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Sample records for coupled contactless conductivity

  1. Double input capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector with phase shift.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Li, Meng; Dai, Jianyuan; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiuting; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan

    2014-10-21

    A double input capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (DIC(4)D) device which gets higher sensitivity has been described in this paper. The detector consists of two input electrodes and one output electrode. When two alternating current (AC) voltages with the same amplitude and different phases are imposed on each input electrode, the equivalent resistance of the output electrode is reduced because of the interference of the two signals with different phase angles. For a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D), the ratio of the response of KCl solution to that of distilled water is 1.6. However, for DIC(4)D, the ratio is 1.55 at a phase difference of 0° and increases to 1.8 at the phase difference of 170°, respectively. For C(4)D, the response of KCl solution is a linear function of the logarithm of concentrations from 10(-5) M to 10(-2) M, and the slope is 5.58. However, the slope of the response increases to 7.13 in DIC(4)D, and the limit of detection (LOD) of DIC(4)D is estimated to be 5 × 10(-8) M. The slope of the three-way DIC(4)D is increased to 69.78. A flow injection device is employed for the evaluation of the applicability of DIC(4)D with the same range, and good reproducibility is confirmed through flow injection of the same solution 10 times. The relative standard deviation (RSD) is 0.7%, which demonstrates a promising application to capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  2. Analysis of ofloxacin in ofloxacin ear drops by microfluidic chip coupled with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Li, Kaicheng

    2015-01-01

    A method using a microfluidic chip coupled with contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) is demonstrated for the determination of ofloxacin in Ofloxacin Ear Drops. Settings, optimizing procedures, electrophoresis conditions, regression equations, and the average recovery rate are discussed. Under optimum conditions, the determination of ofloxacin in standard solution is achieved within 1 min, which allows detection of ofloxacin in Ofloxacin Ear Drops. The demonstrated method is rapid, high efficient, sensitive, and economical.

  3. Metalless electrodes for capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection on electrophoresis microchips.

    PubMed

    Duarte Junior, Gerson F; Fracassi da Silva, José Alberto; Mendonça Francisco, Kelliton José; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio; Carrilho, Emanuel; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the use of ionic solutions as sensing electrodes for capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection on electrophoresis microchips. Initially, two channels were engraved in a PMMA holder by using a CO2 laser system and sealed with a thin adhesive membrane. PDMS electrophoresis chips were fabricated by soft lithography and reversibly sealed against the polymer membrane. Different ionic solutions were investigated as metalless electrodes. The electrode channels were filled with KCl solutions prepared in conductivity values from approximately 10 to 40 S/m. The best analytical response was achieved using the KCl solution with 21.9 S/m conductivity (2 mol/L). Besides KCl, we also tested NaCl and LiCl solutions for actuating as detection electrodes. Taking into account the same electrolyte concentration (2 mol/L), the best response was recorded with KCl solution due to its higher ionic conductivity. The optimum operating frequency (400 kHz) and the best sensing electrode (2 mol/L KCl) were used to monitor electrophoretic separations of a mixture containing K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) . The use of liquid solutions as sensing electrodes for capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection measurements has revealed great performance to monitor separations on chip-based devices, avoiding complicated fabrication schemes to include metal deposition and encapsulation of electrodes. The LOD values were estimated to be 28, 40, and 58 μmol/L for K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) , respectively, what is comparable to that of conventional metal electrodes. When compared to the use metal electrodes, the proposed approach offers advantages regarding the easiness of fabrication, simplicity, and lower cost per device.

  4. Analysis of ecstasy tablets using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Porto, Suely K S S; Nogueira, Thiago; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Sabino, Bruno D; do Lago, Claudimir L; Angnes, Lúcio

    2014-11-01

    A method for the identification of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) was developed employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D). Sample extraction, separation, and detection of "Ecstasy" tablets were performed in <10 min without sample derivatization. The separation electrolyte was 20 mm TAPS/Lithium, pH 8.7. Average minimal detectable amounts for MDMA and mCPP were 0.04 mg/tablet, several orders of magnitude lower than the minimum amount encountered in a tablet. Seven different Ecstasy tablets seized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by CE-C(4) D and compared against routine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The CE method demonstrated sufficient selectivity to discriminate the two target drugs, MDMA and mCPP, from the other drugs present in seizures, namely amphepramone, fenproporex, caffeine, lidocaine, and cocaine. Separation was performed in <90 sec. The advantages of using C(4) D instead of traditional CE-UV methods for in-field analysis are also discussed.

  5. Analysis of ecstasy tablets using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Porto, Suely K S S; Nogueira, Thiago; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Sabino, Bruno D; do Lago, Claudimir L; Angnes, Lúcio

    2014-11-01

    A method for the identification of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) was developed employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D). Sample extraction, separation, and detection of "Ecstasy" tablets were performed in <10 min without sample derivatization. The separation electrolyte was 20 mm TAPS/Lithium, pH 8.7. Average minimal detectable amounts for MDMA and mCPP were 0.04 mg/tablet, several orders of magnitude lower than the minimum amount encountered in a tablet. Seven different Ecstasy tablets seized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by CE-C(4) D and compared against routine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The CE method demonstrated sufficient selectivity to discriminate the two target drugs, MDMA and mCPP, from the other drugs present in seizures, namely amphepramone, fenproporex, caffeine, lidocaine, and cocaine. Separation was performed in <90 sec. The advantages of using C(4) D instead of traditional CE-UV methods for in-field analysis are also discussed. PMID:25039689

  6. Electromembrane extraction of heavy metal cations followed by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Pavel; Strieglerová, Lenka; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2011-04-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was used as an off-line sample pre-treatment method for the determination of heavy metal cations in aqueous samples using CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D). A short segment of porous polypropylene hollow fibre was penetrated with 1-octanol and 0.5% v/v bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphonic acid and constituted a low cost, single use, disposable supported liquid membrane, which selectively transported and pre-concentrated heavy metal cations into the fibre lumen filled with 100 mM acetic acid acceptor solution. Donor solutions were standard solutions and real samples dissolved in deionized water at neutral pH. At optimized EME conditions (penetration time, 5 s; applied voltage, 75 V; and stirring rate, 750 rpm), 15-42% recoveries of heavy metal cations were achieved for a 5 min extraction time. Repeatability of the EME pre-treatment was examined for six independent EME runs and ranged from 6.6 to 11.1%. Limits of detection for the EME-CE-C(4) D method ranged from 25 to 200 nM, resulting into one to two orders of magnitude improvement compared with CE-C(4) D without sample treatment. The developed EME sample pre-treatment procedure was applied to the analysis of heavy metal cations in tap water and powdered milk samples. Zinc in the real samples was identified and quantified in a background electrolyte solution consisting of 20 mM L-histidine and 30 mM acetic acid at pH 4.95 in about 3 min.

  7. Trace determination of perchlorate using electromembrane extraction and capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Kiplagat, Isaac K; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2011-11-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) and CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D) was applied to rapid and sensitive determination of perchlorate in drinking water and environmental samples. Porous polypropylene hollow fiber impregnated with 1-heptanol acted as a supported liquid membrane (SLM) and perchlorate was transported and preconcentrated in the fiber lumen on application of electric field. High selectivity of perchlorate determination and its baseline separation from major inorganic anions was achieved in CE-C(4) D using background electrolyte solution consisting of 7.5 mM L-histidine and 40 mM acetic acid at pH 4.1. The analytical method showed excellent parameters in terms of reproducibility; RSD values for migration times and peak areas at a spiked concentration of 15 μg/L of perchlorate (US EPA recommended limit for drinking water) were below 0.2 and 8.7%, respectively, in all examined water samples. Linear calibration curves were obtained for perchlorate in the concentration range 1-100 μg/L (r(2) ≥0.999) with limits of detection at 1 μg/L for tap water and at 0.25-0.35 μg/L for environmental and bottled potable water samples. Recoveries at 15 μg/L of perchlorate were between 95.9 and 106.7% with minimum and maximum recovery values for snow and bottled potable water samples, respectively.

  8. Simultaneous determination of atenolol and amiloride by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D).

    PubMed

    AL Azzam, Khaldun M; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis coupled with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (CE-C(4)D) has been employed for the determination of the β-blocker drugs (atenolol and amiloride) in pharmaceutical formulations. 150 mM acetic acid was used as background electrolyte. The influence of several factors (detector excitation voltage and frequency, buffer concentration, applied voltage, capillary temperature, and injection time) was studied. Non-UV absorbing L-valine was used as an internal standard; the analytes were all separated in less than 7 min. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 28 °C, 25 kV, and using hydrodynamic injection (25 s). The separation was effected in a bare fused-silica capillary 75 μm × 52 cm. The CE-C(4)D method was validated with respect to linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision, and selectivity. Calibration curves were linear over the range 5-250 μg mL(-1) for the studied analytes. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions of migration times and corrected peak areas were less than 6.0%. The method showed good precision and accuracy and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the β-blocker drugs in different pharmaceutical tablets.

  9. Simultaneous determination of atenolol and amiloride in pharmaceutical preparations by capillary zone electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Saad, Bahruddin; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2010-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (CE-C(4)D) has been employed for the determination of atenolol and amiloride in pharmaceutical formulations. Acetic acid (150 mm) was used as background electrolyte. The influence of several factors (detector excitation voltage and frequency, buffer concentration, applied voltage, capillary temperature and injection time) was studied. Non-UV-absorbing L-valine was used as internal standard; the analytes were all separated in less than 7 min. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 28 degrees C, 25 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (25 s). The separation was effected in an uncoated fused-silica capillary (75 microm, i.d. x 52 cm). The CE-C(4)D method was validated with respect to linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and selectivity. Calibration curves were linear over the range 5-250 microg/mL for the studied analytes. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day migration times and corrected peak areas were less than 6.0%. The method showed good precision and accuracy and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of atenolol and amiloride in different pharmaceutical tablet formulations.

  10. Application of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity as an external detector for zone electrophoresis in poly(dimethylsiloxane) chips.

    PubMed

    Koczka, Péter I; Bodoki, Ede; Gáspár, Attila

    2016-02-01

    In this work, lab-made PDMS microfluidic chips were matched to a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4) D) having external in-plane electrodes (eDAQ, Australia). The advantages of this type of C(4) D are the choice to reversibly place or remove the microchip onto/from the detector and to freely variate the position of the detection (separation length) on the microchip. The thickness of the bottom layer of the PDMS chip was optimized to achieve sensitive detection during the electrophoretic separation. PDMS chips with 100 μm bottom layer used with the C(4) D platform were tested by CZE of a mixture of seven anions and different types of real samples. Using split-flow pressure sample injection and effective length of 6.5 cm, the numbers of theoretical plates were in the range of 4000-6000 (63,000-93,000/m) and the LODs amounted to 3.66-14.7 μmol/L (0.13-2.26 μg/mL) for the studied anions. PMID:26531885

  11. Screening determination of pharmaceutical pollutants in different water matrices using dual-channel capillary electrophoresis coupled with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Le, Minh Duc; Duong, Hong Anh; Nguyen, Manh Huy; Sáiz, Jorge; Pham, Hung Viet; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the employment of purpose-made dual-channel compact capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) as a simple and inexpensive solution for screening determination of various pharmaceutical pollutants frequently occurring in surface water and hospital wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam is reported. Five negatively charged pharmaceutically active compounds, namely ibuprofen, diclofenac, bezafibrate, ketoprofen and mefenamic acid were determined using the first channel whereas three positively charged ones, namely diphenhydramine, metoprolol and atenolol were determined with the second channel of the CE-C(4)D instrument. Two different background electrolytes (BGEs) were used in these two CE channels independently. The best detection limits achieved were in the range of 0.2-0.8mg/L without sample pre-concentration. Enrichment factors up to 200 were obtainable with the inclusion of a solid phase extraction step. Good agreement between results obtained from CE-C(4)D and those with the standard confirmation method (HPLC-DAD) was achieved, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. PMID:27591645

  12. Application of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity as an external detector for zone electrophoresis in poly(dimethylsiloxane) chips.

    PubMed

    Koczka, Péter I; Bodoki, Ede; Gáspár, Attila

    2016-02-01

    In this work, lab-made PDMS microfluidic chips were matched to a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4) D) having external in-plane electrodes (eDAQ, Australia). The advantages of this type of C(4) D are the choice to reversibly place or remove the microchip onto/from the detector and to freely variate the position of the detection (separation length) on the microchip. The thickness of the bottom layer of the PDMS chip was optimized to achieve sensitive detection during the electrophoretic separation. PDMS chips with 100 μm bottom layer used with the C(4) D platform were tested by CZE of a mixture of seven anions and different types of real samples. Using split-flow pressure sample injection and effective length of 6.5 cm, the numbers of theoretical plates were in the range of 4000-6000 (63,000-93,000/m) and the LODs amounted to 3.66-14.7 μmol/L (0.13-2.26 μg/mL) for the studied anions.

  13. Monitoring of nitrite, nitrate, chloride and sulfate in environmental samples using electrophoresis microchips coupled with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Camilla Benevides; Moreira, Roger Cardoso; de Oliveira Tavares, Maria Gizelda; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2016-01-15

    This report describes the development of an analytical methodology on microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices coupled with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) to monitor inorganic anions in environmental samples. The buffer composition as well as detection operating parameters were optimized to achieve the best separation selectivity and detector sensitivity, respectively. Electrophoretic separations of Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NO2(-) were successfully performed within 60s using a running buffer composed of 30mmol L(-1) latic acid and 15mmol L(-1)l-histidine (His). The best detectability levels were found applying a sinusoidal wave with 1100-kHz-frequency and 60-Vpp amplitude. Quantitative analyzes of inorganic anions were carried out in the presence of Cr2O7(2-) ion as internal standard (IS), which ensured great repeatability in terms of migration times (<1%) and peak areas (6.2-7.6%) for thirty consecutive injections. The analytical performance revealed a linear behavior for concentration ranges between 0-120μmol L(-1) (Cl(-), NO2(-) and NO3(-)) and 0-60μmol L(-1) (SO4(2-)) and limits of detection (LODs) varying from 2.0 to 4.9μmol L(-1). The concentration levels of anionic species were determined in aquarium, river and biofertilizer samples with recovery values between 91% and 105%. The nitrification steps associated with conversion of ammonium to nitrite followed by the conversion of nitrite to nitrate were successfully monitored in a simulated environment without fishes during a period of twelve weeks. Lastly, the monitoring of anionic species was carried out during eight weeks in an aquarium environment containing ten fishes from Danio rerio (Ciprynidae). The recorded data revealed the absence of nitrite and a gradual increase on the ammonium and nitrate concentration levels during eight weeks, thus suggesting the direct conversion of ammonium to nitrate. Based on the data herein reported, the proposed analytical methodology

  14. Contactless conductivity detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pumera, Martin; Wang, Joseph; Opekar, Frantisek; Jelinek, Ivan; Feldman, Jason; Lowe, Holger; Hardt, Steffen; Svehla, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated electrophoresis chip with an integrated contactless conductivity detection system is described. The new contactless conductivity microchip detector is based on placing two planar sensing aluminum film electrodes on the outer side of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip (without contacting the solution) and measuring the impedance of the solution in the separation channel. The contactless route obviates problems (e.g., fouling, unwanted reactions) associated with the electrode-solution contact, offers isolation of the detection system from high separation fields, does not compromise the separation efficiency, and greatly simplifies the detector fabrication. Relevant experimental variables, such as the frequency and amplitude of the applied ac voltage or the separation voltage, were examined and optimized. The detector performance was illustrated by the separation of potassium, sodium, barium, and lithium cations and the chloride, sulfate, fluoride, acetate, and phosphate anions. The response was linear (over the 20 microM-7 mM range) and reproducible (RSD = 3.4-4.9%; n = 10), with detection limits of 2.8 and 6.4 microM (for potassium and chloride, respectively). The advantages associated with the contactless conductivity detection, along with the low cost of the integrated PMMA chip/detection system, should enhance the power and scope of microfluidic analytical devices.

  15. Determination of γ-hydroxybutyric acid in saliva by capillary electrophoresis coupled with contactless conductivity and indirect UV absorbance detectors.

    PubMed

    Mazina, Jekaterina; Saar-Reismaa, Piret; Kulp, Maria; Kaljurand, Mihkel; Vaher, Merike

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to optimise and validate the methodology for determination of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in saliva by CE combined with a contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) and indirect UV absorbance detection (λ(ABS) = 210 nm). The optimized BGE, consisting of 8.5 mM maleic acid, 17 mM arginine, 255 μM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and 15% acetonitrile, was evaluated for the separation of GHB in saliva within 6 min. The performance characteristics of the CE-C(4)D-indirect UV methodology was validated. The instrument detection and quantification limits were 0.49 and 1.6 mg/L for C(4)D, and 5.1 mg/L and 17.0 mg/L for indirect UV, respectively. The linearity was obtained over the range from 2.5 to 400 mg/L for C(4)D and from 12.5 to 400 mg/L for indirect UV. The interday precisions were within 2.3-5.7% and intraday precisions were within 1.6-9.0% for C(4)D as well as 2.1-9.3%, 5.6-10.1% for indirect UV in spiked saliva, respectively. The recoveries were within 87.2-104.4%. The matrix effects were +53.2% for small concentrations up to 25 mg/L for C(4)D and +23.6% for concentrations up to 75 for mg/L for indirect UV detection. No matrix effects were observed for higher concentration levels. In conclusion, CE-C4D-indirect UV can offer a rapid, accurate, sensitive, and definitive method for the determination of GHB abuse in saliva samples as a forensic screening tool.

  16. In-house-made capillary electrophoresis instruments coupled with contactless conductivity detection as a simple and inexpensive solution for water analysis: a case study in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hong Anh; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Kim Diem Mai; Hauser, Peter C; Pham, Hung Viet; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2015-11-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for the determination of various ionic species in different water matrices is discussed in this study. The approach is based on the employment of in-house-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instruments with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D), which can be realized even when only a modest financial budget and limited expertise are available. Advantageous features and considerations of these instruments are detailed following their pilot deployment in Vietnam. Different categories of ionic species, namely major inorganic cations (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and NH4(+)) and major inorganic anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), NO2(-), SO4(2-), and phosphate), in different water matrices in Vietnam were determined using these in-house fabricated instruments. Inorganic trivalent arsenic (As(iii)), which is the most abundant form of arsenic in reducing groundwater, was determined by CE-C(4)D. The effect of some interfering ions in groundwater on the analytical performance was investigated and is highlighted. The results from in-house-made CE-C(4)D-instruments were cross-checked with those obtained using the standard methods (AAS, AES, UV and IC), with correlation coefficients r(2) ≥ 0.9 and deviations from the referenced results less than 15%. PMID:26452107

  17. In-house-made capillary electrophoresis instruments coupled with contactless conductivity detection as a simple and inexpensive solution for water analysis: a case study in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hong Anh; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Kim Diem Mai; Hauser, Peter C; Pham, Hung Viet; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2015-11-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for the determination of various ionic species in different water matrices is discussed in this study. The approach is based on the employment of in-house-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instruments with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D), which can be realized even when only a modest financial budget and limited expertise are available. Advantageous features and considerations of these instruments are detailed following their pilot deployment in Vietnam. Different categories of ionic species, namely major inorganic cations (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and NH4(+)) and major inorganic anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), NO2(-), SO4(2-), and phosphate), in different water matrices in Vietnam were determined using these in-house fabricated instruments. Inorganic trivalent arsenic (As(iii)), which is the most abundant form of arsenic in reducing groundwater, was determined by CE-C(4)D. The effect of some interfering ions in groundwater on the analytical performance was investigated and is highlighted. The results from in-house-made CE-C(4)D-instruments were cross-checked with those obtained using the standard methods (AAS, AES, UV and IC), with correlation coefficients r(2) ≥ 0.9 and deviations from the referenced results less than 15%.

  18. Investigating the formation and the properties of monoalkyl carbonates in aqueous medium using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; Nogueira, Thiago; Saito, Renata Mayumi; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2011-04-01

    Although alkyl carbonic acids (ACAs) and their salts are referred to as instable species in aqueous medium, we demonstrate that a monoalkyl carbonate (MAC) can in fact be easily formed from bicarbonate and an alcohol even in the presence of a high amount of water. A CE system with two capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detectors (C⁴Ds) was used to obtain different parameters about these species and their reactions. Based on the mobilities obtained for a series of alcohols ranging from 1 to 5 carbons, the coefficients of diffusion and the hydrodynamic radii were calculated. When compared with the equivalent carboxylates, MACs have radii systematically smaller. Although the precise pK(a) values of the ACAs could not be obtained, because of the fast decomposition in acid medium, it was possible, for the first time, to show that they are below 4.0. This result suggests that the acidity of an ACA is quite similar to the first hydrogen of H₂CO₃. Using a new approach to indirectly calibrate the C⁴D, the kinetic constants and the equilibrium constants of formation were also obtained. The results suggest that the increase in the chain length makes the MACs less stable and more inert. PMID:21413029

  19. Contactless conductivity detection for analytical techniques-developments from 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Pavel; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    The review covers the progress of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection over the 2 years leading up to mid-2014. During this period many new applications for conventional CE as well as for microchip separation devices have been reported; prominent areas have been clinical, pharmaceutical, forensic, and food analyses. Further progress has been made in the development of field portable instrumentation based on CE with contactless conductivity detection. Several reports concern the combination with sample pretreatment techniques, in particular electrodriven extractions. Accounts of arrays of contactless conductivity detectors have appeared, which have been created for quite different tasks requiring spatially resolved information. The trend of the use of contactless conductivity measurements for applications other than CE has continued.

  20. Exploring the possibilities of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection in combination with liquid chromatography for the analysis of polar compounds using aminoglycosides as test case.

    PubMed

    Jankovics, Péter; Chopra, Shruti; El-Attug, Mohamed N; Cabooter, Deirdre; Wolfs, Kris; Noszál, Béla; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2015-08-10

    The analysis of highly polar (often charged) compounds which lack a strong UV absorbing chromophore is really challenging. Despite the numerous analytical methods published, the demand for a simple, robust and cheap technique for their analysis still persists. Here, reversed phase (RP) liquid chromatography (LC) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) was explored for the first time as a possible method for separation and detection of various aminoglycoside (AMG) antibiotics which were taken as typical test compounds: tobramycin (TOB), spectinomycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin A and kanamycin B. C(4)D was performed using a commercially available as well as a laboratory made cell. As ion-pairing reagents (IPR) four perfluorinated carboxylic acids were used: pentafluoropropionic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid, nonafluoropentanoic acid (NFPA) and pentadecafluorooctanoic acid (PDFOA). 0.125 mM NFPA-acetonitrile (ACN) (90:10) or 0.125 mM PDFOA-ACN (70:30) as mobile phases were suitable to detect TOB with reasonable retention times. However, NFPA was preferred for practical reasons. Its applicable concentration range in the mobile phase was strongly restricted by loss of chromatographic performance at lower levels and excessive background conductivity at higher levels. Overall repeatability and robustness of the method were rather poor which was explained by the relatively low IPR levels. Selectivity between the tested AMGs was mainly influenced by the number of protonated amino groups per molecule making it impossible to separate compounds of equal net charges. Problems encountered with gradient elution, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and separation at high pH without IPRs are also discussed. PMID:25549929

  1. End-to-end differential contactless conductivity sensor for microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fercher, Georg; Haller, Anna; Smetana, Walter; Vellekoop, Michael J

    2010-04-15

    In this contribution, a novel measurement approach for miniaturized capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices is presented: End-to-end differential capacitively coupled contactless conductivity measurement. This measurement technique is applied to a miniaturized CE device fabricated in low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) multilayer technology. The working principle is based on the placement of two distinct detector areas near both ends of the fluid inlet and outlet of the separation channel. Both output signals are subtracted from each other, and the resulting differential signal is amplified and measured. This measurement approach has several advantages over established, single-end detectors: The high baseline level resulting from parasitic stray capacitance and buffer conductivity is reduced, leading to better signal-to-noise ratio and hence higher measurement sensitivity. Furthermore, temperature and, thus, baseline drift effects are diminished owing to the differentiating nature of the system. By comparing the peak widths measured with both detectors, valuable information about zone dispersion effects arising during the separation is obtained. Additionally, the novel measurement scheme allows the determination of dispersion effects that occur at the time of sample injection. Optical means of dispersion evaluation are ineffective because of the opaque LTCC substrate. Electrophoretic separation experiments of inorganic ions show sensitivity enhancements by about a factor of 30-60 compared to the single-end measurement scheme. PMID:20337422

  2. Determination of glyphosate and AMPA on polyester-toner electrophoresis microchip with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Eduardo R; Segato, Thiago P; Coltro, Wendell K T; Lima, Renato S; Carrilho, Emanuel; Mazo, Luiz H

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports a method for rapid, simple, direct, and reproducible determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). The platform described herein uses polyester-toner microchips incorporating capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection and electrophoresis separation of the analytes. The polyester-toner microchip presented 150 μm-wide and 12 μm-deep microchannels, with injection and separation lengths of 10 and 40 mm long, respectively. The best results were obtained with 320 kHz frequency, 4.5 Vpp excitation voltage, 80 mmol/L CHES/Tris buffer at pH 8.8, injection in -1.0 kV for 7 s, and separation in -1.5 kV. RSD values related to the peak areas for glyphosate and AMPA were 1.5 and 3.3% and 10.1 and 8.6% for intra- and interchip assays, respectively. The detection limits were 45.1 and 70.5 μmol/L, respectively, without any attempt of preconcentration of the analytes. Finally, the method was applied to river water samples in which glyphosate and AMPA (1.0 mmol/L each) were added. The recovery results were 87.4 and 83.7% for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively. The recovery percentages and LOD values obtained here were similar to others reported in the literature. PMID:23595638

  3. A chip-based capillary electrophoresis-contactless conductivity microsystem for fast measurements of low-explosive ionic components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joseph; Pumera, Martin; Collins, Greg; Opekar, Frantisek; Jelínek, Ivan

    2002-06-01

    A miniaturized analytical system for separating and detecting inorganic explosive residues, based on the coupling of a micromachined capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip with a contactless conductivity detector is described. The low electroosmotic flow (EOF) of the poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) chip material facilitates the rapid switching between analyses of cations and anions using the same microchannel and run buffer (and without an EOF modifier), and hence offers rapid (< 1 min) measurement of seven explosive-related cations and anions. Experimental parameters relevant to the separation and detection processes have been optimized. Addition of a 18-crown-6 ether modifier has been used for separating the peaks of co-migrating potassium and ammonium ions. The ionic-explosive microchip system combines the distinct advantages of contactless conductivity detection with the attractive features of plastic CE microchips. The new microsystem offers great promise for monitoring explosive-related ions at the sample source, with significant advantages of speed/warning, efficiency, cost, or sample size.

  4. Contactless measurement of alternating current conductance in quantum Hall structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drichko, I. L.; Diakonov, A. M.; Malysh, V. A.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Galperin, Y. M.; Ilyinskaya, N. D.; Usikova, A. A.; Kummer, M.; von Känel, H.

    2014-10-01

    We report a procedure to determine the frequency-dependent conductance of quantum Hall structures in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is based on the combination of two known probeless methods—acoustic spectroscopy and microwave spectroscopy. By using the acoustic spectroscopy, we study the low-frequency attenuation and phase shift of a surface acoustic wave in a piezoelectric crystal in the vicinity of the electron (hole) layer. The electronic contribution is resolved using its dependence on a transverse magnetic field. At high frequencies, we study the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave in a coplanar waveguide. To quantitatively calibrate these data, we use the fact that in the quantum-Hall-effect regime the conductance at the maxima of its magnetic field dependence is determined by extended states. Therefore, it should be frequency independent in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is verified by studies of a well-characterized p-SiGe/Ge/SiGe heterostructure.

  5. Contactless measurement of alternating current conductance in quantum Hall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Drichko, I. L.; Diakonov, A. M.; Malysh, V. A.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Ilyinskaya, N. D.; Usikova, A. A.; Galperin, Y. M.; Kummer, M.; Känel, H. von

    2014-10-21

    We report a procedure to determine the frequency-dependent conductance of quantum Hall structures in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is based on the combination of two known probeless methods—acoustic spectroscopy and microwave spectroscopy. By using the acoustic spectroscopy, we study the low-frequency attenuation and phase shift of a surface acoustic wave in a piezoelectric crystal in the vicinity of the electron (hole) layer. The electronic contribution is resolved using its dependence on a transverse magnetic field. At high frequencies, we study the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave in a coplanar waveguide. To quantitatively calibrate these data, we use the fact that in the quantum-Hall-effect regime the conductance at the maxima of its magnetic field dependence is determined by extended states. Therefore, it should be frequency independent in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is verified by studies of a well-characterized p-SiGe/Ge/SiGe heterostructure.

  6. Identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices using sequential injection capillary electrophoresis and contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Gustavo A; Nai, Yi H; Hilder, Emily F; Shellie, Robert A; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C

    2011-12-01

    A simple sequential injection capillary electrophoresis (SI-CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) has been developed for the rapid separation of anions relevant to the identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Four of the most common explosive tracer ions, nitrate, perchlorate, chlorate, and azide, and the most common background ions, chloride, sulfate, thiocyanate, fluoride, phosphate, and carbonate, were chosen for investigation. Using a separation electrolyte comprising 50 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, 50 mM cyclohexyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, pH 8.9 and 0.05% poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) in a hexadimethrine bromide (HDMB)-coated capillary it was possible to partially separate all 10 ions within 90 s. The combination of two cationic polymer additives (PEI and HDMB) was necessary to achieve adequate selectivity with a sufficiently stable electroosmotic flow (EOF), which was not possible with only one polymer. Careful optimization of variables affecting the speed of separation and injection timing allowed a further reduction of separation time to 55 s while maintaining adequate efficiency and resolution. Software control makes high sample throughput possible (60 samples/h), with very high repeatability of migration times [0.63-2.07% relative standard deviation (RSD) for 240 injections]. The separation speed does not compromise sensitivity, with limits of detection ranging from 23 to 50 μg·L(-1) for all the explosive residues considered, which is 10× lower than those achieved by indirect absorbance detection and 2× lower than those achieved by C(4)D using portable benchtop instrumentation. The combination of automation, high sample throughput, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection makes this methodology ideal for the rapid identification of inorganic IED residues.

  7. Three-phase inductive-coupled structures for contactless PHEV charging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jia-You; Shen, Hung-Yu; Li, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, a new-type three-phase inductive-coupled structure is proposed for the contactless plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging system regarding with SAE J-1773. Four possible three-phase core structures are presented and subsequently investigated by the finite element analysis. To study the correlation between the core geometric parameter and the coupling coefficient, the magnetic equivalent circuit model of each structure is also established. In accordance with the simulation results, the low reluctance and the sharing of flux path in the core material are achieved by the proposed inductive-coupled structure with an arc-shape and three-phase symmetrical core material. It results in a compensation of the magnetic flux between each phase and a continuous flow of the output power in the inductive-coupled structure. Higher coupling coefficient between inductive-coupled structures is achieved. A comparison of coupling coefficient, mutual inductance, and self-inductance between theoretical and measured results is also performed to verify the proposed model. A 1 kW laboratory scale prototype of the contactless PHEV charging system with the proposed arc-shape three-phase inductive-coupled structure is implemented and tested. An overall system efficiency of 88% is measured when two series lithium iron phosphate battery packs of 25.6 V/8.4 Ah are charged.

  8. Conceptual design of contactless power transfer into HTS receiver coil using normal conducting resonance antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyoung Ku; Chung, Yoon Do; Yim, Seong Woo

    2014-09-01

    The contactless power transfer (CPT) technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators has been recently explored to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire across a large air gap. As the CPT technology makes possible the process of connector-free charging, it has been studied for practical applications to a variety of power applications. In the superconducting magnet system, a widespread method of electric energy supply is realized by the current lead which is one of indispensable subsystems in the power transfer equipment; however, it causes energy losses. To overcome such a problem, the combination CPT technology with HTS receiver coils has been proposed. It is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer (SUCPT) system. Such a technique has been expected a reasonable approach to provide a safe and convenient way of charging or storage without connecting joints in the superconducting applications. In this study, we presented the feasibility and various effects of transmission property from room temperature to very low temperature vessel within 40 cm under different material’s cooling vessels using radio frequency (RF) generator is 370 KHz.

  9. Fingerprinting postblast explosive residues by portable capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Kobrin, Eeva-Gerda; Lees, Heidi; Fomitšenko, Maria; Kubáň, Petr; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2014-04-01

    A portable capillary electrophoretic system with contactless conductivity detection was used for fingerprint analysis of postblast explosive residues from commercial organic and improvised inorganic explosives on various surfaces (sand, concrete, metal witness plates). Simple extraction methods were developed for each of the surfaces for subsequent simultaneous capillary electrophoretic analysis of anions and cations. Dual-opposite end injection principle was used for fast (<4 min) separation of 10 common anions and cations from postblast residues using an optimized separation electrolyte composed of 20 mM MES, 20 mM l-histidine, 30 μM CTAB and 2 mM 18-crown-6. The concentrations of all ions obtained from the electropherograms were subjected to principal component analysis to classify the tested explosives on all tested surfaces, resulting in distinct cluster formations that could be used to verify (each) type of the explosive.

  10. Contactless surface conductivity mapping of graphene oxide thin films deposited on glass with scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Joel; Bourdillon, Céline; Derycke, Vincent; Campidelli, Stéphane; Lefrou, Christine; Cornut, Renaud

    2013-02-01

    The present article introduces a rapid, very sensitive, contactless method to measure the local surface conductivity with Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM) and obtain conductivity maps of heterogeneous substrates. It is demonstrated through the study of Graphene Oxide (GO) thin films deposited on glass. The adopted substrate preparation method leads to conductivity disparities randomly distributed over approximately 100 μm large zones. Data interpretation is based on an equation system with the dimensionless conductivity as the only unknown parameter. A detailed prospection provides a consistent theoretical framework for the reliable quantification of the conductivity of GO with SECM. Finally, an analytical approximation of the conductivity as a function of the feedback current is proposed, making any further interpretation procedure straightforward, as it does not require iterative numerical simulations any more. The present work thus provides not only valuable information on the kinetics of GO reduction in mild conditions but also a general and simplified interpretation framework that can be extended to the quantitative conductivity mapping of other types of substrates. PMID:23259661

  11. Contactless Magnetic Slip Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki (Inventor); Deardon, Joe D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A contactless magnetic slip ring is disclosed having a primary coil and a secondary coil. The primary and secondary coils are preferably magnetically coupled together, in a highly reliable efficient manner, by a magnetic layered core. One of the secondary and primary coils is rotatable and the contactless magnetic slip ring provides a substantially constant output.

  12. Sensitive simultaneous determination of three sulfanilamide artificial sweeters by capillary electrophoresis with on-line preconcentration and contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lirong; Zhou, ShengJi; Xiao, Yuezhou; Tang, Yufeng; Xie, Tianyao

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive method followed by capillary electrophoresis with on-line perconcentration and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4)D) was evaluated as a novel approach for the determination of three sulfanilamide artificial sweeteners (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate) in beverages. The on-line preconcentration technique, namely field-amplified sample injection, coupled with CE-C(4)D were successfully developed and optimized. The separation was achieved within 10 min under the following conditions: an uncoated fused-silica capillary (45 cm × 50 μm i.d., Leff=40 cm), 20 mmol L(-1) HAc as running buffer, separation voltage of -12 kV, electrokinetic injection of -11 kV × 8 s. The detection limits of acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate were 4.4, 6.7 and 8.8 μg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation varied in the range of 3.0-5.0%. Results of this study show a great potential method for the fast screening of these artificial sweeteners contents in commercial beverages. PMID:26041216

  13. The use of capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for monitoring of glycerol in adipose tissues during a sporting performance.

    PubMed

    Tůma, Petr; Málková, Klára; Wedellová, Zuzana; Samcová, Eva; Stulík, Karel

    2010-06-01

    A CE procedure employing capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection has been developed for direct determination of the glycerol and mannitol polyalcohols in biological and pharmacological samples. Both glycerol and mannitol are fully separated from the sample matrix within very short times of 3.0 and 3.9 min, respectively, when using the optimized BGE, 60 mM H3BO3+30 mM LiOH (pH 9.1). The LODs amount to 0.5 microM for glycerol and 0.3 microM for mannitol. The repeatability of the glycerol determination in real biological materials is characterized by the coefficient of variation values, 0.5 and 3.2%, for the migration time and the peak area, respectively. The procedure has been used to monitor the free glycerol concentration in adipose tissue microdialyzates. A physiological study has demonstrated that the lipolysis occurring during a sporting action can be stimulated by local application of adrenaline. The procedure has further been utilized to determine mannitol in a pharmacological preparation. PMID:20564696

  14. Determination of artificial sweeteners by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection optimized by hydrodynamic pumping.

    PubMed

    Stojkovic, Marko; Mai, Thanh Duc; Hauser, Peter C

    2013-07-17

    The common sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K were determined by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. In order to obtain the best compromise between separation efficiency and analysis time hydrodynamic pumping was imposed during the electrophoresis run employing a sequential injection manifold based on a syringe pump. Band broadening was avoided by using capillaries of a narrow 10 μm internal diameter. The analyses were carried out in an aqueous running buffer consisting of 150 mM 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid and 400 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane at pH 9.1 in order to render all analytes in the fully deprotonated anionic form. The use of surface modification to eliminate or reverse the electroosmotic flow was not necessary due to the superimposed bulk flow. The use of hydrodynamic pumping allowed easy optimization, either for fast separations (80s) or low detection limits (6.5 μmol L(-1), 5.0 μmol L(-1), 4.0 μmol L(-1) and 3.8 μmol L(-1) for aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K respectively, at a separation time of 190 s). The conditions for fast separations not only led to higher limits of detection but also to a narrower dynamic range. However, the settings can be changed readily between separations if needed. The four compounds were determined successfully in food samples.

  15. Simultaneous determination of diclofenac and its common counter-ions in less than 1 minute using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rafael R; Gimenes, Denise T; Munoz, Rodrigo A A; do Lago, Claudimir L; Richter, Eduardo M

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a method for fast and simultaneous determination of diclofenac (DCF) and its common counter-ions (potassium, sodium, and diethylammonium) using CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D). On the basis of a single electropherogram (about 50 s), the proposed method allows the determination of the stoichiometry, absolute quantification and evaluation of the degradation degree of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (DCF). A linear working range from 100 to 500 μmol/L was obtained for all analytes in an equimolar TRIS/TAPS (10 mmol/L) solution as the background electrolyte as well as adequate LOD (7, 6, 7, and 10 μmol/L for K(+) , Na(+) , diethylammonium, and DCF, respectively). The proposed method was applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and spray form) with similar results to those achieved by HPLC (DCF) or flame photometry (K and Na) at a 95% confidence level. PMID:23606440

  16. Simultaneous determination of rare earth elements in ore and anti-corrosion coating samples using a portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Nguyen, Van Ri; Le, Duc Dung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Binh; Cao, Van Hoang; Nguyen, Thi Kim Dung; Sáiz, Jorge; Hauser, Peter C; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2016-07-29

    The employment of an in-house-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) as a simple and inexpensive solution for simultaneous determination of many rare earth elements (REEs) in ore samples from Vietnam, as well as in anti-corrosion coating samples is reported. 14 REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) were determined using an electrolyte composed of 20mM arginine and 10mM α-hydroxyisobutyric acid adjusted to pH 4.2 with acetic acid. The best detection limit achieved was 0.24mg/L using the developed CE-C(4)D method. Good agreement between results from CE-C(4)D and the confirmation method (ICP-MS) was achieved, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) for the two pairs of data of 0.998.

  17. Note: radio frequency inductance-capacitance band-stop filter circuit to perform contactless conductivity measurements in pulsed magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, M M

    2012-09-01

    We present a new technique to perform radio frequency (rf) contactless conductivity measurements in pulsed magnetic fields to probe different ground states in condensed matter physics. The new method utilizes a simple analog band-stop filter circuit implemented in a radio frequency transmission setup to perform contactless conductivity measurements. The new method is more sensitive than the other methods (e.g., the tunnel diode oscillator and the proximity detector oscillator) due to more sensitive dependence of the circuit resonance frequency on the tank circuit inductance (not the transmission line). More important, the new method is more robust than other methods when used to perform measurements in very high magnetic fields, works for a wide range of temperatures (i.e., 300 K-1.4 K) and is less sensitive to noise and mechanical vibrations during pulse magnet operation. The new technique was successfully applied to measure the Shubnikov-de Haas effect in Bi(2)Se(3) in pulsed magnetic fields of up to 60 T.

  18. Contactless electrical conductivity measurement of metallic submicron-grain material: Application to the study of aluminum with severe plastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Mito, M; Matsui, H; Yoshida, T; Anami, T; Tsuruta, K; Deguchi, H; Iwamoto, T; Terada, D; Miyajima, Y; Tsuji, N

    2016-05-01

    We measured the electrical conductivity σ of aluminum specimen consisting of submicron-grains by observing the AC magnetic susceptibility resulting from the eddy current. By using a commercial platform for magnetic measurement, contactless measurement of the relative electrical conductivity σn of a nonmagnetic metal is possible over a wide temperature (T) range. By referring to σ at room temperature, obtained by the four-terminal method, σn(T) was transformed into σ(T). This approach is useful for cylinder specimens, in which the estimation of the radius and/or volume is difficult. An experiment in which aluminum underwent accumulative roll bonding, which is a severe plastic deformation process, validated this method of evaluating σ as a function of the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries. PMID:27250440

  19. Contactless electrical conductivity measurement of metallic submicron-grain material: Application to the study of aluminum with severe plastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Mito, M; Matsui, H; Yoshida, T; Anami, T; Tsuruta, K; Deguchi, H; Iwamoto, T; Terada, D; Miyajima, Y; Tsuji, N

    2016-05-01

    We measured the electrical conductivity σ of aluminum specimen consisting of submicron-grains by observing the AC magnetic susceptibility resulting from the eddy current. By using a commercial platform for magnetic measurement, contactless measurement of the relative electrical conductivity σn of a nonmagnetic metal is possible over a wide temperature (T) range. By referring to σ at room temperature, obtained by the four-terminal method, σn(T) was transformed into σ(T). This approach is useful for cylinder specimens, in which the estimation of the radius and/or volume is difficult. An experiment in which aluminum underwent accumulative roll bonding, which is a severe plastic deformation process, validated this method of evaluating σ as a function of the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries.

  20. Contactless Determination of Electrical Conductivity of One-Dimensional Nanomaterials by Solution-Based Electro-orientation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Akin, Cevat; Yi, Jingang; Feldman, Leonard C; Durand, Corentin; Hus, Saban M; Li, An-Ping; Filler, Michael A; Shan, Jerry W

    2015-05-26

    Nanowires of the same composition, and even fabricated within the same batch, often exhibit electrical conductivities that can vary by orders of magnitude. Unfortunately, existing electrical characterization methods are time-consuming, making the statistical survey of highly variable samples essentially impractical. Here, we demonstrate a contactless, solution-based method to efficiently measure the electrical conductivity of 1D nanomaterials based on their transient alignment behavior in ac electric fields of different frequencies. Comparison with direct transport measurements by probe-based scanning tunneling microscopy shows that electro-orientation spectroscopy can quantitatively measure nanowire conductivity over a 5-order-of-magnitude range, 10(-5)-1 Ω(-1) m(-1) (corresponding to resistivities in the range 10(2)-10(7) Ω·cm). With this method, we statistically characterize the conductivity of a variety of nanowires and find significant variability in silicon nanowires grown by metal-assisted chemical etching from the same wafer. We also find that the active carrier concentration of n-type silicon nanowires is greatly reduced by surface traps and that surface passivation increases the effective conductivity by an order of magnitude. This simple method makes electrical characterization of insulating and semiconducting 1D nanomaterials far more efficient and accessible to more researchers than current approaches. Electro-orientation spectroscopy also has the potential to be integrated with other solution-based methods for the high-throughput sorting and manipulation of 1D nanomaterials for postgrowth device assembly.

  1. Simple semi-automated portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of β-agonists in pharmaceutical and pig-feed samples.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Pham, Thi Ngoc Mai; Doan, Thi Tuoi; Ta, Thi Thao; Sáiz, Jorge; Nguyen, Thi Quynh Hoa; Hauser, Peter C; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2014-09-19

    An inexpensive, robust and easy to use portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with miniaturized high-voltage capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was developed. The system utilizes pneumatic operation to manipulate the solutions for all flushing steps. The different operations, i.e. capillary flushing, interface rinsing, and electrophoretic separation, are easily activated by turning an electronic switch. To allow the analysis of samples with limited available volume, and to render the construction less complicated compared to a computer-controlled counterpart, sample injection is carried out hydrodynamically directly from the sample vial into the capillary by manual syphoning. The system is a well performing solution where the financial means for the highly expensive commercial instruments are not available and where the in-house construction of a sophisticated automated instrument is not possible due to limited mechanical and electronic workshop facilities and software programming expertise. For demonstration, the system was employed successfully for the determination of some β-agonists, namely salbutamol, metoprolol and ractopamine down to 0.7ppm in pharmaceutical and pig-feed sample matrices in Vietnam.

  2. Screening determination of four amphetamine-type drugs in street-grade illegal tablets and urine samples by portable capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Pham, Thi Ngoc Mai; Ta, Thi Thao; Nguyen, Xuan Truong; Nguyen, Thi Lien; Le, Thi Hong Hao; Koenka, Israel Joel; Sáiz, Jorge; Hauser, Peter C; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2015-12-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for the identification of four substituted amphetamines, namely, 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) was developed using an in-house constructed semi-automated portable capillary electrophoresis instrument (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D). Arginine 10mM adjusted to pH4.5 with acetic acid was found to be the optimal background electrolyte for the CE-C(4)D determination of these compounds. The best detection limits achieved with and without a sample preconcentration process were 10ppb and 500ppb, respectively. Substituted amphetamines were found in different seized illicit club drug tablets and urine samples collected from different suspected users. Good agreement between results from CE-C(4)D and those with the confirmation method (GC-MS) was achieved, with correlation coefficients for the two pairs of data of more than 0.99. PMID:26654084

  3. Reduction of the impedance of a contactless conductivity detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis: compensation of the electrode impedance by addition of a series inductance from a piezoelectric quartz crystal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Qingling; Hu, Qiang; Dong, Jianfeng; Du, Junguo; Tang, Bo

    2008-10-15

    A low-impedance capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (LIC (4)D) for microchip capillary electrophoresis was reported. The LIC (4)D was the series combination of a piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) resonator with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C (4)D) outside on the microchip lid. The electrode impedance in the LIC (4)D was reduced because the capacitive impedance from the wall capacitance was compensated by the inductive impedance from the PQC. The operation frequency of the LIC (4)D was set at the resonant frequency of the series combination of a PQC with a C (4)D, wherein a minimum in the total impedance was obtained. It was shown that the sensitivity of LIC (4)D was much higher than that of C (4)D itself, especially in the microchip with a thick lid. Under the experimental conditions, the signal-to-noise ratios of the LIC (4)D were improved by approximately 20-50 times over those of the C (4)D. Reproducible separations of a mixture of inorganic cations (K (+), Na (+), Li (+)) were demonstrated. After a digital filter treatment by the fast Fourier transform algorithm, the detection limits were 0.38, 0.49, and 1.6 microM for K (+) in the LI C (4)D with the microchip lid thickness of 0.20, 0.40, and 1.0 mm, respectively.

  4. Hand drawing of pencil electrodes on paper platforms for contactless conductivity detection of inorganic cations in human tear samples using electrophoresis chips.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Cyro L S; Costa Duarte, Lucas; Lobo-Júnior, Eulício O; Piccin, Evandro; Dossi, Nicolò; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes for the first time the fabrication of pencil drawn electrodes (PDE) on paper platforms for capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) on electrophoresis microchips. PDE-C(4) D devices were attached on PMMA electrophoresis chips and used for detection of K(+) and Na(+) in human tear samples. PDE-C(4) D devices were produced on office paper and chromatographic paper platforms and their performance were thoroughly investigated using a model mixture containing K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) . In comparison with chromatographic paper, PDE-C(4) D fabricated on office paper has exhibited better performance due to its higher electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the detector response was similar to that recorded with electrodes prepared with copper adhesive tape. The fabrication of PDE-C(4) D on office paper has offered great advantages including extremely low cost (< $ 0.004 per unit), reduced fabrication time (< 5 min), and minimal instrumentation (pencil and paper). The proposed electrodes demonstrated excellent analytical performance with good reproducibility. For an inter-PDE comparison (n = 7), the RSD values for migration time, peak area, and separation efficiency were lower than 2.5, 10.5, and 14%, respectively. The LOD's achieved for K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) were 4.9, 6.8, and 9.0 μM, respectively. The clinical feasibility of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated with the quantitative analysis of K(+) and Na(+) in tear samples. The concentration levels found for K(+) and Na(+) were, respectively, 20.8 ± 0.1 mM and 101.2 ± 0.1 mM for sample #1, and 20.4 ± 0.1 mM and 111.4 ± 0.1 mM for sample #2. PMID:25929980

  5. Hand drawing of pencil electrodes on paper platforms for contactless conductivity detection of inorganic cations in human tear samples using electrophoresis chips.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Cyro L S; Costa Duarte, Lucas; Lobo-Júnior, Eulício O; Piccin, Evandro; Dossi, Nicolò; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes for the first time the fabrication of pencil drawn electrodes (PDE) on paper platforms for capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) on electrophoresis microchips. PDE-C(4) D devices were attached on PMMA electrophoresis chips and used for detection of K(+) and Na(+) in human tear samples. PDE-C(4) D devices were produced on office paper and chromatographic paper platforms and their performance were thoroughly investigated using a model mixture containing K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) . In comparison with chromatographic paper, PDE-C(4) D fabricated on office paper has exhibited better performance due to its higher electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the detector response was similar to that recorded with electrodes prepared with copper adhesive tape. The fabrication of PDE-C(4) D on office paper has offered great advantages including extremely low cost (< $ 0.004 per unit), reduced fabrication time (< 5 min), and minimal instrumentation (pencil and paper). The proposed electrodes demonstrated excellent analytical performance with good reproducibility. For an inter-PDE comparison (n = 7), the RSD values for migration time, peak area, and separation efficiency were lower than 2.5, 10.5, and 14%, respectively. The LOD's achieved for K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) were 4.9, 6.8, and 9.0 μM, respectively. The clinical feasibility of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated with the quantitative analysis of K(+) and Na(+) in tear samples. The concentration levels found for K(+) and Na(+) were, respectively, 20.8 ± 0.1 mM and 101.2 ± 0.1 mM for sample #1, and 20.4 ± 0.1 mM and 111.4 ± 0.1 mM for sample #2.

  6. Portable capillary electrophoresis-system for on-site food analysis with lab-on-a-chip based contactless conductivity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, Claudia; Sewart, René; Klemm, Richard; Becker, Holger

    2014-06-01

    A portable analytical system for the characterization of liquid environmental samples and beverages in food control was realized. The key element is the implementation of contactless conductivity detection on lab-on-a-chip basis ensuring the system to be operated in a label free mode. Typical target molecules such as small ionic species like Li+, Na+, K+, SO4 2- or NO3-, organic acids in wine whose concentration and ratio to each other documents the wine quality, or caffeine or phosphate in coke were detected. Results from sample matrices like various beverages as water, cola, tea, wine and milk, water from heaters, environmental samples and blood will be presented.

  7. Study on the interrelated effects of capillary diameter, background electrolyte concentration, and flow rate in pressure assisted capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Mai, Thanh Duc; Hauser, Peter C

    2013-06-01

    A detailed study on the effect of the buffer concentration and the magnitude of the superimposed hydrodynamic flow on separation performance in CZE with contactless conductivity detection was carried out with capillaries of 10, 25, and 50 μm internal diameter. It was confirmed that capillaries of narrow internal diameters require higher buffer concentrations for best sensitivities. For all diameters it was found that electrodispersion was the most pronounced band-broadening factor for relatively long residence times. For shorter times, Joule heating related band broadening appears to be the most significant factor, which means that best separation efficiencies are obtained with the narrowest capillaries. As detection limits are as good for capillaries of 10 μm internal diameters as for the other diameters when using contactless conductivity detection, these narrow capillaries are, therefore, generally of benefit when employing this detection technique. Hydrodyamic flow was found to have only a very limited effect on band broadening; an effect was only noticeable for the 50 μm capillary and relatively high flow rates. PMID:23417350

  8. Conduction-coupled Tesla transformer.

    PubMed

    Reed, J L

    2015-03-01

    A proof-of-principle Tesla transformer circuit is introduced. The new transformer exhibits the high voltage-high power output signal of shock-excited transformers. The circuit, with specification of proper circuit element values, is capable of obtaining extreme oscillatory voltages. The primary and secondary portions of the circuit communicate solely by conduction. The destructive arcing between the primary and secondary inductors in electromagnetically coupled transformers is ubiquitous. Flashover is eliminated in the new transformer as the high-voltage inductors do not interpenetrate and so do not possess an annular volume of electric field. The inductors are remote from one another. The high voltage secondary inductor is isolated in space, except for a base feed conductor, and obtains earth by its self-capacitance to the surroundings. Governing equations, for the ideal case of no damping, are developed from first principles. Experimental, theoretical, and circuit simulator data are presented for the new transformer. Commercial high-temperature superconductors are discussed as a means to eliminate the counter-intuitive damping due to small primary inductances in both the electromagnetic-coupled and new conduction-coupled transformers.

  9. Determination of the spectrum of low molecular mass organic acids in urine by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity and ultraviolet photometric detection--an efficient tool for monitoring of inborn metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Tůma, Petr; Samcová, Eva; Stulík, Karel

    2011-01-24

    A mixture of 29 organic acids (OAs) occurring in urine was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) and UV photometric detection. The optimized analytical system involved a 100 cm long polyacrylamide-coated capillary (50 μm i.d.) and the background electrolyte of 20mM 2-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES)/NaOH+10% (v/v) methanol, pH 6.0 (pH is related to the 20mM MES/NaOH buffer in water). The LOD values obtained by C(4)D for the OAs which do not absorb UV radiation range from 0.6 μM (oxalic acid) to 6.8 μM (pyruvic acid); those obtained by UV photometry for the remaining OAs range from 2.9 μM (5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid) to 10.2 μM (uric acid). The repeatability of the procedure developed is characterized by the coefficients of variation, which vary between 0.3% (tartaric acid) and 0.6% (5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid) for the migration time and between 1.3% (tartaric acid) and 3.5% (lactic acid) for the peak area. The procedure permitted quantitation of 20 OAs in a real urine sample and was applied to monitoring of the occurrence of the inborn metabolic fault of methylmalonic aciduria. PMID:21168555

  10. The use of polarity switching for the sensitive determination of nitrate in human cerebrospinal fluid by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Tůma, Petr

    2016-05-20

    A new electrophoretic stacking method has been developed for the sensitive determination of nitrates in cerebrospinal fluid. 2M acetic acid was used as the BGE; inorganic anions were detected using a contactless conductivity detector and separation was carried out in an INST-coated capillary with inner diameter of 25μm. The sample of cerebrospinal fluid was injected in a large volume into the short end of the separation capillary (15cm) and separation first occurred in the isotachophoretic mode, where a long zone of the majority chloride migrates in the capillary and is followed by a concentrated zone of the unseparated nitrates. The sample zone passes to the end of the capillary where more than 99% of the chlorides are let out. Then the polarity of the voltage is switched and separation occurs in the zone electrophoresis mode, in which the nitrates are separated from the zone of chlorides. The time of switching the polarity is determined by the decrease in the electrophoretic current. Up to 99.95% of the original amount of chlorides present in the cerebrospinal fluid could be let out of the capillary by this technique, thus increasing the signal/noise ratio by up to 60-fold compared to classical electrophoretic separation.

  11. Efficient sample clean-up and online preconcentration for sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-ling; Chen, Xiao-wei; Zhang, Zhu-bao; Li, Jing; Xie, Tian-yao

    2014-10-01

    Based on an efficient sample clean-up and field-amplified sample injection online preconcentration technique in capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection, a new analytical method for the sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples was established. In order to remove the complex matrix interference, which resulted in a serious problem during field-amplified sample injection, liquid-liquid extraction was utilized. As a result, liquid-liquid extraction provides excellent sample clean-up efficiency when ethyl acetate was used as organic extraction by adjusting the pH of the sample solution to 9.5. Both inorganic salts and biological macromolecules are effectively removed by liquid-liquid extraction. The sample clean-up procedure, capillary electrophoresis separation parameters and field-amplified sample injection conditions are discussed in detail. The capillary electrophoresis separation was achieved within 5 min under the following conditions: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 12 mM HAc + 10 mM NaAc (pH = 4.6) as running buffer, separation voltage of +13 kV, electrokinetic injection of +12 kV × 10 s. Preliminary validation of the method performance with spiked melamine provided recoveries >90%, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.015 and 0.050 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day were below 6%. This newly developed method is sensitive and cost effective, therefore, suitable for screening of melamine contamination in milk products.

  12. Securing Contactless Chips with PACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, Dennis

    PACE (Password Authenticated Connection Establishment) is a cryptographic protocol that was developed to provide a secure knowledge-based authentication mechanism for contactless chips. The problems that are inherent to (but not limited to) contactless chips are described and PACE as a solution based on cryptographic tools is sketched. Finally, it is shown how to use PACE together with traditional short PINs of 4-6 digits as access control mechanism for contactless chips withstanding denial-of-service attacks.

  13. Simultaneous and rapid determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks by MEKC in a short capillary with dual contactless conductivity/photometry detection.

    PubMed

    Vochyánová, Blanka; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of taurine and caffeine using a laboratory-made instrument enabling separation analysis in a short 10.5 cm capillary. The substances are detected using a contactless conductometry/ultraviolet (UV) photometry detector that enables recording both signals at one place in the capillary. The separation of caffeine and taurine was performed using the MEKC technique in a BGE with the composition 40 mM CHES, 15 mM NaOH, and 50 mM SDS, pH 9.36. Under these conditions, the migration time of caffeine is 43 s and of taurine 60 s; LOD for caffeine is 4 mg/L using photometric detection and LOD for taurine is 24 mg/L using contactless conductometric detection. The standard addition method was used for determination in Red Bull energy drink of caffeine 317 mg/L and taurine 3860 mg/L; the contents in Kamikaze drink were 468 mg/L caffeine and 4110 mg/L taurine. The determined values are in good agreement with the declared contents of these substances. RSD does not exceed 3%.

  14. Simultaneous and rapid determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks by MEKC in a short capillary with dual contactless conductivity/photometry detection.

    PubMed

    Vochyánová, Blanka; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of taurine and caffeine using a laboratory-made instrument enabling separation analysis in a short 10.5 cm capillary. The substances are detected using a contactless conductometry/ultraviolet (UV) photometry detector that enables recording both signals at one place in the capillary. The separation of caffeine and taurine was performed using the MEKC technique in a BGE with the composition 40 mM CHES, 15 mM NaOH, and 50 mM SDS, pH 9.36. Under these conditions, the migration time of caffeine is 43 s and of taurine 60 s; LOD for caffeine is 4 mg/L using photometric detection and LOD for taurine is 24 mg/L using contactless conductometric detection. The standard addition method was used for determination in Red Bull energy drink of caffeine 317 mg/L and taurine 3860 mg/L; the contents in Kamikaze drink were 468 mg/L caffeine and 4110 mg/L taurine. The determined values are in good agreement with the declared contents of these substances. RSD does not exceed 3%. PMID:24285507

  15. Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

    This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

  16. Contactless Calorimetry for Levitated Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Dokko, W.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature and specific heat of hot sample measured with pyrometer in proposed experimental technique. Technique intended expecially for contactless calorimetry of such materials as undercooled molten alloys, samples of which must be levitated to prevent contamination and premature crystallization. Contactless calorimetry technique enables data to be taken over entire undercooling temperature range with only one sample. Technique proves valuable in study of undercooling because difference in specific heat between undercooled-liquid and crystalline phases at same temperature provides driving force to convert metastable undercooled phase to stable crystalline phase.

  17. Hybrid Contactless Heating and Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic and electromagnetic fields applied. In contactless processing apparatus, acoustic and electromagnetic levitating fields employed alternately or simultaneously with amplitude of each controlled to produce various combinations of heating, cooling, and levitation. Apparatus provides rapid heating and cooling or slow heating and cooling for such processes as nucleation, crystallization, incubation, deep undercooling, and heterogeneity control.

  18. Tunable heat conduction through coupled Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a study on heat conduction through coupled Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains by using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our attention is dedicated to showing how the phonon transport is affected by the interchain coupling. It has been well accepted that the heat conduction could be impeded by the interchain interaction due to the interface phonon scattering. However, recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that the thermal conductivity of nanoscale materials can be counterintuitively enhanced by the interaction with the substrate. In the present paper, by consecutively varying the interchain coupling intensity, we observed both enhancement and suppression of thermal transport through the coupled FPU chains. For weak interchain couplings, it is found that the heat flux increases with the coupling intensity, whereas in the case of strong interchain couplings, the energy transport is found to be suppressed by the interchain interaction. Based on the phonon spectral energy density method, we attribute the enhancement of the energy transport to the excited phonon modes (in addition to the intrinsic phonon modes), while the upward shift of the high-frequency phonon branch and the interface phonon-phonon scattering account for the suppressed heat conduction.

  19. Contactless impedance sensors and their application to flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr; Stulík, Karel

    2013-02-27

    The paper provides a critical discussion of the present state of the theory of high-frequency impedance sensors (now mostly called contactless impedance or conductivity sensors), the principal approaches employed in designing impedance flow-through cells and their operational parameters. In addition to characterization of traditional types of impedance sensors, the article is concerned with the use of less common sensors, such as cells with wire electrodes or planar cells. There is a detailed discussion of the effect of the individual operational parameters (width and shape of the electrodes, detection gap, frequency and amplitude of the input signal) on the response of the detector. The most important problems to be resolved in coupling these devices with flow-through measurements in the liquid phase are also discussed. Examples are given of cell designs for continuous flow and flow-injection analyses and of detection systems for miniaturized liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. New directions for the use of these sensors in molecular biology and chemical reactors and some directions for future development are outlined.

  20. Contactless Impedance Sensors and Their Application to Flow Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr; Štulík, Karel

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a critical discussion of the present state of the theory of high-frequency impedance sensors (now mostly called contactless impedance or conductivity sensors), the principal approaches employed in designing impedance flow-through cells and their operational parameters. In addition to characterization of traditional types of impedance sensors, the article is concerned with the use of less common sensors, such as cells with wire electrodes or planar cells. There is a detailed discussion of the effect of the individual operational parameters (width and shape of the electrodes, detection gap, frequency and amplitude of the input signal) on the response of the detector. The most important problems to be resolved in coupling these devices with flow-through measurements in the liquid phase are also discussed. Examples are given of cell designs for continuous flow and flow-injection analyses and of detection systems for miniaturized liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. New directions for the use of these sensors in molecular biology and chemical reactors and some directions for future development are outlined. PMID:23447011

  1. Wet deposition and related atmospheric chemistry in the São Paulo metropolis, Brazil: Part 1. Major inorganic ions in rainwater as evaluated by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Flávio R.; Fracassi da Silva, José A.; Lago, Claudimir L.; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Gutz, Ivano G. R.

    The metropolitan region of São Paulo (17.8 million inhabitants) presents serious air quality problems. An official network monitors key air pollutants, however, there is no regular program of evaluation of the wet deposition and data about rainwater composition is scarce. Opening a series of articles on this subject, capillary zone electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection (CZE-CCD) is proposed and applied as a quick and inexpensive alternative to ion chromatography for the determination of the ionic composition of rainwater. Excellent resolution of the peaks and sufficient sensitivity were obtained for major ions. Switching from anion to cation determination is fast (30 min) and as simple as inverting the polarity of the voltage supply and changing the modifier added to the buffer solution. CZE-CCD was applied to the study of wet-only deposition collected in São Paulo during the period from May l997 to March 1998. The volume weighted means of the anions, sulfate, nitrate and chloride, were, respectively, 17, 22 and 29 μmol l -1. Among the cations, ammonium was the dominating one, with 28 μmol l -1, followed by calcium, 23 μmol l -1, sodium, 12 μmol l -1, and potassium, 5.8 μmol l -1. The wet flux of these anions and cations were, respectively, 2.5, 2.2, 1.6, 0.78, 1.4, 0.43 and 0.35 g m -2 yr -1. By attributing all sodium to marine origin, half of the chloride and more than 90% of all other ions are ascribable to continental/anthropogenic sources. Literature data for rainwater from inland regions (˜200 km apart from São Paulo) reveals lower deposition of all ions but H +. Absorption of NH 3 and incorporation of calcium carbonate, mainly in the metropolitan region itself, accounts for decreased acidity. The enrichment in all other ions during the studied period indicates the prevalence of the anthropogenic emissions from the metropolis over continental sources and explains the high correlation between the ions NO 3-, SO 42-, and NH 4+; the

  2. Coupled dynamics of flow, microstructure, and conductivity in sheared suspensions.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Tyler; Helal, Ahmed; McKinley, Gareth H; Kamrin, Ken

    2016-09-28

    We propose a model for the evolution of the conductivity tensor for a flowing suspension of electrically conductive particles. We use discrete particle numerical simulations together with a continuum physical framework to construct an evolution law for the suspension microstructure during flow. This model is then coupled with a relationship between the microstructure and the electrical conductivity tensor. Certain parameters of the joint model are fit experimentally using rheo-electrical conductivity measurements of carbon black suspensions under flow over a range of shear rates. The model is applied to the case of steady shearing as well as time-varying conductivity of unsteady flow experiments. We find that the model prediction agrees closely with the measured experimental data in all cases. PMID:27532243

  3. Application of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensors Contactless NDT of Concrete Structures

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Suyun; Popovics, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of micro-electro-mechanical sensors (MEMS) for application in air-coupled (contactless or noncontact) sensing to concrete nondestructive testing (NDT) is studied in this paper. The fundamental operation and characteristics of MEMS are first described. Then application of MEMS sensors toward established concrete test methods, including vibration resonance, impact-echo, ultrasonic surface wave, and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW), is demonstrated. In each test application, the performance of MEMS is compared with conventional contactless and contact sensing technology. Favorable performance of the MEMS sensors demonstrates the potential of the technology for applied contactless NDT efforts. Objective: To illustrate the utility of air-coupled MEMS sensors for concrete NDT, as compared with conventional sensor technology. PMID:25897497

  4. Nonconventional thermodynamics, indeterminate couple stress elasticity and heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alber, H.-D.; Hutter, K.; Tsakmakis, Ch.

    2016-05-01

    We present a phenomenological thermodynamic framework for continuum systems exhibiting responses which may be nonlocal in space and for which short time scales may be important. Nonlocality in space is engendered by state variables of gradient type, while nonlocalities over time can be modelled, e.g. by assuming the rate of the heat flux vector to enter into the heat conduction law. The central idea is to restate the energy budget of the system by postulating further balance laws of energy, besides the classical one. This allows for the proposed theory to deal with nonequilibrium state variables, which are excluded by the second law in conventional thermodynamics. The main features of our approach are explained by discussing micropolar indeterminate couple stress elasticity and heat conduction theories.

  5. Multisublevel Magnetoquantum Conductance in Single and Coupled Double Quantum Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lyo, Sungkwun Ken; Huang, Danhong

    2001-09-15

    We study the ballistic and diffusive magnetoquantum transport using a typical quantum point contact geometry for single and tunnel-coupled double wires that are wide (less than or similar to1 mum) in one perpendicular direction with densely populated sublevels and extremely confined in the other perpendicular (i.e., growth) direction. A general analytic solution to the Boltzmann equation is presented for multisublevel elastic scattering at low temperatures. The solution is employed to study interesting magnetic-field dependent behavior of the conductance such as a large enhancement and quantum oscillations of the conductance for various structures and field orientations. These phenomena originate from the following field-induced properties: magnetic confinement, displacement of the initial- and final-state wave functions for scattering, variation of the Fermi velocities, mass enhancement, depopulation of the sublevels and anticrossing (in double quantum wires). The magnetoconductance is strikingly different in long diffusive (or rough. dirty) wires from the quantized conductance in short ballistic (or clean) wires. Numerical results obtained for the rectangular confinement potentials in the growth direction are satisfactorily interpreted in terms of the analytic solutions based on harmonic confinement potentials. Some of the predicted features of the field-dependent diffusive and quantized conductances are consistent with recent data from GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs double quantum wires.

  6. Contactless Inductive Bubble Detection in a Liquid Metal Flow

    PubMed Central

    Gundrum, Thomas; Büttner, Philipp; Dekdouk, Bachir; Peyton, Anthony; Wondrak, Thomas; Galindo, Vladimir; Eckert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The detection of bubbles in liquid metals is important for many technical applications. The opaqueness and the high temperature of liquid metals set high demands on the measurement system. The high electrical conductivity of the liquid metal can be exploited for contactless methods based on electromagnetic induction. We will present a measurement system which consists of one excitation coil and a pickup coil system on the opposite sides of the pipe. With this sensor we were able to detect bubbles in a sodium flow inside a stainless steel pipe and bubbles in a column filled with a liquid Gallium alloy. PMID:26751444

  7. Contactless Inductive Bubble Detection in a Liquid Metal Flow.

    PubMed

    Gundrum, Thomas; Büttner, Philipp; Dekdouk, Bachir; Peyton, Anthony; Wondrak, Thomas; Galindo, Vladimir; Eckert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The detection of bubbles in liquid metals is important for many technical applications. The opaqueness and the high temperature of liquid metals set high demands on the measurement system. The high electrical conductivity of the liquid metal can be exploited for contactless methods based on electromagnetic induction. We will present a measurement system which consists of one excitation coil and a pickup coil system on the opposite sides of the pipe. With this sensor we were able to detect bubbles in a sodium flow inside a stainless steel pipe and bubbles in a column filled with a liquid Gallium alloy. PMID:26751444

  8. Unconstrained and contactless hand geometry biometrics.

    PubMed

    de-Santos-Sierra, Alberto; Sánchez-Ávila, Carmen; Del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador; Guerra-Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely support vector machines (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices. PMID:22346634

  9. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    de-Santos-Sierra, Alberto; Sánchez-Ávila, Carmen; del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador; Guerra-Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices. PMID:22346634

  10. Unconstrained and contactless hand geometry biometrics.

    PubMed

    de-Santos-Sierra, Alberto; Sánchez-Ávila, Carmen; Del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador; Guerra-Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely support vector machines (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  11. Contactless microfluidic pumping using microchannel-integrated carbon black composite membranes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaotong; Gagnon, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pump and manipulate fluid at the micron-scale is a basic requirement for microfluidic platforms. Many current manipulation methods, however, require expensive and bulky external supporting equipment, which are not typically compatible for portable applications. We have developed a contactless metal electro-osmotic micropump capable of pumping conductive buffers. The pump operates using two pairs of gallium metal electrodes, which are activated using an external voltage source and separated from a main flow channel by a thin micron-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The thin contactless membrane allows for field penetration and electro-osmotic flow within the microchannel, but eliminates electrode damage and sample contamination commonly associated with traditional DC electro-osmotic pumps that utilize electrodes in direct contact with the working fluid. Our previous work has demonstrated the effectiveness of this method in pumping deionized water. However, due to the high resistivity of PDMS, this method proved difficult to apply towards manipulating conductive buffers. To overcome this limitation, we fabricated conductive carbon black (CB) powder directly into the contactless PDMS membranes. The increased electrical conductivity of the contactless PDMS membrane significantly increased micropump performance. Using a microfluidic T-channel device and an electro-osmotic flow model, we determined the influence that CB has on pump pressure for CB weight percents varying between 0 and 20. The results demonstrate that the CB increases pump pressure by two orders of magnitude and enables effective operations with conductive buffers. PMID:26543514

  12. Active control of near-field coupling in conductively coupled microelectromechanical system metamaterial devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Manjappa, Manukumara; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Singh, Ranjan; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally report a structurally reconfigurable metamaterial for active switching of near-field coupling in conductively coupled, orthogonally twisted split ring resonators (SRRs) operating in the terahertz spectral region. Out-of-plane reconfigurable microcantilevers integrated into the dark SRR geometry are used to provide active frequency tuning of dark SRR resonance. The geometrical parameters of individual SRRs are designed to have identical inductive-capacitive resonant frequency. This allows for the excitation of classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) due to the strong conductive coupling between the SRRs. When the microcantilevers are curved up, the resonant frequency of dark SRR blue-shifts and the EIT peak is completely modulated while the SRRs are still conductively connected. EIT modulation contrast of ˜50% is experimentally achieved with actively switchable group delay of ˜2.5 ps. Electrical control, miniaturized size, and readily integrable fabrication process of the proposed structurally reconfigurable metamaterial make it an ideal candidate for the realization of various terahertz communication devices such as electrically controllable terahertz delay lines, buffers, and tunable data-rate channels.

  13. Novel Principle of Contactless Gauge Block Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Řeřucha, Šimon; Mikel, Břetislav; Čížek, Martin; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel principle of contactless gauge block calibration is presented. The principle of contactless gauge block calibration combines low-coherence interferometry and laser interferometry. An experimental setup combines Dowell interferometer and Michelson interferometer to ensure a gauge block length determination with direct traceability to the primary length standard. By monitoring both gauge block sides with a digital camera gauge block 3D surface measurements are possible too. The principle presented is protected by the Czech national patent No. 302948. PMID:22737012

  14. Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection applied to the quantitation and to the determination of physical-chemical properties of peroxycarboxylates in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Denis T R; do Lago, Claudimir L

    2013-07-01

    CE with C⁴D (CE-C⁴D) was successfully applied to the investigation of performate, peracetate, and perpropionate in aqueous medium. Ionic mobilities, diffusion coefficients, and hydrodynamic radii were obtained for the first time for these species. CE-C⁴D was also used to estimate the pKa values of the peroxycarboxylic acids. Because the peroxycarboxylates (POCs) undergoes hydrolysis while migrating, a simple calibration curve cannot be used for quantitation. Thus, an indirect calibration approach was used. The new method was used to monitor the formation of peroxycarboxylic acids from hydrogen peroxide and the carboxylic acid as well as to the quantitation of peracetic acid in a commercial sample. The CE-C⁴D method compares favorably with the conventional titration method because of the possibility of speciation of the POC, the low sample consumption, and the low LOD (14, 8, and 24 μmol/L for performate, peracetate, and perpropionate, respectively). Although POCs are structural isomers of monoalkyl carbonates, they have greater hydrodynamic radii, which suggests that the positions of the oxygen atoms in the molecules have a direct impact in the charge density and consequently on the hydration atmosphere. PMID:23595363

  15. Substrate preparation by contactless mechanochemical polish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, S.; Lachish, U.; El-Hanany, U.

    1985-10-01

    A simple, yet effective, polishing technique for substrate preparation is presented. It is contactless chemical polish which does not introduce any defects into the substrate during the process. The method can be readily adopted in all cases where chemical polishing is practical for substrate preparation. Results similar to those obtained by the more sophisticated hydroplaning method can be achieved.

  16. Contactless Ultrasound Generation in a Crucible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevics, Valdis; Djambazov, Georgi S.; Pericleous, Koulis A.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound treatment is used in light alloys during solidification to refine microstructure, remove gas, or disperse immersed particles. A mechanical sonotrode immersed in the melt is most effective when probe tip vibrations lead to cavitation. Liquid contact with the probe can be problematic for high temperature or reactive melts leading to contamination. An alternative contactless method of generating ultrasonic waves is proposed, using electromagnetic (EM) induction. As a bonus, the EM force induces vigorous stirring distributing the effect to treat larger volumes of material. In a typical application, the induction coil surrounding the crucible—also used to melt the alloy—may be adopted for this purpose with suitable tuning. Alternatively, a top coil, immersed in the melt (but still contactless due to EM force repulsion) may be used. Numerical simulations of sound, flow, and EM fields suggest that large pressure amplitudes leading to cavitation may be achievable with this method.

  17. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-11-01

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air, has a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a novel acoustophoretic concept, for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects (volume 0.1-10 μl) . The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. The dynamics of droplets and particles collision is studied numerically and experimentally. The findings show that the secondary acoustic force gives a significant contribution to the samples impact velocity. We thank the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant 144397) for financial support.

  18. Contactless electronic transport in a bio-molecular junction

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Faruque M. Al-Dirini, Feras; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-07-28

    Molecular electronics hold promise for next generation ultra-low power, nano-scale integrated electronics. The main challenge in molecular electronics is to make a reliable interface between molecules and metal electrodes. Interfacing metals and molecules detrimentally affects the characteristics of nano-scale molecular electronic devices. It is therefore essential to investigate alternative arrangements such as contact-less tunneling gaps wherever such configurations are feasible. We conduct ab initio density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's functions calculations to investigate the transport properties of a biocompatible glycine molecular junction. By analyzing the localized molecular orbital energy distributions and transmission probabilities in the transport-gap, we find a glycine molecule confined between two gold electrodes, without making a contact, is energetically stable and possesses high tunneling current resembling an excellent ohmic-like interface.

  19. Contactless method of measuring resistivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J. D.; Rabson, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the conductivity of materials without having to make electrical contact with the material. Currents which are magnetically induced in the conducting sample are measured by means of the magnetic fields they produce. Although induction techniques have been used in the past for this type of measurement, the configuration presented here makes it possible to perform absolute measurements of resistivity over a wide range of values for relatively small samples. The theory of the technique, the results of measurements made with it, and a comparison of the technique with other methods are presented.

  20. Serpentine Thermal Coupling Between a Stream and a Conducting Body

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Lorente, S.; Anderson, R.; Bejan, A.

    2012-02-15

    Here we document the effect of flow configuration on the heat transfer performance of a serpentine shaped stream embedded in a conducting solid. Several configurations with fixed volume of fluid are considered: U-shaped with varying spacing between the parallel portions of the U, serpentine shapes with three elbows, and conducting soil with several parallelepipedal shapes. We show that the spacing must be greater than a critical value in order for the heat transfer density of the stream-solid configuration to be the highest that it can be. Spacings larger than this critical value do not yield improvements in heat transfer density. We also show that even though the heat transfer is time dependent, the stream-solid configuration has an effective number of heat transfer units Ntu that is nearly constant in time. The larger Ntu values correspond to the configurations with greater heat transfer density.

  1. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011)]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  2. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  3. Conduction transition of nano-scaled molecular wires driven by environment coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shih-Jye

    2008-03-01

    We propose a hybridization model to simulate a molecular wire coupling with the environmental molecules. Results reveal that the conduction transition from conducting to semiconducting depends on the coupling strength. In our simulations, the non-equilibrium Green's function method is employed to calculate the current-voltage relationship for the molecular wire through metallic contacts. Our calculations show that the band gap can be manipulated from the outside molecules coupling. Temperature dependence of the conductivity is represented in our results with strong dependence in high temperature range, which is qualitatively comparable with the experimental results of DNA. In our results, with small coupling, the current is enhanced by the exchange. On the contrary, too large a coupling results in localization of the transport carriers, leading to a semiconducting like property. We try to associate this study with the conducting property of DNA, which can be manipulated by environmental modulation.

  4. Toward Contactless Biology: Acoustophoretic DNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiou, Thomas; Foresti, Daniele; Bayram, Adem; Poulikakos, Dimos; Ferrari, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Acoustophoresis revolutionized the field of container-less manipulation of liquids and solids by enabling mixing procedures which avoid contamination and loss of reagents due to the contact with the support. While its applications to chemistry and engineering are straightforward, additional developments are needed to obtain reliable biological protocols in a contactless environment. Here, we provide a first, fundamental step towards biological reactions in air by demonstrating the acoustophoretic DNA transfection of mammalian cells. We developed an original acoustophoretic design capable of levitating, moving and mixing biological suspensions of living mammalians cells and of DNA plasmids. The precise and sequential delivery of the mixed solutions into tissue culture plates is actuated by a novel mechanism based on the controlled actuation of the acoustophoretic force. The viability of the contactless procedure is tested using a cellular model sensitive to small perturbation of neuronal differentiation pathways. Additionally, the efficiency of the transfection procedure is compared to standard, container-based methods for both single and double DNA transfection and for different cell types including adherent growing HeLa cancer cells, and low adhesion neuron-like PC12 cells. In all, this work provides a proof of principle which paves the way to the development of high-throughput acoustophoretic biological reactors. PMID:26828312

  5. Toward Contactless Biology: Acoustophoretic DNA Transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Thomas; Foresti, Daniele; Bayram, Adem; Poulikakos, Dimos; Ferrari, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Acoustophoresis revolutionized the field of container-less manipulation of liquids and solids by enabling mixing procedures which avoid contamination and loss of reagents due to the contact with the support. While its applications to chemistry and engineering are straightforward, additional developments are needed to obtain reliable biological protocols in a contactless environment. Here, we provide a first, fundamental step towards biological reactions in air by demonstrating the acoustophoretic DNA transfection of mammalian cells. We developed an original acoustophoretic design capable of levitating, moving and mixing biological suspensions of living mammalians cells and of DNA plasmids. The precise and sequential delivery of the mixed solutions into tissue culture plates is actuated by a novel mechanism based on the controlled actuation of the acoustophoretic force. The viability of the contactless procedure is tested using a cellular model sensitive to small perturbation of neuronal differentiation pathways. Additionally, the efficiency of the transfection procedure is compared to standard, container-based methods for both single and double DNA transfection and for different cell types including adherent growing HeLa cancer cells, and low adhesion neuron-like PC12 cells. In all, this work provides a proof of principle which paves the way to the development of high-throughput acoustophoretic biological reactors.

  6. Temperature dependence of thermal conductivities of coupled rotator lattice and the momentum diffusion in standard map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunyun; Li, Nianbei; Li, Baowen

    2015-07-01

    In contrary to other 1D momentum-conserving lattices such as the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam β (FPU- β) lattice, the 1D coupled rotator lattice is a notable exception which conserves total momentum while exhibits normal heat conduction behavior. The temperature behavior of the thermal conductivities of 1D coupled rotator lattice had been studied in previous works trying to reveal the underlying physical mechanism for normal heat conduction. However, two different temperature behaviors of thermal conductivities have been claimed for the same coupled rotator lattice. These different temperature behaviors also intrigue the debate whether there is a phase transition of thermal conductivities as the function of temperature. In this work, we will revisit the temperature dependent thermal conductivities for the 1D coupled rotator lattice. We find that the temperature dependence follows a power law behavior which is different with the previously found temperature behaviors. Our results also support the claim that there is no phase transition for 1D coupled rotator lattice. We also give some discussion about the similarity of diffusion behaviors between the 1D coupled rotator lattice and the single kicked rotator also called the Chirikov standard map. It is found that the momentum diffusion constant for 1D coupled rotator lattice follows a power-law temperature dependence of T -3.2 which is close to that of Chirikov standard map which follows a behavior of T -3.

  7. Thermal conductivity of magnetic insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamokostas, Georgios; Lapas, Panteleimon; Fiete, Gregory A.

    We study the influence of spin-orbit coupling on the thermal conductivity of various types of magnetic insulators. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling and orbital-degeneracy, the strong-coupling limit of Hubbard interactions at half filling can often be adequately described in terms of a pure spin Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg form. However, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling the resulting exchange interaction can become highly anisotropic. The effect of the atomic spin-orbit coupling, taken into account through the effect of magnon-phonon interactions and the magnetic order and excitations, on the lattice thermal conductivity of various insulating magnetic systems is studied. We focus on the regime of low temperatures where the dominant source of scattering is two-magnon scattering to one-phonon processes. The thermal current is calculated within the Boltzmann transport theory. We are grateful for financial support from NSF Grant DMR-0955778.

  8. Thermal conductivity of magnetic insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Panteleimon; Stamokostas, Georgios; Fiete, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    We study the influence of spin-orbit coupling on the thermal conductivity of various types of magnetic insulators. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling and orbital-degeneracy, the strong-coupling limit of Hubbard interactions at half filling can often be adequately described in terms of a pure spin Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg form. However, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling the resulting exchange interaction can become highly anisotropic. The effect of the atomic spin-orbit coupling, taken into account through the effect of magnon-phonon interactions and the magnetic order and excitations, on the lattice thermal conductivity of various insulating magnetic systems is studied. We focus on the regime of low temperatures where the dominant source of scattering is two-magnon scattering to one-phonon processes. The thermal current is calculated within the Boltzmann transport theory. We are grateful for financial support from NSF Grant DMR-0955778.

  9. [Modeling and analysis of volume conduction based on field-circuit coupling].

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhide; Liu, Hailong; Xie, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiufa; Hou, Deming

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations of volume conduction can be used to analyze the process of energy transfer and explore the effects of some physical factors on energy transfer efficiency. We analyzed the 3D quasi-static electric field by the finite element method, and developed A 3D coupled field-circuit model of volume conduction basing on the coupling between the circuit and the electric field. The model includes a circuit simulation of the volume conduction to provide direct theoretical guidance for energy transfer optimization design. A field-circuit coupling model with circular cylinder electrodes was established on the platform of the software FEM3.5. Based on this, the effects of electrode cross section area, electrode distance and circuit parameters on the performance of volume conduction system were obtained, which provided a basis for optimized design of energy transfer efficiency.

  10. Contactless thin adaptive mirror technology: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Salinari, Piero; Riccardi, Armando; Mantegazza, Paolo

    2010-07-01

    The contactless, voice coil motor adaptive mirror technology starts from an idea by Piero Salinari in 1993. This idea has progressively evolved to real systems thanks to a fruitful collaboration involving Italian research institutes (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and Aerospace Department of Politecnico di Milano) and small Italian enterprises (Microgate and ADS). Collaboration between research institutions and industry is still very effectively in place, but nowadays the technology has left the initial R&D phase reaching a stage in which the whole projects are managed by the industrial entities. In this paper we present the baseline concept and its evolution, describing the main progress milestones. These are paced by the actual implementation of this idea into real systems, from MMT, to LBT, Magellan, VLT, GMT and E-ELT. The fundamental concept and layout has remained unchanged through this evolution, maintaining its intrinsic advantages: tolerance to actuators' failures, mechanical de-coupling and relaxed tolerances between correcting mirror and reference structure, large stroke, hysteresis-free behavior. Moreover, this concept has proved its expandability to very large systems with thousands of controlled d.o.f. Notwithstanding the solidity of the fundamentals, the implementation has strongly evolved from the beginning, in order to deal with the dimensional, power, maintainability and reliability constraints imposed by the increased size of the targeted systems.

  11. Serotonin regulates electrical coupling via modulation of extrajunctional conductance: H-current.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Theresa M; Caplan, Jonathan S; Zoran, Mark J

    2010-08-19

    Synaptic strength can be highly variable from animal to animal within a species or over time within an individual. The process of synaptic plasticity induced by neuromodulatory agents might be unpredictable when the underlying circuits subject to modulation are themselves inherently variable. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptomine; 5HT) and serotonergic signaling pathways are important regulators of animal behavior and are pharmacological targets in a wide range of neurological disorders. We have examined the effect of 5HT on electrical synapses possessing variable coupling strengths. While 5HT decreased electrical coupling at synapses with weak electrical connectivity, synapses with strong electrical coupling were less affected by 5HT treatment, as follows from the equations used for calculating coupling coefficients. The fact that the modulatory effect of 5HT on electrical connections was negatively correlated with the strength of electrical coupling suggests that the degree of electrical coupling within a neural network impacts subsequent neuromodulation of those synapses. Biophysical studies indicated that these effects were primarily due to 5HT-induced modulation of membrane currents that indirectly affect junctional coupling at synaptic contacts. In support of these experimental analyses, we created a simple model of coupled neurons to demonstrate that modulation of electrical coupling could be due solely to 5HT effects on H-channel conductance. Therefore, variability in the strength of electrical coupling in neural circuits can determine the pharmacological effect of this neuromodulatory agent. PMID:20599836

  12. Serotonin Regulates Electrical Coupling via Modulation of Extrajunctional Conductance: H-current

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Theresa M.; Caplan, Jonathan S.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic strength can be highly variable from animal to animal within a species or over time within an individual. The process of synaptic plasticity induced by neuromodulatory agents might be unpredictable when the underlying circuits subject to modulation are themselves inherently variable. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptomine; 5HT) and serotonergic signaling pathways are important regulators of animal behavior and are pharmacological targets in a wide range of neurological disorders. We have examined the effect of 5HT on electrical synapses possessing variable coupling strengths. While 5HT decreased electrical coupling at synapses with weak electrical connectivity, synapses with strong electrical coupling were less affected by 5HT treatment, as follows from the equations used for calculating coupling coefficients. The fact that the modulatory effect of 5HT on electrical connections was negatively correlated with the strength of electrical coupling suggests that the degree of electrical coupling within a neural network impacts subsequent neuromodulation of those synapses. Biophysical studies indicated that these effects were primarily due to 5HT-induced modulation of membrane currents that indirectly affect junctional coupling at synaptic contacts. In support of these experimental analyses, we created a simple model of coupled neurons to demonstrate that modulation of electrical coupling could be due solely to 5HT effects on H-channel conductance. Therefore, variability in the strength of electrical coupling in neural circuits can determine the pharmacological effect of this neuromodulatory agent. PMID:20599836

  13. Application of a low impedance contactless conductometric detector for the determination of inorganic cations in capillary monolithic column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dazhong; Li, Dongdong; Yang, Xiuwen; Zhu, Yan; Dong, Jianfeng; Kang, Qi

    2011-03-15

    Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) cation exchange monolithic column was prepared in fused-silica capillaries of 320 μm i.d. by thermally initiated radical polymerization and utilized in capillary ion chromatography. With 15 mM methanesulfonic acid as the mobile phase, the separations of a mixture of inorganic cations (Li(+), Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+)) was tested by using a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) and a low impedance C(4)D (LIC(4)D). The LIC(4)D is the series combination of a C(4)D and a quartz crystal resonator. At the resonant frequency of the series combination, the capacitor impedance from capillary wall was offset by the inductance impedance from the quartz crystal resonator. A minimum impedance was obtained in the impedance-frequency curve of the combination. The responses of the C(4)D and LIC(4)D were analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model. It was shown that the sensitivity of the C(4)D to the change in analyte concentration is rather poor due to the high ratio of the impedance from the capillary wall capacitor to the solution impedance. The LIC(4)D has the similar sensitivity as a contact conductivity detector but a much smaller cell volume. The on-column detection model was realized by LiC(4)D without preparation of optical detection window in monolithic column.

  14. 3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Jiafang; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a 3D conductive coupling mechanism for the efficient generation of prominent and robust Fano resonances in 3D metamaterials (MMs) formed by integrating vertical U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs) or vertical rectangular plates along a planar metallic hole array with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). In such a configuration, intensified vertical E-field is induced along the metallic holes and naturally excites the electric resonances of the vertical structures, which form non-radiative "dark" modes. These 3D conductive "dark" modes strongly interfere with the "bright" resonance mode of the EOT structure, generating significant Fano resonances with both prominent destructive and constructive interferences. The demonstrated 3D conductive coupling mechanism is highly universal in that both 3D MMs with vertical SRRs and vertical plates exhibit the same prominent Fano resonances despite their dramatic structural difference, which is conceptually different from conventional capacitive and inductive coupling mechanisms that degraded drastically upon small structural deviations. PMID:27296109

  15. The dual effect of ephaptic coupling on cardiac conduction with heterogeneous expression of connexin 43.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning; Mori, Yoichiro; Tolkacheva, Elena G

    2016-05-21

    Decreased and heterogeneous expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) are common features in animal heart failure models. Ephpatic coupling, which relies on the presence of junctional cleft space between the ends of adjacent cells, has been suggested to play a more active role in mediating intercellular electrical communication when gap junctions are reduced. To better understand the interplay of Cx43 expression and ephaptic coupling on cardiac conduction during heart failure, we performed numerical simulations on our model when Cx43 expression is reduced and heterogeneous. Under severely reduced Cx43 expression, we identified three new phenomena in the presence of ephaptic coupling: alternating conduction, in which ephaptic and gap junction-mediated mechanisms alternate; instability of planar fronts; and small amplitude action potential (SAP), which has a smaller potential amplitude than the normal action potential. In the presence of heterogeneous Cx43 expression, ephaptic coupling can either prevent or promote conduction block (CB) depending on the Cx43 knockout (Cx43KO) content. When Cx43KO content is relatively high, ephaptic coupling reduces the probabilities of CB. However, ephaptic coupling promotes CB when Cx43KO and wild type cells are mixed in roughly equal proportion, which can be attributed to an increase in current-to-load mismatch.

  16. Energy conserving coupling through small apertures in an infinite perfect conducting screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, J.; Tkachenko, S.; Vick, R.

    2015-11-01

    Apertures in shielding enclosures are an important issue for determining shielding efficiencies. Various mathematical procedures and theories were employed to describe the coupling between the regions connected via an aperture in a well conducting plane. Bethe's theory describes the coupling via the equivalent problem of field excited dipole moments at the location of the aperture. This approach neglects the reaction of the dipole moments on the exciting field and therefore violates energy conservation. This work emphasizes an analytical approach for coupling between half-spaces through small apertures, inspired by the so called method of small antenna, which allows an understandable generalization of Bethe's theory.

  17. A Coupled Model of Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance and Transpiration for a Rose Leaf (Rosa hybrida L.)

    PubMed Central

    KIM, SOO‐HYUNG; LIETH, J. HEINRICH

    2003-01-01

    The following three models were combined to predict simultaneously photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and leaf temperature of a rose leaf: the biochemical model of photosynthesis of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (1980, Planta 149: 78–90), the stomatal conductance model of Ball, Woodrow and Berry (In: Biggens J, ed. Progress in photosynthesis research. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers), and an energy balance model. The photosynthetic parameters: maximum carboxylation rate, potential rate of electron transport and rate of triose phosphate utilization, and their temperature dependence were determined using gas exchange data of fully expanded, young, sunlit leaves. The stomatal conductance model was calibrated independently. Prediction of net photosynthesis by the coupled model agreed well with the validation data, but the model tended to underestimate rates of stomatal conductance and transpiration. The coupled model developed in this study can be used to assist growers making environmental control decisions in glasshouse production. PMID:12730065

  18. Synergistic plasticity of intrinsic conductance and electrical coupling restores synchrony in an intact motor network.

    PubMed

    Lane, Brian J; Samarth, Pranit; Ransdell, Joseph L; Nair, Satish S; Schulz, David J

    2016-01-01

    Motor neurons of the crustacean cardiac ganglion generate virtually identical, synchronized output despite the fact that each neuron uses distinct conductance magnitudes. As a result of this variability, manipulations that target ionic conductances have distinct effects on neurons within the same ganglion, disrupting synchronized motor neuron output that is necessary for proper cardiac function. We hypothesized that robustness in network output is accomplished via plasticity that counters such destabilizing influences. By blocking high-threshold K(+) conductances in motor neurons within the ongoing cardiac network, we discovered that compensation both resynchronized the network and helped restore excitability. Using model findings to guide experimentation, we determined that compensatory increases of both GA and electrical coupling restored function in the network. This is one of the first direct demonstrations of the physiological regulation of coupling conductance in a compensatory context, and of synergistic plasticity across cell- and network-level mechanisms in the restoration of output. PMID:27552052

  19. Analytic formulation for the ac electrical conductivity in two- temperature, strongly coupled, overdense plasma: FORTRAN subroutine

    SciTech Connect

    Cauble, R.; Rozmus, W.

    1993-10-21

    A FORTRAN subroutine for the calculation of the ac electrical conductivity in two-temperature, strongly coupled, overdense plasma is presented. The routine is the result of a model calculation based on classical transport theory with application to plasmas created by the interaction of short pulse lasers and solids. The formulation is analytic and the routine is self-contained.

  20. The effect of the electron-phonon coupling on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wenhui; Xiong, Bangguo; Zhang, Wenxing; Feng, Ji; Wang, Enge

    2012-07-25

    The thermal conductivity of free-standing silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with diameters from 1-3 nm has been studied by using the one-dimensional Boltzmann's transport equation. Our model explicitly accounts for the Umklapp scattering process and electron-phonon coupling effects in the calculation of the phonon scattering rates. The role of the electron-phonon coupling in the heat transport is relatively small for large silicon nanowires. It is found that the effect of the electron-phonon coupling on the thermal conduction is enhanced as the diameter of the silicon nanowires decreases. Electrons in the conduction band scatter low-energy phonons effectively where surface modes dominate, resulting in a smaller thermal conductivity. Neglecting the electron-phonon coupling leads to overestimation of the thermal transport for ultra-thin SiNWs. The detailed study of the phonon density of states from the surface atoms and central atoms shows a better understanding of the nontrivial size dependence of the heat transport in silicon nanowire.

  1. Multiscale development of a fission gas thermal conductivity model: Coupling atomic, meso and continuum level simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonks, Michael R.; Millett, Paul C.; Nerikar, Pankaj; Du, Shiyu; Andersson, David; Stanek, Christopher R.; Gaston, Derek; Andrs, David; Williamson, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact the fuel performance, causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity and fission gas release. However, typical empirical models of fuel properties treat each of these effects separately and uncoupled. Here, we couple a fission gas release model to a model of the impact of fission gas on the fuel thermal conductivity. To quantify the specific impact of grain boundary (GB) bubbles on the thermal conductivity, we use atomistic and mesoscale simulations. Atomistic molecular dynamic simulations were employed to determine the GB thermal resistance. These values were then used in mesoscale heat conduction simulations to develop a mechanistic expression for the effective GB thermal resistance of a GB containing gas bubbles, as a function of the percentage of the GB covered by fission gas. The coupled fission gas release and thermal conductivity model was implemented in Idaho National Laboratory's BISON fuel performance code to model the behavior of a 10-pellet LWR fuel rodlet, showing how the fission gas impacts the UO2 thermal conductivity. Furthermore, additional BISON simulations were conducted to demonstrate the impact of average grain size on both the fuel thermal conductivity and the fission gas release.

  2. Contactless inductive flow tomography for a model of continuous steel casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wondrak, T.; Galindo, V.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.; Timmel, K.

    2010-04-01

    The contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) aims at reconstructing the velocity field in electrically conducting melts from externally measured induced magnetic fields. One of its possible applications is the velocity reconstruction in the continuous casting process. In this paper, we apply this method to the flow field in a small model (containing approximately 1.4 l of the eutectic alloy GaInSn) of a mould for thin slab casting. It is shown that the flow structure, in general, and the jet position and intensity, in particular, can be reliably determined from magnetic field data using only a modest number (in the order of 5) of sensors.

  3. Laser speckle photometry: contactless nondestructive testing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikalova, Ulana; Nicolai, Juergen; Bendjus, Beatrice; Schreiber, Juergen

    2012-10-01

    Laser Speckle Photometry (LSP) is a newly developed contactless, fast and completely optical nondestructive testing method based on the detection and analysis of thermally or mechanically activated characteristic speckle dynamics. The heat propagation or tension process causes locally different degrees of thermal/mechanical expansion, which generates local and time-dependent strain fields, resulting in a local displacement of material surface. During this process, the normal surface slope and absolute height of the microscopic and mesoscopic surface segments, especially at rough sample surfaces, is transformed. These spatiotemporal changes include information about the material structure and conditions. Therefore, the proposed measurement technique includes a pulsed heating source for sample activation, a temperature detection of the sample at the measurement location in a distance from the heading point, a continuous wave laser for sample irradiation and activation of speckle patterns at the measurement point, and in addition, a fast CCD camera for the detection of the speckle movement during heat propagation at the measurement location. Laser Speckle Photometry can be used for evaluating material properties, such as hardness and porosity. The approach is based on the estimation of the "Speckle Thermal Diffusivity" parameter K, that can be determined using the thermal diffusion equation and the modified correlation function from the pixel intensity of the speckle image variations during thermal activation. After testing, the correlation between parameter K and hardness, and porosity respectively, was found. Furthermore, mechanical material stress changes, also at elevated operating temperatures, can be estimated by the presented technique using the calculated parameter K. In this case, the thermal excitation will be partially replaced by mechanical activation, such as the tension process. The technique of LSP and the results of calibration experiments are

  4. Contactless Biometrics in Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzak, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled

    Security can be enhanced through wireless sensor network using contactless biometrics and it remains a challenging and demanding task due to several limitations of wireless sensor network. Network life time is very less if it involves image processing task due to heavy energy required for image processing and image communication. Contactless biometrics such as face recognition is most suitable and applicable for wireless sensor network. Distributed face recognition in WSN not only help to reduce the communication overload but it also increase the node life time by distributing the work load on the nodes. This paper presents state-of-art of biometrics in wireless sensor network.

  5. Conductance through single biphenyl molecules: symmetric and asymmetric coupling to electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, Karthiga; Pfnür, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    The contacts and the chemical bonds formed between metallic electrodes and molecules determine to a large extent the conductive properties of single molecular junctions, which represent the smallest possible active elements in an electronic circuit. We therefore investigated in a comparative study, using the break junction technique (MCBJ), the conductive properties of [1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dithiol (M1) and of 4'-mercapto-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carbonitrile (M2) between gold electrodes. As a function of electrode separation, characterized by the conductance close to 0 V, we found several plateaus of relative stability, with those close to 0.01G0 being the most pronounced. The overall conductance of symmetric and asymmetric molecules were surprisingly similar, only the range of stability was smaller for M2. While M1 yielded symmetric I-V-curves, only small asymmetries were detected for M2. These are also reflected in the comparable values for coupling parameters using the single level resonance model. The high conductance for the asymmetric molecule is interpreted as a result of coherent coupling of electronic states through the whole molecule, so that the outcome cannot be predicted just by adding conductive properties of individual molecular groups. PMID:26425419

  6. Microfluidic pumping, routing and metering by contactless metal-based electro-osmosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaotong; Mavrogiannis, Nicholas; Doria, Steven; Gagnon, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, many microfluidic platforms for fluid processing have been developed in order to perform on-chip fluidic manipulations. Many of these methods, however, require expensive and bulky external supporting equipment, which are not typically applicable for microsystems requiring portability. We have developed a new type of portable contactless metal electro-osmotic micropump capable of on-chip fluid pumping, routing and metering. The pump operates using two pairs of gallium metal electrodes, which are activated using an external voltage source, and separated from a main flow channel by a thin micron-scale PDMS membrane. The thin contactless membrane allows for field penetration and electro-osmotic (EO) flow within the microchannel, but eliminates electrode damage and sample contamination commonly associated with traditional DC electro-osmotic pumps that utilize electrodes in direct contact with the working fluid. The maximum flow rates and pressures generated by the pump using DI water as a working buffer are 10 nL min(-1) and 30 Pa, respectively. With our current design, the maximum operational conductivity where fluid flow is observed is 0.1 mS cm(-1). Due to the small size and simple fabrication procedure, multiple micropump units can be integrated into a single microfluidic device for automated on-chip routing and sample metering applications. We experimentally demonstrated the ability to quantify micropump electro-osmotic flowrate and pressure as a function of applied voltage, and developed a mathematical model capable of predicting the performance of a contactless micropump for a given external load and internal hydrodynamic microchannel resistance. Finally, we showed that by activating specific pumps within a microchannel network, our micropumps are capable of routing microchannel fluid flow and generating plugs of solute. PMID:26053965

  7. Mechanisms of nonequilibrium electron-phonon coupling and thermal conductance at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Ashutosh; Gaskins, John T.; Donovan, Brian F.; Szwejkowski, Chester; Warzoha, Ronald J.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-03-01

    We study the electron and phonon thermal coupling mechanisms at interfaces between gold films with and without Ti adhesion layers on various substrates via pump-probe time-domain thermoreflectance. The coupling between the electronic and the vibrational states is increased by more than a factor of five with the inclusion of an ˜3 nm Ti adhesion layer between the Au film and the non-metal substrate. Furthermore, we show an increase in the rate of relaxation of the electron system with increasing electron and lattice temperatures induced by the laser power and attribute this to enhanced electron-electron scattering, a transport channel that becomes more pronounced with increased electron temperatures. The inclusion of the Ti layer also results in a linear dependence of the electron-phonon relaxation rate with temperature, which we attribute to the coupling of electrons at and near the Ti/substrate interface. This enhanced electron-phonon coupling due to electron-interface scattering is shown to have negligible influence on the Kapitza conductances between the Au/Ti and the substrates at longer time scales when the electrons and phonons in the metal have equilibrated. These results suggest that only during highly nonequilibrium conditions between the electrons and phonons (Te ≫ Tp) does electron-phonon scattering at an interface contribute to thermal boundary conductance.

  8. Mechanisms of nonequilibrium electron-phonon coupling and thermal conductance at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Giri, Ashutosh; Gaskins, John T.; Donovan, Brian F.; Szwejkowski, Chester; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Warzoha, Ronald J.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Ihlefeld, Jon

    2015-03-14

    We study the electron and phonon thermal coupling mechanisms at interfaces between gold films with and without Ti adhesion layers on various substrates via pump-probe time-domain thermoreflectance. The coupling between the electronic and the vibrational states is increased by more than a factor of five with the inclusion of an ∼3 nm Ti adhesion layer between the Au film and the non-metal substrate. Furthermore, we show an increase in the rate of relaxation of the electron system with increasing electron and lattice temperatures induced by the laser power and attribute this to enhanced electron-electron scattering, a transport channel that becomes more pronounced with increased electron temperatures. The inclusion of the Ti layer also results in a linear dependence of the electron-phonon relaxation rate with temperature, which we attribute to the coupling of electrons at and near the Ti/substrate interface. This enhanced electron-phonon coupling due to electron-interface scattering is shown to have negligible influence on the Kapitza conductances between the Au/Ti and the substrates at longer time scales when the electrons and phonons in the metal have equilibrated. These results suggest that only during highly nonequilibrium conditions between the electrons and phonons (T{sub e} ≫ T{sub p}) does electron-phonon scattering at an interface contribute to thermal boundary conductance.

  9. Photonic heat conduction in Josephson-coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosisio, R.; Solinas, P.; Braggio, A.; Giazotto, F.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the photon-mediated heat flow between two Josephson-coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductors. We demonstrate that in standard low temperature experiments involving temperature-biased superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), this radiative contribution is negligible if compared to the direct galvanic one, but it largely exceeds the heat exchanged between electrons and the lattice phonons. The corresponding thermal conductance is found to be several orders of magnitude smaller, for real experiments setup parameters, than the universal quantum of thermal conductance, κ0(T ) =π kB2T /6 ℏ .

  10. Phase-field modeling of temperature gradient driven pore migration coupling with thermal conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liangzhe Zhang; Michael R Tonks; Paul C Millett; Yongfeng Zhang; Karthikeyan Chockalingam; Bulent Biner

    2012-04-01

    Pore migration in a temperature gradient (Soret effect) is investigated by a phase-field model coupled with a heat transfer calculation. Pore migration is observed towards the high temperature domain with velocities that agree with analytical solution. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the pores, the temperature gradient across individual pores is increased, which in turn, accelerates the pore migration. In particular, for pores filled with xenon and helium, the pore velocities are increased by a factor of 2.2 and 2.1, respectively. A quantitative equation is then derived to predict the influence of the low thermal conductivity of pores.

  11. Thermal conductivity of highly asymmetric binary mixtures: how important are heat/mass coupling effects?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jeff; Bresme, Fernando

    2014-06-28

    The coupling of mass and heat fluxes is responsible for the Soret effect in fluid mixtures containing particles of dissimilar mass and/or size. We investigate using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations the relevance of these coupling effects in determining the thermal transport in fluids consisting of binary mixtures where the individual components feature significant mass, 1 : 8, or size, 1 : 3, asymmetries. We quantify the thermal transport by using both boundary driven molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD) and the equilibrium Green-Kubo (GK) approach and investigate the impact of different heat flux definitions, relevant in kinetic theory and experiments, in the quantification of the thermal conductivity. We find that the thermal conductivities obtained from the different definitions agree within numerical accuracy, suggesting that the Soret coefficient does not lead to significant changes in the thermal conduction, even for the large asymmetries considered here, which lead to significant Soret coefficients (∼10(-2) K(-1)). The asymmetry in size and mass introduces large differences in the specific enthalpy of the individual components that must be carefully considered to compute accurate thermal conductivities using the GK approach. Neglecting the enthalpic contributions, results in large overestimations of the thermal conductivity, typically between 20% and 50%. Further, we quantify the time dependent behavior of the internal energy and mass flux correlation functions and propose a microscopic mechanism for the heat transport in these asymmetric mixtures.

  12. 3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiguang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Jiafang; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a 3D conductive coupling mechanism for the efficient generation of prominent and robust Fano resonances in 3D metamaterials (MMs) formed by integrating vertical U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs) or vertical rectangular plates along a planar metallic hole array with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). In such a configuration, intensified vertical E-field is induced along the metallic holes and naturally excites the electric resonances of the vertical structures, which form non-radiative “dark” modes. These 3D conductive “dark” modes strongly interfere with the “bright” resonance mode of the EOT structure, generating significant Fano resonances with both prominent destructive and constructive interferences. The demonstrated 3D conductive coupling mechanism is highly universal in that both 3D MMs with vertical SRRs and vertical plates exhibit the same prominent Fano resonances despite their dramatic structural difference, which is conceptually different from conventional capacitive and inductive coupling mechanisms that degraded drastically upon small structural deviations.

  13. 3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiguang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Jiafang; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a 3D conductive coupling mechanism for the efficient generation of prominent and robust Fano resonances in 3D metamaterials (MMs) formed by integrating vertical U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs) or vertical rectangular plates along a planar metallic hole array with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). In such a configuration, intensified vertical E-field is induced along the metallic holes and naturally excites the electric resonances of the vertical structures, which form non-radiative “dark” modes. These 3D conductive “dark” modes strongly interfere with the “bright” resonance mode of the EOT structure, generating significant Fano resonances with both prominent destructive and constructive interferences. The demonstrated 3D conductive coupling mechanism is highly universal in that both 3D MMs with vertical SRRs and vertical plates exhibit the same prominent Fano resonances despite their dramatic structural difference, which is conceptually different from conventional capacitive and inductive coupling mechanisms that degraded drastically upon small structural deviations. PMID:27296109

  14. Contactless Water Status Measurements on Plants at 35 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gente, R.; Rehn, A.; Koch, M.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method for non-destructive and contactless measurements of the water content of plants, e.g. agricultural crops. The measurement is based on the absorption of microwave radiation at 35 GHz inside the plant and additionally takes scattering on the surface of the plant into account.

  15. Contactless magnetic manipulation of magnetic particles in a fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokura, S.; Hara, M.; Kawaguchi, N.; Amemiya, N.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate contactless magnetic manipulation of a magnetic particle along a designated orbit among other magnetic particles suspended in a fluid at rest or in motion, and also to understand the behaviors of those surrounding particles during the contactless magnetic manipulation. In addition, the possibility of breaking up chains of clustered magnetic particles under such conditions was also studied. We first describe contactless magnetic manipulation of magnetic particles by feedback control in which the feedback signal was the measured coordinates of the tracked particle. By the feedback control monitoring the location of the tracked particle using a high-speed image analyzer, the reach of the dipole magnetic field created by the magnetized magnetic particles could be kept relatively small. As a result, the tracked magnetic particle could be dragged along the designated orbit by magnetic force. Second, we describe the breaking up of chains of clustered magnetic particles using an alternating magnetic force. The results showed that chain-clustered magnetic particles that had been aggregated under the condition of contactless magnetic manipulation could be broken up reproducibly by an alternating magnetic field. These results constitute useful information for advancements in the handling of magnetic micro- or nanoparticles.

  16. Synergistic plasticity of intrinsic conductance and electrical coupling restores synchrony in an intact motor network

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Brian J; Samarth, Pranit; Ransdell, Joseph L; Nair, Satish S; Schulz, David J

    2016-01-01

    Motor neurons of the crustacean cardiac ganglion generate virtually identical, synchronized output despite the fact that each neuron uses distinct conductance magnitudes. As a result of this variability, manipulations that target ionic conductances have distinct effects on neurons within the same ganglion, disrupting synchronized motor neuron output that is necessary for proper cardiac function. We hypothesized that robustness in network output is accomplished via plasticity that counters such destabilizing influences. By blocking high-threshold K+ conductances in motor neurons within the ongoing cardiac network, we discovered that compensation both resynchronized the network and helped restore excitability. Using model findings to guide experimentation, we determined that compensatory increases of both GA and electrical coupling restored function in the network. This is one of the first direct demonstrations of the physiological regulation of coupling conductance in a compensatory context, and of synergistic plasticity across cell- and network-level mechanisms in the restoration of output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16879.001 PMID:27552052

  17. Non–Ca2+-conducting Ca2+ channels in fish skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling

    PubMed Central

    Schredelseker, Johann; Shrivastav, Manisha; Dayal, Anamika; Grabner, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    During skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, membrane depolarizations activate the sarcolemmal voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1). CaV1.1 in turn triggers opening of the sarcoplasmic Ca2+ release channel (RyR1) via interchannel protein–protein interaction to release Ca2+ for myofibril contraction. Simultaneously to this EC coupling process, a small and slowly activating Ca2+ inward current through CaV1.1 is found in mammalian skeletal myotubes. The role of this Ca2+ influx, which is not immediately required for EC coupling, is still enigmatic. Interestingly, whole-cell patch clamp experiments on freshly dissociated skeletal muscle myotubes from zebrafish larvae revealed the lack of such Ca2+ currents. We identified two distinct isoforms of the pore-forming CaV1.1α1S subunit in zebrafish that are differentially expressed in superficial slow and deep fast musculature. Both do not conduct Ca2+ but merely act as voltage sensors to trigger opening of two likewise tissue-specific isoforms of RyR1. We further show that non-Ca2+ conductivity of both CaV1.1α1S isoforms is a common trait of all higher teleosts. This non-Ca2+ conductivity of CaV1.1 positions teleosts at the most-derived position of an evolutionary trajectory. Though EC coupling in early chordate muscles is activated by the influx of extracellular Ca2+, it evolved toward CaV1.1-RyR1 protein–protein interaction with a relatively small and slow influx of external Ca2+ in tetrapods. Finally, the CaV1.1 Ca2+ influx was completely eliminated in higher teleost fishes. PMID:20212109

  18. Conductively cooled high-power high-brightness bars and fiber-coupled arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hailong; Mondry, Mark; Fouksman, Michael; Weiss, Eli; Anikitchev, Serguei; Kennedy, Keith; Li, Jun; Zucker, Erik; Rudy, Paul; Kongas, Jukka; Haapamaa, Jouko; Lehkonen, Sami

    2005-03-01

    Solid-state-laser and fiber laser pumping, reprographics, medical and materials processing applications require high power, high-brightness bars and fiber-coupled arrays. Conductively cooled laser diode bars allow customers to simplify system design and reduce operational size, weight, and costs. We present results on next generation high brightness, high reliability bars and fiber-coupled arrays at 790-830 nm, 940 nm and 980 nm wavelengths. By using novel epitaxial structures, we have demonstrated highly reliable 808 nm, 30% fill-factor conductively cooled bars operating at 60W CW mode, corresponding to a linear power density (LPD) of 20 mW/&mum. At 25°C, the bars have shown greater than 50% wall-plug-efficiency (WPE) when operating at 60W. Our novel approach has also reduced the fast-axis divergence FWHM from 31° to less than 24°. These bars have a 50% brightness improvement compared to our standard products with this geometry. At 980nm, we have demonstrated greater than 100W CW from 20% fill-factor conductively cooled bars, corresponding to a LPD of 50 mW/μm. At 25°C, the WPE for 976nm bars consistently peaks above 65% and remains greater than 60% at 100W. We coupled the beam output from those high-brightness bars into fiber-array-packages ("FAPs"), and we also achieved high-brightness and high-efficiency FAPs. We demonstrated 60W from a 600μm core-diameter fiber-bundle with a high WPE of 55%, and a low numerical aperture of 0.115. The brightness of such FAPs is four times higher than our standard high-power 40W FAP products at Coherent. Ongoing life test data suggests an extrapolated lifetime greater than 10,000 hours at 80W CW operating-condition based on 30%FF conductively cooled bar geometry.

  19. Nonequilibrium electron-vibration coupling and conductance fluctuations in a C60 junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2012-12-01

    We investigate chemical bond formation and conductance in a molecular C60 junction under finite bias voltage using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions (DFT-NEGF). At the point of contact formation we identify a remarkably strong coupling between the C60 motion and the molecular electronic structure. This is only seen for positive sample bias, although the conductance itself is not strongly polarity dependent. The nonequilibrium effect is traced back to a sudden shift in the position of the voltage drop with a small C60 displacement. Combined with a vibrational heating mechanism we construct a model from our results that explain the polarity-dependent two-level conductance fluctuations observed in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments [N. Néel , Nano Lett.NALEFD1530-698410.1021/nl201327c 11, 3593 (2011)]. These findings highlight the significance of nonequilibrium effects in chemical bond formation/breaking and in electron-vibration coupling in molecular electronics.

  20. The effect of driven electron-phonon coupling on the electronic conductance of a polar nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Mardaani, Mohammad Rabani, Hassan; Esmaili, Esmat; Shariati, Ashrafalsadat

    2015-08-07

    A semi-classical model is proposed to explore the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the coherent electronic transport of a polar chain which is confined between two rigid leads in the presence of an external electric field. To this end, we construct the model by means of Green's function technique within the nearest neighbor tight-binding and harmonic approximations. For a time-periodic electric field, the atomic displacements from the equilibrium positions are obtained precisely. The result is then used to compute the electronic transport properties of the chain within the Peierls-type model. The numerical results indicate that the conductance of the system shows interesting behavior in some special frequencies. For each special frequency, there is an electronic quasi-state in which the scattering of electrons by vibrating atoms reaches maximum. The system electronic conductance decreases dramatically at the strong electron-phonon couplings and low electron energies. In the presence of damping forces, the electron-phonon interaction has a less significant effect on the conductance.

  1. Strongly coupled near-field radiative and conductive heat transfer between planar bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Riccardo; Jin, Weiliang; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-09-01

    We study the interplay of conductive and radiative heat transfer (RHT) in planar geometries and predict that temperature gradients induced by radiation can play a significant role on the behavior of RHT with respect to gap sizes, depending largely on geometric and material parameters and not so crucially on operating temperatures. Our findings exploit rigorous calculations based on a closed-form expression for the heat flux between two plates separated by vacuum gaps d and subject to arbitrary temperature profiles, along with an approximate but accurate analytical treatment of coupled conduction-radiation in this geometry. We find that these effects can be prominent in typical materials (e.g., silica and sapphire) at separations of tens of nanometers, and can play an even larger role in metal oxides, which exhibit moderate conductivities and enhanced radiative properties. Broadly speaking, these predictions suggest that the impact of RHT on thermal conduction, and vice versa, could manifest itself as a limit on the possible magnitude of RHT at the nanoscale, which asymptotes to a constant (the conductive transfer rate when the gap is closed) instead of diverging at short separations.

  2. Giant electrothermal conductivity and spin-phonon coupling in an antiferromagnetic oxide.

    PubMed

    Chiorescu, C; Neumeier, J J; Cohn, J L

    2008-12-19

    The application of weak electric fields ( less, similar 100 V/cm) is found to dramatically enhance the lattice thermal conductivity of the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3 over a broad range of temperature about the Néel ordering point (125 K). The effect is coincident with field-induced detrapping of bound electrons, suggesting that phonon scattering associated with short- and long-ranged antiferromagnetic order is suppressed in the presence of the mobilized charge. This interplay between bound charge and spin-phonon coupling might allow for the reversible control of spin fluctuations using weak external fields.

  3. Effects of coupling between sample and electrode on the electrical resistivity measurements of conductive samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. J.; Lee, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    A resistivity measurement system for conductive core samples has been setup using a high resolution nano-voltmeter. Using the system, in this study, various coupling effects between electrodes and the samples are discussed including contact resistance, lead resistance, temperature dependence, and heat produced within the samples by applied current. The lead resistance was over 10 times higher than the resistance of the conductive samples such as graphite or nichrome, even though the electrodes and lead lines were made of silver. Furthermore, lead resistance itself showed very strong temperature dependence, so that it is essential to subtract the lead resistance from the measured values at corresponding temperature. Minimization of contact resistance is very important, so that the axial loads are needed as big as possible unless the deformation of sample occurs.

  4. Conductance dips and spin precession in a nonuniform waveguide with spin–orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Malyshev, A. I. Kozulin, A. S.

    2015-07-15

    An infinite waveguide with a nonuniformity, a segment of finite length with spin–orbit coupling, is considered in the case when the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters are identical. Analytical expressions have been derived in the single-mode approximation for the conductance of the system for an arbitrary initial spin state. Based on numerical calculations with several size quantization modes, we have detected and described the conductance dips arising when the waves are localized in the nonuniformity due to the formation of an effective potential well in it. We show that allowance for the evanescent modes under carrier spin precession in an effective magnetic field does not lead to a change in the direction of the average spin vector at the output of the system.

  5. Tunnel magnetoresistance and linear conductance of double quantum dots strongly coupled to ferromagnetic leads

    SciTech Connect

    Weymann, Ireneusz

    2015-05-07

    We analyze the spin-dependent linear-response transport properties of double quantum dots strongly coupled to external ferromagnetic leads. By using the numerical renormalization group method, we determine the dependence of the linear conductance and tunnel magnetoresistance on the degree of spin polarization of the leads and the position of the double dot levels. We focus on the transport regime where the system exhibits the SU(4) Kondo effect. It is shown that the presence of ferromagnets generally leads the suppression of the linear conductance due to the presence of an exchange field. Moreover, the exchange field gives rise to a transition from the SU(4) to the orbital SU(2) Kondo effect. We also analyze the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance on the double dot levels' positions and show that it exhibits a very nontrivial behavior.

  6. Revised benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners for forensic fingerprint detection: challenges and results for chromatic white light scanners (CWL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiltz, Stefan; Leich, Marcus; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Ulrich, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Mobile contact-less fingerprint scanners can be very important tools for the forensic investigation of crime scenes. To be admissible in court, data and the collection process must adhere to rules w.r.t. technology and procedures of acquisition, processing and the conclusions drawn from that evidence. Currently, no overall accepted benchmarking methodology is used to support some of the rules regarding the localisation, acquisition and pre-processing using contact-less fingerprint scanners. Benchmarking is seen essential to rate those devices according to their usefulness for investigating crime scenes. Our main contribution is a revised version of our extensible framework for methodological benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners using a collection of extensible categories and items. The suggested main categories describing a contact-less fingerprint scanner are properties of forensic country-specific legal requirements, technical properties, application-related aspects, input sensory technology, pre-processing algorithm, tested object and materials. Using those it is possible to benchmark fingerprint scanners and describe the setup and the resulting data. Additionally, benchmarking profiles for different usage scenarios are defined. First results for all suggested benchmarking properties, which will be presented in detail in the final paper, were gained using an industrial device (FRT MicroProf200) and conducting 18 tests on 10 different materials.

  7. Effect of incorporation of ethylene glycol into PEDOT:PSS on electron phonon coupling and conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yow-Jon Ni, Wei-Shih; Lee, Jhe-You

    2015-06-07

    The effect of incorporation of ethylene glycol (EG) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on electron phonon coupling and conductivity is investigated. It is shown that the carrier density (N{sub C}) increases significantly and the carrier mobility (μ) increases slightly at 300 K. The increased intensity of the Raman spectrum between 1400 and 1450 cm{sup −1}, following EG treatment (that is, the quinoid-dominated structures of the PEDOT chain), leads to an increase in the number of polarons (bipolarons), which leads to an increase in N{sub C}. In addition, μ in PEDOT:PSS samples with or without EG addition exhibits a strong temperature dependence, which demonstrates the dominance of tunneling (hopping) at low (high) temperatures. The high conductivity of PEDOT:PSS samples with the addition of EG is attributed to the combined effect of the modification of the electron-phonon coupling and the increase in N{sub C} (μ)

  8. Contactless Spectral-dependent Charge Carrier Lifetime Measurements in Silicon Photovoltaic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, John; Hamadani, Behrang; Dagenais, Mario

    Charge carrier lifetime measurements in bulk or unfinished photovoltaic (PV) materials allow for a more accurate estimate of power conversion efficiency in completed solar cells. In this work, carrier lifetimes in PV-grade silicon wafers are obtained by way of quasi-steady state photoconductance measurements. These measurements use a contactless RF system coupled with varying narrow spectrum input LEDs, ranging in wavelength from 460 nm to 1030 nm. Spectral dependent lifetime measurements allow for determination of bulk and surface properties of the material, including the intrinsic bulk lifetime and the surface recombination velocity. The effective lifetimes are fit to an analytical physics-based model to determine the desired parameters. Passivated and non-passivated samples are both studied and are shown to have good agreement with the theoretical model.

  9. High frequency fluidic and microfluidic sensors for contactless dielectric and in vitro cell culture measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacke, T.; Barthel, A.; Cahill, B. P.; Meister, M.; Zaikou, Y.

    2013-04-01

    There is a widespread need for highly-sensitive robust sensors that operate without direct contact to the fluid for analysis of fluids in bioprocess technology. Measuring the variation of dielectric properties (conductivity and permittivity) in the microwave frequency band can be used as an approach to investigate biological and chemical matter and processes such as, cell growth, cell metabolism and the concentration of large aqueous based molecules. In comparison to measurement at lower frequencies, DC conductivity (σ) effects on material properties (permittivity ε) can be neglected with increasing of the frequency. This presentation describes a high frequency sensor, which combines detection in macro- or microfluidic networks with quick and precise analysis. It is composed of a fluidic channel placed contactless between a micro-strip line waveguide combined with resonant properties.

  10. Velocity and flow rate measurement of liquid metal by contactless electromagnetic Lorentz force technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovikova, N.; Karcher, C.; Kolesnikov, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Providing flow analysis in case of aggressive and hot liquids is a complicated task, especially when liquid's composition and, hence, its physical properties, are unknown. Contactless techniques are the most promising methods for liquid metal flow rate control and some of these methods are based on electromagnetic induction of breaking force acting on an electrically conductive fluid which is moving through a magnetic field. One of the techniques is time-of-flight Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV). By using the method one can estimate volumetric flow rate without knowing of electrical conductivity, magnitude of magnetic field or characteristic dimension. The most important and crucial challenge within the technique is detection of small fluctuations of Lorentz force value. In this article we will focus on application and investigation of time-of-flight LFV.

  11. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1–10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid–liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  12. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  13. Contactless measurements of charge migration within single molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Sugishima, Akinori; Ohmasa, Yoshinori; Yao, Makoto

    2010-06-07

    Contactless measurements of charge migration were carried out for three pi-conjugated molecules in each of which a bromine atom and an oxygen atom are located on the opposite sides of the aromatic ring. A core hole was generated selectively in the Br atom by x-ray absorption, followed by the Auger cascade, and the subsequent charge migration within the molecule was examined by detecting an O{sup +} ion by means of the coincidence momentum imaging measurements.

  14. Resonance-induced sensitivity enhancement method for conductivity sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Shih, Chi-yuan (Inventor); Li, Wei (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for improving the sensitivity of a variety of conductivity sensing devices, in particular capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detectors. A parallel inductor is added to the conductivity sensor. The sensor with the parallel inductor is operated at a resonant frequency of the equivalent circuit model. At the resonant frequency, parasitic capacitances that are either in series or in parallel with the conductance (and possibly a series resistance) is substantially removed from the equivalent circuit, leaving a purely resistive impedance. An appreciably higher sensor sensitivity results. Experimental verification shows that sensitivity improvements of the order of 10,000-fold are possible. Examples of detecting particulates with high precision by application of the apparatus and methods of operation are described.

  15. Impact of Modified Conductivity Models on Numerical Simulation of Strongly Coupled Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, Carter P.; Benage, John F.; Tierney, Thomas E.; Workman, Jonathan

    2000-10-01

    1-D MHD codes have routinely been employed in the preliminary design of pulsed power hydrodynamics and strongly coupled plasma experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Recent experimental work by Benage, et. al.(Benage, J.F., Shanahan, W.R., and Murillo, M.S., Physical Review Letters), 83, no. 15, pg. 2953, (1999) however, has shown that the established theories used to generate the resistivity tables previously employed in these numerical codes are inadequate in relevant portions of the density and temperature parameter regimes. The best theoretical match to the resistivity data of Benage is provided by a density functional model of Perrot and Dharma-Wardana. Newly available conductivity tables for Aluminum(provided by Mike Desjarlais and Steve Rosenthal of Sandia National Laboratory) are being used to re-evaluate previously modeled experimental configurations. Details of the impact of the various resistivity models on prediction of experimental configurations will be presented.

  16. Coupled Ablation, Heat Conduction, Pyrolysis, Shape Change and Spallation of the Galileo Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Y.-K.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo probe enters the atmosphere of Jupiter in December 1995. This paper presents numerical methodology and detailed results of our final pre-impact calculations for the heat shield response. The calculations are performed using a highly modified version of a viscous shock layer code with massive radiation coupled with a surface thermochemical ablation and spallation model and with the transient in-depth thermal response of the charring and ablating heat shield. The flowfield is quasi-steady along the trajectory, but the heat shield thermal response is dynamic. Each surface node of the VSL grid is coupled with a one-dimensional thermal response calculation. The thermal solver includes heat conduction, pyrolysis, and grid movement owing to surface recession. Initial conditions for the heat shield temperature and density were obtained from the high altitude rarefied-flow calculations of Haas and Milos. Galileo probe surface temperature, shape, mass flux, and element flux are all determined as functions of time along the trajectory with spallation varied parametrically. The calculations also estimate the in-depth density and temperature profiles for the heat shield. All this information is required to determine the time-dependent vehicle mass and drag coefficient which are necessary inputs for the atmospheric reconstruction experiment on board the probe.

  17. Electromagnetic penetration through narrow slots in conducting surfaces and coupling to structures on the shadow side

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, E.K.; Butler, C.M. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-07-01

    Electromagnetic field penetration through a curved narrow slot in a planar conducting surface and coupling to a curved, loaded thin wire on the shadow side are determined in the time domain (TD) and the frequency domain (FD) by integral equation methods. Coupled integral equations are derived and solved numerically for the equivalent magnetic current in the slot and the electric current on the wire, from which the field that penetrates the slotted surface is determined. One employs a piecewise linear approximation of the unknown currents and performs equation enforcement by pulse testing. The resulting TD equations are solved by a scheme incorporating a finite-difference approximation for a second partial time derivative which allows one to solve for the unknown currents at a discrete time instant t + 1 in terms of the known excitation and currents calculated at a discrete time instant t and earlier. The FD equations are solved by the method of moments. A hybrid time-domain integral equation -- finite-difference time-domain solution technique is described whereby one solves for the field which penetrates a slotted cavity-backed surface. One models the fields in the exterior region and in the slot with integral operators and models the fields inside the cavity with a discretized form of Maxwell's equations. Narrow slots following various contours were chemically etched in thin bass sheets and an apparatus was fabricated to measure shadow-side fields, electric current on a thin wire on the shadow side, and, separately, fields inside a rectangular cavity which backed the slotted brass sheet. The experimentation was conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on a frequency-domain test range employing a monocone source over a large ground plane. One observes very good agreement among the experimental and theoretical results.

  18. Surface potential barrier in m-plane GaN studied by contactless electroreflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Lukasz; Misiewicz, Jan; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Kudrawiec, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Contactless electroreflectance (CER) is used to study the surface potential barrier in m-plane GaN UN+ [GaN (d = 20,30,50,70 nm)/GaN:Si] structures grown by using molecular beam epitaxy. Clear bandgap-related transitions followed by Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKO) have been observed in the CER spectra of all samples at room temperature. The built-in electric fields in the undoped cap layers have been determined from the FKO period. From the built-in electric field and the undoped GaN layer thickness, the Fermi level location at the air-exposed m-plane GaN surface has been estimated as 0.42 ± 0.05 eV below the conduction band.

  19. Effects of soil temperature on parameters of a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tiebo; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2002-08-01

    To examine the effects of soil temperature on a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model, seedlings of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), black spruce (Picea Mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) were exposed to soil temperatures ranging from 5 to 35 degrees C for 4 months. Light and CO(2) response curves of foliar gas exchange were measured for model parameterization. The effects of soil temperature on four key model parameters, V(cmax) (maximum rate of carboxylation), J(max) (maximum rate of electron transport), alpha (energy conversion efficiency or quantum efficiency of electron transport) and R(d) (daytime dark respiration), were modeled using two third-order polynomial equations and a modified Arrhenius equation. In all species, V(cmax) and J(max) increased with soil temperature up to an optimum, and then decreased with further increases in soil temperature. In the conifers, alpha showed a similar response to soil temperature as V(cmax) and J(max), but soil temperature had no significant effect on alpha in aspen. Soil temperature had no significant effect on R(d) in any species. The three equations described the relationships between soil temperature and the model parameters reasonably well, but performed best for V(cmax) and worst for alpha. No significant relationships were identified between soil temperature and the parameters of the stomatal conductance model. PMID:12184971

  20. Spectral density of an interacting dot coupled indirectly to conducting leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaugier, L.; Aligia, A. A.; Lobos, A. M.

    2007-10-01

    We study the spectral density of electrons ρdσ(ω) in an interacting quantum dot (QD) with a hybridization λ to a noninteracting QD, which, in turn, is coupled to a noninteracting conduction band. The system corresponds to an impurity Anderson model in which the conduction band has a Lorentzian density of states of width Δ2 . We solved the model using perturbation theory in the Coulomb repulsion U (PTU) up to second order and a slave-boson mean-field approximation (SBMFA). The PTU works surprisingly well near the exactly solvable limit Δ2→0 . For fixed U and large enough λ or small enough Δ2 , the Kondo peak in ρdσ(ω) splits into two peaks. This splitting can be understood in terms of weakly interacting quasiparticles. Before the splitting takes place, the universal properties of the model in the Kondo regime are lost. Using the SBMFA, simple analytical expressions for the occurrence of split peaks are obtained. For small or moderate Δ2 , the side bands of ρdσ(ω) have the form of narrow resonances that were missed in previous studies using the numerical renormalization group. This technique also has shortcomings for properly describing the split Kondo peaks. As the temperature is increased, the intensity of the split Kondo peaks decreases, but it is not completely suppressed at high temperatures.

  1. Determinants affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit card: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Min

    2008-12-01

    The contactless credit card is one of the most promising technological innovations in the field of electronic payments. It provides consumers with greater control of payments, convenience, and transaction speed. However, contactless credit cards have yet to gain significant rates of adoption in the marketplace. Thus, effort must be made to identify factors affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Based on the technology acceptance model, innovation diffusion theory, and the relevant literature, seven variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, perceived risk, trust, consumer involvement, availability of infrastructure) are proposed to help predict consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Data collected from 312 respondents in Taiwan is tested against the proposed prediction model using the logistic regression approach. The results and implications of our study contribute to an expanded understanding of the factors that affect consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. PMID:19072149

  2. Determinants affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit card: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Min

    2008-12-01

    The contactless credit card is one of the most promising technological innovations in the field of electronic payments. It provides consumers with greater control of payments, convenience, and transaction speed. However, contactless credit cards have yet to gain significant rates of adoption in the marketplace. Thus, effort must be made to identify factors affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Based on the technology acceptance model, innovation diffusion theory, and the relevant literature, seven variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, perceived risk, trust, consumer involvement, availability of infrastructure) are proposed to help predict consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Data collected from 312 respondents in Taiwan is tested against the proposed prediction model using the logistic regression approach. The results and implications of our study contribute to an expanded understanding of the factors that affect consumer adoption of contactless credit cards.

  3. Mechanical coupling of the multiple structural elements of the large-conductance mechanosensitive channel during expansion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Guo, Jianli; Ou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Mingfeng; Li, Yuezhou; Liu, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) is a pressure-relief valve protecting the cell from lysing during acute osmotic downshock. When the membrane is stretched, MscL responds to the increase of membrane tension and opens a nonselective pore to about 30 Å wide, exhibiting a large unitary conductance of ∼3 nS. A fundamental step toward understanding the gating mechanism of MscL is to decipher the molecular details of the conformational changes accompanying channel opening. By applying fusion-protein strategy and controlling detergent composition, we have solved the structures of an archaeal MscL homolog from Methanosarcina acetivorans trapped in the closed and expanded intermediate states. The comparative analysis of these two new structures reveals significant conformational rearrangements in the different domains of MscL. The large changes observed in the tilt angles of the two transmembrane helices (TM1 and TM2) fit well with the helix-pivoting model derived from the earlier geometric analyses based on the previous structures. Meanwhile, the periplasmic loop region transforms from a folded structure, containing an ω-shaped loop and a short β-hairpin, to an extended and partly disordered conformation during channel expansion. Moreover, a significant rotating and sliding of the N-terminal helix (N-helix) is coupled to the tilting movements of TM1 and TM2. The dynamic relationships between the N-helix and TM1/TM2 suggest that the N-helix serves as a membrane-anchored stopper that limits the tilts of TM1 and TM2 in the gating process. These results provide direct mechanistic insights into the highly coordinated movement of the different domains of the MscL channel when it expands. PMID:26261325

  4. Contactless optoelectronic technique for monitoring epoxy cure.

    PubMed

    Cusano, A; Buonocore, V; Breglio, G; Calabrò, A; Giordano, M; Cutolo, A; Nicolais, L

    2000-03-01

    We describe a novel noninvasive optical technique to monitor the refractive-index variation in an epoxy-based resin that is due to the polymerization process. This kind of resin is widely used in polymer matrix composites. It is well known that the process of fabricating a thermoset-based composite involves mass and heat transfer coupled with irreversible chemical reactions that induce physical changes. To improve the quality and the reliability of these materials, monitoring the cure and optimization of the manufacturing process are of key importance. We discuss the basic operating principles of an optical system based on angle deflection measurements and present typical cure-monitoring results obtained from optical characterization. The method provides a flexible, high-sensitivity, material-independent, low-cost, noninvasive tool for monitoring real-time refractive-index variation.

  5. Steady-State and Transient Boundary Element Methods for Coupled Heat Conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontinos, Dean A.

    1997-01-01

    Boundary element algorithms for the solution of steady-state and transient heat conduction are presented. The algorithms are designed for efficient coupling with computational fluid dynamic discretizations and feature piecewise linear elements with offset nodal points. The steady-state algorithm employs the fundamental solution approach; the integration kernels are computed analytically based on linear shape functions, linear elements, and variably offset nodal points. The analytic expressions for both singular and nonsingular integrands are presented. The transient algorithm employs the transient fundamental solution; the temporal integration is performed analytically and the nonsingular spatial integration is performed numerically using Gaussian quadrature. A series solution to the integration is derived for the instance of a singular integrand. The boundary-only character of the algorithm is maintained by integrating the influence coefficients from initial time. Numerical results are compared to analytical solutions to verify the current boundary element algorithms. The steady-state and transient algorithms are numerically shown to be second-order accurate in space and time, respectively.

  6. Effect of PLC Signal Induced into VDSL System by Conductive Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Yoshiharu; Yamane, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Nobuo

    We investigated the effect of a high-speed power line communication (PLC) signal induced into a very high-speed digital subscriber line (VDSL) system by conductive coupling based on a network model. Four electronic devices with AC mains and telecommunication ports were modeled using a 4-port network, and the parameters of the network were obtained from measuring impedance and transmission loss. We evaluated the decoupling factor from the mains port to the telecommunication port of a VDSL modem using these parameters for the four electric and electronic devices. The results indicate that the mean value of the decoupling factor for the differential and common mode signals were more than 88 and 62dB, respectively, in the frequency range of a PLC system. Taking the following parameters into consideration; decoupling factor Ld, the average transmission signal powers of VDSL and PLC, desired and undesired (DU) ratio, and transmission loss of a typical 300-m-long indoor telecommunication line, the VDSL system cannot be disturbed by the PLC signal induced into the VDSL modem from the AC mains port in normal installation.

  7. Zero-conductance resonances and spin polarizations in three-terminal rings in the presence of spin-orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Li-Xue; Wang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-11-28

    Spin dependent transport in one-dimensional (1D) three-terminal rings is investigated in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). We focus on zero-conductance resonances and spin polarizations. For these purposes, the transmission functions are derived analytically. The total conductances are analyzed in the complex energy plane with a focus on the zero-pole structure characteristic of transmission (anti)resonances. The spin polarizations in symmetrically and asymmetrically coupled three-terminal rings are studied as a function of the incident electron energy. It is found that in the absence of the RSOC there are three kinds of conductance zeros. In the presence of the RSOC, the zeros of the first and the third kinds are lifted, while some of the second kind persist. The lifting of the conductance zeros is related to the breaking of the spin-reversal symmetry, and the lifted conductance zeros evolve into spin polarization zeros.

  8. Electronic conduction in liquid boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorieux, B.; Saboungi, M. L.; Enderby, J. E.

    2001-10-01

    The electrical conductivity of levitated liquid elemental boron was measured near the melting point using a contactless electrical conductivity technique. A phase change is clearly detected in the course of laser heating of a 2 mm diameter boron sphere levitated aerodynamically. The value obtained for the electrical conductivity sets liquid boron among the liquid semiconductors and establishes that the semiconducting behavior survives the melting process contradicting an earlier report that a semiconductor-to-metal transition occurs.

  9. The biometric recognition on contactless multi-spectrum finger images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wenxiong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wu, Qiuxia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric system based on contactless multi-spectrum finger images, which aims to deal with the limitations of unimodal biometrics. The chief merits of the system are the richness of the permissible texture and the ease of data access. We constructed a multi-spectrum instrument to simultaneously acquire three different types of biometrics from a finger: contactless fingerprint, finger vein, and knuckleprint. On the basis of the samples with these characteristics, a moderate database was built for the evaluation of our system. Considering the real-time requirements and the respective characteristics of the three biometrics, the block local binary patterns algorithm was used to extract features and match for the fingerprints and finger veins, while the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF algorithm was applied for knuckleprints. Finally, score-level fusion was performed on the matching results from the aforementioned three types of biometrics. The experiments showed that our proposed multimodal biometric recognition system achieves an equal error rate of 0.109%, which is 88.9%, 94.6%, and 89.7% lower than the individual fingerprint, knuckleprint, and finger vein recognitions, respectively. Nevertheless, our proposed system also satisfies the real-time requirements of the applications.

  10. Contactless, photoinitiated snap-through in azobenzene-functionalized polymers

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, M. Ravi; Smith, Matthew L.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; Lee, Kyung Min; McConney, Michael E.; Wang, David H.; Tan, Loon-Seng; White, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Photomechanical effects in polymeric materials and composites transduce light into mechanical work. The ability to control the intensity, polarization, placement, and duration of light irradiation is a distinctive and potentially useful tool to tailor the location, magnitude, and directionality of photogenerated mechanical work. Unfortunately, the work generated from photoresponsive materials is often slow and yields very small power densities, which diminish their potential use in applications. Here, we investigate photoinitiated snap-through in bistable arches formed from samples composed of azobenzene-functionalized polymers (both amorphous polyimides and liquid crystal polymer networks) and report orders-of-magnitude enhancement in actuation rates (approaching 102 mm/s) and powers (as much as 1 kW/m3). The contactless, ultra-fast actuation is observed at irradiation intensities <<100 mW/cm2. Due to the bistability and symmetry of the snap-through, reversible and bidirectional actuation is demonstrated. A model is developed to elucidate the underlying mechanics of the snap-through, specifically focusing on isolating the role of sample geometry, mechanical properties of the materials, and photomechanical strain. Using light to trigger contactless, ultrafast actuation in an otherwise passive structure is a potentially versatile tool to use in mechanical design at the micro-, meso-, and millimeter scales as actuators, as well as switches that can be triggered from large standoff distances, impulse generators for microvehicles, microfluidic valves and mixers in laboratory-on-chip devices, and adaptive optical elements. PMID:24190994

  11. Orientation-dependent conductance in 2DEG/spin-triplet superconductor junctions with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qiang; Jin, Biao; Ma, Hongyang

    2015-12-01

    We study the conductance of two-dimensional electron gas/spin-triplet superconductor junctions in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The conductance shows anisotropic dependence on the orientation of the d-vector in the superconductor and is simultaneously symmetric about the vector reversal. The properties are distinct from those for ferromagnet/spin-triplet superconductor or/and two-dimensional electron gas/spin-singlet superconductor junctions. The effects of the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and the height of the interfacial barrier are also investigated.

  12. Anisotropic optical conductivity and electron-hole asymmetry in doped monolayer graphene in the presence of the Rashba coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. S.; Phirouznia, A.; Fallahi, V.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the optical conductivity of substitutionary doped graphene is investigated in the presence of the Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC). Calculations have been performed within the coherent potential approximation (CPA) beyond the Dirac cone approximation. Results of the current study demonstrate that the optical conductivity is increased by increasing the RSOC strength. Meanwhile it was observed that the anisotropy of the band energy results in a considerable anisotropic optical conductivity (AOC) in monolayer graphene. The sign and magnitude of this anisotropic conductivity was shown to be controlled by the external field frequency. It was also shown that the Rashba interaction results in electron-hole asymmetry in monolayer graphene.

  13. Analytic formulation for the ac electrical conductivity in two-temperature, strongly coupled, overdense plasma: FORTRAN subroutine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauble, R.; Rozmus, W.

    1993-10-01

    A FORTRAN subroutine for the calculation of the ac electrical conductivity in two-temperature, strongly coupled, overdense plasma is presented. The routine is the result of a model calculation based on classical transport theory with application to plasmas created by the interaction of short pulse lasers and solids. The formulation is analytic and the routine is self-contained.

  14. Conducting the G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Signaling Symphony in Cardiovascular Diseases: New Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Stephen L; Blaxall, Burns C

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a virtually ubiquitous class of membrane-bound receptors, which functionally couple hormone or neurotransmitter signals to physiological responses. Dysregulation of GPCR signaling contributes to the pathophysiology of a host of cardiovascular disorders. Pharmacological agents targeting GPCRs have been established as therapeutic options for decades. Nevertheless, the persistent burden of cardiovascular diseases necessitates improved treatments. To that end, exciting drug development efforts have begun to focus on novel compounds that discriminately activate particular GPCR signaling pathways.

  15. Contactless Electroluminescence Imaging for Cell and Module Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Steve

    2015-06-14

    Module performance can be characterized by imaging using baseline and periodic images to track defects and degradation. Both thermal images, which can be acquired during sunny operating conditions, and photoluminescence images, which could be acquired at night, can be collected without electrical connection. Electroluminescence (EL) images, which are useful to detect many types of defects such as cracks, interconnect and solder faults, and resistances, have typically required electrical connection to drive current in the cells and modules. Here, a contactless EL imaging technique is proposed, which provides an EL image without the need for electrical connection to drive current through the module. Such EL imaging has the capability to be collected at night without disruption to daytime power generation.

  16. Electron-phonon coupling and thermal conductance at a metal-semiconductor interface: First-principles analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S.; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2015-04-07

    The mechanism of heat transfer and the contribution of electron-phonon coupling to thermal conductance of a metal-semiconductor interface remains unclear in the present literature. We report ab initio simulations of a technologically important titanium silicide (metal)–silicon (semiconductor) interface to estimate the Schottky barrier height, and the strength of electron-phonon and phonon-phonon heat transfer across the interface. The electron and phonon dispersion relations of TiSi{sub 2} with C49 structure and the TiSi{sub 2}-Si interface are obtained using first-principles calculations within the density functional theory framework. These are used to estimate electron-phonon linewidths and the associated Eliashberg function that quantifies coupling. We show that the coupling strength of electrons with interfacial phonon modes is of the same order of magnitude as coupling of electrons to phonon modes in the bulk metal, and its contribution to electron-phonon interfacial conductance is comparable to the harmonic phonon-phonon conductance across the interface.

  17. Benchmarking contactless acquisition sensor reproducibility for latent fingerprint trace evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Dittmann, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Optical, nano-meter range, contactless, non-destructive sensor devices are promising acquisition techniques in crime scene trace forensics, e.g. for digitizing latent fingerprint traces. Before new approaches are introduced in crime investigations, innovations need to be positively tested and quality ensured. In this paper we investigate sensor reproducibility by studying different scans from four sensors: two chromatic white light sensors (CWL600/CWL1mm), one confocal laser scanning microscope, and one NIR/VIS/UV reflection spectrometer. Firstly, we perform an intra-sensor reproducibility testing for CWL600 with a privacy conform test set of artificial-sweat printed, computer generated fingerprints. We use 24 different fingerprint patterns as original samples (printing samples/templates) for printing with artificial sweat (physical trace samples) and their acquisition with contactless sensory resulting in 96 sensor images, called scan or acquired samples. The second test set for inter-sensor reproducibility assessment consists of the first three patterns from the first test set, acquired in two consecutive scans using each device. We suggest using a simple feature space set in spatial and frequency domain known from signal processing and test its suitability for six different classifiers classifying scan data into small differences (reproducible) and large differences (non-reproducible). Furthermore, we suggest comparing the classification results with biometric verification scores (calculated with NBIS, with threshold of 40) as biometric reproducibility score. The Bagging classifier is nearly for all cases the most reliable classifier in our experiments and the results are also confirmed with the biometric matching rates.

  18. Conductance of a helical edge liquid coupled to a magnetic impurity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoichi; Furusaki, A; Matveev, K A

    2011-06-10

    Transport in an ideal two-dimensional quantum spin Hall device is dominated by the counterpropagating edge states of electrons with opposite spins, giving the universal value of the conductance, 2e(2)/h. We study the effect on the conductance of a magnetic impurity, which can backscatter an electron from one edge state to the other. In the case of isotropic Kondo exchange we find that the correction to the electrical conductance caused by such an impurity vanishes in the dc limit, while the thermal conductance does acquire a finite correction due to the spin-flip backscattering.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Physical Vapor Transport in Contactless Crystal Growth Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Lowry, S.; Krishnam, A.; Przekwas, A.; Grasza, K.

    1998-01-01

    Growth from the vapor under conditions of limited contact with the walls of the growth ampoule is beneficial for the quality of the growing crystal due to reduced stress and contamination which may be caused by interactions with the growth container. The technique may be of a particular interest for studies on crystal growth under microgravity conditions: elimination of some factors affecting the crystal quality may make interpretation of space-conducted processes more conclusive and meaningful. For that reason, and as a part of our continuing studies on 'contactless' growth technique, we have developed a computational model of crystal growth process in such system. The theoretical model was built, and simulations were performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, (CFD) ACE. The code uses an implicit finite volume formulation with a gray discrete ordinate method radiation model which accounts for the diffuse absorption and reflection of radiation throughout the furnace. The three-dimensional model computes the heat transfer through the crystal, quartz, and gas both inside and outside the ampoule, and mass transport from the source to the crystal and the sink. The heat transport mechanisms by conduction, natural convection, and radiation, and mass transport by diffusion and convection are modeled simultaneously and include the heat of the phase transition at the solid-vapor interfaces. As the thermal boundary condition, temperature profile along the walls of the furnace is used. For different thermal profiles and furnace and ampoule dimensions, the crystal growth rate and development of the crystal-vapor and source-vapor interfaces (change of the interface shape and location with time) are obtained. Super/under-saturation in the ampoule is determined and critical factors determining the 'contactless' growth conditions are identified and discussed. The relative importance of the ampoule dimensions and geometry, the furnace dimensions and its

  20. [Study on Chaotic Detection Method of Pacemaker Contact-Less Power Supply].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenghu; Huang, Mingming; Li, Songtao

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the reliability of cardiac pacemaker contact-less power supply technology, this paper proposes a novel application of wireless feedback voltage stabilizing technology to adjust heart disease patients with inner power supply filter circuit output voltage and current control method, to keep the output voltage stability, and to ensure that the super capacitor and cardiac pacemaker to get a stable power supply. To implement the real-time accurate voltage control with considering the primary and secondary side inductance coupling coefficient changes, the change of the external power supply voltage and load, it is necessary to test thee real-time and accurate output voltage and current value after rectifying filtering. Therefore, based on the chaotic control theory, we adopted method of phase diagram on the basis of the quick observation after rectifying filtering, so that the method of voltage and current could improve the detection time of the circuit. The phase diagram of proposed control method can be divided into 8 segments, and we got 7 zero-extreme points. When these zero-extreme points are detected, according to extreme points of the zero instantaneous values, the corresponding average values of voltage and current were obtained. Simulation and experimental results showed that using the above method can shorten the response time to less than switch devices 1/2 switching cycles, thus validating the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed detection algorithm. PMID:27079110

  1. [Study on Chaotic Detection Method of Pacemaker Contact-Less Power Supply].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenghu; Huang, Mingming; Li, Songtao

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the reliability of cardiac pacemaker contact-less power supply technology, this paper proposes a novel application of wireless feedback voltage stabilizing technology to adjust heart disease patients with inner power supply filter circuit output voltage and current control method, to keep the output voltage stability, and to ensure that the super capacitor and cardiac pacemaker to get a stable power supply. To implement the real-time accurate voltage control with considering the primary and secondary side inductance coupling coefficient changes, the change of the external power supply voltage and load, it is necessary to test thee real-time and accurate output voltage and current value after rectifying filtering. Therefore, based on the chaotic control theory, we adopted method of phase diagram on the basis of the quick observation after rectifying filtering, so that the method of voltage and current could improve the detection time of the circuit. The phase diagram of proposed control method can be divided into 8 segments, and we got 7 zero-extreme points. When these zero-extreme points are detected, according to extreme points of the zero instantaneous values, the corresponding average values of voltage and current were obtained. Simulation and experimental results showed that using the above method can shorten the response time to less than switch devices 1/2 switching cycles, thus validating the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed detection algorithm.

  2. Contactless conductometric determination of methanol and ethanol in samples containing water after their electrophoretic desalination.

    PubMed

    Tůma, Petr; Opekar, František

    2015-08-01

    Determination of the contents of methanol and ethanol in aqueous solutions was performed by measuring the permittivity of solutions using a contactless conductivity detector (C(4) D) normally used for detection in capillary electrophoresis. The detection cell is a section of a fused silica capillary with an internal diameter of 50 μm with a pair of conductivity electrodes on the external walls. The C(4) D response to samples of methanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures is linear in the concentration interval of approx. 40-100% v/v alcohol content. In the analysis of technical samples of methanol and ethanol, the determination is disturbed by the presence of even trace amounts of salts. This interference can be effectively eliminated by integrated electrophoretic desalination of the sample by the application of a direct current electric voltage with a magnitude of 10 kV to the capillary with the injected sample zone. Under these conditions, the ions migrate out of the sample zone and the detector response is controlled purely by the permittivity of the solvent/water zone. Desalinating is effective for NaCl contents in the range from 0 to 5 mmol/L NaCl. The effectiveness of the desalinating process has been verified on MeOH/water samples and in determination of the ethanol content in distilled beverages normally available in the retail network.

  3. Reprint of : Finite-size effects on the minimal conductivity in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakyta, Péter; Oroszlány, László; Kormányos, Andor; Cserti, József

    2016-08-01

    We study theoretically the minimal conductivity of monolayer graphene in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The Rashba spin-orbit interaction causes the low-energy bands to undergo trigonal-warping deformation and for energies smaller than the Lifshitz energy, the Fermi circle breaks up into parts, forming four separate Dirac cones. We calculate the minimal conductivity for an ideal strip of length L and width W within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism in a continuum and in a tight binding model. We show that the minimal conductivity depends on the relative orientation of the sample and the probing electrodes due to the interference of states related to different Dirac cones. We also explore the effects of finite system size and find that the minimal conductivity can be lowered compared to that of an infinitely wide sample.

  4. Interplay of Rashba spin orbit coupling and disorder in the conductance properties of a four terminal junction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Sudin; Basu, Saurabh

    2016-04-01

    We report a thorough theoretical investigation on the quantum transport of a disordered four terminal device in the presence of Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC) in two dimensions. Specifically we compute the behaviour of the longitudinal (charge) conductance, spin Hall conductance and spin Hall conductance fluctuation as a function of the strength of disorder and Rashba spin orbit interaction using the Landauer Büttiker formalism via Green's function technique. Our numerical calculations reveal that both the conductances diminish with disorder. At smaller values of the RSOC parameter, the longitudinal and spin Hall conductances increase, while both vanish in the strong RSOC limit. The spin current is more drastically affected by both disorder and RSOC than its charge counterpart. The spin Hall conductance fluctuation does not show any universality in terms of its value and it depends on both disorder as well as on the RSOC strength. Thus the spin Hall conductance fluctuation has a distinct character compared to the fluctuation in the longitudinal conductance. Further one parameter scaling theory is studied to assess the transition to a metallic regime as claimed in literature and we find no confirmation about the emergence of a metallic state induced by RSOC.

  5. Study on the temperature-dependent coupling among viscosity, conductivity and structural relaxation of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yonezawa, Takuya; Koda, Shinobu

    2015-07-15

    The frequency-dependent viscosity and conductivity of three imidazolium-based ionic liquids were measured at several temperatures in the MHz region, and the results are compared with the intermediate scattering functions determined by neutron spin echo spectroscopy. The relaxations of both the conductivity and the viscosity agree with that of the intermediate scattering function at the ionic correlation when the relaxation time is short. As the relaxation time increases, the relaxations of the two transport properties deviate to lower frequencies than that of the ionic structure. The deviation begins at a shorter relaxation time for viscosity than for conductivity, which explains the fractional Walden rule between the zero-frequency values of the shear viscosity and the molar conductivity.

  6. Phase Transitions in a Capacitively Coupled Dusty Plasma with Conducting Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2011-10-01

    Complex plasma is present in a variety of environments including planetary rings, cometary tails, interplanetary clouds and semiconductor manufacturing and fusion environments. Understanding the physics behind such complex plasmas, particularly those comprised of conducting dust, is not well understood. In this work, a GEC reference cell is employed to examine the translational and orientational order of conducting dust contained within crystal lattice structures formed in a complex plasma. The Pair Correlation function, bond orientation function and Voronoi and polygon construction diagrams are used to measure dislocations and disclinations, yielding a quantitative measure of the overall phase of the structure. The role this phase transition process plays in the melting of conducting and non-conducting 2D structures will be discussed.

  7. Using Coupled Mesoscale Experiments and Simulations to Investigate High Burn-Up Oxide Fuel Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Melissa C.; Fromm, Bradley S.; Tonks, Michael R.; Field, David P.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear energy is a mature technology with a small carbon footprint. However, work is needed to make current reactor technology more accident tolerant and to allow reactor fuel to be burned in a reactor for longer periods of time. Optimizing the reactor fuel performance is essentially a materials science problem. The current understanding of fuel microstructure have been limited by the difficulty in studying the structure and chemistry of irradiated fuel samples at the mesoscale. Here, we take advantage of recent advances in experimental capabilities to characterize the microstructure in 3D of irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel taken from two radial positions in the fuel pellet. We also reconstruct these microstructures using Idaho National Laboratory's MARMOT code and calculate the impact of microstructure heterogeneities on the effective thermal conductivity using mesoscale heat conduction simulations. The thermal conductivities of both samples are higher than the bulk MOX thermal conductivity because of the formation of metallic precipitates and because we do not currently consider phonon scattering due to defects smaller than the experimental resolution. We also used the results to investigate the accuracy of simple thermal conductivity approximations and equations to convert 2D thermal conductivities to 3D. It was found that these approximations struggle to predict the complex thermal transport interactions between metal precipitates and voids.

  8. Externally controlled local magnetic field in a conducting mesoscopic ring coupled to a quantum wire

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2015-01-14

    In the present work, the possibility of regulating local magnetic field in a quantum ring is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to a quantum wire and subjected to an in-plane electric field. Under a finite bias voltage across the wire a net circulating current is established in the ring which produces a strong magnetic field at its centre. This magnetic field can be tuned externally in a wide range by regulating the in-plane electric field, and thus, our present system can be utilized to control magnetic field at a specific region. The feasibility of this quantum system in designing spin-based quantum devices is also analyzed.

  9. A gradiometric version of contactless inductive flow tomography: theory and first applications.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Matthias; Wondrak, Thomas; Stefani, Frank

    2016-06-28

    The contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) is a measurement technique that allows reconstructing the flow of electrically conducting fluids by measuring the flow-induced perturbations of one or various applied magnetic fields and solving the underlying inverse problem. One of the most promising application fields of CIFT is the continuous casting of steel, for which the online monitoring of the flow in the mould would be highly desirable. In previous experiments at a small-scale model of continuous casting, CIFT has been applied to various industrially relevant problems, including the sudden changes of flow structures in case of argon injection and the influence of a magnetic stirrer at the submerged entry nozzle. The application of CIFT in the presence of electromagnetic brakes, which are widely used to stabilize the flow in the mould, has turned out to be more challenging due to the extreme dynamic range between the strong applied brake field and the weak flow-induced perturbations of the measuring field. In this paper, we present a gradiometric version of CIFT, relying on gradiometric field measurements, that is capable to overcome those problems and which seems, therefore, a promising candidate for applying CIFT in the steel casting industry. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185963

  10. The influence of intraocular pressure and air jet pressure on corneal contactless tonometry tests.

    PubMed

    Simonini, Irene; Pandolfi, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The air puff is a dynamic contactless tonometer test used in ophthalmology clinical practice to assess the biomechanical properties of the human cornea and the intraocular pressure due to the filling fluids of the eye. The test is controversial, since the dynamic response of the cornea is governed by the interaction of several factors which cannot be discerned within a single measurement. In this study we describe a numerical model of the air puff tests, and perform a parametric analysis on the major action parameters (jet pressure and intraocular pressure) to assess their relevance on the mechanical response of a patient-specific cornea. The particular cornea considered here has been treated with laser reprofiling to correct myopia, and the parametric study has been conducted on both the preoperative and postoperative geometries. The material properties of the cornea have been obtained by means of an identification procedure that compares the static biomechanical response of preoperative and postoperative corneas under the physiological IOP. The parametric study on the intraocular pressure suggests that the displacement of the cornea׳s apex can be a reliable indicator for tonometry, and the one on the air jet pressure predicts the outcomes of two or more distinct measurements on the same cornea, which can be used in inverse procedures to estimate the material properties of the tissue.

  11. A gradiometric version of contactless inductive flow tomography: theory and first applications.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Matthias; Wondrak, Thomas; Stefani, Frank

    2016-06-28

    The contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) is a measurement technique that allows reconstructing the flow of electrically conducting fluids by measuring the flow-induced perturbations of one or various applied magnetic fields and solving the underlying inverse problem. One of the most promising application fields of CIFT is the continuous casting of steel, for which the online monitoring of the flow in the mould would be highly desirable. In previous experiments at a small-scale model of continuous casting, CIFT has been applied to various industrially relevant problems, including the sudden changes of flow structures in case of argon injection and the influence of a magnetic stirrer at the submerged entry nozzle. The application of CIFT in the presence of electromagnetic brakes, which are widely used to stabilize the flow in the mould, has turned out to be more challenging due to the extreme dynamic range between the strong applied brake field and the weak flow-induced perturbations of the measuring field. In this paper, we present a gradiometric version of CIFT, relying on gradiometric field measurements, that is capable to overcome those problems and which seems, therefore, a promising candidate for applying CIFT in the steel casting industry. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  12. Fully-coupled engineering and mesoscale simulations of thermal conductivity in UO2 fuel using an implicit multiscale approach

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Chris Newman

    2009-08-01

    Reactor fuel performance is sensitive to microstructure changes during irradiation (such as fission gas and pore formation). This study proposes an approach to capture microstructural changes in the fuel by a two-way coupling of a mesoscale phase field irradiation model to an engineering scale, finite element calculation. This work solves the multiphysics equation system at the engineering-scale in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method (JFNK). A sampling of the temperature at the Gauss points of the coarse scale is passed to a parallel sequence of mesoscale calculations within the JFNK function evaluation phase of the calculation. The mesoscale thermal conductivity is calculated in parallel, and the result is passed back to the engineering-scale calculation. As this algorithm is fully contained within the JFNK function evaluation, the mesoscale calculation is nonlinearly consistent with the engineering-scale calculation. Further, the action of the Jacobian is also consistent, so the composite algorithm provides the strong nonlinear convergence properties of Newton's method. The coupled model using INL's \\bison\\ code demonstrates quadratic nonlinear convergence and good parallel scalability. Initial results predict the formation of large pores in the hotter center of the pellet, but few pores on the outer circumference. Thus, the thermal conductivity is is reduced in the center of the pellet, leading to a higher internal temperature than that in an unirradiated pellet.

  13. Contactless ultrasonic energy transfer for wireless systems: acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling and performance enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, S.; Erturk, A.

    2014-12-01

    There are several applications of wireless electronic components with little or no ambient energy available to harvest, yet wireless battery charging for such systems is still of great interest. Example applications range from biomedical implants to sensors located in hazardous environments. Energy transfer based on the propagation of acoustic waves at ultrasonic frequencies is a recently explored alternative that offers increased transmitter-receiver distance, reduced loss and the elimination of electromagnetic fields. As this research area receives growing attention, there is an increased need for fully coupled model development to quantify the energy transfer characteristics, with a focus on the transmitter, receiver, medium, geometric and material parameters. We present multiphysics modeling and case studies of the contactless ultrasonic energy transfer for wireless electronic components submerged in fluid. The source is a pulsating sphere, and the receiver is a piezoelectric bar operating in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity with a fundamental resonance frequency above the audible frequency range. The goal is to quantify the electrical power delivered to the load (connected to the receiver) in terms of the source strength. Both the analytical and finite element models have been developed for the resulting acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction problem. Resistive and resistive-inductive electrical loading cases are presented, and optimality conditions are discussed. Broadband power transfer is achieved by optimal resistive-reactive load tuning for performance enhancement and frequency-wise robustness. Significant enhancement of the power output is reported due to the use of a hard piezoelectric receiver (PZT-8) instead of a soft counterpart (PZT-5H) as a result of reduced material damping. The analytical multiphysics modeling approach given in this work can be used to predict and optimize the coupled system dynamics with very good accuracy and dramatically

  14. Transition of temperature coefficient of conductance in weakly coupled gold nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Guan, Changrong; Sun, Jinling; Peng, Lianmao; Liao, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    A unique positive-to-negative transition of temperature coefficient of conductance (TCC) was observed in self-assembled close-packed Au nanoparticle (AuNP) arrays. The transition of TCC can be interpreted properly with a diffusive hopping model, in which the Coulomb charging energy Ea plays a significant role. Two parameters of AuNP arrays, the nearest neighboring number and the particle core size, have been varied to tune Ea. Our data show that the positive-to-negative transitions of TCC are relevant to both parameters, which confirms the validity of the diffusive hopping model.

  15. Thin foil planar radiometers: application for designing contactless ? sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaviot, E.; Godts, P.; Guths, S.; Leclercq, D.

    1996-04-01

    This paper is devoted to describing a new sensor allowing one to measure the net radiant flux exchanged by the wall surface it is mounted on. The device is constructed by mounting a thermopile-type radiometer on a larger thin metallic foil support. When the emissivity of the paint covering the support is the same as that of the wall surface on which the sensor is applied, a direct reading (positive or negative emf) of the radiant flux (absorbed or emitted) by the wall surface is given, whatever the convective losses. The calibration is carried out in a simple and useful apparatus designed to produce a prescribed total radiant exchange between two metallic plates at different temperatures and is estimated to be accurate to within two per cent. Simplicity and ruggedness make the radiometer appropriate for direct measurement of heat exchanged between surfaces heated up to 500 K. Notable applications include use as a traditional total hemispheric radiometer and a contactless temperature difference sensor.

  16. Ultrafast-Contactless Flash Sintering using Plasma Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Theo; Grasso, Salvatore; Reece, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel derivative of flash sintering, in which contactless flash sintering (CFS) is achieved using plasma electrodes. In this setup, electrical contact with the sample to be sintered is made by two arc plasma electrodes, one on either side, allowing current to pass through the sample. This opens up the possibility of continuous throughput flash sintering. Preheating, a usual precondition for flash sintering, is provided by the arc electrodes which heat the sample to 1400 °C. The best results were produced with pre-compacted samples (bars 1.8 mm thick) of pure B4C (discharge time 2s, current 4A) and SiC:B4C 50 wt% (3s at 6A), which were fully consolidated under a heating rate approaching 20000 °C/min. For the composite a cylindrical volume of 14 mm(3) was sintered to full density with limited grain growth. PMID:27273255

  17. Ultrafast-Contactless Flash Sintering using Plasma Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Theo; Grasso, Salvatore; Reece, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel derivative of flash sintering, in which contactless flash sintering (CFS) is achieved using plasma electrodes. In this setup, electrical contact with the sample to be sintered is made by two arc plasma electrodes, one on either side, allowing current to pass through the sample. This opens up the possibility of continuous throughput flash sintering. Preheating, a usual precondition for flash sintering, is provided by the arc electrodes which heat the sample to 1400 °C. The best results were produced with pre-compacted samples (bars 1.8 mm thick) of pure B4C (discharge time 2s, current 4A) and SiC:B4C 50 wt% (3s at 6A), which were fully consolidated under a heating rate approaching 20000 °C/min. For the composite a cylindrical volume of 14 mm3 was sintered to full density with limited grain growth. PMID:27273255

  18. Contactless ultrasonic treatment of melts using EM induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevics, V.; Djambazov, G.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Pericleous, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound Treatment (UT) is commonly used in light alloys during solidification to refine microstructure, or disperse immersed particles. A sonotrode probe introduced into the melt generates sound waves that are strong enough to produce cavitation of dissolved gases. The same method cannot be used in high temperature melts, or for highly reactive alloys, due to probe erosion and melt contamination. An alternative, contactless method of generating sound waves is proposed and investigated theoretically in this paper, using electromagnetic (EM) induction. In addition to strong vibration, the EM induction currents generate strong stirring in the melt that aids distribution of the UT effect to large volumes of material. In a typical application, the same induction coil surrounding the crucible used to melt the alloy may be adopted for UT with suitable frequency tuning. Alternatively - or in addition - a top coil may be used. For industrial use, instead of multiple sonotrodes as has been the practice in scaling up, modelling shows that one simply has to alter the coil geometry and current to suit. To reach sinusoidal pressure fluctuations suitable for cavitation it may be necessary to tune the induction coil frequency for resonance, given the crucible dimensions.

  19. Inorganic proton conducting electrolyte coupled oxide-based dendritic transistors for synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Zhu, Li Qiang; Zhou, Ju Mei; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Ionic/electronic hybrid devices with synaptic functions are considered to be the essential building blocks for neuromorphic systems and brain-inspired computing. Here, artificial synapses based on indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton-conducting electrolyte films are fabricated on glass substrates. Spike-timing dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation are successfully mimicked in an individual bottom-gate transistor. Most importantly, dynamic logic and dendritic integration established by spatiotemporally correlated spikes are also mimicked in dendritic transistors with two in-plane gates as the presynaptic input terminals.Ionic/electronic hybrid devices with synaptic functions are considered to be the essential building blocks for neuromorphic systems and brain-inspired computing. Here, artificial synapses based on indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton-conducting electrolyte films are fabricated on glass substrates. Spike-timing dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation are successfully mimicked in an individual bottom-gate transistor. Most importantly, dynamic logic and dendritic integration established by spatiotemporally correlated spikes are also mimicked in dendritic transistors with two in-plane gates as the presynaptic input terminals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The structures and transfer characteristics of the IZO junctionless transistor working in bottom-gate mode and in-plane gate mode. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05882d

  20. Thermomechanically coupled conduction mode laser welding simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haoyue; Eberhard, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Process simulations of conduction mode laser welding are performed using the meshless Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The solid phase is modeled based on the governing equations in thermoelasticity. For the liquid phase, surface tension effects are taken into account to simulate the melt flow in the weld pool, including the Marangoni force caused by a temperature-dependent surface tension gradient. A non-isothermal solid-liquid phase transition with the release or absorption of additional energy known as the latent heat of fusion is considered. The major heat transfer through conduction is modeled, whereas heat convection and radiation are neglected. The energy input from the laser beam is modeled as a Gaussian heat source acting on the initial material surface. The developed model is implemented in Pasimodo. Numerical results obtained with the model are presented for laser spot welding and seam welding of aluminum and iron. The change of process parameters like welding speed and laser power, and their effects on weld dimensions are investigated. Furthermore, simulations may be useful to obtain the threshold for deep penetration welding and to assess the overall welding quality. A scalability and performance analysis of the implemented SPH algorithm in Pasimodo is run in a shared memory environment. The analysis reveals the potential of large welding simulations on multi-core machines.

  1. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-03-01

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ˜5.5 × 10-3 S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ˜2.0 μF/cm2 at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, 2.8 × 106, and 130 mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  2. Influence of electromechanical coupling and electron irradiation on the conductivity of individual ZnO nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huifeng; Huang, Yunhua; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2011-03-01

    We reported the electrical properties of individual ZnO nanowire (NW) with length 20 μm and diameter 100 nm, which prepared by thermal evaporation process. The individual ZnO NW was connected to the tungsten tips with typical metal-semiconductor-metal model, and the current-voltage curves were measured in a nano-manipulation and measurement system. The results indicated that the conductivity of the individual ZnO NW was decreased for inflicting an additional force on ZnO NW from tungsten tip. Moreover, the rectifier characteristics of ZnO NW were affected with the electron beam turning on or off in the chamber of scanning electron microscope.

  3. Transient conductive, radiative heat transfer coupled with moisture transport in attic insulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorthala, R.; Harris, K. T.; Roux, J. A.; McCarty, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    A transient, one-dimensional thermal model that incorporates combined conduction, radiation heat transfer, and moisture transport for residential attic insulations has been developed. The governing equations are the energy equation, the radiative transport equation for volumetric radiation within the insulation batt, and the species equations for bound H2O and vapor H2O. A simultaneous solution procedure with a Eulerian control volume-based finite difference method was used to solve the energy equation and the species equations. The method of discrete ordinates was used in solving the radiative transport equation. For H2O transport, both diffusion of vapor H2O and bound H2O and moisture adsorption/desorption within the insulation binder are included in the model. The experimental data measured at an occupied North Mississippi residence for R19STD (standard R19 fiberglass insulation batt without a foil radiant barrier) were used to validate the model which predicted heat fluxes for summer, spring, winter, and fall seasonal conditions. These predictions were compared with the measured heat flux data and the predictions from the dry model (without the moisture transport). Various profiles such as temperature-time histories, relative humidity time histories, spatial H2O concentrations, spatial temperatures, and spatial heat fluxes are presented to explain the overall heat transfer behavior.

  4. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ∼5.5 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ∼2.0 μF/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, 2.8 × 10{sup 6}, and 130 mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  5. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  6. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, paracetamol, and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and by capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rafael R; Chaves, Sandro C; Ribeiro, Michelle M A C; Torres, Lívia M F C; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Dos Santos, Wallans T P; Richter, Eduardo M

    2015-05-01

    Paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen are found in over-the-counter pharmaceutical formulations. In this work, we propose two new methods for simultaneous determination of paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations. One method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and the other on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The separation by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was achieved on a C18 column (250×4.6 mm(2), 5 μm) with a gradient mobile phase comprising 20-100% acetonitrile in 40 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer pH 7.0. The separation by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was achieved on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm length, 50 μm i.d.) using 10 mmol L(-1) 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate and 10 mmol L(-1) β-alanine with pH adjustment to 10.4 with lithium hydroxide as background electrolyte. The determination of all three pharmaceuticals was carried out in 9.6 min by liquid chromatography and in 2.2 min by capillary electrophoresis. Detection limits for caffeine, paracetamol and ibuprofen were 4.4, 0.7, and 3.4 μmol L(-1) by liquid chromatography and 39, 32, and 49 μmol L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis, respectively. Recovery values for spiked samples were between 92-107% for both proposed methods.

  7. Temperature dependences of the electron phonon coupling, electron heat capacity and thermal conductivity in Ni under femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhibin; Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    2007-05-01

    The electron temperature dependences of the electron-phonon coupling factor, electron heat capacity and thermal conductivity are investigated for Ni in a range of temperatures typically realized in femtosecond laser material processing applications, from room temperature up to temperatures of the order of 10 4 K. The analysis is based on the electronic density of states obtained through the electronic structure calculations. Thermal excitation of d band electrons is found to result in a significant decrease in the strength of the electron-phonon coupling, as well as large deviations of the electron heat capacity and the electron thermal conductivity from the commonly used linear temperature dependences on the electron temperature. Results of the simulations performed with the two-temperature model demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the thermophysical parameters accounting for the thermal excitation of d band electrons leads to higher maximum lattice and electron temperatures achieved at the surface of an irradiated Ni target and brings the threshold fluences for surface melting closer to the experimentally measured values as compared to the predictions obtained with commonly used approximations of the thermophysical parameters.

  8. COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.

    1962-05-15

    A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)

  9. Influence of high-conductivity buffer composition on field-enhanced sample injection coupled to sweeping in CE.

    PubMed

    Anres, Philippe; Delaunay, Nathalie; Vial, Jérôme; Thormann, Wolfgang; Gareil, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanism taking place in field-enhanced sample injection coupled to sweeping and micellar EKC (FESI-Sweep-MEKC), with the utilization of two acidic high-conductivity buffers (HCBs), phosphoric acid or sodium phosphate buffer, in view of maximizing sensitivity enhancements. Using cationic model compounds in acidic media, a chemometric approach and simulations with SIMUL5 were implemented. Experimental design first enabled to identify the significant factors and their potential interactions. Simulation demonstrates the formation of moving boundaries during sample injection, which originate at the initial sample/HCB and HCB/buffer discontinuities and gradually change the compositions of HCB and BGE. With sodium phosphate buffer, the HCB conductivity increased during the injection, leading to a more efficient preconcentration by staking (about 1.6 times) than with phosphoric acid alone, for which conductivity decreased during injection. For the same injection time at constant voltage, however, a lower amount of analytes was injected with sodium phosphate buffer than with phosphoric acid. Consequently sensitivity enhancements were lower for the whole FESI-Sweep-MEKC process. This is why, in order to maximize sensitivity enhancements, it is proposed to work with sodium phosphate buffer as HCB and to use constant current during sample injection.

  10. Tunneling conductance for Majorana fermions in spin-orbit coupled semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures using superconducting leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Girish; Tewari, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    It has been recently pointed out that the use of a superconducting (SC) lead instead of a normal metal lead can suppress the thermal broadening effects in tunneling conductance from Majorana fermions, helping reveal the quantized conductance of 2 e2/h . In this paper we discuss the specific case of tunneling conductance with SC leads of spin-orbit coupled semiconductor-superconductor (SM-SC) heterostructures in the presence of a Zeeman field, a system which has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally using a metallic lead. We examine the d I /d V spectra using a SC lead for different sets of physical parameters including temperature, tunneling strength, wire length, magnetic field, and induced SC pairing potential in the SM nanowire. We conclude that in a finite wire the Majorana splitting energy Δ E , which has nontrivial dependence on these physical parameters, remains responsible for the d I /d V peak broadening, even when the temperature broadening is suppressed by the SC gap in the lead. In a finite wire the signatures of Majorana fermions with a SC lead are oscillations of quasi-Majorana peaks about bias V =±Δlead , in contrast to the case of metallic leads where such oscillations are about zero bias. Our results will be useful for analysis of future experiments on SM-SC heterostructures using SC leads.

  11. Features of the Interface Equation Coupling Thin and Thick Film Regimes in Conduction-Triggered Thermocapillary Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, Zachary; Troian, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    An attractive feature of moving boundary problems involving the coupling of adjacent thin film regimes is the simplified form of the corresponding interface equation. For interfaces subject to conduction-triggered thermocapillary forces and damping by capillary forces, the evolution equation reduces to a 4th order nonlinear PDE. The dispersion equation for linear instability of a uniform state then reduces to Type II, characterized by a vanishing growth rate at k =0, a positive k2 contribution from the driving force and a negative k4 from capillary damping. Here we generalize to a moving interface coupling thin and thick film regimes. The resulting 4th order, nonlinear integro-differential equation contains the usual form of the capillary term but a nonlocal thermocapillary term due to far field contributions from the lateral transport of conserved quantities. The dispersion equation in no longer of Type II since the destabilizing term is no longer quadratic. Despite these differences, the generalized form retains certain pleasing features which can be exploited for further analysis.

  12. VAMP-associated Proteins (VAP) as Receptors That Couple Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Proteostasis with Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Wayne L; Shome, Kuntala; Wu, Christine C; Gong, Xiaoyan; Frizzell, Raymond A; Aridor, Meir

    2016-03-01

    Unesterified cholesterol accumulates in late endosomes in cells expressing the misfolded cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or general activation of ER stress led to dynein-mediated clustering of cholesterol-loaded late endosomes at the Golgi region, a process regulated by ER-localized VAMP-associated proteins (VAPs). We hypothesized that VAPs serve as intracellular receptors that couple lipid homeostasis through interactions with two phenylalanines in an acidic track (FFAT) binding signals (found in lipid sorting and sensing proteins, LSS) with proteostasis regulation. VAPB inhibited the degradation of ΔF508-CFTR. The activity was mapped to the ligand-binding major sperm protein (MSP) domain, which was sufficient in regulating CFTR biogenesis. We identified mutations in an unstructured loop within the MSP that uncoupled VAPB-regulated CFTR biogenesis from basic interactions with FFAT. Using this information, we defined functional and physical interactions between VAPB and proteostasis regulators (ligands), including the unfolded protein response sensor ATF6 and the ER degradation cluster that included FAF1, VCP, BAP31, and Derlin-1. VAPB inhibited the degradation of ΔF508-CFTR in the ER through interactions with the RMA1-Derlin-BAP31-VCP pathway. Analysis of pseudoligands containing tandem FFAT signals supports a competitive model for VAP interactions that direct CFTR biogenesis. The results suggest a model in which VAP-ligand binding couples proteostasis and lipid homeostasis leading to observed phenotypes of lipid abnormalities in protein folding diseases.

  13. Determination of bromate in drinking water by zone electrophoresis-isotachophoresis on a column-coupling chip with conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Róbert; Kaniansky, Dusan; Masár, Marián; Silleová, Katarína; Stanislawski, Bernd

    2002-10-01

    The use of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) on-line coupled with isotachophoresis (ITP) sample pretreatment (ITP-CZE) on a poly(methylmethacrylate) chip, provided with two separation channels in the column-coupling (CC) arrangement and on-column conductivity detection sensors, to the determination of bromate in drinking water was investigated. Hydrodynamic and electroosmotic flows of the solution in the separation compartment of the chip were suppressed and electrophoresis was a dominant transport process in the ITP-CZE separations. A high sample load capacity, linked with the use of ITP in this combination, made possible loading of the samples by a 9.2 microL sample injection channel of the chip. In addition, bromate was concentrated by a factor of 10(3) or more in the ITP stage of the separation and, therefore, its transfer to the CZE stage characterized negligible injection dispersion. This, along with a favorable electric conductivity of the carrier electrolyte solution, contributed to a 20 nmol/L (2.5 ppb) limit of detection for bromate in the CZE stage. Sample cleanup, integrated into the ITP stage, effectively complemented such a detection sensitivity and bromate could be quantified in drinking water matrices when its concentration was 80 nmol/L (10 ppb) or slightly less while the concentrations of anionic macroconstituent (chloride, sulfate, nitrate) in the loaded sample corresponding to a 2 mmol/L (70 ppm) concentration of chloride were still tolerable. The samples containing macroconstituents at higher concentrations required appropriate dilutions and, consequently, bromate in these samples could be directly determined only at proportionally higher concentrations.

  14. Label-free isolation and enrichment of cells through contactless dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Elvington, Elizabeth S; Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2013-09-03

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the phenomenon by which polarized particles in a non-uniform electric field undergo translational motion, and can be used to direct the motion of microparticles in a surface marker-independent manner. Traditionally, DEP devices include planar metallic electrodes patterned in the sample channel. This approach can be expensive and requires a specialized cleanroom environment. Recently, a contact-free approach called contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) has been developed. This method utilizes the classic principle of DEP while avoiding direct contact between electrodes and sample by patterning fluidic electrodes and a sample channel from a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, and has application as a rapid microfluidic strategy designed to sort and enrich microparticles. Unique to this method is that the electric field is generated via fluidic electrode channels containing a highly conductive fluid, which are separated from the sample channel by a thin insulating barrier. Because metal electrodes do not directly contact the sample, electrolysis, electrode delamination, and sample contamination are avoided. Additionally, this enables an inexpensive and simple fabrication process. cDEP is thus well-suited for manipulating sensitive biological particles. The dielectrophoretic force acting upon the particles depends not only upon spatial gradients of the electric field generated by customizable design of the device geometry, but the intrinsic biophysical properties of the cell. As such, cDEP is a label-free technique that avoids depending upon surface-expressed molecular biomarkers that may be variably expressed within a population, while still allowing characterization, enrichment, and sorting of bioparticles. Here, we demonstrate the basics of fabrication and experimentation using cDEP. We explain the simple preparation of a cDEP chip using soft lithography techniques. We discuss the experimental procedure for characterizing

  15. Label-free Isolation and Enrichment of Cells Through Contactless Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Elvington, Elizabeth S.; Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Stremler, Mark A.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2013-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the phenomenon by which polarized particles in a non-uniform electric field undergo translational motion, and can be used to direct the motion of microparticles in a surface marker-independent manner. Traditionally, DEP devices include planar metallic electrodes patterned in the sample channel. This approach can be expensive and requires a specialized cleanroom environment. Recently, a contact-free approach called contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) has been developed. This method utilizes the classic principle of DEP while avoiding direct contact between electrodes and sample by patterning fluidic electrodes and a sample channel from a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, and has application as a rapid microfluidic strategy designed to sort and enrich microparticles. Unique to this method is that the electric field is generated via fluidic electrode channels containing a highly conductive fluid, which are separated from the sample channel by a thin insulating barrier. Because metal electrodes do not directly contact the sample, electrolysis, electrode delamination, and sample contamination are avoided. Additionally, this enables an inexpensive and simple fabrication process. cDEP is thus well-suited for manipulating sensitive biological particles. The dielectrophoretic force acting upon the particles depends not only upon spatial gradients of the electric field generated by customizable design of the device geometry, but the intrinsic biophysical properties of the cell. As such, cDEP is a label-free technique that avoids depending upon surface-expressed molecular biomarkers that may be variably expressed within a population, while still allowing characterization, enrichment, and sorting of bioparticles. Here, we demonstrate the basics of fabrication and experimentation using cDEP. We explain the simple preparation of a cDEP chip using soft lithography techniques. We discuss the experimental procedure for characterizing

  16. Coupled effects of conduction in the crystal and thermo-solutal convection in a rectangular inclined enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennetrier, Christophe; Duval, Walter M. B.

    1990-01-01

    To date modeling of crystal growth of optoelectronic materials using Physical Vapor Transport has been limited to the study of the fluid phase. To achieve it, the equations of coupled heat, mass and momentum transfer in the gas have to be solved. The first objective of this study is to examine the effect of heat conduction in the crystal on the fluid flow in the neighborhood of the interface. Heat transfer boundary conditions on both interfaces were modified to take into account the additional heat flux between gas and solid. It is proved that heat conduction does not affect the fluid flow. In the presence of gravity, density gradients in the fluid phase generate convection responsible for the problem of a nonplanar growth of the interface. The second objective is to study systematically under one-g the different possible flows in order to solve this problem. Depending on the parameters, a diffusive mode and three convective modes (thermal, solutal and thermo-solutal) are observed. The competition between thermal and solutal convections leads to a mathematical condition which can be used to achieve a planar growth. It is proven that, under the physical conditions chosen, this mathematical condition cannot be thermodynamically satisfied.

  17. Ecophysiological parameters for a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance model derived from eddy covariance measurements in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, M.; Ichii, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Alberto, M. C. R.; Bret-Harte, M. S.; Edgar, C.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Harazono, Y.; Hirano, T.; Hirata, R.; Ide, R.; Kosugi, Y.; Machimura, T.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Ohta, T.; Ono, K.; Saigusa, N.; Saitoh, T. M.; Takagi, K.; Takanashi, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    For better understanding carbon and water vapor fluxes in Asia, ecophysiological parameters of a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance big-leaf model (Farquhar et al., 1980; Ball and Berry, 1987) were inversely estimated using micrometeorological data at 48 sites in Asia. The data covered various ecosystems of arctic tundra, boreal, temperate, and tropical forests, grasslands, and croplands. We applied a global optimization method; shuffled complex evolution (SCE-UA) method (Duan et al., 1993). First stomatal conductance parameters (m and b in the Ball-Berry model) were optimized for evapotranspiration, and then photosynthetic parameters (maximum carboxylation rate at 25oC; Vcmax25) were optimized for gross primarily productivity (GPP). The canopy-scale parameters were then downscaled into the leaf-scale using a two-leaf radiative transfer models and leaf area index (LAI) by MODIS. In the presentation, we will show the spatial variability of the ecophysiological parameters in terms of environmental gradients, and ecosystem types. Implications and limitations of the synthesis will be discussed. References Ball and Berry, 1987: Progress in Photosynthesis Research, pp 221-224. Duan et al., 1993: J. Optimization Theory and Applications, 76, 501-521. Farquhar et al., 1980: Planta, 149, 78-90.

  18. Application of lateral photovoltage towards contactless light beam induced current measurements and its dependence on the finite beam size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhale, Atul Prakash; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2014-07-01

    The nature of the signal due to light beam induced current (LBIC) at the remote contacts is verified as a lateral photovoltage for non-uniformly illuminated planar p-n junction devices; simulation and experimental results are presented. The limitations imposed by the ohmic contacts are successfully overcome by the introduction of capacitively coupled remote contacts, which yield similar results without any significant loss in the estimated material and device parameters. It is observed that the LBIC measurements introduce artefacts such as shift in peak position with increasing laser power. Simulation of LBIC signal as a function of characteristic length Lc of photo-generated carriers and for different beam diameters has resulted in the observed peak shifts, thus attributed to the finite size of the beam. Further, the idea of capacitively coupled contacts has been extended to contactless measurements using pressure contacts with an oxidized aluminium electrodes. This technique avoids the contagious sample processing steps, which may introduce unintentional defects and contaminants into the material and devices under observation. Thus, we present here, the remote contact LBIC as a practically non-destructive tool in the evaluation of device parameters and welcome its use during fabrication steps.

  19. Accelerating bioelectric functional development of neural stem cells by graphene coupling: Implications for neural interfacing with conductive materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rongrong; Zhang, Shasha; Xiao, Miao; Qian, Fuping; He, Zuhong; Li, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Huawei; Yang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ming; Chai, Renjie; Tang, Mingliang

    2016-11-01

    In order to govern cell-specific behaviors in tissue engineering for neural repair and regeneration, a better understanding of material-cell interactions, especially the bioelectric functions, is extremely important. Graphene has been reported to be a potential candidate for use as a scaffold and neural interfacing material. However, the bioelectric evolvement of cell membranes on these conductive graphene substrates remains largely uninvestigated. In this study, we used a neural stem cell (NSC) model to explore the possible changes in membrane bioelectric properties - including resting membrane potentials and action potentials - and cell behaviors on graphene films under both proliferation and differentiation conditions. We used a combination of single-cell electrophysiological recordings and traditional cell biology techniques. Graphene did not affect the basic membrane electrical parameters (capacitance and input resistance), but resting membrane potentials of cells on graphene substrates were more strongly negative under both proliferation and differentiation conditions. Also, NSCs and their progeny on graphene substrates exhibited increased firing of action potentials during development compared to controls. However, graphene only slightly affected the electric characterizations of mature NSC progeny. The modulation of passive and active bioelectric properties on the graphene substrate was accompanied by enhanced NSC differentiation. Furthermore, spine density, synapse proteins expressions and synaptic activity were all increased in graphene group. Modeling of the electric field on conductive graphene substrates suggests that the electric field produced by the electronegative cell membrane is much higher on graphene substrates than that on control, and this might explain the observed changes of bioelectric development by graphene coupling. Our results indicate that graphene is able to accelerate NSC maturation during development, especially with regard to

  20. Accelerating bioelectric functional development of neural stem cells by graphene coupling: Implications for neural interfacing with conductive materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rongrong; Zhang, Shasha; Xiao, Miao; Qian, Fuping; He, Zuhong; Li, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Huawei; Yang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ming; Chai, Renjie; Tang, Mingliang

    2016-11-01

    In order to govern cell-specific behaviors in tissue engineering for neural repair and regeneration, a better understanding of material-cell interactions, especially the bioelectric functions, is extremely important. Graphene has been reported to be a potential candidate for use as a scaffold and neural interfacing material. However, the bioelectric evolvement of cell membranes on these conductive graphene substrates remains largely uninvestigated. In this study, we used a neural stem cell (NSC) model to explore the possible changes in membrane bioelectric properties - including resting membrane potentials and action potentials - and cell behaviors on graphene films under both proliferation and differentiation conditions. We used a combination of single-cell electrophysiological recordings and traditional cell biology techniques. Graphene did not affect the basic membrane electrical parameters (capacitance and input resistance), but resting membrane potentials of cells on graphene substrates were more strongly negative under both proliferation and differentiation conditions. Also, NSCs and their progeny on graphene substrates exhibited increased firing of action potentials during development compared to controls. However, graphene only slightly affected the electric characterizations of mature NSC progeny. The modulation of passive and active bioelectric properties on the graphene substrate was accompanied by enhanced NSC differentiation. Furthermore, spine density, synapse proteins expressions and synaptic activity were all increased in graphene group. Modeling of the electric field on conductive graphene substrates suggests that the electric field produced by the electronegative cell membrane is much higher on graphene substrates than that on control, and this might explain the observed changes of bioelectric development by graphene coupling. Our results indicate that graphene is able to accelerate NSC maturation during development, especially with regard to

  1. Measurement of Nitrogen Mustard Degredation Products by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microchip Electrophoresis with Contactless Conductivity Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential risk of human exposure from an accidental or intentional release of CWAs into a civilian population continues to drive the need for screening and monitoring techniques for these compounds. In particular, rapid and reliable methods for detecting CWAs such as the nitr...

  2. Optimization of separation of heavy metals by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Lau, Hiu Fung; Quek, Ngee Mian; Law, Wai Siang; Zhao, Jian Hong; Hauser, Peter C; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2011-05-01

    The separation of four toxic metal ions (Cr(3+) , Pb(2+) , Hg(2+) , Ni(2+) ) was achieved by optimizing the composition of the histidine/tartaric acid background electrolyte. An on-column preconcentration technique, viz. field amplified sample injection, was performed to improve the sensitivity. This method afforded an enhancement factor of up to 91,800 fold with the LODs ranging from 0.005 to 2.32 μg/L, which were well below the maximum contaminant levels set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The robustness of this method was demonstrated with its application to the analysis of real samples including tap water, drain water, and reservoir water with recoveries between 90 and 120%. PMID:21500211

  3. Highly sensitive contactless conductivity microchips based on concentric electrodes for flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renato S; Piazzetta, Maria H O; Gobbi, Angelo L; Segato, Thiago P; Cabral, Murilo F; Machado, Sergio A S; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2013-12-18

    In this communication, we describe for the first time the integration of concentric electrodes (wrapping around the microchannel) in microchips. The use of such electrodes has been shown to be effective towards improvement of the sensitivity and detectability in pressure-driven flow platforms incorporating C(4)D.

  4. [INVITED] Coupling of polarisation of high frequency electric field and electronic heat conduction in laser created plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaly, Eugene G.; Rode, Andrei V.

    2016-08-01

    Powerful short laser pulse focused on a surface swiftly transforms the solid into the thermally and electrically inhomogeneous conductive plasma with the large temperature and dielectric permeability gradients across the focal spot. The laser-affected spot becomes thermally inhomogeneous with where temperature has maximum in the centre and gradually decreasing to the boundaries of the spot in accord to the spatial intensity distribution of the Gaussian pulse. Here we study the influence of laser polarisation on ionization and absorption of laser radiation in the focal spot. In this paper we would like to discuss new effect in thermally inhomogeneous plasma under the action of imposed high frequency electric field. We demonstrate that high-frequency (HF) electric field is coupled with the temperature gradient generating the additional contribution to the conventional electronic heat flow. The additional heat flow strongly depends on the polarisation of the external field. It appears that effect has maximum when the imposed electric field is collinear to the thermal gradient directed along the radius of a circular focal spot. Therefore, the linear polarised field converts the circular laser affected spot into an oval with the larger oval's axis parallel to the field direction. We compare the developed theory to the available experiments, discuss the results and future directions.

  5. Design of a conduction-cooled 4 T superconducting racetrack for a multi-field coupling measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Quan; Ma, Li-Zhen; Wu, Wei; Guan, Ming-Zhi; Wu, Bei-Min; Mei, En-Ming; Xin, Can-Jie

    2015-12-01

    A conduction-cooled superconducting magnet producing a transverse field of 4 T has been designed for a new generation multi-field coupling measurement system, which will be used to study the mechanical behavior of superconducting samples at cryogenic temperatures and intense magnetic fields. A compact cryostat with a two-stage GM cryocooler is designed and manufactured for the superconducting magnet. The magnet is composed of a pair of flat racetrack coils wound by NbTi/Cu superconducting composite wires, a copper and stainless steel combinational former and two Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy superconducting current leads. The two coils are connected in series and can be powered with a single power supply. In order to support the high stress and attain uniform thermal distribution in the superconducting magnet, a detailed finite element (FE) analysis has been performed. The results indicate that in the operating status the designed magnet system can sufficiently bear the electromagnetic forces and has a uniform temperature distribution. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11327802, 11302225), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M560820) and National Scholarship Foundation of China (201404910172)

  6. The ionic transport mechanism and coupling between the ion conduction and segmental relaxation processes of PEO20-LiCF3SO3 based ion conducting polymer clay composites.

    PubMed

    Dam, Tapabrata; Jena, Sidhartha S; Pradhan, Dillip K

    2016-07-20

    A series of ion conducting polymer-clay composites has been prepared using a solution casting technique. Relaxation dynamics and the ionic transport mechanism are systematically studied employing broadband dielectric spectroscopy over a wide frequency and temperature range. Among different phenomenological and theoretical models for ion conduction in disordered ionic conductors, conductivity isotherm spectra are analysed using the modified Almond-West and random free energy barrier model. Conductivity scaling suggests that the ionic transport mechanism is independent of temperature, and a similar inference is also obtained using scaled electrical modulus spectra. DC conductivity along with conductivity and segmental relaxation time following the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher relationship suggests coupling between the ionic transport and segmental relaxation processes. Electrical modulus and dielectric formalism are used to understand the conductivity and segmental relaxation processes, respectively. The presence of first and second universality in the ionic transport mechanism is discussed using the real part of conductivity spectra and dielectric loss spectra. The crossover between the first and second universality is explained using the Kramer-Krönig approach. The ion diffusion coefficient is investigated using Ratner's classical approach in combination with the modified Stokes-Einstein relationship to correlate the coupled nature of the ion conduction mechanism and polymer segmental motion.

  7. The ionic transport mechanism and coupling between the ion conduction and segmental relaxation processes of PEO20-LiCF3SO3 based ion conducting polymer clay composites.

    PubMed

    Dam, Tapabrata; Jena, Sidhartha S; Pradhan, Dillip K

    2016-07-20

    A series of ion conducting polymer-clay composites has been prepared using a solution casting technique. Relaxation dynamics and the ionic transport mechanism are systematically studied employing broadband dielectric spectroscopy over a wide frequency and temperature range. Among different phenomenological and theoretical models for ion conduction in disordered ionic conductors, conductivity isotherm spectra are analysed using the modified Almond-West and random free energy barrier model. Conductivity scaling suggests that the ionic transport mechanism is independent of temperature, and a similar inference is also obtained using scaled electrical modulus spectra. DC conductivity along with conductivity and segmental relaxation time following the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher relationship suggests coupling between the ionic transport and segmental relaxation processes. Electrical modulus and dielectric formalism are used to understand the conductivity and segmental relaxation processes, respectively. The presence of first and second universality in the ionic transport mechanism is discussed using the real part of conductivity spectra and dielectric loss spectra. The crossover between the first and second universality is explained using the Kramer-Krönig approach. The ion diffusion coefficient is investigated using Ratner's classical approach in combination with the modified Stokes-Einstein relationship to correlate the coupled nature of the ion conduction mechanism and polymer segmental motion. PMID:27399598

  8. Conductivity tensor of graphene dominated by spin-orbit coupling scatterers: A comparison between the results from Kubo and Boltzmann transport theories

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2016-01-01

    The diagonal and Hall conductivities of graphene arising from the spin-orbit coupling impurity scattering are theoretically studied. Based on the continuous model, i.e. the massless Dirac equation, we derive analytical expressions of the conductivity tensor from both the Kubo and Boltzmann transport theories. By performing numerical calculations, we find that the Kubo quantum transport result of the diagonal conductivity within the self-consistent Born approximation exhibits an insulating gap around the Dirac point. And in this gap a well-defined quantized spin Hall plateau occurs. This indicates the realization of the quantum spin Hall state of graphene driven by the spin-orbit coupling impurities. In contrast, the semi-classical Boltzmann theory fails to predict such a topological insulating phase. The Boltzmann diagonal conductivity is nonzero even in the insulating gap, in which the Boltzmann spin Hall conductivity does not exhibit any quantized plateau. PMID:27029398

  9. Conductivity tensor of graphene dominated by spin-orbit coupling scatterers: A comparison between the results from Kubo and Boltzmann transport theories.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2016-03-31

    The diagonal and Hall conductivities of graphene arising from the spin-orbit coupling impurity scattering are theoretically studied. Based on the continuous model, i.e. the massless Dirac equation, we derive analytical expressions of the conductivity tensor from both the Kubo and Boltzmann transport theories. By performing numerical calculations, we find that the Kubo quantum transport result of the diagonal conductivity within the self-consistent Born approximation exhibits an insulating gap around the Dirac point. And in this gap a well-defined quantized spin Hall plateau occurs. This indicates the realization of the quantum spin Hall state of graphene driven by the spin-orbit coupling impurities. In contrast, the semi-classical Boltzmann theory fails to predict such a topological insulating phase. The Boltzmann diagonal conductivity is nonzero even in the insulating gap, in which the Boltzmann spin Hall conductivity does not exhibit any quantized plateau.

  10. Detecting and estimating rectification of gap junction conductance based on simulations of dual-cell recordings from a pair and a network of coupled cells.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Pierre A

    2010-07-21

    Gap junctions can exhibit rectification of conductance. Some reports use inequality of coupling coefficients as the first sign of the possible existence of rectification (Devor and Yarom, 2002; Fan et al., 2005; Levavi-Sivan et al., 2005; Mann-Metzer and Yarom, 1999; Nolan et al., 1999; Szabadics et al., 2001). However, mathematical modeling and simulations of electrotonic coupling between an isolated pair of neurons showed conditions where the coupling coefficients were unreliable indicators of rectification. On the other hand, the transfer resistances were found to be reliable indicators of junctional rectification. The existing mathematical model of cell coupling (Bennett, 1966; Devor and Yarom, 2002; Verselis and Veenstra, 2000) was extended in order to measure rectification of the junctional conductances directly between dual-recorded neurons whether isolated or surrounded by a simulated 3-dimensional network of heterogeneous cells whose gap junctions offered parallel paths for current flow between the recorded neurons. The results showed that the transfer resistances could still detect rectification of the gap junction linking the dual-recorded neurons when embedded in a coupled cell network and that a mathematical model could estimate the conductances in both directions through this gap junction using only data that would be available from real dual-intracellular penetrations which allow electrophysiological recordings and intracellular staining. Rectification of gap junctions in unrecorded cells of a biologically realistic coupled cell network had negligible effects on the voltage responses of the dual-recorded neurons because of minimal current passing through these surrounding cells.

  11. Effect of mesh bias on the properties of the lateral conductivity of intrinsic microcrystalline silicon films deposited by low-frequency inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, W. S.; Xu, S.; Sern, C. C.; Wei, D. Y.

    2011-11-14

    A meshgrid is installed to study the effect of mesh bias on the lateral conductivity properties of intrinsic microcrystalline silicon films deposited by low frequency inductively coupled plasma. When a mesh bias is increased from 0 to -15 V, the dark conductivity remarkably decreases by three orders of magnitude, whereas the ratio of the photo and dark conductivity improves by one order. On contrary, the applied substrate bias has only a marginal effect on the lateral conductivity. It is revealed from the measured electron energy distribution functions that the sheath layer induced ion bombardment is responsible for the drastic change.

  12. Proposal of an innovative benchmark for comparison of the performance of contactless digitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuliano, Luca; Minetola, Paolo; Salmi, Alessandro

    2010-10-01

    Thanks to the improving performances of 3D optical scanners, in terms of accuracy and repeatability, reverse engineering applications have extended from CAD model design or reconstruction to quality control. Today, contactless digitizing devices constitute a good alternative to coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) for the inspection of certain parts. The German guideline VDI/VDE 2634 is the only reference to evaluate whether 3D optical measuring systems comply with the declared or required performance specifications. Nevertheless it is difficult to compare the performance of different scanners referring to such a guideline. An adequate novel benchmark is proposed in this paper: focusing on the inspection of production tools (moulds), the innovative test piece was designed using common geometries and free-form surfaces. The reference part is intended to be employed for the evaluation of the performance of several contactless digitizing devices in computer-aided inspection, considering dimensional and geometrical tolerances as well as other quantitative and qualitative criteria.

  13. Morphing Surfaces Enable Acoustophoretic Contactless Transport of Ultrahigh-Density Matter in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-11-01

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis.

  14. Morphing Surfaces Enable Acoustophoretic Contactless Transport of Ultrahigh-Density Matter in Air

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis. PMID:24212104

  15. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy allows contactless monitoring of grapevine water status

    PubMed Central

    Santesteban, Luis G.; Palacios, Inés; Miranda, Carlos; Iriarte, Juan C.; Royo, José B.; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is the sector with the greatest water consumption, since food production is frequently based on crop irrigation. Proper irrigation management requires reliable information on plant water status, but all the plant-based methods to determine it suffer from several inconveniences, mainly caused by the necessity of destructive sampling or of alteration of the plant organ due to contact installation. The aim of this work is to test if terahertz (THz) time domain reflectance measurements made on the grapevine trunk allows contactless monitoring of plant status. The experiments were performed on a potted 14-years-old plant, using a general purpose THz emitter receiver head. Trunk THz time-domain reflection signal proved to be very sensitive to changes in plant water availability, as its pattern follows the trend of soil water content and trunk growth variations. Therefore, it could be used to contactless monitor plant water status. Apart from that, THz reflection signal was observed to respond to light conditions which, according to a specifically designed girdling experiment, was caused by changes in the phloem. This latter results opens a promising field of research for contactless monitoring of phloem activity. PMID:26082791

  16. A contactless methodology of picking up micro-particles from rigid surfaces by acoustic radiation force.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kun; Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Controlled movement and pick up of small object from a rigid surface is a primary challenge in many applications. In this paper, a contactless methodology of picking up micro-particles within deionized water from rigid surfaces by acoustic radiation force is presented. In order to achieve this, an acoustic radiation force was generated by 1.75 MHz transducers. A custom built setup facilitates the optimization of the sound field by varying the parameters such as sound source size and source position. The three-dimensional pressure distributions are measured and its relative sound field is also characterized accordingly. The standing wave field has been formed and it is mainly composed of two obliquely incident plane waves and their reflectors. We demonstrated the gripping and positioning of silica beads, SiO(2), and aluminum micro-particles of 100 μm to 500 μm in size with this method using acoustic radiation force. The acoustic radiation force generated is well controlled, contactless, and in the tens of nano-Newton range which allowed us to manipulate relative big micro objects such as MEMS components as well as moving objects such as living cells. The proposed method provided an alternative form of contactless operating environment with scalable dimensions suitable for the manipulating of small objects. This permits high-throughput processing and reduction in time required for MEMS assembling, cell biomechanics, and biotechnology applications.

  17. A contactless methodology of picking up micro-particles from rigid surfaces by acoustic radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Kun; Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Controlled movement and pick up of small object from a rigid surface is a primary challenge in many applications. In this paper, a contactless methodology of picking up micro-particles within deionized water from rigid surfaces by acoustic radiation force is presented. In order to achieve this, an acoustic radiation force was generated by 1.75 MHz transducers. A custom built setup facilitates the optimization of the sound field by varying the parameters such as sound source size and source position. The three-dimensional pressure distributions are measured and its relative sound field is also characterized accordingly. The standing wave field has been formed and it is mainly composed of two obliquely incident plane waves and their reflectors. We demonstrated the gripping and positioning of silica beads, SiO2, and aluminum micro-particles of 100 μm to 500 μm in size with this method using acoustic radiation force. The acoustic radiation force generated is well controlled, contactless, and in the tens of nano-Newton range which allowed us to manipulate relative big micro objects such as MEMS components as well as moving objects such as living cells. The proposed method provided an alternative form of contactless operating environment with scalable dimensions suitable for the manipulating of small objects. This permits high-throughput processing and reduction in time required for MEMS assembling, cell biomechanics, and biotechnology applications.

  18. Contactless Growth of ZnSe Single Crystals by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; George, M. A.; Feth, S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1998-01-01

    ZnSe crystals were grown by self-seeded physical vapor transport (PVT) technique in the horizontal configuration. The source materials were heat treated by H2 reduction to remove the oxide followed by baking under dynamic vacuum to adjust the source composition toward that of congruent sublimation. Contactless growth of ZnSe single crystals have been performed consistently using three different source materials. The crystals grew away from the wall during the later stage of the growth with large (110) facets tend to align parallel to the gravity direction. The Scanning Electron Micrography (SEM) micrographs and the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) images showed that large (110) terraces and steps dominate the as-grown facets. The measured residual gas pressures in the processed ampoules agree well among various source materials and the major components were CO and H2. No preferred growth direction was found. The one-dimensional diffusion model on the mass flux of a multi-species PVT system was employed to analyze the conditions for contactless growth. The calculated thermal profile for supersaturation is very close to the thermal profile measured inside the empty furnace bore in the region of contactless growth. The effects of convective flows in the vapor phase inside the ampoule on the growth processes are discussed.

  19. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy allows contactless monitoring of grapevine water status.

    PubMed

    Santesteban, Luis G; Palacios, Inés; Miranda, Carlos; Iriarte, Juan C; Royo, José B; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is the sector with the greatest water consumption, since food production is frequently based on crop irrigation. Proper irrigation management requires reliable information on plant water status, but all the plant-based methods to determine it suffer from several inconveniences, mainly caused by the necessity of destructive sampling or of alteration of the plant organ due to contact installation. The aim of this work is to test if terahertz (THz) time domain reflectance measurements made on the grapevine trunk allows contactless monitoring of plant status. The experiments were performed on a potted 14-years-old plant, using a general purpose THz emitter receiver head. Trunk THz time-domain reflection signal proved to be very sensitive to changes in plant water availability, as its pattern follows the trend of soil water content and trunk growth variations. Therefore, it could be used to contactless monitor plant water status. Apart from that, THz reflection signal was observed to respond to light conditions which, according to a specifically designed girdling experiment, was caused by changes in the phloem. This latter results opens a promising field of research for contactless monitoring of phloem activity. PMID:26082791

  20. Investigation of contactless detection using a giant magnetoresistance sensor for detecting prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuecheng; Zhi, Shaotao; Lei, Chong; Zhou, Yong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a contactless detection method for detecting prostate specific antigen with a giant magnetoresistance sensor. In contactless detection case, the prostate specific antigen sample preparation was separated from the sensor that prevented the sensor from being immersed in chemical solvents, and made the sensor implementing in immediately reuse without wash. Experimental results showed that applied an external magnetic field in a range of 50 Oe to 90 Oe, Dynabeads with a concentration as low as 0.1 μg/mL can be detected by this system and could give an approximate quantitation to the logarithmic of Dynabeads concentration. Sandwich immunoassay was employed for preparing PSA samples. The PSA capture was implemented on a gold film modified with a self-assembled monolayer and using biotinylated secondary antibody against PSA and streptavidinylated Dynabeads. With DC magnetic field in the range of 50 to 90 Oe, PSA can be detected with a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL. Samples spiked with different concentrations of PSA can be distinguished clearly. Due to the contactless detection method, the detection system exhibited advantages such as convenient manipulation, reusable, inexpensive, small weight. So, this detection method was a promising candidate in biomarker detection, especially in point of care detection. PMID:27379844

  1. Dual electron-phonon coupling model for gigantic photoenhancement of the dielectric constant and electronic conductivity in SrTi O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Y.; Wu, C. Q.; Nasu, K.

    2005-12-01

    In connection with the recent experimental discovery on photoenhancements of the electronic conductivity and the quasi-static electric susceptibility in SrTiO3 , we theoretically study a photogeneration mechanism of charged and conductive ferroelectric domains in this perovskite type quantum dielectric. The photo-generated electron, being quite itinerant in the 3d band of Ti4+ , is assumed to couple weakly but quadratically with soft-anharmonic T1u phonons in this quantum dielectric, in view of the parity of this lattice vibration. The photo-generated electron is also assumed to couple strongly but linearly with the breathing type high energy phonons. Using a tight-binding model for electrons, we will show that this dual electron-phonon coupling results in two types of polarons, a “super-para-electric (SPE) large polaron” with a quasi-globle parity violation, and an “off-center type self-trapped polaron” with only a local parity violation. This SPE large polaron is shown to be equal to a singly charged (e-) and conductive ferroelectric domain with a quasi-macroscopic range. Two of such large polarons are shown to aggregate and form an SPE large bipolaron, which is still conductive. Various other bipolaron clusters are also shown to be formed in this electron-phonon coupled system. These large polarons have a high mobility and an enhanced quasi-static dielectric susceptibility. Effect of adulteration is also discussed.

  2. Analysis of conductivity and dielectric spectra of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 with coupled Cole-Cole type anomalous relaxations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N. S. K.; Shahid, T. S.; Govindaraj, G.

    2016-05-01

    Most of the crystalline materials seldom show a well-defined dielectric loss peak due to domination of dc conductivity contribution, but effects of loss peaks are seen at high frequencies. Ac electrical data of nano-crystalline Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 synthesised by chemical co-precipitation method show such behaviour. Properly combined and formulated conduction and dielectric relaxation functions are required for such materials. Cole-Cole type relaxation function in the combined conduction and dielectric process is formulated for complex resistivity ρ*(ω), complex permittivity ε*(ω), complex conductivity σ*(ω) and complex electric modulus M*(ω). Conduction and dielectric relaxation are linked to Jonscher's idea of 'pinned dipole' and 'free dipole' to understand the relaxation dynamics. The physical parameters of 'pinned dipole' and 'free dipole' formalism are unique for all representations like ρ*(ω), ε*(ω), σ*(ω) and M*(ω). 'Pinned dipole' relaxation time τc related to conduction process and 'free dipole' relaxation time τd related to dielectric process show Arrhenius behaviour with the same activation energy. Correlation of dc conductivity σc with τc and τd indicates the coupled dynamics of 'pinned dipole' and 'free dipole'. Time-temperature scaling of conduction and dielectric relaxation reveals that the mechanism of coupled dynamics of 'pinned dipole' and 'free dipole' is temperature independent. Hopping of charge carriers with dynamics of disordered cation distribution of host matrix generates a coupled conduction and dielectric relaxation in Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4.

  3. Mutual coupling between circular apertures on an infinite conducting ground plane and radiating into a finite width slab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, Christos

    1990-01-01

    The problem of electromagnetic coupling between two horns is of interest for the Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) that will be used in the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). Laboratory measurements of mutual coupling between conical horns (using a flat metallic reflector to simulate a critically dense plasma outside) have shown a strong dependence on the finite dimensions of the shuttle tile over the apertures. Since both, the dielectric tile and the plasma outside the tile reflect microwaves, a study should be done to isolate the two mechanisms so that the MRIS reentry flight data can be interpreted correctly. Once the coupling due to the tile itself is determined then the location of the critial electron number density layers can be determined. As a first attempt to tackle this problem the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction was used to modify the existing solution to mutual coupling between apertures with infinite dielectric sheets. By using the equivalent current method, aperture theory to determine the radiated fields inside the dielectric tiles, and ray tracing the contributions to mutual coupling were determined. Results from two cases with different tile thicknesses have indicated that the main contribution to mutual coupling is due to diffraction from the bottom and top (back and front) wedges.

  4. Electronic band structure of compressively strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} with x < 0.11 studied by contactless electroreflectance

    SciTech Connect

    Zelazna, K.; Polak, M. P.; Scharoch, P.; Gladysiewicz, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Kudrawiec, R.; Serafinczuk, J.

    2015-04-06

    Contactless electroreflectance is applied to study direct optical transitions from the heavy hole, light hole, and spin-orbit split-off band to the conduction band in compressively strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers of various Sn concentrations at room temperature. It is shown that the energies of these transitions are in very good agreement with theoretical predictions, which take into account non-linear variation of bandgap and spin-orbit splitting plus the strain-related shifts obtained from the Bir-Pikus theory. The bowing parameter for the direct bandgap has been determined to be 1.8 ± 0.2 eV and agree with this one obtained within ab initio calculations, which is 1.97 eV (for indirect bandgap the bowing parameter is 0.26 eV)

  5. Carrier-density-wave transport and local internal electric field measurements in biased metal-oxide-semiconductor n-Si devices using contactless laser photo-carrier radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Pawlak, Micha; Shaughnessy, Derrick

    2004-11-01

    Laser infrared photo-carrier radiometry was used with an n-type Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diode and with a Si-SiO2 structure with a transparent electrode and under external bias. Application of three-dimensional PCR theory yielded values of the minority carrier (hole) transport properties in the presence of the thus created local internal electric field at fixed frequencies. Furthermore, the internal electric field at fixed applied voltage was calculated. Under the combination of increased temperature and voltage, the sub-interface position of the carrier-density-wave centroid was found to depend on a trade-off between increased recombination lifetime and decreased ambipolar (conductivity) mobility. The ability of PCR to measure local internal electric fields by combining applied bias sweeps and frequency scans appears to pave the way towards the contactless reconstruction of depth profiles of these fields in active devices.

  6. Contactless ultrasound detection using an optical ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu Hyun; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Cheng; Guo, L. Jay; Fan, Xudong

    2016-03-01

    We develop an air-couple ultrasound detector based on an optical fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) suspended on a Ushaped holder. The OFRR is a glass capillary with an outer diameter of approximately 130 μm and a wall thickness in the order of 1~10 μm. The circular cross section of the OFRR supports the high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) that circulates along the circumference. Incoming ultrasound pressure results in a small refractive index change in the glass wall and geometrical change in the OFRR shape, both of which in turn lead to a spectral shift in the WGM that can be sensitively detected owing to WGM with high optical Q-factors (>107). Due to the suspension nature of the OFRR, the ultrasound detection can be carried out in air, which is advantageous in comparison with other ultrasound detections that require acoustic coupling media such water, gel or solid. The sensitivity can be tuned and optimized by changing the diameter and wall thickness. Besides the optical detection, we also demonstrate optomechanical ultrasound mixing, in which optomechanical vibration is first excited within the OFRR that subsequently modulates the ultrasound wave. Our work will lead to the development of a new type of air-coupled ultrasound detector that can be used for photo-acoustic imaging, non-invasive ultrasound detection of external objects, and ultrasound detection/characterization of internal objects (such as particles and liquids) flowing inside the capillary.

  7. Photocontrol of the Functional Coupling between Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance in the Intact Leaf : Blue Light and Par-Dependent Photosystems in Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, E; Field, C

    1982-08-01

    The photocontrol of the functional coupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the leaf was investigated in gas exchange experiments using monochromatic light provided by lasers. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured in attached leaves of Malva parviflora L. as a function of photon irradiance at 457.9 and 640.0 nanometers.Photosynthetic rates and quantum yields of photosynthesis were higher under red light than under blue, on an absorbed or incident basis.Stomatal conductance was higher under blue than under red light at all intensities. Based on a calculated apparent photon efficiency of conductance, blue and red light had similar effects on conductance at intensities higher than 0.02 millimoles per square meter per second, but blue light was several-fold more efficient at very low photon irradiances. Red light had no effect on conductance at photon irradiances below 0.02 millimoles per square meter per second. These observations support the hypothesis that stomatal conductance is modulated by two photosystems: a blue light-dependent one, driving stomatal opening at low light intensities and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)-dependent one operating at higher irradiances.When low intensity blue light was used to illuminate a leaf already irradiated with high intensity, 640 nanometers light, the leaf exhibited substantial increases in stomatal conductance. Net photosynthesis changed only slightly. Additional far-red light increased net photosynthesis without affecting stomatal conductance. These observations indicate that under conditions where the PAR-dependent system is driven by high intensity red light, the blue light-dependent system has an additive effect on stomatal conductance.The wavelength dependence of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance demonstrates that these processes are not obligatorily coupled and can be controlled by light, independent of prevailing levels of intercellular CO(2). The blue light

  8. Acoustophoretic contactless elevation, orbital transport and spinning of matter in air.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-01-17

    We present the experimental demonstration and theoretical framework of an acoustophoretic concept enabling contactless, controlled orbital motion or spinning of droplets and particles in air. The orbital plane is parallel to gravity, requiring acoustophoretic lifting and elevation. The motion (spinning, smooth, or turnstile) is shown to have its origin in the spatiotemporal modulation of the acoustic field and the acoustic potential nodes. We describe the basic principle in terms of a superposition of harmonic acoustic potential sources and the intrinsic tendency of the particle to locate itself at the bottom of the total potential well.

  9. A novel ultra-wideband 80 GHz FMCW radar system for contactless monitoring of vital signs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siying; Pohl, Antje; Jaeschke, Timo; Czaplik, Michael; Köny, Marcus; Leonhardt, Steffen; Pohl, Nils

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an ultra-wideband 80 GHz FMCW-radar system for contactless monitoring of respiration and heart rate is investigated and compared to a standard monitoring system with ECG and CO(2) measurements as reference. The novel FMCW-radar enables the detection of the physiological displacement of the skin surface with submillimeter accuracy. This high accuracy is achieved with a large bandwidth of 10 GHz and the combination of intermediate frequency and phase evaluation. This concept is validated with a radar system simulation and experimental measurements are performed with different radar sensor positions and orientations.

  10. Combined simulation of a micro permanent magnetic linear contactless displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Müller, Wolfgang F O; Greiner, Felix; Eicher, Dirk; Weiland, Thomas; Schlaak, Helmut F

    2010-01-01

    The permanent magnetic linear contactless displacement (PLCD) sensor is a new type of displacement sensor operating on the magnetic inductive principle. It has many excellent properties and has already been used for many applications. In this article a Micro-PLCD sensor which can be used for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) measurements is designed and simulated with the CST EM STUDIO(®) software, including building a virtual model, magnetostatic calculations, low frequency calculations, steady current calculations and thermal calculations. The influence of some important parameters such as air gap dimension, working frequency, coil current and eddy currents etc. is studied in depth.

  11. A novel ultra-wideband 80 GHz FMCW radar system for contactless monitoring of vital signs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siying; Pohl, Antje; Jaeschke, Timo; Czaplik, Michael; Köny, Marcus; Leonhardt, Steffen; Pohl, Nils

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an ultra-wideband 80 GHz FMCW-radar system for contactless monitoring of respiration and heart rate is investigated and compared to a standard monitoring system with ECG and CO(2) measurements as reference. The novel FMCW-radar enables the detection of the physiological displacement of the skin surface with submillimeter accuracy. This high accuracy is achieved with a large bandwidth of 10 GHz and the combination of intermediate frequency and phase evaluation. This concept is validated with a radar system simulation and experimental measurements are performed with different radar sensor positions and orientations. PMID:26737409

  12. Infrared reflection spectra in contactless nondestructive measurements of the electron density and mobility in indium phosphide

    SciTech Connect

    Il'in, M.A.; Karasev, P.Yu.; Denisova, N.A.; Rezvov, A.V.; Tyurina, S.V.

    1988-07-01

    On the basis of numerical calculations and experimental studies we analyze the possibilities of measuring the electrophysical parameters of indium phosphide by means of infrared reflection spectra at wavelengths ranging from 5 to 200 /mu/m. We demonstrate that contactless nondestructive measurements of the electron density in the range 10/sup 16/-10/sup 20/ cm/sup /minus/3/ can be made with a relative error not exceeding 15%, and of mobility with a relative error not exceeding 25%. A nomogram method is presented for rapid conversion of data form infrared reflection spectra into the parameters being measured.

  13. Acoustophoretic Contactless Elevation, Orbital Transport and Spinning of Matter in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresti, Daniele; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-01-01

    We present the experimental demonstration and theoretical framework of an acoustophoretic concept enabling contactless, controlled orbital motion or spinning of droplets and particles in air. The orbital plane is parallel to gravity, requiring acoustophoretic lifting and elevation. The motion (spinning, smooth, or turnstile) is shown to have its origin in the spatiotemporal modulation of the acoustic field and the acoustic potential nodes. We describe the basic principle in terms of a superposition of harmonic acoustic potential sources and the intrinsic tendency of the particle to locate itself at the bottom of the total potential well.

  14. All You Can Eat or Breaking a Real-World Contactless Payment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, Timo; Silbermann, Michael; Paar, Christof

    We investigated a real-world contactless payment application based on mifare Classic cards. In order to analyze the security of the payment system, we combined previous cryptanalytical results and implemented an improved card-only attack with customized low-cost tools, that is to our knowledge the most efficient practical attack to date. We found several flaws implying severe security vulnerabilities on the system level that allow for devastating attacks including identity theft and recharging the amount of money on the cards. We practically verify and demonstrate the attacks on the commercial system.

  15. Active space debris charging for contactless electrostatic disposal maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Sternovsky, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    The remote charging of a passive object using an electron beam enables touchless re-orbiting of large space debris from geosynchronous orbit (GEO) using electrostatic forces. The advantage of this method is that it can operate with a separation distance of multiple craft radii, thus reducing the risk of collision. The charging of the tug-debris system to high potentials is achieved by active charge transfer using a directed electron beam. Optimal potential distributions using isolated- and coupled-sphere models are discussed. A simple charging model takes into account the primary electron beam current, ultra-violet radiation induced photoelectron emission, collection of plasma particles, secondary electron emission and the recapture of emitted particles. The results show that through active charging in a GEO space environment high potentials can be both achieved and maintained with about a 75% transfer efficiency. Further, the maximum electrostatic tractor force is shown to be insensitive to beam current levels. This latter later result is important when considering debris with unknown properties.

  16. Observation of Rabi splitting from surface plasmon coupled conduction state transitions in electrically excited InAs quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Brandon S; Adams, David C; Ribaudo, Troy; Wasserman, Dan; Lyon, Stephen; Davids, Paul; Chow, Weng W; Shaner, Eric A

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate strong coupling between a surface plasmon and intersublevel transitions in self-assembled InAs quantum dots. The surface plasmon mode exists at the interface between the semiconductor emitter structure and a periodic array of holes perforating a metallic Pd/Ge/Au film that also serves as the top electrical contact for the emitters. Spectrally narrowed quantum-dot electroluminescence was observed for devices with varying subwavelength hole spacing. Devices designed for 9, 10, and 11 μm wavelength emission also exhibit a significant spectral splitting. The association of the splitting with quantum-dot Rabi oscillation is consistent with results from a calculation of spontaneous emission from an interacting plasmonic field and quantum-dot ensemble. The fact that this Rabi oscillation can be observed in an incoherently excited, highly inhomogeneously broadened system demonstrates the utility of intersublevel transitions in quantum dots for investigations of coherent transient and quantum coherence phenomena.

  17. New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Pham Tu Quoc, S; Cheymol, G; Semerok, A

    2014-05-01

    Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r0 and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%-10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r0/100 ≤ L ≤ r0/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement. PMID:24880399

  18. Conductivity measures coupled with treatment with ion-exchange resin for the assessment of sodium concentration in physiological fluids: analyses on artificial solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tura, A.; Sbrignadello, S.; Mambelli, E.; Ravazzani, P.; Santoro, A.; Pacini, G.

    2013-09-01

    In humans, sodium is essential for the regulation of blood volume and pressure. During hemodialysis, sodium measurement is important to preserve the patient from hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some "mixed samples", i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375-17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity measured again. On average, the difference ɛ in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. With treatment with the resin, it was 9.9%, only. We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may be a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis.

  19. Is it important to characterize complex patterns of riverbed hydraulic conductivities for assessing river-aquifer exchange fluxes? An evaluation with an integrated fully coupled hydrological model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qi; Kurtz, Wolfgang; Schilling, Oliver; Brunner, Philip; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2016-04-01

    Riverbed hydraulic conductivity is a critical parameter for the prediction of exchange fluxes between groundwater and surface water bodies. It was found in previous studies that it is important to characterize heterogeneity of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. In this context, we also investigated in the past whether the heterogeneity pattern of riverbed hydraulic conductivities (i.e., multiGaussian, different types of non-multiGaussian patterns) plays an important role. It was found that the heterogeneity pattern does not matter so much. However, these past studies were conducted with the subsurface hydrological model SPRING which only considers one way coupling and only vertical fluxes through the river-aquifer interface. In this study, the role of patterns was further explored using the fully coupled hydrological model HydroGeoSphere. A synthetic 3-D river-aquifer model was set up with a heterogeneous riverbed showing non-multiGaussian patterns in the form of meandering channels as the reference field. Data assimilation experiments were carried out with help of the Ensemble Kalman Filter to characterize the heterogeneous riverbed. The data assimilation experiments were conducted for four types of riverbed hydraulic conductivity (K) fields: (i) spatially homogeneous, (ii) heterogeneous with multiGaussian distribution, (iii) heterogeneous with non-multiGaussian distribution (channelized structures) and (iv) heterogeneous with non-multiGaussian distribution (elliptic structures). For all the data assimilation scenarios, state variables and riverbed K were updated by assimilating piezometric heads. The experiments were repeated for ten reference fields. Results show that for all prior geostatistical models data assimilation was able to reduce the difference between simulated and measured hydraulic heads, and to improve the characterization of riverbed hydraulic conductivities and river-aquifer exchange fluxes. Results were slightly better for non-multiGaussian fields

  20. Feasibility study of a swept frequency electromagnetic probe (SWEEP) using inductive coupling for the determination of subsurface conductivity of the earth and water prospecting in arid regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorraca, G. A.; Bannister, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques developed for electromagnetic probing of the lunar interior, and techniques developed for the generation of high power audio frequencies were combined to make practical a magnetic inductive coupling system for the rapid measurement of ground conductivity profiles which are helpful when prospecting for the presence and quality of subsurface water. A system which involves the measurement of the direction, intensity, and time phase of the magnetic field observed near the surface of the earth at a distance from a horizontal coil energized so as to create a field that penetrates the earth was designed and studied to deduce the conductivity and stratification of the subsurface. Theoretical studies and a rudimentary experiment in an arid region showed that the approach is conceptually valid and that this geophysical prospecting technique can be developed for the economical exploration of subterranean water resources.

  1. Efficient photoinduced charge accumulation in reduced graphene oxide coupled with titania nanosheets to show highly enhanced and persistent conductance.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xingke; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Ozawa, Tadashi C; Funatsu, Asami; Ma, Renzhi; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2015-06-01

    Tuning of the electrical properties of graphene via photoexcitation of a heteroassembled material has started to attract attention for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Actually photoinduced carrier doping from the hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate greatly modulated the transport property of the top layer graphene, showing promising potential for this approach. However, for practical applications, the large scale production of this two-dimensional heterostructure is needed. Here, a superlattice film constructed from reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and photoactive titania nanosheets (Ti0.87O2(0.52-)) was employed as a channel to construct a field effect transistor (FET) device, and its UV light response on the electrical transport property was examined. The UV light illumination induced significant improvement of the electrical conductance by ∼7 times on the basis of simultaneous enhancements of the electron carrier concentration and its mobility in rGO. Furthermore, the polarity of the FET response changed from ambipolar to n-type unipolar. Such modulated properties persisted in vacuum even after the UV light was turned off. These interesting behaviors may be explained in terms of photomodulation effects from Ti0.87O2(0.52-) nanosheets. The photoexcited electrons in Ti0.87O2(0.52-) are injected into rGO to increase the electron carrier concentration as high as 7.6×10(13) cm(-2). On the other hand, the holes are likely trapped in the Ti0.87O2(0.52-) nanosheets. These photocarriers undergo reduction and oxidation of oxygen and water molecules adsorbed in the film, respectively, which act as carrier scattering centers, contributing to the enhancement of the carrier mobility. Since the film likely contains more water molecules than oxygen, upon extinction of UV light, a major portion of electrons (∼80% of the concentration at the UV off) survives in rGO, showing the highly enhanced conductance for days. This surpassing photomodulated FET response and

  2. Introducing Contactless Blood Pressure Assessment Using a High Speed Video Camera.

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Cheol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that blood pressure (BP) can be estimated using pulse transit time (PTT). For PTT calculation, photoplethysmogram (PPG) is usually used to detect a time lag in pulse wave propagation which is correlated with BP. Until now, PTT and PPG were registered using a set of body-worn sensors. In this study a new methodology is introduced allowing contactless registration of PTT and PPG using high speed camera resulting in corresponding image-based PTT (iPTT) and image-based PPG (iPPG) generation. The iPTT value can be potentially utilized for blood pressure estimation however extent of correlation between iPTT and BP is unknown. The goal of this preliminary feasibility study was to introduce the methodology for contactless generation of iPPG and iPTT and to make initial estimation of the extent of correlation between iPTT and BP "in vivo." A short cycling exercise was used to generate BP changes in healthy adult volunteers in three consecutive visits. BP was measured by a verified BP monitor simultaneously with iPTT registration at three exercise points: rest, exercise peak, and recovery. iPPG was simultaneously registered at two body locations during the exercise using high speed camera at 420 frames per second. iPTT was calculated as a time lag between pulse waves obtained as two iPPG's registered from simultaneous recoding of head and palm areas. The average inter-person correlation between PTT and iPTT was 0.85 ± 0.08. The range of inter-person correlations between PTT and iPTT was from 0.70 to 0.95 (p < 0.05). The average inter-person coefficient of correlation between SBP and iPTT was -0.80 ± 0.12. The range of correlations between systolic BP and iPTT was from 0.632 to 0.960 with p < 0.05 for most of the participants. Preliminary data indicated that a high speed camera can be potentially utilized for unobtrusive contactless monitoring of abrupt blood pressure changes in a variety of settings. The initial prototype system was able to

  3. Can carbon nanotube fibers achieve the ultimate conductivity?—Coupled-mode analysis for electron transport through the carbon nanotube contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fangbo; Sadrzadeh, Arta; Xu, Zhiping; Yakobson, Boris I.

    2013-08-01

    Recent measurements of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers electrical conductivity still show the values lower than that of individual CNTs, by about one magnitude order. The imperfections of manufacturing process and constituent components are described as culprits. What if every segment is made perfect? In this work, we study the quantum conductance through the parallel junction of flawless armchair CNTs using tight-binding method in conjunction with non-equilibrium Green's function approach. Short-range oscillations within the long-range oscillations as well as decaying envelopes are all observed in the computed Fermi-level (low bias) conductance as a function of contact length, L. The propagation of CNTs' Bloch waves is cast in the coupled-mode formalism and helps to reveal the quantum interference nature of various behaviors of conductance. Our analysis shows that the Bloch waves at the Fermi-level propagate through a parallel junction without reflection only at an optimal value of contact length. For quite a long junction, however, the conductance at the Fermi level diminishes due to the perturbation of periodic potential field of close-packed CNTs. Thus, a macroscopic fiber, containing an infinite number of junctions, forms a filter that permits passage of electrons with specific wave vectors, and these wave vectors are determined by the collection of all the junction lengths. We also argue that the energy gap introduced by long junctions can be overcome by small voltage (˜0.04 V) across the whole fiber. Overall, developing long individual all-armchair metallic CNTs serves as a promising way to the manufacture of high-conductivity fibers.

  4. A coupled monitoring network to conduct an assessment of mercury transformation and mobilization in floodplain soils: South River, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareva, O.; Sparks, D. L.; Landis, R.; Ptacek, C. J.; Hicks, S.; Montgomery, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) was used between 1929 and 1950 by the DuPont plant in the production of rayon acetate fiber in Waynesboro, Virginia and released into the South River. The contamination of Hg was discovered in the 1970s and remained elevated in water, soil, sediments, and biota. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the processes that govern biogeochemical transformation and mobilization of Hg in floodplain soils at South River Mile 3.5, characterize geochemical gradients in soils and how they change over time, and to enable targeted sampling at Hg loading hot spots. The biogeochemical data will play a supporting role and be used to further develop our understanding of the processes controlling the leaching of Hg and our conceptual model. Our over-arching hypothesis is to test if leaching of bank soils is a significant source of dissolved or colloidal inorganic Hg. This effort requires an interdisciplinary geochemical approach and sensor technology to understand the interactions between floodplain soil, groundwater, and river. Our investigation will include 10 months' worth data from a number of state-of-the-art in-situ monitoring sensors, such as custom-designed redox probes, soil moisture, temperature, pressure, and conductivity installed at the site. Our preliminary results showed that the concentration of total Hg in soils was up to 900 mg/kg (wet weight).There is a significant redox gradient across the floodplain soil profile. Within the top 40 -70 cm, major changes in redox conditions from oxidizing (Eh ≈+600 mV) to very reducing (Eh ≈-300 mV) corresponded to heavy rainfall and overbank flooding events. High variations in stream stage may govern the surface water - groundwater exchange facilitating the downward or upward movement of the capillary fringe and saturated zone through the soil horizons, affecting soil redox potential, stability of Hg-bearing minerals and leaching of inorganic Hg into dissolved and colloidal phases. These phases may be

  5. Effects of conduction delays on the existence and stability of one to one phase locking between two pulse-coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Michael Marmaduke; Canavier, Carmen C

    2011-10-01

    Gamma oscillations can synchronize with near zero phase lag over multiple cortical regions and between hemispheres, and between two distal sites in hippocampal slices. How synchronization can take place over long distances in a stable manner is considered an open question. The phase resetting curve (PRC) keeps track of how much an input advances or delays the next spike, depending upon where in the cycle it is received. We use PRCs under the assumption of pulsatile coupling to derive existence and stability criteria for 1:1 phase-locking that arises via bidirectional pulse coupling of two limit cycle oscillators with a conduction delay of any duration for any 1:1 firing pattern. The coupling can be strong as long as the effect of one input dissipates before the next input is received. We show the form that the generic synchronous and anti-phase solutions take in a system of two identical, identically pulse-coupled oscillators with identical delays. The stability criterion has a simple form that depends only on the slopes of the PRCs at the phases at which inputs are received and on the number of cycles required to complete the delayed feedback loop. The number of cycles required to complete the delayed feedback loop depends upon both the value of the delay and the firing pattern. We successfully tested the predictions of our methods on networks of model neurons. The criteria can easily be extended to include the effect of an input on the cycle after the one in which it is received.

  6. Application of a contactless conductometric detector for the simultaneous determination of small anions and cations by capillary electrophoresis with dual-opposite end injection.

    PubMed

    Kubán, Petr; Karlberg, Bo; Kubán, Pavel; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2002-07-26

    A contactless conductometric detection (CCD) system for capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a flexible detection cell was applied for the simultaneous determination of small anions and/or cations in rain, surface and drainage water samples. The applied frequency, the amplitude of the input signal, the electrolyte conductivity and electrode distance were found to be the most significant factors affecting the detection sensitivity. 2-(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid/histidine-based (MES/His) electrolytes were used for direct conductivity detection of anions and cations, while ammonium acetate was selected for indirect conductivity determination of alkylammonium salts. For the simultaneous separation procedure, involving dual-opposite end injection, an electrolyte consisting of 20 mM MES/His, 1.5 mM 18-crown-6 and 20 microM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide provided baseline separation of 13 anions and cations in less than 6 min. The detection limits achieved were 7-30 micrograms/l for direct conductometric detection of various common inorganic cations and anions, excluding F- (62 micrograms/l) and H2PO4- (250 micrograms/l), and 35-178 micrograms/l for indirect conductometric detection of alkyl ammonium cations. The developed electrophoretic method with conductometric detection was compared to ion chromatography.

  7. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated.

  8. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated. PMID:27435687

  9. A differential capacitive electrical field sensor array for contactless measurement of respiratory rate.

    PubMed

    Wartzek, T; Weyer, S; Leonhardt, S

    2011-10-01

    Although respiratory rate is an important vital sign for early detection of deterioration, on general wards it is not routinely monitored. Since patients may not tolerate cables attached to their chest, we developed an unobtrusive and contactless measurement method which can be placed under a mattress. The sensor array uses the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation effect by capacitive injection of a high-frequency voltage into the torso and subsequent measurement of respiratory-induced phase shift. Simulations of the entire measurement scenario indicate an improved signal-to-noise ratio if a differential method is applied with specific positioning of the electrodes. A prototype was designed and the simulations were confirmed with measurements on a phantom and in a human self-experiment by the authors using self-constructed hardware. Movement artifacts were detected using an artifact detection algorithm which allows reliable estimation of the respiratory rate.

  10. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Mark M C; Le, Khai Q; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-10-16

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule-silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the 'Internet of Nano-Things'. PMID:26403614

  11. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Mark M. C.; Le, Khai Q.; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-10-01

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule-silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the ‘Internet of Nano-Things’.

  12. Characterization of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals Grown by 'Contactless' PVT Using Synchrotron White Beam Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Gillies, D.; Grasza, K.; Chung, H.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.

    1997-01-01

    Crystals of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te grown by Physical Vapor Transport (PVT) using self-seeding 'contactless' techniques were characterized using synchrotron radiation (reflection, transmission, and Laue back-reflection X-ray topography). Crystals of low (x = 0.04) and high (up to x approx. = 0.4) ZnTe content were investigated. Twins and defects such as dislocations, precipitates, and slip bands were identified. Extensive inhomogeneous strains present in some samples were found to be generated by interaction (sticking) with the pedestal and by composition gradients in the crystals. Large (up to about 5 mm) oval strain fields were observed around some Te precipitates. Low angle grain boundaries were found only in higher ZnTe content (x greater than or equal to 0.2) samples.

  13. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Mark M C; Le, Khai Q; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-10-16

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule-silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the 'Internet of Nano-Things'.

  14. Contactless Visualization of Latent Fingerprints on Nonporous Curved Surfaces of Circular Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Low, Wei Zeng; Khoo, Bee Ee; Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim Bin

    2016-07-01

    Nondestructive techniques for gathering evidence are important in the field of forensics. Due to the geometry of the substrates, nondestructive visualization of fingermarks on curved surfaces remains challenging. A novel contactless technique was developed for visualizing and recording fingermark patterns on nonporous curved surfaces of circular cross section. The technique utilizes a plane mirror to transmit rays from a light source to illuminate the area of interest for fingermark visualization. The fingermark acquisition system consists of a digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, a plane mirror, and a white light source. Mathematical equations are used to calculate the mirror size. Experiments were performed on various curved surfaces to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the technique. Spectral Image Validation and Verification (SIVV) was used to analyze the captured images. The results of this study indicate that the technique described here is able to reveal fingermark patterns on curved surfaces of circular cross section. PMID:27364293

  15. New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pham Tu Quoc, S. Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A.

    2014-05-15

    Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r{sub 0} and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%–10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r{sub 0}/100 ≤ L ≤ r{sub 0}/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.

  16. A comprehensive study of the electrically conducting water based CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticles over coupled nanofluid-sheet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.

    2016-02-01

    Many studies on nanofluid flow over a permeable/impermeable sheet prescribe the kinematics of the sheet and disregard the sheet’s mechanics. However, the current study is one of the infrequent contributions that anticipate the mechanics of both the electrically conducting nanofluid (a homogeneous mixture of nanoparticles and base fluid) and the sheet. Two types of nanoparticles, alumina and copper, with water as a base fluid over the sheet are considered. With the help of the similarity transformations, the corresponding partial differential equations for the coupled nanofluid-sheet interface are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The simulations are done by using the experimentally verified results from the previous studies for viscosity and thermal conductivity. Self-similar solutions are attained by considering both analytical and numerical techniques. Dual skin friction coefficients are attained with different copper and alumina nanoparticles over both the stretching and viscous sheets. The influence of the Eckert number, magnetic and mass suction/blowing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction and heat transfer rates over the nanofluid-sheet interface are presented graphically as well as numerically. The obtained results are of potential benefit for studying nanofluid flow over various soft surfaces such as synthetic plastics, soft silicone sheet and soft synthetic rubber sheet. These surfaces are easily deformed by thermal fluctuations.

  17. Overwash Deposition Stabilizes Backbarrier Marshes as Sea Level Rises: Insights from Experiments Conducted using a Coupled Barrier Island-Marsh Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, D.; Moore, L. J.; Duran, O.; Fagherazzi, S.; Mariotti, G.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the interactions between barrier islands and backbarrier marshes that determine the island-marsh response to climate change. To this end we couple the morphological-behavior model, GEOMBEST, with a newly-developed marsh-edge progradation component based on an existing model of tidal flat-salt marsh hydrodynamics. We conduct two sets of experiments with the new model to assess 1) the impact of overwash deposition on backbarrier marsh morphology and 2) the impact of backbarrier marsh morphology on rates of island migration. Results indicate that for backbarrier marshes to persist under accelerating RSLR, sufficient sediment must be deposited at the bayside marsh-edge boundary for the marsh to prograde at a rate equal to or greater than the rate of island transgression (i.e., to maintain marsh width). Simulations further indicate that overwash deposition can provide backbarrier marshes with an additional source of sediment that allows maintenance of existing (i.e., a steady state), and creation of new, narrow marsh platforms (~500m wide) within a range of conditions (high rate of RSLR and low fine-grained sediment supply) under which they would otherwise disappear or not exist. This existence of a stable marsh width is supported by remote sensing observations of barrier islands and backbarrier marshes along the eastern shore of Virginia, which show that a significantly high proportion of islands are backed by marshes approximately 500m wide. A second set of experiments demonstrates that the impact of backbarrier marsh platforms on barrier islands is to reduce accommodation space in the backbarrier bay, which decreases the rate of island transgression because less landward migration is necessary to maintain island elevation relative to sea level. These coupled processes indicate that barrier islands and backbarrier marshes are intimately connected such that under conditions of high rates of RSLR and overwash deposition, narrow marsh platforms exist where

  18. Doping of a dielectric layer as a new alternative for increasing sensitivity of the contactless conductivity detection in microchips.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renato Sousa; Segato, Thiago Pinotti; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz; Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2011-12-21

    This communication describes a new procedure to increase the sensitivity of C(4)D in PDMS/glass microchips. The method consists in doping the insulating layer (PDMS) over the electrodes with nanoparticles of TiO(2), increasing thus its dielectric constant. The experimental protocol is simple, inexpensive, and fast.

  19. Different β-adrenoceptor subtypes coupling to cAMP or NO/cGMP pathways: implications in the relaxant response of rat conductance and resistance vessels

    PubMed Central

    Flacco, N; Segura, V; Perez-Aso, M; Estrada, S; Seller, JF; Jiménez-Altayó, F; Noguera, MA; D'Ocon, P; Vila, E; Ivorra, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To analyse the relative contribution of β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoceptors (Adrb) to vasodilatation in conductance and resistance vessels, assessing the role of cAMP and/or NO/cGMP signalling pathways. Experimental Approach Rat mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) and aorta were used to analyse the Adrb expression by real-time-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and for the pharmacological characterization of Adrb-mediated activity by wire myography and tissue nucleotide accumulation. Key Results The mRNAs and protein for all Adrb were identified in endothelium and/or smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in both vessels. In MRA, Adrb1 signalled through cAMP, Adrb3 through both cAMP and cGMP, but Adrb2, did not activate nucleotide formation; isoprenaline relaxation was inhibited by propranolol (β1, β2), CGP20712A (β1), and SQ22536 (adenylyl cyclase inhibitor), but not by ICI118,551 (β2), SR59230A (β3), ODQ (soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), L-NAME or endothelium removal. In aorta, Adrb1 signalled through cAMP, while β2- and β3-subtypes through cGMP; isoprenaline relaxation was inhibited by propranolol, ICI118,551, ODQ, L-NAME, and to a lesser extent, by endothelium removal. CL316243 (β3-agonist) relaxed aorta, but not MRA. Conclusion and Implication Despite all three Adrb subtypes being found in both vessels, Adrb1, located in SMCs and acting through the adenylyl cyclase/cAMP pathway, are primarily responsible for vasodilatation in MRA. However, Adrb-mediated vasodilatation in aorta is driven by endothelial Adrb2 and Adrb3, but also by the Adrb2 present in SMCs, and is coupled to the NO/cGMP pathway. These results could help to understand the different physiological roles played by Adrb signalling in regulating conductance and resistance vessels. PMID:23373597

  20. Inverse Estimation of Parameters for a Coupled Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance Model Using Eddy Covariance Measurements at a Black Spruce Forest in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, M.; Tahara, N.; Iwata, H.; Nagano, H.; Harazono, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For better understanding high-latitude carbon and water cycles, parameters of a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance big-leaf model (Farquhar et al., 1980; Ball and Berry, 1987; Baldocchi, 1994) were inversely estimated using gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration by eddy covariance measurements at a black spruce forest in interior Alaska (Iwata et al., 2012; Ueyama et al., 2014). We developed a sequential optimization method based on a global optimization technique; shuffled complex evolution (SCE-UA) method (Duan et al., 1993). First, photosynthetic parameters (maximum carboxylation and maximum electron transfer rate at 25oC; Vcmax25 and Jmax25) were optimized for GPP, and then stomatal conductance parameters (m and b in the Ball-Berry model) were optimized for evapotranspiration. Based on our optimization, Vcmax25, Jmax25, and m varied seasonally, but b value was almost constant throughout seasons. Vcmax25 and Jmax25 were higher in summer months than other months, which related to understory leaf area index. m was higher in winter months than other months, but did not significantly change throughout the growing season. Our results indicated that simulations using constant ecophysiological parameters could underestimate photosynthesis and evapotranspiration of high-latitude ecosystems. References Ball and Berry, 1987: Progress in Photosynthesis Research, pp 221-224. Baldocchi, 1994: Tree Physiol., 14, 1069-1079. Duan et al., 1993: J. Optimization Theory and Applications, 76, 501-521. Farquhar et al., 1980: Planta, 149, 78-90. Iwata et al., 2012: Agric. For. Meteorol., 161, 107-115. Ueyama et al., 2014: Global Change Biol., 20, 1161-1173.

  1. Contactless inductive flow tomography: basic principles and first applications in the experimental modelling of continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.

    2016-07-01

    Contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) aims at reconstructing the flow structure of a liquid metal from the magnetic fields measured at various positions outside the fluid body which are induced by the flow under the influence of one or multiple applied magnetic fields. We recap the basic mathematical principles of CIFT and the results of an experiment in which the propeller-driven three-dimensional flow in a cylindrical had been reconstructed. We also summarize the recent activities to utilize CIFT in various problems connected with the experimental simulation of the continuous casting process. These include flow reconstructions in single-phase and two-phase flow problems in the Mini-LIMMCAST model of slab-casting, studies of the specific effects of an electromagnetic stirrer attached to the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN), as well as first successful applications of CIFT on the background of a strong electromagnetic brake field. We conclude by discussing some remaining obstacles for the deployment of CIFT in a real caster.

  2. Contactless optical fiber refractive index sensor for liquid and solid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Hernández, Carlos; Monzón-Hernández, D.; Villatoro, Joel

    2016-05-01

    We report on a contactless optical fiber refractive index (RI) sensor that can be used to measure the RI of solid or liquid samples. The sensor is simple to construct and consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with long cavity. The cavity of our FPI consists of a tapered optical fiber tip and an external flat mirror. The output beam of the fiber tip is partially reflected from different interfaces of the sample present in the interferometer cavity. Each of such reflections interferes with the beam internally reflected by the fiber tip. Thus, a multiple-beam FPI is formed whose reflection spectrum is composed by the superposition of several two-beam interferences. The analysis of the multiple interference spectra was carried out in the Fourier domain. Several glass samples, water-sucrose and water-glycerol solutions were prepared and tested. Since the fiber tip is not in direct contact with the sample under test the measurement is simple and immediate. To our-knowledge, this is the first time that a fiber optic sensor can be used to measure the RI of solid and liquid samples without any modification.

  3. Photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance characterization of BexCd1-xSe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, P. J.; Huang, Y. S.; Firszt, F.; Meczynska, H.; Maksimov, O.; Tamargo, M. C.; Tiong, K. K.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed optical characterization of a Bridgman-grown wurtzite- (WZ-) type Be0.075Cd0.925Se mixed crystal and three zinc-blende (ZB) BexCd1-xSe epilayers grown by MBE on InP substrates has been carried out via photoluminescence (PL) and contactless electroreflectance (CER) in the temperature range of 15-400 K. The PL spectrum of the WZ-BeCdSe at low temperature consists of an exciton line, an edge emission feature due to recombination of donor-acceptor pairs, and a broad band related to recombination through deep-level defects, while the PL emission peaks of the ZB-BeCdSe epilayers show an asymmetric shape with a tail on the low-energy side. Various interband transitions, originating from the band edge and spin-orbit splitting critical points, of the samples have been observed in the CER spectra. The peak positions of the exciton emission lines in the PL spectra correspond quite well to the energies of the fundamental transitions determined from electromodulation data. The parameters that describe the temperature dependence of the fundamental and spin split-off bandgaps and the broadening function of the band-edge exciton are evaluated and discussed.

  4. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  5. Electromagnet Weight Reduction in a Magnetic Levitation System for Contactless Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Do-Kwan; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Chang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optimum design of a lightweight vehicle levitation electromagnet, which also provides a passive guide force in a magnetic levitation system for contactless delivery applications. The split alignment of C-shaped electromagnets about C-shaped rails has a bad effect on the lateral deviation force, therefore, no-split positioning of electromagnets is better for lateral performance. This is verified by simulations and experiments. This paper presents a statistically optimized design with a high number of the design variables to reduce the weight of the electromagnet under the constraint of normal force using response surface methodology (RSM) and the kriging interpolation method. 2D and 3D magnetostatic analysis of the electromagnet are performed using ANSYS. The most effective design variables are extracted by a Pareto chart. The most desirable set is determined and the influence of each design variable on the objective function can be obtained. The generalized reduced gradient (GRG) algorithm is adopted in the kriging model. This paper’s procedure is validated by a comparison between experimental and calculation results, which shows that the predicted performance of the electromagnet designed by RSM is in good agreement with the simulation results. PMID:22163572

  6. Development of a new contactless dielectrophoresis system for active particle manipulation using movable liquid electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gwon, Hyuk Rok; Chang, Suk Tai; Choi, Chang Kyoung; Jung, Jung-Yeul; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Seong Hyuk

    2014-07-01

    This study presents a new DEP manipulation technique using a movable liquid electrode, which allows manipulation of particles by actively controlling the locations of electrodes and applying on-off electric input signals. This DEP system consists of mercury as a movable liquid electrode, indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass, SU-8-based microchannels for electrode passages, and a PDMS medium chamber. A simple squeezing method was introduced to build a thin PDMS layer at the bottom of the medium chamber to create a contactless DEP system. To determine the operating conditions, the DEP force and the friction force were analytically compared for a single cell. In addition, an appropriate frequency range for effective DEP manipulation was chosen based on an estimation of the Clausius-Mossotti factor and the effective complex permittivity of the yeast cell using the concentric shell model. With this system, we demonstrated the active manipulation of yeast cells, and measured the collection efficiency and the dielectrophoretic velocity of cells for different AC electric field strengths and applied frequencies. The experimental results showed that the maximum collection efficiency reached was approximately 90%, and the dielectrophoretic velocity increased with increasing frequency and attained the maximum value of 10.85 ± 0.95 μm/s at 100 kHz, above which it decreased.

  7. A machine learning approach to improve contactless heart rate monitoring using a webcam.

    PubMed

    Monkaresi, Hamed; Calvo, Rafael A; Yan, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Unobtrusive, contactless recordings of physiological signals are very important for many health and human-computer interaction applications. Most current systems require sensors which intrusively touch the user's skin. Recent advances in contact-free physiological signals open the door to many new types of applications. This technology promises to measure heart rate (HR) and respiration using video only. The effectiveness of this technology, its limitations, and ways of overcoming them deserves particular attention. In this paper, we evaluate this technique for measuring HR in a controlled situation, in a naturalistic computer interaction session, and in an exercise situation. For comparison, HR was measured simultaneously using an electrocardiography device during all sessions. The results replicated the published results in controlled situations, but show that they cannot yet be considered as a valid measure of HR in naturalistic human-computer interaction. We propose a machine learning approach to improve the accuracy of HR detection in naturalistic measurements. The results demonstrate that the root mean squared error is reduced from 43.76 to 3.64 beats/min using the proposed method. PMID:25014930

  8. Contactless electroreflectance of ZnO layers grown by atomic layer deposition at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrawiec, R.; Misiewicz, J.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Guziewicz, E.; Godlewski, M.

    2011-07-01

    Room-temperature contactless electroreflectance (CER) has been applied to study optical transitions in ZnO layers grown by atomic layer deposition at low temperatures on glass, silicon and GaN substrates. A broad CER resonance was clearly observed at the energy of ~3.4 eV for layers deposited at low temperatures (100-240 °C) on glass or silicon. This resonance has been attributed to excitonic/band-to-band absorption in polycrystalline ZnO. A sharp excitonic resonance at ~3.32 eV was observed for monocrystalline ZnO layers deposited on GaN templates at higher temperatures (>250 °C). In addition, the broad CER resonance at ~3.4 eV was also observed for these layers but its intensity decreases when the growth temperature is increased, i.e. c-plane-oriented monocrystalline areas appear in the ZnO layer instead of polycrystalline areas with various surface orientations.

  9. Electromagnet weight reduction in a magnetic levitation system for contactless delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Hong, Do-Kwan; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Chang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optimum design of a lightweight vehicle levitation electromagnet, which also provides a passive guide force in a magnetic levitation system for contactless delivery applications. The split alignment of C-shaped electromagnets about C-shaped rails has a bad effect on the lateral deviation force, therefore, no-split positioning of electromagnets is better for lateral performance. This is verified by simulations and experiments. This paper presents a statistically optimized design with a high number of the design variables to reduce the weight of the electromagnet under the constraint of normal force using response surface methodology (RSM) and the kriging interpolation method. 2D and 3D magnetostatic analysis of the electromagnet are performed using ANSYS. The most effective design variables are extracted by a Pareto chart. The most desirable set is determined and the influence of each design variable on the objective function can be obtained. The generalized reduced gradient (GRG) algorithm is adopted in the kriging model. This paper's procedure is validated by a comparison between experimental and calculation results, which shows that the predicted performance of the electromagnet designed by RSM is in good agreement with the simulation results.

  10. Optimized design of a micromachined G-switch based on contactless configuration for health care applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongkodjojo, Andojo; Tay, Francis E. H.

    2006-04-01

    This paper proposes design concept and fundamentals of a novel acceleration microswitch (G-switch), which is an integration of bimorph actuator and field effect transistor (FET). This micro-switch can be used to actuate the alarm system for call for helps - minimizing injuries after the fall among elderly; or trigger the air-inflatable hip protector for the fall prevention. The device can be attached to the developed MEMS-Wear smart shirt. Its structural design and switching FET are optimized using the global optimization method so that the bimorph as a movable gate can collapse on the gate insulating layer, when there is an impact force, which is greater than a threshold value (experimentally found to be 4.8g based on the previously published report). This contactless mechanism optimizes the field effect between the bimorph and the substrate causing an electrical current flow profusely with a sensitivity of 0.1 mA/V2 with a FET's ratio of ~19. The device will consume less power as the gate to source voltage (VGS) can be applied up to 4 V. All design parameters must satisfy the specified design constraints. In future, the optimized design will be fabricated and incorporated into the smart shirt for testing upon the fall events.

  11. A second-order coupled immersed boundary-SAMR construction for chemically reacting flow over a heat-conducting Cartesian grid-conforming solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Kushal S.; Safta, Cosmin; Ray, Jaideep; Najm, Habib N.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a second-order numerical method for simulations of reacting flow around heat-conducting immersed solid objects. The method is coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) framework and a low-Mach number operator-split projection algorithm. A “buffer zone” methodology is introduced to impose the solid-fluid boundary conditions such that the solver uses symmetric derivatives and interpolation stencils throughout the interior of the numerical domain; irrespective of whether it describes fluid or solid cells. Solid cells are tracked using a binary marker function. The no-slip velocity boundary condition at the immersed wall is imposed using the staggered mesh. Near the immersed solid boundary, single-sided buffer zones (inside the solid) are created to resolve the species discontinuities, and dual buffer zones (inside and outside the solid) are created to capture the temperature gradient discontinuities. The development discussed in this paper is limited to a two-dimensional Cartesian grid-conforming solid. We validate the code using benchmark simulations documented in the literature. We also demonstrate the overall second-order convergence of our numerical method. To demonstrate its capability, a reacting flow simulation of a methane/air premixed flame stabilized on a channel-confined bluff-body using a detailed chemical kinetics model is discussed.

  12. Negative differential conductance and super-Poissonian shot noise in a single quantum dot coupled to two noncollinear polarized ferromagnetic leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Nie, Yi-Hang; Ren, Wei

    2015-03-01

    We have theoretically studied the full counting statistics of electron transport through a single quantum dot (QD) weakly coupled to two noncollinearly polarized ferromagnetic leads. We found a strong robust bias-voltage-tunable negative differential conductance (NDC) region, in which the shot noise is dramatically enhanced and reaches up to a super-Poissonian value. In particular, the formed super-Poissonian shot noise can still occur in a wide bias voltage region where only the singly-occupied electronic states entering the bias voltage window. The underlying mechanisms of the observed NDC and super-Poissonian shot noise originate from the quantum coherence between the two singly-occupied electronic states. In addition, the skewness in the NDC regime can be significantly increased up to a large positive value, which is also attributed to the quantum coherence of the QD system, and the variation of the skewness value is more sensitive to the quantum coherence than the shot noise. Our findings suggest a QD-based tunable NDC device, and the predicted properties of high-order current cumulants can provide a deeper understanding of electron transport through the single QD.

  13. Modelling transient heat conduction in solids at multiple length and time scales: A coupled non-equilibrium molecular dynamics/continuum approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, Kenny; Gill, Simon P.A.

    2009-10-20

    A method for controlling the thermal boundary conditions of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations is presented. The method is simple to implement into a conventional molecular dynamics code and independent of the atomistic model employed. It works by regulating the temperature in a thermostatted boundary region by feedback control to achieve the desired temperature at the edge of an inner region where the true atomistic dynamics are retained. This is necessary to avoid intrinsic boundary effects in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Three thermostats are investigated: the global deterministic Nose-Hoover thermostat and two local stochastic thermostats, Langevin and stadium damping. The latter thermostat is introduced to avoid the adverse reflection of phonons that occurs at an abrupt interface. The method is then extended to allow atomistic/continuum models to be thermally coupled concurrently for the analysis of large steady state and transient heat conduction problems. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated for the example of heat flow down a three-dimensional atomistic rod of uniform cross-section subjected to a variety of boundary conditions.

  14. Instantaneous-to-daily GPP upscaling schemes based on a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model: correcting the overestimation of GPP by directly using daily average meteorological inputs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fumin; Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M; Black, T Andrew; Zhou, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Daily canopy photosynthesis is usually temporally upscaled from instantaneous (i.e., seconds) photosynthesis rate. The nonlinear response of photosynthesis to meteorological variables makes the temporal scaling a significant challenge. In this study, two temporal upscaling schemes of daily photosynthesis, the integrated daily model (IDM) and the segmented daily model (SDM), are presented by considering the diurnal variations of meteorological variables based on a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model. The two models, as well as a simple average daily model (SADM) with daily average meteorological inputs, were validated using the tower-derived gross primary production (GPP) to assess their abilities in simulating daily photosynthesis. The results showed IDM closely followed the seasonal trend of the tower-derived GPP with an average RMSE of 1.63 g C m(-2) day(-1), and an average Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E) of 0.87. SDM performed similarly to IDM in GPP simulation but decreased the computation time by >66%. SADM overestimated daily GPP by about 15% during the growing season compared to IDM. Both IDM and SDM greatly decreased the overestimation by SADM, and improved the simulation of daily GPP by reducing the RMSE by 34 and 30%, respectively. The results indicated that IDM and SDM are useful temporal upscaling approaches, and both are superior to SADM in daily GPP simulation because they take into account the diurnally varying responses of photosynthesis to meteorological variables. SDM is computationally more efficient, and therefore more suitable for long-term and large-scale GPP simulations.

  15. Contactless magneto-permeabilization for intracellular plasmid DNA delivery in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Thomas J; Rabussay, Dietmar P

    2012-11-01

    Electroporation, an attractive process for delivering DNA and other molecules into target cells in vivo and in vitro is limited by the necessity of electrodes that need to be in contact with the subject or object to be electroporated. We have used magnetic fields, which do not require material contact with the subject, to temporarily permeabilize cells in guinea pig skin in vivo to enhance uptake and expression of GFP plasmid DNA. The results show for the first time that magnetic fields can trigger a process likely similar to electroporation. In designing the magnetic pulses, our most important criterion was a high rate of change of the magnetic field, based on the principle described by Michael Faraday which is expressed by the formula: E = -dB/dt, (E, electric field, B, magnetic field, t, time). Magnetic fields were generated by a flat electromagnet in a hand-held applicator positioned above the target tissue. The magnetic pulses had a peak magnetic flux density of 4 tesla; 50 pulses were applied in 5 sec. Biphasic magnetic pulses were twice as effective as monophasic pulses and about equally effective as traditional electroporation pulses . Advantages of magnetopermeabilization over electoporation include: No contact between applicator and subject ("contact-less"); no need for invasive, disposable, sterile electrodes ("needle-less"); no pain from needles and reduced overall pain; no known side effects; easier and faster to administer than electroporation; less expensive due to absence of disposables; and, importantly, greater tissue penetration of the magnetic field allowing treatment of anatomical areas inaccessible by electroporation. PMID:22894955

  16. Contactless magneto-permeabilization for intracellular plasmid DNA delivery in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Thomas J; Rabussay, Dietmar P

    2012-11-01

    Electroporation, an attractive process for delivering DNA and other molecules into target cells in vivo and in vitro is limited by the necessity of electrodes that need to be in contact with the subject or object to be electroporated. We have used magnetic fields, which do not require material contact with the subject, to temporarily permeabilize cells in guinea pig skin in vivo to enhance uptake and expression of GFP plasmid DNA. The results show for the first time that magnetic fields can trigger a process likely similar to electroporation. In designing the magnetic pulses, our most important criterion was a high rate of change of the magnetic field, based on the principle described by Michael Faraday which is expressed by the formula: E = -dB/dt, (E, electric field, B, magnetic field, t, time). Magnetic fields were generated by a flat electromagnet in a hand-held applicator positioned above the target tissue. The magnetic pulses had a peak magnetic flux density of 4 tesla; 50 pulses were applied in 5 sec. Biphasic magnetic pulses were twice as effective as monophasic pulses and about equally effective as traditional electroporation pulses . Advantages of magnetopermeabilization over electoporation include: No contact between applicator and subject ("contact-less"); no need for invasive, disposable, sterile electrodes ("needle-less"); no pain from needles and reduced overall pain; no known side effects; easier and faster to administer than electroporation; less expensive due to absence of disposables; and, importantly, greater tissue penetration of the magnetic field allowing treatment of anatomical areas inaccessible by electroporation.

  17. Selective radiofrequency therapy as a non-invasive approach for contactless body contouring and circumferential reduction.

    PubMed

    Fajkošová, Kateřina; Machovcová, Alena; Onder, Meltem; Fritz, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the efficacy of non-contact, selective radiofrequency (RF) were evaluated for body contouring as non-invasive fat and circumferential reduction of the abdomen. 40 healthy (36 female, 4 male) subjects showing significant volume of subcutaneous fat tissue on the abdomen and waistline were included. Once a week for 30 minutes, 4 sessions were performed. The applicator was placed on a supplied spacer covering the treatment area. Maximum power was 200W, which induced heat in the fat and connective tissue layer. The homogeneity of heat distribution and temperature of the skin surface were controlled. The circumferential reduction was measured at the baseline and after the last treatment. The photographs and adverse effects were recorded. Participants completed the self-evaluation questionnaires and rated their level of satisfaction. All subjects tolerated the treatments well. The only side effect was mild to moderate erythema. 35 subjects finished the protocol as planned and 5 subjects dropped off due to events not related to the study. 32 subjects had a 1-13 cm decrease in abdominal circumference and 3 subjects did not show significant response (0-1 cm). Most likely, a very thin fat layer was the reason for lack of response (the non-responding group was the thinnest patient group). No significant differences were found between men and women. The average decrease of 4.93 cm was calculated as a result of circumferential reduction statistical evidence. This study demonstrates that the selective RF system designed for contactless deep tissue heating is a painless, safe, and effective treatment for non-surgical body contouring and circumferential fat reduction.

  18. Contactless and selective energy transfer to a bistable micro-actuator using laser heated shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, S.; Lamarque, F.; Prelle, C.; Carton, O.; Zeinert, A.

    2012-11-01

    Contactless energy transfer (CET) methods offer great flexibility in the design of complex micro-systems. This paper reports a laser based contactless and selective energy transfer method. A compliant bistable micro-actuator (curved beam of size 25 mm × 1.5 mm × 0.508 mm) is actuated between its two stable positions using the laser heated shape memory alloy (SMA) active elements (size: 3 mm × 1 mm × 0.1 mm). The switching time of the actuator turns out to be 0.5 s for d0 equal to 700 μm and a laser power of 90 mW (d0 is half of the total stroke length). The paper also demonstrates the selective energy transfer technique to the SMA active elements by depositing silver based optical filters directly onto the SMA active elements. A successful demonstration is presented for four wavelengths, 532, 660, 785, and 980 nm, using different values of d0 for the bistable micro-actuator. Finally, a long-term test is performed to highlight the thermo-mechanical effect on the selective addressing capability of the optical filters.

  19. In situ measurement of tissue impedance using an inductive coupling interface circuit.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hung-Wei; Chuang, Jia-min; Lu, Chien-Chi; Lin, Wei-Tso; Lin, Chii-Wann; Lin, Mu-Lien

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a method of an inductive coupling impedance measurement (ICIM) is proposed for measuring the nerve impedance of a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) under PRF stimulation. ICIM provides a contactless interface for measuring the reflected impedance by an impedance analyzer with a low excitation voltage of 7 mV. The paper develops a calibration procedure involving a 50-Ω reference resistor to calibrate the reflected resistance for measuring resistance of the nerve in the test. A de-embedding technique to build the equivalent transformer circuit model for the ICIM circuit is also presented. A batteryless PRF stimulator with ICIM circuit demonstrated good accuracy for the acute measurement of DRG impedance both in situ and in vivo. Besides, an in vivo animal experiment was conducted to show that the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulation in relieving pain gradually declined as the impedance of the stimulated nerve increased. The experiment also revealed that the excitation voltage for measuring impedance below 25 mV can prevent the excitation of a nonlinear response of DRG.

  20. Towards an improved and more flexible representation of water stress in coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance models; implications for simulated land surface fluxes and variables at various spatiotemporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egea, G.; Verhoef, A.; Vidale, P. L.; Black, E.; Van den Hoof, C.

    2012-04-01

    Coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance (A-gs) models are commonly used in ecosystem models to represent the exchange rate of CO2 and H2O between vegetation and the atmosphere. The ways these models account for water stress differ greatly among modelling schemes. This study provides insight into the impact of contrasting model configurations of water stress on the simulated leaf-level values of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), the functional relationship among them and their ratio, the intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs), as soil dries. A simple, yet versatile, normalized soil moisture dependent function was used to account for the effects of water stress on gs, on mesophyll conductance (gm ) and on the biochemical capacity (Egea et al., 2011). Model output was compared to leaf-level values obtained from the literature. The sensitivity analyses emphasized the necessity to combine both stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of A in coupled A-gs models to accurately capture the observed functional relationships A vs. gs and A/gs vs. gs in response to drought. Accounting for water stress in coupled A-gs models by imposing either stomatal or biochemical limitations of A, as commonly practiced in most ecosystem models, failed to reproduce the observed functional relationship between key leaf gas exchange attributes. A quantitative limitation analysis revealed that the general pattern of C3 photosynthetic response to water stress can be represented in coupled A-gs models by imposing the highest limitation strength to mesophyll conductance, then to stomatal conductance and finally to the biochemical capacity. This more realistic representation of soil water stress on the simulated leaf-level values of A and gs was embedded in the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator; Best et al., 2011), model and tested for a number of vegetation types, for which driving and flux verification data were available. These simulations provide an insight into the

  1. Capillary action-supported contactless atmospheric pressure ionization for the combined sampling and mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Huan; Chang, Chia-Hsien; Urban, Pawel L; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2011-04-15

    It is proposed that a short tapered capillary can be utilized as a nanoliter-volume sampling tool and sample emitter for generation of gas-phase ions in front of the mass spectrometer, without the need for using an additional electric power supply, a gas supply, or a syringe pump. A wide range of molecules can be analyzed in pure solutions and complex matrixes (cell extract, urine, and plant tissue) with no or minimum sample preparation. Singly and multiply charged ions can be detected in either positive or negative-ion mode. Because of the nanoliter-volume sampling and low spectral background, the mass detection limit for bradykinin is in the low attomole range. Other advantages include simplicity, disposability, and low cost. The putative mechanism of the ion formation in this capillary-action supported contactless spray emitter is discussed.

  2. Summary of low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of two powered close-coupled wing-canard fighter configurations. [conducted in Langley C/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Thomas, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of the low speed longitudinal characteristics of two powered close coupled wing-canard fighter configurations are discussed. Data obtained at angles of attack from -2 deg to 42 deg, Mach numbers from 0.12 to 0.20, nozzle and flap deflections from 0 deg to 40 deg, and thrust coefficients from 0 to 2.0, to represent both high angle of attack subsonic maneuvering characteristics and conventional takeoff and landing characteristics are examined. Data obtained with the nozzles deflected either 60 deg or 90 deg and the flaps deflected 60 deg to represent vertical or short takeoff and landing characteristics are discussed.

  3. Coupled theoretical interpretation and experimental investigation of the anisotropy of the lattice thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquot, A.; Bayer, B.; Winkler, M.; Boettner, H.; Jaegle, M.

    2012-09-15

    The Debye model is modified for the calculation of the lattice thermal conductivity and used to gain insight into the anisotropy of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. In this work, the Debye temperature is not used to estimate the cutoff frequencies of the phonons that carry heat. The cutoff frequencies are defined by setting an upper limit to the energy of acoustic phonons using the complete dispersion relations. The anisotropy of the thermal conductivity is found to be unrelated to the anisotropy of the sound velocities. It is found that the sound velocity is almost isotropic when the longitudinal and two transversal waves are added together. In addition the relaxation time must be a function of the cutoff frequencies and counterbalances the anisotropy arising from the variation of the number of acoustic phonons traveling in various directions. It is concluded that the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity is mostly related to the Grueneisen's constant. - Graphical abstract: Dispersion relations of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} along c-axis. The cutoff frequencies are found to be anisotropic and are defined exactly in this article where the acoustic branch crosses the optical branch. This affects both the number of phonons that carry heat in a given direction and the number of phonons that can scatter them. This is decisive for understanding the lattice thermal conductivity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the anisotropy of the lattice thermal conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provide a definition of the cutoff frequencies that makes sense. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of the number of frees parameter in phenomenological model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction that the anisotropy is a function of the scattering mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of experimental verification of theory.

  4. Enhanced Surface-and-Interface Coupling in Pd-Nanoparticle-coated LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Heterostructures: Strong Gas- and Photo-Induced Conductance Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haeri; Chan, Ngai Yui; Dai, Ji-yan; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Pd nanoparticle (NP) coated LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) heterointerface exhibits more notable conductance (G) change while varying the ambient gas (N2, H2/N2, and O2) and illuminating with UV light (wavelength: 365 nm) than a sample without the NPs. Simultaneous Kelvin probe force microscopy and transport measurements reveal close relationships between the surface work function (W) and G of the samples. Quantitative analyses suggest that a surface adsorption/desorption-mediated reaction and redox, resulting in a band-alignment modification and charge-transfer, could explain the gas- and photo-induced conductance modulation at the LAO/STO interface. Such surface-and-interface coupling enhanced by catalytic Pd NPs is a unique feature, quite distinct from conventional semiconductor hetero-junctions, which enables the significant conductance tunability at ultrathin oxide heterointerfaces by external stimuli. PMID:25704566

  5. Enhanced Surface-and-Interface Coupling in Pd-Nanoparticle-coated LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Heterostructures: Strong Gas- and Photo-Induced Conductance Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Haeri; Chan, Ngai Yui; Dai, Ji-Yan; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-02-01

    Pd nanoparticle (NP) coated LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) heterointerface exhibits more notable conductance (G) change while varying the ambient gas (N2, H2/N2, and O2) and illuminating with UV light (wavelength: 365 nm) than a sample without the NPs. Simultaneous Kelvin probe force microscopy and transport measurements reveal close relationships between the surface work function (W) and G of the samples. Quantitative analyses suggest that a surface adsorption/desorption-mediated reaction and redox, resulting in a band-alignment modification and charge-transfer, could explain the gas- and photo-induced conductance modulation at the LAO/STO interface. Such surface-and-interface coupling enhanced by catalytic Pd NPs is a unique feature, quite distinct from conventional semiconductor hetero-junctions, which enables the significant conductance tunability at ultrathin oxide heterointerfaces by external stimuli.

  6. Observation of Rabi Splitting from Surface-plasmon Coupled Conduction-state Transitions in Electrically-excited InAs Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Passmore, Brian S.; Adams, David C.; Ribaudo, Troy; Wasserman, Daniel; Lyon, Stephen; Chow, Weng W.; Shaner, Eric A.

    2011-02-09

    We demonstrate strong coupling between a surface plasmon and intersublevel transitions in self-assembled InAs quantum dots. The surface plasmon mode exists at the interface between the semiconductor emitter structure and a periodic array of holes perforating a metallic Pd/Ge/Au film that also serves as the top electrical contact for the emitters. Spectrally narrowed quantum-dot electroluminescence was observed for devices with varying subwavelength hole spacing. Devices designed for 9, 10, and 11 μm wavelength emission also exhibit a significant spectral splitting. The association of the splitting with quantum-dot Rabi oscillation is consistent with results from a calculation of spontaneous emission from an interacting plasmonic field and quantum-dot ensemble. The fact that this Rabi oscillation can be observed in an incoherently excited, highly inhomogeneously broadened system demonstrates the utility of intersublevel transitions in quantum dots for investigations of coherent transient and quantum coherence phenomena.

  7. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision.

    PubMed

    Goavec-Mérou, G; Chrétien, N; Friedt, J-M; Sandoz, P; Martin, G; Lenczner, M; Ballandras, S

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates. PMID:24517814

  8. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: Demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goavec-Mérou, G.; Chrétien, N.; Friedt, J.-M.; Sandoz, P.; Martin, G.; Lenczner, M.; Ballandras, S.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates.

  9. Micro-flow injection analysis system: on-chip sample preconcentration, injection and delivery using coupled monolithic electroosmotic pumps.

    PubMed

    Nie, Fu-Qiang; Macka, Mirek; Paull, Brett

    2007-11-01

    A micro-fluidic chip, within which two monolithic electroosmotic pumps are utilised for sample preconcentration, injection and delivery is presented. The monolithic pumps were capable of producing stable and bubble free flow rates at applied voltages below 2 kV, with a current <10 microA. Electrokinetic (EK) sample injection, down to low nano-litre volumes, was quantitatively controlled through applied voltage and injection times, whilst the sample pump delivered a carrier solution to indirectly dispense the sample. A nano-flow sensor (NFS) was used to continuously monitor the flow rate stability of each pump, showing response times of <5-10 s for changes in applied voltage. A capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D), as an off-chip on-capillary detector, was used to complete the micro-flow injection analysis (FIA) system. A monolithic electroosmotic pump (EOP), modified with an anionic surfactant, was used to demonstrate a novel approach to on-chip cation preconcentration and elution.

  10. Anomalous conductivity in Hall thrusters: Effects of the non-linear coupling of the electron-cyclotron drift instability with secondary electron emission of the walls

    SciTech Connect

    Héron, A.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-08-15

    With the help of an implicit particle-in-cell code, we have shown in a previous paper that the electron-cyclotron drift instability was able to induce anomalous conductivity as well as anomalous heating. As such it can be a major actor among the mechanisms involved in the operation of Hall thrusters. However, experimental results show that the nature of wall material has a significant effect on the behavior of the thruster. The purpose of this paper is to study the plasma-wall interaction in the case where the plasma is heated self-consistently by electrostatic fluctuations induced by the electron-cyclotron drift instability.

  11. Cellulose-coupled graphene/polypyrrole composite electrodes containing conducting networks built by carbon fibers as wearable supercapacitors with excellent foldability and tailorability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Shaoyi; Chang, Huanjun; Fu, Feng; Hu, La; Huang, Jingda; Wang, Siqun

    2016-09-01

    A paper-based wearable supercapacitor with excellent foldability and tailorability is fabricated from a chopped carbon fiber (CCF)-reinforced cellulose paper electrode material by coating with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and polypyrrole (PPy) via in situ polymerization. The CCFs not only form an interpenetrating conducting network that acts as highly conductive electron transfer highways for the RGO/PPy layer in the paper electrode, but also endow the resulting electrode with an excellent areal capacitance of 363 mF cm-2 and a volumetric energy density of 0.28 mW h cm-3. Further, the CCFs give the electrode remarkable mechanical robustness, guaranteeing foldability and tailorability, with only slight loss of capacitance after repeated folding 600 times. Even after being subjected to severe cut-in fracture, the capacitance retention is up to 84%, indicating outstanding damage tolerance. The present study reveals a promising candidate for flexible wearable energy storage devices that are required to function in harsh environments.

  12. Single-scan measurement of conductance of a quartz crystal microbalance array coupled with resonant markers for biosensing in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Yi; Chen, Richie L. C.; Cheng, Tzong-Jih

    2009-04-01

    This work presents a method for sensing the viscoelastic property of liquid/solid interface using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) array. Each sensor in a QCM array has a unique resonant frequency and can be identified by a single-scan measurement of admittance (or impedance). The resonant frequency encoding at each sensor in an array was realized by connecting a capacitor with a known capacitance, called a resonant marker, to the sensor in series. Changes in the resonant frequency of all sensors in an array can be determined using an impedance analyzer and a program that determines the frequencies at which the conductance is at a local maximum. The sensing method allows every sensor output (resonant frequency) to be obtained without the use of time-consuming multiplexed hardware and software. Adsorptions of biomolecules by multiple sensor are monitored in the liquid phase to demonstrate the feasibility of frequency encoding using resonant markers and the single-scan measurement of conductance of a QCM array.

  13. Single-scan measurement of conductance of a quartz crystal microbalance array coupled with resonant markers for biosensing in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Hsien-Yi; Chen, Richie L. C.; Cheng, Tzong-Jih

    2009-04-15

    This work presents a method for sensing the viscoelastic property of liquid/solid interface using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) array. Each sensor in a QCM array has a unique resonant frequency and can be identified by a single-scan measurement of admittance (or impedance). The resonant frequency encoding at each sensor in an array was realized by connecting a capacitor with a known capacitance, called a resonant marker, to the sensor in series. Changes in the resonant frequency of all sensors in an array can be determined using an impedance analyzer and a program that determines the frequencies at which the conductance is at a local maximum. The sensing method allows every sensor output (resonant frequency) to be obtained without the use of time-consuming multiplexed hardware and software. Adsorptions of biomolecules by multiple sensor are monitored in the liquid phase to demonstrate the feasibility of frequency encoding using resonant markers and the single-scan measurement of conductance of a QCM array.

  14. Rigid-flexible coupling high ionic conductivity polymer electrolyte for an enhanced performance of LiMn2O4/graphite battery at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pu; Duan, Yulong; Hu, Deping; Qin, Bingsheng; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Qingfu; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2015-03-01

    LiMn2O4-based batteries exhibit severe capacity fading during cycling or storage in LiPF6-based liquid electrolytes, especially at elevated temperatures. Herein, a novel rigid-flexible gel polymer electrolyte is introduced to enhance the cyclability of LiMn2O4/graphite battery at elevated temperature. The polymer electrolyte consists of a robust natural cellulose skeletal incorporated with soft segment poly(ethyl α-cyanoacrylate). The introduction of the cellulose effectively overcomes the drawback of poor mechanical integrity of the gel polymer electrolyte. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation demonstrates that the poly(ethyl α-cyanoacrylate) matrices effectively dissociate the lithium salt to facilitate ionic transport and thus has a higher ionic conductivity at room temperature. Ionic conductivity of the gel polymer electrolyte is 3.3 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The gel polymer electrolyte remarkably improves the cycling performance of LiMn2O4-based batteries, especially at elevated temperatures. The capacity retention after the 100th cycle is 82% at 55 °C, which is much higher than that of liquid electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvents). The polymer electrolyte can significantly suppress the dissolution of Mn(2+) from surface of LiMn2O4 because of strong interaction energy of Mn(2+) with PECA, which was investigated by DFT calculation.

  15. Caveolin-1 Facilitates the Direct Coupling between Large Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) and Cav1.2 Ca2+ Channels and Their Clustering to Regulate Membrane Excitability in Vascular Myocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Hisao; Ohya, Susumu; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (LVDCC) and large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) are the major factors defining membrane excitability in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptor significantly contributes to BKCa activation in VSMCs. In this study direct coupling between LVDCC (Cav1.2) and BKCa and the role of caveoline-1 on their interaction in mouse mesenteric artery SMCs were examined. The direct activation of BKCa by Ca2+ influx through coupling LVDCC was demonstrated by patch clamp recordings in freshly isolated VSMCs. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, it was found that a large part of yellow fluorescent protein-tagged BKCa co-localized with the cyan fluorescent protein-tagged Cav1.2 expressed in the plasma membrane of primary cultured mouse VSMCs and that the two molecules often exhibited FRET. It is notable that each BKα subunit of a tetramer in BKCa can directly interact with Cav1.2 and promotes Cav1.2 cluster in the molecular complex. Furthermore, caveolin-1 deficiency in knock-out (KO) mice significantly reduced not only the direct coupling between BKCa and Cav1.2 but also the functional coupling between BKCa and ryanodine receptor in VSMCs. The measurement of single cell shortening by 40 mm K+ revealed enhanced contractility in VSMCs from KO mice than wild type. Taken together, caveolin-1 facilitates the accumulation/clustering of BKCa-LVDCC complex in caveolae, which effectively regulates spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics including the negative feedback, to control the arterial excitability and contractility. PMID:24202214

  16. Direct and contactless electrical control of temperature of paper and textile foldable substrates using electrospun metallic-web transparent electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Busuioc, Cristina; Evanghelidis, Alexandru; Galatanu, Andrei; Enculescu, Ionut

    2016-01-01

    Multiple and complex functionalities are a demand nowadays for almost all materials, including common day-to-day materials such as paper, textiles, wood, etc. In the present report, the surface temperature control of different types of materials, including paper and textiles, was demonstrated by Joule heating of metallic-web transparent electrodes both by direct current and by RF induced eddy currents. Polymeric submicronic fiber webs were prepared by electrospinning, and metal sputtering was subsequently performed to transform them into flexible transparent electrodes. These electrodes were thermally attached to different substrates, including paper, textiles and glass. Using thermochromic inks, we demonstrated a high degree of control of the substrates’ surface temperature by means of the Joule effect. Metallic fiber webs appear to be excellently suited for use as transparent electrodes for controlling the surface temperature of common materials, their highly flexible nature being a major advantage when dealing with rough, bendable substrates. This kind of result could not be achieved on bendable substrates with rough surfaces such as paper or textiles while employing classical transparent electrodes i.e. metal oxides. Moreover, contactless heating with induced currents is a premiere for transparent electrodes and opens up a score of new application fields. PMID:27721382

  17. Optical reflection and contactless electroreflection from GaAlAs layers with periodically arranged GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Chaldyshev, V. V. Shkol'nik, A. S.; Evtikhiev, V. P.; Holden, T.

    2006-12-15

    Optical reflection and electroreflection for the AlGaAs layers containing the periodically arranged GaAs quantum wells of different thickness are studied at photon energies ranging from 1 to 2 eV. It is established that the spectral dependence of the reflectance involves three different contributions made by (i) the reflection from the medium-air interface; (ii) the interference reflection due to the periodically modulated refractive index, since the materials of the wells and barriers have different refractive indices; and (iii) the reflection produced by the interaction of electromagnetic waves with the excition states in the quantum wells. Analysis of the reflection spectra shows that these contributions are characterized by different behavior with variations in temperature, angle of incidence of light, and polarization; however, quantitative separation of the spectra into individual contributions presents a rather difficult problem. To separate the contribution originating from the interaction of light with the exciton states from the optical spectra, a special approach based on contactless measurements of the optical electroreflectance over a certain spectral region is developed. It is shown that this method provides a means for determining the parameters of the exciton states in the quantum wells.

  18. Direct and contactless electrical control of temperature of paper and textile foldable substrates using electrospun metallic-web transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuioc, Cristina; Evanghelidis, Alexandru; Galatanu, Andrei; Enculescu, Ionut

    2016-10-01

    Multiple and complex functionalities are a demand nowadays for almost all materials, including common day-to-day materials such as paper, textiles, wood, etc. In the present report, the surface temperature control of different types of materials, including paper and textiles, was demonstrated by Joule heating of metallic-web transparent electrodes both by direct current and by RF induced eddy currents. Polymeric submicronic fiber webs were prepared by electrospinning, and metal sputtering was subsequently performed to transform them into flexible transparent electrodes. These electrodes were thermally attached to different substrates, including paper, textiles and glass. Using thermochromic inks, we demonstrated a high degree of control of the substrates’ surface temperature by means of the Joule effect. Metallic fiber webs appear to be excellently suited for use as transparent electrodes for controlling the surface temperature of common materials, their highly flexible nature being a major advantage when dealing with rough, bendable substrates. This kind of result could not be achieved on bendable substrates with rough surfaces such as paper or textiles while employing classical transparent electrodes i.e. metal oxides. Moreover, contactless heating with induced currents is a premiere for transparent electrodes and opens up a score of new application fields.

  19. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel. PMID:22352478

  20. Design and realization of a contact-less interaction system based on infrared reflection photoelectric detection array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Lei, Bing; Feng, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Due to the good performance of high sensitivity, quick response and low cost, infrared reflection detection technology is widely used in various fields. In this work, we present a novel contact-less interaction system which is based on infrared reflection detection technology. The system is mainly composed of a Micro Controller Unit (MCU), upper computer and photoelectric detection module. The MCU is utilized to control the photoelectric detection module and to make sure that the sensing unit is lighted one by one in a given order. When the interactive object appears upon the infrared reflection photoelectric detection array, its position information will be ensured and sent to the upper computer through MCU. In this system, every sensing unit is lighted for 1ms, and the detection array includes 8×8 units. It means that the photoelectric detection array will scan 15.6 times per-second. The experimental research results indicate that the factors affecting the detection range including the working current of transmitting diode, modulation frequency, and the reflectivity of the interactive object. When the working current is 10mA, and the modulation frequency is 80 KHz, the system has a detection range of 20 cm. Moreover, efficient modulation and demodulation of optical signal is quite necessary to remove the influence of surrounding light.

  1. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel.

  2. Modeling of the Near Field Coupling Between an External Loop and an Implantable Spiral Chip Antennas in Biosensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the near field coupling between an external hand-held loop antenna and an implantable miniature (1x1 mm) printed square spiral chip antenna used in bio-MEMS sensors for contact-less powering and RF telemetry is investigated. The loop and the spiral are inductively coupled and effectively form a transformer. The numerical results include the quasi-stationary magnetic field pattern of the implanted antenna, near zone wave impedance as a function of the radial distance and the values of the lumped elements in the equivalent circuit model for the transformer.

  3. On-line capillary isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of bromate in drinking waters in an automated analyzer with coupled columns and photometric detection.

    PubMed

    Marák, Jozef; Staňová, Andrea; Vaváková, Veronika; Hrenáková, Martina; Kaniansky, Dušan

    2012-12-01

    A new, sensitive, and robust analytical method based on capillary zone electrophoresis with on-line capillary isotachophoresis sample pretreatment (ITP-CZE) using a column-coupling (CC) arrangement of automated capillary electrophoretic analyzer was developed for determination of bromate in different type of drinking water samples. Both columns were provided with contact-less conductivity detectors and in CZE step UV detection at 200 nm wavelength was used. Electroosmotic flow of the buffer solutions was suppressed with the addition of 0.1% or 0.05% (m/v) methylhydroxyethylcellulose into the leading and terminating electrolyte, respectively. Hydrodynamic and electroosmotic flows of the buffer solutions were successfully suppressed and therefore, only the electrophoretic transport of ions was significant. Limit of detection for bromate approaching 0.6 μg/L was achieved. Good repeatabilities of migration time (RSD less than 0.3%) and peak area (RSD less than 4.0%) at concentration level 1 μg/L were obtained. Robustness of proposed ITP-CZE method and validation parameters were evaluated. Developed automated ITP-CZE method was applied to the determination of bromate in drinking water samples with different content of inorganic macroconstituents without the need of further sample preparation.

  4. Automatic sampling and analysis of organics and biomolecules by capillary action-supported contactless atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Huan; Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Contactless atmospheric pressure ionization (C-API) method has been recently developed for mass spectrometric analysis. A tapered capillary is used as both the sampling tube and spray emitter in C-API. No electric contact is required on the capillary tip during C-API mass spectrometric analysis. The simple design of the ionization method enables the automation of the C-API sampling system. In this study, we propose an automatic C-API sampling system consisting of a capillary (∼1 cm), an aluminium sample holder, and a movable XY stage for the mass spectrometric analysis of organics and biomolecules. The aluminium sample holder is controlled by the movable XY stage. The outlet of the C-API capillary is placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, whereas the sample well on the sample holder is moved underneath the capillary inlet. The sample droplet on the well can be readily infused into the C-API capillary through capillary action. When the sample solution reaches the capillary outlet, the sample spray is readily formed in the proximity of the mass spectrometer applied with a high electric field. The gas phase ions generated from the spray can be readily monitored by the mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that six samples can be analyzed in sequence within 3.5 min using this automatic C-API MS setup. Furthermore, the well containing the rinsing solvent is alternately arranged between the sample wells. Therefore, the C-API capillary could be readily flushed between runs. No carryover problems are observed during the analyses. The sample volume required for the C-API MS analysis is minimal, with less than 1 nL of the sample solution being sufficient for analysis. The feasibility of using this setup for quantitative analysis is also demonstrated.

  5. Automatic sampling and analysis of organics and biomolecules by capillary action-supported contactless atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Huan; Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Contactless atmospheric pressure ionization (C-API) method has been recently developed for mass spectrometric analysis. A tapered capillary is used as both the sampling tube and spray emitter in C-API. No electric contact is required on the capillary tip during C-API mass spectrometric analysis. The simple design of the ionization method enables the automation of the C-API sampling system. In this study, we propose an automatic C-API sampling system consisting of a capillary (∼1 cm), an aluminium sample holder, and a movable XY stage for the mass spectrometric analysis of organics and biomolecules. The aluminium sample holder is controlled by the movable XY stage. The outlet of the C-API capillary is placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, whereas the sample well on the sample holder is moved underneath the capillary inlet. The sample droplet on the well can be readily infused into the C-API capillary through capillary action. When the sample solution reaches the capillary outlet, the sample spray is readily formed in the proximity of the mass spectrometer applied with a high electric field. The gas phase ions generated from the spray can be readily monitored by the mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that six samples can be analyzed in sequence within 3.5 min using this automatic C-API MS setup. Furthermore, the well containing the rinsing solvent is alternately arranged between the sample wells. Therefore, the C-API capillary could be readily flushed between runs. No carryover problems are observed during the analyses. The sample volume required for the C-API MS analysis is minimal, with less than 1 nL of the sample solution being sufficient for analysis. The feasibility of using this setup for quantitative analysis is also demonstrated. PMID:23762484

  6. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)

  7. Benchmarking of a novel contactless characterisation method for micro thermoelectric modules (μTEMs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, S.; Punch, J.; Jeffers, N.

    2014-07-01

    Significant challenges exist in the thermal control of Photonics Integrated Circuits (PICs) for use in optical communications. Increasing component density coupled with greater functionality is leading to higher device-level heat fluxes, stretching the capabilities of conventional cooling methods using thermoelectric modules (TEMs). A tailored thermal control solution incorporating micro thermoelectric modules (μTEMs) to individually address hotspots within PICs could provide an energy efficient alternative to existing control methods. Performance characterisation is required to establish the suitability of commercially-available μTEMs for the operating conditions in current and next generation PICs. The objective of this paper is to outline a novel method for the characterisation of thermoelectric modules (TEMs), which utilises infra-red (IR) heat transfer and temperature measurement to obviate the need for mechanical stress on the upper surface of low compression tolerance (~0.5N) μTEMs. The method is benchmarked using a commercially-available macro scale TEM, comparing experimental data to the manufacturer's performance data sheet.

  8. Machine-assisted verification of latent fingerprints: first results for nondestructive contact-less optical acquisition techniques with a CWL sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Krapyvskyy, Dmytro; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-11-01

    A machine-assisted analysis of traces from crime scenes might be possible with the advent of new high-resolution non-destructive contact-less acquisition techniques for latent fingerprints. This requires reliable techniques for the automatic extraction of fingerprint features from latent and exemplar fingerprints for matching purposes using pattern recognition approaches. Therefore, we evaluate the NIST Biometric Image Software for the feature extraction and verification of contact-lessly acquired latent fingerprints to determine potential error rates. Our exemplary test setup includes 30 latent fingerprints from 5 people in two test sets that are acquired from different surfaces using a chromatic white light sensor. The first test set includes 20 fingerprints on two different surfaces. It is used to determine the feature extraction performance. The second test set includes one latent fingerprint on 10 different surfaces and an exemplar fingerprint to determine the verification performance. This utilized sensing technique does not require a physical or chemical visibility enhancement of the fingerprint residue, thus the original trace remains unaltered for further investigations. No particular feature extraction and verification techniques have been applied to such data, yet. Hence, we see the need for appropriate algorithms that are suitable to support forensic investigations.

  9. Non-aqueous electrolytes for isotachophoresis of weak bases and its application to the comprehensive preconcentration of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids in column-coupling ITP/CE-MS.

    PubMed

    Kler, Pablo A; Huhn, Carolin

    2014-11-01

    Isotachophoresis (ITP) has long been used alone but also as a preconcentration technique for capillary electrophoresis (CE). Unfortunately, up to now, its application is restricted to relatively strong acids and bases as either the degree of (de)protonation is too low or the water dissociation is too high, evoking zone electrophoresis. With the comprehensive ITP analysis of all 20 proteinogenic amino acids as model analytes, we, here, show that non-aqueous ITP using dimethylsulfoxide as a solvent solves this ITP shortcoming. Dimethylsulfoxide changes the pH regime of analytes and electrolytes but, more importantly, strongly reduces the proton mobility by prohibiting hydrogen bonds and thus, the so-called Zundel-Eigen-Zundel electrical conduction mechanism of flipping hydrogen bonds. The effects are demonstrated in an electrolyte system with taurine or H(+) as terminator, and imidazole as leader together with strong acids such as oxalic and even trifluoroacetic acid as counterions, both impossible to use in aqueous solution. Mass spectrometric as well as capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) are used to follow the ITP processes. To demonstrate the preconcentration capabilities of ITP in a two-dimensional set-up, we, here, also demonstrate that our non-aqueous ITP method can be combined with capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry in a column-coupling system using a hybrid approach of capillaries coupled to a microfluidic interface. For this, C(4)D was optimized for on-chip detection with the electrodes aligned on top of a thin glass lid of the microfluidic chip.

  10. Comparison of different coil positions for ventilation monitoring with contact-less magnetic impedance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, A.; Pollig, D.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    For monitoring the health status of individuals, proper monitoring of ventilation is desirable. Therefore, a continuous measurement technique is an advantage for many patients since it allows personal home care scenarios. As an example, monitoring of elderly people at home could enable them to live in their familiar environment on their own with the safety of a continuous monitoring. Therefore, a measurement technique without the restriction of mobility is required. Since it is possible to monitor ventilation with magnetic impedance measurements without conductive contact, this technique is well suited for the mentioned scenario. Integrated in a chair, a person's health state could be monitored in many situations, e.g. during meals, while watching TV or reading a book. In this paper, we compare different positions of coil arrays for a magnetic impedance measurement system integrated in a chair in order to monitor ventilation continuously. For limiting the costs and technical complexity of the magnetic impedance measurement system, we have a focus on coil configurations with one RF channel. To limit the needed space and thickness of the array in the backrest, planar gradiometer coil setups are investigated. All measurements will be performed with a new developed portable magnetic impedance measurement system and a standard office chair.

  11. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  12. Contactless pellet fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    A small object is coated by holding it in the pressure well of an acoustic standing wave pattern, and then applying a mist of liquid coating material at low velocity into the pressure well. The pressure gradient within the well forces the mist particles to be pushed against the object. A lower frequency acoustic wave also can be applied to the coated object, to vibrate it so as to evenly distribute the coated material. The same lower frequency vibrations can be applied to an object in the shape of a hollow sphere, to center the inner and outer surfaces of the sphere while it remains suspended.

  13. Appropriate Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Lullo, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Many years ago when the author assumed the role of assistant principal for school climate, discipline, and attendance, he inherited many school policies and guidelines that were outdated, unfair, and without merit in the current school climate. Because the school conduct code had not been revised since the school opened in 1960, many of the…

  14. Fast and non-invasive conductivity determination by the dielectric response of reduced graphene oxide: an electrostatic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Guzmán-Vázquez, Francisco J; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Saenz, Juan J; Sacha, G M

    2012-11-21

    The high dispersion found in the literature for the conductivity of Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) layers makes it highly desirable to develop fast and non-invasive methods for their characterization. Here we show that Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM) is an in situ, fast, and contactless technique to evaluate the conductivity of chemically derived graphene layers. The dielectric response of RGO flakes is observed to depend on their conductivity in the range of 0-3 S m(-1). Interestingly, we also find that for electrostatic purposes, a graphene layer is equivalent to an extremely thin dielectric layer with an effective permittivity (ε(eff)) that depends on the conductivity of the layers and spans from 5 for the insulating layers, to 2000 for the more conductive ones. We discuss how these high values of ε(eff) are a consequence of the incomplete screening of electric fields through graphene layers.

  15. Electrodeless conductivity.

    PubMed

    Light, T S; McHale, E J; Fletcher, K S

    1989-01-01

    Electrodeless conductivity is a technique for measuring the concentration of electrolytes in solution and utilizes a probe consisting of two toroids in close proximity, both of which are immersed in the solution. In special cases, the toroids may be mounted externally on insulated pipes carrying the solution. One toroid radiates an alternating electric field in the audiofrequency range and the other acts as a receiver to pick up the small current induced by the ions moving in a conducting loop of solution. Coatings which would foul contacting electrodes, such as suspensions, precipitates or oil, have little or no effect. Applications are chiefly to continuous measurement in the chemical processing industries, including pulp and paper, mining and heavy chemical production. The principles and practical details of the method are reviewed and cell-diameter, wall, and temperature effects are discussed. PMID:18964695

  16. Conductive Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    2002-11-22

    Electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and high-energy density batteries. These new polymers offer cost savings, weight reduction, ease of processing, and inherent rugged design compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic industry has grown more than 30% during the past three years. Lightweight, flexible solar modules are being used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for field power units. LEDs historically used for indicator lights are now being investigated for general lighting to replace fluorescent and incandescent lights. These so-called solid-state lights are becoming more prevalent across the country since they produce efficient lighting with little heat generation. Conductive polymers are being sought for battery development as well. Considerable weight savings over conventional cathode materials used in secondary storage batteries make portable devices easier to carry and electric cars more efficient and nimble. Secondary battery sales represent an $8 billion industry annually. The purpose of the project was to synthesize and characterize conductive polymers. TRACE Photonics Inc. has researched critical issues which affect conductivity. Much of their work has focused on production of substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) compounds. These compounds exhibit greater solubility over the parent polyphenylenevinylene, making them easier to process. Alkoxy substituted groups evaluated during this study included: methoxy, propoxy, and heptyloxy. Synthesis routes for production of alkoxy-substituted poly phenylenevinylene were developed. Considerable emphasis was placed on final product yield and purity.

  17. Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air.

    The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air.

    The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. In situ spazialisation of flow laws in a fractured media with multi-parametric measurements (pressure, deformation, water conductivity) and 2d coupled hydro-mechanical (h.m) modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmoille, A.; Cappa, F.; Guglielmie, Y.

    2003-04-01

    decreasing. The simultaneous record of deformations in the drain and joint show us that joint deformation is effective after the drain opening. It is necessarily to have a sufficient water pressure in the drain to open the joint, thus the joint deformation is strongly dependent of the water pressure in the drain. When the pressure decreases in the drain, the stress stopped on the joint, and it happens a reduction of the joint aperture which induces a pressure fall less fast than the pressure fall in the drain. In the very low permeable area of the joint, it only happens a lightly decrease of pressure. In this investigation area, the joint opening is less important than in the low permeable area. During the pressure decrease in the drain, the joint closed, and the new affected permeability only permits water to slowly flow out of the joint. Then, we induce the second pressure increase when the pressure decrease in this area doesn’t finish. The reopening of the joint with the arrivals of water induces a new pressure increase which adds to the residual pressure, thus, it happens an accumulation of pressure in the joint. This observation shows us that the flow in the fractured media isn’t governed by the same parameters in a low permeable discontinuity or in a very permeable discontinuity. The conductivity measurements in the joint and in drain clearly highlight the channelling of a fracture plan. In this stratigraphic joint studied, the conductivity variations show the complexity of a joint surface. These variations of conductivity resulted of the water flow from one channel to another one induced by the pressure variations in the drain. The last stage of this research work consists of to analyse the hydro-mechanical (H.M) behaviour of the two studied discontinuities with the UDEC 2D numerical code. The procedures of modelling examine the coupled H.M effects of a jointed rock mass affected, in a first test, by an identical joint aperture in the network, and, in a second

  19. Conducting a thermal conductivity survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    A physically transparent approximate theory of phonon decay rates is presented starting from a pair potential model of the interatomic forces in an insulator or semiconductor. The theory applies in the classical regime and relates the 3-phonon decay rate to the third derivative of the pair potential. Phonon dispersion relations do not need to be calculated, as sum rules relate all the needed quantities directly to the pair potential. The Brillouin zone averaged phonon lifetime turns out to involve a dimensionless measure of the anharmonicity multiplied by an effective density of states for 3-phonon decay. Results are given for rare gas and alkali halide crystals. For rare gases, the results are in good agreement with more elaborate perturbation calculations. Comparison to experimental data on phonon linewidths and thermal conductivity are made.

  20. Conductance of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Supriyo; Anatram, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    The recent report of quantized conductance in a 4 m long multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) raises the exciting possibility of ballistic transport at room temperature over relatively long distances. We argue that this is made possible by the special symmetry of the eigenstates of the lowest propagating modes in metallic nanotubes which suppresses backscattering. This unusual effect is absent for the higher propagating modes so that transport is not ballistic once the bias exceeds the cut-off energy for the higher modes, which is estimated to be approximately 75 meV for nanotubes of diameter approximately 15 nm. Also, we show that the symmetry of the eigenstates can significantly affect their coupling to the reservoir and hence the contact resistance. A simple model is presented that can be used to understand the observed conductance-voltage characteristics.

  1. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  2. Gesture-Controlled Interface for Contactless Control of Various Computer Programs with a Hooking-Based Keyboard and Mouse-Mapping Technique in the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ben Joonyeon; Jang, Taekjin; Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2016-01-01

    We developed a contactless interface that exploits hand gestures to effectively control medical images in the operating room. We developed an in-house program called GestureHook that exploits message hooking techniques to convert gestures into specific functions. For quantitative evaluation of this program, we used gestures to control images of a dynamic biliary CT study and compared the results with those of a mouse (8.54 ± 1.77 s to 5.29 ± 1.00 s; p < 0.001) and measured the recognition rates of specific gestures and the success rates of tasks based on clinical scenarios. For clinical applications, this program was set up in the operating room to browse images for plastic surgery. A surgeon browsed images from three different programs: CT images from a PACS program, volume-rendered images from a 3D PACS program, and surgical planning photographs from a basic image viewing program. All programs could be seamlessly controlled by gestures and motions. This approach can control all operating room programs without source code modification and provide surgeons with a new way to safely browse through images and easily switch applications during surgical procedures. PMID:26981146

  3. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1989-04-25

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the "U" sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  4. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1982-03-17

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the U sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  5. The electrical conductivity and surface conduction of consolidated rock cores.

    PubMed

    Alkafeef, Saad F; Alajmi, Abdullah F

    2007-05-15

    A fully computerized high-pressure and high-temperature core holder device is simultaneously used to determine the electrical conductivity, zeta potential, and surface conductivity of consolidated rock cores in aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The total electrical conductivity of rock cores was determined by coupling streaming current and potential measurements. This shows that neglecting the surface conductivity Ksigma is crucial to converting the streaming potential into zeta potentials. It is observed that plots of the core total conductivity as a function of the electrolyte conductivity KL exhibit two behaviors. At low ionic strength, the core conductivity clearly depends on the contribution of surface conductivity behind the slip plane, whereas at higher ionic strength, the magnitude of the surface conductivity becomes negligible. The electrical conductivity of rock cores was found to be in good agreement with the O'Brien theory and the Briggs method. The contribution of the stagnant layer to the surface conductivity in nonaqueous systems has been shown to be significant. This shows that the stagnant layer displays significantly different behavior in different nonaqueous systems, depending on the core porosity and the double-layer overlap. The results indicate that the application of electrokinetics in petroleum reservoirs can provide important insights into reservoir fluid flow characterization.

  6. Monitoring of Plant Light/Dark Cycles Using Air-coupled Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Álvarez-Arenas, T. E. G.

    This work presents the application of a technique based on the excitation, sensing and spectral analysis of leaves thickness resonances using air-coupled and wide-band ultrasound to monitor variations in leaves properties due to the plant response along light/dark cycles. The main features of these resonances are determined by the tautness of the cells walls in such a way that small modifications produced by variations in the transpiration rate, stomata aperture or water potential have a direct effect on the thickness resonances that can be measured in a completely non-invasive and contactless way. Results show that it is possible to monitor leaves changes due to variations in light intensity along the diurnal cycle, moreover, the technique reveals differences in the leaf response for different species and also within the same species but for specimens grown under different conditions that present different cell structures at the tissue level.

  7. Local Conductance and Saturation Lengths of Atomic Wires Dipped in a Conducting Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeeffe, James; Mingo, Natalio; Han, Jie; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We conclude that the conducting mode pi is the most likely responsible for conduction in experimental mercury-nanotube contacts. The total conductance approaches a saturation value as the dipping length is increased. There are two distinct regimes, strong and weak coupling, characterized by saturation conductances of 0 or 1G(sub o). We have calculated the partial conductance at each nanotube unit cell. The partial conductance exhibits oscillations due to reflection at the end of the tube.

  8. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions, alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal cations by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection.

    PubMed

    Kubán, Pavel; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2002-11-01

    Simultaneous separation of up to 22 inorganic and organic anions, alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal cations was achieved in less than 3 min in the capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductometric detector. The sample was injected from both capillary ends (dual opposite end injection) and anionic and cationic species were detected in the center of the separation capillary. The parameters of the separation electrolyte, such as pH, concentration of the electrolyte, concentration of complexing agents and concentration of 18-crown-6 were studied. Best results were achieved with electrolytes consisting of 8 mM L-histidine, 2.8 mM 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid, 0.32 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 4.25 or 9 mM L-histidine, 4.6 mM lactic acid, 0.38 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 4.25. Other electrolytes containing complexing agents such as malic or tartaric acid at various concentrations could also be used. The detection limits achieved for most cations and anions were 7.5 - 62 micro gL(-1) except for Ba2+ (90 micro gL(-1)), Cd 2+, Cr 3+ and F- (125 micro gL(-1)), and fumarate (250 micro gL(-1)). The repeatability of migration times and peak areas was better than 0.4% and 5.9%, respectively. The developed method was applied for analysis of real samples, such as tap, rain, drainage and surface water samples, plant exudates, plant extracts and ore leachates.

  9. Nonadiabatic Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryachko, Eugene S.

    The general features of the nonadiabatic coupling and its relation to molecular properties are surveyed. Some consequences of the [`]equation of motion', formally expressing a [`]smoothness' of a given molecular property within the diabatic basis, are demonstrated. A particular emphasis is made on the relation between a [`]smoothness' of the electronic dipole moment and the generalized Mulliken-Hush formula for the diabatic electronic coupling.

  10. Coupled transport protein systems.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2013-04-16

    This set of animated lessons provides examples of how transport proteins interact in coupled systems to produce physiologic effects. The gastric pumps animation depicts the secretion of hydrochloric acid into the gastric lumen. The animation called glucose absorption depicts glucose absorption by intestinal epithelial cells. The CFTR animation explains how the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR) functions as a key component of a coupled system of transport proteins that clears the pulmonary system of mucus and inhaled particulates. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these processes. Courses that might use them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

  11. Mathematical model of a double-coil inductive transducer for measuring electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kusmierz, Jozef

    2007-08-15

    A technique for the contactless measurement of the electrical conductivity of conducting materials using a double-coil inductive transducer is presented. A mathematical model of the transducer has been created and it consists of two cylindrical coils and a tested sample in the form of a cylinder coaxial with the coils. A processing function of the transducer is defined as the ratio of voltages between terminals of the measurement coil with and without the test sample. This processing function depends on the conductivity of the test sample, the dimensions of the sample and of both coils of the transducer (the measurement coil and the excitation coil), and the frequency of the current supplied to the excitation coil. An analytical formula for the processing function is derived; analysis of graphs of this function in different formats enables us to evaluate the influence of all the essential parameters of the transducer. This is a necessary step for both transducer optimization and carrying out of the conductivity measurement of the investigated materials. In order to verify the theoretical predictions, experimental investigations have been performed using a computerized data acquisition system. First, an experimental validation of the obtained analytical formula has been completed using an aluminum sample of known conductivity. Then, the conductivity measurements of a sample made of brass have been carried out. The obtained experimental results confirm the high accuracy of the theoretical analysis.

  12. Self-Consistent Simulations of Inductively Coupled Discharges at Very Low Pressures Using a FFT Method for Calculating the Non-local Electron Conductivity for the General Case of a Non-Uniform Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polomarov, Oleg; Theodosiou, Constantine; Kaganovich, Igor

    2003-10-01

    A self-consistent system of equations for the kinetic description of non-local, non-uniform, nearly collisionless plasmas of low-pressure discharges is presented. The system consists of a non-local conductivity operator, and a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function (EEDF) averaged over fast electron bounce motions. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method was applied to speed up the numerical simulations. The importance of accounting for the non-uniform plasma density profile in computing the current density profile and the EEDF is demonstrated. Effects of plasma non-uniformity on electron heating in rf electric field have also been studied. An enhancement of the electron heating due to the bounce resonance between the electron bounce motion and the rf electric field has been observed. Additional information on the subject is posted in http://www.pppl.gov/pub_report/2003/PPPL-3814-abs.html and in http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0211009

  13. Conductivity-limiting bipolar thermal conductivity in semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanyu; Yang, Jiong; Toll, Trevor; Yang, Jihui; Zhang, Wenqing; Tang, Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Intriguing experimental results raised the question about the fundamental mechanisms governing the electron-hole coupling induced bipolar thermal conduction in semiconductors. Our combined theoretical analysis and experimental measurements show that in semiconductors bipolar thermal transport is in general a “conductivity-limiting” phenomenon, and it is thus controlled by the carrier mobility ratio and by the minority carrier partial electrical conductivity for the intrinsic and extrinsic cases, respectively. Our numerical method quantifies the role of electronic band structure and carrier scattering mechanisms. We have successfully demonstrated bipolar thermal conductivity reduction in doped semiconductors via electronic band structure modulation and/or preferential minority carrier scatterings. We expect this study to be beneficial to the current interests in optimizing thermoelectric properties of narrow gap semiconductors. PMID:25970560

  14. Conductivity-limiting bipolar thermal conductivity in semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanyu; Yang, Jiong; Toll, Trevor; Yang, Jihui; Zhang, Wenqing; Tang, Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Intriguing experimental results raised the question about the fundamental mechanisms governing the electron-hole coupling induced bipolar thermal conduction in semiconductors. Our combined theoretical analysis and experimental measurements show that in semiconductors bipolar thermal transport is in general a "conductivity-limiting" phenomenon, and it is thus controlled by the carrier mobility ratio and by the minority carrier partial electrical conductivity for the intrinsic and extrinsic cases, respectively. Our numerical method quantifies the role of electronic band structure and carrier scattering mechanisms. We have successfully demonstrated bipolar thermal conductivity reduction in doped semiconductors via electronic band structure modulation and/or preferential minority carrier scatterings. We expect this study to be beneficial to the current interests in optimizing thermoelectric properties of narrow gap semiconductors. PMID:25970560

  15. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  16. Prosthesis coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reswick, J. B.; Mooney, V.; Bright, C. W.; Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coupling for use in an apparatus for connecting a prosthesis to the bone of a stump of an amputated limb is described which permits a bio-compatible carbon sleeve forming a part of the prosthesis connector to float so as to prevent disturbing the skin seal around the carbon sleeve. The coupling includes a flexible member interposed between a socket that is inserted within an intermedullary cavity of the bone and the sleeve. A lock pin is carried by the prosthesis and has a stem portion which is adapted to be coaxially disposed and slideably within the tubular female socket for securing the prosthesis to the stump. The skin around the percutaneous carbon sleeve is able to move as a result of the flexing coupling so as to reduce stresses caused by changes in the stump shape and/or movement between the bone and the flesh portion of the stump.

  17. Conducting Grains in Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Truell; Matthews, Lorin; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge

    The existence of dusty plasma environments in space is common, with the dust originating from a variety of sources. Such environments include protostellar and protoplanetary systems during their formation and evolution. In addition, iron rich meteors, which contain remnants of primordial solar system material, are also a source for micron-sized metallic dust particles that interact with the surrounding plasma. Although research has been conducted on nonconducting grains within a complex plasma environment, very little experimental data exists on conducting grains within complex plasmas. This study will compare and contrast the dynamics of non-conducting (Melamine Formaldehyde) and conducting particles (Gold-coated Melamine Formaldehyde particles) immersed in a capacitively coupled RF plasma maintained within a GEC reference cell. The resulting experimental data will be related to the fundamental physics behind the charging mechanism for such micron-size particles.

  18. Thermal conductivity of supercooled water.

    PubMed

    Biddle, John W; Holten, Vincent; Sengers, Jan V; Anisimov, Mikhail A

    2013-04-01

    The heat capacity of supercooled water, measured down to -37°C, shows an anomalous increase as temperature decreases. The thermal diffusivity, i.e., the ratio of the thermal conductivity and the heat capacity per unit volume, shows a decrease. These anomalies may be associated with a hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water below the line of homogeneous nucleation. However, while the thermal conductivity is known to diverge at the vapor-liquid critical point due to critical density fluctuations, the thermal conductivity of supercooled water, calculated as the product of thermal diffusivity and heat capacity, does not show any sign of such an anomaly. We have used mode-coupling theory to investigate the possible effect of critical fluctuations on the thermal conductivity of supercooled water and found that indeed any critical thermal-conductivity enhancement would be too small to be measurable at experimentally accessible temperatures. Moreover, the behavior of thermal conductivity can be explained by the observed anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. In particular, we show that thermal conductivity should go through a minimum when temperature is decreased, as Kumar and Stanley observed in the TIP5P model of water. We discuss physical reasons for the striking difference between the behavior of thermal conductivity in water near the vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid critical points.

  19. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2014-02-01

    In crime scene forensics latent fingerprints are found on various substrates. Nowadays primarily physical or chemical preprocessing techniques are applied for enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint trace. In order to avoid altering the trace it has been shown that contact-less sensors offer a non-destructive acquisition approach. Here, the exploitation of fingerprint or substrate properties and the utilization of signal processing techniques are an essential requirement to enhance the fingerprint visibility. However, especially the optimal sensory is often substrate-dependent. An enhanced generic pattern recognition based contrast enhancement approach for scans of a chromatic white light sensor is introduced in Hildebrandt et al.1 using statistical, structural and Benford's law2 features for blocks of 50 micron. This approach achieves very good results for latent fingerprints on cooperative, non-textured, smooth substrates. However, on textured and structured substrates the error rates are very high and the approach thus unsuitable for forensic use cases. We propose the extension of the feature set with semantic features derived from known Gabor filter based exemplar fingerprint enhancement techniques by suggesting an Epsilon-neighborhood of each block in order to achieve an improved accuracy (called fingerprint ridge orientation semantics). Furthermore, we use rotation invariant Hu moments as an extension of the structural features and two additional preprocessing methods (separate X- and Y Sobel operators). This results in a 408-dimensional feature space. In our experiments we investigate and report the recognition accuracy for eight substrates, each with ten latent fingerprints: white furniture surface, veneered plywood, brushed stainless steel, aluminum foil, "Golden-Oak" veneer, non-metallic matte car body finish, metallic car body finish and blued metal. In comparison to Hildebrandt et al.,1 our evaluation shows a significant reduction of the error rates

  20. Contactless analysis of electric dipoles at high-k/SiO2 interfaces by surface-charge-switched electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, S.; Fukuda, K.; Itoh, E.; Sugaya, H.; Morita, M.; Nakata, A.; Uchimoto, Y.; Matsubara, E.

    2016-05-01

    The continuous development of silicon devices has been supported by fundamental understanding of the two interfaces that predict the device properties: high-dielectric oxide (high-k)/SiO2 and SiO2/Si. In the absence of metal electrode fabrication, it is challenging to use spectroscopic approaches to deduce the electric dipoles in these interfaces for the prediction of electrical characteristics such as the leakage current and threshold voltage. Here, we propose a method to analyze the permanent dipole at the high-k/SiO2 interface by surface-charge-switched electron spectroscopy (SuCSES). An electron flood gun was used to switch the electrical polarity at the insulating surface to extract the interface-dipole contribution from the macroscopic dielectric polarization in the high-k/SiO2/Si stack structure. TaO3- nanosheet (TaNS) crystallites, which are a family of high-k tantalate materials deposited on the SiO2/Si substrates, were annealed to prepare a nanoscale model interface. The properties of this interface were examined as a function of annealing temperature across the crystalline-to-amorphous transition. Macroscopic dielectric polarization of the TaNS/SiO2/Si gate stack was found to exhibit a gradual decay that depended upon the quantum tunneling processes of induced carriers at the SiO2/Si interface. Additionally, the dipole at the high-k/thin-SiO2 interface abruptly changed by ˜0.4 eV before and after annealing at 400 °C, which may be the result of a decrease in conduction-band offsets at the high-k/Si interface. Thus, SuCSES can aid in determining the inherent valence-band offsets in dielectric interfaces by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with high accuracy and precision. Furthermore, SuCSES can determine whether dielectric polarization, including the interfacial dipole, affects the experimental value of the band offsets.

  1. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  2. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  3. Magnetoelectric coupling at metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, Lukas; Yamada, T.K.; Balashov, T.; Takacs, A. F.; Wesselink, R.J.H.; Daene, Markus W; Fechner, M.; Ostanin, S.; Ernst, Arthur; Mertig, I.; Wulfhekel, Wulf

    2010-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling allows the magnetic state of a material to be changed by an applied electric field. To date, this phenomenon has mainly been observed in insulating materials such as complex multiferroic oxides. Bulk metallic systems do not exhibit magnetoelectric coupling, because applied electric fields are screened by conduction electrons. We demonstrate strong magnetoelectric coupling at the surface of thin iron films using the electric field from a scanning tunnelling microscope, and are able to write, store and read information to areas with sides of a few nanometres. Our work demonstrates that high-density, non-volatile information storage is possible in metals.

  4. Contactless electroreflectance and theoretical studies of band gap and spin-orbit splitting in InP{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} dilute bismide with x ≤ 0.034

    SciTech Connect

    Kopaczek, J.; Kudrawiec, R. Polak, M. P.; Scharoch, P.; Birkett, M.; Veal, T. D.; Wang, K.; Gu, Y.; Gong, Q.; Wang, S.

    2014-12-01

    Contactless electroreflectance is applied to study the band gap (E{sub 0}) and spin-orbit splitting (Δ{sub SO}) in InP{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} alloys with 0 < x ≤ 0.034. The E{sub 0} transition shifts to longer wavelengths very significantly (−83 meV/% Bi), while the E{sub 0} + Δ{sub SO} transition shifts very weakly (−13 meV/% Bi) with the rise of Bi concentration. These changes in energies of optical transitions are discussed in the context of the valence band anticrossing model and ab initio calculations. Shifts of E{sub 0} and E{sub 0} + Δ{sub SO} transitions, obtained within ab-initio calculations, are −106 and −20 meV per % Bi, respectively, which is in a good agreement with experimental results.

  5. Optical investigation of band-edge structure and built-in electric field of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures by means of thermoreflectance, photoluminescence, and contactless electroreflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-Hwa; Lee, Jheng-Wei

    2009-12-01

    The band-edge property and built-in electric fields of two different Al(x)Ga(1-x)N/GaN(AlGaN/GaN) heterostructures (HSs) with and without an additional AlGaN inserted layer were studied by thermoreflectance (TR), photoluminescence (PL), and contactless electroreflectance (CER) techniques. The PL spectra characterize the band-edge luminescence property of GaN. Free exciton transitions of AlGaN and GaN were probed experimentally by TR. Prominent Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKOs) of GaN and the opposite FKO phase of AlGaN were simultaneously detected by the additional AlGaN inserted sample with CER owing to the enhancement effect of built-in electric fields of GaN and AlGaN with the same polarity direction. Optoelectronics properties of the two HSs were characterized by the experimental analyses.

  6. Dark coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S. E-mail: d.hernandez@uam.es E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es

    2009-07-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed.

  7. Thermoacoustic couple

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-10-04

    An apparatus and method for determining acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor are disclosed. The preferred embodiment of the apparatus, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

  8. Thermal Conductivity in Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, John; Holten, Vincent; Sengers, Jan; Anisimov, Mikhail

    2013-03-01

    The heat capacity of supercooled water, measured down to -37 C, shows an anomalous increase as temperature decreases. The thermal diffusivity, the ratio of thermal conductivity and the heat capacity per unit volume, shows a decrease. These anomalies may be associated with a hypothetical liquid-liquid critical point in metastable water below the line of homogeneous nucleation. The data suggest that the thermal conductivity does not show a significant critical enhancement, in contrast to what is observed near the vapor-liquid critical point. We have used mode-coupling theory to investigate the possible effect of critical fluctuations on the thermal conductivity of supercooled water, and shown that indeed this effect would be too small to be measurable at experimentally accessible temperatures. We discuss physical reasons for the striking difference between the vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid critical enhancements of thermal conductivity in water. We also discuss the discrepancy between the thermal conductivity calculated from experimental data and that obtained by computer simulations of the TIP5P water-like model. American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund Grant No. 52666-ND6

  9. Non Destructive Testing by active infrared thermography coupled with shearography under same optical heat excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theroux, Louis-Daniel; Dumoulin, Jean; Maldague, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    As infrastructures are aging, the evaluation of their health is becoming crucial. To do so, numerous Non Destructive Testing (NDT) methods are available. Among them, thermal shearography and active infrared thermography represent two full field and contactless methods for surface inspection. The synchronized use of both methods presents multiples advantages. Most importantly, both NDT are based on different material properties. Thermography depend on the thermal properties and shearography on the mechanical properties. The cross-correlation of both methods result in a more accurate and exact detection of the defects. For real site application, the simultaneous use of both methods is simplified due to the fact that the excitation method (thermal) is the same. Active infrared thermography is the measure of the temperature by an infrared camera of a surface subjected to heat flux. Observation of the variation of temperature in function of time reveal the presence of defects. On the other hand, shearography is a measure of out-of-plane surface displacement. This displacement is caused by the application of a strain on the surface which (in our case) take the form of a temperature gradient inducing a thermal stress To measure the resulting out-of-plane displacement, shearography exploit the relation between the phase difference and the optical path length. The phase difference is measured by the observation of the interference between two coherent light beam projected on the surface. This interference is due to change in optical path length as the surface is deformed [1]. A series of experimentation have been conducted in laboratory with various sample of concrete reinforced with CFRP materials. Results obtained reveal that with both methods it was possible to detect defects in the gluing. An infrared lamp radiating was used as the active heat source. This is necessary if measurements with shearography are to be made during the heating process. A heating lamp in the

  10. Discrete conductance switching in conducting polymer wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H. X.; Li, X. L.; Tao, N. J.; Nagahara, L. A.; Amlani, I.; Tsui, R.

    2003-07-01

    Charge transport in conducting polymers (polyaniline and polypyrrole) bridged between two gold nanoelectrodes separated with a nanoscale gap (varying from ˜1 nm to a few tens of nm was studied by controlling the polymer redox states electrochemically. In sharp contrast to the macroscopic samples, the conductance switches abruptly between insulating (off) and conducting (on) states like a telegraphic signal. The time durations of the on and off states depend on the potential of the nanoelectrodes, indicating the important role of the redox states in the signal. We attribute the telegraphic signal to the fluctuation between the insulating reduced state and conducting oxidized state of the polymer, which rises as electrons trap into the oxidized state and escape from the reduced state.

  11. Kinetic theory of electrical conductivity in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Boercker, D.B.

    1981-04-01

    A recently developed quantum kinetic theory for time-correlation functions is applied to the calculation of the electrical conductivity in dense, strongly coupled plasmas. In the weak-collision limit the theory generalizes the Ziman expression to finite temperatures while, for strong collisions, it generalizes the result of Gould and of Williams and DeWitt to include strong ion coupling. Numerical results which compare the effects that strong ion coupling, bound (core) electrons, and strong collisions have upon the collision frequency are also presented.

  12. Conducting Compositions of Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  13. Conducting Compositions of Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  14. Conducting compositions of matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  15. Retrofitting gear couplings with diaphragm couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, J.R. )

    1988-10-01

    Retrofitting a coupling should not be an afterthought when upgrading a system. Couplings are an integral part of a drive train and should be a major consideration. This article discusses guidelines that should be used when replacing gear couplings with diaphragm couplings. Reviewed are the coupling selection process: how and to what extent the desired diaphragm couplings should be matched to the gear coupling. Also discussed are the details of coupling modification that can be made to accommodate system performance. Included are how changes in materials, configuration and design can help tune a diaphragm coupling to meet the characteristics of the previous gear couplings. The article also discusses the retrofit process for a specific syngas train at International Minerals and Chemical Corp., Sterlington, La.

  16. Apparatus for use in determining surface conductivity at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, Chase P. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for use in determining surface conductivity of a flat or shaped conductive material at microwave frequencies. A plate has an electrically conductive surface with first and second holes passing through the plate. An electrically conductive material under test (MUT) is maintained in a spaced apart relationship with the electrically conductive surface of the plate by one or more non-conductive spacers. A first coupling loop is electrically shielded within the first hole while a second coupling loop is electrically shielded within the second hole. A dielectric resonator element is positioned between the first and second coupling loops, while also being positioned closer to the MUT than the electrically conductive surface of the plate. Microwave energy at an operating frequency f is supplied from a signal source to the first coupling loop while microwave energy received at the second coupling loop is measured. The apparatus is capable of measuring the Q-factor of the dielectric resonator situated in the cavity existing between the electrically conductive surface of the plate and the MUT. Surface conductivity of the electrically conductive surface can be determined via interpolation using: 1) the measured Q-factor with the electrically conductive surface in place, and 2) the measured Q-factor when the MUT is replaced with reference standards having known surface conductivities.

  17. A strongly coupled anyon material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattan, Daniel K.

    2015-11-01

    We use alternative quantisation of the D3-D5 system to explore properties of a strongly coupled anyon material at finite density and temperature. We study the transport properties of the material and find both diffusion and massive holographic zero sound modes. By studying the anyon number conductivity we also find evidence for the anyonic analogue of the metal-insulator transition.

  18. Cardiac Conduction through Engineered Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Stamm, Christof; Hammer, Peter E.; Kwaku, Kevin F.; Marler, Jennifer J.; Friehs, Ingeborg; Jones, Mara; Rader, Christine M.; Roy, Nathalie; Eddy, Mau-Thek; Triedman, John K.; Walsh, Edward P.; McGowan, Francis X.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Cowan, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    In children, interruption of cardiac atrioventricular (AV) electrical conduction can result from congenital defects, surgical interventions, and maternal autoimmune diseases during pregnancy. Complete AV conduction block is typically treated by implanting an electronic pacemaker device, although long-term pacing therapy in pediatric patients has significant complications. As a first step toward developing a substitute treatment, we implanted engineered tissue constructs in rat hearts to create an alternative AV conduction pathway. We found that skeletal muscle-derived cells in the constructs exhibited sustained electrical coupling through persistent expression and function of gap junction proteins. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analyses, myogenic cells in the constructs were shown to survive in the AV groove of implanted hearts for the duration of the animal’s natural life. Perfusion of hearts with fluorescently labeled lectin demonstrated that implanted tissues became vascularized and immunostaining verified the presence of proteins important in electromechanical integration of myogenic cells with surrounding recipient rat cardiomyocytes. Finally, using optical mapping and electrophysiological analyses, we provide evidence of permanent AV conduction through the implant in one-third of recipient animals. Our experiments provide a proof-of-principle that engineered tissue constructs can function as an electrical conduit and, ultimately, may offer a substitute treatment to conventional pacing therapy. PMID:16816362

  19. How couples choose vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Schehl, M

    1997-01-01

    A study conducted by AVSC International between 1992 and 1995 found that couples around the world go through a highly similar decision-making process when they choose vasectomy as their family planning methods. Study findings are based upon in-depth, qualitative interviews with couples using vasectomy in Bangladesh, Mexico, Kenya, and Rwanda, where the prevalence of vasectomy is relatively low, and Sri Lanka and the US, where it is relatively high. 218 separate interviews were conducted with male and female partners. Concerns about the woman's health were cited by respondents in each country as reasons to cease childbearing and to opt for vasectomy as the means to achieving that end. Also, almost all respondents mentioned varying degrees of financial hardship as contributing to their decision to end childbearing. These findings highlight the concept of partnership in relationships and family planning decision-making, and demonstrate the importance of going beyond traditional stereotypes about gender roles in decision-making. Social influences and the potential risks of using other forms of contraception also contributed to the choice of using vasectomy. The decision-making process and lessons learned are discussed.

  20. Development of the system for visualization of electric conductivity distribution in human brain and its activity by the magnetic induction tomography (MIT) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapetsky, S.; Cherepenin, V.; Korjenevsky, A.; Kornienko, V.; Vartanov, A.

    2010-04-01

    Currently rapid development of functional activity researches of human brain sets the problem of reliable and non-invasive detection of mental processes and states. At present we know some traditional methods of rapid and contactless acquisition of brain activity characteristics, such as functional tomography (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography. But these methods have low temporal resolution, complicated and ambiguous association of measured values with information processes in brain. So possibility of MIT application is investigated. Estimation of possibility of such changes registration is performed. Investigations of magnetic field configuration, schematics of transmit-receive modules and numerical algorithms are in progress. It may allow us to register high speed conductivity changes in brain tissues.

  1. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePlus

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals ... to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle ...

  2. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  3. Heat conduction in unconventional superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussier, Benoit

    Thermal conductivity is an excellent probe of quasiparticle excitations in superconductors both in the normal and superconducting state. We have applied this technique to the study of two unconventional superconductors, namely the heavy fermion superconductor UPtsb3 and the high-Tsb{c} cuprate YBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-delta}. In the case of UPtsb3, after reviewing previous low temperature thermal conductivity measurements, we show that, for our high quality single crystals, the thermal conductivity is totally dominated by electrons and therefore provides a direct probe of the superconducting gap structure. We demonstrate that our measurements of the anisotropy of heat conduction between b-axis and c-axis in this hexagonal crystal provide strong constraints with respect to the possible gap structures inferred by group theoretical arguments. By comparing our results with recent theoretical calculations, we show that a hybrid II gap structure provides good agreement between theory and experiments favoring an order parameter of Esb{2u} (strong spin-orbit coupling) or Asb{2u} (weak spin-orbit coupling) symmetry. For YBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-delta}, the thermal conductivity typically consists of both a phononic and an electronic contribution. After reviewing low temperature thermal conductivity measurements that address this question, we demonstrate the presence of electronic quasiparticles even at temperatures of {˜}Tsb{c}/1000, a clear indication of an unconventional gap structure. We then proceed to discuss zinc doping studies in YBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-delta} and show that we find a universal residual linear term at T=0 of a magnitude very close in value to that predicted by recent theories. These results validate the approach of resonant impurity scattering in the high-Tsb{c}, and our excellent agreement with theory reinforces the view that the gap structure in YBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-delta} is of dsb{xsp2-ysp2} symmetry. Finally, we present neutron scattering results in UPtsb3. In this chapter

  4. Limits of proton conductivity.

    PubMed

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Wohlfarth, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    Parasitic current seems to be the cause for the "highest proton conductivity" of a material reported to date. Kreuer and Wohlfarth verify this hypothesis by measuring the conductivity of the same materials after preparing them in a different way. They further explain the limits of proton conductivity and comment on the problems of determining the conductivity of small objects (e.g., whiskers, see picture).

  5. Surface Conductive Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, John; Suib, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the properties of surface-conducting glass and the chemical nature of surface-conducting stannic (tin) oxide. Also provides the procedures necessary for the preparation of surface-conducting stannic oxide films on glass substrates. The experiment is suitable for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  6. Efficient Reformulation of HOTFGM: Heat Conduction with Variable Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Yi; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have become one of the major research topics in the mechanics of materials community during the past fifteen years. FGMs are heterogeneous materials, characterized by spatially variable microstructure, and thus spatially variable macroscopic properties, introduced to enhance material or structural performance. The spatially variable material properties make FGMs challenging to analyze. The review of the various techniques employed to analyze the thermodynamical response of FGMs reveals two distinct and fundamentally different computational strategies, called uncoupled macromechanical and coupled micromechanical approaches by some investigators. The uncoupled macromechanical approaches ignore the effect of microstructural gradation by employing specific spatial variations of material properties, which are either assumed or obtained by local homogenization, thereby resulting in erroneous results under certain circumstances. In contrast, the coupled approaches explicitly account for the micro-macrostructural interaction, albeit at a significantly higher computational cost. The higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM) developed by Aboudi et al. is representative of the coupled approach. However, despite its demonstrated utility in applications where micro-macrostructural coupling effects are important, the theory's full potential is yet to be realized because the original formulation of HOTFGM is computationally intensive. This, in turn, limits the size of problems that can be solved due to the large number of equations required to mimic realistic material microstructures. Therefore, a basis for an efficient reformulation of HOTFGM, referred to as user-friendly formulation, is developed herein, and subsequently employed in the construction of the efficient reformulation using the local/global conductivity matrix approach. In order to extend HOTFGM's range of applicability, spatially variable thermal

  7. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Peddicord, K.L. ); Alvis, J.M. Jr.; Thomas, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cermets have been proposed as a candidate fuel for space reactors for several reasons, including their potential for high thermal conductivity. However, there is currently no accepted model for cermet fuel thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to (a) investigate the adequacy of existing models; (b) develop, if necessary, an improved model; and (c) provide recommendations for future work on cermet thermal conductivity. The results from this work indicate that further work is needed to accurately characterize cermet fuel thermal conductivity. It was determined that particle shape and orientation have a large impact on cermet thermal conductivity.

  8. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  9. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  10. Modeling Classical Heat Conduction in FLAG

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Hendon, Raymond Cori

    2015-01-12

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory FLAG code contains both electron and ion heat conduction modules; these have been constructed to be directly relevant to user application problems. However, formal code verification of these modules requires quantitative comparison to exact solutions of the underlying mathematical models. A wide variety of exact solutions to the classical heat conduction equation are available for this purpose. This report summarizes efforts involving the representation of the classical heat conduction equation as following from the large electron-ion coupling limit of the electron and ion 3T temperature equations, subject to electron and ion conduction processes. In FLAG, this limiting behavior is quantitatively verified using a simple exact solution of the classical heat conduction equation. For this test problem, both heat conduction modules produce nearly identical spatial electron and ion temperature profiles that converge at slightly less than 2nd order to the corresponding exact solution.

  11. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Matthew M.; Wilfong, Dennis H.; Lomax, Ralph E.

    1998-01-01

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  12. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  13. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  14. Thermal conductivity calculation of complex (dusty) plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shahzad, Aamir; He Maogang

    2012-08-15

    The thermal conductivity of three-dimensional (3D) strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasmas has been calculated through the improved Evan-Gillan nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) algorithm. The extensive NEMD simulations are performed to study the performance of the algorithm and compared the results determined for perturbed heat energy current to the results obtained by equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations. The calculations show that the present algorithm gives accurate results with fast convergence and small size effects over a wide range of plasma coupling and screening parameters. The present simulation results are in agreement with part of others NEMD and EMD data in the literature with simulation values generally overpredicting the thermal conductivity by 3%-20%, depending on plasma parameters. It is shown that the homogenous perturbed method can be employed to estimate the thermal conductivity and to understand the fundamental behaviors in 3D complex Yukawa liquids.

  15. Dissipationless conductance in a topological coaxial cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Thomas; Iadecola, Thomas; Chamon, Claudio; Jackiw, Roman; Pi, So-Young

    2016-09-01

    We present a dynamical mechanism leading to dissipationless conductance, whose quantized value is controllable in a (3+1)-dimensional electronic system. The mechanism is exemplified by a theory of Weyl fermions coupled to a Higgs field, also known as an axion insulator. We show that the insertion of an axial gauge flux can induce vortex lines in the Higgs field, similar to the development of vortices in a superconductor upon the insertion of magnetic flux. We further show that the necessary axial gauge flux can be generated using Rashba spin-orbit coupling or a magnetic field. Vortex lines in the Higgs field are known to bind chiral fermionic modes, each of which serves as a one-way channel for electric charge with conductance e2/h . Combining these elements, we present a physical picture, the "topological coaxial cable," illustrating how the value of the quantized conductance could be controlled in such an axion insulator.

  16. Thermal Conductance of Andreev Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Chandrasekhar, V.

    2005-04-01

    We calculate the thermal conductance GT of diffusive Andreev interferometers, which are hybrid loops with one superconducting arm and one normal-metal arm. The presence of the superconductor suppresses GT; however, unlike a conventional superconductor, GT/GTN does not vanish as the temperature T→0, but saturates at a finite value that depends on the resistance of the normal-superconducting interfaces, and their distance from the path of the temperature gradient. The reduction of GT is determined primarily by the suppression of the density of states in the proximity-coupled normal metal along the path of the temperature gradient. GT is also a strongly nonlinear function of the thermal current, as found in recent experiments.

  17. Electrically conductive ceramic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanxia

    1999-11-01

    Electrically conductive ceramic powders were investigated in this project. There are three ways to produce those materials. The first is doping alkali metal into the titanium dioxides in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The second is reducing un-doped titanium dioxide, forming a non-stoichiometric composition in a hydrogen atmosphere. The third is to coat a conductive layer, reduced titanium dioxide, on an insulating core such as alumina. Highly conductive powders have been produced by all these processes. The conductivity of powder compacts ranged between 10-2 and 10° S/cm. A novel doping process was developed. All samples were doped by a solid-vapor reaction instead of a solid state reaction. Titanium dioxide was doped with alkali metals such as Na or Li in this study. The alkali metal atom contributes an electron to the host material (TiO2), which then creates Ti 3+ ion. The conductivity was enhanced by creating the donor level due to the presence of these Ti3+ ions. The conductivity of those alkali doped titanium oxides was dependent on the doping level and charge mobility. Non-stoichiometric titanium oxides were produced by reduction of titanium dioxide in a hydrogen atmosphere at 800°C to 1000°C for 2 to 6 hours. The reduced titanium oxides showed better stability with respect to conductivity at ambient condition when compared with the Na or Li doped samples. Conductive coatings were prepared by coating titanium precursors on insulating core materials like SiO2, Al2O3 or mica. The titania coating was made by hydrolysis of titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4) followed by a reduction procedure to form reduced titanium oxide. The reduced titanium oxides are highly conductive. A uniform coating of titanium oxides on alumina cores was successfully produced. The conductivity of coated powder composites was a function of coating quantity and hydrolysis reaction temperature. The conductivity of the powder as a function of structure, composition, temperature, frequency and

  18. Polymers that Conduct Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Edward

    1983-01-01

    Although polymers are regarded as electrical insulators, it was discovered that they can be made to conduct electricity. This discovery has opened vast new practical and theoretical areas for exploration by physicists and chemists. Research studies with these conducting polymers and charge-transfer salts as well as possible applications are…

  19. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  20. Thermal conductivity of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, R. I.; Kumar, G. N.; Khader, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    A value is described for the thermal conductivity of the frost layer and for the water-ice solid debris mixture. The value of the porous structure is discussed as a function of depth only. Graphs show thermal conductivity as a function of depth and temperature at constant porosity and density.

  1. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  2. Conductive Education Evaluated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stukat, Karl Gustav

    1995-01-01

    This paper evaluates two research projects concerned with conductive education for children with cerebral palsy, one in Germany and the other in the United Kingdom. Issues of generalizability and drawing causal conclusions are raised. The paper finds that neither the most sanguine expectations nor the worst misgivings about conductive education…

  3. Conductivity of disordered polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinh, Pham Duc

    1996-08-01

    New upper and lower bounds are constructed for the macroscopic conductivity of polycrystals with random microstructure, given the principal conductivities of the constituent crystals (and the volume fractions of phases in case of a multiphase polycrystal). The new bounds lie inside the well-known Hashin-Shtrikman ones.

  4. Conductive fabric seal

    SciTech Connect

    Livesay, Ronald Jason; Mason, Brandon William; Kuhn, Michael Joseph; Rowe, Nathan Carl

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed are several examples of a system and method for detecting if an article is being tampered with. Included is a covering made of a substrate that is coated with a layer of an electrically conductive material that forms an electrically conductive surface having an electrical resistance. The covering is configured to at least partially encapsulate the article such that the article cannot be tampered with, without modifying the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A sensing device is affixed to the electrically conductive surface of the covering and the sensing device monitors the condition of the covering by producing a signal that is indicative of the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A measured electrical resistance that differs from a nominal electrical resistance is indicative of a covering that is being tampered with and an alert is communicated to an observer.

  5. Anisotropic thermal conductivity in uranium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gofryk, K; Du, S; Stanek, C R; Lashley, J C; Liu, X-Y; Schulze, R K; Smith, J L; Safarik, D J; Byler, D D; McClellan, K J; Uberuaga, B P; Scott, B L; Andersson, D A

    2014-08-01

    The thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide has been studied for over half a century, as uranium dioxide is the fuel used in a majority of operating nuclear reactors and thermal conductivity controls the conversion of heat produced by fission events to electricity. Because uranium dioxide is a cubic compound and thermal conductivity is a second-rank tensor, it has always been assumed to be isotropic. We report thermal conductivity measurements on oriented uranium dioxide single crystals that show anisotropy from 4 K to above 300 K. Our results indicate that phonon-spin scattering is important for understanding the general thermal conductivity behaviour, and also explains the anisotropy by coupling to the applied temperature gradient and breaking cubic symmetry.

  6. Planar slot coupled microwave hybrid

    DOEpatents

    Petter, Jeffrey K.

    1991-01-01

    A symmetrical 180.degree. microwave hybrid is constructed by opening a slot line in a ground plane below a conducting strip disposed on a dielectric substrate, creating a slot coupled conductor. Difference signals propagating on the slot coupled conductor are isolated on the slot line leaving sum signals to propagate on the microstrip. The difference signal is coupled from the slot line onto a second microstrip line for transmission to a desired location. The microstrip branches in a symmetrical fashion to provide the input/output ports of the 180.degree. hybrid. The symmetry of the device provides for balance and isolation between sum and difference signals, and provides an advantageous balance between the power handling capabilities and the bandwidth of the device.

  7. Harvesting excitons through plasmonic strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Ballestero, Carlos; Feist, Johannes; Moreno, Esteban; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.

    2015-09-01

    Exciton harvesting is demonstrated in an ensemble of quantum emitters coupled to localized surface plasmons. When the interaction between emitters and the dipole mode of a metallic nanosphere reaches the strong-coupling regime, the exciton conductance is greatly increased. The spatial map of the conductance matches the plasmon field intensity profile, which indicates that transport properties can be tuned by adequately tailoring the field of the plasmonic resonance. Under strong coupling, we find that pure dephasing can have detrimental or beneficial effects on the conductance, depending on the effective number of participating emitters. Finally, we show that the exciton transport in the strong-coupling regime occurs on an ultrafast time scale given by the inverse Rabi splitting (˜10 fs), which is orders of magnitude faster than transport through direct hopping between the emitters.

  8. Digital Fluoroscopy with AN Optically Coupled Charge-Coupled Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    1992-01-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the potential of developing an optically coupled charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging system for some digital fluoroscopic applications. The viability of this concept for fluoroscopic imaging was studied with respect to image intensifier-television (II -TV) techniques. The anticipated advantages of the optically coupled CCD, compared with II-TV, include higher contrast sensitivity, larger dynamic range, moderate spatial resolution and clinically acceptable dose. Following an investigation of some theoretical and practical issues concerning the optical coupling efficiency between the intensifying screen and the CCD imager, mathematical methods were developed to relate the signal, signal-to -noise ratio, and x-ray quantum efficiency of the optically coupled CCD imaging chain. The spatial resolution of the system was also analyzed. Using an ultra-sensitive CCD, as well as improved scintillating and optical coupling techniques, we built a laboratory system for experiments. We conducted measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF), contrast sensitivity, contrast-detail detectability and detector contrast. The results suggest that the lesion detectability of our sub-optimal system was comparable to that of a screen-film technique under the same radiation dose, and was significantly better than II-TV fluoroscopy. Potential clinical applications of our system include mammography, pre-operational localization, pediatric chest radiography, and single tracer autoradiography. Images of selected phantoms, pathological specimens and small animals were acquired to demonstrate the radiologic quality attainable for such procedures. We conclude that developing an x-ray quantum limited, pseudo-real time, digital fluoroscopic imaging system (for some applications) without an II appears to be theoretically and technically feasible. The successful development of optically coupled CCD fluoroscopy has the potential for improving the

  9. Digital fluoroscopy with an optically coupled charge-coupled device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    1992-07-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the potential of developing an optically coupled charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging system for some digital fluoroscopic applications. The viability of this concept for fluoroscopic imaging was studied with respect to image intensifier-television (II-TV) techniques. The anticipated advantages of the optically coupled CCD, compared with II-TV, include higher contrast sensitivity, larger dynamic range, moderate spatial resolution and clinically acceptable dose. Following an investigation of some theoretical and practical issues concerning the optical coupling efficiency between the intensifying screen and the CCD imager, mathematical methods were developed to relate the signal, signal-to-noise ratio, and x-ray quantum efficiency of the optically coupled CCD imaging chain. The spatial resolution of the system was also analyzed. Using an ultra-sensitive CCD, as well as improved scintillating and optical coupling techniques, we built a laboratory system for experiments. We conducted measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF), contrast sensitivity, contrast-detail detectability and detector contrast. The results suggest that the lesion detectability of our sub-optimal system was comparable to that of a screen-film technique under the same radiation dose, and was significantly better than II-TV fluoroscopy. Potential clinical applications of our system include mammography, pre-operational localization, pediatric chest radiography, and single tracer autoradiography. Images of selected phantoms, pathological specimens and small animals were acquired to demonstrate the radiologic quality attainable for such procedures. We conclude that developing an x-ray quantum limited, pseudo-real time, digital fluoroscopic imaging system (for some applications) without an II appears to be theoretically and technically feasible. The successful development of optically coupled CCD fluoroscopy has the potential for improving the quality

  10. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    ... to measure the speed of the nerve signals. Electromyography (recording from needles placed into the muscles) is ... Often, the nerve conduction test is followed by electromyography (EMG). In this test, needles are placed into ...

  11. Conductive open frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2016-02-23

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  12. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  13. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  14. Solution Conductivity Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Daniel T.; Bartelt, Mark R.; Kenney, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction of a conductivity meter that includes a timer and a readout display that provides semiquantitative information. The meter can be made into a hand-held or lecture hall (demonstration) version. (WRM)

  15. Strongly Coupled Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guang-Wei; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Zou, Chang-Ling; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Liu, Di; Li, Yan; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-14

    Coupling an electromechanical resonator with carbon-nanotube quantum dots is a significant method to control both the electronic charge and the spin quantum states. By exploiting a novel microtransfer technique, we fabricate two separate strongly coupled and electrically tunable mechanical resonators for the first time. The frequency of the two resonators can be individually tuned by the bottom gates, and in each resonator, the electron transport through the quantum dot can be strongly affected by the phonon mode and vice versa. Furthermore, the conductance of either resonator can be nonlocally modulated by the other resonator through phonon-phonon interaction between the two resonators. Strong coupling is observed between the phonon modes of the two resonators, where the coupling strength larger than 200 kHz can be reached. This strongly coupled nanotube electromechanical resonator array provides an experimental platform for future studies of the coherent electron-phonon interaction, the phonon-mediated long-distance electron interaction, and entanglement state generation.

  16. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  17. 40 CFR 201.15 - Standard for car coupling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for car coupling operations... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.15 Standard for car coupling operations. Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this regulation shall conduct car coupling operations that exceed...

  18. 40 CFR 201.15 - Standard for car coupling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for car coupling operations... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.15 Standard for car coupling operations. Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this regulation shall conduct car coupling operations that exceed...

  19. 40 CFR 201.15 - Standard for car coupling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for car coupling operations... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.15 Standard for car coupling operations. Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this regulation shall conduct car coupling operations that exceed...

  20. Cartilage conduction hearing.

    PubMed

    Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Levitt, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Sound information is known to travel to the cochlea via either air or bone conduction. However, a vibration signal, delivered to the aural cartilage via a transducer, can also produce a clearly audible sound. This type of conduction has been termed "cartilage conduction." The aural cartilage forms the outer ear and is distributed around the exterior half of the external auditory canal. In cartilage conduction, the cartilage and transducer play the roles of a diaphragm and voice coil of a loudspeaker, respectively. There is a large gap between the impedances of cartilage and skull bone, such that cartilage vibrations are not easily transmitted through bone. Thus, these methods of conduction are distinct. In this study, force was used to apply a transducer to aural cartilage, and it was found that the sound in the auditory canal was amplified, especially for frequencies below 2 kHz. This effect was most pronounced at an application force of 1 N, which is low enough to ensure comfort in the design of hearing aids. The possibility of using force adjustments to vary amplification may also have applications for cell phone design.

  1. Proliferating conduction by isomerism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rupan Preet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    2015-01-01

    The electrical conduction of isomers of anthracene molecule attached between two semi-infinite gold electrodes was simulated using extended Huckel theory (EHT)-based on semi-empirical model in this research work. The electron transport parameters were examined in two epochs by buffering anthracene and its isomer phenanthrene alternatively between gold electrodes using sulphur as an alligator clip, under variegated bias voltages. Differential NDR effect was observed in both the cases but phenanthrene exhibited more linear I-V curve than its counterpart, anthracene. The simulated results discovered phenanthrene as a better candidate than anthracene towards contributing to electrical conduction in molecular junctions. Phenanthrene reported maximum conductance of 0.74G0 whereas anthracene exhibited 0.03G0 at 0.8V.

  2. Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

  3. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  4. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-22

    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  5. Conducting hybrid polymeric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aldissi, M.; White, J.W.; Agnew, S.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-09-01

    The studies took advantage of the opportunities offered by copolymerization for gaining insight into electrical conduction, morphology, phase separation, polymer-polymer interfaces, and solubility. Copolymerization is technologically important for it allows one to tailor-make products with specifically desired properties. However, the utility of copolymerization involving conjugated, rigid components could be different from that of conventional polymers. This paper is focused on the synthesis and properties of various materials: Rod-coil systems such as polyisoprene/polyacetylene diblock copolymers (resonance raman and small angle neutron scattering studies correlated to conductivity); and alternating copolymers such as poly (arylpyrroles) (electrochemical synthesis and characterization). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  6. The Work-Centered Couple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len; Carlson, Jon

    1991-01-01

    Sketches taxonomy of work-centered couple. Briefly describes five couple types: the dual-career couple, the commuting couple, the military couple, the executive couple, and the family business couple. Notes that issues of work and career can greatly impact the lives of these couples. Encourages family psychology to further explore this area of…

  7. Conducting Educational Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  8. Thermal conductivity of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazem, Sayyed M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to familiarize students with steady and unsteady heat transfer by conduction and with the effect of thermal conductivity upon temperature distribution through a homogeneous substance. The elementary heat conduction experiment presented is designed for associate degree technology students in a simple manner to enhance their intuition and to clarify many confusing concepts such as temperature, thermal energy, thermal conductivity, heat, transient and steady flows. The equipment set is safe, small, portable (10 kg) and relatively cheap (about $1200): the electric hot plate 2 kg (4.4 lb) for $175: the 24 channel selector and Thermocouple Digital Readout (Trendicator) 4.5 kg (10 lb) for about $1000; the three metal specimens (each of 2.5 cm diameter and 11 cm length), base plate and the bucket all about 3 kg (7 lb) for about $25. The experiment may take from 60 to 70 minutes. Although the hot plate surface temperature could be set from 90 to 370 C (maximum of 750 watts) it is a good practice to work with temperatures of 180 to 200 C (about 400 watts). They may experiment in squads of 2, 3 or even 4, or the instructor may demonstrate it for the whole class.

  9. Soft, thermally conductive material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon rubber filled with high percentage of silver-plated copper microspheres provides soft, thermally conductive seat for thermal switch. Material also could be used in thin sheet form to prevent corrosion between dissimilar metals while maintaining good thermal communication. It could be used as thermal gasketing.

  10. Conducting Telephone Conference IEPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Philip Patrick; Petit, Constance; Williams, Shandelyn

    2007-01-01

    Synchronizing the availability of team members for Individual Education Plan (IEP) meetings can be a daunting task. Fortunately, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 permits alternative means of conducting such meetings. An example of an alternate means is a telephone conference, whereby parents communicate over the…

  11. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  12. Conductance Steamflow relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney Trainor-Guitton

    2015-04-01

    These histograms represent our calibration of conductance of a volcanic geothermal field (with a clay cap) and the observed steam flow rates. See the following paper for further description: Trainor-Guitton, Hoversten,Nordquist, Intani, Value of information analysis using geothermal field data: accounting for multiple interpretations & determining new drilling locations. SEG Abstracts 2015.

  13. Conducting the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Heat conduction plays an important role in the efficiency and life span of electronic components. To keep electronic components running efficiently and at a proper temperature, thermal management systems transfer heat generated from the components to thermal surfaces such as heat sinks, heat pipes, radiators, or heat spreaders. Thermal surfaces absorb the heat from the electrical components and dissipate it into the environment, preventing overheating. To ensure the best contact between electrical components and thermal surfaces, thermal interface materials are applied. In addition to having high conductivity, ideal thermal interface materials should be compliant to conform to the components, increasing the surface contact. While many different types of interface materials exist for varying purposes, Energy Science Laboratories, Inc. (ESLI), of San Diego, California, proposed using carbon velvets as thermal interface materials for general aerospace and electronics applications. NASA s Johnson Space Center granted ESLI a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to develop thermal interface materials that are lightweight and compliant, and demonstrate high thermal conductance even for nonflat surfaces. Through Phase II SBIR work, ESLI created Vel-Therm for the commercial market. Vel-Therm is a soft, carbon fiber velvet consisting of numerous high thermal conductivity carbon fibers anchored in a thin layer of adhesive. The velvets are fabricated by precision cutting continuous carbon fiber tows and electrostatically flocking the fibers into uncured adhesive, using proprietary techniques.

  14. Low electrolytic conductivity standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.C.; Berezansky, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The monitoring and control of the quality of feedwater and boiler water are necessary for power plants. The generation of steam at high temperature and pressure requires that contaminants be strictly limited to very low levels to prevent corrosion and scaling. Standards of low electrolytic conductivity were developed to satisfy the demands of the US Navy and American industry for the measurement of high quality water. The criteria for the selection of appropriate solvent and solutes, based on the principles of equivalent conductivity and Onsager`s limiting law, are described. Dilute solutions of potassium chloride and benzoic acid in 30% n-propanol-water have been chosen as standards. The electrolytic conductivity of both sets of these solutions as a function of molality was determined. Solutions of potassium chloride and of benzoic acid are recommended for use as 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 {micro}S/cm conductivity standards. Solutions prepared from potassium chloride in 30% n-propanol-water have been certified as Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). SRM 3198 and SRM 3199 are certified nominally at 5 and 15 {micro}S/cm, respectively, at 25.000 C.

  15. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  16. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  17. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  18. Characterization of rock thermal conductivity by high-resolution optical scanning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popov, Y.A.; Pribnow, D.F.C.; Sass, J.H.; Williams, C.F.; Burkhardt, H.

    1999-01-01

    We compared thress laboratory methods for thermal conductivity measurements: divided-bar, line-source and optical scanning. These methods are widely used in geothermal and petrophysical studies, particularly as applied to research on cores from deep scientific boreholes. The relatively new optical scanning method has recently been perfected and applied to geophysical problems. A comparison among these methods for determining the thermal conductivity tensor for anisotropic rocks is based on a representative collection of 80 crystalline rock samples from the KTB continental deep borehole (Germany). Despite substantial thermal inhomogeneity of rock thermal conductivity (up to 40-50% variation) and high anisotropy (with ratios of principal values attaining 2 and more), the results of measurements agree very well among the different methods. The discrepancy for measurements along the foliation is negligible (<1%). The component of thermal conductivity normal to the foliation reveals somewhat larger differences (3-4%). Optical scanning allowed us to characterize the thermal inhomogeneity of rocks and to identify a three-dimensional anisotropy in thermal conductivity of some gneiss samples. The merits of optical scanning include minor random errors (1.6%), the ability to record the variation of thermal conductivity along the sample, the ability to sample deeply using a slow scanning rate, freedom from constraints for sample size and shape, and quality of mechanical treatment of the sample surface, a contactless mode of measurement, high speed of operation, and the ability to measure on a cylindrical sample surface. More traditional methods remain superior for characterizing bulk conductivity at elevated temperature.Three laboratory methods including divided-bar, line-source and optical scanning are widely applied in geothermal and petrophysical studies. In this study, these three methods were compared for determining the thermal conductivity tensor for anisotropic rocks

  19. Inverse heat conduction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlande, Helcio Rangel Barreto

    We present the solution of the following inverse problems: (1) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance Between Periodically Contacting Surfaces; (2) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance During Solidification via Conjugate Gradient Method; (3) Determination of the Reaction Function in a Reaction-Diffusion Parabolic Problem; and (4) Simultaneous Estimation of Thermal Diffusivity and Relaxation Time with Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model. Also, we present the solution of a direct problem entitled: Transient Thermal Constriction Resistance in a Finite Heat Flux Tube. The Conjugate Gradient Method with Adjoint Equation was used in chapters 1-3. The more general function estimation approach was treated in these chapters. In chapter 1, we solve the inverse problem of estimating the timewise variation of the interface conductance between periodically contacting solids, under quasi-steady-state conditions. The present method is found to be more accurate than the B-Spline approach for situations involving small periods, which are the most difficult on which to perform the inverse analysis. In chapter 2, we estimate the timewise variation of the interface conductance between casting and mold during the solidification of aluminum. The experimental apparatus used in this study is described. In chapter 3, we present the estimation of the reaction function in a one dimensional parabolic problem. A comparison of the present function estimation approach with the parameter estimation technique, wing B-Splines to approximate the reaction function, revealed that the use of function estimation reduces the computer time requirements. In chapter 4 we present a finite difference solution for the transient constriction resistance in a cylinder of finite length with a circular contact surface. A numerical grid generation scheme was used to concentrate grid points in the regions of high temperature gradients in order to reduce discretization errors. In chapter 6, we

  20. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  1. Biorhythm in Couple Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve couples in marital counseling were studied during 12 months on the basis of their biorhythms. For each couple a compatibility percentage was obtained. It was found that difficulties in their interaction correlated highly with dissonance in their biorhythms. (Author)

  2. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, Sherman; Volin, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  3. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  4. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  5. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  6. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  7. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  8. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  9. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  10. Thermally conductive polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  11. High conductivity composite metal

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  12. High conductivity composite metal

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Ruoyi; Smith, James L.; Embury, John David

    1998-01-01

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  13. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry of Pedersen conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Lu, Y.; Sheng, C.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric conductance is very important to the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the high latitude region, since it connects the polar cap potential with the currents. Meanwhile, the altitudinal distribution of Pederson conductance gives us a rough idea about the altitudinal distribution of Joule heating at high latitudes. Based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites observations of electron density profiles from 2009-2014, Pedersen conductivity has been calculated. A climatologic study of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivities in both E (100-150 km) and F (150-600 km) regions and their ratio in different seasons, solar and geomagnetic conditions have been conducted. A significant inter-hemispheric asymmetry is identified in the seasonal variation. Meanwhile, the conductance in both regions and the conductance ratio show a strong dependence on F10.7 and Ap indices. This result will strongly help our understanding of the inter-hemispheric difference in the high-latitude electrodynamics.

  14. Canopy stomatal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, D.D.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Hatfield, J.L.

    1989-07-14

    Stomata are major conduits for the diffusion of many trace gas species between leaves and the atmosphere. The role of the stomata on controlling gas exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere at the landscape, meso- and global-scales has only recently been recognized. Further advances in modelling large-scale trace gas exchange will depend on our ability to understand and model stomatal mechanics at the scale of the pertinent sub-unit, which is typically that of the canopy. This paper describes two approaches for estimating canopy stomatal conductance. One approach is based on 'bottom-up' scaling. This approach computes canopy stomatal conductance by integrating detailed leaf-level and environmentally-driven, physiological processes with the use of a detailed canopy micrometeorology model. The other approach is based on 'top-down' scaling. It interprets the integrated canopy stomatal conductance from measured fluxes of trace gas exchange. Frameworks for extending these scaling approaches to non-idea conditions are given. 96 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  16. Bradyarrhythmias and conduction blocks.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Julia; Breithardt, Günter; Eckardt, Lars

    2012-07-01

    Bradyarrhythmias are a common clinical finding and comprise a number of rhythm disorders including sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular conduction disturbances. Clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic electrocardiogram findings (eg, during a routine examination) to a wide range of symptoms such as heart failure symptoms, near syncope or syncope, central nervous symptoms, or nonspecific and chronic symptoms such as dizziness or fatigue. Conditions resulting in bradyarrhythmic disorders are divided into intrinsic and extrinsic conditions causing damage to the conduction system. Furthermore bradyarrhythmias can be a normal physiologic reaction under certain circumstances. A proper diagnosis including a symptom-rhythm correlation is extremely important and is generally established by noninvasive diagnostic studies (12-lead electrocardiogram, Holter electrocardiogram, exercise testing, event recorder, implantable loop recorder). Invasive electrophysiologic testing is rarely required. If reversible extrinsic causes of bradyarrhythmias such as drugs (most often beta-blockers, glycosides and/or calcium channel blockers) or underlying treatable diseases are ruled out, cardiac pacing is usually the therapy of choice in symptomatic bradyarrhythmias. In this article of the current series on arrhythmias we will review the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment options of bradyarrhythmias, especially sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular conduction blocks.

  17. Immediate effect of couple relationship education on low-satisfaction couples: a randomized clinical trial plus an uncontrolled trial replication.

    PubMed

    Kim Halford, W; Pepping, Christopher A; Hilpert, Peter; Bodenmann, Guy; Wilson, Keithia L; Busby, Dean; Larson, Jeffry; Holman, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Couple relationship education (RE) usually is conceived of as relationship enhancement for currently satisfied couples, with a goal of helping couples sustain satisfaction. However, RE also might be useful as a brief, accessible intervention for couples with low satisfaction. Two studies were conducted that tested whether couples with low relationship satisfaction show meaningful gains after RE. Study 1 was a three-condition randomized controlled trial in which 182 couples were randomly assigned to RELATE with Couple CARE (RCC), a flexible delivery education program for couples, or one of two control conditions. Couples with initially low satisfaction receiving RCC showed a moderate increase in relationship satisfaction (d=0.50) relative to the control. In contrast, couples initially high in satisfaction showed little change and there was no difference between RCC and the control conditions. Study 2 was an uncontrolled trial of the Couple Coping Enhancement Training (CCET) administered to 119 couples. Couples receiving CCET that had initially low satisfaction showed a moderate increase in satisfaction (g=.44), whereas initially highly satisfied couples showed no change. Brief relationship education can assist somewhat distressed couples to enhance satisfaction, and has potential as a cost-effective way of enhancing the reach of couple interventions.

  18. Immediate effect of couple relationship education on low-satisfaction couples: a randomized clinical trial plus an uncontrolled trial replication.

    PubMed

    Kim Halford, W; Pepping, Christopher A; Hilpert, Peter; Bodenmann, Guy; Wilson, Keithia L; Busby, Dean; Larson, Jeffry; Holman, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Couple relationship education (RE) usually is conceived of as relationship enhancement for currently satisfied couples, with a goal of helping couples sustain satisfaction. However, RE also might be useful as a brief, accessible intervention for couples with low satisfaction. Two studies were conducted that tested whether couples with low relationship satisfaction show meaningful gains after RE. Study 1 was a three-condition randomized controlled trial in which 182 couples were randomly assigned to RELATE with Couple CARE (RCC), a flexible delivery education program for couples, or one of two control conditions. Couples with initially low satisfaction receiving RCC showed a moderate increase in relationship satisfaction (d=0.50) relative to the control. In contrast, couples initially high in satisfaction showed little change and there was no difference between RCC and the control conditions. Study 2 was an uncontrolled trial of the Couple Coping Enhancement Training (CCET) administered to 119 couples. Couples receiving CCET that had initially low satisfaction showed a moderate increase in satisfaction (g=.44), whereas initially highly satisfied couples showed no change. Brief relationship education can assist somewhat distressed couples to enhance satisfaction, and has potential as a cost-effective way of enhancing the reach of couple interventions. PMID:25892175

  19. Asynchronous response of coupled pacemaker neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dodla, Ramana; Wilson, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    We study a network model of two conductance-based pacemaker neurons of differing natural frequency, coupled with either mutual excitation or inhibition, and receiving shared random inhibitory synaptic input. The networks may phase-lock spike-to-spike for strong mutual coupling. But the shared input can desynchronize the locked spike-pairs by selectively eliminating the lagging spike or modulating its timing with respect to the leading spike depending on their separation time window. Such loss of synchrony is also found in a large network of sparsely coupled heterogeneous spiking neurons receiving shared input. PMID:19257636

  20. Electrically Conductive Porous Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrically conductive membrane that can be configured to be used in fuel cell systems to act as a hydrophilic water separator internal to the fuel cell, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a capillary structure in a thin head pipe evaporator, or as a hydrophobic gas diffusion layer covering the fuel cell electrode surface in a fuel cell.

  1. Conducting polymer ultracapacitor

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Steven Z.; Davey, John R.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

  2. The problem of coupling in dry-head lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Neucks, Joshua S.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.

    2007-04-01

    Recent in vitro studies have shown that air pockets can get trapped at the coupling interface of the treatment head in dry-head lithotripsy, and this can pose a significant barrier to transmission of shock wave energy to the focal zone. Breakage of model stones is very sensitive to the presence of air pockets at the coupling interface. The quality of routine coupling is highly variable, and it seems quite feasible that the way in which the coupling gel is applied may have a significant effect on the quality of coupling. Therefore, attempts to find the best coupling regime may be valuable to perform, and preliminary results of in vitro tests are presented in this report. Experiments were conducted using gel or castor oil as coupling agents. The test tank was coupled through a transparent Mylar membrane to the water-filled cushion of the treatment head, so that pockets of air trapped between the two coupling surfaces could be observed and photographed. It is shown that the quality of coupling can be improved by applying an excessive amount of gel to just the water cushion of the lithotripter, while applying gel to both the water cushion and the Mylar membrane typically gives poor coupling. Repeat decoupling and re-coupling substantially degraded the quality of coupling, reducing shock wave energy density at the target by ˜80%. It was also observed that using castor oil as a coupling medium does not guarantee air-free coupling.

  3. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Balbus, Steven A.; Fristrom, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence.

  4. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.

  5. The Electronic Thermal Conductivity of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yun; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Marzari, Nicola

    2016-04-13

    Graphene, as a semimetal with the largest known thermal conductivity, is an ideal system to study the interplay between electronic and lattice contributions to thermal transport. While the total electrical and thermal conductivity have been extensively investigated, a detailed first-principles study of its electronic thermal conductivity is still missing. Here, we first characterize the electron-phonon intrinsic contribution to the electronic thermal resistivity of graphene as a function of doping using electronic and phonon dispersions and electron-phonon couplings calculated from first-principles at the level of density-functional theory and many-body perturbation theory (GW). Then, we include extrinsic electron-impurity scattering using low-temperature experimental estimates. Under these conditions, we find that the in-plane electronic thermal conductivity κe of doped graphene is ∼300 W/mK at room temperature, independently of doping. This result is much larger than expected and comparable to the total thermal conductivity of typical metals, contributing ∼10% to the total thermal conductivity of bulk graphene. Notably, in samples whose physical or domain sizes are of the order of few micrometers or smaller, the relative contribution coming from the electronic thermal conductivity is more important than in the bulk limit, because lattice thermal conductivity is much more sensitive to sample or grain size at these scales. Last, when electron-impurity scattering effects are included we find that the electronic thermal conductivity is reduced by 30 to 70%. We also find that the Wiedemann-Franz law is broadly satisfied at low and high temperatures but with the largest deviations of 20-50% around room temperature.

  6. [Female conduct disorders].

    PubMed

    Vloet, Timo D; Großheinrich, Nicola; Konrad, Kerstin; Freitag, Christine; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have seen much research on girls with conduct disorder (CD). This article summarizes the gender-specific data regarding prevalence, differences with respect to symptomatology (e.g., subtypes of aggression, callous-unemotional (cu)-traits), and it presents data on the autonomic and neuroendocrine stress system as well as genetic, neurocognitive, and neuroimaging data. Differences in the impact of environmental factors on boys and girls for the development of CD are discussed. Taken together, the data indicate that there is great overlap in symptomatology, personality traits, and neurobiological aberrations in girls and boys with CD. Since fewer girls than boys exhibit CD symptomatology, further investigations on CD in girls might help to identify resilience factors that could improve future therapeutic interventions.

  7. Conductive elastomeric extensometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gause, R. L.; Glenn, C. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An extensometer was used for measuring surface area changes of the human body caused by expansion and contraction of the body. A relatively thin and wide strain responsive conductive elastomeric band was adapted for application to a part of the body, such as around a limb or the trunk of the body. The elastomeric band is incorporated as a resistor in a balanced bridge circuit. Expansion or contraction of the portion of the body on which the elastomeric band is applied causes a change in the resistance of the band and a resultant imbalance of the bridge circuit. The output of the amplifier in volts is suitable for proving the desired reading through a recorder, oscilloscope or voltmeter.

  8. Ion-conducting membranes

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard L.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2016-06-21

    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums and pyridiniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  9. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  10. Carbon Fibers Conductivity Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. Y.; Butkus, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the process of electrical conduction in polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers, calculations were carried out on cluster models of the fiber consisting of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen atoms using the modified intermediate neglect of differential overlap (MINDO) molecular orbital (MO) method. The models were developed based on the assumption that PAN carbon fibers obtained with heat treatment temperatures (HTT) below 1000 C retain nitrogen in a graphite-like lattice. For clusters modeling an edge nitrogen site, analysis of the occupied MO's indicated an electron distribution similar to that of graphite. A similar analysis for the somewhat less stable interior nitrogen site revealed a partially localized II electron distribution around the nitrogen atom. The differences in bonding trends and structural stability between edge and interior nitrogen clusters led to a two-step process proposed for nitrogen evolution with increasing HTT.

  11. Protein conducting nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsman, Anke; Krüger, Vivien; Bartsch, Philipp; Honigmann, Alf; Schmidt, Oliver; Rao, Sanjana; Meisinger, Christof; Wagner, Richard

    2010-11-01

    About 50% of the cellular proteins have to be transported into or across cellular membranes. This transport is an essential step in the protein biosynthesis. In eukaryotic cells secretory proteins are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum before they are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane. Almost all proteins of the endosymbiotic organelles chloroplasts and mitochondria are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and posttranslationally imported. Genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches led to rather detailed knowledge on the composition of the translocon-complexes which catalyze the membrane transport of the preproteins. Comprehensive concepts on the targeting and membrane transport of polypeptides emerged, however little detail on the molecular nature and mechanisms of the protein translocation channels comprising nanopores has been achieved. In this paper we will highlight recent developments of the diverse protein translocation systems and focus particularly on the common biophysical properties and functions of the protein conducting nanopores. We also provide a first analysis of the interaction between the genuine protein conducting nanopore Tom40SC as well as a mutant Tom40SC (\\mathrm {S}_{54} \\to E ) containing an additional negative charge at the channel vestibule and one of its native substrates, CoxIV, a mitochondrial targeting peptide. The polypeptide induced a voltage-dependent increase in the frequency of channel closure of Tom40SC corresponding to a voltage-dependent association rate, which was even more pronounced for the Tom40SC S54E mutant. The corresponding dwelltime reflecting association/transport of the peptide could be determined with \\bar {t}_{\\mathrm {off}} \\cong 1.1 ms for the wildtype, whereas the mutant Tom40SC S54E displayed a biphasic dwelltime distribution (\\bar {t}_{\\mathrm {off}}^1 \\cong 0.4 ms \\bar {t}_{\\mathrm {off}}^2 \\cong 4.6 ms).

  12. Response reactions: equilibrium coupling.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eufrozina A; Nagypal, Istvan

    2006-06-01

    It is pointed out and illustrated in the present paper that if a homogeneous multiple equilibrium system containing k components and q species is composed of the reactants actually taken and their reactions contain only k + 1 species, then we have a unique representation with (q - k) stoichiometrically independent reactions (SIRs). We define these as coupling reactions. All the other possible combinations with k + 1 species are the coupled reactions that are in equilibrium when the (q - k) SIRs are in equilibrium. The response of the equilibrium state for perturbation is determined by the coupling and coupled equilibria. Depending on the circumstances and the actual thermodynamic data, the effect of coupled equilibria may overtake the effect of the coupling ones, leading to phenomena that are in apparent contradiction with Le Chatelier's principle. PMID:16722770

  13. Three tooth kinematic coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.C.

    2000-05-23

    A three tooth kinematic coupling is disclosed based on having three theoretical line contacts formed by mating teeth rather than six theoretical point contacts. The geometry requires one coupling half to have curved teeth and the other coupling half to have flat teeth. Each coupling half has a relieved center portion which does not effect the kinematics, but in the limit as the face width approaches zero, three line contacts become six point contacts. As a result of having line contact, a three tooth coupling has greater load capacity and stiffness. The kinematic coupling has application for use in precision fixturing for tools or workpieces, and as a registration device for a work or tool changer or for optics in various products.

  14. Three tooth kinematic coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Layton C.

    2000-01-01

    A three tooth kinematic coupling based on having three theoretical line contacts formed by mating teeth rather than six theoretical point contacts. The geometry requires one coupling half to have curved teeth and the other coupling half to have flat teeth. Each coupling half has a relieved center portion which does not effect the kinematics, but in the limit as the face width approaches zero, three line contacts become six point contacts. As a result of having line contact, a three tooth coupling has greater load capacity and stiffness. The kinematic coupling has application for use in precision fixturing for tools or workpieces, and as a registration device for a work or tool changer or for optics in various products.

  15. Convectively coupled Kelvin waves in CMIP5 coupled climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Tim

    2016-04-01

    This study provided a quantitative evaluation of convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean simulated by 20 coupled climate models that participated in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. The two leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of filtered daily precipitation anomalies are used to represent the eastward propagating CCKWs in both observations and simulations. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the EOF modes represent the spatial patterns and intensity of CCKWs respectively, and the lead-lag relationship between the two EOF principle components describe the phase propagation of CCKWs. A non-dimensional metric was designed in consideration of all the three factors (i.e., pattern, amplitude and phase propagation) for evaluation. The relative rankings of the models based on the skill scores calculated by the metric are conducted for the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, respectively. Two models (NorESM1-M and MPI-ESM-LR) are ranked among the best 20 % for both the regions. Three models (inmcm4, MRI-CGCM3 and HadGEM2-ES) are ranked among the worst 20 % for both the regions. While the observed CCKW amplitude is greater north of the equator in the Pacific, some models overestimate the CCKW ampliutde in the Southern Hemisphere. This bias is related to the mean state precipitation bias along the south Pacific convergence zone.

  16. Thermal Contact Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The performance of cryogenic instruments is often a function of their operating temperature. Thus, designers of cryogenic instruments often are required to predict the operating temperature of each instrument they design. This requires accurate thermal models of cryogenic components which include the properties of the materials and assembly techniques used. When components are bolted or otherwise pressed together, a knowledge of the thermal performance of such joints are also needed. In some cases, the temperature drop across these joints represents a significant fraction of the total temperature difference between the instrument and its cooler. While extensive databases exist on the thermal properties of bulk materials, similar databases for pressed contacts do not. This has often lead to instrument designs that avoid pressed contacts or to the over-design of such joints at unnecessary expense. Although many people have made measurements of contact conductances at cryogenic temperatures, this data is often very narrow in scope and even more often it has not been published in an easily retrievable fashion, if published at all. This paper presents a summary of the limited pressed contact data available in the literature.

  17. Dynamical thermal conductivity of the spin Lieb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmohammadi, Mohsen

    2016-05-01

    In the ferromagnetic insulator with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), we have theoretically investigated the dynamical thermal conductivity (DTC). In other words, we have investigated the frequency dependence of thermal conductivity, κ, of the Lieb lattice, a face-centered square lattice, subjected to a time dependence temperature gradient. Using linear response theory and Green's function approach, DTC has been obtained in the context of Heisenberg Hamiltonian. At low frequencies, DTC is found to be monotonically increasing with DMI strength (DMIS), temperature and next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) coupling. Also we have found that DTC includes a peak for different values of temperature, DMIS and NNN coupling. Furthermore we study the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of Lieb lattice for different values of DMIS, NNN coupling and external magnetic filed. We witness a decrease in DTC with temperature due to the quantum effects in the system.

  18. Electrode design for electrohydrodynamic conduction pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yagoobi, Jamal Seyed (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic conduction liquid pumping system includes a vessel configured to contain a liquid or a liquid/vapor therein. This vessel can be of a elongate conduit configuration, an elongate channel configuration or a liquid enclosure configuration. At least a single pair of electrodes are disposed in a spaced apart relation to each other on the vessel and configured to be oriented in the liquid. A power supply is coupled to the electrodes and operable to generate electric fields in between the pair of electrodes, the electric forces inducing a net liquid movement relative to the vessel. Various electrode designs are embraced within the concept of this invention.

  19. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth C001-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown by Contactless PVT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Durose, K.; Halliday, D.; Boyall, N. M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In crystal growth, the quality of the final material may depend, among other factors, on its interaction with the walls of the ampoule during and after the growth, and on the rate of the crystal cool-down at the end of ate the process. To investigate the above phenomena, a series of CdTe crystal growth processes was carried out, The crystals were grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the side walls of the silica glass ampoules, applying the Low Supersaturation Nucleation technique. The source temperature was 930 C, the undercooling was a few degrees. The crystals, having the diameter of 25 mm, grew at the rate of a few mm per day. The post-growth cool-down to the room temperature was conducted at different rates, and lasted from a few minutes to four days. The crystals were characterized using chemical etching low temperature luminescence, and Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography techniques. The dislocation (etch pit) density was measured and its distribution was analyzed by comparison with Poisson curves and with the Normalized Radial Distribution Correlation Function. It was found that the contact of the crystal with silica leads to a strain field and high (in the 105 sq cm range) dislocation (etch pit) density. Similar defect concentrations were found in crystals subjected to fast post-growth cool-down. Typical EPD values for lower cool-down rates and in regions not affected by wall interactions are in the lower 10(exp 4) sq cm range. In some areas the actual dislocation density was about 10(exp 3) sq cm or even less. No apparent effect of the cool-down rate on polygonization was observed. A fine structure could be discerned in low-temperature PL spectra of crystals with low dislocation density.

  20. Discrete impulses in ephaptically coupled nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Maïna, I; Tabi, C B; Ekobena Fouda, H P; Mohamadou, A; Kofané, T C

    2015-04-01

    We exclusively analyze the condition for modulated waves to emerge in two ephaptically coupled nerve fibers. Through the multiple scale expansion, it is shown that a set of coupled cable-like Hodgkin-Huxley equations can be reduced to a single differential-difference nonlinear equation. The standard approach of linear stability analysis of a plane wave is used to predict regions of parameters where nonlinear structures can be observed. Instability features are shown to be importantly controlled not only by the ephaptic coupling parameter, but also by the discreteness parameter. Numerical simulations, to verify our analytical predictions, are performed, and we explore the longtime dynamics of slightly perturbed plane waves in the coupled nerve fibers. On initially exciting only one fiber, quasi-perfect interneuronal communication is discussed along with the possibility of recruiting damaged or non-myelinated nerve fibers, by myelinated ones, into conduction.

  1. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  2. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  3. Gear Spline Coupling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Errichello, Robert

    2013-08-29

    An analytical model is developed to evaluate the design of a spline coupling. For a given torque and shaft misalignment, the model calculates the number of teeth in contact, tooth loads, stiffnesses, stresses, and safety factors. The analytic model provides essential spline coupling design and modeling information and could be easily integrated into gearbox design and simulation tools.

  4. Electrically Conductive Paints for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, J. E.; Wolf, R. E.; Ray, C.

    1977-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop and test electrically conductive paint coatings for spacecraft. A wide variety of organic and inorganic coatings were formulated using conductive binders, conductive pigments, and similar approaches. Z-93, IITRI's standard specification inorganic thermal control coating, exhibits good electrical properties and is a very space-stable coating system. Several coatings based on a conductive pigment (antimony-doped tin oxide) in silicone and silicate binders offer considerable promise. Paint systems using commercially available conductive polymers also appear to be of interest, but will require substantial development. Evaluations were made based on electrical conductivity, paint physical properties, and the stability of spectral reflectance in space environment testing.

  5. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  6. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  7. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth, Cool-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown By 'Contactless' PVT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Dunrose, K.; Halliday, D.; Boyall, N. M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To take a maximum advantage of materials processing in microgravity for understanding the effects of gravity, gravity-independent effects should be minimized. In crystal growth, the quality of the grown crystals may depend, among other factors, on their interaction with the walls of the processing container during and after growth, and on the rate of the crystal cool-down at the end of the process. To investigate the above phenomena, a series of CdTe crystal growth processes was carried out. The crystals were grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the side walls of the silica glass ampoules. To eliminate the effect of the seed quality, and to reduce the number of nuclei and related crystal grains, the Low Supersaturation Nucleation technique was applied. The source temperature was 930 C, the undercooling was a few degrees. The crystals, having the diameter of 25 mm, grew at the rate of a few mm per day. The post-growth cool-down to the room temperature was conducted at different rates, and lasted from a few minutes to four days. The crystals were characterized using chemical etching, low temperature luminescence, and Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography techniques. The dislocation (etch pit) density was measured and its distribution was analyzed by comparison with Poisson curves and with the Normalized Radial Distribution Correlation Function. In the regions where the crystal is in contact with silica, the materials show a considerable strain field which extends for a few mm or more from the silica-crystal interface. In the reference crystal grown with contact with the ampoule walls, and when the crystals are cooled at the highest rates, the etch pit/dislocation density is in the high 10(exp 5) per square centimeter region. Typical EPD values for lower cool-down rates are in the lower 10(exp 4) per square centimeter region. In some areas the actual dislocation density was about 10(exp 3) per square centimeter or even less. No apparent effect of

  8. Single-mode heat conduction by photons.

    PubMed

    Meschke, Matthias; Guichard, Wiebke; Pekola, Jukka P

    2006-11-01

    The thermal conductance of a single channel is limited by its unique quantum value G(Q), as was shown theoretically in 1983. This result closely resembles the well-known quantization of electrical conductance in ballistic one-dimensional conductors. Interestingly, all particles-irrespective of whether they are bosons or fermions-have the same quantized thermal conductance when they are confined within dimensions that are small compared to their characteristic wavelength. The single-mode heat conductance is particularly relevant in nanostructures. Quantized heat transport through submicrometre dielectric wires by phonons has been observed, and it has been predicted to influence cooling of electrons in metals at very low temperatures due to electromagnetic radiation. Here we report experimental results showing that at low temperatures heat is transferred by photon radiation, when electron-phonon as well as normal electronic heat conduction is frozen out. We study heat exchange between two small pieces of normal metal, connected to each other only via superconducting leads, which are ideal insulators against conventional thermal conduction. Each superconducting lead is interrupted by a switch of electromagnetic (photon) radiation in the form of a DC-SQUID (a superconducting loop with two Josephson tunnel junctions). We find that the thermal conductance between the two metal islands mediated by photons indeed approaches the expected quantum limit of G(Q) at low temperatures. Our observation has practical implications-for example, for the performance and design of ultra-sensitive bolometers (detectors of far-infrared light) and electronic micro-refrigerators, whose operation is largely dependent on weak thermal coupling between the device and its environment. PMID:17093446

  9. Optical Conductivity in the Cuprates from Unparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Hutasoit, Jimmy; Phillips, Philip

    2015-03-01

    The optical conductivity of optimally doped cuprates above the superconducting dome exhibits a universal power law of the form, ω-2/3. Unparticles, scale-invariant matter with an algebraic propagator, is a candidate to explain this phenomenon. We explore the possibility of using unparticle to produce such power law behavior. We apply unparticle-gauge couplings and linear response theory at finite temperature to calculate the optical conductivity. We find that simply expanding a four-point correlation function using Wick's theorem is not sufficient to obtain the power law. We investigate the role played by non-Wick processes in determining the power law We would like to thank NSF Contract No. DMR-1104909 for partially funding of this project. K. L. is supported by the Department of Physics at the University of Illinois and by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Royal Thai Government.

  10. Comparing proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes by percent conducting volume

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of sulfonated polymers plays a key role in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Mass based water uptake and ion exchange capacity of sulfonated polymers have been failed to correlating their proton conductivity. In this paper, we report a length scale parameter, percent conductivity volume, which is rather simply obtained from the chemical structure of polymer to compare proton conductivity of wholly aromatic sulfonated polymer perflurosulfonic acid. Morphology effect on proton conductivity at lower RH conditions is discussed using the percent conductivity volume parameter.

  11. Chemical anchoring of organic conducting polymers to semiconducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.J.; Honda, K.

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, an improved method of coating electrodes with conductive polymer films and/or preselected catalysts is provided. The charge conductive polymer is covalently or coordinatively attached to the electrode surface to strengthen the adhesion characteristics of the polymer to the electrode surface or to improve charge conductive properties between the conductive polymer and the electrode surface. Covalent or coordinative attachment is achieved by a number of alternative methods including covalently or coordinatively attaching the desired monomer to the electrode by means of a suitable coupling reagent and, thereafter, electrochemically polymerizing the monomer in situ.

  12. Chemical anchoring of organic conducting polymers to semiconducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Arthur J.; Honda, Kenji

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, an improved method of coating electrodes with conductive polymer films and/or preselected catalysts is provided. The charge-conductive polymer is covalently or coordinatively attached to the electrode surface to strengthen the adhesion characteristics of the polymer to the electrode surface or to improve charge-conductive properties between the conductive polymer and the electrode surface. Covalent or coordinative attachment is achieved by a number of alternative methods including covalently or coordinatively attaching the desired monomer to the electrode by means of a suitable coupling reagent and, thereafter, electrochemically polymerizing the monomer in situ.

  13. Depression: The Differing Narratives of Couples in Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautiainen, Eija-Liisa; Aaltonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    How does the spouse of a person with depression take part in constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy? In this study we examined couples' ways of co-constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy. Three couple therapy processes were chosen for the study, one spouse in each couple having been referred to an outpatient clinic…

  14. Electrical Conductivity of Ferritin Proteins by Conductive AFM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Degao; Watt, Gerald D.; Harb, John N.; Davis, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements were performed on single apoferritin and holoferritin molecules by conductive atomic force microscopy. Conductivity of self-assembled monolayer films of ferritin molecules on gold surfaces was also measured. Holoferritin was 5-25 times more conductive than apoferritin, indicating that for holoferritin most electron-transfer goes through the ferrihydrite core. With 1 V applied, the average electrical currents through single holoferritin and apoferritin molecules were 2.6 PA and 0.19 PA, respectively.

  15. Investigation of thermomechanical couplings, strain localization and shape memory properties in a shape memory polymer subjected to loading at various strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczyska, E. A.; Staszczak, M.; Maj, M.; Kowalczyk-Gajewska, K.; Golasiński, K.; Cristea, M.; Tobushi, H.; Hayashi, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents experimental and modeling results of the effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in a polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) subjected to tension at various strain rates within large strains. The SMP mechanical curves, recorded using a testing machine, and the related temperature changes, measured in a contactless manner using an IR camera, were used to investigate the polymer deformation process at various loading stages. The effects of thermomechanical couplings allowed the determination of the material yield point in the initial loading stage, the investigation of nucleation and development of the strain localization at larger strains and the estimation of the effects of thermoelastic behavior during the unloading process. The obtained stress–strain and thermal characteristics, the results of the dynamic mechanical analysis and estimated values of the shape fixity and shape recovery parameters confirmed that the shape memory polymer (T g = 45 °C) is characterized by good mechanical and shape memory properties, as well as high sensitivity to the strain rate. The mechanical response of the SMP subjected to tension was simulated using the finite element method and applying the large strain, two-phase model. Strain localization observed in the experiment was well reproduced in simulations and the temperature spots were correlated with the accumulated viscoplastic deformation of the SMP glassy phase.

  16. Investigation of thermomechanical couplings, strain localization and shape memory properties in a shape memory polymer subjected to loading at various strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczyska, E. A.; Staszczak, M.; Maj, M.; Kowalczyk-Gajewska, K.; Golasiński, K.; Cristea, M.; Tobushi, H.; Hayashi, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents experimental and modeling results of the effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in a polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) subjected to tension at various strain rates within large strains. The SMP mechanical curves, recorded using a testing machine, and the related temperature changes, measured in a contactless manner using an IR camera, were used to investigate the polymer deformation process at various loading stages. The effects of thermomechanical couplings allowed the determination of the material yield point in the initial loading stage, the investigation of nucleation and development of the strain localization at larger strains and the estimation of the effects of thermoelastic behavior during the unloading process. The obtained stress-strain and thermal characteristics, the results of the dynamic mechanical analysis and estimated values of the shape fixity and shape recovery parameters confirmed that the shape memory polymer (T g = 45 °C) is characterized by good mechanical and shape memory properties, as well as high sensitivity to the strain rate. The mechanical response of the SMP subjected to tension was simulated using the finite element method and applying the large strain, two-phase model. Strain localization observed in the experiment was well reproduced in simulations and the temperature spots were correlated with the accumulated viscoplastic deformation of the SMP glassy phase.

  17. Undergraduate Conductors' and Conducting Teachers' Perceptions of Basic Conducting Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.; Baumgartner, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate conductors' and conducting teachers' perceptions about basic conducting efficacy. At the beginning and end of the semester, undergraduate students (N = 19) enrolled in a basic conducting course (a) were surveyed about the importance of certain skills necessary for being an effective conductor…

  18. Lesbian Couples' Relationship Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Sayer, Aline

    2006-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is a time of stress for many couples. Most research on the transition to parenthood has been conducted with middle-class, heterosexual couples. The current study uses multilevel modeling to examine predictors of change in relationship quality (love and conflict) during the transition to parenthood in 29 lesbian…

  19. Dual-Career Relationships: The College Couple Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peplau, Letitia Anne; Rook, Karen

    Investigated are the following: (1) college student preference for a dual-career marriage; (2) factors which lead to this preference; and (3) the effect of these attitudes on patterns of interaction among dating couples. Subjects were 231 dating couples. Questionnaires were utilized, with follow-ups conducted six months, one year, and two years…

  20. Unique Issues in Rural Couple and Family Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Baker, Brad G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the available literature regarding rural couple and family counseling, in conjunction with the findings of research in closely related fields. This review is conducted in an effort to identify unique practice issues facing rural couple and family counselors. (Contains 77 references.) (GCP)

  1. The Heroes' Journey: A Young Couple's Experience with Choriocarcinoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Dan; Hodgson, Jennifer; Lamson, Angela

    2010-01-01

    A 20 year retrospective qualitative case study was conducted to investigate the relational impact of choriocarcinoma (a type of gestational cancer) on a couple of child-bearing age. A unique feature to the study was that the primary investigator was the couple's biological son, initiating the first known auto-case study design. Using holistic…

  2. Water Wave Solutions of the Coupled System Zakharov-Kuznetsov and Generalized Coupled KdV Equations

    PubMed Central

    Seadawy, A. R.; El-Rashidy, K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytic study was conducted on coupled partial differential equations. We formally derived new solitary wave solutions of generalized coupled system of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) and KdV equations by using modified extended tanh method. The traveling wave solutions for each generalized coupled system of ZK and KdV equations are shown in form of periodic, dark, and bright solitary wave solutions. The structures of the obtained solutions are distinct and stable. PMID:25374940

  3. Water wave solutions of the coupled system Zakharov-Kuznetsov and generalized coupled KdV equations.

    PubMed

    Seadawy, A R; El-Rashidy, K

    2014-01-01

    An analytic study was conducted on coupled partial differential equations. We formally derived new solitary wave solutions of generalized coupled system of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) and KdV equations by using modified extended tanh method. The traveling wave solutions for each generalized coupled system of ZK and KdV equations are shown in form of periodic, dark, and bright solitary wave solutions. The structures of the obtained solutions are distinct and stable. PMID:25374940

  4. Conductance switching in diarylethenes bridging carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, M K; Bruque, Nicolas A; Tan, Jeremy L; Beran, Gregory J O; Lake, Roger K

    2011-01-14

    The recently reported photoswitching of diarylethene derivative molecules bridging carbon nanotube (CNT) contacts is theoretically analyzed. The short lifetime of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) indicates that neither the open nor closed form of the molecule can be photoexcited into a charge-neutral excited state for any appreciable length of time preventing photochromic ring opening. Analysis of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and LUMO lifetimes also suggests that photoexcitation results in oxidation of the molecules. This either reduces the quantum yield of photochromic ring closing, or it gives rise to the possibility of oxidative ring closing. Analysis of the resistance values and energy levels indicates that the HOMO energy levels of the closed isomers relevant for transport must lie within a few k(B)T of the CNT Fermi level. For armchair contacts, the change in resistance with isomer or substituent group is the result of shifts in the energy level of the molecular HOMO. The coupling of the molecular HOMO to the CNT contacts is insensitive to the isomer type or substituent group. For zigzag CNTs, the conductance is dominated by surface states at the Fermi level on the cut ends of the CNTs so that the conductance is relatively insensitive to the isomer type, and the conductance switching ratio is low. Multiple bridging molecules can interact coherently, resulting in energy splitting, shifting, and interference that cause a nonlinear change in conductance with increasing numbers of molecules. Instead of a factor of 3 increase in conductance expected for three independent channels, a factor of 10(3) increase in conductance is obtained for three bridging molecules.

  5. Coupling in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, N.M.

    1994-12-01

    The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-{beta} quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note.

  6. Disformally coupled inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Koivisto, Tomi; Longden, Chris

    2016-03-01

    A disformal coupling between two scalar fields is considered in the context of cosmological inflation. The coupling introduces novel derivative interactions mixing the kinetic terms of the fields but without introducing superluminal or unstable propagation of the two scalar fluctuation modes. Though the typical effect of the disformal coupling is to inhibit one of the fields from inflating the universe, the energy density of the other field can drive viable near Sitter -inflation in the presence of nontrivial disformal dynamics, in particular when one assumes exponential instead of power-law form for the couplings. The linear perturbation equations are written for the two-field system, its canonical degrees of freedom are quantised, their spectra are derived and the inflationary predictions are reported for numerically solved exponential models. A generic prediction is low tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  7. [Main Cellular Redox Couples].

    PubMed

    Bilan, D S; Shokhina, A G; Lukyanov, S A; Belousov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Most of the living cells maintain the continuous flow of electrons, which provides them by energy. Many of the compounds are presented in a cell at the same time in the oxidized and reduced states, forming the active redox couples. Some of the redox couples, such as NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH, oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH), are universal, as they participate in adjusting of many cellular reactions. Ratios of the oxidized and reduced forms of these compounds are important cellular redox parameters. Modern research approaches allow setting the new functions of the main redox couples in the complex organization of cellular processes. The following information is about the main cellular redox couples and their participation in various biological processes.

  8. Thermal Conductivity of Coated Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, Lei L; Pan, Yun-Long; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Wang, Hsin; Peterson, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a method for measuring the thermal conductivity of paper using a hot disk system. To the best of our knowledge, few publications are found discussing the thermal conductivity of a coated paper although it is important to various forms of today s digital printing where heat is used for imaging as well as for toner fusing. This motivates us to investigate the thermal conductivity of paper coating. Our investigation demonstrates that thermal conductivity is affected by the coat weight and the changes in the thermal conductivity affect ink gloss and density. As the coat weight increases, the thermal conductivity increases. Both the ink gloss and density decrease as the thermal conductivity increases. The ink gloss appears to be more sensitive to the changes in the thermal conductivity.

  9. Hydrodynamic focusing of conducting fluids for conductivity-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mansoor; Ateya, Daniel A; Burk, Diana; Golden, Joel P; Ligler, Frances S

    2010-02-15

    Hydrodynamic focusing of a conducting fluid by a non-conducting fluid to form a constricted current path between two sensing electrodes is implemented in order to enhance the sensitivity of a 4-electrode conductance-based biosensor. The sensor has a simple two-inlet T-junction design and performs four-point conductivity measurements to detect particles immobilized between the sensing electrode pair. Computational simulations conducted in conjunction with experimental flow studies using confocal microscopy show that a flat profile for the focused layer is dependent on the Reynolds number for the chosen flow parameters. The results also indicate that a flat focused layer is desirable for both increased sensitivity as well as surface-binding efficiency. Proof of concept for conductance measurements in a hydrodynamically focused conducting fluid was demonstrated with entrapped magnetic beads. PMID:19932019

  10. Nonlinear dynamics in cardiac conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Smith, J. M.; Saxberg, B. E.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical conduction in the heart shows many phenomena familiar from nonlinear dynamics. Among these phenomena are multiple basins of attraction, phase locking, and perhaps period-doubling bifurcations and chaos. We describe a simple cellular-automation model of electrical conduction which simulates normal conduction patterns in the heart as well as a wide range of disturbances of heart rhythm. In addition, we review the application of percolation theory to the analysis of the development of complex, self-sustaining conduction patterns.

  11. Rapid prototype extruded conductive pathways

    DOEpatents

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2016-06-21

    A process of producing electrically conductive pathways within additively manufactured parts and similar parts made by plastic extrusion nozzles. The process allows for a three-dimensional part having both conductive and non-conductive portions and allows for such parts to be manufactured in a single production step.

  12. A Simple Audio Conductivity Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenato, Gregory; Maynard, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a simple audio conductivity device built to address the problem of the lack of sensitivity needed to measure small differences in conductivity in crude conductivity devices. Uses a 9-V battery as a power supply and allows the relative resistance differences between substances to be detected by the frequency of its audible tones. Presents…

  13. Phonon-mediated negative differential conductance in molecular quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazunov, Alex; Feinberg, Denis; Martin, Thierry

    2006-03-01

    Transport through a single-molecular conductor is considered, showing negative differential conductance behavior associated with phonon-mediated electron tunneling processes. This theoretical work is motivated by a recent experiment by Leroy using a carbon nanotube contacted by a scanning tunneling microscope tip [Nature 432, 371 (2004)], where negative differential conductance of the breathing-mode phonon side peaks could be observed. A peculiarity of this system is that the tunneling couplings which inject electrons and those which collect them on the substrate are highly asymmetrical. A quantum dot model is used, coupling a single electronic level to a local phonon, forming polaron levels. A “half-shuttle” mechanism is also introduced. A quantum kinetic formulation allows us to derive rate equations. Assuming asymmetric tunneling rates and in the absence of the half-shuttle coupling, negative differential conductance (NDC) is obtained for a wide range of parameters. A detailed explanation of this phenomenon is provided, showing that NDC is maximal for intermediate electron-phonon coupling. In addition, in the absence of a gate, the “floating” level results in two distinct lengths for the current plateaus, related to the capacitive couplings at the two junctions. It is shown that the half-shuttle mechanism tends to reinforce the negative differential regions, but it cannot trigger this behavior on its own.

  14. “Designer”-Surfactant-Enabled Cross-Couplings in Water at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Ghorai, Subir

    2012-01-01

    New methodologies are discussed that allow for several commonly used transition-metal-catalyzed coupling reactions to be conducted within aqueous micellar nanoparticles at ambient temperatures. PMID:23807816

  15. Comorbidity of Conduct Problems and ADHD: Identification of "Fledgling Psychopaths".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lambros, Katina M.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the characteristics of children who exhibit a behavior pattern characterized by hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention coupled with conduct problems such as fighting, stealing, truancy, noncompliance, and arguing. Procedures for early identification of these so-called "fledgling psychopaths" are described and discussed.…

  16. Surface conductivity measurements in nanometric to micrometric foam films.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Oriane; Mounier, Anne; Simon, Gilles; Biance, Anne-Laure

    2015-05-20

    Foam films (a liquid lamella in air covered by surfactants) are tools of choice for nanofluidic characterization as they are intrinsically nanometric. Their size is indeed fixed by a balance between external pressure and particular molecular interactions in the vicinity of interfaces. To probe the exact nature of these interfaces, different characterizations can be performed. Among them, conductivity in confined systems is a direct probe of the electrostatic environment in the vicinity of the surface. Therefore, we designed a dedicated experiment to measure this conductivity in a cylindrical bubble coupled to interferometry for film thickness characterization. We then show that this conductivity depends on the surfactant nature. These conductivity measurements have been performed in an extremely confined system, the so called Newton black foam films. Unexpectedly in this case, a conductivity close to surface conductivity is recovered.

  17. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3− transporters of the SLC4-family. PMID:25428855

  18. Semiclassical theory of coupled lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakir, S.A.; Chow, W.W.

    1985-08-01

    The semiclassical equations of motion for a system of coupled lasers are developed and the frequency locking of the lasers comprising the system is analyzed. It is shown that the frequency-coupling range, in terms of the coupled cavities' mismatch, is proportional to the coupling coefficient. For a system where the cavities are uniformally filled with the active medium, the coupling vanishes regardless of the transmittance of the coupling mirrors. Our theory is valid for all values of coupling and for any number of lasers in the array. It may also be adapted to study different types of coupling arrangements.

  19. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2015-05-15

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  20. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632