomic responses to infection, and new information on antiviral mechanisms of action. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and progress toward understanding the epidemic was addressed, and other sessions were presented concerning immune therapy and immunopotentiation of disease, siRNA and gene silencing, host responses to pathogen infections, as well as the use of genetic engineering to circumvent and direct the immune response. Many discussions were held and data were presented about possible compounds and new drugs that may have antiviral properties, yet there were few discussions of any available new drugs. This report addresses reverse genetics of SARS virus, as well as its epidemiology, and a host of different recent approaches to developing antivirals effective against SARS, including some potential vaccine candidates. Also presented are hypotheses about the human immune response to SARS infection, as well as immune therapies against botulinum and anthrax toxins. This report also addresses antiviral approaches exploiting siRNAs, and different aspects of the host immune response to many of the different dangerous pathogens discussed at this meeting. Finally, approaches to circumventing and directing the immune response using genetic engineering will be reported.

  6. Balancing in a crisis? Bioterrorism, public health and privacy.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Janlori

    2005-01-01

    Post-September 11, the government has been rapidly funding public health initiatives to bolster the Nation's ability to respond to bioterrorist attacks. While the infusion of money into the public health system is laudable, the pressure to enact legislation quickly has resulted in laws and policies that ignore privacy and civil liberties and that favor anti-bioterror initiatives over more common public health concerns. A public health agenda that ignores privacy and civil liberties will undermine public trust, leading people to not fully participate in critical public health activities. Our Nation is far more likely to succeed in preventing and responding to a potential act of bioterrorism if we embrace the principle that advancing public health and preserving individual liberties are symbiotic and inextricable.

  7. Implications drawn from a military bioterror exercise in Israel.

    PubMed

    Berger, Tamar; Fogel, Itay; Poles, Lion; Aran, Adi Avniel; Shental, Omri; Kassirer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Orange Flame is an Israeli preparedness build-up project, conducted by the Ministry of Health, that is aimed at improving national readiness and preparedness for unusual biological events. The project is intended for both medical and nonmedical organizations, and, since 2011, the exercise has also included operational units outside the medical corps. This has provided valuable insights into the consequences of bioterror or naturally occurring outbreaks for operative functionality and for the unique medical, logistical, and administrative efforts required from the armed forces in such an event. The 2-day drill reported on here executed a notional scenario in which category A bioterror agents were dispersed, causing civil and military casualties. Military personnel observed and assessed the performances of all participating organizations and observed the employment of emergency protocols during the drill. Military sustainment and operative capabilities were significantly affected by the occurrence of an unusual biological event. Comprehensive actions to be executed during such a scenario included quarantining military bases, considering postponement of military operations, and transferring on-call missions to other bases. Logistic consequences included the need for manpower and equipment reinforcement, as well as food and water supplies in cases of suspected source contamination. The project unveiled many operational and logistic quandaries and exposed various potential effects of a bioterror attack in the military. Lessons learned were used to revise preevent national and military doctrine for unusual biological events. PMID:25813977

  8. Bioterrorism and Emergency Preparedness in Aging (BTEPA): HRSA-Funded GEC Collaboration for Curricula and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Arleen; Roush, Robert E., Jr.; Howe, Judith L.; Sanders, Margaret; McBride, Melen R.; Sherman, Andrea; Palmisano, Barbara; Tumosa, Nina; Perweiler, Elyse A.; Weiss, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Frail elders living alone or in long-term care settings are particularly vulnerable to bioterrorism and other emergencies due to their complex physical, social and psychological needs. This paper provides an overview of the recent literature on bioterrorism and emergency preparedness in aging (BTEPA); discusses federal initiatives by the health…

  9. Use of medical simulation to teach bioterrorism preparedness: the anthrax example.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Martin E

    2013-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax bioterrorism attacks demonstrated vulnerability for future similar attacks. This article describes mechanisms that can be used to prepare the medical community and healthcare facilities for the diagnosis and management of a subsequent bioterrorism attack should such an event occur and the fundamentals of medical simulation and its use in teaching learners about the diagnosis of management of anthrax exposure.

  10. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  11. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge. PMID:23213160

  12. Extraordinary infections: a focus on bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Grabenstein, J; Downs, K; Dotson, D

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of biological or chemical terrorist attacks presents a very real threat. Current preparedness efforts are ongoing at federal, state, and local levels. A National Pharmaceutical Stockpile containing antibiotics, antidotes, and other pharmaceutical supplies has been established and continues to be developed. To provide enhanced local response capabilities, Metropolitan Medical Response Systems are being formed. Pharmacists are needed by their communities to become involved with preparedness efforts. PMID:11029861

  13. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  14. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices. PMID:24780323

  15. Bioterrorism vs. health security--crafting a plan of preparedness.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Kourtney; van Caulil, Karen; Liberman, Aaron

    2002-09-01

    Bioterrorism, once a subject of fantasy and speculation, has become all too real in a world turned upside down by the September 11, 2001. series of events. An essential, but as yet unanswered, question has become a crucial topic for discussion on the nightly news and in living rooms across the United States: How much of a terrorist threat do we face, and what must be done to control its potential for mass destruction? This article seeks to both answer this question and explore proper plans of preparedness for the eventuality of the unthinkable. PMID:12243568

  16. The plague of Athens: an ancient act of bioterrorism?

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Stathi, Angeliki; Skevaki, Chrysanthi L; Zachariadou, Levantia

    2013-09-01

    Recent data implicate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi as a causative pathogen of the Plague of Athens during the Peloponnesian War (430-426 bc). According to Thucydides, the sudden outbreak of the disease may link to poisoning of the water reservoirs by the Spartans. The siege of a city was aimed at exhausting the supplies of a population, which often led to the outbreak and spread of epidemics. Poisoning of the water reservoirs of a besieged city as an act of bioterrorism would probably shorten the necessary time for such conditions to appear.

  17. Bioterrorism vs. health security--crafting a plan of preparedness.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Kourtney; van Caulil, Karen; Liberman, Aaron

    2002-09-01

    Bioterrorism, once a subject of fantasy and speculation, has become all too real in a world turned upside down by the September 11, 2001. series of events. An essential, but as yet unanswered, question has become a crucial topic for discussion on the nightly news and in living rooms across the United States: How much of a terrorist threat do we face, and what must be done to control its potential for mass destruction? This article seeks to both answer this question and explore proper plans of preparedness for the eventuality of the unthinkable.

  18. Clinicopathologic aspects of animal and zoonotic diseases of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Mattix, Marc E; Zeman, David H; Moeller, Robert; Jackson, Carney; Larsen, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    We live in an era of emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. Most of the infectious agents of modern concern, from plague to avian influenza H5N1, are zoonotic diseases: infectious agents that reside in quiet animal reservoir cycles that are transmitted occasionally to humans. The public health, health care, and veterinary communities have an enormous challenge in the early recognition, reporting, treatment, and prevention of zoonotic diseases. An intimate understanding of the natural ecology, geographic distribution, clinical signs, lesions, and diagnosis of these diseases is essential for the early recognition and control of these diseases. PMID:16815461

  19. The plague of Athens: an ancient act of bioterrorism?

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Stathi, Angeliki; Skevaki, Chrysanthi L; Zachariadou, Levantia

    2013-09-01

    Recent data implicate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi as a causative pathogen of the Plague of Athens during the Peloponnesian War (430-426 bc). According to Thucydides, the sudden outbreak of the disease may link to poisoning of the water reservoirs by the Spartans. The siege of a city was aimed at exhausting the supplies of a population, which often led to the outbreak and spread of epidemics. Poisoning of the water reservoirs of a besieged city as an act of bioterrorism would probably shorten the necessary time for such conditions to appear. PMID:24041196

  20. Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to Wildfire, Bastrop County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 wildfires were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.

  1. Aum Shinrikyo and the Japanese law on bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Sugishima, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    Before the sarin incidents in Tokyo and Matsumoto, the Aum Shinrikyo (now Aleph) had tried to conduct bioterrorism with botulinum toxin and Bacillus anthracis. Followers of the Aum could not overcome technical difficulties inherent in developing biological weapons, and the perpetrators had not been prosecuted for their failed attempts of bioterrorism. But the Aum's biological attack revealed several shortcomings in the Japanese law that regulated biological weapons. Since the missile experiment of North Korea conducted in 1998, the Japanese government has come to consider the threat posed by biological weapons more seriously. In 2001, after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks and the series of anthrax letter scares in the United States of America, the Japanese government established its Five Basic Principles for Chemical and Biological Weapons Terrorism and several measures were taken at the central and local levels. Activities of the Aum have been monitored by the Public Security Investigation Agency and the National Police Agency under the Anti-Aum Law since 2000. PMID:15141855

  2. Aum Shinrikyo and the Japanese law on bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Sugishima, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    Before the sarin incidents in Tokyo and Matsumoto, the Aum Shinrikyo (now Aleph) had tried to conduct bioterrorism with botulinum toxin and Bacillus anthracis. Followers of the Aum could not overcome technical difficulties inherent in developing biological weapons, and the perpetrators had not been prosecuted for their failed attempts of bioterrorism. But the Aum's biological attack revealed several shortcomings in the Japanese law that regulated biological weapons. Since the missile experiment of North Korea conducted in 1998, the Japanese government has come to consider the threat posed by biological weapons more seriously. In 2001, after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks and the series of anthrax letter scares in the United States of America, the Japanese government established its Five Basic Principles for Chemical and Biological Weapons Terrorism and several measures were taken at the central and local levels. Activities of the Aum have been monitored by the Public Security Investigation Agency and the National Police Agency under the Anti-Aum Law since 2000.

  3. Anthrax: a continuing concern in the era of bioterrorism

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Anthrax, a potentially fatal infection, is a virulent and highly contagious disease. It is caused by a gram-positive, toxigenic, spore-forming bacillus: Bacillus anthracis. For centuries, anthrax has caused disease in animals and, although uncommonly, in humans throughout the world. Descriptions of this naturally occurring disease begin in antiquity. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores, which are infected by ingestion of spores from the soil. With the advent of modern microbiology, Pasteur developed the first successful anthrax vaccine in 1881. The incidence of the disease has continually decreased since the late 19th century, and animal vaccination programs drastically reduced the animal mortality from the disease. However, anthrax spores continue to be documented in soil samples from throughout the world. Research on anthrax as a biological weapon began more than 80 years ago, and today at least 17 nations are believed to have offensive biological weapons programs that include anthrax. Recent events in the USA have shown how society is affected by both hoax and real threats of anthrax bioweapons. This fourth article in the series on weapons of biowarfare/bioterrorism summarizes the historical background of anthrax as well as clinical and laboratory information useful for bioterrorism preparedness. PMID:16200179

  4. Bioterrorism versus radiological terrorism: notes from a bio/nuclear epidemiologist.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The antiterrorism and disaster planning communities often speak of the high potential for bioterrorism and possible potential for radioterrorism, specifically the explosion of a fission device on US soil. Information gained from an epidemiologist's work in the national and international scene, which inevitably involves Intel regarding the cultures and subcultures being studied, suggest that bioterrorism is far less likely to be a major threat, that has been over-emphasized at the state level due to warnings from Homeland Security, and that Homeland Security itself appears biased toward bioterrorism of late with very little available rational basis.

  5. Smallpox vaccination and bioterrorism with pox viruses.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Anton

    2003-10-01

    Bioterrorist attacks occupy a special place amongst the innumerable potential types of terrorist attack, with the intentional release of pox viruses being especially feared in this connection. Apart from the variola virus, the agent responsible for smallpox in humans, the monkeypox virus and numerous other animal pox viruses pose potential risks for humans and animals. This risk scenario also includes recombinations between the various pox viruses, changes in hosts and genetically engineered manipulations of pox viruses. For over 200 years, the method of choice for combatting smallpox was via vaccination with a reproductive, original vaccinia virus. Worldwide eradication of smallpox at the end of the 1970s and the discontinuation of routine smallpox vaccination in 1980 can be credited to such vaccination. Unfortunately, these vaccinations were associated with a large number of postvaccinal impairments, sometimes resulting in death (e.g. postvaccinal encephalitis). The only way to restrict such postvaccinal complications was to carry out initial vaccination within the first 2 postnatal years. Initial vaccination at a later age led to such a sharp increase in the number of vaccines with complications that vaccination had to be discouraged. The dilemma of the smallpox vaccine stocks stems from the fact that a large portion of these stocks are produced with the same vaccinia strains as before. This is irresponsible, especially as the percentage of immune-suppressed persons in the population, for whom vaccination-related complications pose an especial threat, is increasing. One solution to the dilemma of the smallpox vaccine stocks is the MVA strain. It is harmless, protects humans and animals equally well against smallpox and can be applied parenterally. PMID:12818626

  6. Making the Invisible Visible: A Responsive Evaluation Study of ESL and Spanish Language Services for Immigrants in a Small Rural County in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawan, Faridah; Thomalla, Therese Groff

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a responsive evaluation study of ESL services and Spanish language services for immigrants in a rural county in Indiana. An ESL specialist led the evaluation of language services in the county from the perspectives of language providers and recipients. The responsive evaluation--a form of action research that uses…

  7. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively).

  8. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  9. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  10. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part I.

    PubMed

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Bioterrorism presents a real and omnipresent risk to public health throughout the world. More than 30 biological agents have been identified as possessing the potential to be deployed in a bioterrorist attack. Those that have been determined to be of the greatest concern and possess the greatest potential of use in this arena are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); Variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); viral hemorrhagic fevers; and Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism toxin). Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention utilizes surveillance systems to identify illnesses, the weight of diagnosing, effectively treating, and notifying the appropriate public health officials lies squarely on the shoulders of emergency care personnel. Part I of this two-part review will focus on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. The subsequent Part II of this review will discuss smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, botulism toxin, and the provision of mass prophylaxis.

  11. Scientists urge DHS to improve Bioterrorism Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Gregory S; Borio, Luciana L; Brown, Gerald G; Banks, David; Wilson, Alyson G

    2008-12-01

    In 2006, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) completed its first Bioterrorism Risk Assessment (BTRA), intended to be the foundation for DHS's subsequent biennial risk assessments mandated by Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10 (HSPD-10). At the request of DHS, the National Research Council established the Committee on Methodological Improvements to the Department of Homeland Security's Biological Agent Risk Analysis to provide an independent, scientific peer review of the BTRA. The Committee found a number of shortcomings in the BTRA, including a failure to consider terrorists as intelligent adversaries in their models, unnecessary complexity in threat and consequence modeling and simulations, and a lack of focus on risk management. The Committee unanimously concluded that an improved BTRA is needed to provide a more credible foundation for risk-informed decision making.

  12. Agents of Bioterrorism: Curriculum and Pedagogy in an Online Masters Course

    PubMed Central

    Page, Eric J.; Gray, Joshua P.

    2014-01-01

    The Agents of Bioterrorism course (BSBD 640, University of Maryland University College) is a graduate level course created in response to an elevated need for scientists working in the field of medical countermeasures to biological and chemical weapons in the years following 9/11. Students read and evaluate assigned current primary literature articles investigating medical countermeasures at each stage of development. In addition, students learn concepts of risk assessment, comparing and ranking several agents of terror. Student learning is assessed through a variety of assignments. A term paper focuses on a lesser known weapon of terror, with students recommending the best countermeasure in development and delivering a risk assessment comparing their agent to other major weapons of terror discussed throughout the semester. Similarly, a group project on an assigned major weapon of terror (anthrax, plague, smallpox, vesicants, or nerve agent) focuses more heavily on evaluating primary literature and concluding which countermeasure(s) in development are the best. Students complete the course with a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of action of many biological agents, information literacy for the medical literature available at PubMed and the primary scientific literature, and a basic understanding of the role of the government in biodefense research. This paper describes the pedagogical approaches used to teach this course and how they might be adopted for other courses. PMID:25089297

  13. The First Amendment and scientific freedom in the era of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Anton, Brian P

    2004-01-01

    The events of 9/11 have raised awareness that certain scientific research in the public domain may aid terrorists in their quest to develop biological weapons, and there is a legitimate cause for concern in rare cases. Proposed executive branch responses are consistent in their approach to the problem: restrain the offending research by restricting public access to it in some form or another. This paper examines some of the history of the United States (U.S.) government's restrictions on scientific communication and the protection that the First Amendment affords scientists against such restrictions. It focuses in particular on biological science, which has in recent years come under increased scrutiny due to fears of "bioterrorism." It concludes that science needs to be vigilant against government encroachment, but also needs to become the first line of defense in preventing dissemination of potentially dangerous research data. Should the exercise of prior restraint against biological research become necessary, the guidelines developed at the 2002 Monterey workshop provide a useful framework for determining what biological research might cause "direct, immediate, and irreparable" harm to national security under the New York Times Co. v. United States precedent.

  14. A look behind the scenes: bioterrorism, smallpox, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Beane, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and continued conflict in Middle Eastern countries has provoked a strong interest in issues of national security. On December 13, 2002 the Bush Administration announced its smallpox vaccination policy, the first nationwide "proactive" measure to address the threat of bioterrorism. The Program has received mixed reactions as a result of partisan issues, tensions in public health policy and federal and state jurisdiction, conflicting scientific views, and different risk assessments. The slow pace of the program, the difficulties surrounding its implementation, and the debates regarding its validity serves as a "case study" to demonstrate current short-comings in federal and state anti-terrorist and public health policies. The focus will be on the states' public health laws and emergency preparedness plans through an analysis of the proposed Model State Emergency Preparedness Act. Updating current public health laws combined with increased funding of scientific research and the foresight to act "proactively" will reach far beyond improving national security. These efforts serve the dual purpose of deterring future terrorist attacks while greatly improving responses to a number of other health emergencies and disasters.

  15. [Historical perspective of smallpox in Mexico: emergence, elimination, and risk of reemergence due to bioterrorism].

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Lammoglia, Lorena; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    Smallpox has been considered a disease of historical interest. However, given the 2001 terrorist events in the U.S. with intentional release of spores of Bacillus anthracis, and the current political worldwide agenda, the risk of bioterrorism has become a global public health concern. The risk of an intentional release of Variola virus as a biological weapon mandates a critical review of the historical impact of the disease in our country and the possible risk of its intentional reemergence. Smallpox was introduced into susceptible Indian populations in the Americas in the 16th century, contributing to the collapse of the Aztec Empire. Francisco Xavier Balmis start a vaccination campaign in the New World, and his efforts are considered the first eradication campaign of vaccine preventable diseases. Due to his efforts, smallpox was eliminated in Mexico in 1951. In the posteradication era, there is small but finite risk of intentional release of Variola virus. In response to this risk, Mexico has developed a comprehensive National preparedness plan. The impact of a new epidemic of smallpox will be considered a catastrophic event from both a historical and public health perspectives.

  16. Addressing bioterrorism concerns: options for investigating the mechanism of action of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, C D; Griffiths, G D

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is of concern to military and civilian populations as a bioterrorism threat agent. It is a highly potent toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus and is stable in storage and under aerosolisation; it is able to produce prolonged highly incapacitating illness at very low-inhaled doses and death at elevated doses. Concerns regarding SEB are compounded by the lack of effective medical countermeasures for mass treatment of affected populations. This article considers the mechanism of action of SEB, the availability of appropriate experimental models for evaluating the efficacy of candidate medical countermeasures with particular reference to the need to realistically model SEB responses in man and the availability of candidate countermeasures (with an emphasis on commercial off-the-shelf options). The proposed in vitro approaches would be in keeping with Dstl’s commitment to reduction, refinement and replacement of animal models in biomedical research, particularly in relation to identifying valid alternatives to the use of nonhuman primates in experimental studies.

  17. Agents of Bioterrorism: Curriculum and Pedagogy in an Online Masters Course.

    PubMed

    Page, Eric J; Gray, Joshua P

    2014-01-10

    The Agents of Bioterrorism course (BSBD 640, University of Maryland University College) is a graduate level course created in response to an elevated need for scientists working in the field of medical countermeasures to biological and chemical weapons in the years following 9/11. Students read and evaluate assigned current primary literature articles investigating medical countermeasures at each stage of development. In addition, students learn concepts of risk assessment, comparing and ranking several agents of terror. Student learning is assessed through a variety of assignments. A term paper focuses on a lesser known weapon of terror, with students recommending the best countermeasure in development and delivering a risk assessment comparing their agent to other major weapons of terror discussed throughout the semester. Similarly, a group project on an assigned major weapon of terror (anthrax, plague, smallpox, vesicants, or nerve agent) focuses more heavily on evaluating primary literature and concluding which countermeasure(s) in development are the best. Students complete the course with a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of action of many biological agents, information literacy for the medical literature available at PubMed and the primary scientific literature, and a basic understanding of the role of the government in biodefense research. This paper describes the pedagogical approaches used to teach this course and how they might be adopted for other courses.

  18. Agents of Bioterrorism: Curriculum and Pedagogy in an Online Masters Course.

    PubMed

    Page, Eric J; Gray, Joshua P

    2014-01-10

    The Agents of Bioterrorism course (BSBD 640, University of Maryland University College) is a graduate level course created in response to an elevated need for scientists working in the field of medical countermeasures to biological and chemical weapons in the years following 9/11. Students read and evaluate assigned current primary literature articles investigating medical countermeasures at each stage of development. In addition, students learn concepts of risk assessment, comparing and ranking several agents of terror. Student learning is assessed through a variety of assignments. A term paper focuses on a lesser known weapon of terror, with students recommending the best countermeasure in development and delivering a risk assessment comparing their agent to other major weapons of terror discussed throughout the semester. Similarly, a group project on an assigned major weapon of terror (anthrax, plague, smallpox, vesicants, or nerve agent) focuses more heavily on evaluating primary literature and concluding which countermeasure(s) in development are the best. Students complete the course with a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of action of many biological agents, information literacy for the medical literature available at PubMed and the primary scientific literature, and a basic understanding of the role of the government in biodefense research. This paper describes the pedagogical approaches used to teach this course and how they might be adopted for other courses. PMID:25089297

  19. The Role of Practical Advice in Bioterrorism News Coverage.

    PubMed

    Swain, Kristen Alley

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of crisis advice appearing in US news coverage of the 2001 anthrax attacks. Coverage of any crisis can spark public outrage, including fear, speculation, and contradictory or confusing evidence, especially when the stories do not contain practical advice. Five coders analyzed 833 news stories from 272 major US newspapers, the Associated Press, National Public Radio, and 4 major US television networks. Practical advice appeared in only a quarter of the stories, even though practical advice for self-protection was mentioned 3 times more often than the vague advice that simply advised people not to panic. Public health officials provided the most practical advice, while scientists provided the least practical advice. Stories containing practical advice also provided more elucidating information, explaining why the threat was low, reducible, treatable, and detectable. Over the 3 phases of the anthrax crisis, an inverse relationship appeared between the amount of news coverage containing practical advice compared to "outrage rhetoric." Stories mentioned practical advice more often during the post-impact phase than earlier in the crisis. Elucidating, explanatory advice emphasized actions, risk comparisons, and tradeoffs. The findings indicate that when journalists use credible sources to provide practical advice and avoid speculation, their coverage can prevent the spread of misinformation and confusion during a bioterror attack. Also, journalists should provide context and sourcing when discussing advice during the outbreak and impact phases of the crisis, because these explanations could counteract outrage and threat distortion.

  20. The Role of Practical Advice in Bioterrorism News Coverage.

    PubMed

    Swain, Kristen Alley

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of crisis advice appearing in US news coverage of the 2001 anthrax attacks. Coverage of any crisis can spark public outrage, including fear, speculation, and contradictory or confusing evidence, especially when the stories do not contain practical advice. Five coders analyzed 833 news stories from 272 major US newspapers, the Associated Press, National Public Radio, and 4 major US television networks. Practical advice appeared in only a quarter of the stories, even though practical advice for self-protection was mentioned 3 times more often than the vague advice that simply advised people not to panic. Public health officials provided the most practical advice, while scientists provided the least practical advice. Stories containing practical advice also provided more elucidating information, explaining why the threat was low, reducible, treatable, and detectable. Over the 3 phases of the anthrax crisis, an inverse relationship appeared between the amount of news coverage containing practical advice compared to "outrage rhetoric." Stories mentioned practical advice more often during the post-impact phase than earlier in the crisis. Elucidating, explanatory advice emphasized actions, risk comparisons, and tradeoffs. The findings indicate that when journalists use credible sources to provide practical advice and avoid speculation, their coverage can prevent the spread of misinformation and confusion during a bioterror attack. Also, journalists should provide context and sourcing when discussing advice during the outbreak and impact phases of the crisis, because these explanations could counteract outrage and threat distortion. PMID:26381372

  1. Are we preparing health services administration students to respond to bioterrorism and mass casualty management?

    PubMed

    Houser, Shannon H; Houser, Howard W

    2006-01-01

    Bioterrorism/natural disaster events add significant specialized demands and disrupt normal operation of the health system, often for an indefinite period of time. Health administration leaders should be educationally prepared for and informed about these potential events, but few receive this knowledge via their academic preparation in health administration. This study examined the existence of coverage of bioterrorism topics in health administration curricula and characteristics of bioterrorism coverage in current health administration programs through a self-completed survey among AUPHA graduate and undergraduate program members. Of the total survey respondents, only 32% of programs have current coverage of bioterrorism. The main reasons for nothavingbioterrorism coverage were not having enough resources; not having enough time to develop course/materials; and not thinking it is necessary to add these courses/materials. To prepare better and to inform future health administrators regarding major disruptive circumstances, advocacy and documentation are important to develop and implement bioterrorism awareness. Possibly, suggested minimum curricular requirements, content, and mechanisms for inclusion can be developed in the near future. Health administration educators should address the new reality and demonstrate that their graduates can function and lead in crises and situations disruptive to normal commerce.

  2. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry.

  3. Training Future Physicians about Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of the Expert Panel on Bioterrorism Education for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to share their insights about the learning objectives and educational experiences that they would recommend for the training of future physicians about bioterrorism. The expert panel broadened the scope of their discussion beyond bioterrorism to…

  4. Metabolic Network Analysis-Based Identification of Antimicrobial Drug Targets in Category A Bioterrorism Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Lee, Deok-Sun; Burd, Henry; Blank, William; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents. PMID:24454817

  5. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Lee, Deok-Sun; Burd, Henry; Blank, William; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  6. Retroviruses and other latent viruses: the deadliest of pathogens are not necessarily the best candidates for bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Cassandra D; Kilby, J Michael

    2009-06-01

    HIV-1 (and other viral causes of latent, chronic infections) is not a likely candidate for bioterrorism. Scenarios resulting in the introduction of retroviral infections into a large population generally seem impractical and unpredictable as bioterrorist plots, especially relative to the frightening simplicity of deadly anthrax spores or smallpox virions. As evidenced in the above discussion, contaminating the blood supply would require a highly sophisticated plan resulting in effects of rather limited ultimate scope, and would have to evade an extremely effective screening process already in full force. Contaminating other agents given parenterally is also a potential concern, but again the virus has rather fastidious growth characteristics outside of the human host, and even if this could be accomplished it would presumably affect only a very limited number of targeted individuals. Finally, the idea of a kind of"sexual suicide bomber", an individual deliberately introduced into the community to spread a deadly infectious disease might be proposed. However, as discussed in this commentary, the impact of this rather implausible scenario would be substantially delayed, unreliable, and ultimately could be controlled through a heightened response of already existing public health mechanisms. Whereas HIV has resulted in the "perfect storm" of a devastating pandemic, a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality that is tremendously challenging to control, it does not match up very effectively with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Category A definition of an ideal agent of bioterrorism. It is not easily spread through casual or incidental contact and does not cause a substantial immediate death toll. Instead it is spread only through sexual, parenteral, or maternal/fetal transmission, and generally requires a prolonged and variable clinical latency period prior to disease progression and death. The U.S. public health system is already reasonably

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Rural Primary Care: Improving Care for Mental Health Following Bioterrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Dobalian, Aram; Wiens, Brenda A.; Gylys, Julius A.; Evans, Garret D.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Recent bioterrorist attacks have highlighted the critical need for health care organizations to prepare for future threats. Yet, relatively little attention has been paid to the mental health needs of rural communities in the wake of such events. A critical aspect of bioterrorism is emphasis on generating fear and uncertainty, thereby…

  8. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List; Reorganization of the Select Agent and Toxin List AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regarding the list of select agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to animal...

  9. 76 FR 77914 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... submit comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published October 3, 2011 (76 FR 61228... INFORMATION: On October 3, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 61228-61244, Docket No. APHIS...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the...

  10. Epidemiological and Surveillance Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Lofa County, Liberia (March-September, 2014); Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Koffi Isidore; Clement, Peter; Bolongei, Josephus; Tamba, Alpha; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Warsame, Abdihamid; Okeibunor, Joseph Chukwudi; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Tamba, Boima; Gumede, Nicksy; Shaba, Keith; Poy, Alain; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2015-01-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in Liberia on March 31st 2014. A response comprising of diverse expertise was mobilized and deployed to the country to contain transmission of Ebola and give relief to a people already impoverished from protracted civil war. This paper describes the epidemiological and surveillance response to the EVD outbreak in Lofa County in Liberia from March to September 2014. Five of the 6 districts of Lofa were affected. The most affected districts were Voinjama/Guardu Gbondi and Foya. By 26th September, 2014, a total of 619 cases, including 19.4% probable cases, 20.3% suspected cases and 44.2% confirmed cases were recorded by the Ebola Emergency Response Team (EERT) of Lofa County. Adults (20-50 years) were the most affected. Overall fatality rate was 53.3%.  Twenty two (22) cases were reported among the Health Care Workers with a fatality rate of 81.8%. Seventy eight percent (78%) of the contacts successfully completed 21 days follow-up while 134 (6.15%) that developed signs and symptoms of EVD were referred to the ETU in Foya. The contributions of the weak health systems as well as socio-cultural factors in fueling the epidemic are highlighted. Importantly, the lessons learnt including the positive impact of multi-sectorial and multidisciplinary and coordinated response led by the government and community.  Again, given that the spread of infectious disease can be considered a security threat every effort has to put in place to strengthen the health systems in developing countries including the International Health Regulation (IHR)'s core capacities. Key words:  Ebola virus disease, outbreak, epidemiology and surveillance, socio-cultural factors, health system, West Africa. PMID:26064783

  11. Bioterrorism surveillance and privacy: intersection of HIPAA, the Common Rule, and public health law.

    PubMed

    Nordin, James D; Kasimow, Sophie; Levitt, Mary Jeanne; Goodman, Michael J

    2008-05-01

    The threat of bioterrorism in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks cannot be ignored. Syndromic surveillance, the practice of electronically monitoring and reporting real-time medical data to proactively identify unusual disease patterns, highlights the conflict between safeguarding public health while protecting individual privacy. Both the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the Common Rule (which promulgates protections for individuals in federally sponsored medical research programs) safeguard individuals. Public health law protects the entire populace; uneven state-level implementation lacks adequate privacy protections. We propose 3 models for a nationwide bioterrorism surveillance review process: a nationally coordinated systems approach to using protected health information, creating public health information privacy boards, expanding institutional review boards, or some combination of these. PMID:18382006

  12. Analysis of research publications that relate to bioterrorism and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gary C

    2013-09-01

    Research relating to bioterrorism and its associated risks is interdisciplinary and is performed with a wide variety of objectives. Although published reports of this research have appeared only in the past decade, there has been a steady increase in their number and a continuous diversification of sources, content, and document types. In this analysis, we explored a large set of published reports, identified from accessible indices using simple search techniques, and tried to rationalize the patterns and connectivity of the research subjects rather than the detailed content. The analysis is based on a connectivity network representation built from author-assigned keywords. Network analysis reveals a strong relationship between research aimed at bioterrorism risks and research identified with public health. Additionally, the network identifies clusters of keywords centered on emergency preparedness and food safety issues. The network structure includes a large amount of meta-information that can be used for assessment and planning of research activity and for framing specific research interests.

  13. Phenological response of Nitraria tangutorum to climate change in Minqin County, Gansu Province, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianhui; Yan, Ping; Dong, Yuxiang; Han, Fugui

    2010-09-01

    Phenological data and the corresponding meteorological data are collected from the Minqin Desert Botanical Garden. Variations of phenological periods of N. tangutorum (a drought-resistant shrub) are analyzed, and correlations between the starting dates of all phenological periods and the corresponding precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity are discussed. Our conclusions suggest that the growing season of N. tangutorum has been extended by 18.3 days during 1975-2007, which has a significant correlation with yearly average temperatures. Starting and ending dates and duration time of budding period all display no apparent change, while starting date of the remaining spring phenophases shows an advance, and the ending date shows a delay. The duration time of these phenophases shows an apparent increase overall. However, the starting and ending dates of autumn's phenological events all show a delay, and no clear trend is observed in duration time. Average short-term precipitation, temperature and relative humidity have an apparent influence on the starting date of most phenophases. However, no influences by average long-term precipitation, temperature and relative humidity were observed. The phenological variations of N. tangutorum have a great influence on its growth and reproduction, which will affect efforts to prevent desertification in the Minqin County. PMID:20393859

  14. The application of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation to control transmission of airborne disease: bioterrorism countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Brickner, Philip W; Vincent, Richard L; First, Melvin; Nardell, Edward; Murray, Megan; Kaufman, Will

    2003-01-01

    Bioterrorism is an area of increasing public health concern. The intent of this article is to review the air cleansing technologies available to protect building occupants from the intentional release of bioterror agents into congregate spaces (such as offices, schools, auditoriums, and transportation centers), as well as through outside air intakes and by way of recirculation air ducts. Current available technologies include increased ventilation, filtration, and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) UVGI is a common tool in laboratories and health care facilities, but is not familiar to the public, or to some heating, ventilation, and air conditioning engineers. Interest in UVGI is increasing as concern about a possible malicious release of bioterror agents mounts. Recent applications of UVGI have focused on control of tuberculosis transmission, but a wide range of airborne respiratory pathogens are susceptible to deactivation by UVGI. In this article, the authors provide an overview of air disinfection technologies, and an in-depth analysis of UVGI-its history, applications, and effectiveness. PMID:12690064

  15. Nurses' intentions to respond to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Deanna E; Mendias, Elnora P

    2010-01-01

    Although nurses historically have responded to natural disasters, little is known about nurses' intentions to respond during bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies where they and their families may be at risk. To investigate that question, we surveyed nurses following their participation in a class on bioterrorism. Participants (N = 292) completed a Personal/Professional Profile (PPP), Test of Bioterrorism Knowledge (BT Knowledge), and an Intention to Respond (IR) instrument. IR was measured by participants' scores on their likelihood to care for patients (0 = extremely unlikely, 10 = extremely likely) for each of 10 infectious disease scenarios reflecting different infection risk. We calculated scores for each scenario, totaled them, and examined the total IR related to the participant's PPP and scores on BT Knowledge. Additionally, we examined participants' written comments explaining the reasons for their IR. Total IR scores ranged from 8-100 (mean and median of 70). The IR was higher in scenarios where the infection risk was lower. Overall IR scores were positively related to BT Knowledge and having had previous emergency and disaster experience. Those less likely to respond had dependent children and more years in nursing. Results indicate that nurses differentiated risks associated with different infectious disease situations and may decide to respond during a real emergency based on such information. Implications for nursing administrators and nursing educators are discussed.

  16. Dental professionals' knowledge and perceived need for education in bioterrorism preparedness.

    PubMed

    Bhoopathi, Vinodh; Mashabi, Samar Omar; Scott, Thayer E; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina

    2010-12-01

    Dental professionals should be well prepared to provide care during bioterrorist events. In this study, we assessed the knowledge, opinions about playing various roles during a bioterrorist event, and perceived need for education of dental professionals (dentists and dental hygienists) from one region (Oregon) that had been exposed to bioterrorism and from another region (New England) not exposed. This cross-sectional study used an eighteen-item pretested, self-administered questionnaire distributed at the 2005 Oregon Dental Conference (n=156) and 2005 Yankee Dental Conference (n=297). Dental professionals' knowledge and perceived need for education on bioterrorist preparedness were quantified by multivariate linear and logistic modeling. More than 90 percent of the dental professionals were willing to provide care during bioterrorist events. Perceived knowledge was high; however, actual knowledge was low. Dental professionals who wanted to attend a continuing education course and who thought dental professionals should play more roles during a bioterrorist attack had higher actual knowledge. Willingness to provide care was not supported by adequate knowledge. No significant differences between New England and Oregon dental professionals were observed in terms of actual knowledge or perceived need for bioterrorism education. Integrating training and education into the predoctoral dental and dental hygiene curricula and developing continuing education courses would improve knowledge and better prepare dental professionals to effectively perform American Dental Association-recommended roles during any future bioterrorism events.

  17. The application of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation to control transmission of airborne disease: bioterrorism countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Brickner, Philip W; Vincent, Richard L; First, Melvin; Nardell, Edward; Murray, Megan; Kaufman, Will

    2003-01-01

    Bioterrorism is an area of increasing public health concern. The intent of this article is to review the air cleansing technologies available to protect building occupants from the intentional release of bioterror agents into congregate spaces (such as offices, schools, auditoriums, and transportation centers), as well as through outside air intakes and by way of recirculation air ducts. Current available technologies include increased ventilation, filtration, and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) UVGI is a common tool in laboratories and health care facilities, but is not familiar to the public, or to some heating, ventilation, and air conditioning engineers. Interest in UVGI is increasing as concern about a possible malicious release of bioterror agents mounts. Recent applications of UVGI have focused on control of tuberculosis transmission, but a wide range of airborne respiratory pathogens are susceptible to deactivation by UVGI. In this article, the authors provide an overview of air disinfection technologies, and an in-depth analysis of UVGI-its history, applications, and effectiveness.

  18. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Depot Hill, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented seacliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast (Moore and others, 1999) do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the seacliffs, where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence (Griggs and Scholar, 1998; Griggs, 1994; Plant and Griggs, 1990; Griggs and Johnson, 1979 and 1983; Kuhn and Shepard, 1979). This is the first map in a series of maps documenting the processes of short-term seacliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot (Moore and others, 1999; Griggs and Savoy, 1985). This map presents seacliff failure and retreat data from Depot Hill, California, which is located five kilometers east of Santa Cruz (fig.1) near the town of Capitola, along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of seacliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the seacliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El NiOos; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. Four sets of vertical aerial photographs (Oct. 18, 1989; Jan. 27, 1998

  19. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seabright Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented sea cliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the sea cliffs where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence. This is the third map in a series of maps prepared to document the processes of short-term sea cliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot. This map presents sea cliff failure and retreat data from the Seabright Beach section, California, which is located on the east side of Santa Cruz along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of sea cliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the sea cliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. During this study we developed a method for investigating short-term processes of sea cliff evolution using rectified photographic stereo models. This method allows us to document the linear extent of cliff failures, the spatial and temporal relationship between failures, and

  20. Using GIS technology to manage information following a bio-terrorism attack.

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Brad; Ramsey, James L., Jr.; Finley, Patrick

    2005-05-01

    The BROOM system was developed to collect, manage and analyze information from bioterrorist attacks on strategic buildings. GIS features help decision-makers and analysts rapidly assess the current status of contaminated facilities and develop optimized cleanup strategies. BROOM consists of networked server, desktop and PDA components. PDAs are deployed to collect samples of suspected bioagents, such as anthrax. Novel geostatistical methods are used to generate contaminant maps and define optimum locations for subsequent sampling. Efficiency and accuracy gains witnessed in field tests show that GIS technology can play a vital role in visualizing, managing and analyzing data from bioterrorism incidents.

  1. Leveraging the nation's anti-bioterrorism investments: foundation efforts to ensure a revitalized public health system.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Shelley A; Segal, Laura M

    2003-01-01

    The emerging potential threats of bioterrorism combined with critical existing epidemics facing the United States call for immediate and urgent attention to the U.S. public health system. The foundation world is helping to answer that call and is sounding the alarm that our health defenses must be able to do "double duty" to protect us from the full spectrum of modern health threats. This Special Report presents a selective sample of recent and ongoing grant activities designed to revitalize and modernize the public health infrastructure, which is vital to protecting the nation's health and ensuring its safety. PMID:12889772

  2. Bioterrorism Preparedness in Public Health: Knowledge Needs for Robust Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipe, Minu

    2007-01-01

    The typical response of organizations dealing with external uncertainty is to develop strategies to adapt to the situation and focus on regaining a stable state. A crucial element of responding successfully to external uncertainties is to identify changes in knowledge needs within core organizational processes. This paper discusses the changing…

  3. Current and Developing Technologies for Monitoring Agents of Bioterrorism and Biowarfare

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Daniel V.; Simpson, Joyce M.; Kearns, Elizabeth A.; Kramer, Marianne F.

    2005-01-01

    Recent events have made public health officials acutely aware of the importance of rapidly and accurately detecting acts of bioterrorism. Because bioterrorism is difficult to predict or prevent, reliable platforms to rapidly detect and identify biothreat agents are important to minimize the spread of these agents and to protect the public health. These platforms must not only be sensitive and specific, but must also be able to accurately detect a variety of pathogens, including modified or previously uncharacterized agents, directly from complex sample matrices. Various commercial tests utilizing biochemical, immunological, nucleic acid, and bioluminescence procedures are currently available to identify biological threat agents. Newer tests have also been developed to identify such agents using aptamers, biochips, evanescent wave biosensors, cantilevers, living cells, and other innovative technologies. This review describes these current and developing technologies and considers challenges to rapid, accurate detection of biothreat agents. Although there is no ideal platform, many of these technologies have proved invaluable for the detection and identification of biothreat agents. PMID:16223949

  4. "Med-X": a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Lathrop, Sarah L; Nashelsky, Marcus B; Nine, Jeffrey S; Gallaher, Margaret M; Umland, Edith T; McLemore, Jerri L; Reichard, R Ross; Irvine, Rebecca A; McFeeley, Patricia J; Zumwalt, Ross E

    2007-05-01

    We created a model surveillance system (Med-X) designed to enable medical examiners and coroners to recognize fatal infections of public health importance and deaths due to bioterrorism. All individuals who died in New Mexico and fell under medical examiner jurisdiction between November 23, 2000, and November 22, 2002, were prospectively evaluated using sets of surveillance symptoms and autopsy-based pathologic syndromes. All infectious disease deaths were evaluated to identify the specific causative agent. Of 6104 jurisdictional cases, 250 (4.1%) met Med-X criteria, of which 141 (56.4%) had a target pathologic syndrome. Ultimately, 127 (51%) of the 250 cases were due to infections. The causative organism was identified for 103 (81%) of the infectious disease deaths, of which 60 (58.3%) were notifiable conditions in New Mexico. Flu-like symptoms, fever and respiratory symptoms, and encephalopathy or new-onset seizures had predictive values positive for fatal infections of 65%, 72%, and 50%, respectively, and are useful as autopsy performance criteria. Before the development of surveillance criteria, 37 (14.8%) of the cases ordinarily would not have been autopsied resulting in a 1% increase in autopsy workload. Med-X is an effective method of detecting infectious disease deaths among medical examiner cases. Uniform criteria for performing medical examiner autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the likelihood of recognizing deaths related to bioterrorism.

  5. Review of a new molecular virus pathotyping method in the context of bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Leijon, Mikael; Belák, Sándor

    2013-09-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infect various avian species including domestic poultry. Clinical manifestations vary from subclinical or mild to severe multiorgan systemic disease with a near 100% mortality rate. Severe disease is caused by highly virulent specific virus strains, termed highly pathogenic AIV and velogenic NDV. Recent controversial influenza H5 adaptation studies in ferrets have highlighted the importance of preparedness against AIV as a bioterrorism agent. Furthermore, NDV also has zoonotic potential, although symptoms in humans are mild and self-limiting for naturally occurring viruses. Thus, both of these viruses pose a direct biothreat to domestic poultry but also indirectly to humans via zoonotic transmission. For diagnosis and rapid containment of disease, it is crucial to differentiate highly pathogenic AIVs and NDVs from frequently occurring low pathogenic variants. Recently, we developed a novel strategy for pathotyping of AIV and NDV that we review here. The method should be ideal for rapid testing and surveillance in food safety, for wild bird monitoring, and for combating acts of bioterrorism.

  6. Plant-produced candidate countermeasures against emerging and reemerging infections and bioterror agents.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, Stephen J; Kushnir, Natasha; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2015-10-01

    Despite progress in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, they continue to present a major threat to public health. The frequency of emerging and reemerging infections and the risk of bioterrorism warrant significant efforts towards the development of prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasures. Vaccines are the mainstay of infectious disease prophylaxis. Traditional vaccines, however, are failing to satisfy the global demand because of limited scalability of production systems, long production timelines and product safety concerns. Subunit vaccines are a highly promising alternative to traditional vaccines. Subunit vaccines, as well as monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins, can be produced in heterologous expression systems based on bacteria, yeast, insect cells or mammalian cells, in shorter times and at higher quantities, and are efficacious and safe. However, current recombinant systems have certain limitations associated with production capacity and cost. Plants are emerging as a promising platform for recombinant protein production due to time and cost efficiency, scalability, lack of harboured mammalian pathogens and possession of the machinery for eukaryotic post-translational protein modification. So far, a variety of subunit vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic proteins (antivirals) have been produced in plants as candidate countermeasures against emerging, reemerging and bioterrorism-related infections. Many of these have been extensively evaluated in animal models and some have shown safety and immunogenicity in clinical trials. Here, we overview ongoing efforts to producing such plant-based countermeasures.

  7. Plant-produced candidate countermeasures against emerging and reemerging infections and bioterror agents.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, Stephen J; Kushnir, Natasha; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2015-10-01

    Despite progress in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, they continue to present a major threat to public health. The frequency of emerging and reemerging infections and the risk of bioterrorism warrant significant efforts towards the development of prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasures. Vaccines are the mainstay of infectious disease prophylaxis. Traditional vaccines, however, are failing to satisfy the global demand because of limited scalability of production systems, long production timelines and product safety concerns. Subunit vaccines are a highly promising alternative to traditional vaccines. Subunit vaccines, as well as monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins, can be produced in heterologous expression systems based on bacteria, yeast, insect cells or mammalian cells, in shorter times and at higher quantities, and are efficacious and safe. However, current recombinant systems have certain limitations associated with production capacity and cost. Plants are emerging as a promising platform for recombinant protein production due to time and cost efficiency, scalability, lack of harboured mammalian pathogens and possession of the machinery for eukaryotic post-translational protein modification. So far, a variety of subunit vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic proteins (antivirals) have been produced in plants as candidate countermeasures against emerging, reemerging and bioterrorism-related infections. Many of these have been extensively evaluated in animal models and some have shown safety and immunogenicity in clinical trials. Here, we overview ongoing efforts to producing such plant-based countermeasures. PMID:26387510

  8. Analysis of research publications that relate to bioterrorism and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gary C

    2013-09-01

    Research relating to bioterrorism and its associated risks is interdisciplinary and is performed with a wide variety of objectives. Although published reports of this research have appeared only in the past decade, there has been a steady increase in their number and a continuous diversification of sources, content, and document types. In this analysis, we explored a large set of published reports, identified from accessible indices using simple search techniques, and tried to rationalize the patterns and connectivity of the research subjects rather than the detailed content. The analysis is based on a connectivity network representation built from author-assigned keywords. Network analysis reveals a strong relationship between research aimed at bioterrorism risks and research identified with public health. Additionally, the network identifies clusters of keywords centered on emergency preparedness and food safety issues. The network structure includes a large amount of meta-information that can be used for assessment and planning of research activity and for framing specific research interests. PMID:23971798

  9. [Response of phenophase to meteorological conditions and flowering forecast model on Amygdalus communis in Shache County, Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-ming; Gu, Pin-qiang; Chen, Cong-min; Li, Zhong-xia; Fei, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Based on the phenophase data of Amygdalus communis and homochronous meteorological observation data at agrometeorological experimental station of Shache County during 2008-2013, the change characteristics of phenological period of A. communis and the effects of temperature and sunshine duration on them were analyzed. The results showed that before flowering, positive correlations existed among the first day of phenological phases, and after flowering, the correlations among the first day of phenological phases were mostly less. A significant positive correlation was observed between earlier bud flower swelling and the days of dormant period. and growth period, and a significant negative correlation existed between later bud flower swelling and the days of dormant period and growth period. Before fruit maturation, there was negative correlation between temperature and the interval days of phenological period, and after fruit maturation, the correlations were mostly positive. But the correlation between sunshine duration and the interval days of phenological period was positive before and after fruit maturation. The interval days from fruit maturation to the beginning date of leaf colour change had evident response to the average maximum temperature, and the interval days from the emergence of inflorescence to the ending data of flowering, and from the beginning date of leaf colour change to the ending date of leaf fall, had obvious response to sunshine duration. When the dormant period exceeded 30 days and the average daily temperature met the rang from -3.0 to -7.5 °C, A. communis would get into the flower swelling period after another 17-28 d. There were one-to-one correspondences between flower swelling, the beginning date of flowering, the beginning date of leaf colour change, the ending date of leaf fall, and the first pentad average temperature greater than or equal to 4 °C and pentad average maximum temperature greater than or equal to 12 °C, pentad

  10. [Response of phenophase to meteorological conditions and flowering forecast model on Amygdalus communis in Shache County, Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-ming; Gu, Pin-qiang; Chen, Cong-min; Li, Zhong-xia; Fei, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Based on the phenophase data of Amygdalus communis and homochronous meteorological observation data at agrometeorological experimental station of Shache County during 2008-2013, the change characteristics of phenological period of A. communis and the effects of temperature and sunshine duration on them were analyzed. The results showed that before flowering, positive correlations existed among the first day of phenological phases, and after flowering, the correlations among the first day of phenological phases were mostly less. A significant positive correlation was observed between earlier bud flower swelling and the days of dormant period. and growth period, and a significant negative correlation existed between later bud flower swelling and the days of dormant period and growth period. Before fruit maturation, there was negative correlation between temperature and the interval days of phenological period, and after fruit maturation, the correlations were mostly positive. But the correlation between sunshine duration and the interval days of phenological period was positive before and after fruit maturation. The interval days from fruit maturation to the beginning date of leaf colour change had evident response to the average maximum temperature, and the interval days from the emergence of inflorescence to the ending data of flowering, and from the beginning date of leaf colour change to the ending date of leaf fall, had obvious response to sunshine duration. When the dormant period exceeded 30 days and the average daily temperature met the rang from -3.0 to -7.5 °C, A. communis would get into the flower swelling period after another 17-28 d. There were one-to-one correspondences between flower swelling, the beginning date of flowering, the beginning date of leaf colour change, the ending date of leaf fall, and the first pentad average temperature greater than or equal to 4 °C and pentad average maximum temperature greater than or equal to 12 °C, pentad

  11. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: II. Mode of Action of the Biological Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerville, Jeffrey C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrates bioterrorism into the science curriculum and explains actions against serious agents such as anthrax, plague, smallpox, botulinum toxin, and ricin toxin. Uses the learning cycle as the instructional tool which is student-centered and has three phases that include exploring, explaining, and extending. (Contains 24 references.) (YDS)

  12. 7 CFR 7.25 - County executive director duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false County executive director duties. 7.25 Section 7.25... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.25 County executive director duties. (a) The county executive director shall execute the policies established by the county committee and be responsible for...

  13. 7 CFR 7.25 - County executive director duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false County executive director duties. 7.25 Section 7.25... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.25 County executive director duties. (a) The county executive director shall execute the policies established by the county committee and be responsible for...

  14. Hazard Science in Support of Community Resiliency: The Response of the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project to the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L. M.; Bawden, G. W.; Bowers, J.; Cannon, S.; Cox, D. A.; Fisher, R.; Keeley, J.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Wood, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    The “Station” fire, the largest fire in the history of Los Angeles County in southern California, began on August 26, 2009 and as of the abstract deadline had burned over 150,000 acres of the Angeles National Forest. This fire creates both a demand and an opportunity for hazards science to be used by the communities directly hit by the fire, as well as those downstream of possible postfire impacts. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project of the USGS is deploying several types of scientific response, including 1) evaluation of potential debris-flow hazards and associated risk, 2) monitoring physical conditions in burned areas and the hydrologic response to rainstorms, 3) increased streamflow monitoring, 4) ash analysis and ground water contamination, 5) ecosystem response and endangered species rescue, 6) lidar data acquisition for evaluations of biomass loss, detailed mapping of the physical processes that lead to debris-flow generation, and other geologic investigations. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project is working with the southern California community to use the resulting information to better manage the social consequences of the fire and its secondary hazards. In particular, we are working with Los Angeles County to determine what information they need to prioritize recovery efforts. For instance, maps of hazards specific to debris flow potential can help identify the highest priority areas for debris flow mitigation efforts. These same maps together with ecosystem studies will help land managers determine whether individuals from endangered species should be removed to zoos or other refuges during the rainy months. The ash analysis will help water managers prevent contamination to water supplies. Plans are just beginning for a public information campaign with Los Angeles County about the risk posed by potential debris flows that should be underway in December. Activities from the fire response will support the development of the Wildfire Scenario in

  15. A decade of countering bioterrorism: incremental progress, fundamental failings.

    PubMed

    Danzig, Richard

    2012-03-01

    The fear and disruption caused by the 2001 anthrax attacks understandably led Americans to seek enhanced biodefenses. However, the path followed since those attacks has left the country inadequately prepared to face further risks from biological attacks. Why has security against these threats been only partially achieved? This article suggests that our responses over the past decade can be sorted into 4 levels in order of increasing difficulty. First, we rapidly appropriated funds, augmented personnel, and mandated reorganization of agencies. Though not easy to accomplish, these steps were easily conceptualized and, whatever their imperfections, could rather assuredly be achieved. A second level was more demanding, but also quite achievable. It involved the amplification of ongoing efforts. These efforts sometimes suffered as they scaled up, but, though they were qualified by delays and uncertainties, we can point to real achievements at this level. A third level was more difficult: It required evolving new strategies to deal with this largely unprecedented problem. In this regard, we have so far had only glimmers of possibility. At a fourth level, our performance and our prospects are worse still. At this level, our problems stem from resistances inherent in our country's cultural and political framework. This article identifies some of these problems and suggests, regrettably, that they are not likely to be resolved until change is catalyzed by further, and more dramatically traumatic, attacks or natural disasters. If this situational assessment is correct, what remedial strategies should we pursue? The article distinguishes 3 strategic approaches: an evolutionary one in which the U.S. continues advancing along its present path; a radical approach that attempts to address the fourth-level issues; and a third approach that prepares for punctuated evolution. This third approach accepts the improbability of level 4 change either by gradual evolution or by radical

  16. Geomorphic response to channel modifications of Skuna River at the State Highway 9 crossing at Bruce, Calhoun County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.V.; Turnipseed, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Skuna River at State Highway 9 at Bruce, Calhoun County, Mississippi, has geomorphically responded to channel modifications by lowering of the channel bed through degradation, which heightened and steepened channel banks and induced widening. Skuna River Canal (Skuna River) has typically degraded about 16.5 feet and widened about 150 feet from 1925 (when constructed) to 1992. Old Skuna River has degraded and widened about 11 feet and 40 feet, respectively, from 1921 to 1991. Skuna River Canal tributary has degraded about 6 feet from 1921 to 1991. Most of the geomorphic response on the Old River and the tributary seems to be a consequence of modifications of the canal. The bankfull discharge of the canal has increased about 1,450 percent, and the channel slope has decreased about 34 percent from 1925 to 1989. The bankfull stream power has been decreasing since 1980. The bankfull channel width-depth ratio has been increasing since 1975, which indicates the canal has been widening more than degrading since 1975. As much as 1 foot of additional degradation and 40 feet of additional widening are projected through 2010 on Skuna River Canal in the vicinity of State Highway 9. About 70 feet of additional widening could occur before the canal reaches quasi-equilibrium, which will likely be reached after 2010. If Old Skuna River and Skuna River Canal tributary degrade as much as the canal, which is doubtful, then about 6 and 11 feet of additional degradation could occur by 2010 on the Old Skuna River and the tributary, respectively, at State Highway 9. Old Skuna River and the tributary could both widen an additional 30 feet in the next 10 to 20 years. The channel low-stage thalweg of Skuna River Canal is beginning to meander around sandbars inducing lateral erosion of the channel banks. The widening projections in this report do not directly account for lateral erosion and are considered to be a minimum for the typical channel reach. Lateral erosion will likely have a

  17. Helping Newspapers Become More Responsive to Community Concerns: An In-Depth Interview Research Project with Sedgwick County Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxman, Susan Schultz; Iorio, Sharon Hartin

    Noting that the trend in the newspaper industry from the predictive-control model to the explanative-naturalistic model mirrors a trend in the communication discipline toward qualitative research and more meaningful connections between industry and academia, a study investigated Sedgwick County, Kansas residents' concerns regarding politics and…

  18. From bioterrorism exercise to real-life public health crisis: lessons for emergency hotline operations.

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Bookbinder, Sylvia H; Miro, Suzanne; Burke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although public health agencies routinely operate hotlines to communicate key messages to the public, they are rarely evaluated to improve hotline management. Since its creation in 2003, the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services' Emergency Communications Center has confronted two large-scale incidents that have tested its capabilities in this area. The influenza vaccine shortage of 2004 and the April 2005 TOPOFF 3 full-scale bioterrorism exercise provided both real-life and simulated crisis situations from which to derive general insights into the strengths and weaknesses of hotline administration. This article identifies problems in the areas of staff and message management by analyzing call volume data and the qualitative observations of group feedback sessions and semistructured interviews with hotline staff. It also makes recommendations based on lessons learned to improve future hotline operations in public health emergencies. PMID:17149095

  19. Ethical challenges in preparing for bioterrorism: barriers within the health care system.

    PubMed

    Wynia, Matthew K; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2004-07-01

    Preparedness for bioterrorism poses significant ethical challenges. Although public health ethics and preparedness have received attention recently, health care ethics must also be considered. In epidemics, the health care system assists public health in 3 tasks: detection, containment, and treatment. Detection might fail if all patients do not have access to care, or if physicians do not understand their obligation to report infectious diseases to public health authorities. Containment might fail if physicians view themselves only as advocates for individual patients, ignoring their social obligations as health professionals. Treatment might fail if physicians do not accept their professional duty to treat patients during epidemics. Each of these potential ethical barriers to preparedness must be addressed by physicians and society.

  20. From bioterrorism exercise to real-life public health crisis: lessons for emergency hotline operations.

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Bookbinder, Sylvia H; Miro, Suzanne; Burke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although public health agencies routinely operate hotlines to communicate key messages to the public, they are rarely evaluated to improve hotline management. Since its creation in 2003, the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services' Emergency Communications Center has confronted two large-scale incidents that have tested its capabilities in this area. The influenza vaccine shortage of 2004 and the April 2005 TOPOFF 3 full-scale bioterrorism exercise provided both real-life and simulated crisis situations from which to derive general insights into the strengths and weaknesses of hotline administration. This article identifies problems in the areas of staff and message management by analyzing call volume data and the qualitative observations of group feedback sessions and semistructured interviews with hotline staff. It also makes recommendations based on lessons learned to improve future hotline operations in public health emergencies.

  1. A national laboratory network for bioterrorism: evolution from a prototype network of laboratories performing routine surveillance.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, M J

    2000-07-01

    The need for an enhanced network of laboratories to respond to a bioterrorism attack has been realized. Therefore, the Association of Public Health Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control are developing a system involving civilian public health and private laboratories that builds on the existing network for routine disease surveillance. It is anticipated that most bioterrorist attacks will not be immediately recognized, so increased laboratory capabilities and communications are necessary. The laboratory network has four categories with different biosafety levels assigned to clearly delineate the correct referral route. Improving communications through World Wide Web-based systems will allow test results, surge capacity, and training and identification algorithms to be shared instantly. There are plans to expand the network to include standard public health surveillance and emerging infectious diseases.

  2. Ethical Challenges in Preparing for Bioterrorism: Barriers Within the Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Wynia, Matthew K.; Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2004-01-01

    Preparedness for bioterrorism poses significant ethical challenges. Although public health ethics and preparedness have received attention recently, health care ethics must also be considered. In epidemics, the health care system assists public health in 3 tasks: detection, containment, and treatment. Detection might fail if all patients do not have access to care, or if physicians do not understand their obligation to report infectious diseases to public health authorities. Containment might fail if physicians view themselves only as advocates for individual patients, ignoring their social obligations as health professionals. Treatment might fail if physicians do not accept their professional duty to treat patients during epidemics. Each of these potential ethical barriers to preparedness must be addressed by physicians and society. PMID:15226126

  3. The CODE RED Solution: biothreat response training for first responders.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cassandra D; Egan, Christina; Cirino, Nick M

    2006-01-01

    The terrorist events of 2001 brought to light the need for a close working relationship between the first responder communities and the public health laboratories in New York State (NYS). Since 2002, the Wadsworth Center's Biodefense Laboratory (BDL) has been providing outreach training to first responders in New York, to enable them to respond safely, correctly, and confidently to biothreat events. A pocket trifold was developed, titled "CODE RED," which describes sampling protocols, risk analysis criteria, and important contact information for use during an emergency response to a potential bioterrorism situation. In addition, the BDL has provided training to more than 1,000 first responders in the basic knowledge of biothreat agents, routes of dissemination, sampling and decontamination methods, contamination control protocols, biothreat risk assessment, and legal chain of custody procedures. The training methods have been established for use by first responders wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). All states can benefit from highly trained first responders who are capable of efficient, safe, and effective biothreat response, resulting in increased safety of the first responders and laboratorians, as well as decreased turnaround times for laboratory results. The CODE RED trifold provides a working model for training first responders at the state and county levels for emergency biothreat response. PMID:17238823

  4. Equity and County College Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Commission on Financing Postsecondary Education, Trenton.

    An analysis by the Commission on Financial Postsecondary Education of the system by which New Jersey supports county colleges revealed disparities and inequities among the New Jersey counties in wealth and effort per full-time equivalent student, and current state financing practices that aggravate this problem. In response, alternative state…

  5. An integrated and dynamic optimisation model for the multi-level emergency logistics network in anti-bioterrorism system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Lindu

    2012-08-01

    Demand for emergency resources is usually uncertain and varies quickly in anti-bioterrorism system. Besides, emergency resources which had been allocated to the epidemic areas in the early rescue cycle will affect the demand later. In this article, an integrated and dynamic optimisation model with time-varying demand based on the epidemic diffusion rule is constructed. The heuristic algorithm coupled with the MATLAB mathematical programming solver is adopted to solve the optimisation model. In what follows, the application of the optimisation model as well as a short sensitivity analysis of the key parameters in the time-varying demand forecast model is presented. The results show that both the model and the solution algorithm are useful in practice, and both objectives of inventory level and emergency rescue cost can be controlled effectively. Thus, it can provide some guidelines for decision makers when coping with emergency rescue problem with uncertain demand, and offers an excellent reference when issues pertain to bioterrorism.

  6. Emergency Implementation of Knowledge Management System to Support a Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Nedra; Yasnoff, William A.; Kumar, Vibha

    2003-01-01

    In a public health emergency, it becomes necessary for public health agencies to provide timely, accurate and useful information to the community. During the anthrax attacks, the Public Health Practice Program Office in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a knowledge management (KM) system to respond to an increased number of inquiries from public health officials, first responders, and health care professionals as well as the general public. While it is possible to successfully implement a knowledge management system quickly in a crisis situation, additional challenges to sustainability may result from shortchanging the normal decision-making channels. PMID:14728354

  7. 75 FR 42363 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... based on type of use or other factors. DATES: We will consider all comments received on or before August... republished the HHS select agent and toxin list in the Federal Register on October 16, 2008 (73 FR 61363). The... other factors. A recent report by the National Research Council recommended that the select agent...

  8. 75 FR 50730 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (75 FR 42363) should be marked ``Comments on the changes to the list of select agents... Register (75 FR 42363) requesting public comment on the current HHS list of select agents and toxins. The... Register (75 FR 44724) requesting public comment on the USDA/APHIS list of select agents and toxins....

  9. Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding.

  10. Optimal swab processing recovery method for detection of bioterrorism-related Francisella tularensis by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Walker, Roblena E; Petersen, Jeannine M; Stephens, Kenyatta W; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent. The advent of bioterrorism has heightened awareness of the need for validated methods for processing environmental samples. In this study we determined the optimal method for processing environmental swabs for the recovery and subsequent detection of F. tularensis by the use of real-time PCR assays. Four swab processing recovery methods were compared: heat, sonication, vortexing, and the Swab Extraction Tube System (SETS). These methods were evaluated using cotton, foam, polyester and rayon swabs spiked with six pathogenic strains of F. tularensis. Real-time PCR analysis using a multi-target 5'nuclease assay for F. tularensis showed that the use of the SETS method resulted in the best limit of detection when evaluated using multiple strains of F. tularensis. We demonstrated also that the efficiency of F. tularensis recovery from swab specimens was not equivalent for all swab processing methodologies and, thus, that this variable can affect real-time PCR assay sensitivity. The effectiveness of the SETS method was independent of the automated DNA extraction method and real-time PCR platforms used. In conclusion, diagnostic laboratories can now potentially incorporate the SETS method into specimen processing protocols for the rapid and efficient detection of F. tularensis by real-time PCR during laboratory bioterrorism-related investigations.

  11. Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism represents a threat for which most emergency departments (EDs) are ill prepared. In order to develop an evidence-based plan for ED and hospital management of contaminated patients, a review was conducted of the most effective strategies developed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, as well as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and military guidelines on biowarfare. Six basic steps were identified: 1) lock down the hospital and control access to the ED; 2) protect emergency care personnel with appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) decontaminate and triage patients; 4) isolate patients; 5) treat patients with appropriate medications or measures, including decontamination of wounds; and 6) use restrictive admission and transfer guidelines. By emphasizing these six basic concepts, a rural ED passed an annual state-run bioterrorism mass-casualty drill. The drill provided health care personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to prepare for future bioterrorism casualties. These same concepts could also be used to manage highly virulent viral or bacterial outbreaks.

  12. Trust influences response to public health messages during a bioterrorist event.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Rhodes, Hilary; Ryan, Gery; Long, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This study builds on recent work describing African Americans' low trust in public health regarding terrorism preparedness by identifying the specific components of trust (fiduciary responsibility, honesty, competency, consistency, faith) that may influence community response to a bioterrorist attack. We used qualitative analysis of data from 75 African American adults living in Los Angeles County who participated in focus group discussions. Groups were stratified by socioeconomic status (SES; up to vs. above 200% of federal poverty guidelines) and age (18-39 years old vs. 40-65 years old). Discussions elicited reactions to information presented in escalating stages of a bioterrorism scenario. The scenario mimicked the events and public health decisions that might occur under such a scenario. Honesty and consistency of information from public health officials were the components most frequently identified as determining trust or distrust. Patterns of trust varied according to the scenario stage; honesty was most important upon initially hearing of a public health crisis, whereas fiduciary responsibility and consistency were important upon confirmation of a smallpox outbreak and the ensuing public health response. Findings can help public health officials design communications that address distrust and enhance trust during a bioterrorist event.

  13. Viruses of the Bunya- and Togaviridae families: potential as bioterrorism agents and means of control.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Robert W; Smee, Donald F

    2003-01-01

    When considering viruses of potential importance as tools for bioterrorism, several viruses in the Bunya- and Togaviridae families have been cited. Among those in the Bunyaviridae family are Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, hanta, and sandfly fever viruses, listed in order of priority. Those particularly considered in the Togaviridae family are Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. Factors affecting the selection of these viruses are the ability for them to induce a fatal or seriously incapacitating illness, their ease of cultivation in order to prepare large volumes, their relative infectivity in human patients, their ability to be transmitted by aerosol, and the lack of measures available for their control. Each factor is fully considered in this review. Vaccines for the control of infections induced by these viruses are in varying stages of development, with none universally accepted to date. Viruses in the Bunyaviridae family are generally sensitive to ribavirin, which has been recommended as an emergency therapy for infections by viruses in this family although has not yet been FDA-approved. Interferon and interferon inducers also significantly inhibit these virus infections in animal models. Against infections induced by viruses in the Togaviridae family, interferon-alpha would appear to currently be the most useful for therapy.

  14. Bioterrorism: the effects of biological decontamination on the recovery of electronic evidence.

    PubMed

    Hoile, Rebecca; Banos, Connie; Colella, Michael; Roux, Claude

    2011-06-15

    The investigation of a bioterrorism event will ultimately lead to the collection of vital data from electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones. This project sought to determine the use of gamma irradiation and formaldehyde gas as effective biological decontaminants, and the effect of these methods on the recovery of electronic evidence. Electronic items were contaminated with viable spores and then exposed to both decontaminants. Log values for each matrix were calculated with flash drives recording the highest value of 566 Gy for gamma irradiation and a maximum of 50 min exposure to formaldehyde saw the effective destruction of spores. The results indicate that recovery of data varied based on the decontaminant selected, formaldehyde gas giving the most promising results, with electronic data recovered after the required exposure time. Gamma irradiation proved damaging to electronic circuitry at levels required to render the items safe. The implications to computer intelligence and forensics will be discussed based on the outcomes of these findings. PMID:21324616

  15. Negative impact of laws regarding biosecurity and bioterrorism on real diseases.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, N; Grobusch, M P; Raoult, D

    2014-06-01

    Research on highly pathogenic microorganisms in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories is very important for human public health, as it provides opportunities for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutics as well as diagnostic methods to prevent epidemics. However, in recent years, after the anthrax and World Trade Center attacks in 2001 in the USA, the threat of bioterrorism has grown for both the public and the authorities. As a result, technical and physical containment measures and biosafety and biosecurity practices have been implemented in laboratories handling these dangerous pathogens. Working with selected biological agents and toxins is now highly regulated, owing to their potential to pose a threat to public health and safety, despite the fact that the anthrax attack was found to be the result of a lack of security at a US Army laboratory. Thus, these added regulations have been associated with a large amount of fruitless investment. Herein, we describe the limitations of research in these facilities, and the multiple consequences of the increased regulations. These limitations have seriously negatively impacted on the number of collaborations, the size of research projects, and, more generally, scientific research on microbial pathogens. Clearly, the actual number of known victims and fatalities caused by the intentional use of microorganisms has been negligible as compared with those caused by naturally acquired human infections. PMID:24909400

  16. Unfinished business: efforts to define dual-use research of bioterrorism concern.

    PubMed

    Zmorzynska, Anna; Suk, Jonathan E; Biederbick, Walter; Maidhof, Heinrich; Sasse, Julia; Semenza, Jan C; Hunger, Iris

    2011-12-01

    Biotechnological research poses a special security problem because of the duality between beneficial use and misuse. In order to find a balance between regulating potentially dangerous research and assuring scientific advancement, a number of assessments have tried to define which types of research are especially open to misuse and should therefore be considered dual-use research of special concern requiring rigorous oversight. So far, there has been no common understanding of what such activities are. Here we present a review of 27 assessments focusing on biological dual-use issues published between 1997 and 2008. Dual-use research activities identified by these assessments as being of special concern were compiled and compared. Moreover, from these 27 assessments, the primary research publications explicitly identified as examples of concerning research activities were extracted and analyzed. We extracted a core list of 11 activities of special concern and show that this list does not match with the reasons why primary research publications were identified as being of special concern. Additionally, we note that the 11 activities identified are not easily conducted or replicated, and therefore the likelihood of their being used in a high-tech mass casualty bioterrorism event should be reevaluated.

  17. Negative impact of laws regarding biosecurity and bioterrorism on real diseases.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, N; Grobusch, M P; Raoult, D

    2014-06-01

    Research on highly pathogenic microorganisms in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories is very important for human public health, as it provides opportunities for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutics as well as diagnostic methods to prevent epidemics. However, in recent years, after the anthrax and World Trade Center attacks in 2001 in the USA, the threat of bioterrorism has grown for both the public and the authorities. As a result, technical and physical containment measures and biosafety and biosecurity practices have been implemented in laboratories handling these dangerous pathogens. Working with selected biological agents and toxins is now highly regulated, owing to their potential to pose a threat to public health and safety, despite the fact that the anthrax attack was found to be the result of a lack of security at a US Army laboratory. Thus, these added regulations have been associated with a large amount of fruitless investment. Herein, we describe the limitations of research in these facilities, and the multiple consequences of the increased regulations. These limitations have seriously negatively impacted on the number of collaborations, the size of research projects, and, more generally, scientific research on microbial pathogens. Clearly, the actual number of known victims and fatalities caused by the intentional use of microorganisms has been negligible as compared with those caused by naturally acquired human infections.

  18. Isolated Case of Bioterrorism-related Inhalational Anthrax, New York City, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Kool, Jacob L.; Rosselli, Richard; Marfin, Anthony; Matte, Thomas; Beatrice, Sara T.; Heller, Michael B.; Hewett, Dan; Moskin, Linda; Bunning, Michel L.; Layton, Marcelle

    2003-01-01

    On October 31, 2001, in New York City, a 61-year-old female hospital employee who had acquired inhalational anthrax died after a 6-day illness. To determine sources of exposure and identify additional persons at risk, the New York City Department of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and law enforcement authorities conducted an extensive investigation, which included interviewing contacts, examining personal effects, summarizing patient’s use of mass transit, conducting active case finding and surveillance near her residence and at her workplace, and collecting samples from co-workers and the environment. We cultured all specimens for Bacillus anthracis. We found no additional cases of cutaneous or inhalational anthrax. The route of exposure remains unknown. All environmental samples were negative for B. anthracis. This first case of inhalational anthrax during the 2001 outbreak with no apparent direct link to contaminated mail emphasizes the need for close coordination between public health and law enforcement agencies during bioterrorism-related investigations. PMID:12781008

  19. 76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of... response costs concerning the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray... Site name East Calloway County ] Middle School Mercury Spill Site by one of the following methods:...

  20. Possible use of bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other B. cereus group members in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

    PubMed

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Kłak, Marlena; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  1. Possible use of bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other B. cereus group members in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

    PubMed

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Kłak, Marlena; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  2. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  3. LAMP using a disposable pocket warmer for anthrax detection, a highly mobile and reliable method for anti-bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ben; Maki, Takayuki; Obara, Takeyuki; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Okutani, Akiko; Bazartseren, Boldbaastar; Inoue, Satoshi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    A quick, reliable detection system is necessary to deal with bioterrorism. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA amplification method that can amplify specific DNA fragments in isothermal conditions. We developed a new highly mobile and practical LAMP anthrax detection system that uses a disposable pocket warmer without the need for electricity (pocket-warmer LAMP). In our tests, the detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was 1,000 copies of Bacillus anthracis pag and capB gene fragments per tube. The pocket-warmer LAMP also detected B. anthracis genes from DNA extracted from 0.1 volume of a B. anthracis colony. The lower detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was not significantly different from that of a conventional LAMP using a heat block, and was not changed under cold (4 degrees C) or warm (37 degrees C) conditions in a Styrofoam box. The pocket-warmer LAMP could be useful against bioterrorism, and as a sensitive, reliable detection tool in areas with undependable electricity infrastructures. PMID:20093760

  4. Well-response model of the confined area, Bunker Hill ground-water basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durbin, Timothy J.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    The Bunker Hill ground-water basin, in the vicinity of San Bernardino, Calif., is being artificially recharged with imported water. Current and future artificial recharge of the basin may cause the potentiometric surface in an area of confined ground water to rise above land surface and water to flow from uncapped and unplugged wells. This could cause damage to structures where the soil becomes waterlogged and where buried wells begin to flow beneath the structures. A well-response model was used to generate a series of water-level hydrographs representing the response of the ground-water basin to six possible combinations of conditions for each well; one pumping rate, two artificial-recharge rate, and three natural-recharge rates. Inflow to the ground-water basin exceeds outflow for all tested combinations. According to model predictions, the accumulation of stored ground water resulting from the excess of inflow is sufficient to cause the water level in the selected wells to rise above land surface for all but one of the combinations of conditions tested. Water levels in wells are predicted to rise above the land surface as early as 1981 for the combination with the greatest excess of inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. An assessment of environmental literacy and analysis of predictors of responsible environmental behavior held by secondary teachers in Hualien County of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shih-Jang

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relative contribution of nine variables in predicting teachers' responsible environmental behavior (REB). The theoretic framework of this study was based on the Hines model, the Hungerford and Volk model, and the environmental literacy framework proposed by Environmental Literacy Assessment Consortium. A nine-page instrument was administered by mailed questionnaire to 300 randomly selected secondary teachers in Hualien County of Taiwan with a 78.7% response rate. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) For all the respondents, all the nine environmental literacy variables were significant correlates of REB. These correlates included: perceived knowledge of environmental action strategies (KNOW; r =.46), intention to act (IA; r =.46), perceived skill in using environmental action strategies (SKILL; r =.45), perceived knowledge of environmental problems and issues (KISSU; r =.34), environmental sensitivity (r =.28), environmental responsibility (r =.27), perceived knowledge of ecology and environmental science (r =.27), locus of control (r =.27), and environmental attitudes (r =.21). (2) When only the nine environmental literacy variables were considered, the most parsimonious set of predictors of REB for all the teachers included: (a) KNOW, (Rsp2 =.2116); (b) IA, (Rsp2 =.0916); and (c) SKILL, (Rsp2 =.0205). For the urban teachers, the most parsimonious set of predictors included: (a) IA (Rsp2 =.2559); (b) SKILL (Rsp2.0926); and (c) environmental responsibility (Rsp2 =.0219). For the rural teachers, the most parsimonious set of predictors included: (a) KNOW (Rsp2 =.1872); (b) IA (Rsp2 =.0816); and (c) KISSU (Rsp2 =.0318). (3) When the environmental literacy variables as well as demographic and experience variables were considered, the most parsimonious set of predictors for all the teachers included: (a) KNOW, (Rsp2 =.2834); (b) IA, (Rsp2

  6. Analysis of Responses From Hydraulic Testing of the Lower Carbonate Aquifer at Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhark, E. W.; Ruskauff, G.

    2005-12-01

    act as both (east-west) flow barriers, by juxtaposing permeable and non-permeable formations or otherwise breaking the feature connection, and (north-south) high-permeability conduits. At the local well (tens-of-meters) scale, the response data appear controlled by the local flow geometry within fault blocks. In general, the log-log diagnostics indicate a primary (linear) fracture-flow dominated system, which at intermediate times is fed by the secondary block conductivity (bilinear), until the volume of influence becomes sufficiently large that the flow system is effectively radial. The results are pertinent to basin- and regional-scale flow and transport, and also to hydraulic development of the LCA.

  7. The Farm Crisis and Decatur County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Jan L.; And Others

    This case study assesses the impact of the farm sector on the economy and social organization of Decatur County (Kansas), a county which has historically depended on agriculture for its livelihood. Data were obtained from analysis of time series statistical indicators for the period between 1966 and 1984, questionnaire responses of local…

  8. Water Quality, Hydrology, and Response to Changes in Phosphorus Loading of Nagawicka Lake, a Calcareous Lake in Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Horwatich, Judy A.

    2006-01-01

    Nagawicka Lake is a 986-acre, usually mesotrophic, calcareous lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Because of concern over potential water-quality degradation of the lake associated with further development in its watershed, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2002 to 2006 to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake; quantify sources of phosphorus, including those associated with urban development; and determine the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lake. All major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lake. The Bark River, near-lake surface inflow, precipitation, and ground water contributed 74, 8, 12, and 6 percent of the inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lake primarily through the Bark River outlet (88 percent) or by evaporation (11 percent). The water quality of Nagawicka Lake has improved dramatically since 1980 as a result of decreasing the historical loading of phosphorus to the lake. Total input of phosphorus to the lake was about 3,000 pounds in monitoring year (MY) 2003 and 6,700 pounds in MY 2004. The largest source of phosphorus entering the lake was the Bark River, which delivered about 56 percent of the total phosphorus input, compared with about 74 percent of the total water input. The next largest contributions were from the urbanized near-lake drainage area, which disproportionately accounted for 37 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 5 percent of the total water input. Simulations with water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lakes Modeling Suite (WiLMS) indicated the response of Nagawicka Lake to 10 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included historical (1970s) and current (base) years (MY 2003-04) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six scenarios with percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from

  9. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  10. Developing a Marketing Mind-Set: Training and Mentoring for County Extension Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Christopher T.; Elizer, Amy Hastings; Hastings, Shirley; Barry, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing the county Extension program is a critical responsibility of the entire county staff. This article describes a unique peer-to-peer training and mentoring program developed to assist county Extension staff in improving marketing skills and successfully developing and implementing a county Extension marketing plan. Data demonstrating…

  11. [Agreement between the Cumberland County College Board of Trustees and the Cumberland County College Faculty Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland County Coll., Vineland, NJ.

    This document presents the agreement between the Cumberland County College Board of Trustees and the Cumberland County College Faculty Association. Articles of the agreement cover recognition; negotiation procedure; association rights and responsibilities; conditions of employment; faculty benefits; salaries; compensation for graduate work;…

  12. Bioinformatic tools for using whole genome sequencing as a rapid high resolution diagnostic typing tool when tracing bioterror organisms in the food and feed chain.

    PubMed

    Segerman, Bo; De Medici, Dario; Ehling Schulz, Monika; Fach, Patrick; Fenicia, Lucia; Fricker, Martina; Wielinga, Peter; Van Rotterdam, Bart; Knutsson, Rickard

    2011-03-01

    The rapid technological development in the field of parallel sequencing offers new opportunities when tracing and tracking microorganisms in the food and feed chain. If a bioterror organism is deliberately spread it is of crucial importance to get as much information as possible regarding the strain as fast as possible to aid the decision process and select suitable controls, tracing and tracking tools. A lot of efforts have been made to sequence multiple strains of potential bioterror organisms so there is a relatively large set of reference genomes available. This study is focused on how to use parallel sequencing for rapid phylogenomic analysis and screen for genetic modifications. A bioinformatic methodology has been developed to rapidly analyze sequence data with minimal post-processing. Instead of assembling the genome, defining genes, defining orthologous relations and calculating distances, the present method can achieve a similar high resolution directly from the raw sequence data. The method defines orthologous sequence reads instead of orthologous genes and the average similarity of the core genome (ASC) is calculated. The sequence reads from the core and from the non-conserved genomic regions can also be separated for further analysis. Finally, the comparison algorithm is used to visualize the phylogenomic diversity of the bacterial bioterror organisms Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum using heat plot diagrams.

  13. Hydrology, water quality, and response to changes in phosphorus loading of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes, Oneida County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on effects of urbanization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes are 1,318- and 690-acre interconnected lakes in the popular recreation area of north-central Wisconsin. The lakes are the lower end of a complex chain of lakes in Oneida and Vilas Counties, Wis. There is concern that increased stormwater runoff from rapidly growing residential/commercial developments and impervious surfaces from the urbanized areas of the Town of Minocqua and Woodruff, as well as increased effluent from septic systems around their heavily developed shoreline has increased nutrient loading to the lakes. Maintaining the quality of the lakes to sustain the tourist-based economy of the towns and the area was a concern raised by the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association. Following several small studies, a detailed study during 2006 and 2007 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association through the Town of Minocqua to describe the hydrology and water quality of the lakes, quantify the sources of phosphorus including those associated with urban development and to better understand the present and future effects of phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lakes. The water quality of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes appears to have improved since 1963, when a new sewage-treatment plant was constructed and its discharge was bypassed around the lakes, resulting in a decrease in phosphorus loading to the lakes. Since the mid-1980s, the water quality of the lakes has changed little in response to fluctuations in phosphorus loading from the watershed. From 1986 to 2009, summer average concentrations of near-surface total phosphorus in the main East Basin of Minocqua Lake fluctuated from 0.009 mg/L to 0.027 mg/L but generally remained less than 0.022 mg/L, indicating that the lake is mesotrophic. Phosphorus concentrations from 1988 through 1996, however, were lower than the long-term average, possibly the result of an extended drought in the area

  14. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  15. [Syndromic surveillance in circumstances of bioterrorism threat--the essence, application abilities and superiority over a traditional epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Osemek, Paweł; Kocik, Janusz; Paśnik, Krzysztof

    2009-12-01

    This article provides a short review about trends of developing current syndromic surveillance systems. To improve methods of early detection of natural or bioterrorism-related outbreaks, it has to be established a new way of epidemiological thinking, which uses innovative real-time surveillance systems. Syndromic surveillance has been created for an early detection, to monitor the temporo-spatial spread of an outbreak, and to provide prompt data for immediate analysis and feedback to public health authorities. It supports timely decision making process for countermeasure procedures. Framework of syndromic surveillance system requires a proper electronic infrastructure to be build up. Optimal syndrome definitions and data sources for continuing specific diseases outbreak surveillance have not been determined so far. Systems of interest might enhance collaboration among clinical providers, primary care providers, emergency services, information-systems professionals and public health agencies. However economic scope of this undertakings effectively limits ability to implement it in Polish public health service right now. Besides, syndromic surveillance cannot replace traditional public health surveillance with a post-factum epidemiological investigation and laboratory analysis. It can be a useful supplement. PMID:20120725

  16. Calls about anthrax to the Texas Poison Center Network in relation to the anthrax bioterrorism attack in 2001.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B; Stanley, Sharilyn K

    2003-10-01

    Between October 4, 2001 and November 20, 2001, 22 cases of anthrax were identified in a bioterrorism attack on the US. This study examined the patterns of anthrax calls before and after the bioterrorist attack based on calls received by poison centers in Texas, a state that reported no anthrax cases as a result of the attack. During 1998-2002, 553 calls about anthrax were received. The majority of the anthrax calls occurred in 2001 (n = 489, 88.4%) and 2002 (n = 52, 9.4%). The number of calls increased greatly in the days after October 4, 2001, reaching a peak of 31 anthrax calls in 1 d and then declining sharply in succeeding months. However, by December 2002 the number of calls about anthrax still had not returned to pre-attack levels. This study demonstrated the value of poison centers in documenting public need for information on biological agents used in a terrorist attack, even if the attack did not occur in the area serviced by the poison center. Poison centers may expect to receive calls regarding a bioterrorist attack shortly after the public became aware of the attack and will continue to receive related calls for months afterward. Poison centers need to be prepared with appropriate information prior to such attacks to provide to the public upon request.

  17. Effects of the USA PATRIOT Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on select agent research in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dias, M. Beatrice; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco M.; Casman, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis of the Bacillus anthracis and Ebola virus archival literature was conducted to determine whether negative consequences of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism” (USA PATRIOT) Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on US select agent research could be discerned. Indicators of the health of the field, such as number of papers published per year, number of researchers authoring papers, and influx rate of new authors, indicated an overall stimulus to the field after 2002. As measured by interorganizational coauthorships, both B. anthracis and Ebola virus research networks expanded after 2002 in terms of the number of organizations and the degree of collaboration. Coauthorship between US and non US scientists also grew for Ebola virus but contracted for the subset of B. anthracis research that did not involve possession of viable, virulent bacteria. Some non-US institutions were dropped, and collaborations with others intensified. Contrary to expectations, research did not become centralized around a few gatekeeper institutions. Two negative effects were detected. There was an increased turnover rate of authors in the select agent community that was not observed in the control organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae) research community. However, the most striking effect observed was not associated with individual authors or institutions; it was a loss of efficiency, with an approximate 2- to 5-fold increase in the cost of doing select agent research as measured by the number of research papers published per millions of US research dollars awarded. PMID:20457912

  18. Effects of the USA PATRIOT Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on select agent research in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dias, M Beatrice; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco M; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-25

    A bibliometric analysis of the Bacillus anthracis and Ebola virus archival literature was conducted to determine whether negative consequences of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism" (USA PATRIOT) Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on US select agent research could be discerned. Indicators of the health of the field, such as number of papers published per year, number of researchers authoring papers, and influx rate of new authors, indicated an overall stimulus to the field after 2002. As measured by interorganizational coauthorships, both B. anthracis and Ebola virus research networks expanded after 2002 in terms of the number of organizations and the degree of collaboration. Coauthorship between US and non US scientists also grew for Ebola virus but contracted for the subset of B. anthracis research that did not involve possession of viable, virulent bacteria. Some non-US institutions were dropped, and collaborations with others intensified. Contrary to expectations, research did not become centralized around a few gatekeeper institutions. Two negative effects were detected. There was an increased turnover rate of authors in the select agent community that was not observed in the control organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae) research community. However, the most striking effect observed was not associated with individual authors or institutions; it was a loss of efficiency, with an approximate 2- to 5-fold increase in the cost of doing select agent research as measured by the number of research papers published per millions of US research dollars awarded.

  19. NOAA/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M.; Laber, J. L.; Boldt, E.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a prototype debris flow early warning system for Southern California. The system uses USGS-defined rainfall rate thresholds for debris flows and burn area hazard maps to protect interests in and near burn areas of damaging and potentially deadly debris flows. Although common throughout Southern California, as witnessed by the December 25, 2003 storm in which sixteen people were swept to their deaths by debris flows generated from a recent burn area near Devore, debris flows are commonly misunderstood by the public. They are often perceived as rare events, are difficult to warn for with sufficient lead time, and present unique challenges when communicating proper calls to action to best save lives and property. Many improvements to the system have been realized since the project’s inception in 2005, including using more refined rainfall rate thresholds, use of burn area hazard maps, and the establishment of a tiered system to categorize the potential severity of flash floods and debris flows. These efforts have collectively resulted in a reduction of warning false alarms. However, the massive 400,000 hectare 2009 Station burn area in the Angeles National Forest of Los Angeles County has created numerous challenges to the early warning system. The geology of the area burned is highly susceptible to debris flows, due in part to the burn severity, soil types and steep slopes. Most importantly, the burn area is adjacent to and uphill of the highly populated lower foothills of the San Fernando Valley. NOAA/NWS and the USGS have thus worked closely with local response and preparedness agencies to analyze and communicate the threat and assist in developing a unified command response plan in preparation for flash flood and debris flows from this burn area. The early warning system was put to the ultimate test on

  20. Institutional-building grants program: the county-government perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Flick, S.

    1982-03-01

    The National Association of Counties Research, Inc. (NACoR) energy team developed a questionnaire on the Institutional Buildings Grant Program (IBGP) and distributed it to every county government in the country. Responses were received from approximately 600 counties in 47 states (a response rate of about 20%). After completing a preliminary review of the questionnaire findings, NACoR conducted six case studies to identify the various methods state energy offices and county governments used to implement the IBGP. The case studies presented here are divided into two groups: examples of successful state IBGP's - New York, Washington, and Wisconsin; and examples of unsuccessful state IBGP's - California, North Carolina, and South Carolina. (MHR)

  1. Food control concept: A county perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper explains the Benton County, Washington responsibilities for implementing the ingestion exposure pathway protective actions. These responsibilities were successfully demonstrated in the September 13-14, 1994 FEMA evaluated exercise involving the Washington Public Power Supply System`s WNP-2 commercial nuclear power reactor.

  2. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  3. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs. PMID:23107058

  4. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  5. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    PubMed

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin.

  6. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    PubMed

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin. PMID:23971819

  7. Surface-water and karst groundwater interactions and streamflow-response simulations of the karst-influenced upper Lost River watershed, Orange County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Cinotto, Peter J.; Ulery, Randy L.; Taylor, Charles J.; McCombs, Gregory K.; Kim, Moon H.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs (OCRA), conducted a study of the upper Lost River watershed in Orange County, Indiana, from 2012 to 2013. Streamflow and groundwater data were collected at 10 data-collection sites from at least October 2012 until April 2013, and a preliminary Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)-TOPMODEL based hydrologic model was created to increase understanding of the complex, karstic hydraulic and hydrologic system present in the upper Lost River watershed, Orange County, Ind. Statistical assessment of the optimized hydrologic-model results were promising and returned correlation coefficients for simulated and measured stream discharge of 0.58 and 0.60 and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values of 0.56 and 0.39 for USGS streamflow-gaging stations 03373530 (Lost River near Leipsic, Ind.), and 03373560 (Lost River near Prospect, Ind.), respectively. Additional information to refine drainage divides is needed before applying the model to the entire karst region of south-central Indiana. Surface-water and groundwater data were used to tentatively quantify the complex hydrologic processes taking place within the watershed and provide increased understanding for future modeling and management applications. The data indicate that during wet-weather periods and after certain intense storms, the hydraulic capacity of swallow holes and subsurface conduits is overwhelmed with excess water that flows onto the surface in dry-bed relic stream channels and karst paleovalleys. Analysis of discharge data collected at USGS streamflow-gaging station 03373550 (Orangeville Rise, at Orangeville, Ind.), and other ancillary data-collection sites in the watershed, indicate that a bounding condition is likely present, and drainage from the underlying karst conduit system is potentially limited to near 200 cubic feet per second. This

  8. Model county ordinance for wind projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, D.A.

    1997-12-31

    Permitting is a crucial step in the development cycle of a wind project and permits affect the timing, cost, location, feasibility, layout, and impacts of wind projects. Counties often have the lead responsibility for permitting yet few have appropriate siting regulations for wind projects. A model ordinance allows a county to quickly adopt appropriate permitting procedures. The model county wind ordinance developed for use by northwest states is generally applicable across the country and counties seeking to adopt siting or zoning regulations for wind will find it a good starting place. The model includes permitting procedures for wind measurement devices and two types of wind systems. Both discretionary and nondiscretionary standards apply to wind systems and a conditional use permit would be issued. The standards, criteria, conditions for approval, and process procedures are defined for each. Adaptation examples for the four northwest states are provided along with a model Wind Resource Overlay Zone.

  9. Distributed micro-releases of bioterror pathogens : threat characterizations and epidemiology from uncertain patient observables.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Michael M.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Adams, Brian M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Ray, Jaideep; Najm, Habib N.

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist attacks using an aerosolized pathogen preparation have gained credibility as a national security concern since the anthrax attacks of 2001. The ability to characterize the parameters of such attacks, i.e., to estimate the number of people infected, the time of infection, the average dose received, and the rate of disease spread in contemporary American society (for contagious diseases), is important when planning a medical response. For non-contagious diseases, we address the characterization problem by formulating a Bayesian inverse problem predicated on a short time-series of diagnosed patients exhibiting symptoms. To keep the approach relevant for response planning, we limit ourselves to 3.5 days of data. In computational tests performed for anthrax, we usually find these observation windows sufficient, especially if the outbreak model employed in the inverse problem is accurate. For contagious diseases, we formulated a Bayesian inversion technique to infer both pathogenic transmissibility and the social network from outbreak observations, ensuring that the two determinants of spreading are identified separately. We tested this technique on data collected from a 1967 smallpox epidemic in Abakaliki, Nigeria. We inferred, probabilistically, different transmissibilities in the structured Abakaliki population, the social network, and the chain of transmission. Finally, we developed an individual-based epidemic model to realistically simulate the spread of a rare (or eradicated) disease in a modern society. This model incorporates the mixing patterns observed in an (American) urban setting and accepts, as model input, pathogenic transmissibilities estimated from historical outbreaks that may have occurred in socio-economic environments with little resemblance to contemporary society. Techniques were also developed to simulate disease spread on static and sampled network reductions of the dynamic social networks originally in the individual-based model

  10. County Staff or Area Staff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, William J.

    1970-01-01

    McIntryre explores the questions of county-based extention and increased specialization in Indiana. He compares the multi-county with individual county systems using variables including clientele's reactions to the two systems. (NL)

  11. Bioterrorism: processing contaminated evidence, the effects of formaldehyde gas on the recovery of latent fingermarks.

    PubMed

    Hoile, Rebecca; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2007-09-01

    In the present age of heightened emphasis on counter terrorism, law enforcement and forensic science are constantly evolving and adapting to the motivations and capabilities of terrorist groups and individuals. The use of biological agents on a population, such as anthrax spores, presents unique challenges to the forensic investigator, and the processing of contaminated evidence. In this research, a number of porous and non-porous items were contaminated with viable [corrected] spores and marked with latent fingermarks. The test samples were then subjected to a standard formulation of formaldehyde gas. Latent fingermarks were then recovered post decontamination using a range of methods. Standard fumigation, while effective at destroying viable spores, contributed to the degradation of amino acids leading to loss of ridge detail. A new protocol for formaldehyde gas decontamination was developed which allows for the destruction of viable spores and the successful recovery of latent marks, all within a rapid response time of less than 1 h. PMID:17767655

  12. Analyzing a bioterror attack on the food supply: The case of botulinum toxin in milk

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Lawrence M.; Liu, Yifan

    2005-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model of a cows-to-consumers supply chain associated with a single milk-processing facility that is the victim of a deliberate release of botulinum toxin. Because centralized storage and processing lead to substantial dilution of the toxin, a minimum amount of toxin is required for the release to do damage. Irreducible uncertainties regarding the dose–response curve prevent us from quantifying the minimum effective release. However, if terrorists can obtain enough toxin, and this may well be possible, then rapid distribution and consumption result in several hundred thousand poisoned individuals if detection from early symptomatics is not timely. Timely and specific in-process testing has the potential to eliminate the threat of this scenario at a cost of <1 cent per gallon and should be pursued aggressively. Investigation of improving the toxin inactivation rate of heat pasteurization without sacrificing taste or nutrition is warranted. PMID:15985558

  13. Substitute Teacher Handbook for Montgomery County Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This booklet presents materials and practical suggestions to help substitute teachers working in the Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS), Maryland. Section 1 discusses Substitute Teaching in Montgomery County Public Schools. It includes four sections: Professional Expectations (eligibility, duties and responsibilities, classroom control and…

  14. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  15. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  16. Standardized emergency management system and response to a smallpox emergency.

    PubMed

    Kim-Farley, Robert J; Celentano, John T; Gunter, Carol; Jones, Jessica W; Stone, Rogelio A; Aller, Raymond D; Mascola, Laurene; Grigsby, Sharon F; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    The smallpox virus is a high-priority, Category-A agent that poses a global, terrorism security risk because it: (1) easily can be disseminated and transmitted from person to person; (2) results in high mortality rates and has the potential for a major public health impact; (3) might cause public panic and social disruption; and (4) requires special action for public health preparedness. In recognition of this risk, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC-DHS) developed the Smallpox Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Plan for LAC to prepare for the possibility of an outbreak of smallpox. A unique feature of the LAC-DHS plan is its explicit use of the Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) framework for detailing the functions needed to respond to a smallpox emergency. The SEMS includes the Incident Command System (ICS) structure (management, operations, planning/intelligence, logistics, and finance/administration), the mutual-aid system, and the multi/interagency coordination required during a smallpox emergency. Management for incident command includes setting objectives and priorities, information (risk communications), safety, and liaison. Operations includes control and containment of a smallpox outbreak including ring vaccination, mass vaccination, adverse events monitoring and assessment, management of confirmed and suspected smallpox cases, contact tracing, active surveillance teams and enhanced hospital-based surveillance, and decontamination. Planning/intelligence functions include developing the incident action plan, epidemiological investigation and analysis of smallpox cases, and epidemiological assessment of the vaccination coverage status of populations at risk. Logistics functions include receiving, handling, inventorying, and distributing smallpox vaccine and vaccination clinic supplies; personnel; transportation; communications; and health care of personnel. Finally, finance/administration functions include monitoring

  17. King County Division of Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the King County Division of Parks and Recreation (Seattle, Washington) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

  18. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  19. TV and Extension in Carbon County, Pa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Ray W.

    To help improve televised extension education, a study was made of the interests and characteristics of the potential audience (9,300) of PTVC, a community antenna television system in Carbon County, Pennsylvania. A checklist questionnaire survey drew 160 usable responses from the communities of Jim Thorpe, Lehighton, and Palmerton. Data on…

  20. Charleston County School District (CCSD) Reading Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston County School District, North Charleston, SC.

    This brief two-page policy statement presents the Charleston County (South Carolina) School District Board of Trustees reading policy. It begins by noting that the district will emphasize early literacy development, reading across the content areas, and interventions for struggling readers, and that schools shall be responsible for designing and…

  1. Los Angeles County Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the Los Angeles County Parks and Recreation Rehabilitation Unit (California) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer,…

  2. Cities, Counties and Universities Look for Ways to Prevent Underage Drinking--Social Host Laws Make Adults Responsible for Alcohol Served on Their Property to Those Under 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Glynn R.

    2008-01-01

    Municipalities and colleges are adding Social Host ordinances to their list of tactics to prevent underage drinking. The ordinances, which focus on the locations where underage drinking takes place, hold property owners responsible for making sure those under 21 don't consume alcohol in their home, apartment or any venue they own. MADD (Mothers…

  3. A Report - "The Response to An Even Chance": The Gallup-McKinley County School District as Seen by the New Mexico State Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe.

    The document is a response by the New Mexico State Department of Education to "allegations, accusations and implications" of misuse of Federal funds intended for American Indian children. The allegations resulted from an investigation--supported by the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund with the cooperation of the Center for Laws and…

  4. Hydrogeology, water quality, water budgets, and simulated responses to hydrologic changes in Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creek ground-water basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Eugene B.; Van Konyenburg, Kathryn M.

    1998-01-01

    Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creeks are underlain by thin, narrow ground-water basins that supply nearly all water used for local agricultural and municipal purposes. The creeks discharge to the Pacific Ocean near the northwestern corner of San Luis Obispo County, California. The basins contain heterogeneous, unconsolidated alluvial deposits and are underlain by relatively impermeable bedrock. Both creeks usually stop flowing during the summer dry season, and most of the pumpage during that time is derived from ground-water storage. Annual pumpage increased substantially during 1956?88 and is now a large fraction of basin storage capacity. Consequently, dry-season water levels are lower and the water supply is more vulnerable to drought. The creeks are the largest source of ground-water recharge, and complete basin recharge can occur within the first few weeks of winter streamflow. Agricultural and municipal pumpages are the largest outflows and cause dry-season water-level declines throughout the San Simeon Basin. Pumping effects are more localized in the Santa Rosa Basin because of subsurface flow obstructions. Even without pumpage, a large quantity of water naturally drains out of storage at the upper ends of the basins during the dry season. Ground water is more saline in areas close to the coast than in inland areas. Although seawater intrusion has occurred in the past, it probably was not the cause of high salinity in 1988?89. Ground water is very hard, and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some locations. Probability distributions of streamflow were estimated indirectly from a 120-year rainfall record because the periods of record for local stream-gaging stations were wetter than average. Dry-season durations with recurrence intervals between 5 and 43 years are likely to dry up some wells but not cause seawater intrusion. A winter with no streamflow is likely to occur about every 32 years and to

  5. Patho‐Genes.org: a website dedicated to gene sequences of potential bioterror bacteria and PCR primers used to amplify them

    PubMed Central

    Gardès, Julien; Bachar, Dipankar; Croce, Olivier; Christen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pathogenic agents can be very hard to detect, and usually they do not cause illness for several hours or days. To improve the speed and the accuracy of detection tests and satisfy the needs of early diagnosis, molecular biology methods such as PCR are now used. However, selecting a proper target gene and designing good primers is often not easy. We present a dedicated website, http://patho‐genes.org, where we provide every sequence, functional annotation, published primer and relevant article for every annotated gene of major pathogenic bacterial species listed as key agents to be used for a bioterrorism attack. Each published primer was analysed to determine its melting temperature, its specificity and its coverage (i.e. its sensitivity against every allele of its target gene). Data generated have been organized in the form of data sheet for each gene, which are available through multiple browser panels and query systems. PMID:22681780

  6. [Bioterrorism--real threat].

    PubMed

    Wiackowski, Stanisław K

    2004-01-01

    In the presented paper natural and artificial threat concern of possible use of biological weapon was discussed. Special attention was given to viruses and bacteria which may be used by terrorists and methods of their application, utilisation of different organisms for example: insects such as intermediate hosts or transport medium of contagious microorganisms. PMID:15682939

  7. Biodefense and Bioterrorism

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cause disease, spread, or resist medical treatment. Biological agents spread through the air, water, or in ... viruses, plague, or smallpox could be used as biological agents. Biodefense uses medical measures to protect people ...

  8. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  9. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Compartir This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. ... Specific Segments of the Program Overview Anthrax Plague Smallpox Botulism Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Tularemia Note: Parts of ...

  10. Comparison of quantitative PCR and culture-based methods for evaluating dispersal of Bacillus thuringiensis endospores at a bioterrorism hoax crime scene.

    PubMed

    Crighton, Taryn; Hoile, Rebecca; Coleman, Nicholas V

    2012-06-10

    Since the anthrax mail attacks of 2001, law enforcement agencies have processed thousands of suspicious mail incidents globally, many of which are hoax bioterrorism threats. Bio-insecticide preparations containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores have been involved in several such threats in Australia, leading to the requirement for rapid and sensitive detection techniques for this organism, a close relative of Bacillus anthracis. Here we describe the development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Bt crystal toxin gene cry1, and evaluation of the method's effectiveness during a hoax bioterrorism event in 2009. When combined with moist wipe sampling, the cry1 qPCR was a rapid, reliable, and sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting and quantifying Bt contamination, and mapping endospore dispersal within a mail sorting facility. Results from the cry1 qPCR were validated by viable counts of the same samples on Bacillus-selective agar (PEMBA), which revealed a similar pattern of contamination. Extensive and persistent contamination of the facility was detected, both within the affected mailroom, and extending into office areas up to 30m distant from the source event, emphasising the need for improved containment procedures for suspicious mail items, both during and post-event. The cry1 qPCR enables detection of both viable and non-viable Bt spores and cells, which is important for historical crime scenes or scenes subjected to decontamination. This work provides a new rapid method to add to the forensics toolbox for crime scenes suspected to be contaminated with biological agents.

  11. 77 FR 72968 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, for Imperial County, Placer County and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... County and Ventura County Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portions of the California...

  12. Challenges in responding to the ebola epidemic - four rural counties, Liberia, August-November 2014.

    PubMed

    Summers, Aimee; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Montgomery, Joel M; Neatherlin, John; Tappero, Jordan W; T, Nyenswah; M, Fahnbulleh; M, Massaquoi

    2014-12-19

    The first cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa were identified in Guinea on March 22, 2014. On March 30, the first Liberian case was identified in Foya Town, Lofa County, near the Guinean border. Because the majority of early cases occurred in Lofa and Montserrado counties, resources were concentrated in these counties during the first several months of the response, and these counties have seen signs of successful disease control. By October 2014, the epidemic had reached all 15 counties of Liberia. During August 27-September 10, 2014, CDC in collaboration with the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare assessed county Ebola response plans in four rural counties (Grand Cape Mount, Grand Bassa, Rivercess, and Sinoe, to identify county-specific challenges in executing their Ebola response plans, and to provide recommendations and training to enhance control efforts. Assessments were conducted through interviews with county health teams and health care providers and visits to health care facilities. At the time of assessment, county health teams reported lacking adequate training in core Ebola response strategies and reported facing many challenges because of poor transportation and communication networks. Development of communication and transportation network strategies for communities with limited access to roads and limited means of communication in addition to adequate training in Ebola response strategies is critical for successful management of Ebola in remote areas.

  13. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  14. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  15. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    improvements have been identified in the Mercer Infrastructure Improvement Project, and if they are done with the proposed best management practices, then phosphorus inputs to the lake may decrease by about 40 lb. Eutrophication models [Canfield and Bachman model (1981) and Carlson Trophic State Index equations (1977)] were used to predict how the water quality of Mercer Lake should respond to changes in phosphorus loading. A relatively linear response was found between phosphorus loading and phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations in the lake, with changes in phosphorus concentrations being slightly less (about 80 percent) and changes in chlorophyll a concentrations being slightly more (about 120 percent) than the changes in phosphorus loadings to the lake. Water clarity, indicated by Secchi depths, responded more to decreases in phosphorus loading than to increases in loading. Results from the eutrophication models indicated that the lake should have been negatively affected by the wastewater discharges. Prior to 1965, when there was no sewage treatment plant effluent and inputs from the septic systems and other untreated systems were thought to be high, the lake should have been eutrophic; near the surface, average phosphorus concentrations were almost 0.035 mg/L, chlorophyll a concentrations were about 7 μg/L, and Secchi depths were about 6 ft, which agreed with the shallower Secchi depths during this time estimated from the sediment-core analysis. The models indicated that between 1965 and 1995, when the lake retained some of the effluent from the new sewage treatment plant, water quality should have been between the conditions estimated prior to 1965 and what was expected during typical hydrologic conditions around MY 2008-09. The models also indicated that if the future Mercer Infrastructure Improvement Project is conducted with the best management practices as proposed, the water quality in the lake could improve slightly from that measured during 2006-10. Because

  16. A forecasting model of gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.; Bando, A.; Bassett, G.; Rosen, A.; Carlson, J.; Meenan, C.

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. It is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry, an identify the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. This model will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming related economic activity resulting from future events like the siting of a permanent high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  17. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    SciTech Connect

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  18. 78 FR 53146 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ..., specifically, the Public Health Preparedness for Response to Bioterrorism (Emergency Supplement) (CDC), the Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program cooperative agreement (HRSA), and 2 emergency response grants...

  19. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  20. Area disadvantage and intimate partner homicide: an ecological analysis of North Carolina counties, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n = 100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services' funding) was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data.

  1. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    On February 9, 1988, the Mono County Board of Supervisors voted to approve Bonneville Pacific Corporation's Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project. The project is an air-cooled, binary, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The Mono County Board of Supervisors issued a project use-permit with vigorous and stringent conditions. Specific emphasis was placed on the establishment of a monitoring program designed to detect the effects of geothermal development on the springs at the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery and Hot Creek Gorge. On October 5, 1987, the Mono County Planning Commission granted a use-permit to Mammoth Pacific for its Mammoth Pacific II Project, a binary, air-cooled, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The issuance of the use-permit instigated an appeal by the Sierra Club. That appeal was heard on February 22, 1988, At the end of the testimony, the Board of Supervisors voted to uphold the appeal of the Sierra Club, thereby denying the project by a vote of 3 to 2. The main areas of concern voiced by the majority of the Board included potential hydrologic impacts to Hot Creek Gorge and Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, visual impacts, and impacts to mule deer migration and survival. One of the options now available to Mammoth Pacific is to request that the project be denied without prejudice. This would allow Mammoth Pacific to return to the Board immediately with additional material regarding its concerns.

  2. 77 FR 73005 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County, Placer County, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... County, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan...

  3. Proposed Construction of the Petaluma Center of Santa Rosa Junior College. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request for Capital Funds for a Permanent Off-Campus Center in Southern Sonoma County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The California Postsecondary Education Commission's (CPEC) analysis of the Sonoma County Junior College District's (SCJCD) proposal to establish a permanent off-campus center in the city of Petaluma is presented in this report. Part I provides background to the proposal, indicating that the SCJCD has operated a temporary center in relocatable…

  4. Successful practices in title III implementation. Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Technical Assistance Bulletin. Cameron County, Texas; Bucks County, Pennsylvania; Harford County, Maryland; Dallas County, Texas. Series 6, Number 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This is another in a series of bulletins EPA is issuing to provide examples of implementation programs and strategies of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, known as Title III, that are innovative or have proven effective. The purpose of these bulletins is to share information on successful practices with Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs), State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs), fire departments, and other Title III implementing agencies throughout the country in the hope that such information will prove useful to other SERCs and LEPCs as their programs develop and evolve. The bulletin discusses Title III implementation for Cameron County in Texas, Bucks County in Pennsylvania, Harford County in Maryland, and Dallas County in Texas.

  5. Hydrology of Lake County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Darwin D.; Hughes, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lake County includes a 1,150 square-mile area consisting of ridges, uplands, and valleys in central-peninsular Florida. About 32 percent of the county is covered by lakes, swamps, and marshes. Water requirements in 1970 averaged about 54 million gallons per day. About 85 percent of the water was obtained from wells; about 15 percent from lakes. The Floridan aquifer supplies almost all the ground water used in Lake County. Annual recharge to the Floridan aquifer averages about 7 inches over the county; runoff average 8.5 inches. The quality of ground and surface water in Lake County is in general good enough for most uses; however, the poor quality of Floridan-aquifer water in the St. John River Valley probably results from the upward movement of saline water along a fault zone. Surface water in Lake County is usually less mineralized than ground water but is more turbid and colored. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. The planning, execution, and evaluation of a mass prophylaxis full-scale exercise in cook county, IL.

    PubMed

    Kilianski, Andy; O'Rourke, Amy T; Carlson, Crystal L; Parikh, Shannon M; Shipman-Amuwo, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing threats of bioterrorism and the emergence of novel disease agents, including the recent international outbreaks of H7N9 influenza and MERS-CoV, have stressed the importance and highlighted the need for public health preparedness at local, regional, and national levels. To test plans that were developed for mass prophylaxis scenarios, in April 2013 the Cook Country Department of Public Health (CCDPH) and the Triple Community (TripCom) Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) executed a full-scale mass prophylaxis exercise in response to a simulated anthrax bioterrorism attack. The exercise took place over 2 days and included the TripCom Point-of-Dispensing (POD) Management Team, volunteers from the TripCom MRC, and neighboring public health departments and MRCs. Individuals from the community volunteered as actors during the exercise, while local municipal, police, and fire personnel coordinated their responses to create the most realistic simulation possible. The exercise was designed to test the capacity of TripCom and CCDPH to implement plans for organizing municipal staff and volunteers to efficiently distribute prophylaxis to the community. Based on results from POD clinic flow, accuracy of prophylaxis distribution, and observations from evaluators, the exercise was successful in demonstrating areas that were operationally efficient as well as identifying areas that can be improved on. These include improvements to the just-in-time training for POD staff, the health screening and consent forms handed out to patients, the physical setup of the POD, and the command structure and communication for the management of POD operations. This article demonstrates the need for full-scale exercises and identifies gaps in POD planning that can be integrated into future plans, exercises, and emergency response.

  7. The planning, execution, and evaluation of a mass prophylaxis full-scale exercise in cook county, IL.

    PubMed

    Kilianski, Andy; O'Rourke, Amy T; Carlson, Crystal L; Parikh, Shannon M; Shipman-Amuwo, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing threats of bioterrorism and the emergence of novel disease agents, including the recent international outbreaks of H7N9 influenza and MERS-CoV, have stressed the importance and highlighted the need for public health preparedness at local, regional, and national levels. To test plans that were developed for mass prophylaxis scenarios, in April 2013 the Cook Country Department of Public Health (CCDPH) and the Triple Community (TripCom) Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) executed a full-scale mass prophylaxis exercise in response to a simulated anthrax bioterrorism attack. The exercise took place over 2 days and included the TripCom Point-of-Dispensing (POD) Management Team, volunteers from the TripCom MRC, and neighboring public health departments and MRCs. Individuals from the community volunteered as actors during the exercise, while local municipal, police, and fire personnel coordinated their responses to create the most realistic simulation possible. The exercise was designed to test the capacity of TripCom and CCDPH to implement plans for organizing municipal staff and volunteers to efficiently distribute prophylaxis to the community. Based on results from POD clinic flow, accuracy of prophylaxis distribution, and observations from evaluators, the exercise was successful in demonstrating areas that were operationally efficient as well as identifying areas that can be improved on. These include improvements to the just-in-time training for POD staff, the health screening and consent forms handed out to patients, the physical setup of the POD, and the command structure and communication for the management of POD operations. This article demonstrates the need for full-scale exercises and identifies gaps in POD planning that can be integrated into future plans, exercises, and emergency response. PMID:24697783

  8. 75 FR 22135 - Agency Information Collection Request: 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... World Trade Center. Specifically, the Public Health Preparedness for Response to Bioterrorism (Emergency Supplement) (CDC), the Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program cooperative agreement (HRSA), and...

  9. Pima County Small Employer Wage Surgey, 1988. Arizona Labor Market Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Economic Security, Phoenix.

    This document collects and reports wages paid to workers in occupations of private establishments with 100 or fewer workers in August 1988 in Pima County, Arizona. The first section describes the survey format and sample. Narrative material and data tables provide information on the response rate, employment and wage movements in Pima County,…

  10. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Grade Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The teaching guide presents social studies activities to help ninth graders learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Based on the Indian River County environment in Florida, it is part of a series for teachers, students, and community members. The introduction describes the county's geography, natural resources,…

  11. JCCC's Environmental Scan: Results of Focus Groups Conducted with Johnson County Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Karen A.

    This report presents questions and typical responses from focus group discussions conducted at Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) in March 1999. A total of 23 individuals of varying ages from all geographic regions in Johnson County participated in three focus groups, designed as a follow-up to a phone survey about constituency…

  12. Palm Beach County's Prime Time Initiative: Improving the Quality of After-School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    This report covers the third year of Chapin Hall's process evaluation of the Prime Time Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida, a system-building effort to strengthen the quality of after-school programs in the county. During the past two decades, the after-school field has expanded enormously, partly in response to increasing concern about…

  13. County Clustering for the California 4-H Youth Development Program: Impacts and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Aarti; Dasher, Harry Steve; Young, Jane Chin

    2012-01-01

    In response to budgetary constraints, a new staffing structure, the Pilot Leadership Plan, was proposed for California's 4-H Youth Development Program. County clusters were formed, each led by a coordinator. The plan was piloted for 2 years to provide insight into how county clustering could support Extension staff to increase and enhance…

  14. Perceptions of County Faculty of the Professional Development Needs of Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Matt; Villalobos, Heisil

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 59 of 67 Florida county extension directors identified professional development needs of extension specialists: (1) understanding client needs; (2) producing appropriate educational materials; (3) delivering inservice training to county extension agents; (4) evaluating state programs; and (5) increasing interaction at the local…

  15. Frederick County Community Perception Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick Community Coll., MD.

    In 1997, Frederick Community College (FCC) in Maryland conducted a telephone survey of a random sample of 466 Frederick County residents to identify their perceptions of the college. In particular, the survey examined Frederick County residents' image of FCC, level of awareness of services and programs offered by FCC, and the types of services…

  16. Topics for Lehigh County Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Community Coll., Schnecksville, PA.

    Lehigh County Community College (Pennsylvania) and the Lehigh County Senior Citizens' Center collaborated on a project to assess the learning needs of the senior center's 1,600 members. A needs assessment completed by 68 center members and interviews of an additional 38 center members established that senior citizens preferred short-term workshops…

  17. Do US metropolitan core counties have lower scope 1 and 2 CO2 emissions than less urbanized counties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayao, M. M.; Blackhurst, M. F.; Matthews, H. S.

    2014-10-01

    Recent sustainability research has focused on urban systems given their high share of environmental impacts and potential for centralized impact mitigation. Recent research emphasizes descriptive statistics from place-based case studies to argue for policy action. This limits the potential for general insights and decision support. Here, we implement generalized linear and multiple linear regression analyses to obtain more robust insights on the relationship between urbanization and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the US We used consistently derived county-level scope 1 and scope 2 GHG inventories for our response variable while predictor variables included dummy-coded variables for county geographic type (central, outlying, and nonmetropolitan), median household income, population density, and climate indices (heating degree days (HDD) and cooling degree days (CDD)). We find that there is not enough statistical evidence indicating per capita scope 1 and 2 emissions differ by geographic type, ceteris paribus. These results are robust for different assumed electricity emissions factors. We do find statistically significant differences in per capita emissions by sector for different county types, with transportation and residential emissions highest in nonmetropolitan (rural) counties, transportation emissions lowest in central counties, and commercial sector emissions highest in central counties. These results indicate the importance of regional land use and transportation dynamics when planning local emissions mitigation measures.

  18. Hydrology of Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2007-01-01

    Local water managers usually rely on information produced at the State and regional scale to make water-resource management decisions. Current assessments of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County, Florida, commonly end at the boundaries of two water management districts (South Florida Water Management District and the Southwest Florida Water Management District), which makes it difficult for managers to determine conditions throughout the county. The last comprehensive water-resources assessment of Polk County was published almost 40 years ago. To address the need for current countywide information, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 3?-year study in 2002 to update information about hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County and identify changes that have occurred. Ground-water use in Polk County has decreased substantially since 1965. In 1965, total ground-water withdrawals in the county were about 350 million gallons per day. In 2002, withdrawals totaled about 285 million gallons per day, of which nearly 95 percent was from the Floridan aquifer system. Water-conservation practices mainly related to the phosphate-mining industry as well as the decrease in the number of mines in operation in Polk County have reduced total water use by about 65 million gallons per day since 1965. Polk County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer system, which is unconfined and composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer system is underlain by the intermediate confining unit, which grades into the intermediate aquifer system and consists of up to two water-bearing zones composed of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a thick sequence of permeable limestone and dolostone, consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and

  19. Combining the benefits of decision science and financial analysis in public health management: a county-specific budgeting and planning model.

    PubMed

    Fos, Peter J; Miller, Danny L; Amy, Brian W; Zuniga, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    State public health agencies are charged with providing and overseeing the management of basic public health services on a population-wide basis. These activities have a re-emphasized focus as a result of the events of September 11, 2001, the subsequent anthrax events, and the continuing importance placed on bioterrorism preparedness, West Nile virus, and emerging infectious diseases (eg, monkeypox, SARS). This has added to the tension that exists in budgeting and planning, given the diverse constituencies that are served in each state. State health agencies must be prepared to allocate finite resources in a more formal manner to be able to provide basic public health services on a routine basis, as well as during outbreaks. This article describes the use of an analytical approach to assist financial analysis that is used for budgeting and planning in a state health agency. The combined benefits of decision science and financial analysis are needed to adequately and appropriately plan and budget to meet the diverse needs of the populations within a state. Health and financial indicators are incorporated into a decision model, based on multicriteria decision theory, that has been employed to acquire information about counties and public health programs areas within a county, that reflect the impact of planning and budgeting efforts. This information can be used to allocate resources, to distribute funds for health care services, and to guide public health finance policy formulation and implementation. PMID:15552764

  20. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.

    2010-01-01

    sand, or relatively impermeable layers of clay, clayey sand, or clayey carbonates. The thickness of the intermediate aquifer system/ intermediate confining unit ranges from about 200 feet in northwestern Highlands County to more than 600 feet in the southwestern part. Although the intermediate aquifer system is present in the county, it is unclear where the aquifer system grades into a confining unit in the eastern part of the county. Up to two water-bearing units are present in the intermediate aquifer system within the county. The lateral continuity and water-bearing potential of the various aquifers within the intermediate aquifer system are highly variable. The Floridan aquifer system is composed of a thick sequence of limestone and dolostone of Upper Paleocene to Oligocene age. The top of the aquifer system ranges from less than 200 feet below NGVD 29 in extreme northwestern Highlands County to more than 600 feet below NGVD 29 in the southwestern part. The principal source of groundwater supply in the county is the Upper Floridan aquifer. As of 2005, about 89 percent of the groundwater withdrawn from the county was obtained from this aquifer, mostly for agricultural irrigation and public supply. Over most of Highlands County, the Upper Floridan aquifer generally contains freshwater, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains more mineralized water. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer is constantly fluctuating, mainly in response to seasonal variations in rainfall and groundwater withdrawals. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in May 2007, which represents the hydrologic conditions near the end of the dry season when water levels generally are near their lowest, ranged from about 79 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Highlands County to about 40 feet above NGVD 29 in the southeastern part of the county. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in September 2007 was about 3 to 10 feet high

  1. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  2. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  3. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  4. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  5. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  6. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Imperial and San Diego Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Jane

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Imperial…

  7. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of Settlement. SUMMARY: Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency...

  8. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of settlement. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h)(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States...

  9. The California Child Care Portfolio, 2001: A Compilation of Data about Child Care in California, County by County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Child Care Resource and Referral Network, San Francisco.

    This report compiles standardized data on child care supply and requests for care in California. The report provides county and statewide information based on responses from about 42,000 child care providers and more than 55,000 parents over a 3-month period and on data from state and federal government agencies, including: (1) demographic…

  10. When pestilence prevails...physician responsibilities in epidemics.

    PubMed

    Huber, Samuel J; Wynia, Matthew K

    2004-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism, the emergence of the SARS epidemic, and a recent focus on professionalism among physicians, present a timely opportunity for a review of, and renewed commitment to, physician obligations to care for patients during epidemics. The professional obligation to care for contagious patients is part of a larger "duty to treat," which historically became accepted when 1) a risk of nosocomial infection was perceived, 2) an organized professional body existed to promote the duty, and 3) the public came to rely on the duty. Physicians' responses to epidemics from the Hippocratic era to the present suggests an evolving acceptance of the professional duty to treat contagious patients, reaching a long-held peak between 1847 and the 1950's. There has been some professional retrenchment against this duty to treat in the last 40 years but, we argue, conditions favoring acceptance of the duty are met today. A renewed embrace of physicians' duty to treat patients during epidemics, despite conditions of personal risk, might strengthen medicine's relationship with society, improve society's capacity to prepare for threats such as bioterrorism and new epidemics, and contribute to the development of a more robust and meaningful medical professionalism.

  11. Energy Improvements in Barnstable County

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    A fact sheet that describes Barnstable County, Massachusetts, effort to improve energy efficiency through a public appliance trade-in program, installation of compact fluorescent light bulbs in public buildings, and public energy education.

  12. Evaluation of efficacy and human health risk of aerial ultra-low volume applications of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide for adult mosquito management in response to West Nile virus activity in Sacramento County, California.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Paula A; Schleier, Jerome J; Reed, Marcia; Kelley, Kara; Goodman, Gary W; Brown, David A; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-03-01

    The Sacramento and Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District (SYMVCD, also referred to as "the District") conducts surveillance and management of mosquitoes in Sacramento and Yolo counties in California. Following an increase in numbers and West Nile virus (WNV) infection rates of Culex tarsalis and Culex pipiens, the District decided on July 26, 2007, to conduct aerial applications of Evergreen EC 60-6 (60% pyrethrins: 6% piperonyl butoxide) over approximately 215 km2 in the north area of Sacramento County on the nights of July 30, July 31, and August 1, 2007. At the same time, the District received notification of the first human WNV case in the area. To evaluate the efficacy of the applications in decreasing mosquito abundance and infection rates, we conducted pre- and post-trapping inside and outside the spray zone and assessed human health risks from exposure to the insecticide applications. Results showed a significant decrease in abundance of both Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens, and in the minimum infection rate of Cx. tarsalis. Human-health risks from exposure to the insecticide were below thresholds set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:20402352

  13. Geothermal development plan: Yuma county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    One hot spring and 33 wells drilled in the county discharge water at temperatures sufficient for direct-use geothermal applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Currently, one industry within the county has been identified which may be able to use geothermal energy for its process heat requirements. Also, a computer simulation model was used to predict geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development of the resource.

  14. Geothermal Development Plan: Pima County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Pima County is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic province in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Continued growth as indicated by such factors as population growth, employment and income will require large amounts of energy. It is believed that geothermal energy could provide some of the energy that will be needed. Potential users of geothermal energy within the county are identified.

  15. Arsenic, nitrate, and chloride in groundwater, Oakland County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen S.; Hill-Rowley, Richard; Malone, Matt

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and nine southeast Michigan counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The early results of this study raised broader concerns in Oakland County about the quality of groundwater in general and drinking water in particular. In response to these concerns, Oakland County worked with the USGS and the Center for Applied Environmental Research at the University of Michigan - Flint (CAER) to study distributions of arsenic, nitrate and chloride in groundwater, with emphasis on sites where concentrations of these constituents exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) and Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCLs) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The maps produced for this report are based on historical data compiled from MDEQ records.

  16. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Alameda County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; Brian, Dianne; Houdre, Nicolas

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. In Alameda County more than $20 million in damages were assessed. Debris flows occurred in rural portions of the county, but were only responsible for $400 thousand in damages.

  17. Arsenic, nitrate, and chloride in groundwater, Oakland County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Steve S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and nine southeast Michigan counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The early results of this study raised broader concerns in Oakland County about the quality of groundwater in general and drinking water in particular. In response to these concerns, Oakland County worked with the USGS and the Center for Applied Environmental Research at the University of Michigan – Flint (CAER) to study distributions of arsenic, nitrate, and chloride in groundwater, with emphasis on sites where concentrations of these constituents exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL’s) and Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCL’s) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The maps produced for this report are based on historical data compiled from MDEQ records. This fact sheet is a revision of USGS Fact Sheet 135-98, “Arsenic, nitrate, and chloride in groundwater in Oakland County in Oakland County, Michigan” (Aichele and others, 1998) to incorporate revisions to the USEPA MCL for arsenic. 

  18. Crisis & Commitment: 150 Years of Service by Los Angeles County Public Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Cousineau, Michael R.; Tranquada, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center will open soon, replacing the county’s current 74-year-old facility with a modern, although smaller, facility. Los Angeles County has provided hospital care to the indigent since 1858, during which time, the operation of public hospitals has shifted from a state-mandated welfare responsibility to a preeminent part of the county’s public health mission. As this shift occurred, the financing of Los Angeles County hospitals changed from primarily county support to state and federal government sources, particularly Medicaid. The success of the new hospital will depend on whether government leaders at all levels provide the reforms needed to help the county and its partners stabilize its funding base. PMID:17329642

  19. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Yuma County Area Development Plan evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F), and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate (90/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C, 194/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F) temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated, although one resource area is located near Yuma, Arizona. One resource site is inferred to contain a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2 percent per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without advese affect on agriculture. Six firms were found in Yuma County which may be able to utilize geothermal energy for process heat needs. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  20. VennVax, a DNA-prime, peptide-boost multi-T-cell epitope poxvirus vaccine, induces protective immunity against vaccinia infection by T cell response alone

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Leonard; Buller, R. Mark; Schriewer, Jill; Lee, Jinhee; Frey, Sharon; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for smallpox to be disseminated in a bioterror attack has prompted development of new, safer smallpox vaccination strategies. We designed and evaluated immunogenicity and efficacy of a T-cell epitope vaccine based on conserved and antigenic vaccinia/variola sequences, identified using bioinformatics and immunological methods. Vaccination in HLA transgenic mice using a DNA-prime/peptide-boost strategy elicited significant T cell responses to multiple epitopes. No antibody response pre-challenge was observed, neither against whole vaccinia antigens nor vaccine epitope peptides. Remarkably, 100% of vaccinated mice survived lethal vaccinia challenge, demonstrating that protective immunity to vaccinia does not require B cell priming. PMID:21055490

  1. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  2. Archuleta County CO Lineaments

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Archuleta Lineaments Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer traces apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in the area around Pagosa springs in Archuleta County, Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids. Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable “plumbing system” that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and right-of-ways. These lineaments may be displaced somewhat from their actual location, due to such factors as shadow effects with low sun angles in the aerial photographs. Note: This shape file was constructed as an aid to geothermal exploration in preparation for a site visit for field checking. We make no claims as to the existence of the lineaments, their location, orientation, and nature. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4132831.990103 m Left: 311979.997741 m Right: 331678.289280 m Bottom: 4116067

  3. Comparing Electronic News Media Reports of Potential Bioterrorism-Related Incidents Involving Unknown White Powder to Reports Received by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Federal Bureau of Investigation: USA, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Geroncio C.; Posid, Joseph; Papagiotas, Stephen; Lowe, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There have been periodic electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown substances (often referred to as “white powder”) since the 2001 intentional dissemination of Bacillus anthracis through the US Postal System. This study reviewed the number of unknown “white powder” incidents reported online by the electronic news media and compared them with unknown “white powder” incidents reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) during a two-year period from June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2011. Results identified 297 electronic news media reports, 538 CDC reports, and 384 FBI reports of unknown “white powder.” This study showed different unknown “white powder” incidents captured by each of the three sources. However, the authors could not determine the public health implications of this discordance. PMID:25420771

  4. Bioterrorism and the public health.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, G C

    2000-01-01

    We were well prepared to handle the worst case scenario with the Y2K computer bug. Fortunately, our concerns were unfounded. The threat of chemical and biological terrorism, however, is real, and it is a daily threat. Physicians play a major role in the identification of events as well as their mitigation. We all hope disasters will never occur. As with most emergencies, however, sound planning and training will reduce the risks to our patients. PMID:10835224

  5. Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office independent scientific investigations program annual report, May 1997--April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment; identifying areas not being addressed adequately by the Department of Energy (DOE). Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues. This report summarizes the results of monitoring from two boreholes and the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel that have been instrumented by Nye County since March and April of 1995. The preliminary data and interpretations presented in this report do not constitute and should not be considered as the official position of Nye County. The ISIP presently includes borehole and tunnel instrumentation, monitoring, data analysis, and numerical modeling activities to address the concerns of Nye County.

  6. 76 FR 13172 - Placer County Water Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with... Filed: February 23, 2011 d. Applicant: Placer County Water Agency e. Name of Project: Middle Fork... Manager, Placer County Water Agency, 144 Ferguson Road, Auburn, CA 95603; Telephone: (530) 823-4490....

  7. Community Analysis for the Pitkin County Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwin, Florence M.

    This document analyzes the social and demographic characteristics of Pitkin County, Colorado (population 12,000) and the Pitkin County Library located in Aspen (24,000 volumes). The report contains statistics gathered from the 1978 Mid-Term U.S. Bureau Census of Pitkin County, as well as other statistics from local, state, and federal sources; the…

  8. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not predict. The…

  9. The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causseaux, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida, contains potable water throughout most of the county and is a potential source of water to augment the public supply that is presently imported from adjacent counties. The county accounts for 38 percent of the public supply consumption of ground water in the 11-county area of west-central Florida and 68 percent of this water is imported from two adjacent counties. The surficial aquifer has a saturated thickness of more than 30 feet throughout most of the county. Specific capacity per foot of screen for wells is less than 0.1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown in some parts of the county, but yield is sufficient in most of the county for many small uses with shallow-well pumps. Minimum potential yield varies from 5 gallons per minute in the northern part of the county to more than 30 gallons per minute in the south. Concentrations of iron are high enough in parts of the county to cause staining. Chloride concentrations are less than 100 milligrams per liter in most of the county and do not pose a problem for many uses. (USGS)

  10. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  11. Day Fire in Ventura County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    The Day fire has been burning in Ventura County in Southern California since Labor Day, and has consumed more than 160,000 acres. As of September 29, it was 63 percent contained. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer on NASA's Terra satellite flew over the fire at 10 p.m. Pacific Time on September 28, and imaged the fire with its infrared camera. The hottest areas of active burning appear as red spots on the image. The blue-green background is a daytime image acquired in June, used as a background to allow firefighters to localize the hot spots.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission directorate.

    Size: 22.5 by 31.0 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 34

  12. Fresno County Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Fresno County Office of Education and the Fresno Unified School District hosted the Mock Trial Competition. The state competition is sponsored by the Constitutional Rights Foundation, with cosponsorship from the California State Bar Association and the California Young Lawyer's Association. This…

  13. Composting in Prince William County

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.

    1995-10-01

    Hidden in a small industrial corner of Prince Williams County, in Northern Virginia, a composting facility, after its first flourishing year in business, has found itself part of a symbiotic triangle. Along with a landfill and a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant, the composting facility is one of three programs that make up a joint public-private venture and form a interjurisdictional solid waste/refuse exchange agreement. Faced with the prospects of having to close a landfill at the end of the year, a mandate on yard waste collection that was increasing collection tonnage, and no room for further landfill development, Fairfax County, with approximately 900,000 residents, needed help. In a turn-around situation, Prince William County--with approximately 240,000 residents, a low budget, and much space available for development--responded. Together the counties created a solid waste exchange. The basis for the program is a unity between the local governments on some solid waste issues and a composting facility. Composting, specifically yard waste composting, has been among the fastest-growing aspects of waste management. In 1990, the nation was composting 2% of its solid waste. By the end of 1995, according to the US EPA, between 4% and 7% of solid waste will be recovered through composting. The number of yard waste composting facilities operating has increased from 651 in 1988 to more than 3,000 in 1994.

  14. Somerset County Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rephann, Terance J.

    Allegany Community College in Cumberland, Maryland, conducted an employer assessment survey of Somerset County businesses during the winter of 1995 in order to provide evaluation data for planning and curriculum development for the secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. The survey was mailed to 760 establishments, with a 29 percent…

  15. Kinship Care in Walton County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon, Sara L.; Nackerud, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The quality of life of maltreated children placed with relatives was examined through interviews with nine families in Walton County (Georgia) who had taken in related children. Over half of the children had experienced some improvement in home life, school performance, and their physical and mental status. Kinship care families indicated needs…

  16. Southern Nevada Library Services; Serving Lincoln County, Nye County, Esmeralda County through the Clark County Library District: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Phyllis I.

    An anecdotal review covers the first year of increased library service in Nye, Lincoln, and Esmeralda Counties, Nevada, under the Southern Nevada Library Services project funded by the Library Services and Construction Act. Using information from questionnaires and site visits, the extent of library services in each community in the area is…

  17. Truancy in Yolo County, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Barbara; Tyburczy, Jason

    The problem of truancy in the elementary and junior high schools of California's Yolo County was investigated during the 1980-81 academic year by means of questionnaires completed by 16 school principals and interviews with 30 people representing schools, school district offices, law enforcement agencies, the Department of Social Services, and the…

  18. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The Pima County Area Development evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 1000 C (2120 F) were identified. In addition, one area is identified as having a temperature of 1470 F (2970 F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in Tecson where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector and the existence of major copper mines provide opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. However, available water supplies are identified as a major constraing to projected growth. A regional energy analysis, future predictions for energy consumption, and energy prices are given. Potential geothermal users in Pima County are identified and projections of maximum economic geothermal utilization are given. One hundred fifteen firms in 32 industrial classes have some potential for geothermal use are identified. In addition, 26 agribusiness firms were found in the county.

  19. Hydrogeology of Wood County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, W.G.

    1989-01-01

    The average rate of ground·water pumpage in Wood County in 1985 was 9.7 million gallons per day. Of this rate, about 6 million gallons per day is pumped from municipal-supply wells in seven communities.An additional 1.08 million gallons per day is pumped for agricultural irrigation.

  20. Measles in rural Ohio county.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, W A; Irvin, J; Jennings, M R; Giandelia, J; Halpin, T J; Marks, J S; Conrad, J L

    1980-06-01

    Between December 23, 1975, and March 31, 1976, 169 cases of measles were reported from Defiance County, Ohio, a small rural county in the northwest corner of the State. The outbreak spread from a single junior high school basketball player to eventually involve 19 of the 28 county schools. Among the affected schools, measles attack rates varied from 0.3-7.2% with a mean of 2.0%. A likely source of illness was determined for 160 of the 169 cases (95%). Intraschool transmission was most common, accounting for 97 of the 169 cases (57%) followed by sibling contact for 23 cases (14%). The pattern of measles spread was complex and would have been difficult to predict in advance even if surveillance systems reported each case the day it occurred. A control program held between February 2 and February 20, 1976, vaccinated 5145 of the 11,114 (46.3%) county schoolchildren. Forty-four cases of measles occurred 4 or more days following school clinics, 22 (50%) in children who requested measles vaccine at school clinics, 17 of whom were actually vaccinated. Most of the other cases occurred in students whose parents thought their children to be protected. Measles is a disease which spreads rapidly in a complex pattern over wide geographic areas. A control program vaccinating a large proportion of the children without definitive history of adequate vaccination or disease was apprently effective in curtailing the outbreak.

  1. Hydrogeology of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Webb County, in semiarid South Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border, is a region confronted by increasing stresses on natural resources. Laredo (fig. 1), the largest city in Webb County (population 193,000 in 2000), was one of the 10 fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the country during 1990-2000 (Perry and Mackun, 2001). Commercial and industrial activities have expanded throughout the region to support the maquiladora industry (manufacturing plants in Mexico) along the border and other growth as a result of the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Rio Grande currently (2002) is the primary source of public water supply for Laredo and other cities along the border in Webb County (fig. 1). Other cities, such as Bruni and Mirando City in the southeastern part of the county, rely on ground-water supplies to meet municipal demands. Increased water demand associated with development and population growth in the region has increased the need for the City of Laredo and Webb County to evaluate alternative water sources to meet future demand. Possible options include (1) supplementing the surface-water supply with ground water, and (2) applying artificial storage and recovery (ASR) technology to recharge local aquifers. These options raise issues regarding the hydraulic capability of the aquifers to store economically substantial quantities of water, current or potential uses of the resource, and possible effects on the quality of water resulting from mixing ground water with alternative source waters. To address some of these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Laredo, began a study in 1996 to assess the ground-water resources of Webb County. A hydrogeologic study was conducted to review and analyze available information on the hydrogeologic units (aquifers and confining units) in Webb County, to locate available wells in the region with water-level and water-quality information from the aquifers, and

  2. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  3. 75 FR 53301 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Order on Consent for the Standard Mine Site, Gunnison County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... County, Colorado. The proposed AOC is for recovery of past and projected future response costs concerning... to the AOC, if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the...

  4. Employer Manpower Needs and Job Entry Requirements for Paralegals within Johnson County, Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatham, Elaine L.

    In order to determine whether a paralegal program could be successfully implemented at Johnson County Community College, surveys were sent to 262 local attorneys (with a 24% response rate) and to 41 members of the Kansas City Association of Legal Assistants (71% response). Emphasis was placed on determining area employment needs and the…

  5. Fly ash utilization in McLean County, North Dakota. Topical report, Task 7.25

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, the McLean County Commissioners requested assistance from personnel at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with the construction of a section of road and a boat ramp in their county. Assistance was sought from the EERC because the county`s construction plans called for partial replacement of the lime and portland cement normally used for soil stabilization with fly ash. Since the EERC had recently conducted several research projects dealing with the use of coal combustion by-products for road construction, the commissioners requested that EERC personnel help to determine appropriate formulas for the stabilized soil mixtures to be used for both the road and boat ramp applications. An additional incentive was provided when the management of the Coal Creek Power Plant offered to donate the necessary fly ash at no cost. This project was performed as a joint venture between McLean County and the EERC. The EERC was primarily responsible for conducting a laboratory testing program to develop soil stabilization mixtures for the two construction activities. These mixtures were to contain a relatively high percentage of fly ash and to exhibit sufficient strength and durability so that the road and boat ramp would both have a service life of 20 years or more. McLean County would be primarily responsible for the road and boat ramp construction activities. The funding for the EERC portion of the project was provided by the US Department of Energy through a joint venture support program.

  6. 7 CFR 7.11 - County committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the county executive director, other employee of the county committee, or the county agricultural extension agent for the county. If the county agricultural extension agent is not selected as secretary to... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION...

  7. 7 CFR 7.11 - County committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the county executive director, other employee of the county committee, or the county agricultural extension agent for the county. If the county agricultural extension agent is not selected as secretary to... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION...

  8. 7 CFR 7.11 - County committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the county executive director, other employee of the county committee, or the county agricultural extension agent for the county. If the county agricultural extension agent is not selected as secretary to... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION...

  9. Physical, chemical, and biological data for selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    1999-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 51 sampling sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 through 1994 as part of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program. This report presents data collected from 1981 through 1994. Physical data include water temperature, instantaneous stream discharge, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical data include laboratory determinations of nutrients, major ions, and selected metals in whole water samples and selected metals, pesticides, gross polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), gross polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN?s), and total carbon in stream-bottom sediment samples. The biological data consists of benthic macroinvertebrate population analyses and diversity indices. Chester County is undergoing rapid urbanization as agricultural lands are converted to residential, commercial, and industrial areas. The purpose of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program is to further the understanding of stream habitat and chemical changes in response to this urbanization.

  10. Physical, chemical, and biological data for selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2000-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 51 sampling sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 through 1997 as part of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program. This report presents data collected from 43 sites from 1995 through 1997 that constitute a continuation of the program. Physical data include water temperature, instantaneous stream discharge, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical data collected include laboratory determinations of nutrients and major ions in whole water samples and selected metals, pesticides, gross polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), gross polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN's), and total carbon in stream-sediment samples. The biological data include benthic-macroinvertebrate populations. The data are presented without interpretation. Chester County is undergoing urbanization as agricultural land is converted to residential developments, commercial areas, and industrial and corporate parks. The major goal of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program is to further the understanding of stream changes in response to urbanization.

  11. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

  12. 78 FR 10249 - Environmental Impact Statement: Will and Kankakee Counties, IL and Lake County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Will and Kankakee Counties, IL and Lake County, IN AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Number 20.205, Highway Research, Planning and Construction....

  13. Water resources of Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles R.; Flippo, Herbert N.; Lescinsky, Joseph B.; Barker, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Lehigh County occupies an area of 347 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. The northern part of Lehigh County is underlain by the Martinsburg Formation, which consists chiefly of shale and slate. The central part of the county, where most of the population centers are located and much of the urbanization is occurring, is underlain by alternating beds of limestone and dolomite. From oldest to youngest, these carbonate rocks are the Leithsville Formation, the Allentown Formation, the Beekmantown Group, and the Jacksonburg Formation. The southern part of the county is underlain chiefly by the shales, sandstones, and conglomerates of the Brunswick Formation and by metamorphic and igneous rocks.

  14. Waste source reduction county government case study

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    Itasca County is located in north-central Minnesota, has a population of 42,000 and is known for its forests and scenic waterways. With Beltrami County, it contains the upper watershed of the Mississippi River. Its major industries are timber and tourism. Itasca County government made a commitment to source reduce its waste as much as possible. Secondarily, what they could not reduce they committed themselves to recycle. The project demonstrates functional reduction in practice. It shows that reduction is a realistic goal for county governments and that reduction can be measured on a waste stream by waste stream basis.

  15. Digital computer processing of LANDSAT data for North Alabama. [Linestone County, Madison County, Jackson County, Marshall County, and DeKalb County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Atkinson, R. J.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing procedures and programs applied to Multispectral Scanner data from LANDSAT are described. The output product produced is a level 1 land use map in conformance with a Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The region studied was a five-county area in north Alabama.

  16. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Sims, State... comments by NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State...

  17. 78 FR 29202 - Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk... prepared for a proposed highway project in Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota. FOR... Sorlie Bridge over the Red River between Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks,...

  18. 75 FR 42815 - Fulton County, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Fulton County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Fulton County, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Fulton County, IN Fulton County, LLC (FC), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to... exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short...

  19. The Economic Impact of Schenectady County Community College on Schenectady County, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chestnut, Erma Ruth

    This report on the economic impact of Schenectady County Community College (SCCC) uses a modification of the Caffrey and Isaacs model to assess SCCC-related local business volume, SCCC costs and benefits to the Schenectady County government, and the likely impact on the county if SCCC did not exist. Part I provides background to the study,…

  20. 75 FR 45557 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX, to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Counties, TX. Santa Clara, CA On March 9, 2009, we published a final rule (74 FR 9951) that abolished the... County, OK, and Angelina County, TX, to Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Areas AGENCY... area of application to the Oklahoma, OK, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage...

  1. 75 FR 25308 - Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI... Beloit, Rock County, Wisconsin to the interchange of Rockton Road and I-90 southeast of South...

  2. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  3. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  4. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  5. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  6. Potable water quality in rural Georgetown County.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, S S; Nelson, P; Warren, W J

    1975-10-01

    Drinking water supplies of 161 rural communities, in Georgetown County, South Carolina, were randomly selected for sample collection. The analysis showed that most of the waters were slightly acidic. Low, but acceptable concentrations of chloride, copper, fluoride, sodium, cadmium, nitrate and phosphate were found. A few water samples showed higher then recommended levels of arsenic, mercury, zinc and lead. Although only 2% of the samples exceeded the mandatory limit of 0.05 ppm for arsenic, 72% exceeded the recommended level of 0.01 ppm. The mandatory limit for manganese was exceeded in 37% of the waters while 88% exceeded the limit for iron. The high iron content was generally responsible for the high turbidity found in 45% of the samples. The well depth and the consumer income had some bearing on water quality. Statistical evidence suggested that septic tank seepage was partially responsible for nitrate, phosphate, iron and arsenic contamination of shallow water supplies. Lead concentrations appear to vary according to the plumbing used and the pH of the waters. PMID:107

  7. Report on audit of fire and emergency medical services cost sharing between the Department of Energy and Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-02

    Los Alamos County was created in 1964 as a response to a Congressional mandate, promulgated in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Because the county came into existence via the Atomic Energy Act, the Department provided fire and emergency medical services. In the intervening years, however, the Department and the county have worked toward making the county self-sufficient. The contract for fire and emergency medical services represented a step in the direction of self-sufficiency by requiring the county to begin paying for its share of the related costs. The purpose of the audit was to determine if the costs for fire and emergency medical services were shared appropriately commensurate with the use of the services.

  8. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal... highway project in Yellowstone County, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right... (I-90) and Old Highway 312 in or near the city of Billings, Yellowstone County, Montana....

  9. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST ALONG JEFFERSON COUNTY 71 WITH RAILROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST ALONG JEFFERSON COUNTY 71 WITH RAILROAD BRIDGE (RIGHT), SADDLEBAG COTTAGE (LEFT) AND COAL TRUCK. - Linn Crossing Trestle Bridge, Spanning County Road 71, Linn Crossing, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 111. 'PROPOSED CIRCULATION SYSTEM.' FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. 'PROPOSED CIRCULATION SYSTEM.' FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: THE FIRST PLANNED COUNTY IN NEW ENGLAND, JUNE 1933. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 113. "EXISTING MAJOR HIGHWAYS". FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. "EXISTING MAJOR HIGHWAYS". FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: THE FIRST PLANNED COUNTY IN NEW ENGLAND. JUNE 1933 - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  12. 112. 'PROPOSED CIRCULATION SYSTEM.' FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. 'PROPOSED CIRCULATION SYSTEM.' FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: THE FIRST PLANNED COUNTY IN NEW ENGLAND. JUNE 1933. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Water Quality, Hydrology, and Simulated Response to Changes in Phosphorus Loading of Butternut Lake, Price and Ashland Counties, Wisconsin, with Special Emphasis on the Effects of Internal Phosphorus Loading in a Polymictic Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Butternut Lake is a 393-hectare, eutrophic to hypereutrophic lake in northcentral Wisconsin. After only minor improvements in water quality were observed following several actions taken to reduce the nutrient inputs to the lake, a detailed study was conducted from 2002 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey to better understand how the lake functions. The goals of this study were to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake, quantify external and internal sources of phosphorus, and determine the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake. Since the early 1970s, the water quality of Butternut Lake has changed little in response to nutrient reductions from the watershed. The largest changes were in near-surface total phosphorus concentrations: August concentrations decreased from about 0.09 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to about 0.05 mg/L, but average summer concentrations decreased only from about 0.055-0.060 mg/L to about 0.045 mg/L. Since the early 1970s, only small changes were observed in chlorophyll a concentrations and water clarity (Secchi depths). All major water and phosphorus sources, including the internal release of phosphorus from the sediments (internal loading), were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lake during monitoring years (MY) 2003 and 2004. During these years, Butternut Creek, Spiller Creek, direct precipitation, small tributaries and near-lake drainage area, and ground water contributed about 62, 20, 8, 7, and 3 percent of the inflow, respectively. The average annual load of phosphorus to the lake was 2,540 kilograms (kg), of which 1,590 kg came from external sources (63 percent) and 945 kg came from the sediments in the lake (37 percent). Of the total external sources, Butternut Creek, Spiller Creek, small tributaries and near-lake drainage area, septic systems, precipitation, and ground water contributed about

  14. Landsliding in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Reginald Peter; Pomeroy, John S.; Davies, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Man should proceed with caution if modifications such as loading, excavation, or changes of the water regime are contemplated for slopes in Allegheny County, especially those slopes described on the map as highly sensitive to disturbance by man. Features indicative of unstable slope conditions include: cracks in buildings, yard walls, and pools; doors and windows that jam; fences and other linear features bowed out of line; tilted trees and utility poles; cracks and steplike ground features; hummocky ground; and water seeps. Geologic factors related to the landsliding process include rock types, layering, fracturing, and attitude; nature of soil cover; permeability of rocks and soils; and steepness of slope.

  15. Geothermal development plan: Pinal county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Wells drilled in the county provide evidence of geothermal energy sufficient for process heat and space heating and cooling applications. Annual energy consumption was estimated for industries whose process heat requirements are less than 105/sup 0/C (221/sup 0/F). This information was then used to model the introduction of geothermal energy into the process heat market. Also, agriculture and agribusiness industries were identified. Many of these are located on or near a geothermal resource and might be able to utilize geothermal energy in their operations.

  16. Water resources of Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Miller, Kirk A.

    2004-01-01

    Sweetwater County is located in the southwestern part of Wyoming and is the largest county in the State. A study to quantify the availability and describe the chemical quality of surface-water and ground-water resources in Sweetwater County was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineers Office. Most of the county has an arid climate. For this reason a large amount of the flow in perennial streams within the county is derived from outside the county. Likewise, much of the ground-water recharge to aquifers within the county is from flows into the county, and occurs slowly. Surface-water data were not collected as part of the study. Evaluations of streamflow and stream-water quality were limited to analyses of historical data and descriptions of previous investigations. Forty-six new ground-water-quality samples were collected as part of the study and the results from an additional 782 historical ground-water-quality samples were reviewed. Available hydrogeologic characteristics for various aquifers throughout the county also are described. Flow characteristics of streams in Sweetwater County vary substantially depending on regional and local basin characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Because precipitation amounts in the county are small, most streams in the county are ephemeral, flowing only as a result of regional or local rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Flows in perennial streams in the county generally are a result of snowmelt runoff in the mountainous headwater areas to the north, west, and south of the county. Flow characteristics of most perennial streams are altered substantially by diversions and regulation. Water-quality characteristics of selected streams in and near Sweetwater County during water years 1974 through 1983 were variable. Concentrations of dissolved constituents, suspended sediment, and bacteria generally were smallest at sites on the Green River because of resistant geologic units, increased

  17. How Direct Descendants of a School Lockout Achieved Academic Success: Resilience in the Educational Attainments of Prince Edward County's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Randolph, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    From 1959 to 1964, approximately 1,700 Black children in Prince Edward County, Virginia were denied schooling, due to the county leaders' decision to close schools--a defiant response to federal racial desegregation mandates stemming from "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954, 1955). Yet from one of the most extreme cases of injustice…

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Comprehension, Retention and Action of the Denton County Older Population in Regards to Disaster Preparedness Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Rebekah P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to operationalize the responses from a sample of the community dwelling older population from Denton County, Texas on disaster preparedness education given by Denton County Health Department (DCHD) personnel. The goals and objectives were drawn from the Texas Public Health and Medical Emergency Management…

  19. Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a potential agent of bioterrorism, has a short distribution and a long elimination half-life, and induces kidney and thymus lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Nan; Wang, Sheng-Han; Li, Tao; Wang, Qin; Tu, Wei; Cai, Kun; Hou, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Ren-Mao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Hao; Xiao, Le; Shi, Jing; Cheng, Yuan-Guo; Li, Jian-Chun; Wang, Hui

    2011-09-01

    Shiga toxin type 2, a major virulence factor produced by the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, is a potential toxin agent of bioterrorism. In this study, iodine-125 (125I) was used as an indicator to describe the in vivo Stx2 biodistribution profile. The rats were injected intravenously (i.v.) with 125I-Stx2 at three doses of 5.1-127.5 μg/kg body weight. Stx2 had a short distribution half-life (t (1/2)α, less than 6 min) and a long elimination half-life in rat. The toxicokinetics of Stx2 in rats was dose dependent and nonlinear. Stx2 concentrations in various tissues were detected at 5-min, 0.5-h, and 72-h postinjection. High radioactivity was found in the lungs, kidneys, nasal turbinates, and sometimes in the eyes, which has never been reported in previous studies. In a preliminary assessment, lesions were found in the kidney and thymus.

  20. Identification of the factors that govern the ability of therapeutic antibodies to provide postchallenge protection against botulinum toxin: a model for assessing postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against agents of bioterrorism and biological warfare.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Nasser, Zidoon; Olson, Rebecca M; Cao, Linsen; Simpson, Lance L

    2011-08-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are one of the major classes of medical countermeasures that can provide protection against potential bioweapons such as botulinum toxin. Although a broad array of antibodies are being evaluated for their ability to neutralize the toxin, there is little information that defines the circumstances under which these antibodies can be used. In the present study, an effort was made to quantify the temporal factors that govern therapeutic antibody use in a postchallenge scenario. Experiments were done involving inhalation administration of toxin to mice, intravenous administration to mice, and direct application to murine phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. As part of this study, several pharmacokinetic characteristics of botulinum toxin and neutralizing antibodies were measured. The core observation that emerged from the work was that the window of opportunity within which postchallenge administration of antibodies exerted a beneficial effect increased as the challenge dose of toxin decreased. The critical factor in establishing the window of opportunity was the amount of time needed for fractional redistribution of a neuroparalytic quantum of toxin from the extraneuronal space to the intraneuronal space. This redistribution event was a dose-dependent phenomenon. It is likely that the approach used to identify the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of antibodies against botulinum toxin can be used to assess the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against any agent of bioterrorism or biological warfare.

  1. 76 FR 28415 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator, c/ o Sierra National Forest, High... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource ] Advisory Committee Coordinator,...

  2. 76 FR 44302 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator, c/ o Sierra National Forest, High... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator,...

  3. Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  4. Educational and Demographic Profile: Mendocino County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Mendocino County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  5. Geothermal development issues: Recommendations to Deschutes County

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, C.

    1982-07-01

    This report discusses processes and issues related to geothermal development. It is intended to inform planners and interested individuals in Deschutes County about geothermal energy, and advise County officials as to steps that can be taken in anticipation of resource development. (ACR)

  6. Latinos and Education in Ventura County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segura, Denise A.

    This paper provides an overview of demographic and educational attainment data on Latinos in Ventura County, California, and describes an ongoing initiative to increase Latino college attendance through improved K-12 preparation and family involvement. In both its urban and rural areas, Ventura County harbors large Latino populations who are…

  7. Educational and Demographic Profile: Lake County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Lake County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…

  8. Commodity Flow Study - Clark County, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, S.Ph.D.; Navis, I.

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy has designated Clark County, Nevada as an 'Affected Unit of Local Government' due to the potential for impacts by activities associated with the Yucca Mountain High Level Nuclear Waste Repository project. Urban Transit, LLC has led a project team of transportation including experts from the University of Nevada Las Vegas Transportation Research Center to conduct a hazardous materials community flow study along Clark County's rail and truck corridors. In addition, a critical infrastructure analysis has also been carried out in order to assess the potential impacts of transportation within Clark County of high level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel to a proposed repository 90 miles away in an adjacent county on the critical infrastructure in Clark County. These studies were designed to obtain information relating to the transportation, identification and routing of hazardous materials through Clark County. Coordinating with the United States Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U. S. Federal Highway Administration, the Nevada Department of Transportation, and various other stakeholders, these studies and future research will examine the risk factors along the entire transportation corridor within Clark County and provide a context for understanding the additional vulnerability associated with shipping spent fuel through Clark County. (authors)

  9. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Benito County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for San Benito County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  10. Public Library Service for San Benito County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Gail

    A sparsely populated, agricultural area, San Benito County (California) provides library services in conjunction with the Hollister city library and in cooperation with the San Juan Bautista city library. Financing comes from the county general fund. There are no written goals or policy statements and no professionally trained librarians. As…

  11. Groundwater management and protection Madison County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.H.; Strunk, J.W.

    1990-07-01

    Groundwater is extremely important to Madison County as it provides nearly three quarters of the county's drinking water. In recent years, Madison County has increasingly recognized the need to protect its groundwater resource. A supply of usable groundwater is one element of a high quality environment, which can help spur economic development and provide for the needs of a growing population. Without planning protection and understanding of possible consequences, however, economic development and population pressures can cause a gradual degradation of groundwater. In April 1987, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) convened a local groundwater steering group in Madison County. At the first meeting the ground agreed upon these goals: (1) to seek incorporate groundwater protection into the planning and development process for Madison County, (2) to support efforts by Madison County to obtain authority to adopt zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, and (3) to develop a groundwater management plan for the county. This report provides essential information needed in developing a plan and is based on the following assumptions: the citizens of Madison County value the environment in which they live and wish to protect it from pollution; continued economic development is necessary for a healthy local economy; and a healthy economy can be sustained and nurtured, without degradation of the groundwater resource, through countywide planning, education, and participation.

  12. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  13. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  14. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  15. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  16. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  17. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  18. Socioeconomic Heterogeneity of Mining-Dependent Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Luloff, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Although the socioeconomic well-being of all U.S. mining-dependent counties was slightly above the national average in 1990, disaggregation reveals substantial effects of region and mining subsector. In particular, southern and Great Lakes coal-mining counties had significantly lower high school graduation rates and higher poverty and unemployment…

  19. A Profile of Anson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, M. Gaston; And Others

    Since 1950 Anson County, North Carolina, has had major contributions to economic development, a source of great concern to residents of the almost entirely rural area. The increased capacity of the Blewitt Falls Dam power output and the county-wide water filtration system (one of only a few in the United States today) are attractive to industry.…

  20. [A Profile of Kershaw County, South Carolina].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen C.; McLean, Edward L.

    Careful long-range planning and slow, deliberate growth have benefitted Kershaw County's 500,000 pleasantly varied acres near the state capitol. The county, famous for its equestrian activity, boasts prestige stables, riding clubs, and trails. In addition there are lakes and numerous parks. Leaders want to maintain this aesthetic appeal while…

  1. A Profile of Hardee County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Anderson, Deborah S.

    In 1977 leaders of Hardee County, Florida, listed relationships and attitudes of residents, rural atmosphere, environmental conditions, and economic potential among the county's strong points, and public service and facility improvements, developing economic potential, recreational and entertainment development, and planning and zoning as its most…

  2. Educational and Demographic Profile: Yolo County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Yolo County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…

  3. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Joaquin County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for San Joaquin County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  4. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The potential for utilizing geothermal energy was evaluated. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 900C (1940F) were identified, and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated. One resource site contains a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2% per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without adverse affect on agriculture. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. It is suggested that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  5. Family planning in Nangong County.

    PubMed

    Sun, X

    1980-04-01

    Family planning has been practiced in Nangong county, China, since 1971; as a result the population growth rate has dropped from 16.7/1000 to 3.6/1000 in 1979; 98% of women of childbearing age use contraception, and most couples have only 1 child. Before 1971 most couples had 4-5 children; per capita grain rations had to be reduced because of the increase in population, and more grain had to be supplied by the state. 1 child families are now rewarded with an annual monetary bonus, extra grain allocations for the child, free tuition in schools, and preference in job placement and medical treatment. Parents who have more than 2 children are penalized by the withdrawal of 10% of their monthly earnings. The idea of "1 couple 1 child" is a radical change from China's traditional culture, which viewed children especially sons, as an insurance against old age insecurity. Marriage at a later age is also encouraged; in Nangong county none of the men of marriageable age married before 25, and none of the women before 23. As a result of promoting family planning Nangong country has ceased to need grain subsidies from the state, and in recent years has had a 10,000 ton surplus to sell.

  6. Family planning in Nangong County.

    PubMed

    Sun, X

    1980-04-01

    Family planning has been practiced in Nangong county, China, since 1971; as a result the population growth rate has dropped from 16.7/1000 to 3.6/1000 in 1979; 98% of women of childbearing age use contraception, and most couples have only 1 child. Before 1971 most couples had 4-5 children; per capita grain rations had to be reduced because of the increase in population, and more grain had to be supplied by the state. 1 child families are now rewarded with an annual monetary bonus, extra grain allocations for the child, free tuition in schools, and preference in job placement and medical treatment. Parents who have more than 2 children are penalized by the withdrawal of 10% of their monthly earnings. The idea of "1 couple 1 child" is a radical change from China's traditional culture, which viewed children especially sons, as an insurance against old age insecurity. Marriage at a later age is also encouraged; in Nangong county none of the men of marriageable age married before 25, and none of the women before 23. As a result of promoting family planning Nangong country has ceased to need grain subsidies from the state, and in recent years has had a 10,000 ton surplus to sell. PMID:12264032

  7. 75 FR 70001 - Proposed Agreement Pursuant to Section 122(h)(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... enter this proposed agreement if comments disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the... Past Response Costs, 76th & Albany, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  8. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  9. Water resources of Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The report describes the hydrology and water resources of Duval County, the development of its water supplies, and water use within the county. Also included are descriptions of various natural features of the county (such as topography and geology), an explanation of the hydrologic cycle, and an interpretation of the relationship between them. Ground-water and surface-water resources and principal water-quality features within the county are also discussed. The report is intended to provide the general public with an overview of the water resources Of Duval County, and to increase public awareness of water issues. Information is presented in nontechnical language to enable the general reader to understand facts about water as a part of nature, and the problems associated with its development and use.

  10. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and the eight other potentially sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization. 591 refs., 147 figs., 173 tabs.

  11. Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Pamela L; Cho, Mildred K

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to "edit" genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a "gene drive" that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments.

  12. Engineering Values into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mildred K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to “edit” genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a “gene drive” that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments. PMID:26632356

  13. Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Pamela L; Cho, Mildred K

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to "edit" genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a "gene drive" that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments. PMID:26632356

  14. Assessment of physicians' information needs in five Texas counties.

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, V M; Kromer, M E; Tobia, R C

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, a questionnaire was mailed to all physicians in four counties in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and to a random sample of physicians in Bexar County, Texas (San Antonio). Two hundred and eighty of 573 Valley physicians (48.9%) and 162 of 273 Bexar County physicians (59.3%) responded to the survey, for an overall response rate of 52.2%. The two groups were compared primarily to determine differences between physicians who have access to established medical libraries and physicians who practice in remote areas without local access to medical information. Demographic variables, professional practice characteristics, and patient characteristics were compared. Information resource use, particularly reasons for use and non-use of MEDLINE, was explored. Questions also were asked about the availability of various types of information technology. The results indicated that differences in the health care profile did not affect the information usage of the physicians but that differences did exist between the two groups in the use of MEDLINE and libraries. There was no statistically significant difference in either group's rating of experience with using databases, with more than 40% in each group rating themselves as not at all experienced. PMID:8004024

  15. Utilization of an incident command system for a public health threat: West Nile virus in Nassau County, New York, 2008.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eleanor H; Scanlon, Eileen; Callahan, James J; Carney, Maria Torroella

    2010-01-01

    The summer of 2008 in Nassau County, New York, was marked by a historic season of human West Nile virus illness and West Nile virus activity in mosquitoes. The commissioner of Health of the State of New York declared a public health threat, and a decision was made to use adulticide for mosquito control. In contrast to prior years, the Nassau County Department of Health utilized the Incident Command System (ICS) to coordinate a multidisciplinary and multidepartment response to this public health threat. Implementing the ICS ensured coordination and communication between multiple county departments and organizations in the community. The effective response demonstrated that a local health department can mobilize to meet the needs of a public health threat through the use of the ICS. Nassau County Department of Health learned that the ICS is ideal for complex, multidisciplinary operations because of its clear chain of command, transparent organization structure, and flexibility.

  16. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, Arthur

    2015-03-04

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

  17. Karst development in central Butler County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, B.A.

    1993-02-01

    Research was conducted to study the geology and hydrology of sinkholes, springs, and caves formed in Lower Permian, Fort Riley Limestone, located in central Butler County, Kansas. The goal was to better understand the controlling factors of these karst features and the processes that produce them in a portion of Kansas that is undergoing rapid population growth and increased groundwater usage. Research was accomplished in seven phases: literature search, locating karst features, measuring bedrock fracture joint trends, surveying major caves, estimating discharge of springs, dye tracing, and water chemistry analysis. Recognizable karst landforms within the study area were plotted onto a base map to demonstrate their geographic, geologic, and hydrologic relationships. Karst features identified were 125 sinkholes, a major cave system composed of at least three enterable cave segments, and one large spring. The karst terrain found within the study area is clearly a system of interrelated features and processes. Long-term solution of the bedrock allows karst features to form, joints and bedding planes to enlarge, and creates an efficient network of subsurface drainage. Factors that control karst development in the study area are lithology, thickness, and dip of the bedrock; presence of well defined joints and bedding planes; relatively level topography; nearby entrenched river valleys; lack of thick surficial cover; and climate. Of these influences, solutional activity at joints plays a major role in the formation of sinkholes and cave passages; however, a complex combination of all the controlling factors is responsible for the present, unique, and dynamic karst system.

  18. Nolley v. County of Erie.

    PubMed

    1991-10-31

    The U.S. District Court, Western District of New York, held that the Erie County Holding Center (ECHC) had violated an HIV-positive inmate's privacy rights under the U.S. Constitution and the New York Public Health Law by placing red stickers on the inmate's paperwork and belongings, and by segregating her from the general inmate population. The court reasoned that, pursuant to the federal Centers for Disease Control's recommendation that corrections staff take HIV precautions with all inmates, the ECHC's treatment constituted an unjustifiable isolation based solely on her HIV status. The court also held that the ECHC further violated the inmate's constitutional rights by denying her access to the law library and to religious services. Although the court found the inmate's incarceration conditions "deplorable," the conditions did not constitute "cruel and unusual punishment." The court also found no federal Rehabilitation Act violation because the ECHC did not receive federal financial assistance.

  19. Hydrologic conditions: Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohout, Francis Anthony; Klein, Howard; Sherwood, C.B.; Leach, Stanley D.

    1964-01-01

    Thin layers of dense limestone of low permeability that occur near the top of the Biscayne aquifer in the vicinity of the north end of Levee 30 in Dade County, Florida are of hydrologic importance because they retard the downward infiltration of ponded water in Conservation Area No. 3. This retarding effect frequently results in high head differentials across the levee. Tests made in a small area adjacent to Levee 30 indicate that the coefficient of transmissibility of the aquifer is 3,600,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot, and the coefficient of vertical permeability of the dense limestones is 13 gpd per square foot. If ground-water flow beneath the levee is laminar, the total inflow to the Levee 30 Canal from Conservation Area No. 3 will be about 350 mgd (million gallons per day), or 540 cfs (cubic feet per second), per mile length of levee when the head difference across the levee is 10 feet.

  20. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  1. Computer Technology in Rural Schools: The Case of Mendocino County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoachlander, E. Gareth

    The county education office of Mendocino County, California, serving nine school districts and 11,800 elementary and secondary students, began planning for computers in 1979-1980, purchased two central computers, and by 1983 had one computer or terminal for every 40 students in the county. The county was characterized by its very enthusiastic…

  2. Evaluation of the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    The schools in Union County have undergone a tremendous amount of growth in the past decade. The growth in the county has led to an increase in discipline problems. In order to provide suspended students a second chance, Union County Public Schools implemented an alternative to suspension program, the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program…

  3. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  4. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  5. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  6. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  7. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.634 - FSA county office report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum § 1230.634 FSA county office report. The FSA county office will notify the FSA State office of the results of the referendum. Each FSA county office will transmit the results of the referendum in its county to the FSA State office....

  9. 7 CFR 1230.634 - FSA county office report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum § 1230.634 FSA county office report. The FSA county office will notify the FSA State office of the results of the referendum. Each FSA county office will transmit the results of the referendum in its county to the FSA State office....

  10. 1918 Influenza: A Winnebago County, Wisconsin Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shors, Teri; McFadden, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    The population of Winnebago County in 1918 was approximately 62,000 residents. It consisted of towns supporting diverse manufacturers surrounded by farming country. For this study, records were revisited, and 1918 to 1920 influenza survivors were interviewed. A pharmacological investigation encompassing the various influenza treatments used in Wisconsin from 1918 to 1920 was documented. In 1918, over 180 individuals perished from influenza, and over 2000 cases were reported in Winnebago County, Wisconsin. Influenza returned in 1920, which some researchers refer to as the “fourth wave,” claiming nearly 50 lives in Winnebago County, Wisconsin. This study also documents the 1920 influenza wave. PMID:19889943

  11. Drainage basins in Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Roy B.; Largen, Joseph B.

    1983-01-01

    The drainage basins and subbasins in Duval County, Florida, are delineated on this atlas map. The county 's 840 square-mile area is drained by three major river systems; the St. Johns, 668 square miles; Nassau, 113 square miles; and St. Marys, 59 square miles. The remainder of the county is drained by a network of small streams that flow into either the Intracoastal Waterway or directly into the Atlantic Ocean. The sub-basins range in size from less than one square mile to more than 50 square miles. (USGS)

  12. Tri-county pilot study. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Austin, T. W.; Kerber, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An area inventory was performed for three southeast Texas counties (Montgomery, Walker, and San Jacinto) totaling 0.65 million hectares. The inventory was performed using a two level hierarchy. Level 1 was divided into forestland, rangeland, and other land. Forestland was separated into Level 2 categories: pine, hardwood, and mixed; rangeland was not separated further. Results consisted of area statistics for each county and for the entire study site for pine, hardwood, mixed, rangeland, and other land. Color coded county classification maps were produced for the May data set, and procedures were developed and tested.

  13. County/private partnership expedites recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This article describes how Broward County, Florida and Browning-Ferris Industries (Houston, Texas) implemented a highly accelerated recycling project that had a county-wide recycling system fully operational in 180 days. The program is a strong step toward speeding compliance with Florida's mandated 30 percent recycling goal. The 1.2 million citizens in Broward County began recycling materials in dual curbside bins October 1, 1993. Previously, the participating communities all acted autonomously. Minimal volumes of newspaper, aluminum, clear glass, and some plastic were collected by curbsort vehicles and processed at small local recycling centers.

  14. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida...

  15. Maricopa County Small Employer Wage Survey, 1988. Arizona Labor Market Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Economic Security, Phoenix.

    This document collects and reports wages paid to workers in occupations of private establishments with 99 or fewer workers in August 1988 in Maricopa County, Arizona. The first section describes the survey format and sample. Narrative material and data tables provide information on the response rate, employment and wage movements in Maricopa…

  16. 78 FR 44119 - Circle Environmental #1 Superfund Site; Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...Under 122(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Walter G. Mercer, Jr. concerning the Circle Environmental 1 Superfund Site located in Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia. The settlement addresses cost incurred by the agency in conducting a fund lead......

  17. 78 FR 9910 - Circle Environmental #1 and #2 Sites; Dawson, Terrell County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with thirty-four (34) parties to recover past cost resulting from a removal action at the Circle Environmental 1 and 2 Superfund Sites located in Dawson, Terrell County,...

  18. Lake County, Illinois Educational and Training Needs-Assessment of Gerontological Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Markus, Colleen; Heck, Melissa

    In response to the need for an increase in services directed specifically to the elderly, a training and educational needs assessment of the existing elder service organizations in Lake County (Illinois) was conducted. Thirteen gerontological organizations were chosen for participation; the organizations were categorized into these groups: nursing…

  19. 78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD). Response #4--The comment does not identify and we are not... submittal and review process such as contained in SJVAPCD Rule 4550 and Great Basin Unified Air...

  20. 75 FR 37740 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Washington Apricot... for Washington apricots. The Committee is responsible for local administration of the marketing...

  1. A Study of the Curricular Organization of Intermediate Sciences in a County in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettuno, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study of a County in New York State gathered information about the means for teaching the intermediate science curriculum in middle schools. The study collected 43 surveys and conducted ten follow-up interviews with administrators responsible for curriculum. Data included the division of content among grade level, starting grade level,…

  2. Quarry Quest. A Field Trip Guide to the Indiana Limestone District, Monroe and Lawrence Counties, Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewmaker, Sherman N.

    This guide provides information for planning a field trip to the Indiana Limestone District. This district, located in Monroe and Lawrence Counties, Indiana, is responsible for material that has dominated the building-limestone market in the United States for nearly a century. A few of the many well-known buildings using Indiana limestone are the…

  3. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Monterey, San Benito, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Angelica; And Others

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Monterey,…

  4. Summary of geology and ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Tappahannock, Essex County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinnott, Allen

    1955-01-01

    This memorandum has been prepared in response to a recent inquiry from the city officials of Tappahannock, Essex County, Va., regarding the availability of ground water in the Tappahannock area.  The memorandum was prepared as part of the ground-water studies of the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Virginia Division of Geology.

  5. Diversity and Educational Gains: A Plan for a Changing County and Its Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Frankenberg, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This report is a response to the Jefferson County School Board's request for an independent study of the best way to carry successfully into the future its long-term commitment to diversity in its schools. The Board's first principle is preservation of diversity in the schools. The authors' assignment from the board was two-fold: to build on the…

  6. Comparing District Achievement to Improve Decision Making in Clark County, Nevada. Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In response to changing demographics, a tightening budget, and drastic achievement gaps (white students outperform Latino students on standardized tests) the Clark County School District in Nevada (the fifth largest district in the country) commissioned, in 2011, an educational and operational efficiency review. The district commissioned the…

  7. An Evaluation of Elementary School Nutrition Practices and Policies in a Southern Illinois County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess elementary school nutrition programs in a rural county in southern Illinois. The researcher interviewed the food service managers of eight schools and completed the School Health Index (SHI) based on their responses. Eighty-seven percent of the schools did not have venues such as vending machines outside the…

  8. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, and Ventura Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Angelica; And Others

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Los…

  9. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Joaquin, and Solano Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Angelica; Maloney, Patricia

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Alameda,…

  10. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Angelica; And Others

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Marin,…

  11. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Angelica; And Others

    Intended for use by vocational adminstrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Orange,…

  12. Writing for a Place: A Writing Workshop for McDowell County, West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mark; Clabough, Casey

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the experience and emotional responses of the two authors and the content of the Writing Workshop Manual that they created for the Caretta Community Center in McDowell County, West Virginia. Their technique shows not only the contrast of their private and public personas but also some of the outsider/insider dialogue that…

  13. A Networking Approach to Groundwater Education in West Oakland County, Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Lillian F.

    1984-01-01

    A public education project in West Oakland County (Michigan) was started to encourage individual citizen responsibility and action related to groundwater protection. A description of the project is provided, showing the effectiveness of using a networking approach for broad public education. (JN)

  14. 24 CFR 570.510 - Transferring projects from urban counties to metropolitan cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transferring projects from urban... GRANTS Grant Administration § 570.510 Transferring projects from urban counties to metropolitan cities... the activities before the time of transfer, including a statement that responsibility for all...

  15. Lea County 001, an H5 chondrite, and Lea County 002, an ungrouped type 3 chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Zolensky, M.E.; Score, R.; Clayton, R.N.; Mayeda, T.K.; Schutt, J.W. Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Co., Houston, TX Chicago Univ., IL )

    1989-12-01

    A search of active deflation basins near Jal, Lea County, New Mexico resulted in the discovery of two meteorites, Lea County 001 and 002. Lea County 001 has mean olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions of Fa(19) and Fs(17), respectively. These and all other mineralogical and petrological data collected indicate a classification of H5 for this stone. Lea County 002 has mean olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions of Fa(2) and Fs(4), and is unequilibrated. Although it is mineralogically most similar to Kakangari and chondritic clasts within Cumberland Falls, the high modal amount of forsterite makes Lea County a unique type 3 chondrite. Oxygen isotope data for Lea County 002 fall on an 0-16-mixing line through those of the enstatite meteorites and IAB irons, a feature shared by Kakangari. 28 refs.

  16. Characteristics of the Las Vegas/Clark County visitor economy

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a review of the Clark County visitor economy and the Clark County visitor. The review, undertaken in support of NWPO`s two objectives mentioned above, addressed a number of topics including performance of the Clark County visitor economy as a generator of employment, earnings and tax base; importance of the Clark County visitor economy to the Nevada economy as a whole; elements of the Clark County visitor economy outside the Las Vegas strip and downtown areas; current trends in the Clark County visitor industry; and indirect economic effects of Clark County casino/hotel purchases.

  17. General Assistance in Rural America: The Local Response to Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winship, James P.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the amount of money spent by rural counties on General Assistance Programs identified three factors that contributed to the level of county support: the size of the population, local history of response to human needs, and the role of local public welfare and social service administrators. (JHZ)

  18. 78 FR 60686 - Establishment of the Big Valley District-Lake County and Kelsey Bench-Lake County Viticultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... on April 5, 2013 (78 FR 20544), proposing to establish the Big Valley District-Lake County and Kelsey... District-Lake County and Kelsey Bench-Lake County Viticultural Areas and Modification of the Red Hills Lake... approximately 11,000-acre ``Big Valley District-Lake County'' viticultural area and the approximately...

  19. 75 FR 49016 - County of Greenville, S.C.-Acquisition Exemption-Greenville County Economic Development Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Greenville County Economic Development Corporation (GCEDC) approximately 11.8 miles of rail line between... accordance with the National Trails System Act, 16 U.S.C. 1247(d). See Greenville County Economic Development... Surface Transportation Board County of Greenville, S.C.--Acquisition Exemption--Greenville County...

  20. 69. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS MAP OF LOWNDES COUNTY, 1931 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS MAP OF LOWNDES COUNTY, 1931 ROAD MAP OF LOWNDES COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI, 1931 by C.L. Wood, the county engineer. Updated through the mid-1930s to show new federal aid-state roads. Compares modern system with older county system. Original scale: 1 in. to 1 mi. Property of Helen (Mrs. Sam L.) Crawford, Hamilton, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  1. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices. PMID:26993817

  2. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices.

  3. Multipurpose Centers in a Rural County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jean

    1978-01-01

    Describes services, programs, and funding for the various senior centers in Frankin County, New York, which has a predominately rural, low-income population. Services include bus transportation, nutrition programs, health and financial assistance, and social events. (MF)

  4. Surface-water availability, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Alfred L.; Davis, Marvin E.

    1975-01-01

    The average annual runoff, about 1,270 mgd (million gallons per day), originating in Tuscaloosa County is equivalent to 20 inches or 0.95 mgd per square mile. The Black Warrior and Sipsey Rivers, the largest streams in the county, have average flows of 5,230 mgd and 580 mgd, respectively, where they leave the county, and median annual 7-day low flows in excess of 150 mgd and 35 mgd, respectively. North River, Big Sandy Creek, and Hurricane Creek have average flows in excess of 100 mgd and median annual 7-day low flows in excess of 2 mgd. Surface water generally contains less than 100 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids, less than 10 mg/l chloride, and is soft to moderately hard. Streams having the higher hardness and the higher dissolved-solids content are in eastern Tuscaloosa County.

  5. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David

    2016-07-12

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  6. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  7. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David

    2011-01-01

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  8. A Seniors' Program for Beaver County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald F.

    1973-01-01

    Programs for seniors are needed, according to the assistant director of continuing education at the Community College of Beaver County (Pennsylvania); the question revolves around who will pay. (Editor)

  9. 7 CFR 718.8 - Administrative county.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING QUOTAS, ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS, AND PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS... located in the county where the principal dwelling is situated, or where the major portion of the farm...

  10. Environmental assessment, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a proposed site to include a statement of the basis for nominating a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 provides a detailed statement evaluating the site suitability of the Deaf Smith County Site under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Deaf Smith County Site to the other sites under consideration. The evaluation of the Deaf Smith County Site is based on the impacts associated with the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The second part of this document compares the Deaf Smith County Site to Davis Canyon, Hanford, Richton Dome and Yucca Mountain. This comparison is required under DOE guidelines and is not intended to directly support subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 259 refs., 29 figs., 66 refs. (MHB)

  11. Report 2A: employment and training indicators, 1980 census of population, Idaho by county

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This report is a profile of selected data from Summary Tape File 3 (STF3) of the 1980 Census of Population and Housing for various government units and census designated areas. STF3 summarizes sample-count data items, i.e., responses to questions that were in the long form distributed to 19% of the United States population nationwide. Data items in the report (inflated to represent the total population) include population by age, sex, race, ancestry, veteran status, education, disability, employment status, industry and occupation, income and poverty status. Areas covered by Report 2A include Idaho, county by county.

  12. Hydrogeology of Cibola County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, J.A.; Rankin, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Cibola County, New Mexico, was evaluated to determine the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water resources. Rocks of Precambrian through Quaternary age are present in Cibola County. Most rocks are sedimentary in origin except for Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks exposed in the Zuni Uplift and Tertiary and Quaternary basalts in northern and central parts of the county. The most productive aquifers in the county include (youngest to oldest) Quaternary deposits, sandstones in the Mesaverde Group, the Dakota-Zuni-Bluff aquifer, the Westwater Canyon aquifer, the Todilto- Entrada aquifer, sandstone beds in the Chinle Formation, and the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. Unconsolidated sand, silt, and gravel form a mantle ranging from a few inches to 150 to 200 feet over much of the bedrock in Cibola County. Well yields range from 5 to 1,110 gallons per minute. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water range from 200 to more than 5,200 milligrams per liter. Calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and sulfate are the predominant ions in ground water in alluvial material. The Mesaverde Group mainly occurs in three areas of the county. Well yields range from less than 1 to 12 gallons per minute. The predominant ions in water from wells in the Mesaverde Group are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The transition from calcium-predominant to sodium-predominant water in the southwestern part of the county likely is a result of ion exchange. Wells completed in the Dakota-Zuni-Bluff aquifer yield from 1 to 30 gallons per minute. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 220 to 2,000 milligrams per liter in water from 34 wells in the western part of the county. Predominant ions in the ground water include calcium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate. Calcium predominates in areas where the aquifer is exposed at the surface or is overlain with alluvium. Sandstones in the Chinle Formation yield from 10 to 300 gallons per minute to wells in the Grants

  13. SOLAR PANELS ON HUDSON COUNTY FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    BARRY, KEVIN

    2014-06-06

    This project involved the installation of an 83 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system tied into the energy management system of Hudson County's new 60,000 square foot Emergency Operations and Command Center and staff offices. Other renewable energy features of the building include a 15 kW wind turbine, geothermal heating and cooling, natural daylighting, natural ventilation, gray water plumbing system and a green roof. The County intends to seek Silver LEED certification for the facility.

  14. The Water Cycle in Volusia County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.

    2009-01-01

    Earth's water is always in motion. The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the Earth's surface. This fact sheet provides information about how much water moves into and out of Volusia County, and where it is stored. It also illustrates the seasonal variation in water quantity and movement using data from some of the hydrologic data collection sites in or near Volusia County, Florida.

  15. The flora of Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leidolf, A.; McDaniel, S.; Nuttle, T.

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed the flora of Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, U.S.A., from February 1994 to 1996. Occupying 118 square kilometers in east-central Mississippi, Oktibbeha County lies among 3 physiographic regions that include, from west to east, Interior Flatwoods, Pontotoc Ridge, and Black Prairie. Accordingly, the county harbors a diverse flora. Based on field work, as well as an extensive review of published literature and herbarium records at IBE and MISSA, we recorded a total of 1,148 taxa (1,125 species, 7 hybrids, 16 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 514 genera in 160 families, over 85% of all taxa documented were native. Compared to 3 other counties in east-central Mississippi, Oktibbeha County has the second largest recorded flora. The number of state-listed (endangered, threatened, or of special concern) taxa (67) documented in this survey far exceeds that reported from any other county in the region. Three introduced species, Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton, Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carrie??re, and Nandina domestica Thunb., are reported in a naturalized state for the first time from Mississippi. We also describe 16 different plant communities belonging to 5 broad habitat categories: bottomland forests, upland forests and prairies, aquatic habitats, seepage areas, and human-influenced habitats. A detailed description of the vegetation associated with each of these communities is provided.

  16. History and hydrologic effects of ground water use in Kings, Queens, and western Nassau counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifers underlying Kings and Queens Counties varied temporally and spatially during the 20th century and caused extreme changes in water levels. The resultant lowering of water levels during periods of heavy pumping caused saltwater intrusion in nearshore areas and the migration of contaminants from land surface into deep aquifers. The recovery of water levels in response to countywide curtailment of pumping has resulted in the flooding of underground structures. Combined withdrawals for public and industrial supply in Kings and Queens Counties were greatest during the 1930's--about 130 million gallons per day. During this period, a large cone of depression developed in the water table in Kings County; within this depression, water levels were about 45 feet lower than in 1903. All pumping for public supply was halted in Kings County in 1947, and in Jamaica (in Queens County) in 1974. Water levels in Kings County had recovered by 1974 and have remained similar to those of 1903 since then, except for minor localized drawdowns due to industrial-supply or dewatering withdrawals. A large cone of depression that had formed in southeastern Queens County before 1974 has now (1997) disappeared. The estimated combined withdrawal for public supply and industrial supply in Kings and Queens Counties in 1996 was only about 50 million gallons per day. The water-level recoveries in the water-table and confined aquifers generally have resulted in the dilution and dispersion of residual salty and nitrate-contaminated ground water. The majority of recently sampled wells indicate stable or decreasing chloride and nitrate concentrations in all aquifers since 1983. Organic contaminants remain in ground water in Kings, Queens, and Nassau Counties, however; the most commonly detected compounds in 1992-96 were tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, chloroform, and total trihalomethanes. Water samples from monitoring wells in Kings County indicate a greater

  17. Water resources of Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Mason, Jon P.; Norris, Jodi R.; Miller, Kirk A.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon County is located in the south-central part of Wyoming and is the third largest county in the State. A study to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of surface-water and ground-water resources in Carbon County was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office. Evaluations of streamflow and stream-water quality were limited to analyses of historical data and descriptions of previous investigations. Surface-water data were not collected as part of the study. Forty-five ground-water-quality samples were collected as part of the study and the results from an additional 618 historical ground-water-quality samples were reviewed. Available hydrogeologic characteristics for various aquifers in hydrogeologic units throughout the county also are described. Flow characteristics of streams in Carbon County vary substantially depending on regional and local basin char-acteristics and anthropogenic factors. Precipitation in the county is variable with high mountainous areas receiving several times the annual precipitation of basin lowland areas. For this reason, streams with headwaters in mountainous areas generally are perennial, whereas most streams in the county with headwaters in basin lowland areas are ephemeral, flowing only as a result of regional or local rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Flow characteristics of most perennial streams are altered substantially by diversions and regulation. Water-quality characteristics of selected streams in and near Carbon County during water years 1966 through 1986 varied. Concentrations of dissolved constituents and suspended sediment were smallest at sites on streams with headwaters in mountainous areas because of resistant geologic units, large diluting streamflows, and increased vegetative cover compared to sites on streams with headwaters in basin lowlands. Both water-table and artesian conditions occur in aquifers within the county. Shallow ground water is

  18. The Bridge of Mandolin County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Juliette M.; Feindt, Jenny E.; Lewellyn, Eric P. B.; Walczak, Mary M.

    1999-12-01

    The Bridge of Mandolin County is a case designed to teach the general chemistry principles of molar mass, ions and aqueous reactions, solubility rules, and inorganic nomenclature. Through the instructor-facilitated class discussion, students consider the options before the Mandolin Town Council regarding deicing the newly constructed bridge connecting Mandolin with a large nearby city. The students must decipher contradictory claims made on behalf of sodium chloride, the traditional deicer, and calcium magnesium acetate, a new environmentally friendly deicer, to arrive at the most cost-effective and environmentally appropriate deicing product. As they work through the analysis they raise questions that can be addressed in a laboratory setting. Four optional role-playing experiments are included, which can be used by the students to gather information helpful to resolution of the case. The case is intended to be used over two class periods, with a laboratory period in between, though suggestions for other models are provided. Laboratory procedures include an EDTA titration for Ca2+ and Mg2+, a gravimetric analysis, a qualitative examination of ions and solubility, an introduction to freezing point depression and measurement, and an experimental design activity. This case can also successfully be used without alteration in non-majors chemistry or environmental chemistry courses, or upper-level analytical or environmental chemistry courses.

  19. Nye County nuclear waste repository project office independent scientific investigations program. Summary annual report, May 1996--April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc. (MET) on behalf of Nye County Nuclear Waste Project Office, summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1996 to April 30, 1997. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: (1) Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment. (2) Identifying areas not being addressed adequately by DOE Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues.

  20. Constraints of Implementing Free Secondary Education in Mandera West Sub-County, Mandera County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adan, Mohammed Abdi; Orodho, John Aluko

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to find out the constraints of implementing free secondary education (FSE) in secondary schools in Mandera West Sub-County, Mandera County, Kenya. The study is based on the theory of constraints as the researcher examines the factors constraining the achievement of FSE objectives. The study used the survey design. The main…

  1. Coping with Resource Management Challenges in Mumias Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyango, Onginjo Rose; Orodho, John Aluko

    2016-01-01

    The gist of the study was to examine the main coping strategies used to manage resources in public secondary schools in Mumias Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya. The study was premised on Hunts (2007) theory on project management. A descriptive survey design was adopted. A combination of purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used…

  2. 75 FR 31463 - Comal County Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Comal County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Federal Register on October 16, 2008 (73 FR 61433). A public scoping meeting was held on December 4, 2008... Fish and Wildlife Service Comal County Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Comal County, TX AGENCY... statement, draft habitat conservation plan, and permit application; announcement of a public...

  3. How Are Kentucky's Children Stacking Up? A County by County Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Betsy

    In a county by county analysis, this report assesses the quality of life for Kentucky's children. Researchers developed a child quotient (CQ) based on 18 indicators: per capita income, children in poverty, women receiving inadequate prenatal care, infant deaths, teens giving birth, substandard dwellings, children in foster care, per-pupil…

  4. The Need for a Branch Campus of Ocean County College in Southern Ocean County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Richard M.; Harris, David W.

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a branch campus of Ocean County College (OCC) in southern Ocean County, New Jersey. Specific variables examined during the study included demographic characteristics; transportation systems, in terms of both public access and roadway networks; land usage; the history of education…

  5. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be... handling of Irish potatoes grown in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from...

  6. Beginnings of geothermal impact on county population and leadership, Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Pick, J.B.; Butler, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    A major geothermal energy development scenario is about to begin in Imperial County. Initial energy-socioeconomic interactions in the areas of population and county leadership structure are discussed. These include immigration of energy company workers, a sewage plant dispute, conflict over union affiliation of geothermal laborers, and a transmission corridor routing dispute.

  7. Youth Representation on County Government Committees: Youth in Governance in Kenosha County, Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Matthew; de Montmollin, John; Winnett, Tedi

    2015-01-01

    The Kenosha County Youth in Governance program was created to build leadership skills and civic engagement opportunities for high school-aged students by placing two youth representatives on each of the Kenosha County Board of Supervisors standing committees. In reviewing data from 3 years of youth participants, the program was effective in…

  8. Citrus County Schools Copyright Guidelines Recommended by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus County School District, Inverness, FL.

    This document contains copyright guidelines determined appropriate for the Citrus County School System (Florida) by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists in May, 1992. These guidelines are based on interpretation and understanding of current copyright law as applied to education and implemented in school districts in the United…

  9. [What response in the face of health emergencies?].

    PubMed

    Bergeran, Pierick

    2015-01-01

    Heat wave, extreme cold, air pollution, epidemics, nuclear plant accidents, production incidents in the pharmaceutical or agro-food sectors, bioterrorism, social movements: over the last thirty years, health emergencies have multiplied. What is the strategy to adopt?

  10. [What response in the face of health emergencies?].

    PubMed

    Bergeran, Pierick

    2015-01-01

    Heat wave, extreme cold, air pollution, epidemics, nuclear plant accidents, production incidents in the pharmaceutical or agro-food sectors, bioterrorism, social movements: over the last thirty years, health emergencies have multiplied. What is the strategy to adopt? PMID:26145995

  11. Geology of Griggs and Steele Counties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluemle, John P.

    1975-01-01

    Griggs and Steele Counties, located at the eastern edge of the Williston basin, are underlain by 400 to 2,600 feet of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that dip gently to the west. The Cretaceous Greenhorn, Carlile, Niobrara, and Pierre Formations lie directly beneath the glacial drift, and shale of the Pierre Formation is exposed in several places along the Sheyenne River. The Pleistocene Coleharbor Formation, which covers most of the area, consists mainly of glacial, fluvial, and lake sediment. The Coleharbor Formation averages 200 to 300 feet thick, but it is as much as 550 feet thick in some of the buried valleys. The Holocene Walsh Formation occurs in parts of the area, chiefly sloughs and river bottomland. It consists mainly of alluvial and eolian sediment. Griggs County and the western two-thirds of Steele County are part of the Drift Prairie, which is characterized by flat to gently rolling topography that is rugged in areas of end moraines and intense ice thrusting, subdued on the ground moraine and outwash plains. Associated with these major landforms are numerous washboard moraines, drumlins, eskers, kames, meltwater trenches, and water-washed areas. The eastern third of Steele County is a nearly flat area covered by lake deposits of the glacial Lake Agassiz. As the Late Wisconsinan glacier in eastern North Dakota thinned and receded eastward, it was increasingly affected by the topography over which it was flowing. This resulted in lobation of the glacier. Locally intense areas of thrusting developed within the lobate glacier, and large blocks of subglacial material were moved short distances. Large areas of Griggs County were washed by water flowing from the glacier, and in some areas gravel and sand were deposited. Continued withdrawal of the glacier resulted in ponding of melt water in parts of the two counties. These and other ponds tended to coalesce at lower and lower elevations, eventually forming Lake Agassiz, which flooded part of eastern Steele

  12. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  13. Door to Door Survey and Community Participation to Implement a New County Mosquito Control Program in Wayne County, North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, Amanda; Anderson, Alice L.; Kelley, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Community involvement in mosquito management programs provides more sustainable and effective organization and service. A door to door survey in Wayne County, NC carried out by student volunteers, resulted in 60 household responses. Residents had not previously experienced outreach from the county (88%), and 95% of them thought the student door to door survey was an effective form of outreach. One third of the residents thought mosquitoes were severe where they lived, but only 9% thought they had any containers in their yard that might breed mosquitoes. Only 15% of the residents were concerned about mosquito borne diseases. These responses provide evidence that outreach and education on mosquito control and diseases were necessary steps for future mosquito control community planning. PMID:19742152

  14. Use of USGS earth-science products by county planning agencies in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kockelman, William J.

    1976-01-01

    An inventory of the use of USGS products in selected planning studies, plans, ordinances, and other planning activities was made for eight counties in the San Francisco Bay region--a region of almost five million people. This inventory was designed to determine and document the use of the 87 earth-science information products prepared as a part of the San Francisco Bay Region Environment and Resources Planning Study (SFBRS). The inventory showed that: (1) all eight counties had planning staffs who were very familiar with SFBRS products and had made frequent use of such products; (2) all eight counties had prepared planning documents which cite SFBRS products; (3) the types of planning applications most often indicated were: geologic hazards studies, seismic safety and public safety plan elements, general reference, and the preparation and review of environmental impact reports and statements; (4) over 90 percent of the 87 SFBRS products were used at least once, and nine of the products were used over 30 times each for various county planning activities; and (5) at least 85 other USGS products were also used for various county planning activities. After the inventory, selected county officials, employees, and consultants were interviewed and asked--among other things--to indicate any problems in the use of the SFBRS products, to suggest improvements, and to identify any needed or desired earth-science information. The responses showed that: (1) the scales commonly used for working maps were 1:62,500 or larger and for plan implementation were 1:24,000 or larger; (2) only one county had a geologist on its planning staff, although six others had the benefit of geotechnical services from private consulting firms, county engineering staffs, or the State Division of Mines and Geology; (3) seven of the eight counties expressed some problems in using the products, primarily because of their small scale or lack of detail; (4) all eight counties expected to continue to use

  15. Water resources of King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.

    1968-01-01

    Although the total supply of water in King County is large, water problems are inevitable because of the large and rapidly expanding population. The county contains a third of the 3 million people in Washington, most of the population being concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area. King County includes parts of two major physiographic features: the western area is part of the Puget Sound Lowland, and the eastern area is part of the Cascade Range. In these two areas, the terrain, weather, and natural resources (including water) contrast markedly. Average annual precipitation in the county is about 80 inches, ranging from about 30 inches near Puget Sound to more than 150 inches in parts of the Cascades. Annual evapotranspiration is estimated to range from 15 to 24 inches. Average annual runoff ranges from about 15 inches in the lowlands to more than 100 inches in the mountains. Most of the streamflow is in the major basins of the county--the Green-Duwamish, Lake Washington, and Snoqualmie basins. The largest of these is the Snoqualmie River basin (693 square miles), where average annual runoff during the period 1931-60 was about 79 inches. During the same period, annual runoff in the Lake Washington basin ( 607 square miles) averaged about 32 inches, and in the Green-Duwamish River basin (483 square miles), about 46 inches. Seasonal runoff is generally characterized by several high-flow periods in the winter, medium flows in the spring, and sustained low flows in the summer and fall. When floods occur in the county they come almost exclusively between October and March. The threat of flood damage is greatest on the flood plaits of the larger rivers, but in the Green-Duwamish Valley the threat was greatly reduced with the completion of Howard A. Hanson Dam in 1962. In the Snoqualmie River basin, where no such dam exists, the potential damage from a major flood increases each year as additional land is developed in the Snoqualmie Valley. 0nly moderate amounts of

  16. Earthquake and Tsunami planning, outreach and awareness in Humboldt County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, V.; Nicolini, T.; Larkin, D.; Dengler, L.

    2008-12-01

    Humboldt County has the longest coastline in California and is one of the most seismically active areas of the state. It is at risk from earthquakes located on and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ), other regional fault systems, and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Division of Mines and Geology published the first earthquake scenario to include both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of representatives from government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector from the three northern coastal California counties, was formed in 1996 to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation. The RCTWG and its member agencies have sponsored a variety of projects including education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning, and has sponsored an Earthquake - Tsunami Education Room at the Humboldt County fair for the past eleven years. Three editions of Living on Shaky Ground an earthquake-tsunami preparedness magazine for California's North Coast, have been published since 1993 and a fourth is due to be published in fall 2008. In 2007, Humboldt County was the first region in the country to participate in a tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD and the first area in California to conduct a full-scale tsunami evacuation drill. The County has conducted numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises using county-wide tsunami response plan. Two Humboldt County communities were recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service in 2007. Over 300 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in Humboldt County since March 2008. Six assessment surveys from 1993 to 2006 have tracked preparedness actions and personal

  17. Dutchess County Resource Recovery Task Force report: Dutchess County Pyrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Dutchess County initiated development of a long-range master plan for Solid Waste Management in 1971. The plan included development of a resource recovery facility to service the municipalities in the County population center. Based on early recommendations, a pyrolysis facility employing Purox technology was to be implemented. A feasibility study, paid for by County funds was completed in 1975. The study provided siting recommendations, estimation of available waste, and preliminary facility design. Because of various considerations, the project was not developed. Under the Department of Energy grant, the County reassessed the feasibility of a resource recovery facility, with emphasis on confirming previous conclusions supporting the Purox technology, waste availability, energy recovery and sale and siting of the plant. The conclusions reached in the new study were: a resource recovery facility is feasible for the County; sufficient waste for such a facility is available and subject to control; While Purox technology was feasible it is not the most appropriate available technoloy for the County; that mass burning with steam recovery is the most appropriate technology; and that resource recovery while presently more expensive than landfilling, represents the only cost effective, energy efficient, and environmentally sound way to handle the solid waste problem in the County.

  18. Selenium status of Utah County residents

    SciTech Connect

    Bown, J.W.; Christensen, M.J.

    1986-03-01

    Counties of low and high soil selenium (Se) content appear to be in close proximity in the state of Utah. The Se status of Utah County residents was evaluated by measurement of plasma Se concentration, and plasma, platelet, and erythrocyte (RBC) Se-glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) activity. A Random Digit Dialing procedure was employed to stratify subjects according to sex and annual income (< $10,000, $10-20,000, > $20,000) in a 2 x 3 factorial design, 7 subjects per cell. There were no significant differences due to sex or income. These results suggest (1) the Se status of Utah County residents is similar to that reported for residents of other regions in the US, and (2) no special consideration for income or gender need be made in surveys of population groups to determine Se status.

  19. Acute Rheumatic Fever in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Propp, Richard P.

    1965-01-01

    There was a general downward trend in the reported incidence of acute rheumatic fever in Los Angeles County during the years 1954-1963. A survey of hospital records in five large hospitals in 1962 revealed 100 cases diagnosed, 39 of which were reported. Diagnoses in the charts reviewed conformed to the Modified Jones Criteria. Most of the patients were born in Los Angeles County. Mortality rates for acute rheumatic fever during the same period were greatly in excess of those expected from the reported morbidity. The mean crude mortality rate for the period concerned was higher than for New York City, although not as high as for Boston. Acute rheumatic fever appears to constitute a health problem in need of review in Los Angeles County. PMID:5834286

  20. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances. PMID:20128464