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Sample records for coupled phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase

  1. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Lucio; Follo, Matilde Y; Manzoli, Lucia; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2015-10-01

    Phospholipases are widely occurring and can be found in several different organisms, including bacteria, yeast, plants, animals, and viruses. Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of phospholipases that cleaves phospholipids on the diacylglycerol (DAG) side of the phosphodiester bond producing DAGs and phosphomonoesters. Among PLCs, phosphoinositide-specific PLC (PI-PLC) constitutes an important step in the inositide signaling pathways. The structures of PI-PLC isozymes show conserved domains as well as regulatory specific domains. This is important, as most PI-PLCs share a common mechanism, but each of them has a peculiar role and can have a specific cell distribution that is linked to a specific function. More importantly, the regulation of PLC isozymes is fundamental in health and disease, as there are several PLC-dependent molecular mechanisms that are associated with the activation or inhibition of important physiopathological processes. Moreover, PI-PLC alternative splicing variants can play important roles in complex signaling networks, not only in cancer but also in other diseases. That is why PI-PLC isozymes are now considered as important molecules that are essential for better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying both physiology and pathogenesis, and are also potential molecular targets useful for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies.

  2. Multiple roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isozymes.

    PubMed

    Suh, Pann-Ghill; Park, Jae-Il; Manzoli, Lucia; Cocco, Lucio; Peak, Joanna C; Katan, Matilda; Fukami, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Tohru; Yun, Sanguk; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2008-06-30

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C is an effector molecule in the signal transduction process. It generates two second messengers, inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Currently, thirteen mammal PLC isozymes have been identified, and they are divided into six groups: PLC-beta, -gamma, -delta, -epsilon, -zeta and -eta. Sequence analysis studies demonstrated that each isozyme has more than one alternative splicing variant. PLC isozymes contain the X and Y domains that are responsible for catalytic activity. Several other domains including the PH domain, the C2 domain and EF hand motifs are involved in various biological functions of PLC isozymes as signaling proteins. The distribution of PLC isozymes is tissue and organ specific. Recent studies on isolated cells and knockout mice depleted of PLC isozymes have revealed their distinct phenotypes. Given the specificity in distribution and cellular localization, it is clear that each PLC isozyme bears a unique function in the modulation of physiological responses. In this review, we discuss the structural organization, enzymatic properties and molecular diversity of PLC splicing variants and study functional and physiological roles of each isozyme.

  3. Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C β1 gene deletion in bipolar disorder affected patient.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Longo, Lucia; Polonia, Patrizia

    2013-03-01

    The involvement of phosphoinositides (PI) signal transduction pathway and related molecules, such as the Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes, in the pathophysiology of mood disorders is corroborated by a number of recent evidences. Our previous works identified the deletion of PLCB1 gene, which codifies for the PI-PLC β1 enzyme, in 4 out 15 patients affected with schizophrenia, and no deletion both in major depression affected patients and in normal controls. By using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization methodology, we analyzed PLCB1 in paraffin embedded samples of orbito-frontal cortex of 15 patients affected with bipolar disorder. Deletion of PLCB1 was identified in one female patient.

  4. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in oat roots: association with the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Hua; Crain, Richard C

    2009-10-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activities are involved in mediating plant cell responses to environmental stimuli. Two variants of PI-PLC have been partially purified from the roots of oat seedlings; one cytosolic and one particulate. Although the cytosolic enzyme was significantly purified, the activity still co-migrated with a number of other proteins on heparin HPLC and also on size-exclusion chromatography. The partially purified PI-PLC was tested by Western blotting, and we found that actin and actin-binding proteins, profilin and tropomyosin, co-purified with cytosolic phospholipase C. After a non-ionic detergent (Triton X-100) treatment, PI-PLC activities still remained with the actin cytoskeleton. The effects of phalloidin and F-buffer confirmed this association; these conditions, which favor actin polymerization, decreased the release of PI-PLC from the cytoskeleton. The treatments of latrunculin and G-buffer, the conditions that favor actin depolymerization, increased the release of PI-PLC from the cytoskeleton. These results suggest that oat PI-PLC associates with the actin cytoskeleton.

  5. A plasma-membrane linker for the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kimiyo; Sano, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We previously screened genes that were transcriptionally activated during the early stage of wound response in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum), and isolated a particular clone, which encoded a membrane-located protein, designated as NtC7. Upon overexpression in tobacco plants, NtC7 conferred a marked tolerance to osmotic stress, suggesting it to be involved in maintenance of osmotic adjustments. In this study, we searched for proteins which interact with NtC7 by the yeast two-hybrid screening, and isolated a clone encoding phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, designated as NtPI-PLC. Physical interaction between NtC7 and C2 domain of NtPI-PLC was confirmed by the pull-down assay. Expression of fused protein to green-fluorescence protein in onion epidermal cell layers indicated both proteins to predominantly localize to the plasma membrane. Their interaction in planta was shown by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation, which exhibited a clear fluorescence of reconstituted yellow fluorescence protein. Transcripts of NtC7 and NtPI-PLC were markedly increased 30 to 60 min after wounding. PI-PLC is one of key enzymes in metabolism of inositol phospholipids, which function in signal transduction and also in response to stresses including osmotic changes. It was shown to localize to plasma-membrane and, to a lesser extent, to cytosol. However, molecular mechanism of membrane localization has remained to be determined, because of the apparent lack of domains for membrane association. The present results suggest that one of such mechanisms is tethering NtPI-PLC to the plasma membrane through interaction with NtC7, which possesses a transmembrane domain at the C-terminus.

  6. Expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isoenzymes in cultured astrocytes activated after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Fumagalli, Lorenzo; Cocco, L

    2010-04-01

    Signal transduction pathways, involved in cell cycle and activities, depend on various components including lipid signalling molecules, such as phosphoinositides and related enzymes. Many evidences support the hypothesis that inositol lipid cycle is involved in astrocytes activation during neurodegeneration. Previous studies investigated the pattern of expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family isoforms in astrocytes, individuating in cultured neonatal rat astrocytes, supposed to be quiescent cells, the absence of some isoforms, accordingly to their well known tissue specificity. The same study was conducted in cultured rat astrocytoma C6 cells and designed a different pattern of expression of PI-PLCs in the neoplastic counterpart, accordingly to literature suggesting a PI signalling involvement in tumour progression. It is not clear the role of PI-PLC isoforms in inflammation; recent data demonstrate they are involved in cytokines production, with special regard to IL-6. PI-PLCs expression in LPS treated neonatal rat astrocytes performed by using RT-PCR, observed at 3, 6, 18 and 24 h intervals, expressed: PI-PLC beta1, beta4 and gamma1 in all intervals analysed; PI-PLC delta1 at 6, 18 and 24 h; PI-PLC delta3 at 6 h after treatment. PI-PLC beta3, delta4 and epsilon, present in untreated astrocytes, were not detected after LPS treatment. Immunocytochemical analysis, performed to visualize the sub-cellular distribution of the expressed isoforms, demonstrated different patterns of localisation at different times of exposure. These observations suggest that PI-PLCs expression and distribution may play a role in ongoing inflammation process of CNS.

  7. Expression of Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C Isoforms in Native Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Béziau, Delphine M.; Toussaint, Fanny; Blanchette, Alexandre; Dayeh, Nour R.; Charbel, Chimène; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Ledoux, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) comprises a superfamily of enzymes that play a key role in a wide array of intracellular signalling pathways, including protein kinase C and intracellular calcium. Thirteen different mammalian PLC isoforms have been identified and classified into 6 families (PLC-β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η) based on their biochemical properties. Although the expression of PLC isoforms is tissue-specific, concomitant expression of different PLC has been reported, suggesting that PLC family is involved in multiple cellular functions. Despite their critical role, the PLC isoforms expressed in native endothelial cells (ECs) remains undetermined. A conventional PCR approach was initially used to elucidate the mRNA expression pattern of PLC isoforms in 3 distinct murine vascular beds: mesenteric (MA), pulmonary (PA) and middle cerebral arteries (MCA). mRNA encoding for most PLC isoforms was detected in MA, MCA and PA with the exception of η2 and β2 (only expressed in PA), δ4 (only expressed in MCA), η1 (expressed in all but MA) and ζ (not detected in any vascular beds tested). The endothelial-specific PLC expression was then sought in freshly isolated ECs. Interestingly, the PLC expression profile appears to differ across the investigated arterial beds. While mRNA for 8 of the 13 PLC isoforms was detected in ECs from MA, two additional PLC isoforms were detected in ECs from PA and MCA. Co-expression of multiple PLC isoforms in ECs suggests an elaborate network of signalling pathways: PLC isoforms may contribute to the complexity or diversity of signalling by their selective localization in cellular microdomains. However in situ immunofluorescence revealed a homogeneous distribution for all PLC isoforms probed (β3, γ2 and δ1) in intact endothelium. Although PLC isoforms play a crucial role in endothelial signal transduction, subcellular localization alone does not appear to be sufficient to determine the role of PLC in the signalling microdomains found in the

  8. Molecular cytogenetic interphase analysis of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C β1 gene in paraffin-embedded brain samples of major depression patients.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Polonia, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Mood disorders represent a major medical need, as their chronic treatments are not effective in all patients. Literature data suggested that phosphoinositides (PI) signal transduction pathway and related molecules such as the Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes, might be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, including major depression. By using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization methodology, we analyzed PLCB1 gene, which codifies for the PI-PLC β1 enzyme, in paraffin embedded samples of orbito-frontal cortex of 15 patients affected with major depression and in 15 normal controls. No deletions of PLCB1 were identified with the methodology used, which allows to exclude wide gene deletions. The results, the technical aspects of the FISH methodology, and its limitations are discussed.

  9. Expression pattern and sub-cellular distribution of phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C enzymes after treatment with U-73122 in rat astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Panetta, Barbara; Fumagalli, Lorenzo; Cocco, Lucio

    2010-07-01

    Phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes interfere with the metabolism of inositol phospholipids (PI), molecules involved in signal transduction, a complex process depending on various components. Many evidences support the hypothesis that, in the glia, isoforms of PI-PLC family display different expression and/or sub cellular distribution under non-physiological conditions such as the rat astrocytes activation during neurodegeneration, the tumoural progression of some neoplasms and the inflammatory cascade activation after lipopolysaccharide administration, even if their role remains not completely elucidated. Treatment of a cultured established glioma cell line (C6 rat astrocytoma cell line) induces a modification in the pattern of expression and of sub cellular distribution of PI-PLCs compared to untreated cells. Special attention require PI-PLC beta3 and PI-PLC gamma2 isoforms, whose expression and sub cellular localization significantly differ after U-73122 treatment. The meaning of these modifications is unclear, also because the use of this N-aminosteroid compound remains controversial, inasmuch it has further actions which might contribute to the global effect recorded on the treated cells.

  10. cDNA sequence and gene locus of the human retinal phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-C{beta}4 (PLCB4)

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.A.; Ghalayini, A.J.; Anderson, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Defects in the Drosophila norpA (no receptor potential A) gene encoding a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) block invertebrate phototransduction and lead to retinal degeneration. The mammalian homolog, PLCB4, is expressed in rat brain, bovine cerebellum, and the bovine retina in several splice variants. To determine a possible role of PLCB4 gene defects in human disease, we isolated several overlapping cDNA clones from a human retina library. The composite cDNA sequence predicts a human PLC{beta}4 polypeptide of 1022 amino acid residues (MW 117,000). This PLC{beta}4 variant lacks a 165-amino-acid N-terminal domain characteristic for the rat brain isoforms, but has a distinct putative exon 1 unique for human and bovine retina isoforms. A PLC{beta}4 monospecific antibody detected a major (130 kDa) and a minor (160 kDa) isoform in retina homogenates. Somatic cell hybrids and deletion panels were used to localize the PCLB4 gene to the short arm of chromosome 20. The gene was further sublocalized to 20p12 by florescence in situ hybridization. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Cloning and characterization of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC beta 1).

    PubMed

    Caricasole, A; Sala, C; Roncarati, R; Formenti, E; Terstappen, G C

    2000-12-15

    Phospholipase C-beta (PLC beta) catalyses the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (IP(2)), a key step in the intracellular transduction of a large number of extracellular signals, including neurotransmitters and hormones modulating diverse developmental and functional aspects of the mammalian central nervous system. Four mammalian isozymes are known (PLC beta 1-4), which differ in their function and expression patterns in vivo. We have characterized the human PLC beta 1 genomic locus (PLC beta 1), cloned two distinct PLC beta 1 cDNAs (PLC beta 1a and b) and analysed their respective expression patterns in a comprehensive panel of human tissues using quantitative TaqMan technology. The two cDNAs derive from transcripts generated through alternative splicing at their 3' end, and are predicted to encode for PLC beta 1 isoforms differing at their carboxy-terminus. The human PLC beta 1 isoforms are co-expressed in the same tissues with a distinctly CNS-specific profile of expression. Quantitative differences in PLC beta 1 isoform expression levels are observed in some tissues. Transient expression of epitope-tagged versions of the two isoforms followed by immunofluorescence revealed localization of the proteins to the cytoplasm and the inner side of the cell membrane. Finally, we characterized the structure of the PLC beta 1 locus and confirmed its mapping to human chromosome 20.

  12. Nuclear envelope assembly is promoted by phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C with selective recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-enriched membranes

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear envelope (NE) formation in a cell-free egg extract proceeds by precursor membrane vesicle binding to chromatin in an ATP-dependent manner, followed by a GTP-induced NE assembly step. The requirement for GTP in the latter step of this process can be mimicked by addition of bacterial PI-PLC [phosphoinositide (PtdIns)-specific phospholipase C]. The NE assembly process is here dissected in relation to the requirement for endogenous phosphoinositide metabolism, employing recombinant eukaryotic PI-PLC, inhibitors and direct phospholipid analysis using ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol) species analysis by ESI-MS indicates that the chromatin-bound NE precursor vesicles are enriched for specific PtdIns species. Moreover, during GTP-induced precursor vesicle fusion, the membrane vesicles become partially depleted of the PtdIns 18:0/20:4 species. These data indicate that eukaryotic PI-PLC can support NE formation, and the sensitivity to exogenous recombinant PtdIns-5-phosphatases shows that the endogenous PLC hydrolyses a 5-phosphorylated species. It is shown further that the downstream target of this DAG (diacylglycerol) pathway does not involve PKC (protein kinase C) catalytic function, but is mimicked by phorbol esters, indicating a possible engagement of one of the non-PKC phorbol ester receptors. The results show that ESI-MS can be used as a sensitive means to measure the lipid composition of biological membranes and their changes during, for example, membrane fusogenic events. We have exploited this and the intervention studies to illustrate a pivotal role for PI-PLC and its product DAG in the formation of NEs. PMID:15554872

  13. Genomic organization and complete cDNA sequence of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C {beta}3 gene (PLCB3)

    SciTech Connect

    Lagercrantz, J.; Carson, E.; Phelan, C.

    1995-04-10

    We have characterized the complete cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and expression of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C {beta}3 (PLC {beta}3) gene (gene symbol PLCB3). PLC {beta}3 plays an important role in initiating receptor-mediated signal transduction. Activation of PLC takes place in many cells as a response to stimulation by hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, and other ligands. The partial cDNA sequence of PLC {beta}3, previously published, was extended with 876 bp in the 5{prime} direction, giving a transcript of 4400 bp and a total open reading frame of 1234 amino acids. This was in accordance with expression analysis by Northern blotting that revealed a single 4.4-kb transcript in all tissues tested. Genomic data were obtained by sequencing plasmid subclones of a cosmid that contained the whole gene. The size of the complete transcription unit was estimated to be on the order of 15 kb. The gene contains 31 exons, with all splice donor and acceptor sites conforming to the GT/AG rule. No exon exceeds 571 bp in length, and the shortest exon spans only 36 bp. More than half of the introns are smaller than 200 bp, with the smallest being only 79 bp long. The transcription initiation site was determined to be within an 8-bp cluster 328-321 bp upstream of the translation initiation site. The 5{prime} flanking region is highly GC rich, with multiple CpG doublets, and contains multiple binding sites for Sp1. Lacking typical transcriptional regulatory sequences such as TATA and CAAT boxes, the putative promoter region conforms to the group of housekeeping promoters. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Binding of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) to phospholipid membranes: potential role of an unstructured cluster of basic residues.

    PubMed

    Nomikos, Michail; Mulgrew-Nesbitt, Anna; Pallavi, Payal; Mihalyne, Gyongyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony; Murray, Diana; McLaughlin, Stuart

    2007-06-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) is a sperm-specific enzyme that initiates the Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs that activate embryo development. It shares considerable sequence homology with PLC-delta1, but lacks the PH domain that anchors PLC-delta1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP2. Thus it is unclear how PLC-zeta interacts with membranes. The linker region between the X and Y catalytic domains of PLC-zeta, however, contains a cluster of basic residues not present in PLC-delta1. Application of electrostatic theory to a homology model of PLC-zeta suggests this basic cluster could interact with acidic lipids. We measured the binding of catalytically competent mouse PLC-zeta to phospholipid vesicles: for 2:1 phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS) vesicles, the molar partition coefficient, K, is too weak to be of physiological significance. Incorporating 1% PIP2 into the 2:1 PC/PS vesicles increases K about 10-fold, to 5x10(3) M-1, a biologically relevant value. Expressed fragments corresponding to the PLC-zeta X-Y linker region also bind with higher affinity to polyvalent than monovalent phosphoinositides on nitrocellulose filters. A peptide corresponding to the basic cluster (charge=+7) within the linker region, PLC-zeta-(374-385), binds to PC/PS vesicles with higher affinity than PLC-zeta, but its binding is less sensitive to incorporating PIP2. The acidic residues flanking this basic cluster in PLC-zeta may account for both these phenomena. FRET experiments suggest the basic cluster could not only anchor the protein to the membrane, but also enhance the local concentration of PIP2 adjacent to the catalytic domain.

  15. The physiological roles of primary phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong Ryoul; Follo, Matilde Y; Cocco, Lucio; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2013-09-01

    The roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) have been extensively investigated in diverse cell lines and pathological conditions. Among the PLC isozmes, primary PLCs, PLC-β and PLC-γ, are directly activated by receptor activation, unlike other secondary PLCs (PLC-ɛ, PLC-δ1, and PLC-η1). PLC-β isozymes are activated by G protein couple receptor and PLC-γ isozymes are activated by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Primary PLCs are differentially expressed in different tissues, suggesting their specific roles in diverse tissues and regulate a variety of physiological and pathophysiological functions. Thus, dysregulation of phospholipases contributes to a number of human diseases and primary PLCs have been identified as therapeutic targets for prevention and treatment of diseases. Here we review the roles of primary PLCs in physiology and their impact in pathology.

  16. Dependence of stimulus-transcription coupling on phospholipase D in agonist-stimulated pituitary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cesnjaj, M; Zheng, L; Catt, K J; Stojilkovic, S S

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of phospholipase D activity is frequently observed during agonist activation of Ca(2+)-mobilizing receptors, but the cellular functions of this signaling pathway are not well defined. Pituitary gonadotrophs express Ca(2+)-mobilizing receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and endothelin (ET), activation of which stimulates luteinizing hormone secretion and transient expression of c-fos. In pituitary cells and alpha T3-1 gonadotrophs, GnRH action was associated with both initial and sustained diacylglycerol (DG) production, whereas ET-1 induced only a transient DG response. Also, phospholipase D activity, estimated by the production of phosphatidylethanol from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol, was stimulated by GnRH but not ET-1. Such formation of phosphatidylethanol at the expense of phosphatidic acid (PA) during GnRH-induced activation of phospholipase D significantly reduced the production of PA, DG, and cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol. Inhibition of PA-phosphohydrolase activity by propranolol also decreased GnRH-induced DG production and, in contrast to ethanol, increased PA and cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol levels. The fall in DG production caused by ethanol and propranolol was accompanied by inhibition of GnRH-induced c-fos expression, whereas agonist-induced luteinizing hormone release was not affected. In contrast to their inhibitory actions on GnRH-induced early gene expression, neither ethanol nor propranolol affected ET-1-induced c-fos expression, or GnRH- and ET-1-induced inositol trisphosphate/Ca2+ signaling. These findings demonstrate that phospholipase D participates in stimulus-transcription but not stimulus-secretion coupling, and indicate that DG is the primary signal for this action. Images PMID:7579706

  17. Nuclear phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-beta 1: a central intermediary in nuclear lipid-dependent signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Martelli, A M; Fiume, R; Faenza, I; Tabellini, G; Evangelista, C; Bortul, R; Follo, M Y; Falà, F; Cocco, L

    2005-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the existence of an autonomous intranuclear phospho-inositide cycle that involves the activation of nuclear PI-PLC and the generation of diacylglycerol (DG) within the nucleus. Although several distinct isozymes of PI-PLC have been detected in the nucleus, the isoform that has been most consistently highlighted as being nuclear is PI-PLC-beta1. Nuclear PI-PLC-beta1 has been linked with either cell proliferation or differentiation. Remarkably, the activation mechanism of nuclear PI-PLC-beta1 has been shown to be different from its plasma membrane counterpart, being dependent on phosphorylation effected by p44/42 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. In this review, we report the most up-dated findings about nuclear PI-PLC-beta1, such as the localization in nuclear speckles, the activity changes during the cell cycle phases, and the possible involvement in the progression of myelodisplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia.

  18. Phospholipase D activity couples plasma membrane endocytosis with retromer dependent recycling

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Rajan; Panda, Aniruddha; Coessens, Elise; Raj, Nikita; Yadav, Shweta; Balakrishnan, Sruthi; Zhang, Qifeng; Georgiev, Plamen; Basak, Bishal; Pasricha, Renu; Wakelam, Michael JO; Ktistakis, Nicholas T; Raghu, Padinjat

    2016-01-01

    During illumination, the light-sensitive plasma membrane (rhabdomere) of Drosophila photoreceptors undergoes turnover with consequent changes in size and composition. However, the mechanism by which illumination is coupled to rhabdomere turnover remains unclear. We find that photoreceptors contain a light-dependent phospholipase D (PLD) activity. During illumination, loss of PLD resulted in an enhanced reduction in rhabdomere size, accumulation of Rab7 positive, rhodopsin1-containing vesicles (RLVs) in the cell body and reduced rhodopsin protein. These phenotypes were associated with reduced levels of phosphatidic acid, the product of PLD activity and were rescued by reconstitution with catalytically active PLD. In wild-type photoreceptors, during illumination, enhanced PLD activity was sufficient to clear RLVs from the cell body by a process dependent on Arf1-GTP levels and retromer complex function. Thus, during illumination, PLD activity couples endocytosis of RLVs with their recycling to the plasma membrane thus maintaining plasma membrane size and composition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18515.001 PMID:27848911

  19. Multiple receptors coupled to phospholipase C gate long-term depression in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se-Young; Chang, Jeff; Jiang, Bin; Seol, Geun-Hee; Min, Sun-Seek; Han, Jung-Soo; Shin, Hee-Sup; Gallagher, Michela; Kirkwood, Alfredo

    2005-12-07

    Long-term depression (LTD) in sensory cortices depends on the activation of NMDA receptors. Here, we report that in visual cortical slices, the induction of LTD (but not long-term potentiation) also requires the activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. Using immunolesions in combination with agonists and antagonists, we selectively manipulated the activation of alpha1 adrenergic, M1 muscarinic, and mGluR5 glutamatergic receptors. Inactivation of these PLC-coupled receptors prevents the induction of LTD, but only when the three receptors were inactivated together. LTD is fully restored by activating any one of them or by supplying intracellular D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). LTD was also impaired by intracellular application of PLC or IP3 receptor blockers, and it was absent in mice lacking PLCbeta1, the predominant PLC isoform in the forebrain. We propose that visual cortical LTD requires a minimum of PLC activity that can be supplied independently by at least three neurotransmitter systems. This essential requirement places PLC-linked receptors in a unique position to control the induction of LTD and provides a mechanism for gating visual cortical plasticity via extra-retinal inputs in the intact organism.

  20. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is coupled to hormonally regulated release of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, L L; Lin, A Y; Knopf, J L

    1992-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) binds to natural membrane vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, resulting in the selective release of arachidonic acid, thus implicating cPLA2 in the hormonally regulated production of eicosanoids. Here we report that the treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing cPLA2 with ATP or thrombin resulted in an increased release of arachidonic acid as compared with parental CHO cells, demonstrating the hormonal coupling of cPLA2. In contrast, CHO cells overexpressing a secreted form of mammalian PLA2 (sPLA2-II) failed to show any increased hormonal responsiveness. Interestingly, we have noted that the activation of cPLA2 with a wide variety of agents stimulates the phosphorylation of cPLA2 on serine residues. Pretreatment of cells with staurosporin blocked the ATP-mediated phosphorylation of cPLA2 and strongly inhibited the activation of the enzyme. Increased cPLA2 activity was also observed in lysates prepared from ATP-treated cells and was sensitive to phosphatase treatment. These results suggest that in addition to Ca2+, the phosphorylation of cPLA2 plays an important role in the agonist-induced activation of cPLA2. Images PMID:1631101

  1. Autoregulation of phospholipase D activity is coupled to selective induction of phospholipase D1 expression to promote invasion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Woo; Park, Mi Hee; Lee, Young Jun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lindsley, Craig W; Alex Brown, H; Min, Do Sik

    2011-02-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is an important signaling enzyme implicated in the control of many biological processes, including cell proliferation and survival. Despite the importance of the duration and amplitude of PLD signaling in carcinogenesis, mechanisms that regulate PLD expression remain poorly understood. In our study, we define the regulatory components of the machinery that specifies selective PLD1 induction via signals propagated through PLD activity. We demonstrate for the first time that establishment of a positive feedback loop that is dependent on enzymatic activity originating from both PLD1 and PLD2 isozymes enhances selective expression of PLD1, but not PLD2. Phosphatidic acid, the product of PLD activity, leads to an increase in the Ras-ERK/PI3K-NFκB signaling cascade and enhances binding of NFκB to the PLD1 promoter, consequently inducing selective PLD1 expression in SK-BR3 breast cancer cells. Moreover, selective PLD inhibitor suppressed epidermal growth factor-induced matrix metalloproteinase upregulation and invasion by inhibiting PLD1 expression. In conclusion, we propose that autoregulation of PLD activity might be coupled to induction of PLD1 expression, and thereby play a role in carcinogenesis.

  2. Phospholipase Cε is a nexus for Rho and Rap-mediated G protein-coupled receptor-induced astrocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Citro, Simona; Malik, Sundeep; Oestreich, Emily A.; Radeff-Huang, Julie; Kelley, Grant G.; Smrcka, Alan V.; Brown, Joan Heller

    2007-01-01

    Phospholipase Cε (PLCε) has been suggested to transduce signals from small GTPases, but its biological function has not yet been clarified. Using astrocytes from PLCε-deficient mice, we demonstrate that endogenous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for lysophosphatidic acid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, and thrombin regulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis primarily through PLCε. Stimulation by lysophospholipids occurs through Gi, whereas thrombin activates PLC through Rho. Further studies reveal that PLCε is required for thrombin- but not LPA-induced sustained ERK activation and DNA synthesis, providing a novel mechanism for GPCR and Rho signaling to cell proliferation. The requirement for PLCε in this pathway can be explained by its role as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1. Thus, PLCε serves to transduce mitogenic signals through a mechanism distinct from its role in generation of PLC-derived second messengers. PMID:17878312

  3. Effects of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on coupling of alpha 2-adrenoceptors to inwardly rectifying potassium currents in guinea-pig submucosal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R. J.; Surprenant, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. Noradrenaline hyperpolarizes guinea-pig submucosal neurones by opening inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Intracellular recordings were made from submucosal neurones and the possible involvement of the phospholipase A2 pathway in this response was examined. 2. The non-specific phospholipase A2 inhibitors, quinacrine (10 microM) and 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPB, 10 microM) inhibited nerve-evoked inhibitory synaptic potentials (i.p.s.ps) and hyperpolarizations to somatostatin and UK 14304. Quinacrine and 4-BPB also blocked the inward rectification present in current-voltage curves in the absence of somatostatin or UK 14304. 3. The more selective phospholipase A2 inhibitor, cyclosporin A (10 microM) and the lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA, 20 microM) and nordihydroguairetic acid (NDGA, 20 microM) did not alter i.p.s.ps or hyperpolarizations to UK 14304. 4. Exogenously applied arachidonic acid (1-300 microM) did not mimic the i.p.s.p. or the hyperpolarization to UK 14304. 5. We conclude that arachidonic acid or its eicosanoid metabolites produced by phospholipase A2 stimulation are unlikely to be involved in the receptor G-protein coupled activation of potassium currents in submucosal neurones. The inhibition of the noradrenaline-induced hyperpolarization by quinacrine and 4-BPB is most likely due primarily to blockade of the basal inwardly rectifying potassium conductance present in these neurones. PMID:7902174

  4. Antigen receptors on immature, but not mature, B and T cells are coupled to cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation: expression and activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 correlate with lymphocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J J; Stewart, A; Courtney, C A; Fleming, M C; Reid, P; Jackson, C G; Wise, A; Wakelam, M J; Harnett, M M

    1996-03-15

    The Ag receptors on mature B and T cells are not coupled to the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and arachidonic acid release. Moreover, phorbol esters such as PMA, which can activate cPLA2 via mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in most cell types, also failed to induce the release of arachidonate from mature cells, suggesting that the cPLA2 pathway may not be functional in mature lymphocytes. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that cPLA2, which had previously been thought to be expressed ubiquitously, is not expressed in mature B or T cells and that cytosolic phospholipase A2 expression could not be up-regulated in lymphocytes following culture with a range of cytokines most likely to be involved in an immune response such as IL-1 alpha, IL-3, or TNF-alpha. In contrast, cPLA2 was shown to be expressed and activated in thymocytes and immature B cells under conditions in which ligation of the Ag receptors led to growth arrest and/or apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that cPLA2 does not play a role in Ag receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation, but may be involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying lymphocyte maturation and/or self tolerance by clonal deletion.

  5. Phospholipase C-γ1 involved in brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Jun; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Kim, Jung Kuk; Choi, Jang Hyun; Seo, Young-Kyo; Lee, Yong Hwa; Lee, Jeung Eun; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) is an important signaling regulator involved in various cellular processes. In brain, PLC-γ1 is highly expressed and participates in neuronal cell functions mediated by neurotrophins. Consistent with essential roles of PLC-γ1, it is involved in development of brain and synaptic transmission. Significantly, abnormal expression and activation of PLC-γ1 appears in various brain disorders such as epilepsy, depression, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, PLC-γ1 has been implicated in brain functions as well as related brain disorders. In this review, we discuss the roles of PLC-γ1 in neuronal functions and its pathological relevance to diverse brain diseases.

  6. Structural Basis for Different Phosphoinositide Specificities of the PX Domains of Sorting Nexins Regulating G-protein Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Caroline; Norwood, Suzanne J.; Bugarcic, Andrea; Kinna, Genevieve; Leneva, Natalya; Kovtun, Oleksiy; Ghai, Rajesh; Ona Yanez, Lorena E.; Davis, Jasmine L.; Teasdale, Rohan D.; Collins, Brett M.

    2014-01-01

    Sorting nexins (SNXs) or phox homology (PX) domain containing proteins are central regulators of cell trafficking and signaling. A subfamily of PX domain proteins possesses two unique PX-associated domains, as well as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling (RGS) domain that attenuates Gαs-coupled G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here we delineate the structural organization of these RGS-PX proteins, revealing a protein family with a modular architecture that is conserved in all eukaryotes. The one exception to this is mammalian SNX19, which lacks the typical RGS structure but preserves all other domains. The PX domain is a sensor of membrane phosphoinositide lipids and we find that specific sequence alterations in the PX domains of the mammalian RGS-PX proteins, SNX13, SNX14, SNX19, and SNX25, confer differential phosphoinositide binding preferences. Although SNX13 and SNX19 PX domains bind the early endosomal lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, SNX14 shows no membrane binding at all. Crystal structures of the SNX19 and SNX14 PX domains reveal key differences, with alterations in SNX14 leading to closure of the binding pocket to prevent phosphoinositide association. Our findings suggest a role for alternative membrane interactions in spatial control of RGS-PX proteins in cell signaling and trafficking. PMID:25148684

  7. Structural basis for different phosphoinositide specificities of the PX domains of sorting nexins regulating G-protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Mas, Caroline; Norwood, Suzanne J; Bugarcic, Andrea; Kinna, Genevieve; Leneva, Natalya; Kovtun, Oleksiy; Ghai, Rajesh; Ona Yanez, Lorena E; Davis, Jasmine L; Teasdale, Rohan D; Collins, Brett M

    2014-10-10

    Sorting nexins (SNXs) or phox homology (PX) domain containing proteins are central regulators of cell trafficking and signaling. A subfamily of PX domain proteins possesses two unique PX-associated domains, as well as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling (RGS) domain that attenuates Gαs-coupled G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here we delineate the structural organization of these RGS-PX proteins, revealing a protein family with a modular architecture that is conserved in all eukaryotes. The one exception to this is mammalian SNX19, which lacks the typical RGS structure but preserves all other domains. The PX domain is a sensor of membrane phosphoinositide lipids and we find that specific sequence alterations in the PX domains of the mammalian RGS-PX proteins, SNX13, SNX14, SNX19, and SNX25, confer differential phosphoinositide binding preferences. Although SNX13 and SNX19 PX domains bind the early endosomal lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, SNX14 shows no membrane binding at all. Crystal structures of the SNX19 and SNX14 PX domains reveal key differences, with alterations in SNX14 leading to closure of the binding pocket to prevent phosphoinositide association. Our findings suggest a role for alternative membrane interactions in spatial control of RGS-PX proteins in cell signaling and trafficking.

  8. Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-05-01

    Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes.

  9. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is coupled to muscarinic receptors in the human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1: characterization of the transducing mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Bayon, Y; Hernandez, M; Alonso, A; Nuñez, L; Garcia-Sancho, J; Leslie, C; Sanchez Crespo, M; Nieto, M L

    1997-01-01

    The cholinergic agonist carbachol induced the release of arachidonic acid in the 1321N1 astrocytoma cell line, and this was blocked by atropine, suggesting the involvement of muscarinic receptors. To assess the mechanisms of signalling involved in the response to carbachol, a set of compounds characterized by eliciting responses through different mechanisms was tested. A combination of 4beta-phorbol 12beta-myristate 13alpha-acetate and thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase that induces a prolonged elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, induced an optimal response, suggesting at first glance that both protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca2+ mobilization were involved in the response. This was consistent with the observation that carbachol elicited Ca2+ mobilization and PKC-dependent phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2; phosphatide sn-2-acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.4) as measured by a decrease in electrophoretic mobility. Nevertheless, the release of arachidonate induced by carbachol was unaltered in media containing decreased concentrations of Ca2+ or in the presence of neomycin, a potent inhibitor of phospholipase C which blocks phosphoinositide turnover and Ca2+ mobilization. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate added to the cell-free homogenate induced both [3H]arachidonate release and cPLA2 translocation to the cell membrane fraction in the absence of Ca2+, thus suggesting the existence of an alternative mechanism of cPLA2 translocation dependent on G-proteins and independent of Ca2+ mobilization. From the combination of experiments utilizing biochemical and immunological tools the involvement of cPLA2 was ascertained. In summary, these data indicate the existence in the astrocytoma cell line 1321N1 of a pathway involving the cPLA2 which couples the release of arachidonate to the occupancy of receptors for a neurotransmitter, requires PKC activity and G-proteins and might operate in the absence of Ca2+ mobilization. PMID:9173894

  10. Oncogenic forms of the neu/HER2 tyrosine kinase are permanently coupled to phospholipase C gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Peles, E; Levy, R B; Or, E; Ullrich, A; Yarden, Y

    1991-01-01

    The neu/HER2 proto-oncogene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase homologous to receptors for polypeptide growth factors. The oncogenic potential for the presumed receptor is released through multiple genetic mechanisms including a specific point mutation, truncation at the extracellular domain and overexpression of the protooncogene. Here we show that all these modes of oncogenic activation result in a constitutively phosphorylated neu protein and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase (PLC gamma). The examined transforming neu/HER2 proteins, unlike the normal gene product, also co-immunoprecipitated with PLC gamma molecules. A kinase-defective mutant of a transforming neu failed to mediate both tyrosine phosphorylation and association with PLC gamma, suggesting direct interaction of the neu kinase with PLC gamma. This possibility was examined by employing a chimeric protein composed of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor and the neu cytoplasmic portion. The chimeric receptor mediated rapid ligand-dependent modification of PLC gamma on tyrosine residues. It also physically associated, in a ligand-dependent manner, with the phosphoinositidase. Based on the presented results we suggest that the mechanism of cellular transformation by the neu/HER2 receptor involves tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PLC gamma. Images PMID:1676673

  11. Arrestin-biased AT1R agonism induces acute catecholamine secretion through TRPC3 coupling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Hua; Gong, Zheng; Liang, Zong-Lai; Liu, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Fan; Sun, Yu-Jing; Ma, Ming-Liang; Wang, Yi-Jing; Ji, Chao-Ran; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Mei-Jie; Cui, Fu-Ai; Lin, Amy; Zheng, Wen-Shuai; He, Dong-Fang; Qu, Chang-xiu; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Chuan-Yong; Thomsen, Alex R. B.; Joseph Cahill, Thomas; Kahsai, Alem W.; Yi, Fan; Xiao, Kun-Hong; Xue, Tian; Zhou, Zhuan; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Acute hormone secretion triggered by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation underlies many fundamental physiological processes. GPCR signalling is negatively regulated by β-arrestins, adaptor molecules that also activate different intracellular signalling pathways. Here we reveal that TRV120027, a β-arrestin-1-biased agonist of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R), stimulates acute catecholamine secretion through coupling with the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C 3 (TRPC3). We show that TRV120027 promotes the recruitment of TRPC3 or phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLCγ) to the AT1R-β-arrestin-1 signalling complex. Replacing the C-terminal region of β-arrestin-1 with its counterpart on β-arrestin-2 or using a specific TAT-P1 peptide to block the interaction between β-arrestin-1 and PLCγ abolishes TRV120027-induced TRPC3 activation. Taken together, our results show that the GPCR-arrestin complex initiates non-desensitized signalling at the plasma membrane by coupling with ion channels. This fast communication pathway might be a common mechanism of several cellular processes. PMID:28181498

  12. Bacterial phospholipases C.

    PubMed Central

    Titball, R W

    1993-01-01

    A variety of pathogenic bacteria produce phospholipases C, and since the discovery in 1944 that a bacterial toxin (Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin) possessed an enzymatic activity, there has been considerable interest in this class of proteins. Initial speculation that all phospholipases C would have lethal properties has not been substantiated. Most of the characterized enzymes fall into one of four groups of structurally related proteins: the zinc-metallophospholipases C, the sphingomyelinases, the phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing enzymes, and the pseudomonad phospholipases C. The zinc-metallophospholipases C have been most intensively studied, and lethal toxins within this group possess an additional domain. The toxic phospholipases C can interact with eukaryotic cell membranes and hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, leading to cell lysis. However, measurement of the cytolytic potential or lethality of phospholipases C may not accurately indicate their roles in the pathogenesis of disease. Subcytolytic concentrations of phospholipase C can perturb host cells by activating the arachidonic acid cascade or protein kinase C. Nonlethal phospholipases C, such as the Listeria monocytogenes PLC-A, appear to enhance the release of the organism from the host cell phagosome. Since some phospholipases C play important roles in the pathogenesis of disease, they could form components of vaccines. A greater understanding of the modes of action and structure-function relationships of phospholipases C will facilitate the interpretation of studies in which these enzymes are used as membrane probes and will enhance the use of these proteins as models for eukaryotic phospholipases C. PMID:8336671

  13. Involvement of phospholipase D in store-operated calcium influx in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Walter, M; Tepel, M; Nofer, J R; Neusser, M; Assmann, G; Zidek, W

    2000-08-11

    In non-excitable cells, sustained intracellular Ca2+ increase critically depends on influx of extracellular Ca2+. Such Ca2+ influx is thought to occur by a 'store-operated' mechanism, i.e. the signal for Ca2+ entry is believed to result from the initial release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular stores. Here we show that the depletion of cellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin or bradykinin is functionally linked to a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase D (PLD) activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and that phosphatidic acid formed via PLD enhances sustained calcium entry in this cell type. These results suggest a regulatory role for PLD in store-operated Ca2+ entry in VSMC.

  14. Differential phospholipase C-dependent modulation of TASK and TREK two-pore domain K+ channels in rat thalamocortical relay neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bista, Pawan; Pawlowski, Matthias; Cerina, Manuela; Ehling, Petra; Leist, Michael; Meuth, Patrick; Aissaoui, Ania; Borsotto, Marc; Heurteaux, Catherine; Decher, Niels; Pape, Hans-Christian; Oliver, Dominik; Meuth, Sven G; Budde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The activity of two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P) regulates the excitability and firing modes of thalamocortical (TC) neurons. In particular, the inhibition of two-pore domain weakly inwardly rectifying K+ channel (TWIK)-related acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels and TWIK-related K+ (TREK) channels, as a consequence of the stimulation of muscarinic ACh receptors (MAChRs) which are coupled to phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLCβ), induces a shift from burst to tonic firing. By using a whole cell patch-clamp approach, the contribution of the membrane-bound second messenger molecules phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and diacylglycerol (DAG) acting downstream of PLCβ was probed. The standing outward current (ISO) was used to monitor the current through TASK and TREK channels in TC neurons. By exploiting different manoeuvres to change the intracellular PIP2 level in TC neurons, we here show that the scavenging of PIP2 (by neomycin) results in an increased muscarinic effect on ISO whereas increased availability of PIP2 (inclusion to the patch pipette; histone-based carrier) decreased muscarinic signalling. The degree of muscarinic inhibition specifically depends on phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and PIP2 but no other phospholipids (phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine). The use of specific blockers revealed that PIP2 is targeting TREK but not TASK channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the inhibition of TASK channels is induced by the application of the DAG analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Under current clamp conditions the activation of MAChRs and PLCβ as well as the application of OAG resulted in membrane depolarization, while PIP2 application via histone carrier induced a hyperpolarization. These results demonstrate a differential role of PIP2 and DAG in K2P channel modulation in native neurons which allows a fine-tuned inhibition of TREK (via PIP2 depletion) and TASK (via DAG) channels following MACh

  15. Pasteurella multocida toxin activates the inositol triphosphate signaling pathway in Xenopus oocytes via G(q)alpha-coupled phospholipase C-beta1.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B A; Zhu, X; Ho, M; Lu, L

    1997-01-10

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) has been hypothesized to cause activation of a GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-coupled phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in intact cells. We used voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes to test for direct PMT-mediated stimulation of PLC by monitoring the endogenous Ca2+-dependent C1- current. Injection of PMT induced an inward, two-component Cl- current, similar to that evoked by injection of IP3 through intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. These PMT-induced currents were blocked by specific inhibitors of Ca2+ and Cl- channels, removal of extracellular Ca2+, or chelation of intracellular Ca2+. Specific antibodies directed against an N-terminal, but not a C-terminal, peptide of PMT inhibited the toxin-induced currents, implicating that the N terminus of PMT is important for toxin activity. Injection with specific antibodies against PLCbeta1, PLCbeta2, PLCbeta3, or PLCgamma1 identified PLCbeta1 as the primary mediator of the PMT-induced Cl- currents. Injection with guanosine 5'-O-(2-(thio)diphosphate), antibodies to the common GTP-binding region of G-protein alpha subunits, or antibodies to different regions of G-protein beta subunits established the involvement of a G-protein alpha subunit in PMT-activation of PLCbeta1. Injection with specific antibodies against the alpha-subunits of G(q/11), G(s/olf), G(i/o/t/z), or G(i-1/i-2/i-3) isoforms confirmed the involvement of Gq/11alpha. Preinjection of oocytes with pertussis toxin enhanced the PMT response. Overexpression of G(q)alpha in oocytes could enhance the PMT response by 30-fold to more than 300-fold, whereas introduction of antisense G(q)alpha cRNA reduced the response by 7-fold. The effects of various specific antibodies on the PMT response were reproduced in oocytes overexpressing G(q)alpha.

  16. Stimulation and binding of myocardial phospholipase C by phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Henry, R A; Boyce, S Y; Kurz, T; Wolf, R A

    1995-08-01

    Exposure of adult ventricular myocytes to exogenous natural phosphatidic acid results in the production of inositol phosphates by unknown mechanism(s). We characterized stimulation of myocytic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) by synthetic dioleoyl phosphatidic acid (PA) as a potential mechanism for modulation of inositol phosphate production. Our data demonstrate that exogenous PA, at 10(-8)-10(-5) M, caused a concentration-dependent increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. PA also caused a concentration-dependent increase in in vitro activity of myocytic PLC in the presence or absence of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). PLC-delta 1, the predominant isozyme of PLC expressed in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes, bound to liposomes of PA with high affinity in the presence of EGTA. The phosphomonoester group of PA was critical to in vitro stimulation of myocytic PLC activity and high-affinity binding of PLC-delta 1. We propose that binding of PLC-delta 1 to phosphatidic acid may be a novel mechanism for dynamic membrane association and modulation of PLC in adult ventricular myocytes.

  17. Phospholipase Cε Modulates Rap1 Activity and the Endothelial Barrier

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Peter V.; Smrcka, Alan V.; Glading, Angela J.

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, PLCε, is a unique signaling protein with known roles in regulating cardiac myocyte growth, astrocyte inflammatory signaling, and tumor formation. PLCε is also expressed in endothelial cells, however its role in endothelial regulation is not fully established. We show that endothelial cells of multiple origins, including human pulmonary artery (HPAEC), human umbilical vein (HUVEC), and immortalized brain microvascular (hCMEC/D3) endothelial cells, express PLCε. Knockdown of PLCε in arterial endothelial monolayers decreased the effectiveness of the endothelial barrier. Concomitantly, RhoA activity and stress fiber formation were increased. PLCε-deficient arterial endothelial cells also exhibited decreased Rap1-GTP levels, which could be restored by activation of the Rap1 GEF, Epac, to rescue the increase in monolayer leak. Reintroduction of PLCε rescued monolayer leak with both the CDC25 GEF domain and the lipase domain of PLCε required to fully activate Rap1 and to rescue endothelial barrier function. Finally, we demonstrate that the barrier promoting effects PLCε are dependent on Rap1 signaling through the Rap1 effector, KRIT1, which we have previously shown is vital for maintaining endothelial barrier stability. Thus we have described a novel role for PLCε PIP2 hydrolytic and Rap GEF activities in arterial endothelial cells, where PLCε-dependent activation of Rap1/KRIT1 signaling promotes endothelial barrier stability. PMID:27612188

  18. Phospholipase Cε Modulates Rap1 Activity and the Endothelial Barrier.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Peter V; Smrcka, Alan V; Glading, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, PLCε, is a unique signaling protein with known roles in regulating cardiac myocyte growth, astrocyte inflammatory signaling, and tumor formation. PLCε is also expressed in endothelial cells, however its role in endothelial regulation is not fully established. We show that endothelial cells of multiple origins, including human pulmonary artery (HPAEC), human umbilical vein (HUVEC), and immortalized brain microvascular (hCMEC/D3) endothelial cells, express PLCε. Knockdown of PLCε in arterial endothelial monolayers decreased the effectiveness of the endothelial barrier. Concomitantly, RhoA activity and stress fiber formation were increased. PLCε-deficient arterial endothelial cells also exhibited decreased Rap1-GTP levels, which could be restored by activation of the Rap1 GEF, Epac, to rescue the increase in monolayer leak. Reintroduction of PLCε rescued monolayer leak with both the CDC25 GEF domain and the lipase domain of PLCε required to fully activate Rap1 and to rescue endothelial barrier function. Finally, we demonstrate that the barrier promoting effects PLCε are dependent on Rap1 signaling through the Rap1 effector, KRIT1, which we have previously shown is vital for maintaining endothelial barrier stability. Thus we have described a novel role for PLCε PIP2 hydrolytic and Rap GEF activities in arterial endothelial cells, where PLCε-dependent activation of Rap1/KRIT1 signaling promotes endothelial barrier stability.

  19. Phospholipases A in Trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    Belaunzarán, María Laura; Lammel, Estela María; de Isola, Elvira Luisa Durante

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipases are a complex and important group of enzymes widespread in nature, that play crucial roles in diverse biochemical processes and are classified as A1, A2, C, and D. Phospholipases A1 and A2 activities have been linked to pathogenesis in various microorganisms, and particularly in pathogenic protozoa they have been implicated in cell invasion. Kinetoplastids are a group of flagellated protozoa, including extra- and intracellular parasites that cause severe disease in humans and animals. In the present paper, we will mainly focus on the three most important kinetoplastid human pathogens, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania spp., giving a perspective of the research done up to now regarding biochemical, biological, and molecular characteristics of Phospholipases A1 and A2 and their contribution to pathogenesis. PMID:21603263

  20. Phospholipase D1 Couples CD4+ T Cell Activation to c-Myc-Dependent Deoxyribonucleotide Pool Expansion and HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Harry E.; Simmons, Glenn E.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Khatua, Atanu K.; Popik, Waldemar; Lindsley, Craig W.; D’Aquila, Richard T.; Brown, H. Alex

    2015-01-01

    Quiescent CD4+ T cells restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection at early steps of virus replication. Low levels of both deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and the biosynthetic enzymes required for their de novo synthesis provide one barrier to infection. CD4+ T cell activation induces metabolic reprogramming that reverses this block and facilitates HIV-1 replication. Here, we show that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) links T cell activation signals to increased HIV-1 permissivity by triggering a c-Myc-dependent transcriptional program that coordinates glucose uptake and nucleotide biosynthesis. Decreasing PLD1 activity pharmacologically or by RNA interference diminished c-Myc-dependent expression during T cell activation at the RNA and protein levels. PLD1 inhibition of HIV-1 infection was partially rescued by adding exogenous deoxyribonucleosides that bypass the need for de novo dNTP synthesis. Moreover, the data indicate that low dNTP levels that impact HIV-1 restriction involve decreased synthesis, and not only increased catabolism of these nucleotides. These findings uncover a unique mechanism of action for PLD1 inhibitors and support their further development as part of a therapeutic combination for HIV-1 and other viral infections dependent on host nucleotide biosynthesis. PMID:26020637

  1. Protein kinase C involvement in homologous desensitization of delta-opioid receptor coupled to Gi1-phospholipase C activation in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, H; Miyamae, T; Hayashi, C; Watanabe, S; Fukushima, N; Sasaki, Y; Iwamura, T; Misu, Y

    1995-11-01

    We have developed the coexpression system of both delta-opioid receptor (DOR1) and M2-muscarinic receptor (M2) which mediate agonist-evoked currents due to common post-receptor mechanisms including Gi1 and phospholipase C (PLC) activation in Xenopus oocytes reconstituted with Gi1 alpha. The DOR1-currents by 100 nM D-Ser2-leu-enkephalin-Thr6 (DSLET) were selectively desensitized by 10 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The PMA-desensitization of DSLET-currents was abolished in the presence of calphostin C, a protein kinase C inhibitor, or reversed by an intracellular injection of calcineurin, a protein phosphatase 2B. When a higher concentration (3 microM) of DSLET was used, DSLET-currents were rapidly desensitized by repeated challenges of DSLET itself. However, repeated challenges of 10 microM ACh caused no influence on such DSLET- or M2-currents. The desensitization of DSLET-currents was selectively reversed by protein kinase C inhibitors. Similar results were also obtained with various delta-opioid agonists. These results suggest that protein kinase C is involved in the homologous desensitization of delta-opioid receptors.

  2. Enhanced phospholipase C-gamma1 activity produced by association of independently expressed X and Y domain polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Horstman, D A; DeStefano, K; Carpenter, G

    1996-01-01

    The X and Y domains of phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma1, which are conserved in all mammalian phosphoinositide-specific PLC isoforms and are proposed to interact to form the catalytic site, have been expressed as individual hexahistidine-tagged fusion proteins in the baculovirus system. Following coinfection of insect cells with recombinant viruses, association of X and Y polypeptides was demonstrated in coprecipitation assays. When enzyme activity was examined, neither domain possessed catalytic activity when expressed alone; however, coexpression of the X and Y polypeptides produced a functional enzyme. This reconstituted phospholipase activity remained completely dependent on the presence of free Ca2+. The specific activity of the X:Y complex was significantly greater (20- to 100-fold) than that of holoPLC-gamma1 and was only moderately influenced by varying the concentration of substrate. The enzyme activities of holoPLC-gamma1 and the X:Y complex exhibited distinct pH optima. For holoPLC-gamma1 maximal activity was detected at pH 5.0, while activity of the X:Y complex was maximal at pH 7.2. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8755506

  3. Phospholipases and their industrial applications.

    PubMed

    De Maria, L; Vind, J; Oxenbøll, K M; Svendsen, A; Patkar, S

    2007-02-01

    Phospholipids are present in all living organisms. They are a major component of all biological membranes, along with glycolipids and cholesterol. Enzymes aimed at modifying phospholipids, namely, phospholipases, are consequently widespread in nature, playing very diverse roles from aggression in snake venom to signal transduction and digestion in humans. In this review, we give a general overview of phospholipases A1, A2, C and D from a sequence and structural perspective and their industrial application. The use of phospholipases in industrial processes has grown hand-in-hand with our ability to clone and express the genes in microbial hosts with commercially attractive amounts. Further, the use in industrial processes is increasing by optimizing the enzymes by protein engineering. Here, we give a perspective on the work done to date to express phospholipases in heterologous hosts and the efforts to optimize them by protein engineering. We will draw attention to the industrial processes where phospholipases play a key role and show how the use of a phospholipase for oil degumming leads to substantial environmental benefits. This illustrates a very general trend: the use of enzymes as an alternative to chemical processes to make products often provides a cleaner solution for the industrial processes. In a world with great demands on non-polluting, energy saving technical solutions--white biotechnology is a strong alternative.

  4. Characteristics of muscarinic receptors that selectively couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase or stimulation of phospholipase C on NG108-15 and 1321N1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to establish whether different muscarinic receptor proteins selectively couple to different second messenger response system. Although both second messenger response systems are fully functional in both cell lines, activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors only results in inhibition of adenylate cyclase in NG108-15 neuroblastoma {times} glioma cells and stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Muscarinic receptors on both cell types were covalently labeled with ({sup 3}H)Propylbenzilylcholine mustard (({sup 3}H)PBCM) and the mobilities of the ({sup 3}H)PBCM-labelled species of both cells were compared by SDS-PAGE. 1321N1 and NG108-15 cells each primarily expressed a single ({sup 3}H)PBCM-labelled species with an apparent size of approximately 92,000 and 66,000 Da, respectively. ({sup 3}H)PBCM labelling was completely inhibited by 1 {mu}M atropine or by down-regulation of muscarinic receptors by an overnight incubation with carbachol. The apparent size of the ({sup 3}H)PBCM-labelled species of both cell lines was not altered by treatment with a series of protease inhibitors or by treatment with dithiothreitol and iodoacetamide. Another approach for determining differences in the muscarinic receptors of 2 cells lines was to study agonist-induced alteration of muscarinic receptor number. Exposure of both cell types to agonists resulted in rapid loss of muscarinic receptors from cell surface without change of total cellular muscarinic receptors followed by subsequently loss of receptors from cells. Muscarinic receptors on both cell lines were regulated by agonist with similar properties.

  5. Group XV phospholipase A2, a lysosomal phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Shayman, James A.; Kelly, Robert; Kollmeyer, Jessica; He, Yongqun; Abe, Akira

    2010-01-01

    A phospholipase A2 was identified from MDCK cell homogenates with broad specificity toward glycerophospholipids including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol. The phospholipase has the unique ability to transacylate short chain ceramides. This phospholipase is calcium-independent, localized to lysosomes, and has an acidic pH optimum. The enzyme was purified from bovine brain and found to be a water-soluble glycoprotein consisting of a single peptide chain with a molecular weight of 45 kDa. The primary structure deduced from the DNA sequences is highly conserved between chordates. The enzyme was named lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and subsequently designated group XV phospholipase A2. LPLA2 has 49 percent of amino acid sequence identity to lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and is a member of the αβ-hydrolase superfamily. LPLA2 is highly expressed in alveolar macrophages. A marked accumulation of glycerophospholipids and extensive lamellar inclusion bodies, a hallmark of cellular phospholipidosis, is observed in alveolar macrophages in LPLA2−/− mice. This defect can also be reproduced in macrophages that are exposed to cationic amphiphilic drugs such as amiodarone. In addition, older LPLA2−/− mice develop a phenotype similar to human autoimmune disease. These observations indicate that LPLA2 may play a primary role in phospholipid homeostasis, drug toxicity, and host defense. PMID:21074554

  6. Phospholipases in arterial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, S.; Stein, Y.; Stein, O.

    1969-01-01

    The role of phospholipases in the regulation of the changing phospholipid composition of normal human aortae with age was studied. Portions of grossly and histologically lesion-free ascending aortae from 16 females and 29 males obtained at autopsy, were analyzed for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), phospholipid, and cholesterol content and phospholipid composition. Enzymic activity toward four substrates, lecithin (LE), phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysolecithin, and sphingomyelin (SP), was determined on portions of the same homogenate. By regression analysis for correlation between all determinations and age the following results were obtained: (a) total phospholipids and choleserol increased linearly with age; (b) the increase in sphingomyelin accounted for about 70% of the phospholipid increment; (c) hydrolysis of lecithin and phosphatidyl ethanolamine increased markedly with age, that of lysolecithin only moderately; (d) hydrolysis of sphingomyelin decreased with age; and (e) an inverse relation between the SP/LE ratio and age and sphingomyelinase/lecithinase activity and age was obtained. These results were interpreted to indicate that a causal relation exists between the fall in sphingomyelinase activity, both absolute and relative to lecithinase activity, and the accumulation of sphingomyelin with age. PMID:5355343

  7. Phospholipase C-β in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Toshiaki; Xiao, Wenbin

    2013-09-01

    Great progress has recently been made in structural and functional research of phospholipase C (PLC)-β. We now understand how PLC-β isoforms (β1-β4) are activated by GTP-bound Gαq downstream of G protein-coupled receptors. Numerous studies indicate that PLC-βs participate in the differentiation and activation of immune cells that control both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The PLC-β3 isoform also interplays with tyrosine kinase-based signaling pathways, to inhibit Stat5 activation by recruiting the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, with which PLC-β3 and Stat5 form a multi-molecular signaling platform, named SPS complex. The SPS complex has important regulatory roles in tumorigenesis and immune cell activation.

  8. Primary phospholipase C and brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong Ryoul; Kang, Du-Seock; Lee, Cheol; Seok, Heon; Follo, Matilde Y; Cocco, Lucio; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, the primary phospholipase C (PLC) proteins, PLCβ, and PLCγ, are activated primarily by neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, and hormones through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Among the primary PLC isozymes, PLCβ1, PLCβ4, and PLCγ1 are highly expressed and differentially distributed, suggesting a specific role for each PLC subtype in different regions of the brain. Primary PLCs control neuronal activity, which is important for synapse function and development. In addition, dysregulation of primary PLC signaling is linked to several brain disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Huntington's disease, depression and Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we included current knowledge regarding the roles of primary PLC isozymes in brain disorders.

  9. Antagonism by 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetraline and other serotonin agonists of muscarinic M1-type receptors coupled to inositol phospholipid breakdown in human IMR-32 and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.J. Karolinska Institutet ); Ahlgren, P.C. ); O'Neill, C. )

    1991-01-01

    IMR-32 and SK-N-MC cells were found to contain ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate specific binding sites inhibited by pirenzepine in a manner suggesting the presence of both M1-type and M2-type muscarinic receptor recognition sites. Neither cell had detectable ({sup 3}H)8-OH-DPAT binding sites. Carbachol stimulated the rate of inositol phospholipid breakdown in IMR-32 and SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells with an EC{sub 50} value of about 50 {mu}M in both cases. Pirenzepine inhibited the carbachol stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown in both cells with Hill slopes of unity and IC{sub 50} values of 15 nM (IMR-32) and 12 nM (SK-N-MC). The 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT competitively inhibited carbachol-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown with pA{sub 2} values of 5.78 (IMR-32) and 5.61 (SK-N-MC). The 5-HT agonists 5-MeODMT and buspirone at micromolar concentrations inhibited carbachol-stimulated breakdown in IMR-32 cells. The inhibition by 8-OH-DPAT and 5-MeODMT was not affected by preincubation with (-)alprenolol. 5-HT was without effect on either basal or carbachol-stimulated breakdown. It is concluded that IMR-32 and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells express muscarinic M1-type but not serotoninergic receptors coupled to phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C. 8-OH-DPAT acts as a weak antagonist at these muscarinic receptors.

  10. Signalling through phospholipase C interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Carvou, Nicolas; Norden, Anthony G W; Unwin, Robert J; Cockcroft, Shamshad

    2007-01-01

    We investigated if phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) hydrolysis by phospholipase C activation through cell surface receptors would interfere with clathrin-mediated endocytosis as recruitment of clathrin assembly proteins is PtdIns(4,5)P2-dependent. In the WKPT renal epithelial cell line, endocytosed insulin and beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2gpI) were observed in separate compartments, although endocytosis of both ligands was clathrin-dependent as demonstrated by expression of the clathrin-binding C-terminal domain of AP180 (AP180-C). The two uptake mechanisms were different as only insulin uptake was reduced when the mu2-subunit of the adaptor complex AP-2 was silenced by RNA interference. ATP receptors are expressed at the apical surface of renal cells and, thus, we examined the effect of extracellular ATP on insulin and beta2gpI uptake. ATP stimulated phospholipase C activity, and also suppressed uptake of insulin, but not beta2gpI. This effect was reversed by the PLC inhibitor U-73122. In polarized cell cultures, insulin uptake was apical, whereas beta2gpI uptake was through the basolateral membrane, thus providing an explanation for selective inhibition of insulin endocytosis by ATP. Taken together, these results demonstrate that stimulation of apical G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors, which are coupled to phospholipase C activation diminishes clathrin-mediated endocytosis without interfering with basolateral endocytic mechanisms.

  11. Phospholipase D Signaling Pathways and Phosphatidic Acid as Therapeutic Targets in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bruntz, Ronald C.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase D is a ubiquitous class of enzymes that generates phosphatidic acid as an intracellular signaling species. The phospholipase D superfamily plays a central role in a variety of functions in prokaryotes, viruses, yeast, fungi, plants, and eukaryotic species. In mammalian cells, the pathways modulating catalytic activity involve a variety of cellular signaling components, including G protein–coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, polyphosphatidylinositol lipids, Ras/Rho/ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases, and conventional isoforms of protein kinase C, among others. Recent findings have shown that phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D plays roles in numerous essential cellular functions, such as vesicular trafficking, exocytosis, autophagy, regulation of cellular metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Many of these cellular events are modulated by the actions of phosphatidic acid, and identification of two targets (mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt kinase) has especially highlighted a role for phospholipase D in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Phospholipase D is a regulator of intercellular signaling and metabolic pathways, particularly in cells that are under stress conditions. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the regulation of phospholipase D activity and its modulation of cellular signaling pathways and functions. PMID:25244928

  12. Phospholipase D signaling pathways and phosphatidic acid as therapeutic targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Bruntz, Ronald C; Lindsley, Craig W; Brown, H Alex

    2014-10-01

    Phospholipase D is a ubiquitous class of enzymes that generates phosphatidic acid as an intracellular signaling species. The phospholipase D superfamily plays a central role in a variety of functions in prokaryotes, viruses, yeast, fungi, plants, and eukaryotic species. In mammalian cells, the pathways modulating catalytic activity involve a variety of cellular signaling components, including G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, polyphosphatidylinositol lipids, Ras/Rho/ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases, and conventional isoforms of protein kinase C, among others. Recent findings have shown that phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D plays roles in numerous essential cellular functions, such as vesicular trafficking, exocytosis, autophagy, regulation of cellular metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Many of these cellular events are modulated by the actions of phosphatidic acid, and identification of two targets (mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt kinase) has especially highlighted a role for phospholipase D in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Phospholipase D is a regulator of intercellular signaling and metabolic pathways, particularly in cells that are under stress conditions. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the regulation of phospholipase D activity and its modulation of cellular signaling pathways and functions.

  13. Mutation of an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motif in phospholipase C of Dictyostelium discoideum: inhibition of activity but no effect on Ca(2+)-dependence.

    PubMed

    Drayer, A L; Meima, M E; Derks, M W; Tuik, R; van Haastert, P J

    1995-10-15

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is dependent on Ca2+ ions for substrate hydrolysis. The role of an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motif in Ca(2+)-dependent PLC activity was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis of the Dictyostelium discoideum PLC enzyme. Amino acid residues with oxygen-containing side chains at co-ordinates x, y, z, -x and -z of the putative Ca(2+)-binding-loop sequence were replaced by isoleucine (x), valine (y) or alanine (z, -x and -z). The mutated proteins were expressed in a Dictyostelium cell line with a disrupted plc gene displaying no endogenous PLC activity, and PLC activity was measured in cell lysates at different Ca2+ concentrations. Replacement of aspartate at position x, which is considered to play an essential role in Ca2+ binding, had little effect on Ca2+ affinity and maximal enzyme activity. A mutant with substitutions at both aspartate residues in position x and y also showed no decrease in Ca2+ affinity, whereas the maximal PLC activity was reduced by 60%. Introduction of additional mutations in the EF-hand revealed that the Ca2+ concentration giving half-maximal activity was unaltered, but PLC activity levels at saturating Ca2+ concentrations were markedly decreased. The results demonstrate that, although the EF-hand domain is required for enzyme activity, it is not the site that regulates the Ca(2+)-dependence of the PLC reaction.

  14. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors vildagliptin and K-579 inhibit a phospholipase C: a case of promiscuous scaffolds in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Mouparna; Ghosh, Anindya S.; Oda, Masataka; Venkatramani, Ravindra; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Goñi, Félix M.

    2015-01-01

    The long term side effects of any newly introduced drug is a subject of intense research, and often raging controversies. One such example is the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4) inhibitor used for treating type 2 diabetes, which is inconclusively implicated in increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. Previously, based on a computational analysis of the spatial and electrostatic properties of active site residues, we have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus cereus is a prolyl peptidase using in vivo experiments. In the current work, we first report the inhibition of the native activity of PI-PLC by two DPP4 inhibitors - vildagliptin (LAF-237) and K-579. While vildagliptin inhibited PI-PLC at micromolar concentrations, K-579 was a potent inhibitor even at nanomolar concentrations. Subsequently, we queried a comprehensive, non-redundant set of 5000 human proteins (50% similarity cutoff) with known structures using serine protease (SPASE) motifs derived from trypsin and DPP4. A pancreatic lipase and a gastric lipase are among the proteins that are identified as proteins having promiscuous SPASE scaffolds that could interact with DPP4 inhibitors. The presence of such scaffolds in human lipases is expected since they share the same catalytic mechanism with PI-PLC. However our methodology also detects other proteins, often with a completely different enzymatic mechanism, that have significantly congruent domains with the SPASE motifs. The reported elevated levels of serum lipase, although contested, could be rationalized by inhibition of lipases reported here. In an effort to further our understanding of the spatial and electrostatic basis of DPP4 inhibitors, we have also done a comprehensive analysis of all 76 known DPP4 structures liganded to inhibitors till date. Also, the methodology presented here can be easily adopted for other drugs, and provide the first line of filtering in the identification of pathways that

  15. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors vildagliptin and K-579 inhibit a phospholipase C: a case of promiscuous scaffolds in proteins.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Rendón-Ramírez, Adela; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni; Dutta, Mouparna; Ghosh, Anindya S; Oda, Masataka; Venkatramani, Ravindra; Rao, Basuthkar J; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Goñi, Félix M

    2013-01-01

    The long term side effects of any newly introduced drug is a subject of intense research, and often raging controversies. One such example is the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4) inhibitor used for treating type 2 diabetes, which is inconclusively implicated in increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. Previously, based on a computational analysis of the spatial and electrostatic properties of active site residues, we have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus cereus is a prolyl peptidase using in vivo experiments. In the current work, we first report the inhibition of the native activity of PI-PLC by two DPP4 inhibitors - vildagliptin (LAF-237) and K-579. While vildagliptin inhibited PI-PLC at micromolar concentrations, K-579 was a potent inhibitor even at nanomolar concentrations. Subsequently, we queried a comprehensive, non-redundant set of 5000 human proteins (50% similarity cutoff) with known structures using serine protease (SPASE) motifs derived from trypsin and DPP4. A pancreatic lipase and a gastric lipase are among the proteins that are identified as proteins having promiscuous SPASE scaffolds that could interact with DPP4 inhibitors. The presence of such scaffolds in human lipases is expected since they share the same catalytic mechanism with PI-PLC. However our methodology also detects other proteins, often with a completely different enzymatic mechanism, that have significantly congruent domains with the SPASE motifs. The reported elevated levels of serum lipase, although contested, could be rationalized by inhibition of lipases reported here. In an effort to further our understanding of the spatial and electrostatic basis of DPP4 inhibitors, we have also done a comprehensive analysis of all 76 known DPP4 structures liganded to inhibitors till date. Also, the methodology presented here can be easily adopted for other drugs, and provide the first line of filtering in the identification of pathways that

  16. Lipase and phospholipase biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Herrera-López, Enrique J

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of biology, electronics, and nanotechnology have improved the development of biosensors. A biosensor is a device composed of a biological recognition element and a sensor element. Biosensor applications are becoming increasingly important in areas such as biotechnology, pharmaceutics, food, and environment. Lipases and phospholipases are enzymes which have been used widely in food industry, oleochemical industry, biodegradable polymers, detergents, and other applications. In the medical industry, lipases and phospholipases are used as diagnostic tools to detect triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids levels in blood samples. Therefore, the development of lipase and phospholipase biosensors is of paramount importance in the clinical area. This chapter introduces the reader into the preliminaries of biosensor and reviews recent developments of lipase and phospholipase biosensors.

  17. Bacterial Sphingomyelinases and Phospholipases as Virulence Factors.

    PubMed

    Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Naylor, Claire; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flieger, Antje

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are a heterogeneous group of esterases which are usually surface associated or secreted by a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These enzymes hydrolyze sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids, respectively, generating products identical to the ones produced by eukaryotic enzymes which play crucial roles in distinct physiological processes, including membrane dynamics, cellular signaling, migration, growth, and death. Several bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are essential for virulence of extracellular, facultative, or obligate intracellular pathogens, as these enzymes contribute to phagosomal escape or phagosomal maturation avoidance, favoring tissue colonization, infection establishment and progression, or immune response evasion. This work presents a classification proposal for bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases that considers not only their enzymatic activities but also their structural aspects. An overview of the main physiopathological activities is provided for each enzyme type, as are examples in which inactivation of a sphingomyelinase- or a phospholipase-encoding gene impairs the virulence of a pathogen. The identification of sphingomyelinases and phospholipases important for bacterial pathogenesis and the development of inhibitors for these enzymes could generate candidate vaccines and therapeutic agents, which will diminish the impacts of the associated human and animal diseases.

  18. Phospholipases in food industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Casado, Víctor; Martín, Diana; Torres, Carlos; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Mammal, plant, and mainly microbial phospholipases are continuously being studied, experimented, and some of them are even commercially available at industrial scale for food industry. This is because the use of phospholipases in the production of specific foods leads to attractive advantages, such as yield improvement, energy saving, higher efficiency, improved properties, or better quality of the final product. Furthermore, biocatalysis approaches in the food industry are of current interest as non-pollutant and cleaner technologies. The present chapter reviews the most representative examples of the use of phospholipases in food industry, namely edible oils, dairy, and baking products, emulsifying agents, as well as the current trend to the development of novel molecular species of phospholipids with added-value characteristics.

  19. [Several properties of cotton seed phospholipase D].

    PubMed

    Rakhimov, M M; Mad'iarov, Sh R; Abdumalikov, A Kh

    1976-03-01

    Properties of phospholipase D were studied using purified enzyme preparation from cotton seeds. The results obtained differ from those described in literature. It has been shown that the promoting action is exerted not only by diethyl ether and sodium dodecyl sulfate commonly used as initiators, but by some organic solvents in the presence of calcium ions as well. The activation of phospholipase D is also possible in the presence of other bivalent cations, e.g. Sr2+, Ba2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+. It is assumed that the enzyme activation occurs only in the presence of the stable heterogenous system: water-soluble enzyme--phospholipid--non-aqueous phase. Another important factor is the type of modification of the surface of the phospholipid phase, responsible for the enzyme adsorption and its subsequent activation. Comparison is made of the properties of phospholipases D isolated from cotton seeds and some other sources.

  20. COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.

    1962-05-15

    A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)

  1. Secretion of phospholipase C by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, M W; Hayden, C

    1979-01-01

    The conditions necessary for the secretion of phospholipase C (phosphatidylcholine cholinephosphohydrolase) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied. Enzyme secretion by washed cell suspensions required a carbon source and ammonium, potassium, and calcium ions. The calcium requirement could be substituted by magnesium and strontium but not by copper, manganese, cobalt, or zinc. During growth in liquid medium, cells secreted phospholipase C during late logarithmic and early stationary phases. Secretion was repressed by the addition of inorganic phosphate but not by organic phosphates, glucose, or sodium succinate. Studies with tetracycline indicated that de novo protein synthesis was necessary for the secretion of phospholipase C and that the exoenzyme was not released from a preformed periplasmic pool. Similarly, extraction of actively secreting cells with 0.2 M MgCl2 at pH 8.4 solubilized large quantities of the periplasmic enzyme alkaline phosphatase but insignificant amounts of phospholipase C. Bacteria continued to secrete enzyme for nearly 45 min after the addition of inorganic phosphate or rifampin. Images PMID:114487

  2. Phospholipase C δ-4 overexpression upregulates ErbB1/2 expression, Erk signaling pathway, and proliferation in MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Leung, David W; Tompkins, Chris; Brewer, Jim; Ball, Alexey; Coon, Mike; Morris, Valerie; Waggoner, David; Singer, Jack W

    2004-01-01

    Background The expression of the rodent phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C δ-4 (PLCδ4) has been found to be elevated upon mitogenic stimulation and expression analysis have linked the upregulation of PLCδ4 expression with rapid proliferation in certain rat transformed cell lines. The human homologue of PLCδ4 has not been extensively characterized. Accordingly, we investigate the effects of overexpression of human PLCδ4 on cell signaling and proliferation in this study. Results The cDNA for human PLCδ4 has been isolated and expressed ectopically in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Overexpression of PLCδ4 selectively activates protein kinase C-φ and upregulates the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors EGFR/erbB1 and HER2/erbB2, leading to constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells stably expressing PLCδ4 demonstrates several phenotypes of transformation, such as rapid proliferation in low serum, formation of colonies in soft agar, and capacity to form densely packed spheroids in low-attachment plates. The growth signaling responses induced by PLCδ4 are not reversible by siRNA. Conclusion Overexpression or dysregulated expression of PLCδ4 may initiate oncogenesis in certain tissues through upregulation of ErbB expression and activation of ERK pathway. Since the growth responses induced by PLCδ4 are not reversible, PLCδ4 itself is not a suitable drug target, but enzymes in pathways activated by PLCδ4 are potential therapeutic targets for oncogenic intervention. PMID:15140260

  3. Cloning, Sequencing, and Role in Virulence of Two Phospholipases (A1 and C) from Mesophilic Aeromonas sp. Serogroup O:34

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Aguilar, Alicia; Nogueras, Maria Mercedes; Regue, Miguel; Swift, Simon; Tomás, Juan M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different representative recombinant clones encoding Aeromonas hydrophila lipases were found upon screening on tributyrin (phospholipase A1) and egg yolk agar (lecithinase-phospholipase C) plates of a cosmid-based genomic library of Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 (serogroup O34) introduced into Escherichia coli DH5α. Subcloning, nucleotide sequencing, and in vitro-coupled transcription-translation experiments showed that the phospholipase A1 (pla) and C (plc) genes code for an 83-kDa putative lipoprotein and a 65-kDa protein, respectively. Defined insertion mutants of A. hydrophila AH-3 defective in either pla or plc genes were defective in phospholipase A1 and C activities, respectively. Lecithinase (phospholipase C) was shown to be cytotoxic but nonhemolytic or poorly hemolytic. A. hydrophila AH-3 plc mutants showed a more than 10-fold increase in their 50% lethal dose on fish and mice, and complementation of the plc single gene on these mutants abolished this effect, suggesting that Plc protein is a virulence factor in the mesophilic Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:34 infection process. PMID:10417167

  4. Extending David Horrobin's membrane phospholipid theory of schizophrenia: overactivity of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) in the brain is caused by overdrive of coupled serotonergic 5HT(2A/2C) receptors in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2012-12-01

    David Horrobin's membrane phospholipid theory of schizophrenia has held up well over time because his therapeutic prediction that dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) would have a therapeutic effect has been partially verified and undergoes continued testing. In the final version of his theory, he hypothesized that there was hyperactivity of phosphoslipase A(2) (PLA(2)) or a related enzyme but did not explain how the hyperactivity came about. It is known that serotonergic 5HT(2A/2C) receptors are coupled to PLA(2), which hydrolyzes both arachidonic acid (AA) and EPA from diacylglycerides at the sn-2 position. In this paper, Horrobin's theory is combined with a previously published theory of chronic stress in which it was hypothesized that a disinhibited dorsal raphe nucleus, the principal nucleus of the serotonergic system, can organize the neuropathology of diseases such as migraine, hypertension, and the metabolic syndrome. The new or combined theory is that schizophrenia is a disease of chronic stress in which a disinhibited DRN causes widespread serotonergic overdrive in the cerebral cortex. This in turn causes overdrive of cPLA(2) and both central and peripheral depletion of AA and EPA. Because EPA is present in smaller amounts, it falls below threshold for maintaining an intracellular balance between AA-derived and EPA-derived second messenger cascades, which leads to abnormal patterns of neuronal firing. There are two causes of neuronal dysfunction: the disinhibited DRN and EPA depletion. Schizophrenia is statistically associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and migraine because they form a cluster of diseases with similar pathophysiology. The theory provides an explanation for both the central and peripheral phospholipid abnormalities in schizophrenia. It also explains the role of stress in schizophrenia, elevated serum PLA(2) activity in schizophrenia, the relationship between untreated schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome

  5. Multiple extracellular phospholipase activities from Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Bulkacz, Jaime; Faull, Kym F

    2009-06-01

    Enzyme preparations obtained from Prevotella intermedia culture supernatants were partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange column chromatography. Hydrolytic activities were revealed by an assay that uses silicic acid thin layer chromatography to separate the products derived from (14)C-labeled phosphatidyl-choline (PC) hydrolysis. These products were then measured by liquid scintillation spectrometry after iodine visualization. The assays revealed linearity of substrate depletion and product formation with respect to time and protein concentration up to 30 min of incubation. The products had retention times consistent with lyso-phospholipids and phosphoryl-choline. These data strongly suggests the presence of both phospholipase A (PL-A) and phospholipase C (PL-C) activities.

  6. Kinetic Analysis of a Mammalian Phospholipase D

    PubMed Central

    Henage, Lee G.; Exton, John H.; Brown, H. Alex

    2013-01-01

    In mammalian cells, phospholipase D activity is tightly regulated by diverse cellular signals, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Multiple signaling pathways converge upon phospholipase D to modulate cellular actions, such as cell growth, shape, and secretion. We examined the kinetics of protein kinase C and G-protein regulation of mammalian phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in order to better understand interactions between PLD1 and its regulators. Activation by Arf-1, RhoA, Rac1, Cdc42, protein kinase Cα, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate displayed surface dilution kinetics, but these effectors modulated different kinetic parameters. PKCα activation of PLD1 involves N- and C-terminal PLD domains. Rho GTPases were binding activators, enhancing the catalytic efficiency of a purified PLD1 catalytic domain via effects on Km. Arf-1, a catalytic activator, stimulated PLD1 by enhancing the catalytic constant, kcat. A kinetic description of PLD1 activation by multiple modulators reveals a mechanism for apparent synergy between activators. Synergy was observed only when PLD1 was simultaneously stimulated by a binding activator and a catalytic activator. Surprisingly, synergistic activation was steeply dependent on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylcholine. Together, these findings suggest a role for PLD1 as a signaling node, in which integration of convergent signals occurs within discrete locales of the cellular membrane. PMID:16339153

  7. Activation of phospholipase C by the alpha subunits of the Gq and G11 proteins in transfected Cos-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, D Q; Lee, C H; Rhee, S G; Simon, M I

    1992-01-25

    High efficiency transient transfection was used to introduce cDNA corresponding to various G protein alpha subunits into Cos-7 cells. The proteins that were subsequently synthesized were detected with specific G protein alpha subunit antipeptide antiserum and were localized in the membrane fraction of the cell. Cells that were prelabeled with the [3H]inositol and transfected with G alpha q and G alpha 11 cDNA showed marked increases in formation of [3H]inositol phosphates after stimulation with aluminum fluoride. Co-transfection with cDNAs corresponding to phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C beta 1 (PI-PLC beta 1) and to G alpha q or G alpha 11 resulted in even higher levels of inositol phosphate formation. The introduction of mutations that convert residue glutamine 209 to leucine in G alpha q and G alpha 11 resulted in persistent activation of PI-PLC and high steady state levels of inositol phosphates. On the other hand, transfection with a variety of other G alpha subunit cDNAs, i.e. G alpha Z, G alpha OA, G alpha OB, transducin, and the glutamine 205 to leucine mutants of G alpha Z and of G alpha OA did not increase inositol phosphate formation. To further test the specificity of G protein activation of PI-PLC, a cell-free system was prepared by using washed membranes of transiently transfected cells and purified PI-PLC beta 1. Membranes derived from G alpha q and G alpha 11, but not G alpha OA transfected cells, showed guanosine 5-O-thiotriphosphate (GTP gamma S)-stimulated PIP2 hydrolysis. The activity seen in the system reconstituted with membranes derived from G alpha 11-transfected cells was blocked by preincubation with specific G alpha 11 antipeptide antibodies. All of these results are consistent with the conclusion that G alpha q and G alpha 11 cDNA encode proteins that in the presence of GTP gamma S specifically activate PI-PLC.

  8. Effects of dexamethasone on palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bulleit, R.F.; Zimmerman, E.F.

    1984-09-15

    Corticosteroids will induce cleft palate in mice. One suggested mechanism for this effect is through inhibition of phospholipase activity. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the effects of dexamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, on phospholipase activity in cultures of palate mesenchymal cells. Palate mesenchymal cells were prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid. The cells were subsequently treated with various concentrations of dexamethasone. Concurrently, cultures of M-MSV-transformed 3T3 cells were prepared identically. After treatment, phospholipase activity was stimulated by the addition of serum or epidermal growth factor (EGF), and radioactivity released into the medium was taken as a measure of phospholipase activity. Dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) or 1 X 10(-4) M) could inhibit serum-stimulated phospholipase activity in transformed 3T3 cells after 1 to 24 hr of treatment. However, no inhibition of activity was measured in palate mesenchymal cells following this period of treatment. Not until 120 hr of treatment with dexamethasone (1 X 10(-4) M) was any significant inhibition of serum-stimulated phospholipase activity observed in palate mesenchymal cells. When EGF was used to stimulate phospholipase activity, dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) M) caused an increase in phospholipase activity in palate mesenchymal cells. These observations suggested that phospholipase in transformed 3T3 cells was sensitive to inhibition by dexamethasone. However, palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase is only minimally sensitive to dexamethasone, and in certain instances can be enhanced. These results cannot support the hypothesis that corticosteroids mediate their teratogenic effect via inhibition of phospholipase activity.

  9. Phospholipase cbeta is critical for T cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Bach, Tami L; Chen, Qing-Min; Kerr, Wesley T; Wang, Yanfeng; Lian, Lurong; Choi, John K; Wu, Dianqing; Kazanietz, Marcelo G; Koretzky, Gary A; Zigmond, Sally; Abrams, Charles S

    2007-08-15

    Chemokines acting through G protein-coupled receptors play an essential role in the immune response. PI3K and phospholipase C (PLC) are distinct signaling molecules that have been proposed in the regulation of chemokine-mediated cell migration. Studies with knockout mice have demonstrated a critical role for PI3K in G(alphai) protein-coupled receptor-mediated neutrophil and lymphocyte chemotaxis. Although PLCbeta is not essential for the chemotactic response of neutrophils, its role in lymphocyte migration has not been clearly defined. We compared the chemotactic response of peripheral T cells derived from wild-type mice with mice containing loss-of-function mutations in both of the two predominant lymphocyte PLCbeta isoforms (PLCbeta2 and PLCbeta3), and demonstrate that loss of PLCbeta2 and PLCbeta3 significantly impaired T cell migration. Because second messengers generated by PLCbeta lead to a rise in intracellular calcium and activation of PKC, we analyzed which of these responses was critical for the PLCbeta-mediated chemotaxis. Intracellular calcium chelation decreased the chemotactic response of wild-type lymphocytes, but pharmacologic inhibition of several PKC isoforms had no effect. Furthermore, calcium efflux induced by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha was undetectable in PLCbeta2beta3-null lymphocytes, suggesting that the migration defect is due to the impaired ability to increase intracellular calcium. This study demonstrates that, in contrast to neutrophils, phospholipid second messengers generated by PLCbeta play a critical role in T lymphocyte chemotaxis.

  10. Assay strategies and methods for phospholipases

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, L.J.; Washburn, W.N.; Deems, R.A.; Dennis, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Of the general considerations discussed, the two issues which are most important in choosing an assay are (1) what sensitivity is required to assay a particular enzyme and (2) whether the assay must be continuous. One can narrow the options further by considering substrate availability, enzyme specificity, assay convenience, or the presence of incompatible side reactions. In addition, the specific preference of a particular phospholipase for polar head group, micellar versus vesicular substrates, and anionic versus nonionic detergents may further restrict the options. Of the many assays described in this chapter, several have limited applicability or serious drawbacks and are not commonly employed. The most commonly used phospholipase assays are the radioactive TLC assay and the pH-stat assay. The TLC assay is probably the most accurate, sensitive assay available. These aspects often outweigh the disadvantages of being discontinuous, tedious, and expensive. The radioactive E. coli assay has become popular recently as an alternative to the TLC assay for the purification of the mammalian nonpancreatic phospholipases. The assay is less time consuming and less expensive than the TLC assay, but it is not appropriate when careful kinetics are required. Where less sensitivity is needed, or when a continuous assay is necessary, the pH-stat assay is often employed. With purified enzymes, when free thiol groups are not present, a spectrophotometric thiol assay can be used. This assay is {approximately} as sensitive as the pH-stat assay but is more convenient and more reproducible, although the substrate is not available commercially. Despite the many assay choices available, the search continues for a convenient, generally applicable assay that is both sensitive and continuous.

  11. Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe(3+), and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed.

  12. Targeting phospholipase D in cancer, infection and neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Brown, H Alex; Thomas, Paul G; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-02-17

    Lipid second messengers have essential roles in cellular function and contribute to the molecular mechanisms that underlie inflammation, malignant transformation, invasiveness, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious and other pathophysiological processes. The phospholipase D (PLD) isoenzymes PLD1 and PLD2 are one of the major sources of signal-activated phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) generation downstream of a variety of cell-surface receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins. Recent advances in the development of isoenzyme-selective PLD inhibitors and in molecular genetics have suggested that PLD isoenzymes in mammalian cells and pathogenic organisms may be valuable targets for the treatment of several human diseases. Isoenzyme-selective inhibitors have revealed complex inter-relationships between PtdOH biosynthetic pathways and the role of PtdOH in pathophysiology. PLD enzymes were once thought to be undruggable owing to the ubiquitous nature of PtdOH in cell signalling and concerns that inhibitors would be too toxic for use in humans. However, recent promising discoveries suggest that small-molecule isoenzyme-selective inhibitors may provide novel compounds for a unique approach to the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative disorders and other afflictions of the central nervous system, and potentially serve as broad-spectrum antiviral and antimicrobial therapeutics.

  13. Streptomyces phospholipase D cloning and production.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yozo

    2012-01-01

    The transphosphatidylation catalytic ability of phospholipase D (PLD, EC 3.1.4.4) is a powerful biochemical tool for the acquisition of rare phospholipids (PLs), e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylserine (PS), and artificial phospholipids, which do not occur in nature. Specifically, actinomycete PLD recognizes not only the alcohols (i.e., glycerol or serine) corresponding to the polar head groups of natural PLs, but also secondary alcohols, aromatic alcohols, saccharides, N-heterocyclic alcohols, and vitamins as acceptors. Therefore, actinomycete PLD is a valuable enzyme in food, cosmetics, fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Here, we describe a protocol for the screening for PLD-producing microorganisms, several PLD assays and methods of PLD production-purification and the strategy of cloning of the Streptomyces PLD gene.

  14. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Eraso, Elena; Madariaga, Lucila; Aguirre, Jose Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise phospholipase and proteinase activities of oral Candida isolates from 100 denture wearers and to study the relationship of these activities with denture stomatitis. Of 100 patients studied, 44 suffered from denture stomatitis. Specimens were collected by swabbing the denture and underlying mucosa. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological and genotypic methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by agar plate methods. A total of 152 isolates were recovered from denture and underlying mucosa, including 101 Candida albicans, 18 Candida tropicalis, 14 Candida glabrata, 11 Candida guilliermondii, four Candida parapsilosis, two Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one isolate each of Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei. Most C. albicans (97%) showed phospholipase activity; furthermore, the unique C. dubliniensis isolate showed a moderate phospholipase activity. The isolation of C. albicans (chi-square test, P = 0.0016) and phospholipase production by Candida spp. (chi-square test, P = 0.0213) was found to be significantly associated with denture stomatitis. Proteinase production was observed in <30% of isolates, and it was not related to the presence of denture stomatitis (P = 0.7675). Candida albicans isolates may produce both virulence factors, although the proteinase production was only observed in <30% of the isolates. Phospholipase production was exclusive of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  15. The Phospholipase D1 Pathway Modulates Macroautophagy

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Armi, Claudia; Hurtado-Lorenzo, Andres; Tian, Huasong; Morel, Etienne; Nezu, Akiko; Chan, Robin B.; Yu, W. Haung; Robinson, Kimberly S.; Yeku, Oladapo; Small, Scott A.; Duff, Karen; Frohman, Michael A.; Wenk, Markus R.; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    While macroautophagy is known to be an essential degradative process whereby autophagosomes mediate the engulfment and delivery of cytoplasmic components into lysosomes, the lipid changes underlying autophagosomal membrane dynamics are undetermined. Here we show that phospholipase D1 (PLD1), which is primarily associated with the endosomal system, partially relocalizes to the outer membrane of autophagosome-like structures upon nutrient starvation. The localization of PLD1, as well as the starvation-induced increase in PLD activity, are altered by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, suggesting PLD1 may act downstream of Vps34. Pharmacological inhibition of PLD and genetic ablation of PLD1 in the mouse decrease the starvation-induced expansion of LC3-positive compartments, consistent with a role of PLD1 in the regulation of autophagy. Furthermore, inhibition of PLD results in higher levels of tau and p62 aggregates in organotypic brain slices. Our in vitro and in vivo findings establish a novel role for PLD1 in autophagy. PMID:21266992

  16. Secreted phospholipase A2 and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Makoto; Taketomi, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase A2s (PLA2s) are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 position of phospholipids to release (typically unsaturated) fatty acids and lysophospholipids, which serve as precursors for a variety of bioactive lipid mediators. Among the PLA2 superfamily, secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes comprise the largest subfamily that includes 11 isoforms with a conserved His-Asp catalytic dyad. Individual sPLA2 enzymes exhibit unique tissue and cellular localizations and specific enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct biological roles. Recent studies using transgenic and knockout mice for individual sPLA2 isofoms have revealed their involvement in various pathophysiological events. Here, we overview the current state of knowledge about sPLA2s, specifically their roles in mast cells (MCs) in the context of allergology. In particular, we highlight group III sPLA2 (PLA2G3) as an "anaphylactic sPLA2" that promotes MC maturation and thereby anaphylaxis through a previously unrecognized lipid-orchestrated circuit.

  17. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C of Bacillus cereus: cloning, sequencing, and relationship to other phospholipases.

    PubMed Central

    Kuppe, A; Evans, L M; McMillen, D A; Griffith, O H

    1989-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) of Bacillus cereus was cloned into Escherichia coli by using monoclonal antibody probes raised against the purified protein. The enzyme is specific for hydrolysis of the membrane lipid PI and PI-glycan-containing membrane anchors, which are important structural components of one class of membrane proteins. The protein expressed in E. coli comigrated with B. cereus PI-PLC in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as detected by immunoblotting, and conferred PI-PLC activity on the host. This enzyme activity was inhibited by PI-PLC-specific monoclonal antibodies. The nucleotide sequence of the PI-PLC gene suggests that this secreted bacterial protein is synthesized as a larger precursor with a 31-amino-acid N-terminal extension to the mature enzyme of 298 amino acids. From analysis of coding and flanking sequences of the gene, we conclude that the PI-PLC gene does not reside next to the gene cluster of the other two secreted phospholipases C on the bacterial chromosome. The deduced amino acid sequence of the B. cereus PI-PLC contains a stretch of significant similarity to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific PLC of Trypanosoma brucei. The conserved peptide is proposed to play a role in the function of these enzymes. Images PMID:2509427

  18. Stalling autophagy: a new function for Listeria phospholipases

    PubMed Central

    Tattoli, Ivan; Sorbara, Matthew T.; Philpott, Dana J.; Girardin, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that induces its own uptake in non-phagocytic cells. Following invasion, Listeria escapes from the entry vacuole through the secretion of a pore-forming toxin, listeriolysin O (LLO) that acts to damage and disrupt the vacuole membrane. Listeria then replicates in the cytosol and is able to spread from cell-to-cell using actin-based motility. In addition to LLO, Listeria produces two phospholipase toxins, a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, encoded by plcB) and a broad-range phospholipase C (PC-PLC, encoded by plcA), which contribute to bacterial virulence. It has long been recognized that secretion of PI- and PC-PLC enables the disruption of the double membrane vacuole during cell-to-cell spread, and those phospholipases have also been shown to augment LLO-dependent escape from the entry endosome. However, a specific role for Listeria phospholipases during the cytosolic stage of infection has not been previously reported. In a recent study, we demonstrated that Listeria PI-PLC and PC-PLC contribute to the bacterial escape from autophagy through a mechanism that involves direct inhibition of the autophagic flux in the infected cells [Tattoli et al. EMBO J (2013), 32, 3066-3078].

  19. Rapid activation of specific phospholipase(s) D by cytokinin in Amaranthus assay system.

    PubMed

    Kravets, Volodymir S; Kolesnikov, Yaroslav S; Kretynin, Sergey V; Getman, Irina A; Romanov, Georgy A

    2010-03-01

    The suggested link between intracellular cytokinin signaling and phospholipase D (PLD, EC 3.1.4.4.) activity (Romanov et al. 2000, 2002) was investigated. The activity of PLD in the early period of cytokinin action was studied in vivo in derooted Amaranthus caudatus seedlings, using the level of phosphatidylbutanol production as a measure of PLD activity. Rapid activation of phosphatidylbutanol synthesis was demonstrated as early as within 5 min of cytokinin administration. Neomycin, a known phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) antagonist, strongly repressed both physiological cytokinin effect and cytokinin-dependent PLD activation. N-acylethanolamine (NAE 12), an inhibitor of alpha-class PLD, did not influence significantly cytokinin effect on Amaranthus seedlings. Together, results suggest the involvement of PIP(2)-dependent non-class alpha-PLD in the molecular mechanism of cytokinin action.

  20. An Autoinhibitory Helix in the C-Terminal Region of Phospholipase C-β Mediates Gαq Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Angeline M.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Dhamsania, Vishan D.; Thal, David M.; Gutierrez, Joanne; Chowdhury, Shoaib; Suddala, Krishna C.; Northup, John K.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) is a key regulator of intracellular calcium levels whose activity is controlled by heptahelical receptors that couple to Gq. We have determined atomic structures of two invertebrate homologs of PLCβ (PLC21) from cephalopod retina and identified a helix from the C-terminal regulatory region that interacts with a conserved surface of the catalytic core of the enzyme. Mutations designed to disrupt the analogous interaction in human PLCβ3 dramatically increase basal activity and diminish stimulation by Gαq. Gαq binding requires displacement of the autoinhibitory helix from the catalytic core, thus providing an allosteric mechanism for activation of PLCβ. PMID:21822282

  1. Expression of phospholipase C isozymes by murine B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hempel, W M; DeFranco, A L

    1991-06-01

    Cross-linking of membrane (m) Ig, the B cell receptor for Ag, activates protein tyrosine phosphorylation and hydrolysis of phosphotidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. The latter signal transduction pathway is an important mediator of antigen receptor engagement. The initial event in this pathway is the activation of phospholipase C (PLC). The identity of the isozyme of PLC used in B cells and the mechanism by which it becomes activated are currently unknown. The cDNA encoding five different isozymes have been cloned. As a first step in identifying the isozyme of PLC that is coupled to mIgM, murine cDNA fragments for the five cloned PLC isozymes were generated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned, and used to screen a panel of B cell lines representing different stages of development for PLC mRNA expression. All the B cell lines tested expressed high levels of PLC alpha and PLC gamma 2 mRNA, whereas PLC beta and PLC delta mRNA expression were undetectable by both Northern blot and PCR analysis. PLC gamma 1 had a more complicated pattern of mRNA expression. PLC gamma 1 mRNA expression was lower than that observed for PLC alpha or PLC gamma 2 mRNA and varied widely among different cell lines. The pattern of PLC gamma 1 mRNA expression did not correlate with the developmental stage of the cell lines. The pattern of PLC gamma 1 protein expression in the panel of B cell lines correlated with the pattern of PLC gamma 1 mRNA expression. PLC gamma 1 expression was very low in several B cell lines, despite the fact that these cell lines show mIgM-stimulatable PLC activity. The variable and in some cases very low expression of PLC gamma 1 suggests that it may not be the form of PLC that is activated by mIgM. In contrast, PLC alpha and PLC gamma 2 were abundantly expressed in all B cell lines tested. This observation is consistent with the possibility that PLC alpha or PLC gamma 2 is activated by mIgM.

  2. Effects of Estradiol and Progesterone on Rat Intestinal and Hepatic Phospholipase A Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    intestine and liver play Major roles in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Both rgans contain high activities of phospholipase A, but little is known... Phospholipase A is involved in the initial step in prostaglandin synthesis (1) and may also play a role in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins (2...and subcellular fraction. Phospholipase A (EC 3.1.1.32 and 3.1.1.4, A, - A2 ) activity was determined in these acetone powders by the method of

  3. Phosphatidylinositol Specific Phospholipase C of Plant Stems 1

    PubMed Central

    Pfaffmann, Helmut; Hartmann, Elmar; Brightman, Andrew O.; Morré, D. James

    1987-01-01

    A phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C of plant stems (EC 3.1.4.10) assayed at pH 6.6 and at 30°C cleaved phosphatidylinositol such that more than 85% of the product was inositol-1-phosphate. Other phospholipids were cleaved 5 to 10% or less under these conditions. The phospholipase had both a soluble and a membrane-associated form. The soluble activity accounted for approximately 85 to 90% of the activity and 15% was associated with membranes. The membrane-associated activity was most concentrated in the plasma membranes of hypocotyl segments of both soybean (Glycine max) and bushbean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The plasma membrane location was verified by analysis of highly purified plasma membranes prepared both by aqueous two-phase partitioning and by preparative free-flow electrophoresis and from the quantitation of the activity in all major cell fractions. Internal membranes also contained phospholipase C activity but at specific activity levels of about 0.1 those present in plasma membranes. Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions from which plasma membrane contaminants were removed by two-phase partition contained the activity at specific activity levels 0.2 those of plasma membrane. Both the soluble and the membrane-associated activity was stimulated by calcium but not by calmodulin, either alone or in the presence of calcium. PMID:16665820

  4. Endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors in snakes: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Campos, Patrícia Cota; de Melo, Lutiana Amaral; Dias, Gabriel Latorre Fortes; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre

    2016-01-01

    The blood plasma of numerous snake species naturally comprises endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors, which primarily neutralize toxic phospholipases A2 that may eventually reach their circulation. This inhibitor type is generally known as snake blood phospholipase A2 inhibitors (sbPLIs). Most, if not all sbPLIs are oligomeric glycosylated proteins, although the carbohydrate moiety may not be essential for PLA2 inhibition in every case. The presently known sbPLIs belong to one of three structural classes - namely sbαPLI, sbβPLI or sbγPLI - depending on the presence of characteristic C-type lectin-like domains, leucine-rich repeats or three-finger motifs, respectively. Currently, the most numerous inhibitors described in the literature are sbαPLIs and sbγPLIs, whereas sbβPLIs are rare. When the target PLA2 is a Lys49 homolog or an Asp49 myotoxin, the sbPLI is denominated a myotoxin inhibitor protein (MIP). In this brief overview, the most relevant data on sbPLIs will be presented. Representative examples of sbαPLIs and sbγPLIs from two Old World - Gloydius brevicaudus and Malayopython reticulatus - and two New World - Bothrops alternatus and Crotalus durissus terrificus - snake species will be emphasized.

  5. The direct interaction of phospholipase C-gamma 1 with phospholipase D2 is important for epidermal growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Jang, Il Ho; Lee, Sukmook; Park, Jong Bae; Kim, Jong Hyun; Lee, Chang Sup; Hur, Eun-Mi; Kim, Il Shin; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2003-05-16

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor has an important role in cellular proliferation, and the enzymatic activity of phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma1 is regarded to be critical for EGF-induced mitogenesis. In this study, we report for the first time a phospholipase complex composed of PLC-gamma1 and phospholipase D2 (PLD2). PLC-gamma1 is co-immunoprecipitated with PLD2 in COS-7 cells. The results of in vitro binding analysis and co-immunoprecipitation analysis in COS-7 cells show that the Src homology (SH) 3 domain of PLC-gamma1 binds to the proline-rich motif within the Phox homology (PX) domain of PLD2. The interaction between PLC-gamma1 and PLD2 is EGF stimulation-dependent and potentiates EGF-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) formation and Ca(2+) increase. Mutating Pro-145 and Pro-148 within the PX domain of PLD2 to leucines disrupts the interaction between PLC-gamma1 and PLD2 and fails to potentiate EGF-induced IP(3) formation and Ca(2+) increase. However, neither PLD2 wild type nor PLD2 mutant affects the EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1. These findings suggest that, upon EGF stimulation, PLC-gamma1 directly interacts with PLD2 and this interaction is important for PLC-gamma1 activity.

  6. Role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cytokine-stimulated prostaglandin release by human gallbladder cells.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, E M; Longo, W E; Mazuski, J E; Panesar, N; Kaminski, D L

    2000-01-01

    Eicosanoids are involved in gallbladder inflammation, epithelial water transport, and mucous secretion. Phospholipase Asubscript2 enzymes liberate arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids for the synthesis of eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of selective cytoplasmic and secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitors on basal and stimulated arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 release in gallbladder cells. Western immunoblotting was employed to evaluate both cytosolic and secretory phospholipase A2 enzymes in human gallbladder cells. Cells were incubated for 22 hours with (3)H-labeled arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 release was then measured in the supernate after 2 hours of exposure to human interleukin-1beta, alone or after pretreatment for 1 hour with the inhibitors. Unstimulated gallbladder cells express both 85 kDa cytosolic and 14 kDa secretory phospholipase A2++. The 85 kDa phospholipase A2 was induced by interleukin-1beta, whereas there was no apparent change in secretory phospholipase A2 enzyme concentrations. Both the secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor p-bromophenylacyl bromide and the cytosolic phospholipase A2 inhibitor arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone decreased basal and interleukin-1beta-stimulated arachidonic acid release. In contrast, only inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2 led to a decrease in interleukin-1beta-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release. Basal and interleukin-1beta-stimulated arachidonic acid release appears to be the result of the activity of both cytosolic and secretory phospholipase A2. Interleukin-1beta-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release appears to be dependent on the activity of cytosolic phospholipase A2.

  7. Inhibition of purified lysosomal phospholipase A1 by beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    PubMed

    Pappu, A S; Yazaki, P J; Hostetler, K Y

    1985-02-15

    Inhibition of rat liver lysosomal phospholipases is one of the main events that leads to accumulation of tissue phospholipids during drug-induced phospholipidosis. Drug inhibition of lysosomal phospholipase A may occur by direct effects of drugs on the enzyme (or substrate) or by drug-induced increases in intralysosomal pH. Although beta-adrenoceptor blockers have not been reported to cause lipid storage, they do inhibit lysosomal phospholipase A. To investigate the structural requirements for drug inhibition, we studied the effects of six beta-adrenoceptor blockers on purified rat liver lysosomal phospholipase A1. The agents studied include: propranolol, timolol, metoprolol, practolol, atenolol and the combined alpha and beta adrenoceptor blocking agent, labetalol. The drugs varied by two logs in their abilities to inhibit phospholipase A1 activity. The relative inhibitory potencies were propranolol greater than labetalol much greater than timolol greater than metoprolol much greater than practolol greater than atenolol. Our studies identify drug hydrophobicity as a key determinant for phospholipase A1 inhibition. A strong negative correlation was noted between the octanol/water partition coefficients and IC50 for phospholipase inhibition (r = -0.91). The ability of propranolol to inhibit phospholipase A1 was identical for the d, l and the d and l stereoisomers.

  8. Corticotropin-releasing factor induces phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma at tyrosine residues via its receptor 2beta in human epidermoid A-431 cells.

    PubMed

    Kiang, J G; Ding, X Z; Gist, I D; Jones, R R; Tsokos, G C

    1998-12-18

    This laboratory previously reported that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, cellular cAMP, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, protein kinase C activity, and protein phosphorylation in human A-431 cells. The increase was blocked by CRF receptor antagonist. In this study, we identified the type of CRF receptors present and investigated whether CRF induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma via CRF receptors. Using novel primers in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we determined the CRF receptor type to be that of 2beta. The levels of the CRF receptor type 2beta were not altered in cells treated with activators of protein kinase C, Ca2+ ionophore, or cells overexpressing heat shock protein 70 kDa. Cells treated with CRF displayed increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation approximately at 150 kDa as detected by immunoblotting using an antibody against phosphotyrosine. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against phospholipase C-beta3, -gamma1, or -gamma2 isoforms (which have molecular weights around 150 kDa) followed by Western blotting using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody showed that only phospholipase C-gamma1 and -gamma2 were phosphorylated. The increase in phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylation was concentration-dependent with an EC50 of 4.2+/-0.1 pM. The maximal phosphorylation by CRF at 1 nM occurred by 5 min. The CRF-induced phosphorylation was inhibited by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A, suggesting that CRF activates protein tyrosine kinases. Treatment of cells with CRF receptor antagonist, but not pertussis toxin, prior to treatment with CRF inhibited the CRF-induced phosphorylation, suggesting it is mediated by the CRF receptor type 2beta that is not coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. Treatment with 1,2-bis(2iminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid attenuated the phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylation. In summary

  9. Histochemical demonstration of phospholipase B (lysolecithinase) activity in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Ottolenghi, A; Pickett, J P; Greene, W B

    1966-12-01

    A method has been developed for the histochemical demonstration of phospholipase B (lysolecithinase) of rat tissues. The enzyme attacks lysolecithin with liberation of 1 mole of glycerylphosphorylcholine and 1 mole of fatty acid. The recommended procedure involves use of 6-10 micro frozen sections, fixed in cold calcium-formol and incubated at 37 degrees C in Tris buffered medium at pH 6.6 containing 2.2 X 10(-3) M lysolecithin and 1% cobalt acetate. The fatty acid liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis is trapped as a cobalt precipitate and is then converted to a black-brown precipitate by treatment with dilute ammonium sulfide in cold isotonic saline. Equivalent amounts of fatty acid and glycerylphosphorylcholine are recovered by extraction and analysis of the incubated sections and of the incubation medium, thus proving that lysolecithin hydrolysis occurs under the proposed reaction conditions. Staining is reduced by treating the sections with copper ions, mercury compounds, alcohols, acetone and by heating at 60 degrees C prior to incubation with substrate. Lowering of the pH of the incubation medium has similar effect. These findings are interpreted as evidence of the enzymatic nature of the reaction. Cells exhibiting a positive staining are found in the lamina propria of the intestinal villi and crypts, in the red pulp of the spleen and in the interstitial tissue of lung, liver and thymus. Similar elements are present in bone marrow smears and in leukocyte preparations obtained by peritoneal lavage. The morphologic and staining characteristics of these cells correspond to those of the eosinophilic leukocytes. Physical and chemical agents (x-irradiation, corticosteroids) which sharply decrease the number of eosinophils also reduce the number of cells shown histochemically to hydrolyze lysolecithin. A correspondent diminution of phospholipase B activity of homogenates of the same tissues can be shown in vitro. Differences in tissue distribution and chemical

  10. Detection and characterization of extracellular phospholipase A sub 2 in pleural effusion of patients with tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Suk Hwan; Chang, Hyeun Wook ); Takayama, Kiyoshi; Kudo, Ichiro; Inoue, Keizo ); Lee, Hyun Woo; Do Jun Young )

    1991-01-01

    Extracellular phospholipase A{sub 2} activity has been identified in pleural fluid of patients with tuberculosis. This enzyme is a calcium requiring protein and has a pH optimum of 10.0. The enzyme was inhibited by the active site-directed histidine reagent, {rho}-bromophenacyl bromide. Ionic and non-ionic detergents, or the sulfhydryl reagent dithiothreitol, caused loss of enzyme activity. When substrate specificity was tested using 2-(1-{sup 14}C)linoleoyl phospholipids as substrates, phosphatidylethanolamine was the best substrate, followed by phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine. This phospholipase A{sub 2} showed high affinity for heparin, and was recognized by a monoclonal antibody raised against phospholipase A{sub 2} from human synovial fluid. These findings suggest that an extracellular phospholipase A{sub 2}, which may belong to the 14K group II phospholipase A{sub 2} family, exists in the pleural fluid of patients with tuberculosis.

  11. Messenger molecules of the phospholipase signaling system have dual effects on vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Vidulescu, Cristina; Mironneau, J.; Mironneau, Chantal; Popescu, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Background and methods. In order to investigate the role of phospholipases and their immediately derived messengers in agonist-induced contraction of portal vein smooth muscle, we used the addition in the organ bath of exogenous molecules such as: phospholipases C, A(2), and D, diacylglycerol, arachidonic acid, phosphatidic acid, choline. We also used substances modulating activity of downstream molecules like protein kinase C, phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, or cyclooxygenase. Results. a) Exogenous phospholipases C or A(2), respectively, induced small agonist-like contractions, while exogenous phospholipase D did not. Moreover, phospholipase D inhibited spontaneous contractions. However, when added during noradrenaline-induced plateau, phospholipase D shortly potentiated it. b) The protein kinase C activator, phorbol dibutyrate potentiated both the exogenous phospholipase C-induced contraction and the noradrenaline-induced plateau, while the protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(-5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methyl-piperazine relaxed the plateau. c) When added before noradrenaline, indomethacin inhibited both phasic and tonic contractions, but when added during the tonic contraction shortly potentiated it. Arachidonic acid strongly potentiated both spontaneous and noradrenaline-induced contractions, irrespective of the moment of its addition. d) In contrast, phosphatidic acid inhibited spontaneous contractile activity, nevertheless it was occasionally capable of inducing small contractions, and when repetitively added during the agonist-induced tonic contraction, produced short potentiations of the plateau. Pretreatment with propranolol inhibited noradrenaline-induced contractions and further addition of phosphatidic acid augmented this inhibition. Choline augmented the duration and amplitude of noradrenaline-induced tonic contraction and final contractile oscillations. Conclusions. These data suggest that messengers produced by phospholipase C and phospholipase A(2

  12. Regulation of Phospholipase D Activity and Phosphatidic Acid Production after Purinergic (P2Y6) Receptor Stimulation*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sarah A.; Xiang, Yun; Mathews, Thomas P.; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Myers, David S.; Armstrong, Michelle D.; Tallman, Keri A.; O'Reilly, Matthew C.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid second messenger located at the intersection of several lipid metabolism and cell signaling events including membrane trafficking, survival, and proliferation. Generation of signaling PA has long been primarily attributed to the activation of phospholipase D (PLD). PLD catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine into PA. A variety of both receptor-tyrosine kinase and G-protein-coupled receptor stimulations have been shown to lead to PLD activation and PA generation. This study focuses on profiling the PA pool upon P2Y6 receptor signaling manipulation to determine the major PA producing enzymes. Here we show that PLD, although highly active, is not responsible for the majority of stable PA being produced upon UDP stimulation of the P2Y6 receptor and that PA levels are tightly regulated. By following PA flux in the cell we show that PLD is involved in an initial increase in PA upon receptor stimulation; however, when PLD is blocked, the cell compensates by increasing PA production from other sources. We further delineate the P2Y6 signaling pathway showing that phospholipase Cβ3 (PLCβ3), PLCδ1, DGKζ and PLD are all downstream of receptor activation. We also show that DGKζ is a novel negative regulator of PLD activity in this system that occurs through an inhibitory mechanism with PKCα. These results further define the downstream events resulting in PA production in the P2Y6 receptor signaling pathway. PMID:23723068

  13. Purification and characterization of a membrane-associated phospholipase A2 from rat spleen. Its comparison with a cytosolic phospholipase A2 S-1.

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Tojo, H; Kuramitsu, S; Kagamiyama, H; Okamoto, M

    1988-04-25

    A membrane-associated phospholipase A2 was purified from rat spleen. The phospholipase A2 was solubilized from the 108,000 x g pellet fraction with 0.3% lithium dodecyl sulfate and then purified to homogeneity by successive DEAE-Cellulofine AM, octyl-Sepharose, Cellulofine GCL 300-m, S-Sepharose, and Bio-Gel P-30 chromatographies in the presence of 0.5% 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate. The apparent Mr of the enzyme, estimated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was about 13,600. The purified enzyme had a pH optimum in the range of pH 8.0-9.5 and required the presence of Ca2+ (4 mM) for its maximal activity. The enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed the 2-acyl ester bonds of phosphatidylglycerol in the presence and absence of sodium cholate or sodium deoxycholate. Unlike the phospholipase A2 of rat spleen supernatant, no immunocross-reactivity was observed between the purified enzyme and anti-rat pancreatic phospholipase A2 antibody. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was determined and found to be homologous to that of viperid and crotalid venom phospholipases A2. The results in this and the preceding report (Tojo, H., Ono, T., Kuramitsu, S., Kagamiyama, H., and Okamoto, M. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 5724-5731) demonstrate that rat spleen contains two genetically distinct phospholipase A2 isoenzymes.

  14. Dissociation of bradykinin-induced prostaglandin formation from phosphatidylinositol turnover in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts: evidence for G protein regulation of phospholipase A/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, R.M.; Axelrod, J.

    1987-09-01

    In Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts bradykinin stimulated inositol phosphate (InsP) formation and prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) synthesis. The EC/sub 50/ values for stimulation of PGE/sub 2/ synthesis and InsP formation by bradykinin were similar, 200 pM and 275 pM, respectively. Guanosine-5'-(..gamma..-thio)triphosphate stimulated PGE/sub 2/ synthesis and InsP formation, and guanosine-5'-(..beta..-thio)diphosphate inhibited both PGE/sub 2/ synthesis and InsP formation stimulated by bradykinin. Neither bradykinin-stimulated PGE/sub 2/ synthesis nor InsP formation was sensitive to pertussis toxin. Phorbol ester, dexamethasone, and cycloheximide distinguished between bradykinin-stimulated PGE/sub 2/ synthesis and InsP formation. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate enhanced bradykinin-stimulated PGE/sub 2/ synthesis but inhibited bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. Pretreatment of cells with dexamethasone for 24 hr inhibited bradykinin-stimulated PGE/sub 2/ synthesis but was without effect on bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. Cycloheximide inhibited on bradykinin-stimulated InsP formation. When bradykinin was added to cells prelabeled with (/sup 3/H) choline, the phospholipase A/sub 2/ products lysophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphocholine were generated. The data suggest that bradykinin receptors are coupled by GTP-binding proteins to both phospholipase C and phospholipase A/sub 2/ and that phospholipase A/sub 2/ is the enzyme that catalyzes release of arachidonate for prostaglandin synthesis.

  15. Ostrich pancreatic phospholipase A(2): purification and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane; Mosbah, Habib; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2007-09-15

    Ostrich pancreatic phospholipase A(2) (OPLA(2)) was purified from delipidated pancreases. Pure protein was obtained after heat treatment (70 degrees C), precipitation by ammonium sulphate and ethanol, respectively followed by sequential column chromatography on MonoQ Sepharose and size exclusion HPLC column. Purified OPLA(2), which is not a glycosylated protein, was found to be monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 13773.93 Da. A specific activity of 840U/mg for purified OPLA(2) was measured at optimal conditions (pH 8.2 and 37 degrees C) in the presence of 4 mM NaTDC and 10 mM CaCl(2) using PC as substrate. This enzyme was also found to be able to hydrolyze, at low surface pressure, 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3 phosphocholine (di C(12)-PC) monolayers. Maximal activity was measured at 5-8 mNm(-1). The sequence of the first 22 amino-acid residues at the N-terminal extremity of purified bird PLA(2) was determined by automatic Edman degradation and showed a high sequence homology with known mammal pancreatic secreted phospholipases A(2).

  16. Disintegration of lysosomes mediated by GTPgammaS-treated cytosol: possible involvement of phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Sai, Y; Matsuda, T; Arai, K; Ohkuma, S

    1998-04-01

    We showed previously that cytosol treated with guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gammaS) disintegrated lysosomes in vitro [Sai, Y. et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 198, 869-877] in time-, temperature-, and dose-dependent manners. This also requires ATP, however, the latter can be substituted with deoxy-ATP, ADP, or ATPgammaS, suggesting no requirement of ATP hydrolysis. The lysis was inhibited by several chemical modifiers, including N-ethylmaleimide, 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and by various phospholipase inhibitors (trifluoperazine, p-bromophenacyl bromide, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, W-7, primaquine, compound 48/80, neomycin, and gentamicin), but not by ONO-RS-082, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. The reaction was also inhibited by phospholipids (phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylcholine) and diacylglycerol. Among the phospholipase A2 hydrolysis products of phospholipids, unsaturated fatty acids (oleate, linoleate, and arachidonate) and lysophospholipid (lysophosphatidylcholine) by themselves broke lysosomes down directly, whereas saturated fatty acids (palmitate and stearate) had little effect. We found that GTPgammaS-stimulated cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity was highly sensitive to ONO-RS-082. These results suggest the participation of phospholipase(s), though not cytosolic phospholipase A2, in the GTPgammaS-dependent lysis of lysosomes.

  17. Histamine H1 and endothelin ETB receptors mediate phospholipase D stimulation in rat brain hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Sarri, E; Picatoste, F; Claro, E

    1995-08-01

    Different neurotransmitter receptor agonists [carbachol, serotonin, noradrenaline, histamine, endothelin-1, and trans-(1S,3R)-aminocyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD)], known as stimuli of phospholipase C in brain tissue, were tested for phospholipase D stimulation in [32P]Pi-prelabeled rat brain cortical and hippocampal slices. The accumulation of [32P]phosphatidylethanol was measured as an index of phospholipase D-catalyzed transphosphatidylation in the presence of ethanol. Among the six neurotransmitter receptor agonists tested, only noradrenaline, histamine, endothelin-1, and trans-ACPD stimulated phospholipase D in hippocampus and cortex, an effect that was strictly dependent of the presence of millimolar extracellular calcium concentrations. The effect of histamine (EC50 18 microM) was inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine with a Ki constant of 0.7 nM and was resistant to H2 and H3 receptor antagonists (ranitidine and tioperamide, respectively). Endothelin-1-stimulated phospholipase D (EC50 44 nM) was not blocked by BQ-123, a specific antagonist of the ETA receptor. Endothelin-3 and the specific ETB receptor agonist safarotoxin 6c were also able to stimulate phospholipase D with efficacies similar to that of endothelin-1, and EC50 values of 16 and 3 nM, respectively. These results show that histamine and endothelin-1 stimulate phospholipase D in rat brain through H1 and ETB receptors, respectively.

  18. Modulation of radiation induced lipid peroxidation by phospholipase A 2 and calmodulin antagonists: Relevance to detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Rajeev; Kale, R. K.

    1995-04-01

    Ghost membranes prepared from erythrocytes of Swiss albino mice were irradiated with 0.9 Gy s -1. Lipid peroxidation initiated by ionizing radiation was enhanced by phospholipase A 2, and required both phospholipase A 2 and GSH-peroxidase for consecutive action to convert fatty acid peroxides into corresponding alcohols. The ability of phospholipase A 2 to enhance lipid peroxidation was increased in presence of Ca 2+. However, in combination, phospholipase A 2 and GSH-peroxidase were effective in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. These findings show that free fatty acid peroxides considerably increase the peroxidation. Calmodulin antagonists inhibit lipid peroxidation and decrease the radiation induced release of Ca 2+ from the membranes. Our results suggest the importance of Ca 2+ dependent phospholipase A 2 in detoxification of fatty acid peroxides in the membranes. It is quite possible that scavenging of free radicals by calmodulin antagonists lower the formation of hydroperoxides, resulting in the decrease in activity of phospholipase A 2. Alternatively, decrease in Ca 2+ release due to the calmodulin antagonists might have affected the activity of phospholipase A 2. Our observations might be of considerable significance in the understanding of post irradiation effect on biological membranes.

  19. A rapid phospholipase A2 bioassay using 14C-oleate-labelled E. coli bacterias.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T; von Wichert, P; Weins, D

    1989-02-01

    Two methods of phospholipase A2 determination using 14C-labelled E. coli bacterias as substrate were compared. One method works with a filter membrane for separation of cleaved 14C-oleate from remaining phospholipids, the other uses the well-known thin-layer chromatography for lipid analysis. Some features of human serum phospholipase A2 regarding pH and Ca2+ dependency were investigated. Possible sources of errors were discussed. It was shown that either method can differentiate between normal and pathologically elevated phospholipase A2 levels, but that the filter method is superior in terms of sensitivity and workload.

  20. Natural phospholipase A(2) myotoxin inhibitor proteins from snakes, mammals and plants.

    PubMed

    Lizano, Sergio; Domont, Gilberto; Perales, Jonas

    2003-12-15

    A renewed interest in the phenomenon of inter- and intra-species resistance towards the toxicity of snake venoms, coupled with the search for new strategies for treatment of snake envenomations, has prompted the discovery of proteins which neutralize the major toxic components of these venoms. Among these emerging groups of proteins are inhibitors of toxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), many of which exhibit a wide range of toxic effects including muscle-tissue damage, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. These proteins have been isolated from both venomous and non-venomous snakes, mammals, and most recently from medicinal plant extracts. The snake blood-derived inhibitors have been grouped into three major classes, alpha, beta, and gamma, based on common structural motifs found in other proteins with diverse physiological properties. In mammals, DM64, an anti-myotoxic protein isolated from opossum serum, belongs to the immunoglobulin super gene family and is homologous to human alpha1B-glycoprotein and DM43, a metalloproteinase inhibitor from the same organism. In plants, a short note is made of WSG, a newly described anti-toxic-PLA2 glycoprotein isolated from Withania somnifera (Ashwaganda), a medicinal plant whose aqueous extracts neutralize the PLA2 activity of the Naja naja venom. The implications of these new groups of PLA2 toxin inhibitors in the context of our current understanding of snake biology as well as in the development of novel therapeutic reagents in the treatment of snake envenomations worldwide are discussed.

  1. Phospholipase C-delta1 and oxytocin receptor signalling: evidence of its role as an effector.

    PubMed

    Park, E S; Won, J H; Han, K J; Suh, P G; Ryu, S H; Lee, H S; Yun, H Y; Kwon, N S; Baek, K J

    1998-04-01

    Although the oxytocin receptor modulates intracellular Ca2+ ion levels in myometrium, the identities of signal molecules have not been clearly clarified. Our previous studies on oxytocin receptor signalling demonstrated that 80 kDa Ghalpha is a signal mediator [Baek, Kwon, Lee, Kim, Muralidhar and Im (1996) Biochem. J. 315, 739-744]. To elucidate the effector in the oxytocin receptor signalling pathway, we evaluated the oxytocin-mediated activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by using solubilized membranes from human myometrium and a three-component preparation containing the oxytocin receptor-Ghalpha-PLC-delta1 complex. PLC-delta1 activity in the three-component preparation, as well as PLC activity in solubilized membranes, was increased by oxytocin in the presence of Ca2+ and activated Ghalpha (GTP-bound Ghalpha). Furthermore the stimulated PLC-delta1 activity resulting from activation of Ghalpha via the oxytocin receptor was significantly attenuated by the selective oxytocin antagonist desGly-NH2d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]ornithine vasotocin or GDP. Consistent with these observations, co-immunoprecipitation and co-immunoadsorption of PLC-delta1 in the three-component preparation by anti-Gh7alpha antibody resulted in the PLC-delta1 being tightly coupled to activated Ghalpha on stimulation of the oxytocin receptor. These results indicate that PLC-delta1 is the effector for Ghalpha-mediated oxytocin receptor signalling.

  2. Design of isoform-selective phospholipase D inhibitors that modulate cancer cell invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sarah A; Selvy, Paige E; Buck, Jason R; Cho, Hyekyung P; Criswell, Tracy L; Thomas, Ashley L; Armstrong, Michelle D; Arteaga, Carlos L; Lindsley, Craig W; Brown, H Alex

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid participates in both G protein-coupled receptor and receptor tyrosine kinase signal transduction networks. The lack of potent and isoform-selective inhibitors has limited progress in defining the cellular roles of PLD. We used a diversity-oriented synthetic approach and developed a library of PLD inhibitors with considerable pharmacological characterization. Here we report the rigorous evaluation of that library, which contains highly potent inhibitors, including the first isoform-selective PLD inhibitors. Specific members of this series inhibit isoforms with > 100-fold selectivity both in vitro and in cells. A subset of inhibitors was shown to block invasiveness in metastatic breast cancer models. These findings demonstrate the power of diversity-oriented synthesis combined with biochemical assays and mass spectrometric lipid profiling of cellular responses to develop the first isoform-selective PLD inhibitors—a new class of antimetastatic agents. PMID:19136975

  3. Quantum-dynamical picture of a multistep enzymatic process: reaction catalyzed by phospholipase A(2).

    PubMed Central

    Bała, P; Grochowski, P; Nowiński, K; Lesyng, B; McCammon, J A

    2000-01-01

    A quantum-classical molecular dynamics model (QCMD), applying explicit integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (QD) and Newtonian equations of motion (MD), is presented. The model is capable of describing quantum dynamical processes in complex biomolecular systems. It has been applied in simulations of a multistep catalytic process carried out by phospholipase A(2) in its active site. The process includes quantum-dynamical proton transfer from a water molecule to histidine localized in the active site, followed by a nucleophilic attack of the resulting OH(-) group on a carbonyl carbon atom of a phospholipid substrate, leading to cleavage of an adjacent ester bond. The process has been simulated using a parallel version of the QCMD code. The potential energy function for the active site is computed using an approximate valence bond (AVB) method. The dynamics of the key proton is described either by QD or classical MD. The coupling between the quantum proton and the classical atoms is accomplished via Hellmann-Feynman forces, as well as the time dependence of the potential energy function in the Schrödinger equation (QCMD/AVB model). Analysis of the simulation results with an Advanced Visualization System revealed a correlated rather than a stepwise picture of the enzymatic process. It is shown that an sp(2)--> sp(3) configurational change at the substrate carbonyl carbon is mostly responsible for triggering the activation process. PMID:10968989

  4. The controversial role of phospholipase C epsilon (PLCε) in cancer development and progression

    PubMed Central

    Tyutyunnykova, Anna; Telegeev, Gennady; Dubrovska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes are important regulators of membrane phospholipid metabolism. PLC proteins can be activated by the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) or G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) in response to the different extracellular stimuli including hormones and growth factors. Activated PLC enzymes hydrolyze phosphoinositides to increase the intracellular level of Ca2+ and produce diacylglycerol, which are important mediators of the intracellular signaling transduction. PLC family includes 13 isozymes belonging to 6 subfamilies according to their domain structures and functions. Although importance of PLC enzymes for key cellular functions is well established, the PLC proteins belonging to the ε, ζ and η subfamilies were identified and characterized only during the last decade. As a largest known PLC protein, PLCε is involved in a variety of signaling pathways and controls different cellular properties. Nevertheless, its role in carcinogenesis remains elusive. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the experimental and clinical data about the role of PLCε in the development and progression of the different types of human and experimental tumors. PMID:28382133

  5. Inactivation of Phospholipase D Diminishes Acinetobacter baumannii Pathogenesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Anna C.; Hood, Indriati; Boyd, Kelli L.; Olson, Patrick D.; Morrison, John M.; Carson, Steven; Sayood, Khalid; Iwen, Peter C.; Skaar, Eric P.; Dunman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging bacterial pathogen of considerable health care concern. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the organism's virulence factors or their regulatory networks. Septicemia and ventilator-associated pneumonia are two of the more severe forms of A. baumannii disease. To identify virulence factors that may contribute to these disease processes, genetically diverse A. baumannii clinical isolates were evaluated for the ability to proliferate in human serum. A transposon mutant library was created in a strain background that propagated well in serum and screened for members with decreased serum growth. The results revealed that disruption of A. baumannii phospholipase D (PLD) caused a reduction in the organism's ability to thrive in serum, a deficiency in epithelial cell invasion, and diminished pathogenesis in a murine model of pneumonia. Collectively, these results suggest that PLD is an A. baumannii virulence factor. PMID:20194595

  6. Phospholipase C-β1 and schizophrenia-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hae-Young

    2013-09-01

    Abnormal expression patterns of phospholipase C-β1(PLC-β1) in specific brain areas of patients with schizophrenia, and its high genetic linkage to the disorder implicated a pathogenetical involvement of PLC-β1 signaling system. The schizophrenia-related behavioral phenotypes displayed in the mutant mice lacking PLC-β1 (PLC-β1 KO) suggested that PLCβ1-linked signaling pathways may be involved in the neural system whose function is disrupted in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the brain, PLC-β1 is known to be linked to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, metabotropic glutamatergic, serotonergic, and oxytocinergic systems. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding these schizophrenia-related behaviors and discuss the probable ways in which PLC-β1signalling can be involved in the neural mechanisms for each behavior, which may help suggest future directions for research in this area.

  7. Defective phosphatidic acid-phospholipase C signaling in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tappia, Paramjit S; Maddaford, Thane G; Hurtado, Cecilia; Dibrov, Elena; Austria, J Alejandro; Sahi, Nidhi; Panagia, Vincenzo; Pierce, Grant N

    2004-03-26

    The effects of exogenous phosphatidic acid (PA) on Ca2+ transients and contractile activity were studied in cardiomyocytes isolated from chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In control cells, 25 microM PA induced a significant increase in active cell shortening and Ca2+ transients. PA increased IP3 generation in the control cardiomyocytes and its inotropic effects were blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor. In cardiomyocytes from diabetic rats, PA induced a 25% decrease in active cell shortening and no significant effect on Ca2+ transients. Basal and PA-induced IP3 generation in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes was 3-fold lower as compared to control cells. Sarcolemmal membrane PLC activity was impaired. Insulin treatment of the diabetic animals resulted in a partial recovery of PA responses. Our results, therefore, identify an important defect in the PA-PLC signaling pathway in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes, which may have significant implications for heart dysfunction during diabetes.

  8. Recent research progress with phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yan; Ye, Lidan; Xu, Jun; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to produce phosphate monoesters and diacylglycerol. It has many applications in the enzymatic degumming of plant oils. PLC Bc , a bacterial PLC from Bacillus cereus, is an optimal choice for this activity in terms of its wide substrate spectrum, high activity, and approved safety. Unfortunately, its large-scale production and reliable high-throughput screening of PLC Bc remain challenging. Herein, we summarize the research progress regarding PLC Bc with emphasis on the screening methods, expression systems, catalytic mechanisms and inhibitor of PLC Bc . This review hopefully will inspire new achievements in related areas, to promote the sustainable development of PLC Bc and its application.

  9. Thyroid hormone status regulates the expression of secretory phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pragya; Levesque, Tania; Boilard, Eric; Park, Edwards A

    2014-01-31

    Thyroid hormone (T3) stimulates various metabolic pathways and the hepatic actions of T3 are mediated primarily through the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). Hypothyroidism has been linked with low grade inflammation, elevated risk of hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. Secretory phospholipases (sPLA2) are associated with inflammation, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Due to potential linkage between thyroid hormone and sPLA2, we investigated the effect of thyroid hormone status on the regulation of secretory phospholipases in mice, rats and human liver. T3 suppressed the expression of the sPLA2 group IIa (PLA2g2a) gene in the liver of BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 transgenic mice expressing the human PLA2g2a. PLA2g2a was elevated with hypothyroidism and high fat diets which may contribute to the low grade inflammation associated with hypothyroidism and diet induced obesity. We also examined the effects of the TRβ agonist eprotirome on hepatic gene regulation. We observed that eprotirome inhibited the expression of selected sPLA2 genes and furthermore the cytokine mediated induction PLA2g2a was suppressed. In addition, eprotirome induced genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cholesterol clearance while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Our results indicate that in vivo thyroid hormone status regulates the abundance of sPLA2 and the inhibition of PLA2g2a by T3 is conserved across species. By regulating sPLA2 genes, T3 may impact processes associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation and TRβ agonists may ameliorate inflammation and hyperlipidemia.

  10. Thyroid hormone status regulates the expression of secretory phospholipases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pragya; Levesque, Tania; Boilard, Eric; Park, Edwards A.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T3) stimulates various metabolic pathways and the hepatic actions of T3 are mediated primarily through the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). Hypothyroidism has been linked with low grade inflammation, elevated risk of hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. Secretory phospholipases (sPLA2) are associated with inflammation, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Due to potential linkage between thyroid hormone and sPLA2, we investigated the effect of thyroid hormone status on the regulation of secretory phospholipases in mice, rats and human liver. T3 suppressed the expression of the sPLA2 group IIa (PLA2g2a) gene in the liver of BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 transgenic mice expressing the human PLA2g2a. PLA2g2a was elevated with hypothyroidism and high fat diets which may contribute to the low grade inflammation associated with hypothyroidism and diet induced obesity. We also examined the effects of the TRβ agonist eprotirome on hepatic gene regulation. We observed that eprotirome inhibited the expression of selected sPLA2 genes and furthermore the cytokine mediated induction PLA2g2a was suppressed. In addition, eprotirome induced genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cholesterol clearance while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Our results indicate that in vivo thyroid hormone status regulates the abundance of sPLA2 and the inhibition of PLA2g2a by T3 is conserved across species. By regulating sPLA2 genes, T3 may impact processes associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation and TRβ agonists may ameliorate inflammation and hyperlipidemia. PMID:24440706

  11. Autoproteolytic Activation of a Symbiosis-regulated Truffle Phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Cavazzini, Davide; Meschi, Francesca; Corsini, Romina; Bolchi, Angelo; Rossi, Gian Luigi; Einsle, Oliver; Ottonello, Simone

    2013-01-18

    Fungal phospholipases are members of the fungal/bacterial group XIV secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s). TbSP1, the sPLA(2) primarily addressed in this study, is up-regulated by nutrient deprivation and is preferentially expressed in the symbiotic stage of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. A peculiar feature of this phospholipase and of its ortholog from the black truffle Tuber melanosporum is the presence of a 54-amino acid sequence of unknown functional significance, interposed between the signal peptide and the start of the conserved catalytic core of the enzyme. X-ray diffraction analysis of a recombinant TbSP1 form corresponding to the secreted protein previously identified in T. borchii mycelia revealed a structure comprising the five α-helices that form the phospholipase catalytic module but lacking the N-terminal 54 amino acids. This finding led to a series of functional studies that showed that TbSP1, as well as its T. melanosporum ortholog, is a self-processing pro-phospholipase A(2), whose phospholipase activity increases up to 80-fold following autoproteolytic removal of the N-terminal peptide. Proteolytic cleavage occurs within a serine-rich, intrinsically flexible region of TbSP1, does not involve the phospholipase active site, and proceeds via an intermolecular mechanism. Autoproteolytic activation, which also takes place at the surface of nutrient-starved, sPLA(2) overexpressing hyphae, may strengthen and further control the effects of phospholipase up-regulation in response to nutrient deprivation, also in the context of symbiosis establishment and mycorrhiza formation.

  12. Autoproteolytic Activation of a Symbiosis-regulated Truffle Phospholipase A2*

    PubMed Central

    Cavazzini, Davide; Meschi, Francesca; Corsini, Romina; Bolchi, Angelo; Rossi, Gian Luigi; Einsle, Oliver; Ottonello, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Fungal phospholipases are members of the fungal/bacterial group XIV secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s). TbSP1, the sPLA2 primarily addressed in this study, is up-regulated by nutrient deprivation and is preferentially expressed in the symbiotic stage of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. A peculiar feature of this phospholipase and of its ortholog from the black truffle Tuber melanosporum is the presence of a 54-amino acid sequence of unknown functional significance, interposed between the signal peptide and the start of the conserved catalytic core of the enzyme. X-ray diffraction analysis of a recombinant TbSP1 form corresponding to the secreted protein previously identified in T. borchii mycelia revealed a structure comprising the five α-helices that form the phospholipase catalytic module but lacking the N-terminal 54 amino acids. This finding led to a series of functional studies that showed that TbSP1, as well as its T. melanosporum ortholog, is a self-processing pro-phospholipase A2, whose phospholipase activity increases up to 80-fold following autoproteolytic removal of the N-terminal peptide. Proteolytic cleavage occurs within a serine-rich, intrinsically flexible region of TbSP1, does not involve the phospholipase active site, and proceeds via an intermolecular mechanism. Autoproteolytic activation, which also takes place at the surface of nutrient-starved, sPLA2 overexpressing hyphae, may strengthen and further control the effects of phospholipase up-regulation in response to nutrient deprivation, also in the context of symbiosis establishment and mycorrhiza formation. PMID:23192346

  13. Phospholipases of Mineralization Competent Cells and Matrix Vesicles: Roles in Physiological and Pathological Mineralizations

    PubMed Central

    Mebarek, Saida; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Magne, David; Do, Le Duy; Bandorowicz-Pikula, Joanna; Pikula, Slawomir; Buchet, René

    2013-01-01

    The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis—a bone resorbing disease—and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in bone forming osteoblasts, chondrocytes and in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A1 or A2, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. Numerous experimental evidences suggested that phospholipases exert their action at various stages of mineralization by affecting intracellular signaling and cell differentiation. The lipid metabolites—such as arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate are involved in cell signaling and inflammation reactions. Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV) biogenesis and exocytosis. They may favour mineral formation inside MVs, may catalyse MV membrane breakdown necessary for the release of mineral deposits into extracellular matrix (ECM), or participate in

  14. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding by phospholipase A/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.E.; Pisano, J.J.

    1985-10-07

    Phospholipase A/sub 2/ from several sources inhibited (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding to membranes from brain, heart and ileal longitudinal muscle. The enzymes from bee venom and Russell's viper venom were most potent, having IC/sub 50/ values of approximately 5 and 14 ng/ml, respectively, in all three membrane preparations. Inhibition of binding by bee venom phospholipase A/sub 2/ was time- and dose-dependent. Mastoparan, a known facilitator of phospholipase A/sub 2/ enzymatic activity, shifted the bee venom phospholipase A/sub 2/ dose-response curve to the left. Pretreatment of brain membranes with bee venom phospholipase A/sub 2/ (10 ng/ml) for 15 min caused a 2-fold increase in the K/sub d/ without changing the B/sub max/ compared with untreated membranes. Extension of the preincubation period to 30 min caused no further increase in the K/sub d/ but significantly decreased the B/sub max/ to 71% the value for untreated membranes. (/sup 3/H)Nitrendipine, preincubated with bee venom phospholipase A/sub 2/, was recovered and found to be fully active, indicating that the phospholipase A/sub 2/ did not modify the ligand. It is concluded that phospholipase A/sub 2/ acts on the membrane at or near the (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding site and that phospholipids play a key role in the interactions of 1,4 dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists with the dihydropyridine binding site. 33 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  15. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Grazia M; Trono, Daniela

    2015-09-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile biocatalysts that are widely used in various industrial applications, such as for biodiesels, food, nutraceuticals, oil degumming and detergents; minor applications also include bioremediation, agriculture, cosmetics, leather and paper industries. These enzymes are ubiquitous in most living organisms, across animals, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. For their greater availability and their ease of production, microbial lipases and phospholipases are preferred to those derived from animals and plants. Nevertheless, traditional purification strategies from microbe cultures have a number of disadvantages, which include non-reproducibility and low yields. Moreover, native microbial enzymes are not always suitable for biocatalytic processes. The development of molecular techniques for the production of recombinant heterologous proteins in a host system has overcome these constraints, as this allows high-level protein expression and production of new redesigned enzymes with improved catalytic properties. These can meet the requirements of specific industrial process better than the native enzymes. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the structural and functional features of lipases and phospholipases, to describe the recent advances in optimization of the production of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and to summarize the information available relating to their major applications in industrial processes.

  16. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Grazia M.; Trono, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile biocatalysts that are widely used in various industrial applications, such as for biodiesels, food, nutraceuticals, oil degumming and detergents; minor applications also include bioremediation, agriculture, cosmetics, leather and paper industries. These enzymes are ubiquitous in most living organisms, across animals, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. For their greater availability and their ease of production, microbial lipases and phospholipases are preferred to those derived from animals and plants. Nevertheless, traditional purification strategies from microbe cultures have a number of disadvantages, which include non-reproducibility and low yields. Moreover, native microbial enzymes are not always suitable for biocatalytic processes. The development of molecular techniques for the production of recombinant heterologous proteins in a host system has overcome these constraints, as this allows high-level protein expression and production of new redesigned enzymes with improved catalytic properties. These can meet the requirements of specific industrial process better than the native enzymes. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the structural and functional features of lipases and phospholipases, to describe the recent advances in optimization of the production of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and to summarize the information available relating to their major applications in industrial processes. PMID:26340621

  17. Effects of glycosaminoglycans and glycosphingolipids on cytosolic phospholipases A2 from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H C; Farooqui, A A; Horrocks, L A

    1994-01-01

    Two forms of Ca(2+)-independent cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity (110 kDa and 39 kDa) were found in bovine brain. They were separated by Sephadex G-75 column chromatography. The 110 kDa phospholipase A2 was much more active with phosphatidylethanolamine and was not affected by glycosaminoglycans, whereas the 39 kDa phospholipase A2 was much more active with ethanolamine plasmalogen and was markedly inhibited by glycosaminoglycans. Heparan sulphate was the most potent inhibitor, followed by chondroitin sulphate, hyaluronic acid and heparin. Gangliosides, especially the GM3 ganglioside, but not other glycosphingolipids, inhibited the activity of the 39 kDa phospholipase A2 in a dose-dependent manner. The heat-inactivation profiles of the 110 kDa and 39 kDa phospholipases A2 provide further evidence for the differences between these cytosolic enzymes. Interactions between glycosaminoglycans, gangliosides and phospholipases A2 may be involved in the maintenance of membrane function. PMID:8166664

  18. Identifying New Drug Targets for Potent Phospholipase D Inhibitors: Combining Sequence Alignment, Molecular Docking, and Enzyme Activity/Binding Assays.

    PubMed

    Djakpa, Helene; Kulkarni, Aditya; Barrows-Murphy, Scheneque; Miller, Greg; Zhou, Weihong; Cho, Hyejin; Török, Béla; Stieglitz, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    Phospholipase D enzymes cleave phospholipid substrates generating choline and phosphatidic acid. Phospholipase D from Streptomyces chromofuscus is a non-HKD (histidine, lysine, and aspartic acid) phospholipase D as the enzyme is more similar to members of the diverse family of metallo-phosphodiesterase/phosphatase enzymes than phospholipase D enzymes with active site HKD repeats. A highly efficient library of phospholipase D inhibitors based on 1,3-disubstituted-4-amino-pyrazolopyrimidine core structure was utilized to evaluate the inhibition of purified S. chromofuscus phospholipase D. The molecules exhibited inhibition of phospholipase D activity (IC50 ) in the nanomolar range with monomeric substrate diC4 PC and micromolar range with phospholipid micelles and vesicles. Binding studies with vesicle substrate and phospholipase D strongly indicate that these inhibitors directly block enzyme vesicle binding. Following these compelling results as a starting point, sequence searches and alignments with S. chromofuscus phospholipase D have identified potential new drug targets. Using AutoDock, inhibitors were docked into the enzymes selected from sequence searches and alignments (when 3D co-ordinates were available) and results analyzed to develop next-generation inhibitors for new targets. In vitro enzyme activity assays with several human phosphatases demonstrated that the predictive protocol was accurate. The strategy of combining sequence comparison, docking, and high-throughput screening assays has helped to identify new drug targets and provided some insight into how to make potential inhibitors more specific to desired targets.

  19. The Ang II-induced growth of vascular smooth muscle cells involves a phospholipase D-mediated signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Freeman, E J

    2000-02-15

    Angiotensin (Ang) II acts as a mitogen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) via the activation of multiple signaling cascades, including phospholipase C, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. However, increasing evidence supports signal-activated phospholipases A(2) and D (PLD) as additional mechanisms. Stimulation of PLD results in phosphatidic acid (PA) formation, and PA has been linked to cell growth. However, the direct involvement of PA or its metabolite diacylglycerol (DAG) in Ang II-induced growth is unclear. PLD activity was measured in cultured rat VSMC prelabeled with [(3)H]oleic acid, while the incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine was used to monitor growth. We have previously reported the Ang II-dependent, AT(1)-coupled stimulation of PLD and growth in VSMC. Here, we show that Ang II (100 nM) and exogenous PLD (0.1-100 units/mL; Streptomyces chromofuscus) stimulated thymidine incorporation (43-208% above control). PA (100 nM-1 microM) also increased thymidine incorporation to 135% of control. Propranolol (100 nM-10 microM), which inhibits PA phosphohydrolase, blocked the growth stimulated by Ang II, PLD, or PA by as much as 95%, an effect not shared by other beta-adrenergic antagonists. Propranolol also increased the production of PA in the presence of Ang II by 320% and reduced DAG and arachidonic acid (AA) accumulation. The DAG lipase inhibitor RHC-80267 (1-10 microM) increased Ang II-induced DAG production, while attenuating thymidine incorporation and release of AA. Thus, it appears that activation of PLD, formation of PA, conversion of PA to DAG, and metabolism of DAG comprise an important signaling cascade in Ang II-induced growth of VSMC.

  20. Cytosolic phospholipase A2: physiological function and role in disease

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    The group IV phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family is comprised of six intracellular enzymes (GIVA, -B, -C, -D, -E, and -F) commonly referred to as cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2)α, -β, -γ, -δ, -ε, and -ζ. They contain a Ser-Asp catalytic dyad and all except cPLA2γ have a C2 domain, but differences in their catalytic activities and subcellular localization suggest unique regulation and function. With the exception of cPLA2α, the focus of this review, little is known about the in vivo function of group IV enzymes. cPLA2α catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids that are precursors of numerous bioactive lipids. The regulation of cPLA2α is complex, involving transcriptional and posttranslational processes, particularly increases in calcium and phosphorylation. cPLA2α is a highly conserved widely expressed enzyme that promotes lipid mediator production in human and rodent cells from a variety of tissues. The diverse bioactive lipids produced as a result of cPLA2α activation regulate normal physiological processes and disease pathogenesis in many organ systems, as shown using cPLA2α KO mice. However, humans recently identified with cPLA2α deficiency exhibit more pronounced effects on health than observed in mice lacking cPLA2α, indicating that much remains to be learned about this interesting enzyme. PMID:25838312

  1. Effects of Phospholipase C on Fusarium graminearum Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qili; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Liang, Yuancun

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in regulating various biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about the function of PLC in filamentous fungi, especially the plant pathogenic fungi. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in many cereal crops. BLAST search revealed that Fusarium genome contains six FgPLC genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, different FgPLC gene expressions in mycelia were analyzed. To investigate the role of FgPLC in F. graminearum biology, a pharmacological study using a known inhibitor of PLC (U73122) was conducted. Results showed that inhibition of FgPLC resulted in significant alterations of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, perithecium formation, and expressions of Tri5 and Tri6 genes. As expected, the treatment of F. graminearum with U73343, an inactive analog of U73122, showed no effect on F. graminearum biology. Our results suggested strongly that FgPLC plays important roles in F. graminearum growth and development.

  2. Activation of Phospholipase A by Plant Defense Elicitors.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, S.; Heinstein, P. F.; Low, P. S.

    1996-01-01

    Participation of phospholipase A (PLase A) in plant signal transduction has been documented for auxin stimulation of growth but not for elicitation of any plant defense response. In this paper, we report two independent assays for monitoring PLase A induction in plant cells and have used these assays to evaluate whether transduction of defense-related signals might require PLase A activation. Oligogalacturonic acid, a potent elicitor of the soybean (Glycine max) H2O2 burst, was unable to stimulate endogenous PLase A, suggesting that PLase A activation is not an obligate intermediate in the oligogalacturonic acid-induced burst pathway. In contrast, harpin and an extract from the pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae both stimulated the oxidative burst and promoted a rapid increase in PLase A activity. To evaluate the possible role of this inducible PLase A activity in transducing the oxidative burst, we tested the effect of chlorpromazine-HCl, a PLase A inhibitor on elicitor-stimulated burst activity. Pretreatment with chloropromazine was found to inhibit the H2O2 burst triggered by V. dahliae extract at the same concentration at which it blocked PLase A activation. In contrast, neither the harpin- nor oligogalacturonic acid-induced burst was altered by addition of chlorpromazine. These data suggest that PLase A stimulation may be important in certain elicitor-induced oxidative bursts (e.g. V. dahliae) and that other elicitors such as oligogalacturonic acid and harpin must operate through independent signaling intermediates to activate the same defense response. PMID:12226235

  3. Impairment of kindling development in phospholipase Cγ1 heterozygous mice

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao Ping; Wen, Renren; McNamara, James O

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying limbic epileptogenesis may reveal novel targets for preventive therapy. Studies of TrkB mutant mice led us to hypothesize that signaling through a specific phospholipase (PLC), PLCγ1, promoted development of kindling. Methods To test this hypothesis, we examined the development of kindling in PLCγ1 heterozygous mice. We also examined the cellular and subcellular location of PLCγ1 in adult wild type mice. Results The development of kindling was impaired in PLCγ1 heterozygous mice compared to wild type controls. PLCγ1 immunoreactivity was localized to the soma and dendrites of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in hippocampus of adult mice. Significance This study implicates PLCγ1 signaling as the dominant pathway by which TrkB activation promotes limbic epileptogenesis. Its cellular localization places PLCγ1 in a position to modify the efficacy of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. These findings advance PLCγ1 as a novel target for therapies aimed at preventing temporal lobe epilepsy induced by status epilepticus. PMID:24502564

  4. Variable substrate preference among phospholipase D toxins from sicariid spiders

    DOE PAGES

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Roberts, Sue A.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; ...

    2015-03-09

    Venoms of the sicariid spiders contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These enzymes convert sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates to cyclic phosphates by activating a hydroxyl nucleophile present in both classes of lipid. The most medically relevant substrates are thought to be sphingomyelin and/or lysophosphatidylcholine. To better understand the substrate preference of these toxins, we used 31P NMR to compare the activity of three related but phylogenetically diverse sicariid toxins against a diverse panel of sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates. Two of the three showed significantly faster turnover of sphingolipids over lysolipids, andmore » all three showed a strong preference for positively charged (choline and/or ethanolamine) over neutral (glycerol and serine) headgroups. Strikingly, however, the enzymes vary widely in their preference for choline, the headgroup of both sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, versus ethanolamine. An enzyme from Sicarius terrosus showed a strong preference for ethanolamine over choline, whereas two paralogous enzymes from Loxosceles arizonica either preferred choline or showed no significant preference. Intrigued by the novel substrate preference of the Sicarius enzyme, we solved its crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution. Lastly, the evolution of variable substrate specificity may help explain the reduced dermonecrotic potential of some natural toxin variants, because mammalian sphingolipids use primarily choline as a positively charged headgroup; it may also be relevant for sicariid predatory behavior, because ethanolamine-containing sphingolipids are common in insect prey.« less

  5. Intracellular signaling by phospholipase D as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Steed, P M; Chow, A H

    2001-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has recently focused on intracellular signaling as a means to integrate the multiple facets of complex disease states, such as inflammation, because these pathways respond to numerous extracellular signals and coordinate a collection of cell responses contributing to pathology. One critical aspect of intracellular signaling is regulation of key cell functions by lipid mediators, in particular the generation of a key mediator, phosphatidic acid (PA) via the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase D (PLD). Research in this field has intensified, due in part to the recent cloning and partial characterization of the two PLD isoforms in mammalian cells, and this work has contributed significantly to our understanding of events downstream of PA generation. It is these effector functions of PLD activity that make this pathway attractive as a therapeutic target while the biochemical properties of the PLD isozymes make them amenable to small molecule intervention. Recent studies indicate that PA, and its immediate metabolites diacylglycerol and lyso-PA, affect numerous cellular pathways including ligand-mediated secretion, cytoskeletal reorganisations, respiratory burst, prostaglandin release, cell migration, cytokine release, and mitogenesis. This review summarises the data implicating signaling via PLD in these cell functions, obtained from: (i) molecular analyses of PLD/effector interactions, (ii) correlation between PA production and cell responses, (iii) experimental manipulation of PA levels, (iv) inhibition of PLD regulators, and (v) direct inhibition of PA production. The utility of targeting PLD signaling for the treatment of acute/chronic inflammation and other indications is discussed in light of these data.

  6. Targeting NADPH oxidase and phospholipases A2 in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Agnes; He, Yan; Sheng, Wenwen; Sun, Albert Y; Wood, W Gibson; Weisman, Gary A; Sun, Grace Y

    2010-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by an increase in the production of extracellular beta amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles associated with a decline in brain function. Increases in oxidative stress are regarded as an early sign of AD pathophysiology, although the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mechanism(s) whereby beta amyloid peptides (Abeta) impact oxidative stress have not been adequately investigated. Recent studies provide strong evidence for the involvement of NADPH oxidase and its downstream oxidative signaling pathways in the toxic effects elicited by Abeta. ROS produced by NADPH oxidase activate multiple signaling pathways leading to neuronal excitotoxicity and glial cell-mediated inflammation. This review describes recent studies demonstrating the neurotoxic effects of Abeta in conjunction with ROS produced by NADPH oxidase and the downstream pathways leading to activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and secretory PLA(2). In addition, this review also describes recent studies using botanical antioxidants to protect against oxidative damage associated with AD. Investigating the metabolic and signaling pathways involving Abeta NADPH oxidase and PLA(2) can help understand the mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative effects of oxidative stress in AD. This information should provide new therapeutic approaches for prevention of this debilitating disease.

  7. Phospholipase C activation is required for cardioprotection by ethanol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Miyamae, Masami; Domae, Naochika; Zhou, Hui-Zhong; Sugioka, Shingo; Diamond, Ivan; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2003-01-01

    Regular alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and improves post-MI survival. It has previously been reported that chronic ethanol exposure induces long-term protection against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, which improves myocardial recovery after MI. Chronic cardioprotection by ethanol requires the activation of myocyte adenosine A1 receptors and sustained intramyocyte translocation of epsilon protein kinase C. A1 receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC). In the present paper, the role of PLC in mediating ethanol’s protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury is investigated. Isolated hearts from guinea pigs fed 2.5% ethanol in their water for four months were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Hearts from ethanol-treated animals showed improved recovery of left ventricular developed pressure compared with controls (61% versus 38% of baseline, respectively; P<0.05) and decreased necrosis, assessed by the release of creatine kinase (263±18 U/mL × g dry weight versus 360±24 U/mL × g dry weight, respectively; P<0.05). Ethanol protection was abolished by the PLC antagonist, U-73122 (50 nM). These findings suggest that PLC activation is required for ethanol cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:19649218

  8. Therapeutic inhibition of phospholipase D1 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junjie; Sun, Qi; Bei, Yihua; Zhang, Ling; Dimitrova-Shumkovska, Jasmina; Lv, Dongchao; Yang, Yuefeng; Cao, Yan; Zhao, Yingying; Song, Meiyi; Song, Yang; Wang, Fei; Yang, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a leading cause of deaths worldwide. Novel therapeutic targets for HCC are needed. Phospholipase D (PD) is involved in cell proliferation and migration, but its role in HCC remains unclear. In the present study, we show that PLD1, but not PLD2, was overexpressed in HCC cell lines (HepG2, Bel-7402 and Bel-7404) compared with the normal human L-02 hepatocytes. PLD1 was required for the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells without affecting apoptosis and necrosis, and PLD1 overexpression was sufficient to promote those effects. By using HCC xenograft models, we demonstrated that therapeutic inhibition of PLD1 attenuated tumour growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC mice. Moreover, PLD1 was found to be highly expressed in tumour tissues of HCC patients. Finally, mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and Akt (protein kinase B) were identified as critical pathways responsible for the role of PLD1 in HCC cells. Taken together, the present study indicates that PLD1 activation contributes to HCC development via regulation of the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells, as well as promoting the EMT process. These observations suggest that inhibition of PLD1 represents an attractive and novel therapeutic modality for HCC.

  9. The galactolipase activity of Fusarium solani (phospho)lipase.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Raida; Othman, Houcemeddine; Amara, Sawsan; Parsiegla, Goetz; Carriere, Frédéric; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane

    2015-03-01

    The purified (phospho)lipase of Fusarium solani (FSL), was known to be active on both triglycerides and phospholipids. This study aimed at assessing the potential of this enzyme in hydrolyzing galactolipids. FSL was found to hydrolyze at high rates of synthetic medium chains monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (4658±146U/mg on DiC8-MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (3785±83U/mg on DiC8-DGDG) and natural long chain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol extracted from leek leaves (991±85U/mg). It is the microbial enzyme with the highest activity on galactolipids identified so far with a level of activity comparable to that of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2. FSL maximum activity on galactolipids was measured at pH8. The analysis of the hydrolysis product of natural MGDG from leek showed that FSL hydrolyzes preferentially the ester bond at the sn-1 position of galactolipids. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of FSL, a 3D model of this enzyme was built. In silico docking of medium chains MGDG and DGDG and phospholipid in the active site of FSL reveals structural solutions which are in concordance with in vitro tests.

  10. Acidification in the epidermis and the role of secretory phospholipases

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Aegean

    2011-01-01

    The function of the epidermis is to form an effective barrier between the dry, external environment and the interior of the body. The barrier specifically resides in the extracellular lipid membranes of the stratum corneum (SC) and an acidic pH is necessary to maintain its competency against various insults. The purpose of this review is to explore the mechanisms which are postulated to contribute to the acidification of the stratum corneum, including both exogenous and endogenous sources. However, recent research as pointed to several endogenous mechanisms as the major source of acidification, including a sodium/proton pump (NHE1) and free fatty acid conversion from phospholipids by secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2). sPLA2 has been shown to play a central role in the formation of the SC “acid mantle” in the early maturation of the epidermis postnatally. Many aspects of this enzyme family are complex and still being elucidated in research and the most recent findings on the localization and functions of sPL A2-IB, -IIA, -IIC, -IID, -IIE, -IIF, -III, -V, -X and -XII in the epidermis are presented here. Given their role in inflammatory dermatoses, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, understanding this complex enzyme family can lead to novel, life-changing therapies. PMID:21695017

  11. Cytosolic phospholipase A₂: physiological function and role in disease.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Christina C

    2015-08-01

    The group IV phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family is comprised of six intracellular enzymes (GIVA, -B, -C, -D, -E, and -F) commonly referred to as cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2)α, -β, -γ, -δ, -ε, and -ζ. They contain a Ser-Asp catalytic dyad and all except cPLA2γ have a C2 domain, but differences in their catalytic activities and subcellular localization suggest unique regulation and function. With the exception of cPLA2α, the focus of this review, little is known about the in vivo function of group IV enzymes. cPLA2α catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids that are precursors of numerous bioactive lipids. The regulation of cPLA2α is complex, involving transcriptional and posttranslational processes, particularly increases in calcium and phosphorylation. cPLA2α is a highly conserved widely expressed enzyme that promotes lipid mediator production in human and rodent cells from a variety of tissues. The diverse bioactive lipids produced as a result of cPLA2α activation regulate normal physiological processes and disease pathogenesis in many organ systems, as shown using cPLA2α KO mice. However, humans recently identified with cPLA2α deficiency exhibit more pronounced effects on health than observed in mice lacking cPLA2α, indicating that much remains to be learned about this interesting enzyme.

  12. Interfacial Catalysis: The Mechanism of Phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David L.; White, Steven P.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Yuan, Wei; Gelb, Michael H.; Sigler, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    A chemical description of the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) can now be inferred with confidence from three high-resolution x-ray crystal structures. The first is the structure of the PLA2 from the venom of the Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra) in a complex with a phosphonate transition-state analogue. This enzyme is typical of a large, well-studied homologous family of PLA2s. The second is a similar complex with the evolutionarily distant bee-venom PLA2. The third structure is the uninhibited PLA2 from Chinese cobra venom. Despite the different molecular architectures of the cobra and bee-venom PLA2s, the transition-state analogue interacts in a nearly identical way with the catalytic machinery of both enzymes. The disposition of the fatty-acid side chains suggests a common access route of the substrate from its position in the lipid aggregate to its productive interaction with the active site. Comparison of the cobra-venom complex with the uninhibited enzyme indicates that optimal binding and catalysis at the lipid-water interface is due to facilitated substrate diffusion from the interfacial binding surface to the catalytic site rather than an allosteric change in the enzyme’s structure. However, a second bound calcium ion changes its position upon the binding of the transition-state analogue, suggesting a mechanism for augmenting the critical electrophile. PMID:2274785

  13. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Fendri, Imen; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-05-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in signal transduction, vesicle trafficking and membrane metabolism. It catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. The presence of a PLD in the latex of Carica papaya (CpPLD1) was demonstrated by transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in the presence of 2% ethanol. Although the protein could not be purified to homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a protein band was separated by SDS-PAGE after SDS/chloroform-methanol/TCA-acetone extraction of the latex insoluble fraction. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by micro-LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (723 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 2424 bp encoding a protein of 808 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 92.05 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpPLD1 was identified as a PLD belonging to the plant phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase family.

  14. Role of phospholipase A(2) in retrograde transport of ricin.

    PubMed

    Klokk, Tove Irene; Lingelem, Anne Berit Dyve; Myrann, Anne-Grethe; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2011-09-01

    Ricin is a protein toxin classified as a bioterror agent, for which there are no known treatment options available after intoxication. It is composed of an enzymatically active A-chain connected by a disulfide bond to a cell binding B-chain. After internalization by endocytosis, ricin is transported retrogradely to the Golgi and ER, from where the ricin A-chain is translocated to the cytosol where it inhibits protein synthesis and thus induces cell death. We have identified cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) as an important factor in ricin retrograde transport. Inhibition of PLA(2) protects against ricin challenge, however the toxin can still be endocytosed and transported to the Golgi. Interestingly, ricin transport from the Golgi to the ER is strongly impaired in response to PLA(2) inhibition. Confocal microscopy analysis shows that ricin is still colocalized with the trans-Golgi marker TGN46 in the presence of PLA(2) inhibitor, but less is colocalized with the cis-Golgi marker GM130. We propose that PLA(2) inhibition results in impaired ricin transport through the Golgi stack, thus preventing it from reaching the ER. Consequently, ricin cannot be translocated to the cytosol to exert its toxic action.

  15. Pyrimidinoceptor-mediated activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, W. W.; Lee, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    1. As well as the presence of P2Z purinoceptors previously found in macrophages, we identified pyrimidinoceptors in RAW 264.7 cells, which activate phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). 2. The relative potency of agonists to stimulate inositol phosphate (IP) formation and arachidonic acid (AA) release was UTP = UDP > > ATP, ATP gamma S, 2MeSATP. For both signalling pathways, the EC50 values for UTP and UDP (3 microM) were significantly lower than that for ATP and all other analogues tested (> 100 microM). 3. UTP and UDP displayed no additivity in terms of IP formation and AA release at maximally effective concentrations. 4. UTP-, but not ATP-, evoked AA release was 60% inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), while stimulation of IP formation by both agonists was unaffected. Short-term treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) led to a dose-dependent inhibition of IP responses to UTP and UDP, but failed to affect the AA responses. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ inhibited the PI response to UTP, but abolished its AA response. 5. ATP-induction of these two transmembrane signal pathways was decreased in high Mg(2+)-containing medium but potentiated by the removal of extracellular Mg2+. 6. Suramin and reactive blue displayed equal potency to inhibit the IP responses of UTP and ATP. 7. Both UTP and UDP (0.1-100 microM) induced a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i which lasted for more than 10 min. 8. Taken together, these results indicate that in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages, pyrimidinoceptors with specificity for UTP and UDP mediate the activation of PLC and cytosolic (c) PLA2. The activation of PLC is via a PTX-insensitive G protein, whereas that of cPLA2 is via a PTX-sensitive G protein-dependent pathway. The sustained Ca2+ influx caused by UTP contributes to the activation of cPLA2. RAW 264.7 cells also possess P2z purinoceptors which mediate ATP(4-)-induced PLC and PLA2 activation. Images Figure 3 PMID:8886407

  16. Phospholipase C-beta3 mediates the thrombin-induced Ca2+ response in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong-Ik; Shin, Kum-Joo; Oh, Yong-Seok; Choi, Jung-Woong; Lee, Zee-Won; Kim, Daesoo; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Shin, Hee-Sup; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-06-30

    Phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in response to activation of various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Using glial cells from knock-out mice lacking either PLC-beta1 [PLC-beta1 (-/-)] or PLC-beta3 [PLC-beta3 (-/-)], we examined which isotype of PLC-beta participated in the cellular signaling events triggered by thrombin. Generation of inositol phosphates (IPs) was enhanced by thrombin in PLC-beta1 (-/-) cells, but was negligible in PLC-beta3 (-/-) cells. Expression of PLC-beta3 in PLC-beta3 (-/-) cells resulted in an increase in pertussis toxin (PTx)-sensitive IPs in response to thrombin as well as to PAR1-specific peptide, while expression of PLC-beta1 in PLC-beta1 (-/-) cells did not have any effect on IP generation. The thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i increase was delayed and attenuated in PLC-beta3 (-/-) cells, but normal in PLC-beta1 (-/-) cells. Pertussis toxin evoked a delayed [Ca2+]i increase in PLC-beta3 (-/-) cells as well as in PLC-beta1 (-/-) cells. These results suggest that activation of PLC-beta3 by pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins is responsible for the transient [Ca2+]i increase in response to thrombin, whereas the delayed [Ca2+]i increase may be due to activation of some other PLC, such as PLC-beta4, acting via PTx-insensitive G proteins.

  17. Phospholipase C Epsilon (PLCε) Induced TRPC6 Activation: A Common but Redundant Mechanism in Primary Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kalwa, Hermann; Storch, Ursula; Demleitner, Jana; Fiedler, Susanne; Mayer, Tim; Kannler, Martina; Fahlbusch, Meike; Barth, Holger; Smrcka, Alan; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Gudermann, Thomas; Dietrich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, activation of phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled membrane receptors by hormones leads to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i. Catalytic activity of PLCs results in the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) which opens DAG-sensitive classical transient receptor channels 3, 6, and 7 (TRPC3/6/7), initiating Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space. Patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) express gain-of-function mutants of TRPC6, while others carry loss-of-function mutants of PLCε, raising the intriguing possibility that both proteins interact and might work in the same signalling pathway. While TRPC6 activation by PLCβ and PLCγ isozymes was extensively studied, the role of PLCε in TRPC6 activation remains elusive. TRPC6 was co-immunoprecipitated with PLCε in a heterologous overexpression system in HEK293 cells as well as in freshly isolated murine podocytes. Receptor-operated TRPC6 currents in HEK293 cells expressing TRPC6 were reduced by a specific PLCε siRNA and by a PLCε loss-of-function mutant isolated from a patient with FSGS. PLCε-induced TRPC6 activation was also identified in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Gαq/11 proteins. Further analysis of the signal transduction pathway revealed a Gα12/13 Rho-GEF activation which induced Rho-mediated PLCε stimulation. Therefore, we identified a new pathway for TRPC6 activation by PLCε. PLCε-/- podocytes however, were undistinguishable from WT podocytes in their angiotensin II-induced formation of actin stress fibers and their GTPγS-induced TRPC6 activation, pointing to a redundant role of PLCε-mediated TRPC6 activation at least in podocytes. PMID:25521631

  18. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes which selectively couple to phospholipase C: Pharmacological and biochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, M.A.; Fraser, C.M. )

    1990-12-14

    The pharmacological and biochemical properties of rat m1 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells were characterized with ligand binding, affinity labeling and biochemical assays. Both mAChR subtypes display saturable, high affinity binding of (3H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and a rank order of antagonist potency of QNB greater than atropine greater than pirenzepine greater than AF-DX 116. Carbachol displacement of (3H)-QNB binding to the m3 mAChR revealed an approximate 17-fold higher affinity than observed with the m1 mAChR. (3H)-propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PrBCM) labeling of mAChR revealed that m1 and m3 mAChR migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gels with apparent molecular masses of 80,000 and 94,000 daltons, respectively, consistent with the known differences in their molecular sizes. Both m1 and m3 mAChR elicited dose-dependent increases in the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides; however, the maximal increase in total inositol phosphates elicited with the m1 mAChR was approximately 2-fold greater than that observed in cells expressing similar densities of m3 mAChR. Agonist activation of the m1 mAChR also elicited increases in basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP, whereas the m3 mAChR had no effect on intracellular cAMP levels. These data suggest that although m1 and m3 mAChR display a considerable degree of structural homology, they exhibit distinct pharmacological and biochemical properties.

  19. Recombinant Phospholipase A1 of the Outer Membrane of Psychrotrophic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: Expression, Purification, and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Bakholdina, S I; Tischenko, N M; Sidorin, E V; Isaeva, M P; Likhatskaya, G N; Dmitrenok, P S; Kim, N Yu; Chernikov, O V; Solov'eva, T F

    2016-01-01

    The pldA gene encoding membrane-bound phospholipase A1 of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Recombinant phospholipase A1 (rPldA) was isolated from inclusion bodies dissolved in 8 M urea by two-stage chromatography (ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography) as an inactive monomer. The molecular mass of the rPldA determined by MALDI-TOF MS was 31.7 ± 0.4 kDa. The highly purified rPldA was refolded by 10-fold dilution with buffer containing 10 mM Triton X-100 and subsequent incubation at room temperature for 16 h. The refolded rPldA hydrolyzed 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine in the presence of calcium ions. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at 37°C and nearly 40% of maximal activity at 15°C. The phospholipase A1 was active over a wide range of pH from 4 to 11, exhibiting maximal activity at pH 10. Spatial structure models of the monomer and the dimer of Y. pseudotuberculosis phospholipase A1 were constructed, and functionally important amino acid residues of the enzyme were determined. Structural differences between phospholipases A1 from Y. pseudotuberculosis and E. coli, which can affect the functional activity of the enzyme, were revealed.

  20. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle generates lipid-related second messengers by phospholipase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Shansky, J.; Karlisch, P.; Solerssi, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Repetitive mechanical stimulation of cultured avian skeletal muscle increases the synthesis of prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2 alpha which regulate protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. These stretch-induced PG increases are reduced in low extracellular calcium medium and by specific phospholipase inhibitors. Mechanical stimulation increases the breakdown rate of 3H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipids, releasing free 3H-arachidonic acid, the rate-limiting precursor of PG synthesis. Mechanical stimulation also increases 3H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation and intracellular levels of inositol phosphates from myo-[2-3H]inositol labelled phospholipids. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD) are all activated by stretch. The stretch-induced increases in PG production, 3H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipid breakdown, and 3H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation occur independently of cellular electrical activity (tetrodotoxin insensitive) whereas the formation of inositol phosphates from myo-[2-3H]inositol labelled phospholipids is dependent on cellular electrical activity. These results indicate that mechanical stimulation increases the lipid-related second messengers arachidonic acid, diacylglycerol, and PG through activation of specific phospholipases such as PLA2 and PLD, but not by activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC.

  1. 1-Butanol interferes with phospholipase D1 and protein kinase Calpha association and inhibits phospholipase D1 basal activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tianhui; Exton, John H

    2005-02-25

    1-Butanol is commonly used as a substrate for phospholipase D (PLD) activity measurement. Surprisingly we found that, in the presence of 30 mM 1-butanol (standard PLD assay conditions), PLD1 activity in COS-7 cells was lost after incubation for 2 min. In contrast, in the presence of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor staurosporine or dominant negative PKCalpha D481E, the activity was sustained for at least 30min. The binding between PLD1 and PKCalpha was also lost after 2 min incubation with 30 mM 1-butanol while staurosporine and D481E maintained the binding. 1-Butanol at 2 mM did not inhibit PLD1 basal activity or PLD1 binding to PKCalpha, and staurosporine and PKCalpha D481E produced a constant increase in PLD1 basal activity of 2-fold. These results indicate that 1-butanol is inhibitory to PLD1 activity by reducing its association with PKCalpha, and that the concentration of 1-butanol is an important consideration in assaying basal PLD1 activity.

  2. Phospholipase C not protein kinase C is required for the activation of TRPC5 channels by cholecystokinin.

    PubMed

    Grisanti, Laurel A; Kurada, Lalitha; Cilz, Nicholas I; Porter, James E; Lei, Saobo

    2012-08-15

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain where it interacts with two G protein-coupled receptors (CCK1 and CCK2). Both types of CCK receptors are coupled to G(q/11) proteins resulting in increased function of phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. Whereas CCK has been suggested to increase neuronal excitability in the brain via activation of cationic channels, the types of cationic channels have not yet been identified. Here, we co-expressed CCK2 receptors and TRPC5 channels in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and studied the effects of CCK on TRPC5 channels using patch-clamp techniques. Our results demonstrate that activation of CCK2 receptors robustly potentiates the function of TRPC5 channels. CCK-induced activation of TRPC5 channels requires the functions of G-proteins and PLC and depends on extracellular Ca(2+). The activation of TRPC5 channels mediated by CCK2 receptors is independent of IP(3) receptors and protein kinase C. CCK-induced opening of TRPC5 channels is not store-operated because application of thapsigargin to deplete intracellular Ca(2+) stores failed to alter CCK-induced TRPC5 channel currents significantly. Bath application of CCK also significantly increased the open probability of TRPC5 single channel currents in cell-attached patches. Because CCK exerts extensive effects in the brain, our results may provide a novel mechanism to explain its roles in modulating neuronal excitability.

  3. Forty five years with membrane phospholipids, phospholipases and lipid mediators: A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Chap, Hugues

    2016-06-01

    Phospholipases play a key role in the metabolism of phospholipids and in cell signaling. They are also a very useful tool to explore phospholipid structure and metabolism as well as membrane organization. They are at the center of this review, covering a period starting in 1971 and focused on a number of subjects in which my colleagues and I have been involved. Those include determination of phospholipid asymmetry in the blood platelet membrane, biosynthesis of lysophosphatidic acid, biochemistry of platelet-activating factor, first attempts to define the role of phosphoinositides in cell signaling, and identification of novel digestive (phospho)lipases such as pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) or phospholipase B. Besides recalling some of our contributions to those various fields, this review makes an appraisal of the impressive and often unexpected evolution of those various aspects of membrane phospholipids and lipid mediators. It is also the occasion to propose some new working hypotheses.

  4. Vascular smooth muscle cell spreading onto fibrinogen is regulated by calpains and phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Paulhe, F; Bogyo, A; Chap, H; Perret, B; Racaud-Sultan, C

    2001-11-09

    Fibrinogen deposition and smooth muscle cell migration are important causes of atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. Involvement of calpains in vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion onto fibrinogen was investigated. Using calpain inhibitors, we showed that activation of calpains was required for smooth muscle cell spreading. An increase of (32)P-labeled phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate, respective products of phospholipase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activities, was measured in adherent cells. Addition of the calpain inhibitor calpeptin strongly decreased phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate. However, smooth muscle cell spreading was prevented by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122, but poorly modified by phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002. Moreover, PLC was found to act upstream of the PI 3-kinase IA isoform. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that calpains are required for smooth muscle cell spreading. Further, phospholipase C activation is pointed as a key step of cell-spreading regulation by calpains.

  5. Sphingosine induces phospholipase D and mitogen activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Taher, M M; Abd-Elfattah, A S; Sholley, M M

    1998-12-01

    The enzymes phospholipase D and diacylglycerol kinase generate phosphatidic acid which is considered to be a mitogen. Here we report that sphingosine produced a significant amount of phosphatidic acid in vascular smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59 949 partially depressed sphingosine induced phosphatidic acid formation, suggesting that activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase can not account for the bulk of phosphatidic acid produced and that additional pathways such as phospholipase D may contribute to this. Further, we have shown that phosphatidylethanol was produced by sphingosine when vascular smooth muscle cells were stimulated in the presence of ethanol. Finally, as previously shown for other cell types, sphingosine stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  6. Preliminary crystallographic study of an acidic phospholipase A2 from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra).

    PubMed

    Xu, Sujuan; Gu, Lichuan; Wang, Qiuyan; Shu, Yuyan; Lin, Zhengjiong

    2002-10-01

    An acidic phospholipase A(2) (OH APLA(2)-II) with an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.0 was recently isolated from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) from Guangxi province, China. Comparison of this enzyme to a previously reported homologous phospholipase A(2) from the same venom shows that it lacks toxicity and exhibits a greater phospholipase activity. OH APLA(2)-II has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 1,6-hexanediol and magnesium chloride as precipitants. The crystal belongs to space group P6(3), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.06, c = 132.39 A. The diffraction data were collected under cryoconditions (100 K) and reduced to 2.1 A resolution. A molecular-replacement solution has been determined and shows that there are six molecules in one asymmetric unit.

  7. Interaction of bilirubin with human erythrocyte membranes. Bilirubin binding to neuraminidase- and phospholipase-treated membranes.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Aono, S; Semba, R; Kashiwamata, S

    1987-11-15

    Saturable bilirubin binding to human erythrocyte membranes was measured before and after digestion with neuraminidase and phospholipases. Neuraminidase-treated erythrocyte membranes did not show any change in their binding properties, indicating that gangliosides could be excluded as candidates for saturable bilirubin-binding sites on erythrocyte membranes. Although bilirubin-binding properties of the membranes did not change after phospholipase D digestion, either, phospholipase C treatment greatly enhanced bilirubin binding. Thus it is suggested that a negatively charged phosphoric acid moiety of phospholipids on the membrane surface may play a role to prevent a large amount of bilirubin from binding to the membranes. Further saturable bilirubin binding to inside-out sealed erythrocyte membrane vesicles showed values comparable with those of the right-side-out sealed membranes, suggesting that the bilirubin-binding sites may be distributed on both outer and inner surfaces of the membranes, or may exist in the membranes where bilirubin may be accessible from either side.

  8. Phospholipase A2 from sheep erythrocyte membranes. Ca2+ dependence and localization.

    PubMed

    Frei, E; Zahler, P

    1979-02-02

    The calcium dependence and the time course of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine degradation by sheep erythrocyte membrane suspensions in presence of Triton X-100 were investigated. One enzyme with phospholipase A2 specificity was found to be responsible for both phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine degradation. The localization of this enzyme in the membrane of the sheep erythrocyte was investigated by proteolytic treatment of sealed erythrocyte ghosts from the outside and of ghosts which had both sides of the membrane exposed to chymotrypsin. The inability of sealed ghosts to take up chymotrypsin was followed by flux measurements of [14C]dextran carboxyl previously trapped in the ghosts. No efflux of the marker was found during the proteolytic treatment. By comparing the residual phospholipase activities in the membranes from both ghost preparations, we concluded that the phospholipase is oriented to the exterior of the sheep erythrocyte.

  9. Enzymatic action of phospholipase A₂ on liposomal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders H; Mouritsen, Ole G; Arouri, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    The overexpression of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in tumors has opened new avenues for enzyme-triggered active unloading of liposomal antitumor drug carriers selectively at the target tumor. However, the effects of the liposome composition, drug encapsulation, and tumor microenvironment on the activity of sPLA2 are still not well understood. We carried out a physico-chemical study to characterize the sPLA2-assisted breakdown of liposomes using dye-release assays in the context of drug delivery and under physiologically relevant conditions. The influence of temperature, lipid concentration, enzyme concentration, and drug loading on the hydrolysis of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, Tm=42°C) liposomes with snake venom sPLA2 was investigated. The sensitivity of human sPLA2 to the liposome composition was checked using binary lipid mixtures of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) phospholipids with C14 and C16 acyl chains. Increasing temperature (36-41°C) was found to mainly shorten the enzyme lag-time, whereas the effect on lipid hydrolysis rate was modest. The enzyme lag-time was also found to be inversely dependent on the lipid-to-enzyme ratio. Drug encapsulation can alter the hydrolysis profile of the carrier liposomes. The activity of human sPLA2 was highly sensitive to the phospholipid acyl-chain length and negative surface charge density of the liposomes. We believe our work will prove useful for the optimization of sPLA2-susceptible liposomal formulations as well as will provide a solid ground for predicting the hydrolysis profile of the liposomes in vivo at the target site.

  10. Variable substrate preference among phospholipase D toxins from sicariid spiders

    SciTech Connect

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Roberts, Sue A.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; Delahaye, Jared L.; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J.; Cordes, Matthew H. J.

    2015-03-09

    Venoms of the sicariid spiders contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These enzymes convert sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates to cyclic phosphates by activating a hydroxyl nucleophile present in both classes of lipid. The most medically relevant substrates are thought to be sphingomyelin and/or lysophosphatidylcholine. To better understand the substrate preference of these toxins, we used 31P NMR to compare the activity of three related but phylogenetically diverse sicariid toxins against a diverse panel of sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates. Two of the three showed significantly faster turnover of sphingolipids over lysolipids, and all three showed a strong preference for positively charged (choline and/or ethanolamine) over neutral (glycerol and serine) headgroups. Strikingly, however, the enzymes vary widely in their preference for choline, the headgroup of both sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, versus ethanolamine. An enzyme from Sicarius terrosus showed a strong preference for ethanolamine over choline, whereas two paralogous enzymes from Loxosceles arizonica either preferred choline or showed no significant preference. Intrigued by the novel substrate preference of the Sicarius enzyme, we solved its crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution. Lastly, the evolution of variable substrate specificity may help explain the reduced dermonecrotic potential of some natural toxin variants, because mammalian sphingolipids use primarily choline as a positively charged headgroup; it may also be relevant for sicariid predatory behavior, because ethanolamine-containing sphingolipids are common in insect prey.

  11. Generation of choline for acetylcholine synthesis by phospholipase D isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Frohman, Michael A; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof

    2001-01-01

    Dedication This article is dedicated to the memory of Sue Kim Hanson, a graduate student in the department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine, who perished in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Abstract Background In cholinergic neurons, the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) by a phospholipase D (PLD)-type enzyme generates some of the precursor choline used for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). We sought to determine the molecular identity of the relevant PLD using murine basal forebrain cholinergic SN56 cells in which the expression and activity of the two PLD isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, were experimentally modified. ACh levels were examined in cells incubated in a choline-free medium, to ensure that their ACh was synthesized entirely from intracellular choline. Results PLD2, but not PLD1, mRNA and protein were detected in these cells and endogenous PLD activity and ACh synthesis were stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Introduction of a PLD2 antisense oligonucleotide into the cells reduced PLD2 mRNA and protein expression by approximately 30%. The PLD2 antisense oligomer similarly reduced basal- and PMA-stimulated PLD activity and ACh levels. Overexpression of mouse PLD2 by transient transfection increased basal- (by 74%) and PMA-stimulated (by 3.2-fold) PLD activity. Moreover, PLD2 transfection increased ACh levels by 26% in the absence of PMA and by 2.1-fold in the presence of PMA. Overexpression of human PLD1 by transient transfection increased PLD activity by 4.6-fold and ACh synthesis by 2.3-fold in the presence of PMA as compared to controls. Conclusions These data identify PLD2 as the endogenous enzyme that hydrolyzes PC to generate choline for ACh synthesis in cholinergic cells, and indicate that in a model system choline generated by PLD1 may also be used for this purpose. PMID:11734063

  12. A novel class of microbial phosphocholine-specific phospholipases C.

    PubMed

    Stonehouse, Martin J; Cota-Gomez, Adela; Parker, Sarah K; Martin, Wesley E; Hankin, Joseph A; Murphy, Robert C; Chen, Weibin; Lim, Kheng B; Hackett, Murray; Vasil, Adriana I; Vasil, Michael L

    2002-11-01

    In this report we describe the 1,500-fold purification and characterization of the haemolytic phospholipase C (PLC) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the paradigm member of a novel PLC/phosphatase superfamily. Members include proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella spp., Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Purification involved overexpression of the plcHR1,2 operon, ion exchange chromatography and native preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of two proteins in the purified sample with sizes of 17,117.2 Da (PlcR2) and 78,417 Da (PlcH). Additionally, liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LCMS) revealed that PlcH and PlcR2 are at a stoichiometry of 1 : 1. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the enzyme purifies as a heterodimeric complex, PlcHR2. PlcHR2 is only active on choline-containing phospholipids. It is equally active on phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) and is able to hydrolyse plasmenylcholine phospholipids (plasmalogens). Neither PlcHR2 nor the M. tuberculosis homologues are inhibited by D609 a widely used, competitive inhibitor of the Bacillus cereus PLC. PlcH, PlcR2, and the PlcHR2 complex bind calcium. While calcium has no detectable effect on enzymatic activity, it inhibits the haemolytic activity of PlcHR2. In addition to being required for the secretion of PlcH, the chaperone PlcR2 affects both the enzymatic and haemolytic properties of PlcH. Inclusive in these data is the conclusion that the members of this PC-PLC and phosphatase family possess a novel mechanism for the recognition and hydrolysis of their respective substrates.

  13. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α regulates G1 progression through modulating FOXO1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Naini, Said Movahedi; Choukroun, Gabriel J.; Ryan, James R.; Hentschel, Dirk M.; Shah, Jagesh V.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2016-01-01

    Group IVA phospholipase A2 [cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α)] is a key mediator of inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study, by using a combination of chemical inhibition and genetic approaches in zebrafish and murine cells, we identify a mechanism by which cPLA2α promotes cell proliferation. We identified 2 cpla2α genes in zebrafish, cpla2αa and cpla2αb, with conserved phospholipase activity. In zebrafish, loss of cpla2α expression or inhibition of cpla2α activity diminished G1 progression through the cell cycle. This phenotype was also seen in both mouse embryonic fibroblasts and mesangial cells. G1 progression was rescued by the addition of arachidonic acid or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), indicating a phospholipase-dependent mechanism. We further show that PGE2, through PI3K/AKT activation, promoted Forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) phosphorylation and FOXO1 nuclear export. This led to up-regulation of cyclin D1 and down-regulation of p27Kip1, thus promoting G1 progression. Finally, using pharmacologic inhibitors, we show that cPLA2α, rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF)/MEK/ERK, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways cooperatively regulate G1 progression in response to platelet-derived growth factor stimulation. In summary, these data indicate that cPLA2α, through its phospholipase activity, is a critical effector of G1 phase progression through the cell cycle and suggest that pharmacological targeting of this enzyme may have important therapeutic benefits in disease mechanisms that involve excessive cell proliferation, in particular, cancer and proliferative glomerulopathies.—Naini, S. M., Choukroun, G. J., Ryan, J. R., Hentschel, D. M., Shah, J. V., Bonventre, J. V. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α regulates G1 progression through modulating FOXO1 activity. PMID:26644349

  14. Lipolytic enzymes in bovine thyroid tissue. I. Subcellular localization, purification and characterization of acid phospholipase A1.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, M; Lagrou, A; Hilderson, H J; Dierick, W

    1978-12-01

    In mammalian cells the catabolism of membrane phosphoglycerides proceeds probably entirely through a deacylation pathway catalysed by phospholipase A and lysophospholipase (Wise & Elwyn, 1965). In the initial attack of diacylphosphoglycerides by phospholipase A two enzymatic activities with different positional specificities have been distinguished: phospholipase A1 (phosphatidate 1-acyl hydrolase EN 3.1.1.32) and phospholipase A2 (phosphatidate 2-acyl hydrolase EN 3.1.1.4) (Van Deenen & De Haas, 1966). Studies on these intracellular phospholipases were mainly concerned with their subcellular localization. Only occasionally more detailed enzymatic investigations have been conducted on them, in contrast to export phospholipases e.g. from snake venom, bee venom and porcine pancreas, which have been extensively investigated (Brockerhoff & Jensen 1974a). In a previous paper (De Wolf et al., 1976a), the presence of phospholipase A1 and phospholipase A2 activities in bovine thyroid was demonstrated, using 1-[9, 10-3H] stearoyl-2-[1-14C] linoleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as a substrate. Optimal activity was observed in both instances at pH 4. Addition of the anionic detergent sodium taurocholate increased the A2 type activity and decreased the A1 type activity suggesting the presence of different enzymes. The lack of influence of Ca2+-ions and EDTA and the acid pH optima could suggest lysosomal localization. In this paper the subcellular distribution of both acid phospholipase activities is described as well as a purification scheme for phospholipase A1. Some characteristics of the purified enzyme preparation are discussed.

  15. Kinetics of M1 muscarinic receptor and G protein signaling to phospholipase C in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Falkenburger, Björn H.; Jensen, Jill B.

    2010-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate responses to external stimuli in various cell types. Early events, such as the binding of ligand and G proteins to the receptor, nucleotide exchange (NX), and GTPase activity at the Gα subunit, are common for many different GPCRs. For Gq-coupled M1 muscarinic (acetylcholine) receptors (M1Rs), we recently measured time courses of intermediate steps in the signaling cascade using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The expression of FRET probes changes the density of signaling molecules. To provide a full quantitative description of M1R signaling that includes a simulation of kinetics in native (tsA201) cells, we now determine the density of FRET probes and construct a kinetic model of M1R signaling through Gq to activation of phospholipase C (PLC). Downstream effects on the trace membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and PIP2-dependent KCNQ2/3 current are considered in our companion paper in this issue (Falkenburger et al. 2010. J. Gen. Physiol. doi:10.1085/jgp.200910345). By calibrating their fluorescence intensity, we found that we selected transfected cells for our experiments with ∼3,000 fluorescently labeled receptors, G proteins, or PLC molecules per µm2 of plasma membrane. Endogenous levels are much lower, 1–40 per µm2. Our kinetic model reproduces the time courses and concentration–response relationships measured by FRET and explains observed delays. It predicts affinities and rate constants that align well with literature values. In native tsA201 cells, much of the delay between ligand binding and PLC activation reflects slow binding of G proteins to receptors. With M1R and Gβ FRET probes overexpressed, 10% of receptors have G proteins bound at rest, rising to 73% in the presence of agonist. In agreement with previous work, the model suggests that binding of PLC to Gαq greatly speeds up NX and GTPase activity, and that PLC is maintained in the active state by cycles of

  16. A tyrosine kinase regulates alpha-adrenoceptor-stimulated contraction and phospholipase D activation in the rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Jinsi, A; Paradise, J; Deth, R C

    1996-04-29

    Since previous studies had indicated a role for tyrosine kinases in alpha 2-adrenoceptor-induced contractile responses in other blood vessels, as well as in the activation of phospholipase D, we examined the sensitivity of these responses in rat aorta to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Contractions induced by both noradrenaline and the alpha 2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist UK14304 (5-bromo-6-[2-imidazolin-2-yl-amino]-quinoxaline) were fully inhibited by genistein, with the latter responses being more sensitive. Contractions induced by high K+ buffer were also inhibited, but to a lesser extent. Both agonists caused a stimulation of phospholipase D activity, which could be blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, indicating involvement of either Gi or Go. Genistein completely inhibited the agonist-induced phospholipase D activity and also substantially reduced the basal level of phospholipase D activity. Pretreatment with either the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin or the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine was also effective in eliminating the agonist-induced increase of phospholipase D. These results indicate that a tyrosine kinase-regulated phospholipase D plays a critical role in alpha-adrenoceptor-induced contractions of the rat aorta and that stimulation of both alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors is essential to allow phospholipase activation.

  17. Identification of the Elusive Mammalian Enzyme Phospatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    mammalian protein, phosphatidycholine- specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) in the inflammatory processes involved in progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA...serum, rheumatoid arthritis , transcriptome sequencing, HUVECs, U937 cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...aims at identifying novel players that are critically involved in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The identification of these factors

  18. Activation of phospholipase A/sub 2/ by carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Glende, E.A. Jr.; Pushpendran, C.K.

    1986-03-05

    Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid or /sup 14/C-ethanolamine for 1 hour in order to label cellular lipids. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis indicated that of the /sup 3/H-arachidonate incorporated into lipid nearly 50% was found in phosphatidylcholine and 15% in phosphatidylethanolamine. /sup 14/C-Ethanolamine was incorporated mainly into phosphatidylethanolamine. Hepatocytes labeled as such were exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) for periods up to 4 hours. Phospholipase A/sub 2/ of these preparations was determined by measuring either the release of /sup 4/H-arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids prelabeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid or measuring the formation of /sup 14/C-lysophosphatidylethanolamine from cellular lipids prelabeled with /sup 14/C-ethanolamine. Through the use of hexane-partition extraction and thin-layer chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte lipid extracts it was found that CCl, stimulated phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity in a dose- an time-dependent manner. Carbon tetrachloride at concentrations of 0.23 to 1.3 mM produced a 1.4- to 5.3-fold increase in phospholipase activity which was initiated within 30 to 60 minutes of incubation at 37/sup 0/. A role for phospholipase activation as a secondary mechanism of CCl/sub 4/-induced hepatocyte injury is proposed.

  19. Characteristics and Lethality of a Novel Recombinant Dermonecrotic Venom Phospholipase D from Hemiscorpius lepturus

    PubMed Central

    Torabi, Elham; Behdani, Mahdi; Hosseininejad Chafi, Mohammad; Moazzami, Reza; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Khalaj, Vahid; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Pooshang Bagheri, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Hemoscorpius lepturus is the most medically important scorpion in Iran. The clinical signs of H. lepturus envenomation are remarkably similar to those reported for brown spiders, including dermonecrosis, hematuria, renal failure and even death. The lethality and toxicity of brown spiders’ venom have been attributed to its phospholipase D activity. This study aims to identify a phospholipase D with possible lethality and dermonecrotic activity in H. lepturus venom. In this study, a cDNA library of the venom glands was generated by Illumina RNA sequencing. Phospholipase D (PLD) from H. lepturus was characterized according to its significant similarity with PLDs from brown spiders. The main chain designated as Hl-RecPLD1 (the first recombinant isoform of H. lepturus PLD) was cloned, expressed and purified. Sphingomyelinase, dermonecrotic and lethal activities were examined. Hl-PLD1 showed remarkable sequence similarity and structural homology with PLDs of brown spiders. The conformation of Hl-PLD1 was predicted as a “TIM beta/alpha-barrel”. The lethal dose 50 (LD50) and dermonecrotic activities of Hl-RecPLD1 were determined as 3.1 µg/mouse and 0.7 cm2 at 1 µg respectively. It is the first report indicating that a similar molecular evolutionary mechanism has occurred in both American brown spiders and this Iranian scorpion. In conclusion, Hl-RecPLD1 is a highly active phospholipase D, which would be considered as the lethal dermonecrotic toxin in H. lepturus venom. PMID:28335389

  20. Relationship between erythrocyte membrane phase properties and susceptibility to secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Best, Katrina B; Ohran, Allison J; Hawes, Andrea C; Hazlett, Theodore L; Gratton, Enrico; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2002-11-26

    Normally, cell membranes resist hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A(2). However, upon elevation of intracellular calcium, the cells become susceptible. Previous investigations demonstrated a possible relationship between changes in lipid order caused by increased calcium and susceptibility to phospholipase A(2). To further explore this relationship, we used temperature as an experimental means of manipulating membrane physical properties. We then compared the response of human erythrocytes to calcium ionophore at various temperatures in the range of 20-50 degrees C using fluorescence spectroscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. The steady state fluorescence emission of the environment-sensitive probe, laurdan, revealed that erythrocyte membrane order decreases systematically with temperature throughout this range, especially between 28 and 45 degrees C. Furthermore, the ability of calcium ionophore to induce increased membrane order and susceptibility to phospholipase A(2) depended similarly on temperature. Both responses to calcium influx were enhanced as membrane fluidity increased. Analysis of the spatial distribution of laurdan fluorescence at several temperatures indicated that the ordering effect of intracellular calcium on fluid membranes generates an increase in the number of fluid-solid boundaries. Hydrolysis of the membrane appeared to progress outward from these boundaries. We conclude that phospholipase A(2) prefers to hydrolyze lipids in fluid regions of human erythrocyte membranes, but primarily when those regions coexist with domains of ordered lipids.

  1. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle generates lipid-related second messengers by phospholipase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Shansky, Janet; Karlisch, Patricia; Solerssi, Rosa Lopez

    1991-01-01

    Repetitive mechanical stimulation of cultured avian skeletal muscle increases the synthesis of prostaglandins E2 and F2(alpha) which regulate protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. Mechnical stimulation significantly increases the breakdown rate of (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipids, releasing free (3)H-arachidonic acid, and the rate-limiting precursor of prostaglandin synthesis. Mechanical stimulation also significantly increases (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation and intracellular levels of inositol phosphates from myo-2-(3)H inositol labelled phospholipids. Phospholipase A2, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD) are activated by stretch. The lipase inhibitors bromophenacylbromide and RHC80267 together reduce stretch-induced prostaglandin production by 73-83 percent. The stretch-induced increases in prostaglandin production, (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipid breakdown, and (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation occur independently of cellular electrical activity (tetrodotoxin insensitive) whereas the formation of inositol phosphates from myo-2-(3)H inositol labelled phospholipids are dependent on cellular electrical activity. These results indicate that mechanical stimulation increases the lipid-related second messengers arachidonic acid, diacylglycerol, and prostaglandins through activation of specific phospholipases such as PLA2 and PLD, but not by activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC.

  2. Role of polyamines and phospholipase D in maize (Zea mays L.) response to drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to elucidate the role of polyamines and phospholipase D (PLD) in regulating response of maize plants to drought stress (DS). During the early stage of DS, an increase in PLD activity, independent of polyamines contents, was mainly responsible for stomatal closure...

  3. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of fluorogenic phospholipids and evaluation in assays of phospholipases A, C and D.

    PubMed

    Piel, Mathilde S; Peters, Günther H J; Brask, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases are ubiquitous in nature and the target of significant research aiming at both their physiological roles and technical applications in e.g. the food industry. In the search for sensitive and selective phospholipase assays, we have focused on synthetic FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) substrates. This has led to the development of a facile, easily scalable and low cost synthesis of fluorogenic phospholipids featuring the dansyl/dabcyl fluorophore/quencher-pair on the fatty acid ω-position and on the phosphatidylethanolamine head group, respectively. Hence, the two substrates lyso-(dansyl-FA)-GPE-dabcyl (6) and (dansyl-FA)2-GPE-dabcyl (7) were synthesized by a chemoenzymatic strategy, in which preparation of (6) further included a novel selective enzymatic esterification step. As proof of concept, activity of a handful of phospholipases, one from each of the PLA1, PLA2, PLC and PLD classes, were assayed using substrates (6) and (7), and the kinetic parameter kcat/KM was determined. The PLA1 (Lecitase Ultra™) was found to be highly active on both substrates, whereas the PLD (from white cabbage) had no activity, presumably due to steric effects associated with the dabcyl-functionalization of the head group. It was further substantiated that the substrates are specific towards phospholipase activity as the tested lipase (Lipolase™) showed close to zero activity.

  4. Negative correlation between phospholipase and esterase activity produced by Fusarium isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, K.; Alviano, D.S.; Silva, B.G.; Guerra, C.R.; Costa, A.S.; Nucci, M.; Alviano, C.S.; Rozental, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium species have emerged as one of the more outstanding groups of clinically important filamentous fungi, causing localized and life-threatening invasive infections with high morbidity and mortality. The ability to produce different types of hydrolytic enzymes is thought to be an important virulence mechanism of fungal pathogens and could be associated with the environment of the microorganism. Here, we have measured the production of two distinct lipolytic enzymes, phospholipase and esterase, by sixteen Fusarium isolates recovered from the hospital environment, immunocompromised patients' blood cultures, foot interdigital space scrapings from immunocompromised patients, and foot interdigital space scrapings from immunocompetent patients (4 isolates each). Fourteen of these 16 isolates were identified as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and two were identified as F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC). Some relevant genus characteristics were visualized by light and electron microscopy such as curved and multicelled macroconidia with 3 or 4 septa, microconidia, phialides, and abundant chlamydospores. All Fusarium isolates were able to produce esterase and phospholipase under the experimental conditions. However, a negative correlation was observed between these two enzymes, indicating that a Fusarium isolate with high phospholipase activity has low esterase activity and vice versa. In addition, Fusarium isolated from clinical material produced more phospholipases, while environmental strains produced more esterases. These observations may be correlated with the different types of substrates that these fungi need to degrade during their nutrition processes. PMID:22415116

  5. Phospholipase C Activity in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes: Partial Characterization and Effect of Indomethacin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    phospholipase C activity alone, and in the presence of 0.5 mM and I mM indomethacin, is plotted according to Lineweaver and Burke as described previously...The data were plotted according to the method of Lineweaver and Burke (26). The values represent the mean + S.E.M. of values derived from neutrophils of 4 subjects. 18

  6. The selective activation of the cardiac sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger by plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Hale, C C; Ebeling, E G; Hsu, F F; Ford, D A

    1998-01-30

    Since plasmalogens are the predominant phospholipid of cardiac sarcolemma, the activation of the sodium-calcium exchanger by either plasmenylethanolamine or plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D was explored. Sodium-calcium exchange activity was 7-fold greater in proteoliposomes comprised of plasmenylethanolamine compared to proteoliposomes comprised of only plasmenylcholine. Phospholipase D treatment of proteoliposomes resulted in 1 mol % conversion of plasmenylcholine or phosphatidylcholine to their respective phosphatidic acid molecular species with a concomitant 8-fold or 2-fold activation of sodium-calcium exchange activity, respectfully. Thus, phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of plasmalogens to phosphatidic acid may be an important mechanism for the regulation of the sodium-calcium exchanger.

  7. In vivo Detection of Phospholipase C by Enzyme-Activated Near-infrared Probes

    PubMed Central

    Mawn, Theresa M.; Popov, Anatoliy V.; Beardsley, Nancy J.; Stefflova, Klara; Milkevitch, Matthew; Zheng, Gang; Delikatny, E. James

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the characterization of the first near-infrared (NIR) phospholipase-activated molecular beacon is reported and its utility for in vivo cancer imaging is demonstrated. The probe consists of three elements: a phospholipid (PL) backbone to which the NIR fluorophore, pyropheophorbide a (Pyro), and the NIR Black Hole Quencher 3 (BHQ) were conjugated. Due to the close proximity of BHQ to Pyro, the Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ probe is self-quenched until enzyme hydrolysis releases the fluorophore. The Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ probe is highly specific to one isoform of phospholipase C, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), responsible for catabolizing phosphatidylcholine directly to phosphocholine. Incubation of Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ in vitro with PC-PLC demonstrated a 150-fold increase in fluorescence that could be inhibited by the specific PC-PLC inhibitor tricyclodecan-9-yl xanthogenate (D609) with an IC50 of 34±8 µM. Since elevations in phosphocholine have been consistently observed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a wide array of cancer cells and solid tumors, we assessed the utility of Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ as a probe for targeted tumor imaging. Injection of Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ into mice bearing DU145 human prostate tumor xenografts followed by in vivo NIR imaging resulted in a 4-fold increase in tumor radiance over background and a 2 fold increase in the tumor:muscle ratio. Tumor fluorescence enhancement was inhibited with administration of D609. The ability to image PC-PLC activity in vivo provides a unique and sensitive method of monitoring one of the critical phospholipase signaling pathways activated in cancer, as well as the phospholipase activities that are altered in response to cancer treatment. PMID:22034913

  8. [Simplified microdetermination of cerebral phospholipase A1, A2 and lysophopholipase].

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Y; Koshu, K; Kamiyama, K; Endo, S; Takaku, A; Honda, T; Takasaki, C

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the ischemia induced enzymatic changes of decaylation-reacylation cycle of membrane phospholipids in dog brain. In this study, we developed new modified method for assay of phospholipase A1, A2 and lysophospholipase which is simpler and needs only a smaller amount of materials. For the first report, we introduced this new method and demonstrated some properties of phospholipase A1, A2 and lysophospholipase in dog brain. Crude enzyme solution for assays of phospholipase A1, A2 and lysophospholipase was gained from extraction of frozen brain with aceton, butanol and saline. The level of phosphorus in the enzyme extract was determined and only those extracts which had a level of phosphorus within a certain range were used. The substrates for assays were L-alpha-[beta-palmitoyl-1-14C] phosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoyl for phospholipase A1 and A2 and L-lysophosphatidylcholine-1-[1-14C] palmitoyl for lysophospolipase respectively. Each radioactive substrates was diluted with cold carrier lipid to give the proper specific activity. Reaction system including substrate, buffer [pH 7.0] and enzyme extract was incubated for 10 hours at 38 degrees C. But for the assay of phospholipase A1 and A2, enzyme solution was pre-incubated at 70 degrees C for 5 minutes. In our new method, reaction mixture was directly separated by TLC without extracting lipids. Enzyme activities were calculated from radio thin-layer chromatograms. Furthermore, we made a comparison between our method and the former one. The value of each enzyme activity was slightly higher in our method than in the former one. However, it was revealed that the results were reproducible in both methods.

  9. The effects of acute exposure to ethanol on neurotensin and guanine nucleotide-stimulation of phospholipase C activity in intact NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Both ethanol and neurotensin produce sedation and hypothermia. When administered in combination the behavioral effects of these two substances are potentiated. In order to better understand the biochemical nature of this interaction, the direct effects of ethanol on neurotensin receptors and an associated signal transduction process were determined in NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells. Ethanol in physiologically relevant concentrations significantly reduced neurotensin stimulated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production while having no effect on the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)neurotensin. In addition, ethanol up to 200 mM had no effect on GTPYS mediated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production. The results indicate that acute exposure ethanol partially disrupts the normal coupling of activated neurotensin receptors to the guanine nucleotide binding protein associated with phospholipase C.

  10. Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2–DP1 receptor paracrine axis

    PubMed Central

    Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Noriko; Kojima, Takumi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Murase, Remi; Yamamoto, Kei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Mariko; Nakamura, Masanori; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kawana, Momoko; Kambe, Naotomo; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Kabashima, Kenji; Gelb, Michael H.; Arita, Makoto; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Nakamura, Motonao; Watanabe, Kikuko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masataka; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Ra, Chisei; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Kazushi; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Shimizu, Takao; Narumiya, Shuh; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1. Mice lacking PLA2G3, L-PGDS or DP1, mast cell–deficient mice reconstituted with PLA2G3-null or DP1-null mast cells, or mast cells cultured with L-PGDS–ablated fibroblasts exhibited impaired maturation and anaphylaxis of mast cells. Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3–L-PGDS–DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation. PMID:23624557

  11. An autoinhibitory helix in the C-terminal region of phospholipase C-[beta] mediates G[alpaha subscript q] activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Angeline M.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Dhamsania, Vishan D.; Thal, David M.; Gutierrez, Joanne; Chowdhury, Shoaib; Suddala, Krishna C.; Northup, John K.; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-03-16

    The enzyme phospholipase C-{beta} (PLC{beta}) is a crucial regulator of intracellular calcium levels whose activity is controlled by heptahelical receptors that couple to members of the G{sub q} family of heterotrimeric G proteins. We have determined atomic structures of two invertebrate homologs of PLC{beta} (PLC21) from cephalopod retina and identified a helix from the C-terminal regulatory region that interacts with a conserved surface of the catalytic core of the enzyme. Mutations designed to disrupt the analogous interaction in human PLC{beta}3 considerably increase basal activity and diminish stimulation by G{alpha}{sub q}. G{alpha}{sub q} binding requires displacement of the autoinhibitory helix from the catalytic core, thus providing an allosteric mechanism for activation of PLC{beta}.

  12. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  13. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyunjin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2009-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M3 is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P3. This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K+ channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K+ currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca2+ currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca2+. Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca2+ currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca2+]i in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:19931239

  14. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyun Jin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2010-02-25

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M(3) is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P(3). This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K(+) channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K(+) currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca(2+) currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca(2+) currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level.

  15. Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Lysophospholipids in Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Linkous, Amanda G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung cancer and glioblastoma multiforme are highly angiogenic and, despite advances in treatment, remain resistant to therapy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activation contributes to treatment resistance through transduction of prosurvival signals. We investigated cPLA2 as a novel molecular target for antiangiogenesis therapy. Methods Glioblastoma (GL261) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) heterotopic tumor models were used to study the effects of cPLA2 expression on tumor growth and vascularity in C57/BL6 mice wild type for (cPLA2α+/+) or deficient in (cPLA2α−/−) cPLA2α, the predominant isoform in endothelium (n = 6–7 mice per group). The effect of inhibiting cPLA2 activity on GL261 and LLC tumor growth was studied in mice treated with the chemical cPLA2 inhibitor 4-[2-[5-chloro-1-(diphenylmethyl)-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]-ethoxy]benzoic acid (CDIBA). Endothelial cell proliferation and function were evaluated by Ki-67 immunofluorescence and migration assays in primary cultures of murine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMEC) isolated from cPLA2α+/+ and cPLA2α−/− mice. Proliferation, invasive migration, and tubule formation were assayed in mouse vascular endothelial 3B-11 cells treated with CDIBA. Effects of lysophosphatidylcholine, arachidonic acid, and lysophosphatidic acid (lipid mediators of tumorigenesis and angiogenesis) on proliferation and migration were examined in 3B-11 cells and cPLA2α−/− MPMEC. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results GL261 tumor progression proceeded normally in cPLA2α+/+ mice, whereas no GL261 tumors formed in cPLA2α−/− mice. In the LLC tumor model, spontaneous tumor regression was observed in 50% of cPLA2α−/− mice. Immunohistochemical examination of the remaining tumors from cPLA2α−/− mice revealed attenuated vascularity (P ≤ .001) compared with tumors from cPLA2α+/+ mice. Inhibition of cPLA2 activity by CDIBA resulted in a delay in tumor growth (eg, LLC model: average

  16. Subtype-specific role of phospholipase C-beta in bradykinin and LPA signaling through differential binding of different PDZ scaffold proteins.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Oh, Yong-Seok; Kim, Eung-Kyun; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yun-Hee; Heo, Kyun; Kim, Jaeyoon; Kim, Jung Kuk; Yang, Yong Ryul; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2010-07-01

    Among phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes (beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta and eta), PLC-beta plays a key role in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling. PLC-beta subtypes are often overlapped in their distribution, but have unique knock-out phenotypes in organism, suggesting that each subtype may have the different role even within the same type of cells. In this study, we examined the possibility of the differential coupling of each PLC-beta subtype to GPCRs, and explored the molecular mechanism underlying the specificity. Firstly, we found that PLC-beta1 and PLC-beta 3 are activated by bradykinin (BK) or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), respectively. BK-triggered phosphoinositides hydrolysis and subsequent Ca(2+) mobilization were abolished specifically by PLC-beta1 silencing, whereas LPA-triggered events were by PLC-beta 3 silencing. Secondly, we showed the evidence that PDZ scaffold proteins is a key mediator for the selective coupling between PLC-beta subtype and GPCR. We found PAR-3 mediates physical interaction between PLC-beta1 and BK receptor, while NHERF2 does between PLC-beta 3 and LPA(2) receptor. Consistently, the silencing of PAR-3 or NHERF2 blunted PLC signaling induced by BK or LPA respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that each subtype of PLC-beta is selectively coupled to GPCR via PDZ scaffold proteins in given cell types and plays differential role in the signaling of various GPCRs.

  17. A chromogenic substrate for phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C: 4-nitrophenyl myo-inositol-1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, M S; Volwerk, J J; Griffith, O H; Keana, J F

    1991-12-01

    A chromogenic water-soluble substrate for phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C was synthesized starting from myo-inositol employing isopropylidene and 4-methoxytetrahydropyranyl protecting groups. In this analogue of phosphatidylinositol, 4-nitrophenol replaces the diacylglycerol moiety, resulting in synthetic, racemic 4-nitrophenyl myo-inositol-1-phosphate. Using this synthetic substrate a rapid, convenient and sensitive spectrophotometric assay for the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus was developed. Initial rates of the cleavage of the nitrophenol substrate were linear with time and the amount of enzyme used. At pH 7.0, specific activities for the B. cereus enzyme were 77 and 150 mumol substrate cleaved min-1 (mg protein)-1 at substrate concentrations of 1 and 2 mM, respectively. Under these conditions, less than 50 ng quantities of enzyme were easily detected. The chromogenic substrate was stable during long term storage (6 months) as a solid at -20 degrees C.

  18. Phospholipase A/sub 2/ stimulation during cell secretion in rat basophilic leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gil, M.; Siraganian, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The bridging of IgE receptors on rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) results in a number of biochemical events that accompany histamine secretion. Prominent among these is the release of arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids, which could be due to the activation of phospholipase enzymes. In the present experiments they studied the intracellular activation of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) during histamine release. The enzyme in the homogenates was capable of cleaving arachidonic acid from different phospholipids. The production of lysophospholipids could play a critical role in histamine release from cells. These results demonstrate the activation of PLA/sub 2/ enzyme in cellular homogenates during the secretory process.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Orientin on Secretory Group IIA Phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the expression level of secretory group IIA phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is elevated in inflammatory diseases and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) upregulates the expression of sPLA2-IIA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Orientin, a C-glycosyl flavonoid, is known to have anxiolytic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory activity. Here, orientin was examined for its effects on the expression and activity of sPLA2-IIA in HUVECs and mouse. Prior treatment of cells or mouse with orientin inhibited LPS-induced expression and activity of sPLA2-IIA. And orientin suppressed the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 by LPS. Therefore, these results suggest that orientin may inhibit LPS-mediated expression of sPLA2-IIA by suppression of cPLA2 and ERK 1/2.

  20. PRMT8 as a phospholipase regulates Purkinje cell dendritic arborization and motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Dal; Park, Kyung-Eui; Ishida, Junji; Kako, Koichiro; Hamada, Juri; Kani, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Miki; Namiki, Kana; Fukui, Hajime; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Hibi, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kanaho, Yasunori; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The development of vertebrate neurons requires a change in membrane phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism. Although PC hydrolysis is essential for enhanced axonal outgrowth mediated by phospholipase D (PLD), less is known about the determinants of PC metabolism on dendritic arborization. We show that protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) acts as a phospholipase that directly hydrolyzes PC, generating choline and phosphatidic acid. We found that PRMT8 knockout mice (prmt8 (-/-)) displayed abnormal motor behaviors, including hindlimb clasping and hyperactivity. Moreover, prmt8 (-/-) mice and TALEN-induced zebrafish prmt8 mutants and morphants showed abnormal phenotypes, including the development of dendritic trees in Purkinje cells and altered cerebellar structure. Choline and acetylcholine levels were significantly decreased, whereas PC levels were increased, in the cerebellum of prmt8 (-/-) mice. Our findings suggest that PRMT8 acts both as an arginine methyltransferase and as a PC-hydrolyzing PLD that is essential for proper neurological functions.

  1. Antibacterial properties of intestinal phospholipase A2 from the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Abid, Islem; Horchani, Habib

    2012-11-01

    Stingray phospholipase A(2) group IIA (SPLA(2)-IIA) was recently isolated and purified to homogeneity from the intestine of the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca, suggesting that this enzyme plays an important role in systemic bactericidal defense. The present study showed that SPLA(2)-IIA was highly bactericidal against Gram-positive bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 13-25 mm and 2-8 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram-negative bacteria exhibited a much higher resistance. The bactericidal efficiency of SPLA(2)-IIA was shown to be unaffected by high protein and salt concentrations, but dependent upon the presence of calcium ions, and then correlated to the hydrolytic activity of membrane phospholipids. Importantly, we showed that stingray phospholipase A(2) group IIA presents no cytotoxicity after its incubation with MDA-MB-231 cells. SPLA(2)-IIA may be considered as a future therapeutic agent against bacterial infections.

  2. Identification of the Elusive Mammalian Enzyme Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    processes involved in progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thus, the main scopes of this proposal are: 1. to identify the PC-PLC gene and protein...of PC-PLC. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Phosphatidycholine-specific phospholipase C, lipopolisaccharide, oxidized lipoproteins, serum, rheumatoid arthritis ...present proposal aims at identifying novel players that are critically involved in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The identification of

  3. Phospholipase A2-activating protein is associated with a novel form of leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Falik Zaccai, Tzipora C; Savitzki, David; Zivony-Elboum, Yifat; Vilboux, Thierry; Fitts, Eric C; Shoval, Yishay; Kalfon, Limor; Samra, Nadra; Keren, Zohar; Gross, Bella; Chasnyk, Natalia; Straussberg, Rachel; Mullikin, James C; Teer, Jamie K; Geiger, Dan; Kornitzer, Daniel; Bitterman-Deutsch, Ora; Samson, Abraham O; Wakamiya, Maki; Peterson, Johnny W; Kirtley, Michelle L; Pinchuk, Iryna V; Baze, Wallace B; Gahl, William A; Kleta, Robert; Anikster, Yair; Chopra, Ashok K

    2017-02-01

    Leukoencephalopathies are a group of white matter disorders related to abnormal formation, maintenance, and turnover of myelin in the central nervous system. These disorders of the brain are categorized according to neuroradiological and pathophysiological criteria. Herein, we have identified a unique form of leukoencephalopathy in seven patients presenting at ages 2 to 4 months with progressive microcephaly, spastic quadriparesis, and global developmental delay. Clinical, metabolic, and imaging characterization of seven patients followed by homozygosity mapping and linkage analysis were performed. Next generation sequencing, bioinformatics, and segregation analyses followed, to determine a loss of function sequence variation in the phospholipase A2-activating protein encoding gene (PLAA). Expression and functional studies of the encoded protein were performed and included measurement of prostaglandin E2 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity in membrane fractions of fibroblasts derived from patients and healthy controls. Plaa-null mice were generated and prostaglandin E2 levels were measured in different tissues. The novel phenotype of our patients segregated with a homozygous loss-of-function sequence variant, causing the substitution of leucine at position 752 to phenylalanine, in PLAA, which causes disruption of the protein's ability to induce prostaglandin E2 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 synthesis in patients' fibroblasts. Plaa-null mice were perinatal lethal with reduced brain levels of prostaglandin E2 The non-functional phospholipase A2-activating protein and the associated neurological phenotype, reported herein for the first time, join other complex phospholipid defects that cause leukoencephalopathies in humans, emphasizing the importance of this axis in white matter development and maintenance.

  4. Quantum dot-NBD-liposome luminescent probes for monitoring phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Kethineedi, Venkata R; Crivat, Georgeta; Tarr, Matthew A; Rosenzweig, Zeev

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we describe the fabrication and characterization of new liposome encapsulated quantum dot-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based probes for monitoring the enzymatic activity of phospholipase A2. To fabricate the probes, luminescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dots capped with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) ligands were incorporated into the lipid bilayer of unilamellar liposomes with an average diameter of approximately 100 nm. Incorporating TOPO capped quantum dots in liposomes enabled their use in aqueous solution while maintaining their hydrophobicity and excellent photophysical properties. The phospholipid bilayer was labeled with the fluorophore NBD C6-HPC (2-(6-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoyl-1-hexa decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). The luminescent quantum dots acted as FRET donors and the NBD dye molecules acted as FRET acceptors. The probe response was based on FRET interactions between the quantum dots and the NBD dye molecules. The NBD dye molecules were cleaved and released to the solution in the presence of the enzyme phospholipase A2. This led to an increase of the luminescence of the quantum dots and to a corresponding decrease in the fluorescence of the NBD molecules, because of a decrease in FRET efficiency between the quantum dots and the NBD dye molecules. Because the quantum dots were not attached covalently to the phospholipids, they did not hinder the enzyme activity as a result of steric effects. The probes were able to detect amounts of phospholipase A2 as low as 0.0075 U mL(-1) and to monitor enzyme activity in real time. The probes were also used to screen phospholipase A2 inhibitors. For example, we found that the inhibition efficiency of MJ33 (1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol) was higher than that of OBAA (3-(4-octadecyl)benzoylacrylic acid).

  5. Cold stress affects H(+)-ATPase and phospholipase D activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Muzi, Carlo; Camoni, Lorenzo; Visconti, Sabina; Aducci, Patrizia

    2016-11-01

    Low temperature is an environmental stress that greatly influences plant performance and distribution. Plants exposed to cold stress exhibit modifications of plasma membrane physical properties that can affect their functionality. Here it is reported the effect of low temperature exposure of Arabidopsis plants on the activity of phospholipase D and H(+)-ATPase, the master enzyme located at the plasma membrane. The H(+)-ATPase activity was differently affected, depending on the length of cold stress imposed. In particular, an exposure to 4 °C for 6 h determined the strong inhibition of the H(+)-ATPase activity, that correlates with a reduced association with the regulatory 14-3-3 proteins. A longer exposure first caused the full recovery of the enzymatic activity followed by a significant activation, in accordance with both the increased association with 14-3-3 proteins and induction of H(+)-ATPase gene transcription. Different time lengths of cold stress treatment were also shown to strongly stimulate the phospholipase D activity and affect the phosphatidic acid levels of the plasma membranes. Our results suggest a functional correlation between the activity of phospholipase D and H(+)-ATPase mediated by phosphatidic acid release during the cold stress response.

  6. [The state of phospholipase D in solution and its catalytic activity].

    PubMed

    Rakhimov, M M; Mad'iarov, Sh R

    1977-04-01

    Functioning of water-soluble phospholipase D from cotton seeds is studied on two phases contact area (liquid-liquid, liquid-solid substance) and on the surface of mixed lecitine and sodium dodecylsulphate micelles. It is found that water-soluble phospholipase D, which normally has no catalytic activity, is capable to hydrolyse its substrates in the presence of organic solvents, solid adsorbents and sodium dodecylsulphate. The data obtained show that in all the cases studied the activation observed is due to adsorption immobilization of the enzyme. K lambda and K alpha constants are introduced, which are characteristics of immobilyzing ability of agents-matrices for immobilization. Phase transitions, which take place in heterogenous system (enzyme-activator-substrate-water solution), are found to be a necessary condition for the enzyme activation. A hypothesis, that catalytical activity of water-soluble phospholipase D is inherent of the adsorbed enzyme, is discussed on the basis of the data on comparative study of adsorbed and water-soluble enzymes.

  7. Involvement of phospholipases C and D in the defence responses of riboflavin-treated tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianlian; Zhu, Xiaoping; Liu, Jinwei; Chu, Xiaojing; Jiao, Jiao; Liang, Yuancun

    2013-04-01

    Riboflavin is an activator of defence responses in plants that increases resistance against diseases caused by fungal, oomycete, bacterial and viral pathogens. However, the mechanisms driving defence activation by riboflavin are poorly understood. We investigated the signal transduction pathways of phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells using a pharmacological approach to confirm whether riboflavin-mediated activation of the defence response is dependent on both PLC and PLD. The expression patterns analysed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the tobacco PLC and PLD gene families were differentially expressed in riboflavin-treated tobacco cells. PLC and PLD expression accompanied defence responses including the expression of defence response genes (PAL, PR-1a and PR-1b), the production of hydrogen peroxide and the accumulation of the phytoalexin scopoletin in tobacco cells treated with riboflavin. These defence responses were significantly inhibited in the presence of the PLC inhibitor U73122 and the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol; however, inhibitor analogues had no effect. Moreover, treating tobacco cells with phosphatidic acid, a signalling molecule produced by phospholipase catalysis, induced the accumulation of the phytoalexin scopoletin and compensated for the suppressive effects of U73122 and 1-butanol on riboflavin-induced accumulation of the phytoalexin. These results offer pharmacological evidence that PLC and PLD play a role in riboflavin-induced defences of tobacco.

  8. Ceramides increase the activity of the secretory phospholipase A2 and alter its fatty acid specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Koumanov, Kamen S; Momchilova, Albena B; Quinn, Peter J; Wolf, Claude

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of human recombinant secretory type II phospholipase A(2) activity by ceramide and cholesterol was investigated using model glycerophospholipid substrates composed of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine dispersed in aqueous medium. Enzyme activity was monitored by measurement of released fatty acids using capillary GC-MS. Fatty acids from the sn-2 position of the phospholipids were hydrolysed by the enzyme in proportion to the relative abundance of the phospholipid in the substrate. Addition of increasing amounts of ceramide to the substrate progressively enhanced phospholipase activity. The increased activity was accomplished largely by preferential hydrolysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, derived from phosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of sphingomyelin to the substrate glycerophospholipids inhibited phospholipase activity but its progressive substitution by ceramide, so as to mimic sphingomyelinase activity, counteracted the inhibition. The presence of cholesterol in dispersions of glycerophospholipid-substrate-containing ceramides suppressed activation of the enzyme resulting from the presence of ceramide. The molecular basis of enzyme modulation was investigated by analysis of the phase structure of the dispersed lipid substrate during temperature scans from 46 to 20 degrees C using small-angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction. These studies indicated that intermediate structures created after ceramide-dependent phase separation of hexagonal and lamellar phases represent the most susceptible form of the substrate for enzyme hydrolysis. PMID:11903045

  9. Evaluation of Expression of Lipases and Phospholipases of Malassezia restricta in Patients with Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yang Won; Lee, Shin Yung; Lee, Younghoon

    2013-01-01

    Background Malassezia species (spp.) are cutaneous opportunistic pathogens and associated with various dermatological diseases including seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff and atopic dermatitis. Almost all Malassezia spp. are obligatorily lipid-dependent, which might be caused by lack of the myristic acid synthesis. Recent genome analysis of M. restricta and M. globosa suggested that the absence of a gene encoding fatty acid synthesis might be compensated by abundant genes encoding hydrolases, which produce fatty acids, and that lipases and phospholipases may play a role in virulence of the fungus. Objective The current study aimed to investigate the contribution of lipases and phospholipases in virulence of the M. restricta as being the most frequently isolated Malassezia spp. from the human skin. Methods Swap samples of two different body sites of at least 18 patients with seborrheic dermatitis were obtained and in vivo expression of lipases and phospholipases of M. restricta was analyzed by the gene specific two-step nested RT-PCR. Results The results of the current study suggest that majority of the patients display expression of lipase RES_0242. Conclusion These data imply a possible role of lipase in the host environment to produce free fatty acids for the fungus. PMID:24003273

  10. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors protect against prion and Aβ mediated synapse degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An early event in the neuropathology of prion and Alzheimer's diseases is the loss of synapses and a corresponding reduction in the level of synaptophysin, a pre-synaptic membrane protein essential for neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms involved in synapse degeneration in these diseases are poorly understood. In this study the process of synapse degeneration was investigated by measuring the synaptophysin content of cultured neurones incubated with the prion derived peptide (PrP82-146) or with Aβ1-42, a peptide thought to trigger pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease. A pharmacological approach was used to screen cell signalling pathways involved in synapse degeneration. Results Pre-treatment with phospholipase A2 inhibitors (AACOCF3, MAFP and aristolochic acids) protected against synapse degeneration in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurones incubated with PrP82-146 or Aβ1-42. Synapse degeneration was also observed following the addition of a specific phospholipase A2 activating peptide (PLAP) and the addition of PrP82-146 or Aβ1-42 activated cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 within synapses. Activation of phospholipase A2 is the first step in the generation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and PAF receptor antagonists (ginkgolide B, Hexa-PAF and CV6029) protected against synapse degeneration induced by PrP82-146, Aβ1-42 and PLAP. PAF facilitated the production of prostaglandin E2, which also caused synapse degeneration and pre-treatment with the prostanoid E receptor antagonist AH13205 protected against PrP82-146, Aβ1-42 and PAF induced synapse degeneration. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that PrP82-146 and Aβ1-42trigger abnormal activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 resident within synapses, resulting in elevated levels of PAF and prostaglandin E2that cause synapse degeneration. Inhibitors of this pathway that can cross the blood brain barrier may protect against the synapse degeneration seen during

  11. Angiotensin II induces phosphatidic acid formation in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts: evaluation of the roles of phospholipases C and D.

    PubMed

    Booz, G W; Taher, M M; Baker, K M; Singer, H A

    1994-12-21

    Phosphatidic acid has been proposed to contribute to the mitogenic actions of various growth factors. In 32P-labeled neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, 100 nM [Sar1]angiotensin II was shown to rapidly induce formation of 32P-phosphatidic acid. Levels peaked at 5 min (1.5-fold above control), but were partially sustained over 2 h. Phospholipase D contributed in part to phosphatidic acid formation, as 32P- or 3H-phosphatidylethanol was produced when cells labeled with [32P]H3PO4 or 1-O-[1,2- 3H]hexadecyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were stimulated in the presence of 1% ethanol. [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phospholipase D activity was transient and mainly mediated through protein kinase C (PKC), since PKC downregulation reduced phosphatidylethanol formation by 68%. Residual activity may have been due to increased intracellular Ca2+, as ionomycin also activated phospholipase D in PKC-depleted cells. Phospholipase D did not fully account for [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid: 1) compared to PMA, a potent activator of phospholipase D, [Sar1]angiotensin II produced more phosphatidic acid relative to phosphatidylethanol, and 2) PKC downregulation did not affect [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid formation. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59949 depressed [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid formation by only 21%, indicating that activation of a phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase also can not account for the bulk of phosphatidic acid. Thus, additional pathways not involving phospholipases C and D, such as de novo synthesis, may contribute to [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid in these cells. Finally, as previously shown for [Sar1]angiotensin II, phosphatidic acid stimulated mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Reduction of the fertilizing capacity of sea urchin sperm by cannabinoids derived from marihuana. III. Activation of phospholipase A2 in sperm homogenate by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Berkery, D; Laychock, S G; Schuel, H

    1991-07-25

    Inhibition of the egg jelly induced acrosome reaction by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is associated with the localized disruption of the nuclear envelope and the formation of lipid deposits in sea urchin sperm. This suggests that THC may activate phospholipase(s) within the sperm. We now report effects of THC on phospholipase A2 activity in homogenates of sea urchin sperm using 1-stearoyl-2-[1-14C]arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine as substrate. The release of radioactive arachidonic acid was measured after a 30-min incubation with the enzyme. In the absence of exogenous Ca2+, 100 microM THC produced a significant (P less than 0.001) increase in phospholipase A2 activity. THC activated phospholipase A2 in a concentration (1-100 microM) and time-dependent (0-30 min) manner. Exogenous calcium (10 mM) significantly augmented basal (P less than 0.001) and THC-stimulated (P less than 0.005) phospholipase A2 activity. Calcium chelators [ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)] inhibited the basal level of phospholipase A2 activity in the sperm homogenate, and prevented the activation of phospholipase A2 by THC. Submicromolar levels of free calcium ions were required for THC stimulation of phospholipase A2. Cannabinol which mimics the effects of THC on the acrosome reaction also activated phospholipase A2 in sperm homogenate. These results suggest that THC may alter lipid metabolism in sperm by activating calcium-dependent phospholipase A2. Putative metabolites derived from this process may inhibit the acrosome reaction and thereby reduce the fertilizing capacity of sea urchin sperm.

  13. Oxytocin- and aluminium fluoride-induced phospholipase C activity and prostaglandin F2 alpha secretion during the ovine luteolytic period.

    PubMed

    Graf, G A; Burns, P D; Silvia, W J

    1998-03-01

    A series of studies was conducted to characterize changes in components of the cell signalling cascade that mediates oxytocin-induced prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) synthesis at the onset of luteolysis in sheep. In the first experiment, caruncular tissue was dissected from 20 ewes on days 12-15 of the oestrous cycle, and incubated for the measurement of phospholipase C (PLC) activity or secretion of PGF2 alpha. Activation of GTP-binding proteins with aluminium fluoride stimulated both inositol phosphate accumulation and PGF2 alpha secretion on all days examined. However, oxytocin did not stimulate PLC activity or PGF2 alpha accumulation until day 13. While the ability of oxytocin to stimulate PLC activity increased after day 13, oxytocin-induced PGF2 alpha secretion declined slightly from day 13 to 15, suggesting that cell signalling components downstream from PLC modulate the response to oxytocin after day 13. Oxytocin failed to stimulate PGF2 alpha synthesis on day 14 after oestrus. Secretion of endogenous luteal oxytocin may have rendered uterine tissues collected on day 14 refractory to oxytocin in vitro. Therefore, a second study was conducted in ovariectomized, steroid replaced ewes. Ovarian steroids were administered to mimic endogenous changes in progesterone and oestradiol. The temporal patterns of PGF2 alpha synthesis in response to oxytocin and pharmacological agents were similar to uterine tissues from cyclic ewes in the first experiment; however, the magnitude of the response was less. These data suggest that oxytocin receptors are absent or are not coupled to PLC until day 13 after oestrus.

  14. Regulatory interaction of the Galpha protein with phospholipase A2 in the plasma membrane of Eschscholzia californica.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Michael; Steighardt, Jörg; Gesell, Andreas; Schwartze, Wieland; Roos, Werner

    2007-12-01

    Plant heterotrimeric G-proteins are involved in a variety of signaling pathways, though only one alpha and a few betagamma isoforms of their subunits exist. In isolated plasma membranes of California poppy (Eschscholzia californica), the plant-specific Galpha subunit was isolated and identified immunologically and by homology of the cloned gene with that of several plants. In the same membrane, phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) was activated by yeast elicitor only if GTPgammaS (an activator of Galpha) was present. From the cholate-solubilized membrane proteins, PLA(2) was co-precipitated together with Galpha by a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant Galpha. In this immunoprecipitate and in the plasma membrane (but not in the Galpha-free supernatant) PLA(2) was stimulated by GTPgammaS. Plasma membranes and immunoprecipitates obtained from antisense transformants with a low Galpha content allowed no such stimulation. An antiserum raised against the C-terminus (which in animal Galphas is located near the target coupling site) precipitated Galpha without any PLA(2) activity. Using non-denaturing PAGE, complexes of solubilized plasma membrane proteins were visualized that contained Galpha plus PLA(2) activity and dissociated at pH 9.5. At this pH, PLA(2) was no longer stimulated by GTPgammaS. It is concluded that a distinct fraction of the plasma membrane-bound PLA(2) exists in a detergent-resistant complex with Galpha that can be dissociated at pH 9.5. This complex allows the Galpha-mediated activation of PLA(2).

  15. Phospholipase Cγ1 Connects the Cell Membrane Pathway to the Nuclear Receptor Pathway in Insect Steroid Hormone Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Cai, Mei-Juan; Zheng, Chuan-Chuan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the classical nuclear receptor pathway, there is a nongenomic pathway in the cell membrane that regulates gene expression in animal steroid hormone signaling; however, this mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates calcium influx via phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCG1) to modulate the protein kinase C phosphorylation of the transcription factor ultraspiracle (USP1) in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The PLCG1 mRNA levels are increased during the molting and metamorphic stages. The depletion of PLCG1 by RNA interference can block 20E-enhanced pupation, cause larvae death and pupation defects, and repress 20E-induced gene expression. 20E may induce the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCG1 at the cytosolic tyrosine kinase (Src) homology 2 domains and then determine the migration of PLCG1 toward the plasma membrane. The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) inhibitor suramin, Src family kinase inhibitor PP2, and the depletions of ecdysone-responsible GPCR (ErGPCR) and Gαq restrain the 20E-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCG1. PLCG1 participates in the 20E-induced Ca2+ influx. The inhibition of GPCR, PLC, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, and calcium channels represses the 20E-induced Ca2+ influx. Through calcium signaling, PLCG1 mediates the transcriptional activation driven by the ecdysone-response element. Through PLCG1 and calcium signaling, 20E regulates PKC phosphorylation of USP1 at Ser-21 to determine its ecdysone-response element binding activity. These results suggest that 20E activates PLCG1 via the ErGPCR and Src family kinases to regulate Ca2+ influx and PKC phosphorylation of USP1 to subsequently modulate gene transcription for metamorphosis. PMID:24692553

  16. Structural characterization of the split pleckstrin homology domain in phospholipase C-gamma1 and its interaction with TRPC3.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wenyu; Yan, Jing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2006-04-28

    Phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma is unique among the PLC enzymes because each PLC-gamma isozyme contains a split pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with an SH2SH2SH3 tandem repeat insertion (where SH indicates Src homology domain) in the middle of its sequence. Split PH domains exist in a number of other proteins that play crucial signaling roles. However, little is known about the structure and function of split PH domains. The C-terminal half of the PLC-gamma split PH domain has been implicated to interact directly with the TRPC3 calcium channel, thereby providing a direct coupling mechanism between PLC-gamma and agonist-induced calcium entry. However, this interaction has not been proved by direct biochemical or structural studies. Here we determined the three-dimensional structure of the split PH domain of PLC-gamma1, and we found that the split PH domain of the enzyme folds into a canonical PH domain fold with high thermostability. The SH2SH2SH3 insertion between the beta3 and beta4 strands does not change the structure of the split PH domain. In contrast to the majority of phospholipid-binding PH domains, the PLC-gamma1 split PH domain lacks the signature lipid-binding motif located between the beta1 and beta2 strands. Consistent with this structural feature, the split PH domain of PLC-gamma1 does not bind to phospholipids. Multiple biochemical and biophysical experiments have argued against a direct interaction between TRPC3 and the C-terminal half of the PLC-gamma1 split PH domain. Our data pointed to the existence of a yet to be elucidated interaction mechanism between TRPC3 and PLC-gamma1.

  17. Phospholipase C-η1 is activated by intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and enhances GPCRs/PLC/Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Kwon, Ohman; Seo, Jeong Kon; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipase C-η1 (PLC-η1) is the most recently identified PLC isotype and is primarily expressed in nerve tissue. However, its functional role is unclear. In the present study, we report for the first time that PLC-η1 acts as a signal amplifier in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated PLC and Ca(2+) signaling. Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endogenous PLC-η1 reduced lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-, bradykinin (BK)-, and PACAP-induced PLC activity in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A (N2A) cells, indicating that PLC-η1 participates in GPCR-mediated PLC activation. Interestingly, ionomycin-induced PLC activity was significantly decreased by PLC-η1, but not PLC-η2, knockdown. In addition, we found that intracellular Ca(2+) source is enough for PLC-η1 activation. Furthermore, the IP(3) receptor inhibitor, 2-APB, inhibited LPA-induced PLC activity in control N2A cells, whereas this effect was not observed in PLC-η1 knockdown N2A cells, suggesting a pivotal role of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in PLC-η1 activation. Finally, we found that LPA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expression of the downstream target gene, krox-24, were significantly decreased by PLC-η1 knockdown, and these knockdown effects were abolished by 2-APB. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PLC-η1 is activated via intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization from the ER, and therefore amplifies GPCR-mediated signaling.

  18. Activation of muscarinic receptors in porcine airway smooth muscle elicits a transient increase in phospholipase D activity.

    PubMed

    Mamoon, A M; Smith, J; Baker, R C; Farley, J M

    1999-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphodiesterase that catalyses hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. In the presence of ethanol, PLD also catalyses the formation of phosphatidylethanol, which is a unique characteristic of this enzyme. Muscarinic receptor-induced changes in the activity of PLD were investigated in porcine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidic acid ([3H]PA) and [3H]phosphatidylethanol ([3H]PEth) after labeling the muscle strips with [3H]palmitic acid. The cholinergic receptor agonist acetylcholine (Ach) significantly but transiently increased formation of both [3H]PA and [3H]PEth in a concentration-dependent manner (>105-400% vs. controls in the presence of 10(-6) to 10(-4) M Ach) when pretreated with 100 mM ethanol. The Ach receptor-mediated increase in PLD activity was inhibited by atropine (10(-6) M), indicating that activation of PLD occurred via muscarinic receptors. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) increased PLD activity that was effectively blocked by the PKC inhibitors calphostin C (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) and GFX (10(-8) to 10(-6) M). Ach-induced increases in PLD activity were also significantly, but incompletely, inhibited by both GFX and calphostin C. From the present data, we conclude that in tracheal smooth muscle, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-induced PLD activation is transient in nature and coupled to these receptors via PKC. However, PKC activation is not solely responsible for Ach-induced activation of PLD in porcine tracheal smooth muscle.

  19. SKF-83959 is not a highly-biased functionally selective D1 dopamine receptor ligand with activity at phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Min; Kant, Andrew; Blake, Daniel; Murthy, Vishakantha; Boyd, Kevin; Wyrick, Steven J; Mailman, Richard B

    2014-11-01

    SKF-83959 [6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine] is reported to be a functionally selective dopamine D1 receptor ligand with high bias for D1-mediated phospholipase C (PLC) versus D1-coupled adenylate cyclase signaling. This signaling bias is proposed to explain behavioral activity in both rat and primate Parkinson's disease models, and a D1-D2 heterodimer has been proposed as the underlying mechanism. We have conducted an in-depth pharmacological characterization of this compound in dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in both rat brain and heterologous systems expressing human D1 or D2 receptors. Contrary to common assumptions, SKF-83959 is similar to the classical, well-characterized partial agonist SKF38393 in all systems. It is a partial agonist (not an antagonist) at adenylate cyclase in vitro and ex vivo, and is a partial agonist in D1-mediated β-arrestin recruitment. Contrary to earlier reports, it does not have D1-mediated effects on PLC signaling in heterologous systems. Because drug metabolites can also contribute, its 3-N-demethylated analog also was synthesized and tested. As expected from the known structure-activity relationships of the benzazepines, this compound also had high affinity for the D1 receptor and somewhat higher intrinsic activity than the parent ligand, and also might contribute to in vivo effects of SKF-83959. Together, these data demonstrate that SKF-83959 is not a highly-biased functionally selective D1 ligand, and that its reported behavioral data can be explained solely by its partial D1 agonism in canonical signaling pathway(s). Mechanisms that have been proposed based on the purported signaling novelty of SKF-83959 at PLC should be reconsidered.

  20. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  1. Inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a novel facet in the pleiotropic activities of snake venom phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Starkov, Vladislav G; Osipov, Alexey V; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Filkin, Sergey Yu; Gorbacheva, Elena V; Astashev, Maxim E; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 represent the most abundant family of snake venom proteins. They manifest an array of biological activities, which is constantly expanding. We have recently shown that a protein bitanarin, isolated from the venom of the puff adder Bitis arietans and possessing high phospholipolytic activity, interacts with different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and with the acetylcholine-binding protein. To check if this property is characteristic to all venom phospholipases A2, we have studied the capability of these enzymes from other snakes to block the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis neurons to acetylcholine or cytisine and to inhibit α-bungarotoxin binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins. Here we present the evidence that phospholipases A2 from venoms of vipers Vipera ursinii and V. nikolskii, cobra Naja kaouthia, and krait Bungarus fasciatus from different snake families suppress the acetylcholine- or cytisine-elicited currents in L. stagnalis neurons and compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to muscle- and neuronal α7-types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, as well as to acetylcholine-binding proteins. As the phospholipase A2 content in venoms is quite high, under some conditions the activity found may contribute to the deleterious venom effects. The results obtained suggest that the ability to interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may be a general property of snake venom phospholipases A2, which add a new target to the numerous activities of these enzymes.

  2. Identification and properties of very high affinity brain membrane-binding sites for a neurotoxic phospholipase from the taipan venom

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeau, G.; Barhanin, J.; Schweitz, H.; Qar, J.; Lazdunski, M. )

    1989-07-05

    Four new monochain phospholipases were purified from the Oxyuranus scutellatus (taipan) venom. Three of them were highly toxic when injected into mice brain. One of these neurotoxic phospholipases, OS2, was iodinated and used in binding experiments to demonstrate the presence of two families of specific binding sites in rat brain synaptic membranes. The affinities were exceptionally high, Kd1 = 1.5 +/- 0.5 pM and Kd2 = 45 +/- 10 pM, and the maximal binding capacities were Bmax 1 = 1 +/- 0.4 and Bmax 2 = 3 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. Both binding sites were sensitive to proteolysis and demonstrated to be located on proteins of Mr 85,000-88,000 and 36,000-51,000 by cross-linking and photoaffinity labeling techniques. The binding of {sup 125}I-OS2 to synaptic membranes was dependent on Ca2+ ions and enhanced by Zn2+ ions which inhibit phospholipase activity. Competition experiments have shown that, except for beta-bungarotoxin, a number of known toxic snake or bee phospholipases have very high affinities for the newly identified binding sites. A good correlation (r = 0.80) was observed between toxicity and affinity but not between phospholipase activity and affinity.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of three myotoxic phospholipases A2 from Bothrops brazili venom

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carlos A. H.; Gartuzo, Elaine C. G.; Pagotto, Ivan; Comparetti, Edson J.; Huancahuire-Vega, Salomón; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Costa, Tássia R.; Marangoni, Sergio; Soares, Andreimar M.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two myotoxic and noncatalytic Lys49-phospholipases A2 (braziliantoxin-II and MT-II) and a myotoxic and catalytic phospholipase A2 (braziliantoxin-III) from the venom of the Amazonian snake Bothrops brazili were crystallized. The crystals diffracted to resolutions in the range 2.56–2.05 Å and belonged to space groups P3121 (braziliantoxin-II), P6522 (braziliantoxin-III) and P21 (MT-II). The structures were solved by molecular-replacement techniques. Both of the Lys49-phospholipases A2 (braziliantoxin-II and MT-II) contained a dimer in the asymmetric unit, while the Asp49-phospholipase A2 braziliantoxin-III contained a monomer in its asymmetric unit. Analysis of the quaternary assemblies of the braziliantoxin-II and MT-II structures using the PISA program indicated that both models have a dimeric conformation in solution. The same analysis of the braziliantoxin-III structure indicated that this protein does not dimerize in solution and probably acts as a monomer in vivo, similar to other snake-venom Asp49-phospholipases A2. PMID:22869126

  4. Involvement of Protein cAMP-dependent Kinase, Phospholipase A2 and Phospholipase C in Sperm Acrosome Reaction of Chinchilla lanigera.

    PubMed

    Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Zelarayán, L; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in fertilization are the centre of attention in order to determine the conditions required to reproduce in vitro the events that take place in vivo, with special interest in endangered species. Previous data from mouse sperm, where acrosome reaction (AR) occurs more often in the interstitium of the cumulus oophorus, contribute to strengthen the use of progesterone as a physiological inducer of this process. We studied the participation of protein kinase A (PKA), phospholipases A2 and C (PLA2 , PLC) in the AR induced by progesterone from Chinchilla epididymal spermatozoa. The addition of db-cAMP to the incubation medium caused an increase of 58% in the AR, while the use of H89 (30 μm), a PKA inhibitor, reflected a decrease of 40% in the percentage of reacted gametes. The assays conducted with arachidonic acid showed a maximum increase of 23% in the AR. When gametes were pre-incubated with PLA2 inhibitors, a dose-dependent inhibitory effect was observed. The addition of phorbol12-myristate13-acetate (10 μm) revealed higher percentages of AR induction (60%). When PLC was inhibited with neomycin and U73122, a dose-dependent decrease in AR percentages was observed. Combined inhibition of PKA, PLA2 and PLC, AR values similar to control were obtained. This work shows evidence, for the first time in Chinchilla, that progesterone activates the AC/cAMP/PKA system as well as sperm phospholipases and that these signalling pathways participate jointly and cooperatively in AR. These results contribute to the understanding of the complex regulation that is triggered in sperm after the effect of progesterone.

  5. NHERF2 specifically interacts with LPA2 receptor and defines the specificity and efficiency of receptor-mediated phospholipase C-beta3 activation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yong-Seok; Jo, Nam Won; Choi, Jung Woong; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Seo, Sang-Won; Kang, Kyung-Ok; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Heo, Kyun; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, In-Hoo; Kim, Jae Ho; Banno, Yoshiko; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2004-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates a family of cognate G protein-coupled receptors and is involved in various pathophysiological processes. However, it is not clearly understood how these LPA receptors are specifically coupled to their downstream signaling molecules. This study found that LPA(2), but not the other LPA receptor isoforms, specifically interacts with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor2 (NHERF2). In addition, the interaction between them requires the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif of LPA(2) and the second PDZ domain of NHERF2. Moreover, the stable expression of NHERF2 potentiated LPA-induced phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) activation, which was markedly attenuated by either a mutation in the PDZ-binding motif of LPA(2) or by the gene silencing of NHERF2. Using its second PDZ domain, NHERF2 was found to indirectly link LPA(2) to PLC-beta3 to form a complex, and the other PLC-beta isozymes were not included in the protein complex. Consistently, LPA(2)-mediated PLC-beta activation was specifically inhibited by the gene silencing of PLC-beta3. In addition, NHERF2 increases LPA-induced ERK activation, which is followed by cyclooxygenase-2 induction via a PLC-dependent pathway. Overall, the results suggest that a ternary complex composed of LPA(2), NHERF2, and PLC-beta3 may play a key role in the LPA(2)-mediated PLC-beta signaling pathway.

  6. Cloning of a Phosphate-Regulated Hemolysin Gene (Phospholipase C) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Vasil, Michael L.; Berka, Randy M.; Gray, Gregory L.; Nakai, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Phospholipase C (heat-labile hemolysin) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a phosphate (Pi)-regulated extracellular protein which may be a significant virulence factor of this organism. The gene for this hemolytic enzyme was cloned on a 4.1-megadalton (Mdal) fragment from a BamHI digest of P. aeruginosa PAO1 genomic DNA and was inserted into the BamHI sites of the multicopy Escherichia coli(pBR322) and P. aeruginosa(pMW79) vectors. The E. coli and P. aeruginosa recombinant plasmids were designated pGV26 and pVB81, respectively. A restriction map of the 4.1-Mdal fragment from pGV26 was constructed, using double and single digestions with BamHI and EcoRI and several different restriction enzymes. Based on information from this map, a 2.4-Mdal BamHI/BglII fragment containing the gene for phospholipase C was subcloned to pBR322. The hybrid plasmids pGV26 and pVB81 direct the synthesis of enzymatically active phospholipase C, which is also hemolytic. The plasmid-directed synthesis of phospholipase C in E. coli or P. aeruginosa is not repressible by Pi as is the chromosomally directed synthesis in P. aeruginosa. Data are presented which suggest that the synthesis of phospholipase C from pGV26 and pVB81 is directed from the tetracycline resistance gene promoter. The level of enzyme activity produced by E. coli(pGV26) is slightly higher than the levels produced by P. aeruginosa(pMW79) under repressed conditions. In contrast, the levels produced by P. aeruginosa(pVB81) are at least 600-fold higher than the levels produced by P. aeruginosa(pMW79) under repressed conditions and approximately 20-fold higher than those produced by P. aeruginosa(pMW79) under derepressed conditions. The majority (85%) of the enzyme produced by E. coli(pGV26) remained cell associated, whereas >95% of the enzyme produced by P. aeruginosa(pVB81) was extracellular. Analysis of extracellular proteins from cultures of P. aeruginosa(pMW79) and P. aeruginosa(pVB81) by high-performance liquid chromotography and

  7. Development of a highly efficient oil degumming process using a novel phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzyme.

    PubMed

    Cerminati, Sebastián; Eberhardt, Florencia; Elena, Claudia E; Peirú, Salvador; Castelli, María E; Menzella, Hugo G

    2017-02-25

    Enzymatic degumming using phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes may be used in environmentally friendly processes with improved oil recovery yields. In this work, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) candidates obtained from an in silico analysis were evaluated for oil degumming. A PIPLC from Lysinibacillus sphaericus was shown to efficiently remove phosphatidylinositol from crude oil, and when combined with a second phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase C, the three major phospholipids were completely hydrolyzed, providing an extra yield of oil greater than 2.1%, compared to standard methods. A remarkably efficient fed-batch Escherichia coli fermentation process producing ∼14 g/L of the recombinant PIPLC enzyme was developed, which may facilitate the adoption of this cost-effective oil-refining process.

  8. Mastoparan-induced phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase D activation in human astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, K.; Nakahata, N.; Ohizumi, Y.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of mastoparan on phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was examined in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Mastoparan (3-30 microM) caused an accumulation of diacylglycerol (DG) and phosphatidic acd (PA) accompanied by choline release in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. 2. In the presence of 2% n-butanol, mastoparan (3-100 microM) induced phosphatidylbutanol (PBut) accumulation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that mastoparan activates phospholipase D (PLD). Propranolol (30-300 microM), a phosphatidate phosphohydrolase inhibitor, inhibited DG accumulation induced by mastoparan, supporting this idea. 3. Depletion of extracellular free calcium ion did not alter the effect of mastoparan on PLD activity. 4. A protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin C (1 microM), did not inhibit mastoparan-induce PLD activation but the ability of mastoparan to stimulate phospholipase D activity was decreased in the PKC down regulated cells. 5. PLD activity stimulated by mastoparan was not prevented by pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin (PT) or C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase. Furthermore, guanine nucleotides did not affect PLD activity stimulation by mastoparan in membrane preparations. 6. Mastoparan stimulated PLD in several cell lines such as RBL-2H3, RBL-1, HL-60, P388, endothelial cells, as well as 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. 7. These results suggest that mastoparan induces phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis by activation of PLD, not by activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC); mastoparan-induced PLD activation is not mediated by G proteins. PMID:8640350

  9. Calcium-independent phospholipases A2 and their roles in biological processes and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramanadham, Sasanka; Ali, Tomader; Ashley, Jason W.; Bone, Robert N.; Hancock, William D.; Lei, Xiaoyong

    2015-01-01

    Among the family of phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are the Ca2+-independent PLA2s (iPLA2s) and they are designated group VI iPLA2s. In relation to secretory and cytosolic PLA2s, the iPLA2s are more recently described and details of their expression and roles in biological functions are rapidly emerging. The iPLA2s or patatin-like phospholipases (PNPLAs) are intracellular enzymes that do not require Ca2+ for activity, and contain lipase (GXSXG) and nucleotide-binding (GXGXXG) consensus sequences. Though nine PNPLAs have been recognized, PNPLA8 (membrane-associated iPLA2γ) and PNPLA9 (cytosol-associated iPLA2β) are the most widely studied and understood. The iPLA2s manifest a variety of activities in addition to phospholipase, are ubiquitously expressed, and participate in a multitude of biological processes, including fat catabolism, cell differentiation, maintenance of mitochondrial integrity, phospholipid remodeling, cell proliferation, signal transduction, and cell death. As might be expected, increased or decreased expression of iPLA2s can have profound effects on the metabolic state, CNS function, cardiovascular performance, and cell survival; therefore, dysregulation of iPLA2s can be a critical factor in the development of many diseases. This review is aimed at providing a general framework of the current understanding of the iPLA2s and discussion of the potential mechanisms of action of the iPLA2s and related involved lipid mediators. PMID:26023050

  10. Phospholipase signaling is modified differentially by phytoregulators in Capsicum chinense J. cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Altúzar-Molina, Alma; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2012-09-01

    Plant defense mechanisms respond to diverse environmental factors and play key roles in signaling pathways. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. ( 1) Furthermore, it has been reported that the levels of such phytoregulators as SA and MJ can increase in response to stressful conditions. ( 2) (,) ( 3) The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves the generation of second messengers by the hydrolysis of phospholipids. In this study, we examined how phospholipidic signaling can be modulated depending on the growth stage of the culture, and we focused on two key lipases having relevant roles in the signaling cascades in plants. An evaluation was made of the effects of SA and MJ on the phospholipase activities in Capsicum chinense Jacq. suspension cells at different phases of the culture cycle. The treatment with SA differentially modified the phospholipase C (PLC) (EC: 3.1.4.3) and phospholipase D (PLD) (EC: 3.1.4.4) activities in a dose-dependent manner that also depended on the day of the culture cycle. In contrast, the treatment with MJ resulted in a biphasic behavior of the PLC and PLD activities. We conclude that the enzymatic activities in the phospholipidic signaling pathways are modified differentially depending on the day of the culture's growth cycle; accordingly, the response capacity to such environmental factors as phytoregulators is variable at different stages of growth and the physiology of the cells.

  11. Phospholipase signaling is modified differentially by phytoregulators in Capsicum chinense J. cells

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Sánchez, J. Armando; Altúzar-Molina, Alma; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S. M. Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Plant defense mechanisms respond to diverse environmental factors and play key roles in signaling pathways. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures.1 Furthermore, it has been reported that the levels of such phytoregulators as SA and MJ can increase in response to stressful conditions.2,3 The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves the generation of second messengers by the hydrolysis of phospholipids. In this study, we examined how phospholipidic signaling can be modulated depending on the growth stage of the culture, and we focused on two key lipases having relevant roles in the signaling cascades in plants. An evaluation was made of the effects of SA and MJ on the phospholipase activities in Capsicum chinense Jacq. suspension cells at different phases of the culture cycle. The treatment with SA differentially modified the phospholipase C (PLC) (EC: 3.1.4.3) and phospholipase D (PLD) (EC: 3.1.4.4) activities in a dose-dependent manner that also depended on the day of the culture cycle. In contrast, the treatment with MJ resulted in a biphasic behavior of the PLC and PLD activities. We conclude that the enzymatic activities in the phospholipidic signaling pathways are modified differentially depending on the day of the culture’s growth cycle; accordingly, the response capacity to such environmental factors as phytoregulators is variable at different stages of growth and the physiology of the cells. PMID:22899070

  12. The phenotype of a phospholipase C (plc-1) mutant in a filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Lew, Roger R; Giblon, Rachel E; Lorenti, Miranda S H

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, phospholipase C may play a role in hyphal extension at the growing tips as part of a growth-sensing mechanism that activates calcium release from internal stores to mediate continued expansion of the hyphal tip. One candidate for a tip-localized phospholipase C is PLC-1. We characterized morphology and growth characteristics of a knockout mutant (KO plc-1) and a RIP mutated strain (RIP plc-1) (missense mutations and a nonsense mutation render the gene product non-functional). Growth and hyphal cytology of wildtype and KO plc-1 were similar, but the RIP plc-1 mutant grew slower and exhibited abnormal membrane structures at the hyphal tip, imaged using the fluorescence dye FM4-64. To test for causes of the slower growth of the RIP plc-1 mutant, we examined its physiological poise compared to wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. The electrical properties of all three strains and the electrogenic contribution of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (identified by cyanide inhibition) were the same. Responses to high osmolarity were also similar. However, the RIP plc-1 mutant had a significantly lower turgor, a possible cause of its slower growth. While growth of all three strains was inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor 3-nitrocoumarin, the RIP plc-1 mutant did not exhibit hyphal bursting after addition of the inhibitor, observed in both wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. Although the plc-1 gene is not obligatory for tip growth, the phenotype of the RIP plc-1 mutant - abnormal tip cytology, lower turgor and resistance to inhibitor-induced hyphal bursting - suggest it does play a role in tip growth. The expression of a dysfunctional plc-1 gene may cause a shift to alternative mechanism(s) of growth sensing in hyphal extension.

  13. Trichomonas vaginalis acidic phospholipase A2: isolation and partial amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Guajardo, Brenda L; González-Salazar, Francisco; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Torres de la Cruz, Víctor M; Morales-Vallarta, Mario; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; Garza-González, Jesús N; Rivera-Silva, Gerardo; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2013-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are a major cause of acute disease worldwide, and trichomoniasis is the most common and curable disease, generating more than 170 million cases annually worldwide. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy in vitro cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa, where the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) have been reported as potential virulence factors. These enzymes have been partially characterized from the subcellular fraction S30 of pathogenic T. vaginalis strains. The main objective of this study was to purify a phospholipase A2 from T. vaginalis, make a partial characterization, obtain a partial amino acid sequence, and determine its enzymatic participation as hemolytic factor causing lysis of erythrocytes. Trichomonas S30, RF30 and UFF30 sub-fractions from GT-15 strain have the capacity to hydrolyze [2-(14)C-PA]-PC at pH 6.0. Proteins from the UFF30 sub-fraction were separated by affinity chromatography into two eluted fractions with detectable PLA A2 activity. The EDTA-eluted fraction was analyzed by HPLC using on-line HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry and two protein peaks were observed at 8.2 and 13 kDa. Peptide sequences were identified from the proteins present in the eluted EDTA UFF30 fraction; bioinformatic analysis using Protein Link Global Server charged with T. vaginalis protein database suggests that eluted peptides correspond a putative ubiquitin protein in the 8.2 kDa fraction and a phospholipase preserved in the 13 kDa fraction. The EDTA-eluted fraction hydrolyzed [2-(14)C-PA]-PC lyses erythrocytes from Sprague-Dawley in a time and dose-dependent manner. The acidic hemolytic activity decreased by 84% with the addition of 100 μM of Rosenthal's inhibitor.

  14. Proteinase and phospholipase activities and development at different temperatures of yeasts isolated from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Melville, Priscilla A; Benites, Nilson R; Ruz-Peres, Monica; Yokoya, Eugenio

    2011-11-01

    The presence of yeasts in milk may cause physical and chemical changes limiting the durability and compromising the quality of the product. Moreover, milk and dairy products contaminated by yeasts may be a potential means of transmission of these microorganisms to man and animals causing several kinds of infections. This study aimed to determine whether different species of yeasts isolated from bovine raw milk had the ability to develop at 37°C and/or under refrigeration temperature. Proteinase and phospholipase activities resulting from these yeasts were also monitored at different temperatures. Five genera of yeasts (Aureobasidium sp., Candida spp., Geotrichum spp., Trichosporon spp. and Rhodotorula spp.) isolated from bovine raw milk samples were evaluated. All strains showed one or a combination of characteristics: growth at 37°C (99·09% of the strains), psychrotrophic behaviour (50·9%), proteinase production (16·81% of the strains at 37°C and 4·09% under refrigeration) and phospholipase production (36·36% of the isolates at 37°C and 10·9% under refrigeration), and all these factors may compromise the quality of the product. Proteinase production was similar for strains incubated at 37°C (16·81% of the isolates) and room temperature (17·27%) but there was less amount of phospholipase-producing strains at room temperature (15·45% of the isolates were positive) when compared with incubation at 37°C (36·36%). Enzymes production at 37°C by yeasts isolated from milk confirmed their pathogenic potential. The refrigeration temperature was found to be most efficient to inhibit enzymes production and consequently ensure better quality of milk. The viability of yeasts and the activity of their enzymes at different temperatures are worrying because this can compromise the quality of dairy products at all stages of production and/or storage, and represent a risk to the consumer.

  15. Characterization of antigen association with accessory cells: specific removal of processed antigens from the cell surface by phospholipases.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Haber, S I; Herrmann, S; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1987-01-01

    To characterize the basis for the cell surface association of processed antigen with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. Antigen-exposed APC that are treated with phospholipase and then immediately fixed lose their ability to stimulate antigen-plus-Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. This effect is seen with highly purified phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C. In addition it is observed with three distinct antigens--ovalbumin, bovine insulin, and poly(LGlu56LLys35LPhe9) [(GluLysPhe)n]. The effect of phospholipases is highly specific. Identically treated APC are equivalent to controls in their ability to stimulate alloreactive hybridomas specific for precisely the same Ia molecule that is corecognized by antigen-plus-Ia-specific hybrids. Furthermore, the antigen-presenting function of enzyme-treated, fixed APC can be reconstituted by the addition of exogenous in vitro processed or "processing independent" antigens. In parallel studies 125I-labeled avidin was shown to specifically bind to APC that were previously exposed and allowed to process biotin-insulin. Biotin-insulin-exposed APC that are pretreated with phospholipase bind significantly less 125I-labeled avidin than do untreated, exposed APC. Identical enzyme treatment does not reduce the binding of avidin to a biotinylated antibody already bound to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules of APC. At least some of the biotin-insulin surface sites are immunologically relevant, because the presentation of processed biotin-insulin by fixed APC is blocked by avidin. This effect is specific. Avidin binding to biotin-insulin-exposed APC does not inhibit allospecific stimulation nor the presentation of unconjugated insulin. These studies demonstrate that phospholipase effectively removes processed cell surface antigen. PMID:3467371

  16. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bassyouni, Rasha H; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Abdelmoneim, Abdelsamie; Said, Wessam; AboElnaga, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. Candida strains were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological methods and by API Candida. The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1 to SAP8) and phospholipase genes (PLB1, PLB2) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that vaginal candidiasis was significantly higher among the diabetic group versus nondiabetic group (50% versus 20%, respectively) (p = 0.004). C. albicans was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata in both groups. No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected (p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) (p = 0.000). Non-significant associations between any of the tested proteinase or phospholipase genes and diabetes mellitus were detected (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is noticed that the incidence of C. glabrata causing VVC is increased. The higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among diabetics could be related to the increased aspartyl proteinase production in this group of patients.

  17. Inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1 regulates plasma membrane ATPase (Pma1) stability in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Farnoud, Amir M; Mor, Visesato; Singh, Ashutosh; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2014-11-03

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen, which can replicate in the acidic environment inside phagolysosomes. Deletion of the enzyme inositol-phosphosphingolipid-phospholipase-C (Isc1) makes C. neoformans hypersensitive to acidic pH likely by inhibiting the function of the proton pump, plasma membrane ATPase (Pma1). In this work, we examined the role of Isc1 on Pma1 transport and oligomerization. Our studies showed that Isc1 deletion did not affect Pma1 synthesis or transport, but significantly inhibited Pma1 oligomerization. Interestingly, Pma1 oligomerization could be restored by supplementing the medium with phytoceramide. These results offer insight into the mechanism of intracellular survival of C. neoformans.

  18. Head group specificity of phospholipase D isoenzymes from poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Oblozinsky, M; Ulbrich-Hofmann, R; Bezakova, L

    2005-02-01

    The biocatalytical potential of two new phospholipase D (PLD) isoenzymes from poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.), PLD-A and PLD-B, was examined by comparing their activities in phospholipid transformation. Both enzymes showed the same ratio in rates of hydrolysis [phosphatidylcholine (PC):phosphatidylglycerol (PG):phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol = 1:0.5:0.3:0.1] and were inactive towards phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). PLD-A did not catalyze head group exchange whereas PLD-B showed a high transphosphatidylation potential in the conversion of PC into PG and PE. This enzyme also catalyzed the transesterification of octadecylphosphocholine into octadecylphosphoglycerol or octadecylphosphoethanolamine.

  19. Comparison of total protein and phospholipase A(2) levels in individual coralsnake venoms.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Randall A; Harper, George R; Zimmerman, Sloane; Hook, Jessica

    2013-12-15

    Studies of differences or changes in venom protein levels or enzymatic activities have significance only if contrasted to the normal variations between individual snakes. This study involves the analysis and comparison of venom from 13 individual Texas coralsnakes (Micrurus tener tener) in order to detect differences in the volume, total protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, and PLA2 enzyme activity. A significant inverse correlation between venom volume and total protein concentration was found. Although the 13 venoms were indistinguishable from their electrophoretic protein profiles, phospholipase A2 enzymatic activities varied considerably.

  20. Structure of a cardiotoxic phospholipase A(2) from Ophiophagus hannah with the "pancreatic loop".

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Long; Xu, Su-Juan; Wang, Qiu-Yan; Song, Shi-Ying; Shu, Yu-Yan; Lin, Zheng-Jiong

    2002-06-01

    The crystal structure of an acidic phospholipase A(2) from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) has been determined by molecular replacement at 2.6-A resolution to a crystallographic R factor of 20.5% (R(free)=23.3%) with reasonable stereochemistry. The venom enzyme contains an unusual "pancreatic loop." The conformation of the loop is well defined and different from those in pancreas PLA(2), showing its structural variability. This analysis provides the first structure of a PLA(2)-type cardiotoxin. The sites related to the cardiotoxic and myotoxic activities are explored and the oligomer observed in the crystalline state is described.

  1. Phospholipase A2 and Arachidonic Acid in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mejia, Rene O.; Mucke, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) play a critical role in the brain and regulate many of the processes altered in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Technical advances are allowing for the dissection of complex lipid pathways in normal and diseased states. Arachidonic acid (AA) and specific isoforms of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) appear to play critical mediator roles in amyloid-β (Aβ) - induced pathogenesis, leading to learning, memory, and behavioral impairments in mouse models of AD. These findings and ongoing research into lipid biology in AD and related disorders promise to reveal new pharmacological targets that may lead to better treatments for these devastating conditions. PMID:20553961

  2. Clinical and biological role of secretory phospholipase A2 in acute respiratory distress syndrome infants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Secretory phospholipase A2 is supposed to play a role in acute lung injury but no data are available for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is not clear which enzyme subtypes are secreted and what the relationships are between enzyme activity, biophysical and biochemical parameters, and clinical outcomes. We aimed to measure the enzyme and identify its subtypes and to study its biochemical and biophysical effect. The secondary aim was to correlate enzyme activity with clinical outcome. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 24 infants with ARDS and 14 controls with no lung disease. Samples were assayed for secretory phospholipase A2 and molecules related to its activity and expression. Western blotting and captive bubble surfactometry were also performed. Clinical data were real time downloaded. Results Tumor necrosis factor-α (814 (506-2,499) vs. 287 (111-1,315) pg/mL; P = 0.04), enzyme activity (430 (253-600) vs. 149 (61-387) IU/mL; P = 0.01), free fatty acids (4.3 (2.8-8.6) vs. 2 (0.8-4.6) mM; P = 0.026), and minimum surface tension (25.6 ± 6.1 vs. 18 ± 1.8 mN/m; P = 0.006) were higher in ARDS than in controls. Phospholipids are lower in ARDS than in controls (76.5 (54-100) vs. 1,094 (536-2,907) μg/mL; P = 0.0001). Three enzyme subtypes were identified (-IIA, -V, -X), although in lower quantities in controls; another subtype (-IB) was mainly detected in ARDS. Significant correlations exist between enzyme activity, free fatty acids (ρ = 0.823; P < 0.001), and surface tension (ρ = 0.55; P < 0.028). Correlations also exist with intensive care stay (ρ = 0.54; P = 0.001), PRISM-III24 (ρ = 0.79; P< 0.001), duration of ventilation (ρ = 0.53; P = 0.002), and oxygen therapy (ρ = 0.54; P = 0.001). Conclusions Secretory phospholipase A2 activity is raised in pediatric ARDS and constituted of four subtypes. Enzyme correlates with some inflammatory mediators, surface tension, and major clinical outcomes. Secretory

  3. Role of cardiotoxin and phospholipase A in the blockade of nerve conduction and depolarization of skeletal muscle induced by cobra venom

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C. C.; Chuang, Sing-Tai; Lee, C. Y.; Wei, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    1. The effects of phospholipase A (PhA), cardiotoxin (CTX) and neurotoxin (cobrotoxin) isolated from Formosan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom on conduction of the rat phrenic nerve and membrane potential of the rat diaphragm were studied. 2. Phospholipase A, lysolecithin and cobrotoxin were without effect on the axonal conduction. Cardiotoxin was the only active agent in cobra venom, but it was less potent than the crude venom. 3. The blocking action of cardiotoxin was markedly accelerated by the simultaneous administration of phospholipase A. However, the minimum effective concentration of cardiotoxin (100 μg/ml), was not decreased by phospholipase A. Pretreatment of the nerve with phospholipase A, followed by washout, did not alter the activity of cardiotoxin. 4. Cardiotoxin (3 μg/ml) completely depolarized the membrane of superficial muscle fibres within 60 min, being 3 times more potent than the crude venom. Phospholipase A, on the other hand, needed a dose 30 times higher and a prolonged period of incubation to induce depolarization of similar extent. Cobrotoxin was without effect on membrane potentials. 5. CaCl2 (10 mM) effectively antagonized the nerve blocking as well as the depolarizing effect of the crude venom, cardiotoxin or cardiotoxin plus phospholipase A. By contrast, the slow depolarizing effect of phospholipase A was enhanced by high concentrations of calcium. 6. Cardiotoxic fractions of Indian cobra venom affected both nerve conduction and diaphragm membrane potential in exactly the same way as cardiotoxin. Toxin A of the same venom was without effect. 7. It is concluded that the active agent in cobra venoms either on axonal conduction or on muscle membrane is cardiotoxin. The synergistic effect of phospholipase A on cardiotoxin appears to be due to acceleration rather than potentiation of its action. The mechanism of action of cardiotoxin and its synergism by phospholipase A are discussed. PMID:5041453

  4. Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence Is Mediated by the Concerted Action of Three Phospholipases D

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Julia; Bergmann, Holger; Göttig, Stephan; Ebersberger, Ingo; Averhoff, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii causes a broad range of opportunistic infections in humans. Its success as an emerging pathogen is due to a combination of increasing antibiotic resistance, environmental persistence and adaptation to the human host. To date very little is known about the molecular basis of the latter. Here we demonstrate that A. baumannii can use phosphatidylcholine, an integral part of human cell membranes, as sole carbon and energy source. We report on the identification of three phospholipases belonging to the PLD superfamily. PLD1 and PLD2 appear restricted to the bacteria and display the general features of bacterial phospholipases D. They possess two PLDc_2 PFAM domains each encompassing the HxKx4Dx6GS/GGxN (HKD) motif necessary for forming the catalytic core. The third candidate, PLD3, is found in bacteria as well as in eukaryotes and harbours only one PLDc_2 PFAM domain and one conserved HKD motif, which however do not overlap. Employing a markerless mutagenesis system for A. baumannii ATCC 19606T, we generated a full set of PLD knock-out mutants. Galleria mellonella infection studies as well as invasion experiments using A549 human lung epithelial cells revealed that the three PLDs act in a concerted manner as virulence factors and are playing an important role in host cell invasion. PMID:26379240

  5. IgE antibodies to bee venom, phospholipase A, melittin and wasp venom.

    PubMed

    Jarisch, R; Yman, L; Boltz, A; Sandor, I; Janitsch, A

    1979-09-01

    Specific IgE antibodies against bee venom, phospholipase A, melittin and wasp venom have been examined in fifty patients with an unusually severe reaction after bee or wasp sting. Two thirds of the bee venom-sensitive patients also have detectable IgE antibodies to wasp venom. More than 50% of the wasp venom-sensitive patients are also allergic to bee venom. Phospholipase A and melittin IgE antibodies were found, respectively, in two thirds and one third of the bee venom-sensitive cases. Specific IgE antibody determinations by the Radioallergosorbent test play an essential role in the diagnostic work. After a reaction to hymenoptera stings both bee and wasp venom tests are necessary due to the high incidence of a false or incomplete identification of the stinging insect. Melittin, known for its potent pharmacological activity and possibly responsible for most of the side effects in bee venom immunotherapy, can probably not be excluded from therapeutic venom preparations since IgE antibodies to the melittin preparation were detected in one third of the cases.

  6. Human Cytomegalovirus Carries a Cell-Derived Phospholipase A2 Required for Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Allal, Cuider; Buisson-Brenac, Claire; Marion, Vincent; Claudel-Renard, Clotilde; Faraut, Thomas; Dal Monte, Paola; Streblow, Daniel; Record, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is known to carry host cell-derived proteins and mRNAs whose role in cell infection is not understood. We have identified a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity borne by HCMV by using an assay based on the hydrolysis of fluorescent phosphatidylcholine. This activity was found in all virus strains analyzed and in purified strains. It was calcium dependent and was sensitive to inhibitors of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) but not to inhibitors of soluble PLA2 or calcium-independent PLA2. No other phospholipase activity was detected in the virus. Purified virus was found to contain human cellular cPLA2α, as detected by monoclonal antibody. No homology with PLA2 was found in the genome of HCMV, indicating that HCMV does not code for a PLA2. Decreased de novo expression of immediate-early proteins 1 and 2 (IE1 and IE2), tegument phosphoprotein pp65, and virus production was observed when HCMV was treated with inhibitors of cPLA2. Cell entry of HCMV was not altered by those inhibitors, suggesting the action of cPLA2 was postentry. Together, our results indicate a selective sorting of a cell-derived cPLA2 during HCMV maturation, which is further required for infectivity. PMID:15220446

  7. Loss of pollen-specific phospholipase NOT LIKE DAD triggers gynogenesis in maize.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Laurine M; Khaled, Abdelsabour; Laffaire, Jean-Baptiste; Chaignon, Sandrine; Gendrot, Ghislaine; Laplaige, Jérôme; Bergès, Hélène; Beydon, Genséric; Bayle, Vincent; Barret, Pierre; Comadran, Jordi; Martinant, Jean-Pierre; Rogowsky, Peter M; Widiez, Thomas

    2017-03-15

    Gynogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction common to animals and plants, in which stimuli from the sperm cell trigger the development of the unfertilized egg cell into a haploid embryo. Fine mapping restricted a major maize QTL (quantitative trait locus) responsible for the aptitude of inducer lines to trigger gynogenesis to a zone containing a single gene NOT LIKE DAD (NLD) coding for a patatin-like phospholipase A. In all surveyed inducer lines, NLD carries a 4-bp insertion leading to a predicted truncated protein. This frameshift mutation is responsible for haploid induction because complementation with wild-type NLD abolishes the haploid induction capacity. Activity of the NLD promoter is restricted to mature pollen and pollen tube. The translational NLD::citrine fusion protein likely localizes to the sperm cell plasma membrane. In Arabidopsis roots, the truncated protein is no longer localized to the plasma membrane, contrary to the wild-type NLD protein. In conclusion, an intact pollen-specific phospholipase is required for successful sexual reproduction and its targeted disruption may allow establishing powerful haploid breeding tools in numerous crops.

  8. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 prognostic role in atherosclerotic complications

    PubMed Central

    Maiolino, Giuseppe; Bisogni, Valeria; Rossitto, Giacomo; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis manifests itself clinically at advanced stages when plaques undergo hemorrhage and/or rupture with superimposed thrombosis, thus abruptly stopping blood supply. Identification of markers of plaque destabilization at a pre-clinical stage is, therefore, a major goal of cardiovascular research. Promising results along this line were provided by studies investigating the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a member of phospholipase A2 proteins family that plays a key role in the metabolism of pro-inflammatory phospholipids, as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and in the generation of pro-atherogenic metabolites, including lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized free fatty acids. We herein review the experimental and clinical studies supporting use of Lp-PLA2 activity for predicting cardiovascular events. To his end we considered not only Lp-PLA2 activity and mass, but also Lp-PLA2 gene variations and their association with incident coronary artery disease, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Based on these evidences the major scientific societies have included in their guidelines the measurement of Lp-PLA2 activity among the biomarkers that are useful in risk stratification of adult asymptomatic patients at intermediate cardiovascular risk. The results of two recently published major clinical trials with the Lp-PLA2 inhibitor darapladib, which seem to challenge the pathogenic role of Lp-PLA2, will also be discussed. PMID:26516415

  9. Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

    2013-05-01

    Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway.

  10. A continuous spectrophotometric assay that distinguishes between phospholipase A1 and A2 activities[S

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Meddy; Soulère, Laurent; Noiriel, Alexandre; Popowycz, Florence; Khatib, Abdallah; Queneau, Yves; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric assay was developed to measure, continuously and specifically, phospholipase A1 (PLA1) or phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities using synthetic glycerophosphatidylcholines (PCs) containing α-eleostearic acid, either at the sn-1 position [1-α-eleostearoyl-2-octadecyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (EOPC)] or at the sn-2 position [1-octadecyl-2-α-eleostearoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OEPC)]. The substrates were coated onto the wells of microtiter plates. A nonhydrolyzable ether bond, with a non-UV-absorbing alkyl chain, was introduced at the other sn position to prevent acyl chain migration during lipolysis. Upon enzyme action, α-eleostearic acid is liberated and then solubilized into the micellar phase. The PLA1 or PLA2 activity was measured by the increase in absorbance at 272 nm due to the transition of α-eleostearic acid from the adsorbed to the soluble state. EOPC and OEPC differentiate, with excellent accuracy, between PLA1 and PLA2 activity. Lecitase®, guinea pig pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (known to be a PLA1 enzyme), bee venom PLA2, and porcine pancreatic PLA2 were all used to validate the assay. Compared with current assays used for continuously measuring PLA1 or PLA2 activities and/or their inhibitors, the development of this sensitive enzymatic method, using coated PC substrate analogs to natural lipids and based on the UV spectroscopic properties of α-eleostearic acid, is a significant improvement. PMID:27194811

  11. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa type VI secretion phospholipase D effector targets both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Waterfield, Nicholas R; Yang, Jian; Yang, Guowei; Jin, Qi

    2014-05-14

    Widely found in animal and plant-associated proteobacteria, type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are potentially capable of facilitating diverse interactions with eukaryotes and/or other bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes three distinct T6SS haemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) secretion islands (H1, H2, and H3-T6SS), each involved in different aspects of the bacterium's interaction with other organisms. Here we describe the characterization of a P. aeruginosa H3-T6SS-dependent phospholipase D effector, PldB, and its three tightly linked cognate immunity proteins. PldB targets the periplasm of prokaryotic cells and exerts an antibacterial activity. Surprisingly, PldB also facilitates intracellular invasion of host eukaryotic cells by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, revealing it to be a trans-kingdom effector. Our findings imply a potentially widespread T6SS-mediated mechanism, which deploys a single phospholipase effector to influence both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic hosts.

  12. Phospholipase D1 is involved in α1-adrenergic contraction of murine vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jörg W; Loga, Florian; Stegner, David; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Hofmann, Franz

    2014-03-01

    α1-Adrenergic stimulation increases blood vessel tone in mammals. This process involves a number of intracellular signaling pathways that include signaling via phospholipase C, diacylglycerol (DAG), and protein kinase C. So far, it is not certain whether signaling via phospholipase D (PLD) and PLD-derived DAG is involved in this process. We asked whether PLD participates in the α1-adrenergic-mediated signaling in vascular smooth muscle. α1-Adrenergic-induced contraction was assessed by myography of isolated aortic rings and by pressure recordings using the hindlimb perfusion model in mice. The effects of the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol (IC50 0.15 vol%) and the inactive congener 2-butanol were comparatively studied. Inhibition of PLD by 1-butanol reduced specifically the α1-adrenergic-induced contraction and the α1-adrenergic-induced pressure increase by 10 and 40% of the maximum, respectively. 1-Butanol did not influence the aortic contractions induced by high extracellular potassium, by the thromboxane analog U46619, or by a phorbol ester. The effects of 1-butanol were absent in mice that lack PLD1 (Pld1(-/-) mice) or that selectively lack the CaV1.2 channel in smooth muscle (sm-CaV1.2(-/-) mice) but still present in the heterozygous control mice. α1-Adrenergic contraction of vascular smooth muscle involves activation of PLD1, which controls a portion of the α1-adrenergic-induced CaV1.2 channel activity.

  13. PLC-δ1-Lf, a novel N-terminal extended phospholipase C-δ1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Bo Seong; Bak, Hye Jin; Lee, Jin Young; Park, Myoung-Ae; Park, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2013-10-10

    Phospholipase C-δ (PLC-δ), a key enzyme in phosphoinositide turnover, is involved in a variety of physiological functions. The widely expressed PLC-δ1 isoform is the best characterized and the most well understood phospholipase family member. However, the functional and molecular mechanisms of PLC-δ1 remain obscure. Here, we identified that the N-terminal region of mouse PLC-δ1 gene has two variants, a novel alternative splicing form, named as long form (mPLC-δ1-Lf) and the previously reported short form (mPLC-δ1-Sf), having exon 2 and exon 1, respectively, while both the gene variants share exons 3-16 for RNA transcription. Furthermore, the expression, identification and enzymatic characterization of the two types of PLC-δ1 genes were compared. Expression of mPLC-δ1-Lf was found to be tissue specific, whereas mPLC-δ1-Sf was widely distributed. The recombinant mPLC-δ1-Sf protein exhibited higher activity than recombinant mPLC-δ1-Lf protein. Although, the general catalytic and regulatory properties of mPLC-δ1-Lf are similar to those of PLC-δ1-Sf isozyme, the mPLC-δ1-Lf showed some distinct regulatory properties, such as tissue-specific expression and lipid binding specificity, particularly for phosphatidylserine.

  14. Divalent cations increase lipid order in erythrocytes and susceptibility to secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Vest, Rebekah S; Gonzales, Laurie J; Permann, Seth A; Spencer, Emily; Hansen, Lee D; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2004-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of intracellular calcium in erythrocytes increase membrane order and susceptibility to secretory phospholipase A2. We hypothesize that calcium aids the formation of domains of ordered lipids within erythrocyte membranes by interacting directly with the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. The interface of these domains with regions of more fluid lipids may create an environment with weakened neighbor-neighbor interactions that would facilitate phospholipid migration into the active site of bound secretory phospholipase A2. This hypothesis was investigated by determining the effects of seven other divalent ions on erythrocyte membrane properties. Changes in membrane order were assessed with steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and two-photon microscopy with an environment-sensitive probe, laurdan. Each ion increased apparent membrane order in model membranes and in erythrocytes when introduced with an ionophore, suggesting that direct binding to the inner face of the membrane accounts for the effects of calcium on membrane fluidity. Furthermore, the degree to which ions affected membrane properties correlated with the ionic radius and electronegativity of the ions. Lastly, erythrocytes became more susceptible to enzyme hydrolysis in the presence of elevated intracellular levels of nickel and manganese, but not magnesium. These differences appeared related to the ability of the ions to induce a transition in erythrocyte shape.

  15. Cyclin A2 modulates EMT via β-catenin and phospholipase C pathways.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Caroline T; Bendris, Nawal; Paul, Conception; Hamieh, Abdallah; Anouar, Youssef; Hahne, Michael; Blanchard, Jean-Marie; Lemmers, Bénédicte

    2015-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Cyclin A2 is involved in cytoskeletal dynamics, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. This phenotype was potentiated by activated oncogenic H-Ras. However, the mechanisms governing EMT in these cells have not yet been elucidated. Here, we dissected the pathways that are responsible for EMT in cells deficient for Cyclin A2. In Cyclin A2-depleted normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) cells expressing RasV12, we found that β-catenin was liberated from the cell membrane and cell-cell junctions and underwent nuclear translocation and activation. Components of the canonical wingless (WNT) pathway, including WNT8b, WNT10a, WNT10b, frizzled 1 and 2 and TCF4 were upregulated at the messenger RNA and protein levels following Cyclin A2 depletion. However, suppression of the WNT pathway using the acetyltransferase porcupine inhibitor C59 did not reverse EMT whereas a dominant negative form of TCF4 as well as inhibition of phospholipase C using U73122 were able to do so. This suggests that a WNT-independent mechanism of β-catenin activation via phospholipase C is involved in the EMT induced by Cyclin A2 depletion. Our findings will broaden our knowledge on how Cyclin A2 contributes to EMT and metastasis.

  16. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 prognostic role in atherosclerotic complications.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, Giuseppe; Bisogni, Valeria; Rossitto, Giacomo; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2015-10-26

    Atherosclerosis manifests itself clinically at advanced stages when plaques undergo hemorrhage and/or rupture with superimposed thrombosis, thus abruptly stopping blood supply. Identification of markers of plaque destabilization at a pre-clinical stage is, therefore, a major goal of cardiovascular research. Promising results along this line were provided by studies investigating the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a member of phospholipase A2 proteins family that plays a key role in the metabolism of pro-inflammatory phospholipids, as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and in the generation of pro-atherogenic metabolites, including lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized free fatty acids. We herein review the experimental and clinical studies supporting use of Lp-PLA2 activity for predicting cardiovascular events. To his end we considered not only Lp-PLA2 activity and mass, but also Lp-PLA2 gene variations and their association with incident coronary artery disease, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Based on these evidences the major scientific societies have included in their guidelines the measurement of Lp-PLA2 activity among the biomarkers that are useful in risk stratification of adult asymptomatic patients at intermediate cardiovascular risk. The results of two recently published major clinical trials with the Lp-PLA2 inhibitor darapladib, which seem to challenge the pathogenic role of Lp-PLA2, will also be discussed.

  17. Long-wave ultraviolet light induces phospholipase activation in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.; DeLeo, V. )

    1990-08-01

    Long wave ultraviolet radiation (UVA) has been shown to play an important role in the overall response of skin to solar radiation, including sunburn, tanning, premature aging, and non-melanoma skin cancer. UVA induction of inflammation in human skin is thought to be mediated by membrane lipid derived products. In order to investigate the mechanism of this response we examined the effect of UVA on phospholipid metabolism of human epidermal keratinocytes in culture. Keratinocytes were grown in serum free low calcium medium. The cells were prelabeled with (3H) arachidonic acid or (3H) choline and irradiated with UVA (Honle 2002-Hg vapor lamp). Identification and quantitation of specific membrane phospholipid-derived components was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography, paper chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. UVA resulted in a linear dose dependent release of (3H) arachidonic acid into medium between 1 and 20 joule/cm2. This response was inhibited in an oxygen-reduced environment. The radiolabel released was predominantly free arachidonate and cyclooxygenase metabolites. Cyclooxygenase metabolites prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin derivative, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1a, were stimulated following UVA irradiation, but the lipoxygenase metabolite, leukotriene B was not detected. Maximal release was measured immediately after irradiation and changed little over 24 h post-irradiation. UVA stimulated an increase of (3H) choline metabolites glycerophosphorylcholine and phosphorylcholine in media extracts suggesting UVA activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2 or diacylglyceride lipase.

  18. OKT3-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with release of group II secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Wever, P C; Roest, R W; Wolbink-Kamp, A M; Wolbink, G J; Weening, J J; Hack, C E; ten Berge, J M

    1996-10-01

    Administration of the murine IgG2a CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3 exerts a transient nephrotoxic effect. Increased levels of group II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-II) might account for this nephrotoxicity as sPLA2-II induces the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, vasoactive lipid mediators that influence glomerular haemodynamics and renal function. Furthermore, extracellular phospholipases seem to be involved in proximal tubular cell injury. We studied plasma sPLA2-II levels in relation to circulating creatinine, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein levels in 15 renal allograft recipients receiving rejection treatment with OKT3. As a control group, we studied 15 renal allograft recipients receiving rejection treatment with methylprednisolone. A maximal fourfold increase in sPLA2-II levels was observed 48 h after the first OKT3 administration, preceded by increased tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 levels and accompanied by increased C-reactive protein levels. Creatinine levels reached a maximal increase 72 h after initiation of treatment. During methylprednisolone treatment no increase in any of the studied parameters was observed. Thus, administration of OKT3 induces increased sPLA2-II levels, presumably via generation of cytokines. We hypothesize that sPLA2-II may contribute to the nephrotoxic effect of OKT3 by inducing vasoconstrictive prostaglandins and renal tubular cell injury.

  19. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr. )

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37{degree}C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of ({sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to {approximately}20% of control values, IP{sub 3} formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to {approximately}5% of control values, and both IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased the formation of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, (D-Pro{sup 2}, D-Try{sup 7,9})-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization.

  20. Mechanism of inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2 by flavonoids: rationale for lead design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lättig, Jens; Böhl, Markus; Fischer, Petra; Tischer, Sandra; Tietböhl, Claudia; Menschikowski, Mario; Gutzeit, Herwig O.; Metz, Peter; Pisabarro, M. Teresa

    2007-08-01

    The human secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2-IIA) is a lipolytic enzyme. Its inhibition leads to a decrease in eicosanoids levels and, thereby, to reduced inflammation. Therefore, PLA2-IIA is of high pharmacological interest in treatment of chronic diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Quercetin and naringenin, amongst other flavonoids, are known for their anti-inflammatory activity by modulation of enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, the mechanism by which flavonoids inhibit Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) remained unclear so far. Flavonoids are widely produced in plant tissues and, thereby, suitable targets for pharmaceutical extractions and chemical syntheses. Our work focuses on understanding the binding modes of flavonoids to PLA2, their inhibition mechanism and the rationale to modify them to obtain potent and specific inhibitors. Our computational and experimental studies focused on a set of 24 compounds including natural flavonoids and naringenin-based derivatives. Experimental results on PLA2-inhibition showed good inhibitory activity for quercetin, kaempferol, and galangin, but relatively poor for naringenin. Several naringenin derivatives were synthesized and tested for affinity and inhibitory activity improvement. 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin revealed comparable PLA2 inhibition to quercetin-like compounds. We characterized the binding mode of these compounds and the determinants for their affinity, selectivity, and inhibitory potency. Based on our results, we suggest C(6) as the most promising position of the flavonoid scaffold to introduce chemical modifications to improve affinity, selectivity, and inhibition of PLA2-IIA by flavonoids.

  1. Phospholipase D δ knock-out mutants are tolerant to severe drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Distéfano, Ayelen M; Valiñas, Matías A; Scuffi, Denise; Lamattina, Lorenzo; ten Have, Arjen; García-Mata, Carlos; Laxalt, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in different plant processes, ranging from responses to abiotic and biotic stress to plant development. Phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) is activated in dehydration and salt stress, producing the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. In this work we show that pldδ Arabidopsis mutants were more tolerant to severe drought than wild-type plants. PLDδ has been shown to be required for ABA regulation of stomatal closure of isolated epidermal peels. However, there was no significant difference in stomatal conductance at the whole plant level between wild-type and pldδ mutants. Since PLD hydrolyses structural phospholipids, then we looked at membrane integrity. Ion leakage measurements showed that during dehydration of leaf discs pldδ mutant has less membrane degradation compared to the wild-type. We further analyzed the mutants and showed that pldδ have higher mRNA levels of RAB18 and RD29A compared to wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Transient expression of AtPLDδ in Nicotiana benthamiana plants induced a wilting phenotype. These findings suggest that, in wt plants PLDδ disrupt membranes in severe drought stress and, in the absence of the protein (PLDδ knock-out) might drought-prime the plants, making them more tolerant to severe drought stress. The results are discussed in relation to PLDδ role in guard cell signaling and drought tolerance. PMID:26340512

  2. Phospholipase D δ knock-out mutants are tolerant to severe drought stress.

    PubMed

    Distéfano, Ayelen M; Valiñas, Matías A; Scuffi, Denise; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Ten Have, Arjen; García-Mata, Carlos; Laxalt, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in different plant processes, ranging from responses to abiotic and biotic stress to plant development. Phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) is activated in dehydration and salt stress, producing the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. In this work we show that pldδ Arabidopsis mutants were more tolerant to severe drought than wild-type plants. PLDδ has been shown to be required for ABA regulation of stomatal closure of isolated epidermal peels. However, there was no significant difference in stomatal conductance at the whole plant level between wild-type and pldδ mutants. Since PLD hydrolyses structural phospholipids, then we looked at membrane integrity. Ion leakage measurements showed that during dehydration of leaf discs pldδ mutant has less membrane degradation compared to the wild-type. We further analyzed the mutants and showed that pldδ have higher mRNA levels of RAB18 and RD29A compared to wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Transient expression of AtPLDδ in Nicotiana benthamiana plants induced a wilting phenotype. These findings suggest that, in wt plants PLDδ disrupt membranes in severe drought stress and, in the absence of the protein (PLDδ knock-out) might drought-prime the plants, making them more tolerant to severe drought stress. The results are discussed in relation to PLDδ role in guard cell signaling and drought tolerance.

  3. Snake phospholipase A2 neurotoxins enter neurons, bind specifically to mitochondria, and open their transition pores.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Michela; Paoli, Marco; Milanesi, Eva; Caccin, Paola; Rasola, Andrea; Bernardi, Paolo; Montecucco, Cesare

    2008-12-05

    Snake presynaptic neurotoxins with phospholipase A(2) activity are potent inducers of paralysis through inhibition of the neuromuscular junction. These neurotoxins were recently shown to induce exocytosis of synaptic vesicles following the production of lysophospholipids and fatty acids and a sustained influx of Ca(2+) from the medium. Here, we show that these toxins are able to penetrate spinal cord motor neurons and cerebellar granule neurons and selectively bind to mitochondria. As a result of this interaction, mitochondria depolarize and undergo a profound shape change from elongated and spaghetti-like to round and swollen. We show that snake presynaptic phospholipase A(2) neurotoxins facilitate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, an inner membrane high-conductance channel. The relative potency of the snake neurotoxins was similar for the permeability transition pore opening and for the phospholipid hydrolysis activities, suggesting a causal relationship, which is also supported by the effect of phospholipid hydrolysis products, lysophospholipids and fatty acids, on mitochondrial pore opening. These findings contribute to define the cellular events that lead to intoxication of nerve terminals by these snake neurotoxins and suggest that mitochondrial impairment is an important determinant of their toxicity.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol-Glycan-Phospholipase D Is Involved in Neurodegeneration in Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jae-Kwang; Jang, Byungki; Jin, Hyoung Tae; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Cha-Gyun; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Kim, Jae-Il; Carp, Richard I.; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    PrPSc is formed from a normal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored prion protein (PrPC) by a posttranslational modification. Most GPI-anchored proteins have been shown to be cleaved by GPI phospholipases. Recently, GPI-phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) was shown to be a strictly specific enzyme for GPI anchors. To investigate the involvement of GPI-PLD in the processes of neurodegeneration in prion diseases, we examined the mRNA and protein expression levels of GPI-PLD in the brains of a prion animal model (scrapie), and in both the brains and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) of sporadic and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) patients. We found that compared with controls, the expression of GPI-PLD was dramatically down-regulated in the brains of scrapie-infected mice, especially in the caveolin-enriched membrane fractions. Interestingly, the observed decrease in GPI-PLD expression levels began at the same time that PrPSc began to accumulate in the infected brains and this decrease was also observed in both the brain and CSF of CJD patients; however, no differences in expression were observed in either the brains or CSF specimens from Alzheimer’s disease patients. Taken together, these results suggest that the down-regulation of GPI-PLD protein may be involved in prion propagation in the brains of prion diseases. PMID:25867459

  5. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, William S.

    1989-04-25

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the "U" sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  6. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1982-03-17

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the U sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  7. A Cell-Permeable Phospholipase C[gamma]1-Binding Peptide Transduces Neurons and Impairs Long-Term Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Sonja; Dash, Pramod K.

    2004-01-01

    Growth factor-mediated signaling has emerged as an essential component of memory formation. In this study, we used a phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC[gamma]1) binding, cell-penetrating peptide to sequester PLC[gamma]1 away from its target, the phosphotyrosine residues within the activated growth factor receptor. Peptides appear to transduce neurons…

  8. The effect of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system; involvement of phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Bora B; Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Saha, Sikha; Batten, Trevor F; Savci, Vahide; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-05-01

    CDP-choline is an endogenous metabolite in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Exogenous administration of CDP-choline has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular, neuroendocrine neuroprotective actions. On the other hand, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effect. Therefore the current study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cholinergic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway on CDP-choline-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of CDP-choline induced dose- and time-dependent increased respiratory rates, tidal volume and minute ventilation of male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. İ.c.v. pretreatment with atropine failed to alter the hyperventilation responses to CDP-choline whereas mecamylamine, cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist, mepacrine, phospholipase A2 inhibitor, and neomycin phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked completely the hyperventilation induced by CDP-choline. In addition, central pretreatment with furegrelate, thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially blocked CDP-choline-evoked hyperventilation effects. These data show that centrally administered CDP-choline induces hyperventilation which is mediated by activation of central nicotinic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

  9. Quercetin-induced downregulation of phospholipase D1 inhibits proliferation and invasion in U87 glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mi Hee; Min, Do Sik

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Quercetin, a bioactive flavonoid, suppresses expression and enzymatic activity of phospholipase D1. {yields} Quercetin abolishes NFkB-induced phospholipase D1 expression via inhibition of NFkB transactivation. {yields} Quercetin-induced suppression of phospholipase D1 inhibits invasion and proliferation of human glioma cells. -- Abstract: Phospholipase D (PLD) has been recognized as a regulator of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, but little is known about the molecules regulating PLD expression. Thus, the identification of small molecules inhibiting PLD expression would be an important advance in PLD-mediated physiology. Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive flavonoid, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of quercetin on the expression of PLD in U87 glioma cells. Quercetin significantly suppressed the expression of PLD1 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, quercetin abolished the protein expression of PLD1 in a time and dose-dependent manner, as well as inhibited PLD activity. Quercetin suppressed NF{kappa}B-induced PLD1 expression via inhibition of NFkB transactivation. Furthermore, quercetin inhibited activation and invasion of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a key modulator of glioma cell invasion, induced by phosphatidic acid (PA), a product of PLD activity. Taken together these data demonstrate that quercetin abolishes PLD1 expression and subsequently inhibits invasion and proliferation of glioma cells.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Caenibacillus caldisaponilyticus B157T, a Thermophilic and Phospholipase-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Acidulocompost

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Ryo; Sahara, Takehiko; Kimura, Nobutada; Tsuruoka, Naoki; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Caenibacillus caldisaponilyticus B157T (= NBRC 111400T = DSM 101100T), in the family Sporolactobacillaceae, was isolated from acidulocompost as a thermophilic and phospholipid-degrading bacterium. Here, we report the 3.36-Mb draft genome sequence, with a G+C content of 51.8%, to provide the genetic information coding for phospholipases. PMID:28360164

  11. A role for phospholipase D (Pld1p) in growth, secretion, and regulation of membrane lipid synthesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, A; Patton-Vogt, J L; Bruno, V; Griac, P; Henry, S A

    1998-07-03

    The SEC14 gene encodes a phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein essential for secretion and growth in yeast (1). Mutations (cki1, cct1, and cpt1) in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine synthesis suppress the sec14 growth defect (2), permitting sec14(ts) cki1, sec14(ts) cct1, and sec14(ts) cpt1 strains to grow at the sec14(ts) restrictive temperature. Previously, we reported that these double mutant strains also excrete the phospholipid metabolites, choline and inositol (3). We now report that these choline and inositol excretion phenotypes are eliminated when the SPO14 (PLD1) gene encoding phospholipase D1 is deleted. In contrast to sec14(ts) cki1 strains, sec14(ts) cki1 pld1 strains are not viable at the sec14(ts) restrictive temperature and exhibit a pattern of invertase secretion comparable with sec14(ts) strains. Thus, the PLD1 gene product appears to play an essential role in the suppression of the sec14(ts) defect by CDP-choline pathway mutations, indicating a role for phospholipase D1 in growth and secretion. Furthermore, sec14(ts) strains exhibit elevated Ca2+-independent, phophatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-stimulated phospholipase D activity. We also propose that phospholipase D1-mediated phosphatidylcholine turnover generates a signal that activates transcription of INO1, the structural gene for inositol 1-phosphate synthase.

  12. Alterations in Hepatic and Aortic Phospholipase-C Coupled Receptors and Signal Transduction in Rat Intraperitoneal Sepsis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, phosphatidyl- inositol or phosphatidic acid were noted (Figure 4). These results imply that not only is the receptor...PI hydrolysis. It is possible, however, that LPS in vivo is presented to the aortic smooth muscle cells in a way which is differenct from that in vitro...peritoneal macrophages. J Immun 134:526. Rosenbaum JS, Zera P, Umans VA, Ginsberg R, Hoffman BB (1986). Desensitization of aortic smooth muscle contraction in

  13. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  14. Phospholipase A{sub 2} is involved in the mechanism of activation of neutrophils by polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Tithof, P.K.; Schiamberg, E.; Ganey, P.E.; Peters-Golden, M.

    1996-01-01

    Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), activates neutrophils to produce superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) by a mechanism that involves phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides; however, subsequent signal transduction mechanisms are unknown. This study determines whether phospholipase A{sub 2}-dependent release of arachidonic acid is involved in PCB-induced O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production. O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production was measured in vitro in glycogen-elicited, rat neutrophils in the presence and absence of the inhibitors of phospholipase A{sub 2}: quinacrine, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), and manoalide. All three agents significantly decreased the amount of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} detected during stimulation of neutrophils with Aroclor 1242. Similar inhibition occurred when neutrophils were activated with the classical stimuli, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate. The effects of BPB and manoalide were not a result of cytotoxicity or other nonspecific effects. Significant release of {sup 3}H-arachidonic acid preceded O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production in neutrophils stimulated with Aroclor 1242 or fMLP. Manoalide, at a concentration that abolished O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production, also inhibited the release of {sup 3}H-arachidonate. Aspirin, zileuton, or WEB 2086 did not affect Aroclor 1242-induced O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production, suggesting that eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor are not needed for neutrophil activation by PCBs. Activation of phos-pholipase A{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production do not appear to involve the Ah receptor. These data suggest that Aroclor 1242 stimulates neutrophils to produce O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} by a mechanism that involves phospholipase A{sub 2}-dependent release of arachiodonic acid. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Preservation of bilayer structure in human erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts after phospholipase treatment. A 31P-NMR study.

    PubMed

    van Meer, G; de Kruijff, B; op den Kamp, J A; van Deenen, L L

    1980-02-15

    1. Fresh human erythrocytes were treated with lytic and non-lytic combinations of phospholipases A2, C and sphingomyelinase. The 31P-NMR spectra of ghosts derived from such erythrocytes show that, in all cases, the residual phospholipids and lysophospholipids remain organized in a bilayer configuration. 2. A bilayer configuration of the (lyso)phospholipids was also observed after treatment of erythrocyte ghosts with various phospholipases even in the case that 98% of the phospholipid was converted into lysophospholipid (72%) and ceramides (26%). 3. A slightly decreased order of the phosphate group of phospholipid molecules, seen as reduced effective chemical shift anisotropy in the 31P-NMR spectra, was found following the formation of diacyglycerols and ceramides in the membrane of intact erythrocytes. Treatment of ghosts always resulted in an extensive decrease in the order of the phosphate groups. 4. The results allow the following conclusions to made: a. Hydrolysis of phospholipids in intact red cells and ghosts does not result in the formation of non-bilayer configuration of residual phospholipids and lysophospholipids. b. Haemolysis, which is obtained by subsequent treatment of intact cells with sphingomyelinase and phospholipase A2, or with phospholipase C, cannot be ascribed to the formation of non-bilayer configuration of phosphate-containing lipids. c. Preservation of bilayer structure, even after hydrolysis of all phospholipid, shows that other membrane constitutents, e.g. cholesterol and/or membrane proteins play an important role in stabilizing the structure of the erythrocyte membrane. d. A major prerequisite for the application of phospholipases in lipid localization studies, the preservation of a bilayer configuration during phospholipid hydrolysis, is met for the erythrocyte membrane.

  16. The hydrophobic amino acids involved in the interdomain association of phospholipase D1 regulate the shuttling of phospholipase D1 from vesicular organelles into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Hoon; Min, Do Sik

    2012-10-31

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to generate the lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid. PLD is localized in most cellular organelles, where it is likely to play different roles in signal transduction. PLD1 is primarily localized in vesicular structures such as endosomes, lysosomes and autophagosomes. However, the factors defining its localization are less clear. In this study, we found that four hydrophobic residues present in the N-terminal HKD catalytic motif of PLD1, which is involved in intramolecular association, are responsible for vesicular localization. Site-directed mutagenesis of the residues dramatically disrupted vesicular localization of PLD1. Interestingly, the hydrophobic residues of PLD1 are also involved in the interruption of its nuclear localization. Mutation of the residues increased the association of PLD1 with importin-β, which is known to mediate nuclear importation, and induced the localization of PLD1 from vesicles into the nucleus. Taken together, these data suggest that the hydrophobic amino acids involved in the interdomain association of PLD1 are required for vesicular localization and disturbance of its nuclear localization.

  17. Neuronal damage by secretory phospholipase A2: modulation by cytosolic phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor, and cyclooxygenase-2 in neuronal cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Kolko, Miriam; Rodriguez de Turco, Elena B; Diemer, Nils H; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2003-02-27

    Activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is an early event in brain injury, which leads to the formation and accumulation of bioactive lipids: platelet-activating factor (PAF), free arachidonic acid, and eicosanoids. A cross-talk between secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) and cPLA(2) in neural signal transduction has previously been suggested (J Biol Chem 271:32722; 1996). Here we show, using neuronal cell cultures, an up-regulation of cPLA(2) expression and an inhibition by the selective cPLA(2) inhibitor AACOCF3 after exposure to neurotoxic concentrations of sPLA(2)-OS2. Pretreatment of neuronal cultures with recombinant PAF acetylhydrolase (rPAF-AH) or the presynaptic PAF receptor antagonist, BN52021, partially blocked neuronal cell death induced by sPLA(2)-OS2. Furthermore, selective COX-2 inhibitors ameliorated sPLA(2)-OS2-induced neurotoxicity. We conclude that sPLA(2)-OS2 activates a neuronal signaling cascade that includes activation of cPLA(2), arachidonic acid release, PAF production, and induction of COX-2.

  18. Grb2 negatively regulates epidermal growth factor-induced phospholipase C-gamma1 activity through the direct interaction with tyrosine-phosphorylated phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Hong, Won-Pyo; Yun, Sanguk; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Lee, Jong-Ryul; Park, Jong Bae; Bae, Yun Soo; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-10-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation. Upon the stimulation of growth factors and hormones, PLC-gamma1 is rapidly phosphorylated at three known sites; Tyr771, Tyr783 and Tyr1254 and its enzymatic activity is up-regulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that Grb2, an adaptor protein, specifically interacts with tyrosine-phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783. The association of Grb2 with PLC-gamma1 was induced by the treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Replacement of Tyr783 with Phe completely blocked EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Grb2, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783 is essential for the interaction with Grb2. Interestingly, the depletion of Grb2 from HEK-293 cells by RNA interference significantly enhanced increased EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity and mobilization of the intracellular Ca2+, while it did not affect EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1. Furthermore, overexpression of Grb2 inhibited PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, these results suggest Grb2, in addition to its key function in signaling through Ras, may have a negatively regulatory role on EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  19. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  20. Combining phospholipases and a liquid lipase for one-step biodiesel production using crude oils

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enzymatic biodiesel is becoming an increasingly popular topic in bioenergy literature because of its potential to overcome the problems posed by chemical processes. However, the high cost of the enzymatic process still remains the main drawback for its industrial application, mostly because of the high price of refined oils. Unfortunately, low cost substrates, such as crude soybean oil, often release a product that hardly accomplishes the final required biodiesel specifications and need an additional pretreatment for gums removal. In order to reduce costs and to make the enzymatic process more efficient, we developed an innovative system for enzymatic biodiesel production involving a combination of a lipase and two phospholipases. This allows performing the enzymatic degumming and transesterification in a single step, using crude soybean oil as feedstock, and converting part of the phospholipids into biodiesel. Since the two processes have never been studied together, an accurate analysis of the different reaction components and conditions was carried out. Results Crude soybean oil, used as low cost feedstock, is characterized by a high content of phospholipids (900 ppm of phosphorus). However, after the combined activity of different phospholipases and liquid lipase Callera Trans L, a complete transformation into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs >95%) and a good reduction of phosphorus (P <5 ppm) was achieved. The combination of enzymes allowed avoidance of the acid treatment required for gums removal, the consequent caustic neutralization, and the high temperature commonly used in degumming systems, making the overall process more eco-friendly and with higher yield. Once the conditions were established, the process was also tested with different vegetable oils with variable phosphorus contents. Conclusions Use of liquid lipase Callera Trans L in biodiesel production can provide numerous and sustainable benefits. Besides reducing the costs derived from

  1. Prostacyclin receptor-independent inhibition of phospholipase C activity by non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Kevin B S; Wong, Yung H; Wise, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transiently transfected with the mouse prostacyclin (mIP) receptor to examine IP agonist-mediated stimulation of [3H]-cyclic AMP and [3H]-inositol phosphate production.The prostacyclin analogues, cicaprost, iloprost, carbacyclin and prostaglandin E1, stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity with EC50 values of 5, 6, 25 and 95 nM, respectively. These IP agonists also stimulated the phospholipase C pathway with 10 – 40 fold lower potency than stimulation of adenylyl cyclase.The non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics, octimibate, BMY 42393 and BMY 45778, also stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, with EC50 values of 219, 166 and 398 nM, respectively, but failed to stimulate [3H]-inositol phosphate production.Octimibate, BMY 42393 and BMY 45778 inhibited iloprost-stimulated [3H]-inositol phosphate production in a non-competitive manner.Activation of the endogenously-expressed P2 purinergic receptor by ATP led to an increase in [3H]-inositol phosphate production which was inhibited by the non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics in non-transfected CHO cells. Prostacyclin analogues and other prostanoid receptor ligands failed to inhibit ATP-stimulated [3H]-inositol phosphate production.A comparison between the IP receptor-specific non-prostanoid ONO-1310 and the structurally-related EP3 receptor-specific agonist ONO-AP-324, indicated that the inhibitory effect of non-prostanoids was specific for those compounds known to activate IP receptors.The non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics also inhibited phospholipase C activity when stimulated by constitutively-active mutant GαqRC, Gα14RC and Gα16QL transiently expressed in CHO cells. These drugs did not inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity when stimulated by the constitutively-active mutant GαsQL.These results suggest that non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics can specifically inhibit [3H]-inositol phosphate production by targeting Gq/11 and/or phospholipase C in CHO cells, and

  2. The Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor mGlu7 Activates Phospholipase C, Translocates Munc-13-1 Protein, and Potentiates Glutamate Release at Cerebrocortical Nerve Terminals*

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Ricardo; Durroux, Thierry; Ciruela, Francisco; Torres, Magdalena; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Sánchez-Prieto, José

    2010-01-01

    At synaptic boutons, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7 receptor) serves as an autoreceptor, inhibiting glutamate release. In this response, mGlu7 receptor triggers pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein activation, reducing presynaptic Ca2+ influx and the subsequent depolarization evoked release. Here we report that receptor coupling to signaling pathways that potentiate release can be seen following prolonged exposure of nerve terminals to the agonist l-(+)-phosphonobutyrate, l-AP4. This novel mGlu7 receptor response involves an increase in the release induced by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin, suggesting a mechanism that is independent of Ca2+ channel activity, but dependent on the downstream exocytotic release machinery. The mGlu7 receptor-mediated potentiation resists exposure to pertussis toxin, but is dependent on phospholipase C, and increased phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate hydrolysis. Furthermore, the potentiation of release does not depend on protein kinase C, although it is blocked by the diacylglycerol-binding site antagonist calphostin C. We also found that activation of mGlu7 receptors translocate the active zone protein essential for synaptic vesicle priming, munc13-1, from soluble to particulate fractions. We propose that the mGlu7 receptor can facilitate or inhibit glutamate release through multiple pathways, thereby exerting homeostatic control of presynaptic function. PMID:20375012

  3. EAT-2, a SAP-like adaptor, controls NK cell activation through phospholipase Cγ, Ca++, and Erk, leading to granule polarization.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Quintero, Luis-Alberto; Roncagalli, Romain; Guo, Huaijian; Latour, Sylvain; Davidson, Dominique; Veillette, André

    2014-04-07

    Ewing's sarcoma-associated transcript 2 (EAT-2) is an Src homology 2 domain-containing intracellular adaptor related to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP), the X-linked lymphoproliferative gene product. Both EAT-2 and SAP are expressed in natural killer (NK) cells, and their combined expression is essential for NK cells to kill abnormal hematopoietic cells. SAP mediates this function by coupling SLAM family receptors to the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and the exchange factor Vav, thereby promoting conjugate formation between NK cells and target cells. We used a variety of genetic, biochemical, and imaging approaches to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which EAT-2 controls NK cell activation. We found that EAT-2 mediates its effects in NK cells by linking SLAM family receptors to phospholipase Cγ, calcium fluxes, and Erk kinase. These signals are triggered by one or two tyrosines located in the carboxyl-terminal tail of EAT-2 but not found in SAP. Unlike SAP, EAT-2 does not enhance conjugate formation. Rather, it accelerates polarization and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules toward hematopoietic target cells. Hence, EAT-2 promotes NK cell activation by molecular and cellular mechanisms distinct from those of SAP. These findings explain the cooperative and essential function of these two adaptors in NK cell activation.

  4. Stimulation of insulin release by phospholipase D. A potential role for endogenous phosphatidic acid in pancreatic islet function.

    PubMed

    Metz, S A; Dunlop, M

    1990-09-01

    Although exogenous phosphatidic acid (PA) has been shown to promote insulin release, the effects of endogenous PA on endocrine function are largely unexplored. In order to generate PA in situ, intact adult-rat islets were treated with exogenous phospholipases of the D type (PLD), and their effects on phospholipid metabolism and on insulin release were studied in parallel. Chromatographically purified PLD from Streptomyces chromofuscus stimulated the accumulation of PA in [14C]arachidonate- or [14C]myristate-prelabelled islets, and also promoted insulin secretion over an identical concentration range. During 30 min incubations, insulin release correlated closely with the accumulation of [14C]arachidonate-labelled PA (r2 = 0.98; P less than 0.01) or [14C]myristate-labelled PA (r2 = 0.97; P less than 0.01). Similar effects were seen both in freshly isolated and in overnight-cultured intact islets. In contrast, PLDs (from cabbage or peanut) which do not support phospholipid hydrolysis at the pH of the extracellular medium also did not promote insulin release. The effects on secretion of the active PLD preparation were inhibited by modest cooling (to 30 degrees C); dantrolene or Co2+ also inhibited PLD-induced secretion without decreasing PLD-induced PA formation. Additionally, the removal of PLD left the subsequent islet responsiveness to glucose intact, further supporting an exocytotic non-toxic mechanism. PLD-induced insulin release did not appear to require influx of extracellular Ca2+, nor could the activation of protein kinase C clearly be implicated. During incubations of 30 min, PLD selectively generated PA; however, more prolonged incubations (60 min) also led to production of some diacyglycerol and free arachidonic acid concomitant with progressive insulin release. These data suggest that PLD activation has both rapid and direct effects (via PA) and more delayed, secondary, effects (via other effects of PA or the generation of other lipid signals). Taken in

  5. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  6. Putative roles for phospholipase Cη enzymes in neuronal Ca2+ signal modulation.

    PubMed

    Popovics, Petra; Stewart, Alan J

    2012-02-01

    The most recently identified PLC (phospholipase C) enzymes belong to the PLCη family. Their unique Ca2+-sensitivity and their specific appearance in neurons have attracted great attention since their discovery; however, their physiological role(s) in neurons are still yet to be established. PLCη enzymes are expressed in the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. PLCη2 is also expressed at high levels in pituitary gland, pineal gland and in the retina. Driven by the specific localization of PLCη enzymes in different brain areas, in the present paper, we discuss the roles that they may play in neural processes, including differentiation, memory formation, circadian rhythm regulation, neurotransmitter/hormone release and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders associated with aberrant Ca2+ signalling, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome.

  8. Expression of group XIIA phospholipase A2 in human digestive organs.

    PubMed

    Peuravuori, Heikki; Kollanus, Sinikka; Nevalainen, Timo J

    2014-12-01

    Cellular distribution of group XIIA phospholipase A2 (GXIIA PLA2) was studied in human digestive organs by immunohistochemistry. GXIIA PLA2 protein was detected in epithelial cells of normal gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder and pancreatic acinar cells. The GXIIA PLA2 protein was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in contrast to secretory granular distribution of GIB PLA2 and GIIA PLA2 in pancreatic acinar cells and small intestinal Paneth cells respectively. Epithelial cells of intestinal glands in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis expressed abundant GXIIA PLA2 , whereas inflammatory cells were devoid of the enzyme protein. Tumour cells in colonic adenomas and carcinomas and pancreatic ductogenic carcinomas expressed GXIIA PLA2 protein at varying intensity levels. The putative functions of GXIIA PLA2 remain to be investigated and its role in healthy and diseased digestive organs can only be speculated on at present.

  9. Phospholipase D toxins of brown spider venom convert lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin to cyclic phosphates.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, Daniel M; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A; Kumirov, Vlad K; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2013-01-01

    Venoms of brown spiders in the genus Loxosceles contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These toxins cleave the substrates sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in mammalian tissues, releasing the choline head group. The other products of substrate cleavage have previously been reported to be monoester phospholipids, which would result from substrate hydrolysis. Using (31)P NMR and mass spectrometry we demonstrate that recombinant toxins, as well as whole venoms from diverse Loxosceles species, exclusively catalyze transphosphatidylation rather than hydrolysis, forming cyclic phosphate products from both major substrates. Cyclic phosphates have vastly different biological properties from their monoester counterparts, and they may be relevant to the pathology of brown spider envenomation.

  10. Amylase, lipase, pancreatic isoamylase, and phospholipase A in diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Clavé, P; Guillaumes, S; Blanco, I; Nabau, N; Mercé, J; Farré, A; Marruecos, L; Lluís, F

    1995-08-01

    To determine the utility of serum amylase (AMY), lipase (Lp), pancreatic isoamylase (isoA), phospholipase A (PLA), and urine AMY in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, samples of serum and urine were obtained on admission and every day thereafter for 5 days from 384 patients with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic accuracy, determined as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was > 0.975 for serum AMY, Lp, isoA, and urine AMY. For each of these enzymes, a threshold value (twice to sixfold the upper limit of the reference values) offering diagnostic efficiency > 95% could be determined. In contrast, accuracy and efficiency of serum PLA were low. The profiles of these enzymes in acute pancreatitis decreased in a parallel fashion over 5 days except for PLA. We conclude that diagnostic utilities are similar for serum AMY, Lp, isoA, and urine AMY for acute pancreatitis, provided that an appropriate threshold is established.

  11. Phospholipase D1-regulated autophagy supplies free fatty acids to counter nutrient stress in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ming; He, Jingquan; Xiong, Jian; Tay, Li Wei Rachel; Wang, Ziqing; Rog, Colin; Wang, Jingshu; Xie, Yizhao; Wang, Guobin; Banno, Yoshiko; Li, Feng; Zhu, Michael; Du, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells utilize flexible metabolic programs to maintain viability and proliferation under stress conditions including nutrient deprivation. Here we report that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) participates in the regulation of metabolic plasticity in cancer cells. PLD1 activity is required for cancer cell survival during prolonged glucose deprivation. Blocking PLD1 sensitizes cancer cells to glycolysis inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and results in decreased autophagic flux, enlarged lysosomes, and increased lysosomal pH. Mechanistically, PLD1-regulated autophagy hydrolyzes bulk membrane phospholipids to supply fatty acids (FAs) for oxidation in mitochondria. In low glucose cultures, the blockade of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) by PLD1 inhibition suppresses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cancer cell death. In summary, our findings reveal a novel role of PLD1 in sustaining cancer cell survival during metabolic stress, and suggest PLD1 as a potential target for anticancer metabolism therapy. PMID:27809301

  12. Isolation and characterization of actinomycetes strains that produce phospholipase D having high transphosphatidylation activity.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yozo; Uchino, Masataka; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Sato, Hiroaki; Takano, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to screen microorganisms that produce phospholipase D (PLD), and we especially focused on the strains having high transphosphatidylation activity. Eighty bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples by a screening method utilizing a preliminary selection medium with phosphatidylcholine (PC) as the sole carbon source. The culture supernatants were then assayed for PLD activity. The finding of dual PLD activities in cultures revealed that the hydrolytic and transphosphatidylation activities were correlated. Consequently, six strains were selected as stably producing PLD enzyme(s) during continuous subcultures. The culture supernatants of selected strains synthesized phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from PC with high conversion rates. These isolated strains will be made available to carry out phospholipid modification through the efficient transphosphatidylation activity of the PLD that they produce.

  13. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila inhibits phospholipases A2 from insect, prokaryote, and vertebrate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun; Stanley, David

    The bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, is a virulent insect pathogen. Part of its pathogenicity is due to impairing cellular immunity by blocking biosynthesis of eicosanoids, the major recognized signal transduction system in insect cellular immunity. X. nematophila inhibits the first step in eicosanoid biosynthesis, phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Here we report that the bacterium inhibits PLA2 from two insect immune tissues, hemocytes and fat body, as well as PLA2s selected to represent a wide range of organisms, including prokaryotes, insects, reptiles, and mammals. Our finding on a bacterial inhibitor of PLA2 activity contributes new insight into the chemical ecology of microbe-host interactions, which usually involve actions rather than inhibitors of PLA2s.

  14. Molecular cloning of phospholipases A(2) from venom glands of Echis carpet vipers.

    PubMed

    Bharati, K; Hasson, S S; Oliver, J; Laing, G D; Theakston, R D G; Harrison, R A

    2003-06-01

    Venom toxin-specific antibodies offer a more rational treatment of snake envenoming than conventional antivenom. Here, we describe novel cDNAs encoding phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) isoforms from venom gland RNA of Echis pyramidum leakeyi (Epl), Echis sochureki (Es) and Echis ocellatus (Eo). The deduced amino acid sequences of these cDNAs encoded proteins with high overall sequence identity to the viper group II PLA(2) protein family, including the 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulphide bonds that characterize this group of PLA(2) enzymes. Comparison of the PLA(2) sequences from Echis with those from related vipers failed to make significant geographic, taxonomic or PLA(2)-function distinctions between these Echis PLA(2) isoforms. However, their deduced hydrophilicity profiles revealed a conserved tertiary structure that we will exploit, by epidermal DNA immunization, to generate PLA(2)-neutralizing antibodies with polyspecific potential.

  15. Cloning and functional expression of secreted phospholipases A(2) from Bothrops diporus (Yarará Chica).

    PubMed

    Yunes Quartino, Pablo Javier; Barra, José Luis; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel

    2012-10-19

    Bothrops diporus is a very common viper in Argentina. At present, no complete sequence of secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) from this snake has been reported. We have cloned two sPLA(2) isoenzymes as well as a putative sPLA(2)-like myotoxin from venom gland. The two sPLA(2) were expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli with an N-terminal tag of ubiquitin. After in vitro renaturation and cleavage step, using an ubiquitin specific peptidase, the recombinants exhibited sPLA(2) activity when analyzed by means of Langmuir dilauroylphosphatidylcholine monolayers as substrate. Both enzymes have a similar surface pressure-activity profile when compared with non-recombinant purified isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first time that analysis of optimal lateral pressure of substrate monolayers by using the surface barostat technique is performed on recombinant sPLA(2)s.

  16. Pharmacophore-based discovery of a novel cytosolic phospholipase A2α inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Noha, Stefan M.; Jazzar, Bianca; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Stuppner, Hermann; Schaible, Anja M.; Werz, Oliver; Wolber, Gerhard; Schuster, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The release of arachidonic acid, a precursor in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, is achieved by activity of the cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α). Signaling mediated by this class of bioactive lipids, which are collectively referred to as eicosanoids, has numerous effects in physiological and pathological processes. Herein, we report the development of a ligand-based pharmacophore model and pharmacophore-based virtual screening of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database, leading to the identification of 4-(hexadecyloxy)-3-(2-(hydroxyimino)-3-oxobutanamido)benzoic acid (NSC 119957) as cPLA2α inhibitor in cell-free and cell-based in vitro assays. PMID:22192589

  17. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A; Tesmer, John JG

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25727495

  18. Phospholipase A2 receptor positive membranous nephropathy long after living donor kidney transplantation between identical twins.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hisako; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Tojo, Akihiro; Shintani, Yukako; Shimizu, Akira; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2015-07-01

    Although membranous nephropathy (MN) is a commonly observed cause of post-transplant glomerulonephritis, distinguishing de novo from recurrent MN in kidney allograft is often difficult. Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) staining is useful for diagnosing recurrent MN in allografts similarly to idiopathic MN in native kidney. No specific treatment strategy has been established for MN, especially when accompanied with HCV infection in kidney transplant recipients. This report describes a 66-year-old man who was diagnosed as having PLA2R positive membranous nephropathy accompanied with already-known IgA nephropathy and HCV infection 26 years after kidney transplantation conducted between identical twins. PLA2R was detected along capillary loops, implying that this patient is affected by the same pathogenic mechanism as idiopathic MN, not secondary MN associated with other disorders such as HCV infection. The patient successfully achieved clinical remission after steroid therapy.

  19. Cognitive Stimulation Modulates Platelet Total Phospholipases A2 Activity in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Balietti, Marta; Giuli, Cinzia; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Fabbietti, Paolo; Postacchini, Demetrio; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cognitive stimulation (CS) on platelet total phospholipases A2 activity (tPLA2A) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI_P). At baseline, tPLA2A negatively correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE_s): patients with MMSE_s <26 (Subgroup 1) had significantly higher activity than those with MMSE_s ≥26 (Subgroup 2), who had values similar to the healthy elderly. Regarding CS effect, Subgroup 1 had a significant tPLA2A reduction, whereas Subgroup 2 did not significantly changes after training. Our results showed for the first time that tPLA2A correlates with the cognitive conditions of MCI_P, and that CS acts selectively on subjects with a dysregulated tPLA2A. PMID:26836161

  20. A Role for Phospholipase A2 Activity in Membrane Tubule Formation and TGN Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, John A.; Kalkofen, Danielle N.; Donovan, Kirk W.; Brown, William J.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in generating membrane tubules at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Constitutive TGN membrane tubules and those induced by over-expressing kinase dead protein kinase D were inhibited by the PLA2 inhibitors ONO-RS-082 (ONO) and bromoenol lactone. These antagonists also inhibited secretory delivery of both soluble and transmembrane cargoes. Finally, use of the reversible antagonist ONO and time-lapse imaging revealed for the first time that PLA2 antagonists inhibit the initiation of membrane tubule formation at the TGN. Thus, PLA2 enzymes appear to have an important role in the earliest steps of membrane tubule formation at the TGN, which are utilized for membrane trafficking. PMID:20874826

  1. Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 Antagonists Inhibit Multiple Endocytic Membrane Trafficking Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Doody, Anne M.; Antosh, Amy L.; Brown, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a role for cytosolic Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in the formation of endosome membrane tubules that participate in the export of transferrin (Tf) and transferrin receptors (TfR) from sorting endosomes (SEs) and the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC). Here we show that the PLA2 requirement is a general feature of endocytic trafficking. The reversible cytoplasmic PLA2-antagonist ONO-RS-082 (ONO) produced a concentration-dependent, differential block in the endocytic recycling of both low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and TfRs, and in the degradative pathways of LDL and epidermal growth factor (EGF). These results are consistent with the model that a cytoplasmic PLA2 plays a general role in the export of cargo from multiple endocytic compartments by mediating the formation of membrane tubules. PMID:19695219

  2. Cognitive Stimulation Modulates Platelet Total Phospholipases A2 Activity in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Marta; Giuli, Cinzia; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Fabbietti, Paolo; Postacchini, Demetrio; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cognitive stimulation (CS) on platelet total phospholipases A2 activity (tPLA2A) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI_P). At baseline, tPLA2A negatively correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE_s): patients with MMSE_s <26 (Subgroup 1) had significantly higher activity than those with MMSE_s ≥26 (Subgroup 2), who had values similar to the healthy elderly. Regarding CS effect, Subgroup 1 had a significant tPLA2A reduction, whereas Subgroup 2 did not significantly changes after training. Our results showed for the first time that tPLA2A correlates with the cognitive conditions of MCI_P, and that CS acts selectively on subjects with a dysregulated tPLA2A.

  3. [Respiration of wheat roots during inhibition of phospholipase A2 by 4-bromphenacylbromide].

    PubMed

    Valitova, Iu N; Gordon, L Kh; Ogorodnikova, T I; Lygin, A V; Ruban, N F

    2001-01-01

    Dependence of oxygen consumption by wheat root cells on the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was studied. The treatment of excised roots with 4-bromophenacile bromide (BPB), a specific inhibitor of PLA2, caused a decrease in the content of free fatty acids (FFA) and in oxygen consumption of root cells. The latter was prevented by exogenous application of a mixture of FFA. A similar inhibitory effect was caused by BPB after the activation of root respiration by 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). These data suggest that FFA may be involved in the regulation of respiration through the formation of succinate. This is supported by the fact of reduction of DNP-induced stimulation of oxygen consumption by malonate, known to be an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, and by stimulation of respiration by exogenous application of succinate.

  4. Impaired brain development and reduced cognitive function in phospholipase D-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Ute; Stegner, David; Hattingen, Elke; Beyer, Sandra; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Klein, Jochen

    2014-06-20

    The phospholipases D (PLD1 and 2) are signaling enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid, a lipid second messenger involved in cell proliferation, and choline, a precursor of acetylcholine (ACh). In the present study, we investigated development and cognitive function in mice that were deficient for PLD1, or PLD2, or both. We found that PLD-deficient mice had reduced brain growth at 14-27 days post partum when compared to wild-type mice. In adult PLD-deficient mice, cognitive function was impaired in social and object recognition tasks. Using brain microdialysis, we found that wild-type mice responded with a 4-fold increase of hippocampal ACh release upon behavioral stimulation in the open field, while PLD-deficient mice released significantly less ACh. These results may be relevant for cognitive dysfunctions observed in fetal alcohol syndrome and in Alzheimer' disease.

  5. Characterization of Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodiles

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Mark; Juneau, Kate; Gemillion, Jared; Falconi, Rodolfo; Doucet, Aaron; Shirley, Matthew H.

    2011-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2, an enzyme that exhibits substantial immunological activity, was measured in the serum of three species of diverse West African crocodiles. Incubation of different volumes of crocodile serum with bacteria labeled with a fluorescent fatty acid in the sn-2 position of membrane lipids resulted in a volume-dependent liberation of fluorescent probe. Serum from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) exhibited slightly higher activity than that of the slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus) and the African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis). Product formation was inhibited by BPB, a specific PLA2 inhibitor, confirming that the activity was a direct result of the presence of serum PLA2. Kinetic analysis showed that C. niloticus serum produced product more rapidly than M. cataphractus or O. tetraspis. Serum from all three species exhibited temperature-dependent PLA2 activities but with slightly different thermal profiles. All three crocodilian species showed high levels of activity against eight different species of bacteria. PMID:22110960

  6. Kinetic disruption of lipid rafts is a mechanosensor for phospholipase D

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, E. Nicholas; Chung, Hae-Won; Nayebosadri, Arman; Hansen, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    The sensing of physical force, mechanosensation, underlies two of five human senses—touch and hearing. How transduction of force in a membrane occurs remains unclear. We asked if a biological membrane could employ kinetic energy to transduce a signal absent tension. Here we show that lipid rafts are dynamic compartments that inactivate the signalling enzyme phospholipase D2 (PLD2) by sequestering the enzyme from its substrate. Mechanical disruption of the lipid rafts activates PLD2 by mixing the enzyme with its substrate to produce the signalling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA). We calculate a latency time of <650 μs for PLD activation by mixing. Our results establish a fast, non-tension mechanism for mechanotransduction where disruption of ordered lipids initiates a mechanosensitive signal for cell growth through mechanical mixing. PMID:27976674

  7. Discovery of desketoraloxifene analogues as inhibitors of mammalian, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and NAPE phospholipase D enzymes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah A; Spencer, Cierra T; O'Reilly, Matthew C; Brown, Kyle A; Lavieri, Robert R; Cho, Chul-Hee; Jung, Dai-Il; Larock, Richard C; Brown, H Alex; Lindsley, Craig W

    2015-02-20

    Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses cellular lipids to produce the important lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. A PLD enzyme expressed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PldA) has been shown to be important in bacterial infection, and NAPE-PLD has emerged as being key in the synthesis of endocannabinoids. In order to better understand the biology and therapeutic potential of these less explored PLD enzymes, small molecule tools are required. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been previously shown to inhibit mammalian PLD (PLD1 and PLD2). By targeted screening of a library of SERM analogues, additional parallel synthesis, and evaluation in multiple PLD assays, we discovered a novel desketoraloxifene-based scaffold that inhibited not only the two mammalian PLDs but also structurally divergent PldA and NAPE-PLD. This finding represents an important first step toward the development of small molecules possessing universal inhibition of divergent PLD enzymes to advance the field.

  8. Enhancing seed quality and viability by suppressing phospholipase D in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Pan, Xiangqing; Hong, Yueyun; Roth, Mary; Welti, Ruth; Wang, Xuemin

    2007-06-01

    Seed aging decreases the quality of seed and grain and results in agricultural and economic losses. Alterations that impair cellular structures and metabolism are implicated in seed deterioration, but the molecular and biochemical bases for seed aging are not well understood. Ablation of the gene for a membrane lipid-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (PLDalpha1) in Arabidopsis enhanced seed germination and oil stability after storage or exposure of seeds to adverse conditions. The PLDalpha1-deficient seeds exhibited a smaller loss of unsaturated fatty acids and lower accumulation of lipid peroxides than did wild-type seeds. However, PLDalpha1-knockdown seeds were more tolerant of aging than were PLDalpha1-knockout seeds. The results demonstrate the PLDalpha1 plays an important role in seed deterioration and aging in Arabidopsis. A high level of PLDalpha1 is detrimental to seed quality, and attenuation of PLDalpha1 expression has the potential to improve oil stability, seed quality and seed longevity.

  9. Global regulator Anr represses PlcH phospholipase activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa when oxygen is limiting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Angelyca A; Daniels, Emily F; Hammond, John H; Willger, Sven D; Hogan, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Haemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) is a potent virulence and colonization factor that is expressed at high levels by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the mammalian host. The phosphorylcholine liberated from phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin by PlcH is further catabolized into molecules that both support growth and further induce plcH expression. We have shown previously that the catabolism of PlcH-released choline leads to increased activity of Anr, a global transcriptional regulator that promotes biofilm formation and virulence. Here, we demonstrated the presence of a negative feedback loop in which Anr repressed plcH transcription and we proposed that this regulation allowed for PlcH levels to be maintained in a way that promotes productive host-pathogen interactions. Evidence for Anr-mediated regulation of PlcH came from data showing that growth at low oxygen (1%) repressed PlcH abundance and plcH transcription in the WT, and that plcH transcription was enhanced in an Δanr mutant. The plcH promoter featured an Anr consensus sequence that was conserved across all P. aeruginosa genomes and mutation of conserved nucleotides within the Anr consensus sequence increased plcH expression under hypoxic conditions. The Anr-regulated transcription factor Dnr was not required for this effect. The loss of Anr was not sufficient to completely derepress plcH transcription as GbdR, a positive regulator of plcH, was required for expression. Overexpression of Anr was sufficient to repress plcH transcription even at 21 % oxygen. Anr repressed plcH expression and phospholipase C activity in a cell culture model for P. aeruginosa-epithelial cell interactions.

  10. Therapeutic application of natural inhibitors against snake venom phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Chow, Vincent TK

    2012-01-01

    Natural inhibitors occupy an important place in the potential to neutralize the toxic effects caused by snake venom proteins and enzymes. It has been well recognized for several years that animal sera, some of the plant and marine extracts are the most potent in neutralizing snake venom phospholipase A2 (svPLA2). The implication of this review to update the latest research work which has been accomplished with svPLA2 inhibitors from various natural sources like animal, marine organisms presents a compilation of research in this field over the past decade and revisiting the previous research report including those found in plants. In addition to that the bioactive compounds/inhibitor molecules from diverse sources like aristolochic alkaloid, flavonoids and neoflavonoids from plants, hydrocarbones ­2, 4 dimethyl hexane, 2 methylnonane, and 2, 6 dimethyl heptane obtained from traditional medicinal plants Tragia involucrata (Euphorbiaceae) member of natural products involved for the inhibitory potential of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in vitro and also decrease both oedema induced by snake venom as well as human synovial fluid PLA2. Besides marine natural products that inhibit PLA2 are manoalide and its derivatives such as scalaradial and related compounds, pseudopterosins and vidalols, tetracylne from synthetic chemicals etc. There is an overview of the role of PLA2 in inflammation that provides a rationale for seeking inhibitors of PLA2 as anti-inflammatory agents. However, more studies should be considered to evaluate antivenom efficiency of sera and other agents against a variety of snake venoms found in various parts of the world. The implications of these new groups of svPLA2 toxin inhibitors in the context of our current understanding of snake biology as well as in the development of new novel antivenoms therapeutics agents in the efficient treatment of snake envenomations are discussed. PMID:22359435

  11. Identification of a secretory phospholipase A2 from Papaver somniferum L. that transforms membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Jablonická, Veronika; Mansfeld, Johanna; Heilmann, Ingo; Obložinský, Marek; Heilmann, Mareike

    2016-09-01

    The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue. Furthermore, the PsPLA2 sequence contains 12 conserved cysteine residues to form 6 structural disulfide bonds. The calculated molecular weight of the mature PsPLA2 is 14.0 kDa. Based on the primary structure PsPLA2 belongs to the XIB group of PLA2s. Untagged recombinant PsPLA2 obtained by expression in Escherichia coli, renaturation from inclusion bodies and purification by cation-exchange chromatography was characterized in vitro. The pH optimum for activity of PsPLA2 was found to be pH 7, when using mixed micelles of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and Triton X-100. PsPLA2 specifically cleaves fatty acids from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and shows a pronounced preference for PC over phosphatidyl ethanolamine, -glycerol and -inositol. The active recombinant enzyme was tested in vitro against natural phospholipids isolated from poppy plants and preferably released the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, from the naturally occurring mixture of substrate lipids.

  12. Secretory phospholipases A2 induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Satoru; Ikeno, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Kuwana, Masakazu; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Arioka, Manabu

    2003-01-01

    sPLA(2)s (secretory phospholipases A(2)) belong to a broad and structurally diverse family of enzymes that hydrolyse the sn -2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids. We previously showed that a secreted fungal 15 kDa protein, named p15, as well as its orthologue from Streptomyces coelicolor (named Scp15) induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells at nanomolar concentrations. We report here that both p15 and Scp15 are members of a newly identified group of fungal/bacterial sPLA(2)s. The phospholipid-hydrolysing activity of p15 is absolutely required for neurite outgrowth induction. Mutants with a reduced PLA(2) activity exhibited a comparable reduction in neurite-inducing activity, and the ability to induce neurites closely matched the capacity of various p15 forms to promote fatty acid release from live PC12 cells. A structurally divergent member of the sPLA(2) family, bee venom sPLA(2), also induced neurites in a phospholipase activity-dependent manner, and the same effect was elicited by mouse group V and X sPLA(2)s, but not by group IB and IIA sPLA(2)s. Lysophosphatidylcholine, but not other lysophospholipids, nor arachidonic acid, elicited neurite outgrowth in an L-type Ca(2+) channel activity-dependent manner. In addition, p15-induced neuritogenesis was unaffected by various inhibitors that block arachidonic acid conversion into bioactive eicosanoids. Altogether, these results delineate a novel, Ca(2+)- and lysophosphatidylcholine-dependent neurotrophin-like role of sPLA(2)s in the nervous system. PMID:12967323

  13. Phospholipase cleavage of D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides asymmetrically incorporated into liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Julia B; Cid, M Belén; Contreras, F-Xabier; Goñi, Félix M; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2006-02-01

    The nature of chiro-inositol-containing inositolphosphoglycans (IPGs), reported to be putative insulin mediators, was studied by examination of the substrate specificities of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) by using a series of synthetic D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides. 3-O-alpha-D-Glucosaminyl- (3) and -galactosaminyl-2-phosphatidyl-L-chiro-inositol (4), which show the maximum stereochemical similarity to the 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol pseudodisaccharide motifs of GPI anchors, were synthesized and asymmetrically incorporated into phospholipid bilayers in the form of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). Similarly, 2-O-alpha-D-glucosaminyl- (5) and -galactosaminyl-1-phosphatidyl-D-chiro-inositol (6), which differ from the corresponding pseudodisaccharide motif of the GPI anchors only in the axial orientation of the phosphatidyl moiety, were also synthesized and asymmetrically inserted into LUVs. The cleavage of these synthetic molecules in the liposomal constructs by PI-PLC from Bacillus cereus and by GPI-PLD from bovine serum was studied with the use of 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol (7) and the conserved GPI anchor structure (8) as positive controls. Although PI-PLC cleaved 3 and 4 with about the same efficiency as 7 and 8, this enzyme did not accept 5 or 6. GPI-PLD accepted both the L-chiro- (3 and 4) and the D-chiro- (5 and 6) glycosylinositolphosphoinositides. Therefore, IPGs containing L-chiro-inositol only are expected to be released from chiro-inositol-containing GPIs if the cleavage is effected by a PI-PLC, whereas GPI-PLD cleavage could result in both L-chiro- and D-chiro-inositol-containing IPGs.

  14. Filaggrin inhibits generation of CD1a neolipid antigens by house dust mite derived phospholipase

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Rachael; Salio, Mariolina; Lloyd-Lavery, Antonia; Subramaniam, Sumithra; Bourgeois, Elvire; Archer, Charles; Cheung, Ka Lun; Hardman, Clare; Chandler, David; Salimi, Maryam; Gutowska-Owsiak, Danuta; de la Serna, Jorge Bernardino; Fallon, Padraic G.; Jolin, Helen; Mckenzie, Andrew; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Podobas, Ewa Izabela; Bal, Wojciech; Johnson, David; Moody, D Branch

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic skin disease in which barrier dysfunction and cutaneous inflammation play a role in pathogenesis. Mechanisms underlying the associated inflammation are not fully understood, and while CD1a-expressing Langerhans cells are known to be enriched within lesions, their role in clinical disease pathogenesis has not been studied. Here we observed that house dust mite (HDM) generates neolipid antigens for presentation by CD1a to T cells in the blood and skin lesions of affected individuals. HDM-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells increased in frequency after birth and showed rapid effector function, consistent with antigen-driven maturation. To define the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed HDM-challenged human skin and observed allergen-derived phospholipase (PLA2) activity in vivo. CD1a-reactive T cell activation was dependent on HDM-derived PLA2 and such cells infiltrated the skin after allergen challenge. Filaggrin insufficiency is associated with atopic dermatitis, and we observed that filaggrin inhibits PLA2 activity and inhibits CD1a-reactive PLA2-generated neolipid-specific T cell activity from skin and blood. The most widely used classification schemes of hypersensitivity, such as Gell and Coombs are predicated on the idea that non-peptide stimulants of T cells act as haptens that modify peptides or proteins. However our results point to a broader model that does not posit haptenation, but instead shows that HDM proteins generate neolipid antigens which directly activate T cells. Specifically, the data identify a pathway of atopic skin inflammation, in which house dust mite-derived phospholipase A2 generates antigenic neolipids for presentation to CD1a-reactive T cells, and define PLA2 inhibition as a function of filaggrin, supporting PLA2 inhibition as a therapeutic approach. PMID:26865566

  15. Point of care testing of phospholipase A2 group IIA for serological diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nathan J.; Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Mmesi, Jonas; Bentham, Andrew; Tyreman, Matthew; Abraham, Sonya; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-02-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care.Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08423g

  16. Vasopressin-stimulated Ca2+ spiking in vascular smooth muscle cells involves phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Shiels, A J; Maszak, G; Byron, K L

    2001-06-01

    Physiological concentrations of [Arg(8)]vasopressin (AVP; 10-500 pM) stimulate oscillations of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ spikes) in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We previously reported that this effect of AVP was blocked by a putative phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). In the present study, the products of PLA2, arachidonic acid (AA), and lysophospholipids were found to be ineffective in stimulating Ca2+ spiking, and inhibitors of AA metabolism did not prevent AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the release of AA and phosphatidic acid (PA), which are the products of PLA2 and phospholipase D (PLD), respectively. AVP (100 pM) stimulated both AA and PA formation, but only PA formation was inhibited by ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). Exogenous PLD (type VII; 2.5 U/ml) stimulated Ca2+ spiking equivalent to the effect of 100 pM AVP. AVP stimulated transphosphatidylation of 1-butanol (a PLD-catalyzed reaction) but not 2-butanol, and 1-butanol (but not 2-butanol) completely prevented AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition, which completely prevents AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking, did not inhibit AVP-stimulated phosphatidylbutanol formation. These results suggest that AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking depends on activation of PLD rather than PLA2 and that PKC activation may be downstream of PLD in the signaling cascade.

  17. Influence of (phospho)lipases on properties of mica supported phospholipid layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurak, Malgorzata; Chibowski, Emil

    2010-08-01

    The effect of enzymes: lipase from Candida cylindracea (L Cc), phospholipase A 2 from hog pancreas (PLA 2) and phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus (PLC) to modulate wetting properties of solid supported phospholipid bilayers was studied via advancing and receding contact angle measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane, and calculation of the surface free energy and its components from van Oss et al. (LWAB) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) approaches. Simultaneously, topography of the studied layers was determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The investigated lipid bilayers were transferred on mica plates from subphase of pure water by means of Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer techniques. The investigated phospolipid layers were: saturated DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), unsaturated DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), and their mixture DPPC/DOPC. The obtained results revealed that the lipid membrane degradation by the enzymes caused increase in its surface free energy due to the amphiphilic hydrolysis products, which may accumulate in the lipid bilayer. In result activity of the enzymes may increase and then break down the bilayer structure takes place. It is likely that after dissolution of the hydrolysis reaction products in the bulk phase, patches of bare mica surface are accessible, which contribute to the apparent surface free energy changes. Comparison of AFM images and the free energy changes of the layers gives better insight into changes of their properties. The observed gradual increase in the layer surface free energy allows controlling of the hydrolysis process to obtain the surfaces of defined properties.

  18. Iron-Regulated Phospholipase C Activity Contributes to the Cytolytic Activity and Virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Fiester, Steven E.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Beckett, Amber C.; Ticak, Tomislav; Carrier, Mary V.; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Ohneck, Emily J.; Metz, Maeva L.; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K.; Actis, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen that causes a wide range of infections including pneumonia, septicemia, necrotizing fasciitis and severe wound and urinary tract infections. Analysis of A. baumannii representative strains grown in Chelex 100-treated medium for hemolytic activity demonstrated that this pathogen is increasingly hemolytic to sheep, human and horse erythrocytes, which interestingly contain increasing amounts of phosphatidylcholine in their membranes. Bioinformatic, genetic and functional analyses of 19 A. baumannii isolates showed that the genomes of each strain contained two phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) genes, which were named plc1 and plc2. Accordingly, all of these strains were significantly hemolytic to horse erythrocytes and their culture supernatants tested positive for PC-PLC activity. Further analyses showed that the transcriptional expression of plc1 and plc2 and the production of phospholipase and thus hemolytic activity increased when bacteria were cultured under iron-chelation as compared to iron-rich conditions. Testing of the A. baumannii ATCC 19606T plc1::aph-FRT and plc2::aph isogenic insertion derivatives showed that these mutants had a significantly reduced PC-PLC activity as compared to the parental strain, while testing of plc1::ermAM/plc2::aph demonstrated that this double PC-PLC isogenic mutant expressed significantly reduced cytolytic and hemolytic activity. Interestingly, only plc1 was shown to contribute significantly to A. baumannii virulence using the Galleria mellonella infection model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that both PLC1 and PLC2, which have diverged from a common ancestor, play a concerted role in hemolytic and cytolytic activities; although PLC1 seems to play a more critical role in the virulence of A. baumannii when tested in an invertebrate model. These activities would provide access to intracellular iron stores this pathogen could use during

  19. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ruisanchez, Éva; Dancs, Péter; Kerék, Margit; Németh, Tamás; Faragó, Bernadett; Balogh, Andrea; Patil, Renukadevi; Jennings, Brett L.; Liliom, Károly; Malik, Kafait U.; Smrcka, Alan V.; Tigyi, Gabor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been implicated as a mediator of several cardiovascular functions, but its potential involvement in the control of vascular tone is obscure. Here, we show that both LPA (18:1) and VPC31143 (a synthetic agonist of LPA1–3 receptors) relax intact mouse thoracic aorta with similar Emax values (53.9 and 51.9% of phenylephrine-induced precontraction), although the EC50 of LPA- and VPC31143-induced vasorelaxations were different (400 vs. 15 nM, respectively). Mechanical removal of the endothelium or genetic deletion of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) not only diminished vasorelaxation by LPA or VPC31143 but converted it to vasoconstriction. Freshly isolated mouse aortic endothelial cells expressed LPA1, LPA2, LPA4 and LPA5 transcripts. The LPA1,3 antagonist Ki16425, the LPA1 antagonist AM095, and the genetic deletion of LPA1, but not that of LPA2, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase–protein kinase B/Akt pathway by wortmannin or MK-2206 failed to influence the effect of LPA. However, pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) by U73122 or edelfosine, but not genetic deletion of PLCε, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation and indicated that a PLC enzyme, other than PLCε, mediates the response. In summary, the present study identifies LPA as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator substance acting via LPA1, PLC, and eNOS.—Ruisanchez, É., Dancs, P., Kerék, M., Németh, T., Faragó, B., Balogh, A., Patil, R., Jennings, B. L., Liliom, K., Malik, K. U., Smrcka, A. V., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PMID:24249637

  20. Importance of adenosine triphosphate in phospholipase A2-induced rabbit renal proximal tubule cell injury.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, V D; Cieslinski, D A; Humes, H D

    1988-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ischemic renal tubular cell injury involves a complex interaction of different processes, including membrane phospholipid alterations and depletion of high-energy phosphate stores. To assess the role of membrane phospholipid changes due to activation of phospholipases in renal tubule cell injury, suspensions enriched in rabbit renal proximal tubule segments were incubated with exogenous phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Exogenous PLA2 did not produce any significant change in various metabolic parameters reflective of cell injury in control nonhypoxic preparations despite a significant decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and moderate increases in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE). In contrast, exogenous PLA2 treatment of hypoxic tubules resulted in a severe degree of cell injury, as demonstrated by marked declines in tubule K+ and ATP contents and significant decreases in tubule uncoupled respiratory rates, and was associated with significant phospholipid alterations, including marked declines in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PE and significant rises in LPC, LPE, and free fatty acids (FFA). The injurious metabolic effects of exogenous PLA2 on hypoxic tubules were reversed by addition of ATP-MgCl2 to the tubules. The protective effect of ATP-MgCl2 was associated with increases in tubule PC and PE contents and declines in LPC, LPE, and FFA contents. These experiments thus indicate that an increase in exogenous PLA2 activity produces renal proximal tubule cell injury when cell ATP levels decline, at which point phospholipid resynthesis cannot keep pace with phospholipid degradation with resulting depletion of phospholipids and accumulation of lipid by-products. High-energy phosphate store depletion appears to be an important condition for exogenous PLA2 activity to induce renal tubule cell injury. PMID:3417866

  1. Rickettsial phospholipase A2 as a pathogenic mechanism in a model of cell injury by typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiae.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H; Feng, H M; Popov, V L

    2001-12-01

    Phospholipase A2 activity by typhus group rickettsiae causes hemolysis in vitro. Rickettsial phospholipase A2 has been proposed to mediate entry into the host cell, escape from the phagosome, and cause injury to host cells by both typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiae. In a rickettsial contact-associated cytotoxicity model, the interaction of Rickettsia prowazekii or R. conorii with Vero cells caused temperature-dependent release of 51Cr from the cells. Treatment of rickettsiae, but not the cells, with a phospholipase A2 inhibitor (bromophenacyl bromide) or with antibody to king cobra venom inhibited cell injury. Rickettsial treatment with bromophenacyl bromide inhibited the release of free fatty acids from the host cell. Neither the inhibitor nor antivenom impaired rickettsial active transport of L-lysine. Thus, host cell injury was mediated by a rickettsial phospholipase A2-dependent mechanism.

  2. Nonadiabatic Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryachko, Eugene S.

    The general features of the nonadiabatic coupling and its relation to molecular properties are surveyed. Some consequences of the [`]equation of motion', formally expressing a [`]smoothness' of a given molecular property within the diabatic basis, are demonstrated. A particular emphasis is made on the relation between a [`]smoothness' of the electronic dipole moment and the generalized Mulliken-Hush formula for the diabatic electronic coupling.

  3. Effect of Darapladib Treatment on Endarterectomy Carotid Plaque Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Activity: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joel L.; Shi, Yi; Snipes, Rose; Janmohamed, Salim; Rolfe, Timothy E.; Davis, Bill; Postle, Anthony; Macphee, Colin H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the effects of darapladib, a selective oral investigational lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor, on both plasma and plaque lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity. Methods Patients undergoing elective carotid endarterectomy were randomized to darapladib 40 mg (n = 34), 80 mg (n = 34), or placebo (n = 34) for 14 days, followed by carotid endarterectomy 24 hours after the last dose of study medication. Results Darapladib 40 mg and 80 mg reduced plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity by 52% and 81%, respectively, versus placebo (both P<0.001). Significant reductions in plaque lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity were also observed compared with placebo (P<0.0001), which equated to a 52% and 80% decrease compared with placebo. No significant differences were observed between groups in plaque lysophosphatidylcholine content or other biomarkers, although a dose-dependent decrease in plaque matrix metalloproteinase-9 mRNA expression was observed with darapladib 80 mg (P = 0.053 vs placebo). In a post-hoc analysis, plaque caspase-3 (P<0.001) and caspase-8 (P<0.05) activity were found to be significantly lower in the darapladib 80-mg group versus placebo. No major safety concerns were identified in the study. Conclusions Short-term treatment (14±4 days) with darapladib produced a robust, dose-dependent reduction in plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity. More importantly, darapladib demonstrated placebo-corrected reductions in carotid plaque lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity of similar magnitude. Darapladib was generally well tolerated and no safety concerns were identified. Additional studies of longer duration are needed to explore whether these pharmacodynamic effects are associated with improved clinical outcomes, as might be hypothesized. Trial Registration Information Name of Registry 1: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry Number

  4. Inhibition of phospholipaseD2 increases hypoxia-induced human colon cancer cell apoptosis through inactivating of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maoxi; Fu, Zhongxue; Wu, Xingye; Du, Kunli; Zhang, Shouru; Zeng, Li

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumor, and is a direct stress that triggers apoptosis in many human cell types. As one of solid cancer, hypoxia exists in the whole course of colon cancer occurrence and progression. Our previous studies shown that hypoxia induce high expression of phospholipase D2 (PLD2) and survivin in colon cancer cells. However, the correlation between PLD2 and survivin in hypoxic colon cancer cells remains unknown. In this study, we observed significantly elevated PLD2 and survivin expression levels in colon cancer tissues and cells. This is a positive correlation between of them, and co-expression of PLD2 and survivin has a positive correlation with the clinicpatholic features including tumor size, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. We also found that hypoxia induced the activity of PLD increased significant mainly caused by PLD2 in colon cancer cells. However, inhibition the activity of PLD2 induced by hypoxia promotes the apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, as well as decreased the expression of apoptosis markers including survivin and bcl2. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of PI3K/AKT supported the hypothesis that promotes the apoptosis of hypoxic colon cancer cells by PLD2 activity inhibition may through inactivation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, interference the PLD2 gene expression leaded to the apoptosis of hypoxic colon cancer cells increased and also decreased the expression level of survivin and bcl2 may through inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. These results indicated that PLD2 play antiapoptotic role in colon cancer under hypoxic conditions, inhibition of the activity, or interference of PLD2 gene expression will benefit for the treatment of colon cancer patients.

  5. Activity of phospholipase C and release of prostaglandin F2 alpha by endometrial tissue from ovariectomized ewes receiving progesterone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Raw, R E; Silvia, W J

    1991-03-01

    Progesterone and estradiol interact to regulate secretion of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha from the ovine endometrium in response to oxytocin. Two experiments were conducted to determine if these effects were due to changes in activity of phospholipase C or in the second messenger responsive pathways that regulate production of PGF2 alpha. In both experiments, ovariectomized ewes were assigned to one of four treatment groups (control, estradiol, progesterone, progesterone and estradiol). Steroids were administered, in vivo, to mimic the changes that occur during the estrous cycle. On Day 16 of steroid treatment, endometrial tissue was collected and incubated, in vitro, to measure activity of phospholipase C and release of PGF2 alpha. Treatment with progesterone, in vivo, enhanced basal and oxytocin-induced activity of phospholipase C and release of PGF2 alpha, in vitro. Estradiol suppressed oxytocin-induced activity of phospholipase C, both in the presence and absence of progesterone. In contrast to its effects on phospholipase C, estradiol inhibited basal and oxytocin-induced release of PGF2 alpha when administered alone, but not when administered with progesterone. Steroids had similar effects on the release of PGF2 alpha induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and A23187. It was concluded that progesterone and estradiol regulate endometrial release of PGF2 alpha by affecting both the activity of phospholipase C and its associated second messenger responsive pathways that may regulate production of PGF2 alpha.

  6. Purification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of novel Lys-49 phospholipases A(2) from the venoms of rattlesnakes and other pit vipers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I H; Chen, Y H; Wang, Y M; Tu, M C; Tu, A T

    2001-10-15

    Basic phospholipase A(2) homologs with Lys49 substitution at the essential Ca(2+)-binding site are present in the venom of pit vipers under many genera. However, they have not been found in rattlesnake venoms before. We have now screened for this protein in the venom of rattlesnakes and other less studied pit vipers. By gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC, Lys49-phospholipase-like proteins were purified from the venoms of two rattlers, Crotalus atrox and Crotalus m. molossus, and five nonrattlers, Porthidium nummifer, Porthidium godmani, Bothriechis schlegelii, Trimeresurus puniceus, and Trimeresurus albolabris. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences were shown to be characteristic for this phospholipase subfamily. The purified basic proteins from rattlesnakes caused myonecrosis and edema in experimental animals. We have also cloned the cDNAs and solved the complete sequences of four novel Lys49-phospholipases from the venom glands of C. atrox, P. godmani, B. schlegelii, and Deinagkistrodon acutus (hundred-pace). Phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of 28 Lys49-phospholipases separate the pitviper of the New World from those of the Old World, and the arboreal Asiatic species from the terrestrial Asiatic species. The implications of the phylogeny tree to the systematics of pit vipers, and structure-function relationship of the Lys49-phospholipases are discussed.

  7. Stimulation of Phospholipase A2 by Toxic Main Group Heavy Metals: Partly Dependent on G-proteins?

    PubMed Central

    Krug, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    Organometals induce platelet aggregation and inorganic metal ions such as Cd2+ or Pb2+ sensitise human blood platelets to aggregating agents and this action is associated with the liberation of arachidonic acid and eicosanoid formation. The same mechanism is observed using human leukaemia cells (HL-60) when treated with MeHgCl or Et3PbCl. The fatty acid liberation within human platelets and HL-60 cells could only be inhibited with phospholipase A2 inhibitors of different specificity. Preincubation of the cells with pertussis toxin reduces the activation induced by Et3PbCl to a great extent. The non-catalytic B subunit, that only mediates the binding of the toxin to the cell membranes, has no effect at all. When summarised, these results suggest that one possible mechanism for the stimulation of phospholipase A2 by Et3PbCl functions via a G-protein dependent pathway. PMID:18472750

  8. Endothelin stimulates phospholipase C, Na+/H+ exchange, c-fos expression, and mitogenesis in rat mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, M S; Wann, S; Mené, P; Dubyak, G R; Kester, M; Nakazato, Y; Sedor, J R; Dunn, M J

    1989-01-01

    A recently described peptide hormone, endothelin, is a potent vasoconstrictor, but it is unclear whether endothelin has other biological actions. These experiments extend the range of biological actions of endothelin to stimulation of mitogenesis. Endothelin at low concentrations (0.1-10 nM) induced mitogenesis by quiescent rat glomerular mesangial cells in culture. Mitogenesis induced by endothelin was accompanied by activation of phospholipase C with increased inositol phosphate turnover and increments of intracellular [Ca2+]. Endothelin also activated Na+/H+ exchange, causing cytosolic alkalinization, and enhanced transcription of the c-fos protooncogene, additional biochemical signals closely linked to proliferation. In addition to being a vasoconstrictor, endothelin thus also functions as a mitogen, presumably through activation of phospholipase C. Images PMID:2536405

  9. Membrane translocation of protein kinase Ctheta during T lymphocyte activation requires phospholipase C-gamma-generated diacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, Ernesto; Siliceo, María; Martínez-A, Carlos; Mérida, Isabel

    2003-08-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is the only PKC isoform recruited to the immunological synapse after T cell receptor stimulation, suggesting that its activation mechanism differs from that of the other isoforms. Previous studies have suggested that this selective PKC recruitment may operate via a Vav-regulated, cytoskeletal-dependent mechanism, independent of the classical phospholipase C/diacylglycerol pathway. Here, we demonstrate that, together with tyrosine phosphorylation of PKC in the regulatory domain, binding of phospholipase C-dependent diacylglycerol is required for PKC recruitment to the T cell synapse. In addition, we demonstrate that diacylglycerol kinase alpha-dependent diacylglycerol phosphorylation provides the negative signal required for PKC inactivation, ensuring fine control of the T cell activation response.

  10. Ammodytoxin, a secretory phospholipase A2, inhibits G2 cell-cycle arrest in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Uros; Sribar, Jernej; Matis, Maja; Anderluh, Gregor; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Krizaj, Igor; Gubensek, Franc

    2005-10-15

    Ammodytoxin (Atx), an sPLA2 (secretory phospholipase A2), binds to g and e isoforms of porcine 14-3-3 proteins in vitro. 14-3-3 proteins are evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic regulatory proteins involved in a variety of biological processes, including cell-cycle regulation. We have now shown that Atx binds to yeast 14-3-3 proteins with an affinity similar to that for the mammalian isoforms. Thus yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as a model eukaryotic cell, which lacks endogenous phospholipases A2, to assess the in vivo relevance of this interaction. Atx was expressed in yeast cells and shown to be biologically active inside the cells. It inhibited G2 cell-cycle arrest in yeast, which is regulated by 14-3-3 proteins. Interference with the cell cycle indicates a possible mechanism by which sPLA2s are able to cause the opposing effects, proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells.

  11. Developmental Regulation of the (1,3)-beta-Glucan (Callose) Synthase from Tomato : Possible Role of Endogenous Phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Ma, S; Gross, K C; Wasserman, B P

    1991-06-01

    Activity levels of UDP-glucose: (1,3)-beta-glucan (callose) synthase in microsomal membranes of pericarp tissue from tomato fruit (Lycoperisicon esculentum Mill, cv Rutgers) were determined during development and ripening. Addition of the phospholipase inhibitors O-phosphorylcholine and glycerol-1-phosphate to homogenization buffers was necessary to preserve enzyme activity during homogenization and membrane isolation. Enzyme activity declined 90% from the immature green to the red ripe stage. The polypeptide composition of the membranes did not change significantly during ripening. The enzyme from immature fruit was inactivated by exogenously added phospholipases A(2), C, and D. These results suggest that the decline in callose synthase activity during ontogeny may be a secondary effect of endogenous lipase action.

  12. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  13. Prosthesis coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reswick, J. B.; Mooney, V.; Bright, C. W.; Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coupling for use in an apparatus for connecting a prosthesis to the bone of a stump of an amputated limb is described which permits a bio-compatible carbon sleeve forming a part of the prosthesis connector to float so as to prevent disturbing the skin seal around the carbon sleeve. The coupling includes a flexible member interposed between a socket that is inserted within an intermedullary cavity of the bone and the sleeve. A lock pin is carried by the prosthesis and has a stem portion which is adapted to be coaxially disposed and slideably within the tubular female socket for securing the prosthesis to the stump. The skin around the percutaneous carbon sleeve is able to move as a result of the flexing coupling so as to reduce stresses caused by changes in the stump shape and/or movement between the bone and the flesh portion of the stump.

  14. Expression and characterization of a Talaromyces marneffei active phospholipase B expressed in a Pichia pastoris expression system

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Li, Linghua; Hu, Fengyu; Chen, Wanshan; Lei, Huali; Chen, Xiejie; Cai, Weiping; Tang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase B is a virulence factor for several clinically important pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus, but its role in the thermally dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei remains unclear. Here, we provide the first report of the expression of a novel phospholipase gene, designated TmPlb1, from T. marneffei in the eukaryotic expression system of Pichia pastoris GS115. Sensitive real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the expression of TmPlb1 increased 1.85-fold in the yeast phase compared with the mycelial phase. TmPlb1 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 732 bp that encodes a protein of 243 amino acids. The conserved serine, aspartate and histidine catalytic triad and the G-X-S-X-G domain of TmPLB1 provide the structural basis for its molecular activity. The ORF of TmPlb1 was successfully cloned into a pPIC9K vector containing an α-mating factor secretion signal that allowed the secretory expression of TmPLB1 in P. pastoris. The heterologous protein expression began 12 h after methanol induction and peaked at 96 h. Through analysis with SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), western blotting and mass spectrometry, we confirmed that TmPLB1 was successfully expressed. Through Ni-affinity chromatography, TmPLB1 was highly purified, and its concentration reached 240.4 mg/L of culture medium. With specific substrates, the phospholipase A1 and phospholipase A2 activities of TmPLB1 were calculated to be 5.96 and 1.59 U/mg, respectively. The high purity and activity of the TmPLB1 obtained here lay a solid foundation for further investigation. PMID:27876784

  15. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  16. Roles of various phospholipases A2 in providing lysophospholipid acceptors for fatty acid phospholipid incorporation and remodelling.

    PubMed Central

    Balsinde, Jesús

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the lysophospholipid sources for arachidonic (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) incorporation into and redistribution within the phospholipids of phorbol-ester-differentiated U937 cells was investigated. Initially, AA incorporated primarily into choline glycerophospholipids (PC), whereas EPA incorporated mainly into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (PE). Bromoenol lactone (BEL), an inhibitor of the Group VI Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2), diminished both lysophosphatidylcholine levels and the incorporation of AA into phospholipids. However BEL had little effect on EPA incorporation. In concanavalin A-activated cells, EPA, but not AA, incorporation was also affected by methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP), suggesting an additional role for the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2. In the activated cells AA and EPA did not compete with each other for incorporation, indicating that the pathways for AA and EPA incorporation are partially different. The AA and EPA initially incorporated into PC slowly moved to PE in a process that took several hours. The transfer of AA and EPA from PC to PE was not inhibited by BEL, MAFP or LY311727 [3-(3-acetamide 1-benzyl-2-ethylindolyl-5-oxy)propanesulphonic acid], raising the possibility that an as-yet-undetermined phospholipase A2 may be involved in fatty acid phospholipid remodelling. A strong candidate to be involved in these reactions is a novel Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 that, unlike all known iPLA2s, is resistant to inhibition by BEL and also to MAFP and LY311727. The enzyme activity cleaves both PC and PE and is thus able to provide the lysoPC and lysoPE acceptors required for the fatty acid acylation reactions. PMID:12049633

  17. Characterization of polymorphisms and isoforms of the Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C gene (plc) reveals high genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Flávia F; Almeida, Marcelle O; Barroca, Tatiana M; Horta, Carolina C R; Carmo, Anderson O; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Pires, Prhiscylla S; Lobato, Francisco C F; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2012-10-12

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (Cp-PLC), also called alpha-toxin, is encoded by the plc gene and has been implicated in several diseases; however, only a few studies have described polymorphisms in this gene. The aim of this study was to analyze polymorphisms in the Cp-PLC nucleotide and amino acid sequences obtained from isolates from different regions and to compare them to Clostridium phospholipase C sequences deposited in the NCBI database. Environmental samples (sediment, poultry feed, sawdust) and stool samples (from poultry, bovine, swine, horse, caprine, bird, dog, rabbit, toucan) were collected from healthy and sick animals. A total of 73 isolates were analyzed with the majority of samples belonging to the toxin type A subtype and possessing the gene encoding for the beta-2 toxin. Comparison of plc gene sequences from respective isolates revealed a high genetic diversity in the nucleotide sequences of mature Cp-PLC. Sequence comparisons identified 30 amino acid substitutions and 34 isoforms including some isoforms with substitutions in amino acids critical to toxin function. Comparison of sequences obtained in this study to Cp-PLC sequences obtained from the NCBI database resulted in the identification of 11 common haplotypes and 22 new isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis of phospholipase C sequences obtained from other Clostridium species identified relationships previously described. This report describes a broad characterization of the genetic diversity in the C. perfringens plc gene resulting in the identification of various isoforms. A better understanding of sequences encoding phospholipase C isoforms may reveal changes associated with protein function and C. perfringens virulence.

  18. The first report on coagulation and phospholipase A2 activities of Persian Gulf lionfish, Pterois russelli, an Iranian venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2016-04-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belonging to scorpionidae family. Regarding to high significance value for tracing potential therapeutic molecules and special agents from venomous marine creatures, the present study was aimed to characterization of the Persian Gulf lionfish venom. Proteolytic, phospholipase, hemolytic, coagulation, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were determined for extracted venom. The LD50 of P. russelli venom was determined by intravenous injection in white Balb/c mice. Phospholipase A2 activity was recorded at 20 μg of total venom. Coagulation activity on human plasma was shown by Prothrombin Time (PT) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays and coagulation visualized after 7 and 14 s respectively for 60 μg of crude venom. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of major and minor protein bands between 6 and 205 kDa. Different amounts of crude venom ranged from 1.87 to 30 μg showed proteolytic activity on casein. The highest edematic activity was detected at 20 μg. Our findings showed that the edematic activity was dose dependent and persisted for 48 h after injection. The crude venom did not induce dermonecrotic activity on rabbit skin and showed no hemolytic activity on human, mouse and rabbit erythrocytes. This is the first report for phospholipase A2 and coagulation activity in venomous fish and venomous marine animals respectively. Proteolytic activity of P. russelli venom is in accordance with the other genara of scorpionidae family. According to venom activity on intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, lionfish venom would be contained an interesting pharmaceutical agent. This study is pending to further characterization of phospholipase A2, coagulation, and protease activities and also in vivo activity on animal model of surface and internal bleeding.

  19. Crystal structure of human secretory phospholipase A2-IIA complex with the potent indolizine inhibitor 120-1032.

    PubMed

    Kitadokoro, K; Hagishita, S; Sato, T; Ohtani, M; Miki, K

    1998-04-01

    Phospholipase A2 is a key enzyme in a number of physiologically important cellular processes including inflammation and transmembrane signaling. Human secretory phospholipase A2-IIA is present at high concentrations in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in the plasma of patients with septic shock. Inhibitors of this enzyme have been suggested to be therapeutically useful non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The crystal structure of human secretory phospholipase A2-IIA bound to a novel potent indolizine inhibitor (120-1032) has been determined. The complex crystallizes in the space group P3121, with cell dimensions of a = b = 75.8 A and c = 51.3 A. The model was refined to an R-factor of 0. 183 for the intensity data collected to a resolution of 2.2 A. It was revealed that the inhibitor is located near the active site and bound to the calcium ion. Although the binding mode of the 120-1032 inhibitor to human secretory phospholipase A2-IIA is similar to that previously determined for an indole inhibitor LY311299, the specific interactions between the enzyme and the inhibitor in the present complex include the oxycarboxylate group which was introduced in this inhibitor. The oxycarboxylate group in 120-1032 is coordinated to the calcium ion and included in the water-mediated hydrogen bonding to the catalytic Asp49. In addition, the ethyl group in 120-1032 gains hydrophobic contacts with the cavity wall of the hydrophobic channel of the enzyme.

  20. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as a predictive biomarker of sub-clinical inflammation in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a predictor biomarker for incident atherosclerotic disease. Lp-PLA2 has been identified in atherosclerotic plaques, however, its role in atherosclerosis is still under investigation. Lp-PLA2 belongs to the superfamily of phospholipase A2 enzymes. It is produced by macrophages that appears to play a role in the atherosclerotic vessel wall. Emerging data seem to suggest that Lp-PLA2 may be proatherogenic, which is an effect thought to be mediated by lypophosphatidylcholine and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids, two mediators generated by Lp-PLA2. Phospholipase A2 plays an essential role in metabolism of membrane phospholipids, it is related to inflammatory reactions, secretion of amyloid precursor protein. Several studies have documented the strong association of Lp-PLA2 with coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Lp-PLA2 may be a stronger predictor of recurrent stroke risk. Inflammatory markers have been associated with ischemic stroke risk. Their relationship to prognosis after stroke is unsettled. The present review article focuses particularly on the characteristics of the Lp(a)-associated Lp-PLA2 and discusses the possible role of this enzyme in view of the new data. PMID:21977119

  1. Role of Inositol Phosphosphingolipid Phospholipase C1, the Yeast Homolog of Neutral Sphingomyelinases in DNA Damage Response and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids play a very crucial role in many diseases and are well-known as signaling mediators in many pathways. Sphingolipids are produced during the de novo process in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) from the nonsphingolipid precursor and comprise both structural and bioactive lipids. Ceramide is the central core of the sphingolipid pathway, and its production has been observed following various treatments that can induce several different cellular effects including growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. Ceramides are generally produced through the sphingomyelin hydrolysis and catalyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (SMase) in mammals. Presently, there are many known SMases and they are categorized into three groups acid SMases (aSMases), alkaline SMases (alk-SMASES), and neutral SMases (nSMases). The yeast homolog of mammalians neutral SMases is inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C. Yeasts generally have inositol phosphosphingolipids instead of sphingomyelin, which may act as a homolog of mammalian sphingomyelin. In this review, we shall explain the structure and function of inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1, its localization inside the cells, mechanisms, and its roles in various cell responses during replication stresses and diseases. This review will also give a new basis for our understanding for the mechanisms and nature of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1/nSMase.

  2. Interaction of a trehalose lipid biosurfactant produced by Rhodococcus erythropolis 51T7 with a secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Ana; Teruel, José A; Aranda, Francisco J; Ortiz, Antonio

    2013-10-15

    Trehalose-containing glycolipid biosurfactants form an emerging group of interesting compounds, which alter the structure and properties of phospholipid membranes, and interact with enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins. Phospholipases A2 constitute a class of enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 ester of glycerophospholipids, and are classified into secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) and intracellular phospholipases A2. In this work, pancreatic sPLA2 was chosen as a model enzyme to study the effect of the trehalose lipid biosurfactant on enzymes acting on interfaces. By using this enzyme, it is possible to study the modulation of enzyme activity, either by direct interaction of the biosurfactant with the protein, or as a result of the incorporation of the glycolipid on the phospholipid target membrane. It is shown that the succinoyl trehalose lipid isolated from Rhodococcus erythropolis 51T7 interacts with porcine pancreatic sPLA2 and inhibits its catalytic activity. Two modes of inhibition are observed, which are clearly differentiated by its timescale. First, a slow inhibition of sPLA2 activity upon preincubation of the enzyme with trehalose lipid in the absence of substrate is described. Second, incorporation of trehalose lipid into the phospholipid target membrane gives rise to a fast enzyme inhibition. These results are discussed in the light of previous data on sPLA2 inhibitors and extend the list of interesting biological activities reported for this R. erythropolis trehalose lipid biosurfactant.

  3. Real-time Visualization of Phospholipid Degradation by Outer Membrane Phospholipase A using High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rangl, Martina; Rima, Luca; Klement, Jessica; Miyagi, Atsushi; Keller, Sandro; Scheuring, Simon

    2017-03-07

    Phospholipases are abundant in various types of cells and compartments, where they play key roles in physiological processes as diverse as digestion, cell proliferation, and neural activation. In Gram-negative bacteria, outer membrane phospholipase A (OmpLA) is involved in outer-membrane lipid homeostasis and bacterial virulence. Although the enzymatic activity of OmpLA can be probed with an assay relying on an artificial monoacyl thioester substrate, only little is known about its activity on diacyl phospholipids. Here, we used high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to directly image enzymatic phospholipid degradation by OmpLA in real time. In the absence of Ca(2+), reconstituted OmpLA diffused within a phospholipid bilayer without revealing any signs of phospholipase activity. Upon addition of Ca(2+), OmpLA was activated and degraded the membrane with a turnover of ~2 phospholipid molecules per second, per OmpLA dimer until most of the membrane phospholipids were hydrolyzed and the protein became tightly packed.

  4. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as a predictive biomarker of sub-clinical inflammation in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela

    2010-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a predictor biomarker for incident atherosclerotic disease. Lp-PLA2 has been identified in atherosclerotic plaques, however, its role in atherosclerosis is still under investigation. Lp-PLA2 belongs to the superfamily of phospholipase A2 enzymes. It is produced by macrophages that appears to play a role in the atherosclerotic vessel wall. Emerging data seem to suggest that Lp-PLA2 may be proatherogenic, which is an effect thought to be mediated by lypophosphatidylcholine and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids, two mediators generated by Lp-PLA2. Phospholipase A2 plays an essential role in metabolism of membrane phospholipids, it is related to inflammatory reactions, secretion of amyloid precursor protein. Several studies have documented the strong association of Lp-PLA2 with coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Lp-PLA2 may be a stronger predictor of recurrent stroke risk. Inflammatory markers have been associated with ischemic stroke risk. Their relationship to prognosis after stroke is unsettled. The present review article focuses particularly on the characteristics of the Lp(a)-associated Lp-PLA2 and discusses the possible role of this enzyme in view of the new data.

  5. Gliotoxin promotes Aspergillus fumigatus internalization into type II human pneumocyte A549 cells by inducing host phospholipase D activation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaodong; Chen, Fangyan; Pan, Weihua; Yu, Rentao; Tian, Shuguang; Han, Gaige; Fang, Haiqin; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jingya; Li, Xianping; Zheng, Dongyu; Tao, Sha; Liao, Wanqing; Han, Xuelin; Han, Li

    2014-06-01

    The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into lung epithelial cells is critical for the infection process in the host. Gliotoxin is the most potent toxin produced by A. fumigatus. However, its role in A. fumigatus internalization into the lung epithelial cells is still largely unknown. In the present study, the deletion of the gliP gene regulating the production of gliotoxin in A. fumigatus suppressed the internalization of conidia into the A549 lung epithelial cells, and this suppression could be rescued by the exogenous addition of gliotoxin. At lower concentrations, gliotoxin enhanced the internalization of the conidia of A. fumigatus into A549 cells; in contrast, it inhibited the phagocytosis of J774 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Under a concentration of 100 ng/ml, gliotoxin had no effect on A549 cell viability but attenuated ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Gliotoxin significantly stimulated the phospholipase D activity in the A549 cells at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This stimulation was blocked by the pretreatment of host cells with PLD1- but not PLD2-specific inhibitor. Morphological cell changes induced by gliotoxin were observed in the A549 cells accompanying with obvious actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and a moderate alteration of phospholipase D distribution. Our data indicated that gliotoxin might be responsible for modulating the A. fumigatus internalization into epithelial cells through phospholipase D1 activation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement.

  6. Regulation of human eosinophil degranulation and activation by endogenous phospholipase A2.

    PubMed Central

    White, S R; Strek, M E; Kulp, G V; Spaethe, S M; Burch, R A; Neeley, S P; Leff, A R

    1993-01-01

    The unique granular proteins of eosinophils may have a pathogenetic role in asthma and in the defense against parasitic infestations. However, the mechanisms regulating eosinophil degranulation are largely unknown. We examined the hypothesis that release of these proteins is regulated by endogenous activation of phospholipase A2. Human eosinophils (HE) were isolated from the peripheral blood of 42 subjects either by Percoll density separation or by negative-selection immunomagnetic fractionation. Eosinophil activation was initiated in vitro with 10(-6) M FMLP and 5 micrograms/ml cytochalasin B and was assessed by measurement of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and superoxide radical (.O2-) secretion. Treatment of HE with 100 microM mepacrine before activation blocked EPO release (2.0 +/- 0.2 vs 10.2 +/- 2.1% cell content for activated HE, P < 0.004, n = 9), .O2- generation (2.6 +/- 0.9 vs 44.2 +/- 10.8 nmol/ml per 10(6) HE, P < 0.002, n = 5), and LTC4 secretion (68.2 +/- 32.2 vs 1,125.2 +/- 526.8 pg/ml per 10(6) HE, P < 0.04, n = 8). Pretreatment of HE with 100 microM 4-bromophenacyl bromide before activation similarly blocked EPO release, .O2- generation and LTC4 secretion. Addition of AA to HE after treatment with 100 microM mepacrine and before subsequent activation reversed the inhibition of both EPO (10.4 +/- 2.2% with 1 microM AA vs 2.0 +/- 0.2% for mepacrine, n = 5, P < 0.02) and LTC4 secretion (695.1 +/- 412.9 with 10 microM AA vs 68.2 +/- 32.2 pg/ml per 10(6) HE for mepacrine, n = 8, P < 0.04), but did not reverse inhibition of .O2- generation by mepacrine. We demonstrate that secretion of preformed cytotoxic proteins and .O2- by eosinophils is regulated endogenously by phospholipase A2. PMID:8387540

  7. Lung mast cells are a source of secreted phospholipases A2

    PubMed Central

    Triggiani, Massimo; Giannattasio, Giorgio; Calabrese, Cecilia; Loffredo, Stefania; Granata, Francescopaolo; Fiorello, Alfonso; Santini, Mario; Gelb, Michael H.; Marone, Gianni

    2009-01-01

    Background Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are released in plasma and other biologic fluids of patients with inflammatory, autoimmune, and allergic diseases. Objective We sought to evaluate sPLA2 activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthmatic patients and to examine the expression and release of sPLA2s from primary human lung mast cells (HLMCs). Methods sPLA2 activity was measured in BALF and supernatants of either unstimulated or anti-IgE–activated HLMCs as hydrolysis of oleic acid from radiolabeled Escherichia coli membranes. Expression of sPLA2s was examined by using RT-PCR. The release of cysteinyl leukotriene (LT) C4 was measured by means of enzyme immunoassay. Results Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity was higher in the BALF of asthmatic patients than in the control group. BALF PLA2 activity was blocked by the sPLA2 inhibitors dithiothreitol and Me-Indoxam but not by the cytosolic PLA2 inhibitor AZ-1. HLMCs spontaneously released a PLA2 activity that was increased on stimulation with anti-IgE. This PLA2 activity was blocked by dithiothreitol and Me-Indoxam but not by AZ-1. HLMCs constitutively express mRNA for group IB, IIA, IID, IIE, IIF, III, V, X, XIIA, and XIIB sPLA2s. Anti-IgE did not modify the expression of sPLA2s. The cell-impermeable inhibitor Me-Indoxam significantly reduced (up to 40%) the production of LTC4 from anti-IgE–stimulated HLMCs. Conclusions sPLA2 activity is increased in the airways of asthmatic patients. HLMCs express multiple sPLA2s and release 1 or more of them when activated by anti-IgE. The sPLA2s released by mast cells contribute to LTC4 production by acting in an autocrine fashion. Mast cells can be a source of sPLA2s in the airways of asthmatic patients. PMID:19541351

  8. Phospholipase A2 as a point of care alternative to serum amylase and pancreatic lipase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nathan J.; Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Bentham, Andrew; Tyreman, Matthew; Philips, Natalie; Khan, Shahid A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a relatively common and potentially fatal condition, but the presenting symptoms are non-specific and diagnosis relies largely on the measurement of amylase activity by the hospital clinical laboratory. In this work we develop a point of care test for pancreatitis measuring concentration of secretory phospholipase A2 group IB (sPLA2-IB). Novel antibodies for sPLA2-IB were raised and used to design an ELISA and a lateral flow device (LFD) for the point of care measurement of sPLA2-IB concentration, which was compared to pancreatic amylase activity, lipase activity, and sPLA2-IB activity in 153 serum samples. 98 of these samples were obtained from the pathology unit of a major hospital and classified retrospectively according to presence or absence of pancreatitis, and the remaining 55 were obtained from commercial sources to serve as high lipase (n = 20), CA19-9 positive (n = 15), and healthy (n = 20) controls. sPLA2-IB concentration correlated well with the serum activity of both amylase and lipase, and performed at least as well as either markers in the differentiation of pancreatitis from controls.Acute pancreatitis is a relatively common and potentially fatal condition, but the presenting symptoms are non-specific and diagnosis relies largely on the measurement of amylase activity by the hospital clinical laboratory. In this work we develop a point of care test for pancreatitis measuring concentration of secretory phospholipase A2 group IB (sPLA2-IB). Novel antibodies for sPLA2-IB were raised and used to design an ELISA and a lateral flow device (LFD) for the point of care measurement of sPLA2-IB concentration, which was compared to pancreatic amylase activity, lipase activity, and sPLA2-IB activity in 153 serum samples. 98 of these samples were obtained from the pathology unit of a major hospital and classified retrospectively according to presence or absence of pancreatitis, and the remaining 55 were obtained from commercial sources to

  9. SKELETAL MUSCLE GROUP VIA PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 (iPLA2β): EXPRESSION AND ROLE IN FATTY ACID OXIDATION†

    PubMed Central

    Carper, Michael J.; Zhang, Sheng; Turk, John; Ramanadham, Sasanka

    2009-01-01

    Among the phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are the Group VI Ca2+-independent PLA2s (iPLA2s) and expression of multiple transcripts of iPLA2 in skeletal muscle has been reported. In the present study, phospholipase activity and sequential ATP and calmodulin affinity column chromatography analyses reveal that skeletal muscle iPLA2 exhibits properties characteristic of the iPLA2β isoform. The phospholipase activity of iPLA2β has been demonstrated to participate in signal transduction, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. We also report here that skeletal muscle from iPLA2β-null mice, relative to wild type muscle, exhibits a reduced capacity to oxidize palmitate but not palmitoyl-CoA or acetyl-CoA in the absence of changes in fatty acid transporters CD36 and CPT1 or β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. Recently, purified iPLA2β was demonstrated to manifest a thioesterase activity which catalyzes hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs. The liberated CoA-SH facilitates fatty acid transport into the mitochondria. In this regard, we find that fractions eluted from the ATP column and containing iPLA2β phospholipase activity also contained acyl-CoA thioesterase activity that was inhibited by the bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide inhibitor of iPLA2β. We further find that acyl-CoA thioesterase activity in skeletal muscle preparations from iPLA2β-null mice is significantly reduced, relative to WT activity. These findings suggest that the absence of acyl-CoA thioesterase activity of iPLA2β can lead to reduced fatty acyl-CoA generation and impair fatty acid oxidation in iPLA2β-null mice. Our findings therefore reveal a novel function of iPLA2β, related not to its phospholipase activity but to its thioesterase activity, which contributes to optimal fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. PMID:18937505

  10. Structure of Human GIVD Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Reveals Insights into Substrate Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Klein, Michael G; Snell, Gyorgy; Lane, Weston; Zou, Hua; Levin, Irena; Li, Ke; Sang, Bi-Ching

    2016-07-03

    Cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2s) consist of a family of calcium-sensitive enzymes that function to generate lipid second messengers through hydrolysis of membrane-associated glycerophospholipids. The GIVD cPLA2 (cPLA2δ) is a potential drug target for developing a selective therapeutic agent for the treatment of psoriasis. Here, we present two X-ray structures of human cPLA2δ, capturing an apo state, and in complex with a substrate-like inhibitor. Comparison of the apo and inhibitor-bound structures reveals conformational changes in a flexible cap that allows the substrate to access the relatively buried active site, providing new insight into the mechanism for substrate recognition. The cPLA2δ structure reveals an unexpected second C2 domain that was previously unrecognized from sequence alignments, placing cPLA2δ into the class of membrane-associated proteins that contain a tandem pair of C2 domains. Furthermore, our structures elucidate novel inter-domain interactions and define three potential calcium-binding sites that are likely important for regulation and activation of enzymatic activity. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing cPLA2's function in signal transduction.

  11. Disruption of TrkB-mediated phospholipase Cgamma signaling inhibits limbic epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao Ping; Pan, Enhui; Sciarretta, Carla; Minichiello, Liliana; McNamara, James O

    2010-05-05

    The BDNF receptor, TrkB, is critical to limbic epileptogenesis, but the responsible downstream signaling pathways are unknown. We hypothesized that TrkB-dependent activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) signaling is the key pathway and tested this in trkB(PLC/PLC) mice carrying a mutation (Y816F) that uncouples TrkB from PLCgamma1. Biochemical measures revealed activation of both TrkB and PLCgamma1 in hippocampi in the pilocarpine and kindling models in wild-type mice. PLCgamma1 activation was decreased in hippocampi isolated from trkB(PLC/PLC) compared with control mice. Epileptogenesis assessed by development of kindling was inhibited in trkB(PLC/PLC) compared with control mice. Long-term potentiation of the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse was impaired in slices of trkB(PLC/PLC) mice. We conclude that TrkB-dependent activation of PLCgamma1 signaling is an important molecular mechanism of limbic epileptogenesis. Elucidating signaling pathways activated by a cell membrane receptor in animal models of CNS disorders promises to reveal novel targets for specific and effective therapeutic intervention.

  12. Charge Shielding of PIP2 by Cations Regulates Enzyme Activity of Phospholipase C

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong Bae; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Huang, Weigang; Zhang, Qisheng; Koh, Duk-Su

    2015-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) of the plasma membrane by phospholipase C (PLC) generates two critical second messengers, inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. For the enzymatic reaction, PIP2 binds to positively charged amino acids in the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC. Here we tested the hypothesis that positively charged divalent and multivalent cations accumulate around the negatively charged PIP2, a process called electrostatic charge shielding, and therefore inhibit electrostatic PIP2-PLC interaction. This charge shielding of PIP2 was measured quantitatively with an in vitro enzyme assay using WH-15, a PIP2 analog, and various recombinant PLC proteins (β1, γ1, and δ1). Reduction of PLC activity by divalent cations, polyamines, and neomycin was well described by a theoretical model considering accumulation of cations around PIP2 via their electrostatic interaction and chemical binding. Finally, the charge shielding of PIP2 was also observed in live cells. Perfusion of the cations into cells via patch clamp pipette reduced PIP2 hydrolysis by PLC as triggered by M1 muscarinic receptors with a potency order of Mg2+ < spermine4+ < neomycin6+. Accumulation of divalent cations into cells through divalent-permeable TRPM7 channel had the same effect. Altogether our results suggest that Mg2+ and polyamines modulate the activity of PLCs by controlling the amount of free PIP2 available for the enzymes and that highly charged biomolecules can be inactivated by counterions electrostatically. PMID:26658739

  13. Phospholipase A2 from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei brucei: inhibition by organotins.

    PubMed

    Shuaibu, M N; Kanbara, H; Yanagi, T; Ameh, D A; Bonire, J J; Nok, A J

    2001-11-01

    Activity and kinetics of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Wellcome strain) and Trypanosoma brucei brucei (GUTat 3.1) were examined using two different fluorescent substrates. The activity in the supernatants of sonicated parasites was Ca2+-independent, strongly stimulated by Triton X-100 with optimum activity at 37 degrees C and pH 6.5-8.5. To encourage a possible interaction between the parasite enzyme and organotin compounds, fatty acid derivatives of dibutyltin dichloride were synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of PLA2. The enzyme from the two-trypanosome species differ with respect to kinetic parameters and are noncompetitively inhibited by the organotin compounds. The Michaelis constant (KM) for PLA2 from T. b. brucei is 63.87 and 30.90 microM while for T. b. gambiense it is 119.64 and 32.91 microM for the substrates 1,2-bis-(1-pyrenebutanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PBGPC) and 2-(12-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)dodecanoyl-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBDC12-HPC), respectively.

  14. Revealing Transient Interactions between Phosphatidylinositol-specific Phospholipase C and Phosphatidylcholine--Rich Lipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boqian; He, Tao; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Roberts, Mary; Gershenson, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes transiently interact with target membranes. Previous fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments showed that Bacillus thuringiensis PI-PLC specifically binds to phosphatidylcholine (PC)-rich membranes and preferentially interacts with unilamellar vesicles that show larger curvature. Mutagenesis studies combined with FCS measurements of binding affinity highlighted the importance of interfacial PI-PLC tyrosines in the PC specificity. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PI-PLC performed in the presence of a PC membrane indicate these tyrosines are involved in specific cation-pi interactions with choline headgroups. To further understand those transient interactions between PI-PLC and PC-rich vesicles, we monitor single fluorescently labeled PI-PLC proteins as they cycle on and off surface-tethered small unilamellar vesicles using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. The residence times on vesicles along with vesicle size information, based on vesicle fluorescence intensity, reveal the time scales of PI-PLC membrane interactions as well as the curvature dependence. The PC specificity and the vesicle curvature dependence of this PI-PLC/membrane interaction provide insight into how the interface modulates protein-membrane interactions. This work was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Science of the National Institutes of Health (R01GM060418).

  15. Secretory phospholipases A2 induce cytokine release from blood and synovial fluid monocytes.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Massimo; Granata, Francescopaolo; Oriente, Alfonso; Gentile, Marco; Petraroli, Angelica; Balestrieri, Barbara; Marone, Gianni

    2002-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) are released in the blood of patients with various inflammatory diseases and exert proinflammatory activities by releasing arachidonic acid (AA), the precursor of eicosanoids. We examined the ability of four sPLA2 to activate blood and synovial fluid monocytes in vitro. Monocytes were purified from blood of healthy donors or from synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis by negative immunoselection and by adherence to plastic dishes, respectively. The cells were incubated with group IA, IB, IIA and III sPLA2 and the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-12 was determined by ELISA. Group IA, IB and IIA sPLA2 induced a concentration-dependent release of TNF-alpha and IL-6 from blood monocytes. These sPLA2 activated IL-12 production only in monocytes preincubated with IFN-gamma. Group IA and IIA sPLA2 also induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 release from synovial fluid monocytes. TNF-alpha and IL-6 release paralleled an increase in their mRNA expression and was independent from the capacity of sPLA2 to mobilize AA. These results indicate that sPLA2 stimulate cytokine release from blood and synovial fluid monocytes by a mechanism at least partially unrelated to their enzymatic activity. This effect may concur with the generation of AA in the proinflammatory activity of sPLA2 released during inflammatory diseases.

  16. Phospholipase A2 from bovine seminal plasma is a platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    Soubeyrand, S; Lazure, C; Manjunath, P

    1998-01-01

    The major phospholipase A2 activity from bovine seminal plasma was recently purified [Soubeyrand, Khadir, Brindle and Manjunath (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 222-227]. We here show that the 60 kDa enzyme is in fact a platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH). Sequences of the N-terminus as well as of internal fragments showed 100% identity with the cDNA-deduced sequences of bovine plasma PAF-AH. The enzyme has kinetic properties similar to those of the human serum PAF-AH. Although capable of hydrolysing long-chained phosphatidylcholine, it displayed a highly preferential activity towards PAF. The enzyme activity towards phosphatidylcholine, but not PAF, was Ca2+-dependent. Biochemical characterization revealed that the enzyme is extensively N-glycosylated and that it exists predominantly as a dimer in solution. Western blot analysis revealed that the enzyme is highly heterogeneous in charge, with a maximal distribution at an isoelectric point of approx. 5.7. The enzyme was expressed exclusively in the seminal vesicles and the ampulla. No association of the enzyme with either epididymal or ejaculated spermatozoa could be detected. PMID:9405273

  17. Secretory phospholipase A2 in the pathogenesis of acute dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    Jeewandara, Chandima; Gomes, Laksiri; Udari, Sukhitha; Paranavitane, S.A.; Shyamali, N.L.A.; Ogg, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Platelet activating factor (PAF) is an important mediator of vascular leak in acute dengue. Phospholipase A2s (PLA2) are inflammatory lipid enzymes that generate and regulate PAF and other mediators associated with mast cells. We sought to investigate if mast cell activation and increases in secretory sPLA2s are associated with an increase in PAF and occurrence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Methods The changes in the levels of mast cell tryptase, PAF and the activity of sPLA2 were determined throughout the course of illness in 13 adult patients with DHF, and 30 patients with dengue fever (DF). Results We found that sPLA2 activity was significantly higher in patients with DHF when compared to those with DF, during the first 120 h of clinical illness. sPLA2 activity was significantly associated with PAF levels, which were also significantly higher in patients with DHF. Although levels of mast cell tryptase were higher in patients with DHF, the difference was not significant, and the levels were not above the reference ranges. sPLA2 activity significantly correlated with the degree of viraemia in patients with DHF but not in those with DF. Conclusion sPLA2 appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of dengue. Since its activity is significantly increased during the early phase of infection in patients with DHF, this suggests that understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide opportunities for early intervention. PMID:28250920

  18. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    PubMed

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  19. Hydrolysis of mixed monomolecular films of tricaprylin/dilauroylphosphatidylcholine by lipase and phospholipase A₂.

    PubMed

    Mircheva, K; Ivanova, Tz; Panaiotov, I; Verger, R

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the kinetics of the enzymatic action of one or more enzymes on mixture of substrates organized in 2D structures in order to mimic some situations existing in biological or industrial systems. Hydrolysis of the mixed monomolecular films of tricaprylin/dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (TC8/DiC12PC) by Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) and phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) was studied by measuring the decrease of the surface area and change of the surface potential at barostatic conditions. The decrease of the surface area detects the transition of the substrate into reaction products and their solubilization while the change of the surface potential detects the contribution of dipole moment of the molecules remaining at the interface during the hydrolysis. The kinetic models, describing the interfacial hydrolysis allowed us to estimate the values of the global kinetic constants for TC8 and DiC12PC hydrolysis, respectively. The role of interaction between all participants of the catalytic act in that complex catalytic system is shown. The catalytic activity of TLL and PLA₂ is affected by the molecular environment in TC8/DiC12PC mixed monolayers.

  20. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2: Yesterday’s Enemy Becomes Today’s Friend

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom therapy has been used to treat immune-related diseases such as arthritis for a long time. Recently, it has revealed that group III secretory phospholipase A2 from bee venom (bee venom group III sPLA2) has in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2. Notably, new experimental data have shown protective immune responses of bee venom group III sPLA2 against a wide range of diseases including asthma, Parkinson’s disease, and drug-induced organ inflammation. It is critical to evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 because this enzyme is known to be the major allergen of bee venom that can cause anaphylactic shock. For many decades, efforts have been made to avoid its adverse effects. At high concentrations, exposure to bee venom group III sPLA2 can result in damage to cellular membranes and necrotic cell death. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 on several immunological diseases and described the detailed mechanisms of bee venom group III sPLA2 in regulating various immune responses and physiopathological changes. PMID:26907347

  1. Phospholipase Dε enhances Braasca napus growth and seed production in response to nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoping; Yao, Shuaibing; Wang, Geliang; Guo, Liang; Zhou, Yongming; Hong, Yueyun; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD), which hydrolyses phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid, has been implicated in plant response to macronutrient availability in Arabidopsis. This study investigated the effect of increased PLDε expression on nitrogen utilization in Brassica napus to explore the application of PLDε manipulation to crop improvement. In addition, changes in membrane lipid species in response to nitrogen availability were determined in the oil seed crop. Multiple PLDε over expression (PLDε-OE) lines displayed enhanced biomass accumulation under nitrogen-deficient and nitrogen-replete conditions. PLDε-OE plants in the field produced more seeds than wild-type plants but have no impact on seed oil content. Compared with wild-type plants, PLDε-OE plants were enhanced in nitrate transporter expression, uptake and reduction, whereas the activity of nitrite reductase was higher under nitrogen-depleted, but not at nitrogen-replete conditions. The level of nitrogen altered membrane glycerolipid metabolism, with greater impacts on young than mature leaves. The data indicate increased expression of PLDε has the potential to improve crop plant growth and production under nitrogen-depleted and nitrogen-replete conditions.

  2. Lithium activates brain phospholipase A2 and improves memory in rats: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mury, Fábio B; da Silva, Weber C; Barbosa, Nádia R; Mendes, Camila T; Bonini, Juliana S; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Cammarota, Martin; Izquierdo, Ivan; Gattaz, Wagner F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is required for memory retrieval, and its inhibition in the hippocampus has been reported to impair memory acquisition in rats. Moreover, cognitive decline and memory deficits showed to be reduced in animal models after lithium treatment, prompting us to evaluate possible links between Pla2, lithium and memory. Here, we evaluated the possible modulation of Pla2 activity by a long-term treatment of rats with low doses of lithium and its impact in memory. Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task, treated with lithium for 100 days and tested for perdurability of long-term memory. Hippocampal samples were used for quantifying the expression of 19 brain-expressed Pla2 genes and for evaluating the enzymatic activity of Pla2 using group-specific radio-enzymatic assays. Our data pointed to a significant perdurability of long-term memory, which correlated with increased transcriptional and enzymatic activities of certain members of the Pla2 family (iPla2 and sPla2) after the chronic lithium treatment. Our data suggest new possible targets of lithium, add more information on its pharmacological activity and reinforce the possible use of low doses of lithium for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as the Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Salicylic-acid elicited phospholipase D responses in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rodas-Junco, B A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J A; Vázquez-Flota, F; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M T

    2015-05-01

    The plant response to different stress types can occur through stimulus recognition and the subsequent signal transduction through second messengers that send information to the regulation of metabolism and the expression of defense genes. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA), which has been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. In this work, we studied the effects of SA treatment on [(32)-P]Pi phospholipid turnover and phospholipase D (PLD) activity using cultured Capsicum chinense cells. In cultured cells, the PIP2 turnover showed changes after SA treatment, while the most abundant phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), did not show changes during the temporal course. SA treatment significantly increased phosphatidic acid (PA) turnover over time compared to control cells. The PA accumulation in cells treated with 1-butanol showed a decrease in messengers; at the same time, there was a 1.5-fold increase in phosphatidylbutanol. These results suggest that the participation of the PLD pathway is a source of PA production, and the activation of this mechanism may be important in the cell responses to SA treatment.

  4. Monitoring Phospholipase A2 Activity with Gd-encapsulated Phospholipid Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhiliang; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To date, numerous analytical methods have been developed to monitor phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. However, many of these methods require the use of unnatural PLA2 substrates that may alter enzyme kinetics, and probes that cannot be extended to applications in more complex environments. It would be desirable to develop a versatile assay that monitors PLA2 activity based on interactions with natural phospholipids in complex biological samples. Here, we developed an activatable T1 magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent to monitor PLA2 activity. Specifically, the clinically approved gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agent, gadoteridol, was encapsulated within nanometer-sized phospholipid liposomes. The encapsulated Gd exhibited a low T1-weighted signal, due to low membrane permeability. However, when the phospholipids within the liposomal membrane were hydrolyzed by PLA2, encapsulated Gd was released into bulk solution, resulting in a measureable change in the T1-relaxation time. These activatable MR contrast agents can potentially be used as nanosensors for monitoring of PLA2 activity in biological samples with minimal sample preparation. PMID:25376186

  5. Phospholipase D2 mediates survival signaling through direct regulation of Akt in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bruntz, Ronald C; Taylor, Harry E; Lindsley, Craig W; Brown, H Alex

    2014-01-10

    The lack of innovative drug targets for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) limits patient survival to approximately 1 year following diagnosis. The pro-survival kinase Akt provides an ideal target for the treatment of GBM as Akt signaling is frequently activated in this cancer type. However, the central role of Akt in physiological processes limits its potential as a therapeutic target. In this report, we show that the lipid-metabolizing enzyme phospholipaseD(PLD) is a novel regulator of Akt inGBM.Studies using a combination of small molecule PLD inhibitors and siRNA knockdowns establish phosphatidic acid, the product of the PLD reaction, as an essential component for the membrane recruitment and activation of Akt. Inhibition of PLD enzymatic activity and subsequent Akt activation decreases GBM cell viability by specifically inhibiting autophagic flux. We propose a mechanism whereby phosphorylation of beclin1 by Akt prevents binding of Rubicon (RUN domain cysteine-rich domain containing beclin1-interacting protein), an interaction known to inhibit autophagic flux. These findings provide a novel framework through which Akt inhibition can be achieved without directly targeting the kinase.

  6. Phospholipase D1 is required for angiogenesis of intersegmental blood vessels in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xin-Xin I.; Zheng, Xiangjian; Xiang, Yun; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Jessen, Jason R.; Zhong, Tao P.; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Brown, H. Alex

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid and choline. Studies in cultured cells and Drosophila melanogaster have implicated PLD in the regulation of many cellular functions, including intracellular vesicle trafficking, cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the function of PLD in vertebrate development has not been explored. Here we report cloning and characterization of a zebrafish PLD1 (pld1) homolog. Like mammalian PLDs, zebrafish Pld1 contains two conservative HKD motifs. Maternally contributed pld1 transcripts are uniformly distributed in early embryo. Localized expression of pld1 is observed in the notochord during early segmentation, in the somites during later segmentation and in the liver at the larval stages. Studies in intact and cell-free preparations demonstrate evolutionary conservation of regulation. Inhibition of Pld1 expression using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) interfering with the translation or splicing of pld1 impaired intersegmental vessel (ISV) development. Incubating embryos with 1-butanol, which diverts production of phosphatidic acid to a phosphatidylalcohol, caused similar ISV defects. To determine where pld1 is required for ISV development we performed transplantation experiments. Analyses of the mosaic pld1 deficient embryos showed partial suppression of ISV defects in the segments containing transplanted wild-type somitic and notochord cells, or notochord cells alone. These results provide the first evidence that function of Pld1 in the developing notochord is essential for vascular development in vertebrates. PMID:19389349

  7. Phospholipase D2 Mediates Survival Signaling through Direct Regulation of Akt in Glioblastoma Cells*♦

    PubMed Central

    Bruntz, Ronald C.; Taylor, Harry E.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2014-01-01

    The lack of innovative drug targets for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) limits patient survival to approximately 1 year following diagnosis. The pro-survival kinase Akt provides an ideal target for the treatment of GBM as Akt signaling is frequently activated in this cancer type. However, the central role of Akt in physiological processes limits its potential as a therapeutic target. In this report, we show that the lipid-metabolizing enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) is a novel regulator of Akt in GBM. Studies using a combination of small molecule PLD inhibitors and siRNA knockdowns establish phosphatidic acid, the product of the PLD reaction, as an essential component for the membrane recruitment and activation of Akt. Inhibition of PLD enzymatic activity and subsequent Akt activation decreases GBM cell viability by specifically inhibiting autophagic flux. We propose a mechanism whereby phosphorylation of beclin1 by Akt prevents binding of Rubicon (RUN domain cysteine-rich domain containing beclin1-interacting protein), an interaction known to inhibit autophagic flux. These findings provide a novel framework through which Akt inhibition can be achieved without directly targeting the kinase. PMID:24257753

  8. Human Phospholipase D Activity Transiently Regulates Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Thomas P.; Hill, Salisha; Rose, Kristie L.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells reorganize their metabolic pathways to fuel demanding rates of proliferation. Oftentimes, these metabolic phenotypes lie downstream of prominent oncogenes. The lipid signaling molecule phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which is produced by the hydrolytic enzyme phospholipase D (PLD), has been identified as a critical regulatory molecule for oncogenic signaling in many cancers. In an effort to identify novel regulatory mechanisms for PtdOH, we screened various cancer cell lines, assessing whether treatment of cancer models with PLD inhibitors altered production of intracellular metabolites. Preliminary findings lead us to focus on how deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are altered upon PLD inhibitor treatment in gliomas. Using a combination of proteomics and small molecule intracellular metabolomics, we show herein that PtdOH acutely regulates the production of these pyrimidine metabolites through activation of CAD via mTOR signaling pathways independently of Akt. These changes are responsible for decreases in dNTP production after PLD inhibitor treatment. Our data identify a novel regulatory role for PLD activity in specific cancer types. PMID:25646564

  9. Evidence that phospholipase D mediates ADP ribosylation factor- dependent formation of Golgi coated vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Formation of coatomer-coated vesicles from Golgi-enriched membranes requires the activation of a small GTP-binding protein, ADP ribosylation factor (ARF). ARF is also an efficacious activator of phospholipase D (PLD), an activity that is relatively abundant on Golgi- enriched membranes. It has been proposed that ARF, which is recruited onto membranes from cytosolic pools, acts directly to promote coatomer binding and is in a 3:1 stoichiometry with coatomer on coated vesicles. We present evidence that cytosolic ARF is not necessary for initiating coat assembly on Golgi membranes from cell lines with high constitutive PLD activity. Conditions are also described under which ARF is at most a minor component relative to coatomer in coated vesicles from all cell lines tested, including Chinese hamster ovary cells. Formation of coated vesicles was sensitive to ethanol at concentrations that inhibit the production of phosphatidic acid (PA) by PLD. When PA was produced in Golgi membranes by an exogenous bacterial PLD, rather than with ARF and endogenous PLD, coatomer bound to Golgi membranes. Purified coatomer also bound selectively to artificial lipid vesicles that contained PA and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2). We propose that activation of PLD and the subsequent production of PA are key early events for the formation of coatomer-coated vesicles. PMID:8707816

  10. Phospholipase D Mediates Nutrient Input to Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1)*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Limei; Salloum, Darin; Medlin, Phil S.; Saqcena, Mahesh; Yellen, Paige; Perrella, Benjamin; Foster, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical sensor of nutritional sufficiency. Although much is known about the regulation of mTOR in response to growth factors, much less is known about the regulation of mTOR in response to nutrients. Amino acids have no impact on the signals that regulate Rheb, a GTPase required for the activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). Phospholipase D (PLD) generates a metabolite, phosphatidic acid, that facilitates association between mTOR and the mTORC1 co-factor Raptor. We report here that elevated PLD activity in human cancer cells is dependent on both amino acids and glucose and that amino acid- and glucose-induced increases in mTORC1 activity are dependent on PLD. Amino acid- and glucose-induced PLD and mTORC1 activity were also dependent on the GTPases RalA and ARF6 and the type III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase hVps34. Thus, a key stimulatory event for mTORC1 activation in response to nutrients is the generation of phosphatidic acid by PLD. PMID:21622984

  11. Group IVA phospholipase A2 participates in the progression of hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Keiichi; Miyazaki, Akira; Nabe, Takeshi; Fushimi, Hideaki; Iriyama, Nao; Kanai, Shiho; Sato, Takashi; Uozumi, Naonori; Shimizu, Takao; Akiba, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    Group IVA phospholipase A2 (IVA-PLA2) is an enzyme that intiates the arachidonic acid pathway and plays an important role in inflammation. We demonstrate that IVA-PLA2 deficiency suppresses lipid deposition in the liver, which was induced by administration of a high-fat and -cholesterol diet (HFCD) for 16 wk in mice. Herein, we performed 2-dimensional gel-based comparative proteomics to further define the suppressive effect of IVA-PLA2 deficiency on fatty liver formation. In comparisons among 4 groups, wild-type (WT)/normal diet (ND), IVA-PLA2-deficient knockout (KO)/ND, WT/HFCD, and KO/HFCD, 4 proteins, 3 of which are associated with hepatic fibrosis, were identified as molecules, of which altered expression by HFCD was suppressed in KO mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, we assessed the effect of IVA-PLA2 deficiency on hepatic fibrosis induced by HFCD or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mouse models. Biochemical and histological analyses revealed that IVA-PLA2 deficiency markedly reduced overall collagen accumulation in the liver of HFCD- and CCl4-derived mouse models. We found that IVA-PLA2 deficiency prevented activation of hepatic stellate cells and infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages without affecting other immunocytes such as CD8+ lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In summary, IVA-PLA2 deficiency attenuates not only lipid deposition in the liver but also hepatic fibrosis formation.

  12. Involvement of Oxidative Pathways in Cytokine-induced Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Michael D.; Sheng, Wenwen; Simonyi, Agnes; Johnson, Gary S.; Sun, Albert Y.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the involvement of secretory phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA) in neuroinflammatory diseases. Although sPLA2-IIA is transcriptionally induced through the NF-κB pathway by pro-inflammatory cytokines, whether this induction pathway is affected by other intracellular signaling pathways has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we demonstrated the induction of sPLA2-IIA mRNA and protein expression in astrocytes by cytokines and detected the protein in the culture medium after stimulation. We further investigated the effects of oxidative pathways and botanical antioxidants on the induction pathway and observed that IL-1β-induced sPLA2-IIA mRNA expression in astrocytes is dependent on ERK1/2 and PI-3 kinase, but not p38 MAPK. In addition to apocynin, a known NADPH oxidase inhibitor, botanical antioxidants, such as resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate, also inhibited IL-1β-induced sPLA2-IIA mRNA expression. These compounds also suppressed IL-1β-induced ERK1/2 activation and translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p67 phox from cytosol to membrane fraction. Taken together, these results support the involvement of reactive oxygen species from NADPH oxidase in cytokine induction of sPLA2-IIA in astrocytes and promote the use of botanical antioxidants as protective agents for inhibition of inflammatory responses in these cells. PMID:19375465

  13. Comparative proteomics and subtyping of venom phospholipases A2 and disintegrins of Protobothrops pit vipers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Inn-Ho; Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Wang, Ying-Ming

    2004-10-01

    To explore the venom diversity and systematics of pit vipers under the genus Protobothrops, the venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) of P. mangshanensis, P. elegans and P. tokarensis were purified and characterized for the first time. The results were compared with the corresponding venom data of other co-generic species including P. mucrosquamatus, P. flavoviridis and P. jerdonii. Based on sequence features at the N-terminal regions, we identified five PLA2 subtypes, i.e., the Asp49-PLA2s with N6, E6 or R6 substitution and the Lys49-PLA2. However, not all subtypes were expressed in each of the species. Venom N6-PLA2s from P. mangshanensis and P. tokarensis venom were weakly neurotoxic toward chick biventer cervicis tissue preparations. The venoms of P. tokarensis and P. flavoviridis contained identical PLA2 isoforms. In most Protobothrop disintegrins, sequences flanking the RGD-motif are conserved. Phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences of both families of the acidic PLA2s and the disintegrins clarify that these species could belong to a monophyletic group.

  14. Phospholipases D1 and D2 Suppress Appetite and Protect against Overweight

    PubMed Central

    Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stegner, David; Sumara, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor predisposing to the development of peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Elevated food intake and/or decreased energy expenditure promotes body weight gain and acquisition of adipose tissue. Number of studies implicated phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes and their product, phosphatidic acid (PA), in regulation of signaling cascades controlling energy intake, energy dissipation and metabolic homeostasis. However, the impact of PLD enzymes on regulation of metabolism has not been directly determined so far. In this study we utilized mice deficient for two major PLD isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, to assess the impact of these enzymes on regulation of metabolic homeostasis. We showed that mice lacking PLD1 or PLD2 consume more food than corresponding control animals. Moreover, mice deficient for PLD2, but not PLD1, present reduced energy expenditure. In addition, deletion of either of the PLD enzymes resulted in development of elevated body weight and increased adipose tissue content in aged animals. Consistent with the fact that elevated content of adipose tissue predisposes to the development of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, characteristic for the pre-diabetic state, we observed that Pld1-/- and Pld2-/- mice present elevated free fatty acids (FFA) levels and are insulin as well as glucose intolerant. In conclusion, our data suggest that deficiency of PLD1 or PLD2 activity promotes development of overweight and diabetes. PMID:27299737

  15. Purification and inhibitory profile of phospholipase A2 inhibitors from Australian elapid sera.

    PubMed Central

    Hains, P G; Broady, K W

    2000-01-01

    Although the resistance of snakes to their own venom is well known, until now no investigators have examined the serum of Australian snakes. Here we describe the identification and purification of a range of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitors from the serum of Australian elapids. All PLA(2) inhibitors were composed of two protein chains, an alpha-chain and a beta-chain. The alpha-chains were approx. 22.5 kDa in size and variably glycosylated, whereas the beta-chains were approx. 19.8 kDa in size and not glycosylated. Identification of isoforms of the two subunit chains was significant because three of the six sera examined were from single snake specimens. In addition, the glycosylation patterns of the alpha-chains were thoroughly investigated in these unpooled sera. The functional and structural properties of the purified inhibitors were studied. Uniquely, a snake PLA(2) inhibitor was found to inhibit human type II PLA(2) enzyme, which has implications for the treatment of the many diseases in which PLA(2) enzymes have been implicated. Further, we demonstrate that the inhibitor forms a non-covalent association with a purified PLA(2) enzyme. Finally, the purified PLA(2) inhibitor was shown to protect in vivo against the lethal affects of a homologous PLA(2) enzyme, suggesting a role for PLA(2) inhibitors in the treatment of snake bite victims. PMID:10657250

  16. Phospholipase D Is Involved in Myogenic Differentiation through Remodeling of Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Komati, Hiba; Naro, Fabio; Mebarek, Saida; De Arcangelis, Vania; Adamo, Sergio; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France; Némoz, Georges

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) in myogenic differentiation of cultured L6 rat skeletal myoblasts. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), a differentiation inducer, rapidly activated PLD in a Rho-dependent way, as shown by almost total suppression of activation by C3 exotoxin pretreatment. Addition of 1-butanol, which selectively inhibits PA production by PLD, markedly decreased AVP-induced myogenesis. Conversely, myogenesis was potentiated by PLD1b isoform overexpression but not by PLD2 overexpression, establishing that PLD1 is involved in this process. The expression of the PLD isoforms was differentially regulated during differentiation. AVP stimulation of myoblasts induced the rapid formation of stress fiber-like actin structures (SFLSs). 1-Butanol selectively inhibited this response, whereas PLD1b overexpression induced SFLS formation, showing that it was PLD dependent. Endogenous PLD1 was located at the level of SFLSs, and by means of an intracellularly expressed fluorescent probe, PA was shown to be accumulated along these structures in response to AVP. In addition, AVP induced a PLD-dependent neosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which also was accumulated along actin fibers. These data support the hypothesis that PLD participates in myogenesis through PA- and PIP2-dependent actin fiber formation. PMID:15616193

  17. Denervation Induces Cytosolic Phospholipase A2-mediated Fatty Acid Hydroperoxide Generation by Muscle Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Muller, Florian L.; Liu, Yuhong; Sabia, Marian; Liang, Hanyu; Song, Wook; Jang, Youngmok C.; Ran, Qitao; Van Remmen, Holly

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that mitochondria from denervated muscle exhibited dramatically higher Amplex Red dependent fluorescence (thought to be highly specific for hydrogen peroxide) compared with control muscle mitochondria. We now demonstrate that catalase only partially inhibits the Amplex Red signal in mitochondria from denervated muscle. In contrast, ebselen (a glutathione peroxidase mimetic and inhibitor of fatty acid hydroperoxides) significantly inhibits the Amplex Red signal. This suggests that the majority of the Amplex Red signal in mitochondria from denervated muscle is not derived from hydrogen peroxide. Because Amplex Red cannot react with substrates in the lipid environment, we hypothesize that lipid hydroperoxides formed within the mitochondrial lipid bilayer are released as fatty acid hydroperoxides and react with the Amplex Red probe. We also suggest that the release of fatty acid hydroperoxides from denervated muscle mitochondria may be an important determinant of muscle atrophy. In support of this, muscle atrophy and the Amplex Red signal are inhibited in caloric restricted mice and in transgenic mice that overexpress the lipid hydroperoxide-detoxifying enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4. Finally, we propose that cytosolic phospholipase A2 may be a potential source of these hydroperoxides. PMID:19001413

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel phospholipase C, PLC-eta.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong-Ik; Oh, Yong-Seok; Shin, Kum-Joo; Kim, Hyun; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-07-01

    PLC (phospholipase C) plays an important role in intracellular signal transduction by hydrolysing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, a membrane phospholipid. To date, 12 members of the mammalian PLC isoforms have been identified and classified into five isotypes beta, gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta, which are regulated by distinct mechanisms. In the present study, we describe the identification of a novel PLC isoform in the brains of human and mouse, named PLC-eta, which contains the conserved pleckstrin homology domain, X and Y domains for catalytic activity and the C2 domain. The first identified gene encoded 1002 (human) or 1003 (mouse) amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 115 kDa. The purified recombinant PLC-eta exhibited Ca2+-dependent catalytic activity on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Furthermore, molecular biological analysis revealed that the PLC-eta gene was transcribed to several splicing variants. Although some transcripts were detected in most of the tissues we examined, the transcript encoding 115 kDa was restricted to the brain and lung. In addition, the expression of the 115 kDa protein was defined in only nerve tissues such as the brain and spinal cord. In situ hybridization analysis with brain revealed that PLC-eta was abundantly expressed in various regions including cerebral cortex, hippocampus, zona incerta and cerebellar Purkinje cell layer, which are neuronal cell-enriched regions. These results suggest that PLC-eta may perform fundamental roles in the brain.

  19. Cbl competitively inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Bae, Sun Sik; Park, Jong Bae; Ha, Sang Hoon; Song, Hebok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Cocco, Lucio; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2003-04-30

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation through its two Src homology (SH) 2 domains and its single SH3 domain, which interact with signaling molecules in response to various growth factors and hormones. However, the role of the SH domains in the growth factor-induced regulation of PLC-gamma1 is unclear. By peptide-mass fingerprinting analysis we have identified Cbl as a binding protein for the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1 from rat pheochromatocyte PC12 cells. Association of Cbl with PLC-gamma1 was induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) but not by nerve growth factor (NGF). Upon EGF stimulation, both Cbl and PLC-gamma1 were recruited to the activated EGF receptor through their SH2 domains. Mutation of the SH2 domains of either Cbl or PLC-gamma1 abrogated the EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Cbl, indicating that SH2-mediated translocation is essential for the association of PLC-gamma1 and Cbl. Overexpression of Cbl attenuated EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of PLC-gamma1 by interfering competitively with the interaction between PLC-gamma1 and EGFR. Taken together, these results provide the first indications that Cbl may be a negative regulator of intracellular signaling following EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  20. Phospholipase Cβ1 induces membrane tubulation and is involved in caveolae formation

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Takehiko; Kishimoto, Takuma; Murate, Motohide; Tajima, Takuya; Sakai, Shota; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Asami; Tomishige, Nario; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Ikeda, Yasuo; Takeoka, Shinji; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    Lipid membrane curvature plays important roles in various physiological phenomena. Curvature-regulated dynamic membrane remodeling is achieved by the interaction between lipids and proteins. So far, several membrane sensing/sculpting proteins, such as Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) proteins, are reported, but there remains the possibility of the existence of unidentified membrane-deforming proteins that have not been uncovered by sequence homology. To identify new lipid membrane deformation proteins, we applied liposome-based microscopic screening, using unbiased-darkfield microscopy. Using this method, we identified phospholipase Cβ1 (PLCβ1) as a new candidate. PLCβ1 is well characterized as an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). In addition to lipase activity, our results indicate that PLCβ1 possessed the ability of membrane tubulation. Lipase domains and inositol phospholipids binding the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PLCβ1 were not involved, but the C-terminal sequence was responsible for this tubulation activity. Computational modeling revealed that the C terminus displays the structural homology to the BAR domains, which is well known as a membrane sensing/sculpting domain. Overexpression of PLCβ1 caused plasma membrane tubulation, whereas knockdown of the protein reduced the number of caveolae and induced the evagination of caveolin-rich membrane domains. Taken together, our results suggest a new function of PLCβ1: plasma membrane remodeling, and in particular, caveolae formation. PMID:27342861

  1. The Role of Phospholipase D in Modulating the MTOR Signaling Pathway in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Käch, Andres; Ziegler, Urs; Ong, Albert C. M.; Wallace, Darren P.; Arcaro, Alexandre; Serra, Andreas L.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Emerging evidence suggests that phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) regulate mTOR activity. In this study, we assessed in vitro the regulatory function of PLD and PA on the mTOR signaling pathway in PKD. We found that the basal level of PLD activity was elevated in PKD cells. Targeting PLD by small molecule inhibitors reduced cell proliferation and blocked mTOR signaling, whereas exogenous PA stimulated mTOR signaling and abolished the inhibitory effect of PLD on PKD cell proliferation. We also show that blocking PLD activity enhanced the sensitivity of PKD cells to rapamycin and that combining PLD inhibitors and rapamycin synergistically inhibited PKD cell proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that targeting mTOR did not induce autophagy, whereas targeting PLD induced autophagosome formation. Taken together, our findings suggest that deregulated mTOR pathway activation is mediated partly by increased PLD signaling in PKD cells. Targeting PLD isoforms with pharmacological inhibitors may represent a new therapeutic strategy in PKD. PMID:24009738

  2. Phospholipase D-mediated autophagic regulation is a potential target for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Y H; Choi, K Y; Min, D S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process in which cell components are degraded to maintain cellular homeostasis by nutrient limitations. Defects of autophagy are involved in numerous diseases, including cancer. Here, we demonstrate a new role of phospholipase D (PLD) as a regulator of autophagy. PLD inhibition enhances autophagic flux via ATG1 (ULK1), ATG5 and ATG7, which are essential autophagy gene products critical for autophagosome formation. Moreover, PLD suppresses autophagy by differentially modulating phosphorylation of ULK1 mediated by mTOR and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and by suppressing the interaction of Beclin 1 with vacuolar-sorting protein 34 (Vps34), indicating that PLD coordinates major players of the autophagic pathway, AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 and Vps34/Beclin 1. Ultimately, PLD inhibition significantly sensitized in vitro and in vivo cancer regression via genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy, providing rationale for a new therapeutic approach to enhancing the anticancer efficacy of PLD inhibition. Collectively, we show a novel role for PLD in the molecular machinery regulating autophagy. PMID:24317201

  3. Differential subcellular distribution of four phospholipase C isoforms and secretion of GPI-PLC activity.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Emanuel; Ramasamy, Pathmanaban; Plattner, Helmut; Simon, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) is an important enzyme of signal transduction pathways by generation of second messengers from membrane lipids. PLCs are also indicated to cleave glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchors of surface proteins thus releasing these into the environment. However, it remains unknown whether this enzymatic activity on the surface is due to distinct PLC isoforms in higher eukaryotes. Ciliates have, in contrast to other unicellular eukaryotes, multiple PLC isoforms as mammals do. Thus, Paramecium represents a perfect model to study subcellular distribution and potential surface activity of PLC isoforms. We have identified distinct subcellular localizations of four PLC isoforms indicating functional specialization. The association with different calcium release channels (CRCs) argues for distinct subcellular functions. They may serve as PI-PLCs in microdomains for local second messenger responses rather than free floating IP3. In addition, all isoforms can be found on the cell surface and they are found together with GPI-cleaved surface proteins in salt/ethanol washes of cells. We can moreover show them in medium supernatants of living cells where they have access to GPI-anchored surface proteins. Among the isoforms we cannot assign GPI-PLC activity to specific PLC isoforms; rather each PLC is potentially responsible for the release of GPI-anchored proteins from the surface.

  4. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa-/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa-/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD. PMID:26637123

  5. Amyloid-type fiber formation in control of enzyme action: interfacial activation of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Code, Christian; Domanov, Yegor; Jutila, Arimatti; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2008-07-01

    The lag-burst behavior in the action of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was investigated at temperatures slightly offset from the main phase transition temperature T(m) of this lipid, thus slowing down the kinetics of the activation process. Distinct stages leading to maximal activity were resolved using a combination of fluorescence parameters, including Förster resonance energy transfer between donor- and acceptor-labeled enzyme, fluorescence anisotropy, and lifetime, as well as thioflavin T fluorescence enhancement. We showed that the interfacial activation of PLA(2), evident after the preceding lag phase, coincides with the formation of oligomers staining with thioflavin T and subsequently with Congo red. Based on previous studies and our findings here, we propose a novel mechanism for the control of PLA(2), involving amyloid protofibrils with highly augmented enzymatic activity. Subsequently, these protofibrils form "mature" fibrils, devoid of activity. Accordingly, the process of amyloid formation is used as an on-off switch to obtain a transient burst in enzymatic catalysis.

  6. Amyloid-Type Fiber Formation in Control of Enzyme Action: Interfacial Activation of Phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Code, Christian; Domanov, Yegor; Jutila, Arimatti; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2008-01-01

    The lag-burst behavior in the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was investigated at temperatures slightly offset from the main phase transition temperature Tm of this lipid, thus slowing down the kinetics of the activation process. Distinct stages leading to maximal activity were resolved using a combination of fluorescence parameters, including Förster resonance energy transfer between donor- and acceptor-labeled enzyme, fluorescence anisotropy, and lifetime, as well as thioflavin T fluorescence enhancement. We showed that the interfacial activation of PLA2, evident after the preceding lag phase, coincides with the formation of oligomers staining with thioflavin T and subsequently with Congo red. Based on previous studies and our findings here, we propose a novel mechanism for the control of PLA2, involving amyloid protofibrils with highly augmented enzymatic activity. Subsequently, these protofibrils form “mature” fibrils, devoid of activity. Accordingly, the process of amyloid formation is used as an on-off switch to obtain a transient burst in enzymatic catalysis. PMID:18339749

  7. Differential regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phospholipase D in sporulation and Sec14-independent secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Rudge, Simon A; Zhou, Chun; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spo14, a phosphatidylcholine-specific, phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate-activated phospholipase D (PLD), is essential for meiosis and spore formation. Spo14 is also required for secretion in the absence of the phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein Sec14 (i.e., Sec14-independent secretion). In sporulating cells Spo14 is phosphorylated and relocalized within the cell. In contrast, Spo14 does not relocalize and is not phosphorylated in Sec14-independent secretion. Analysis of a partially phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate-activated Spo14 mutant, spo14(R894G), revealed that Spo14 function in Sec14-independent secretion, unlike the situation in meiosis, requires fully stimulated PLD activity. Consistent with the differential regulation of Spo14 function during sporulation and secretion, we isolated a mutant allele, spo14-S251P, the product of which is improperly phosphorylated and fails to relocalize and rescue the sporulation phenotype of homozygous spo14 diploids, but supports Sec14-independent secretion. Furthermore, we show that the N-terminal domain of Spo14 is both phosphorylated and sufficient for prospore membrane localization during sporulation. These data indicate that Spo14 phosphorylation and relocalization are essential for the process of sporulation, but dispensable for Sec14-independent secretion. Finally, we demonstrate that Spo14 phosphorylation and relocalization are initiated by nitrogen and glucose limitation and occur independently of the process of meiosis. PMID:11973292

  8. Phospholipase D is involved in myogenic differentiation through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Komati, Hiba; Naro, Fabio; Mebarek, Saida; De Arcangelis, Vania; Adamo, Sergio; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France; Némoz, Georges

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) in myogenic differentiation of cultured L6 rat skeletal myoblasts. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), a differentiation inducer, rapidly activated PLD in a Rho-dependent way, as shown by almost total suppression of activation by C3 exotoxin pretreatment. Addition of 1-butanol, which selectively inhibits PA production by PLD, markedly decreased AVP-induced myogenesis. Conversely, myogenesis was potentiated by PLD1b isoform overexpression but not by PLD2 overexpression, establishing that PLD1 is involved in this process. The expression of the PLD isoforms was differentially regulated during differentiation. AVP stimulation of myoblasts induced the rapid formation of stress fiber-like actin structures (SFLSs). 1-Butanol selectively inhibited this response, whereas PLD1b overexpression induced SFLS formation, showing that it was PLD dependent. Endogenous PLD1 was located at the level of SFLSs, and by means of an intracellularly expressed fluorescent probe, PA was shown to be accumulated along these structures in response to AVP. In addition, AVP induced a PLD-dependent neosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which also was accumulated along actin fibers. These data support the hypothesis that PLD participates in myogenesis through PA- and PIP2-dependent actin fiber formation.

  9. Phospholipase D1 deficiency in mice causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via an autophagy defect

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Jang Ho; Park, Shi-Young; Dall’Armi, Claudia; Lee, Jae Sung; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Lee, Hui-Young; Yoon, Mee-Sup; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) as lipid droplets in the liver. Although lipid-metabolizing enzymes are considered important in NAFLD, the involvement of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) has not yet been studied. Here, we show that the genetic ablation of PLD1 in mice induces NAFLD due to an autophagy defect. PLD1 expression was decreased in high-fat diet-induced NAFLD. Subsequently, PLD1 deficiency led to an increase in hepatic TGs and liver weight. Autophagic flux was blocked in Pld1−/− hepatocytes, with decreased β-oxidation rate, reduced oxidation-related gene expression, and swollen mitochondria. The dynamics of autophagy was restored by treatment with the PLD product, phosphatidic acid (PA) or adenoviral PLD1 expression in Pld1−/− hepatocytes, confirming that lysosomal PA produced by PLD1 regulates autophagy. Notably, PLD1 expression in Pld1−/− liver significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation, compared with Pld1−/− liver. Thus, PLD1 plays an important role in hepatic steatosis via the regulation of autophagy. PMID:27976696

  10. Phospholipase D1 facilitates second-phase myoblast fusion and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Teng, Shuzhi; Stegner, David; Chen, Qin; Hongu, Tsunaki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Chen, Li; Kanaho, Yasunori; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Frohman, Michael A; Huang, Ping

    2015-02-01

    Myoblast differentiation and fusion is a well-orchestrated multistep process that is essential for skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Phospholipase D1 (PLD1) has been implicated in the initiation of myoblast differentiation in vitro. However, whether PLD1 plays additional roles in myoblast fusion and exerts a function in myogenesis in vivo remains unknown. Here we show that PLD1 expression is up-regulated in myogenic cells during muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin injury and that genetic ablation of PLD1 results in delayed myofiber regeneration. Myoblasts derived from PLD1-null mice or treated with PLD1-specific inhibitor are unable to form mature myotubes, indicating defects in second-phase myoblast fusion. Concomitantly, the PLD1 product phosphatidic acid is transiently detected on the plasma membrane of differentiating myocytes, and its production is inhibited by PLD1 knockdown. Exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine, a key membrane lipid for fusion pore formation, partially rescues fusion defect resulting from PLD1 inhibition. Thus these studies demonstrate a role for PLD1 in myoblast fusion during myogenesis in which PLD1 facilitates the fusion of mononuclear myocytes with nascent myotubes.

  11. Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors Synthesized by Two Entomopathogenic Bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Samyeol; Lee, Sunghong; Hong, Yongpyo

    2012-01-01

    The entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata suppress insect immune responses by inhibiting the catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which results in preventing biosynthesis of immune-mediating eicosanoids. This study identified PLA2 inhibitors derived from culture broths of these two bacteria. Both X. nematophila and P. temperata subsp. temperata culture broths possessed significant PLA2-inhibitory activities. Fractionation of these bacterial metabolites in the culture broths using organic solvent and subsequent chromatography purified seven potent PLA2 inhibitors, three of which (benzylideneacetone [BZA], proline-tyrosine [PY], and acetylated phenylalanine-glycine-valine [FGV]) were reported in a previous study. Four other compounds (indole, oxindole, cis-cyclo-PY, and p-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid) were identified and shown to significantly inhibit PLA2. X. nematophila culture broth contained these seven compounds, while P. temperata subsp. temperata culture broth contained three compounds (BZA, acetylated FGV, and cis-cyclo-PY). BZA was detected in the largest amount among these PLA2 compounds in both bacterial culture broths. All seven bacterial metabolites also showed significant inhibitory activities against immune responses, such as phenoloxidase activity and hemocytic nodulation; BZA was the most potent. Finally, this study characterized these seven compounds for their insecticidal activities against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Even though these compounds showed relatively low toxicities to larvae, they significantly enhanced the pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis. This study reports bacterial-origin PLA2 inhibitors, which would be applicable for developing novel insecticides. PMID:22447611

  12. Exclusion of phospholipases (PLs)-producing bacteria in raw milk flushed with nitrogen gas (N(2)).

    PubMed

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Gursoy, Oguz; Alatossava, Tapani

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged cold storage of raw milks favors the growth of psychrotrophs, which produce heat-resistant exoenzymes of considerable spoilage potential; the bacterial proteases and lipases affect raw milk quality; among them phospholipases (PLs) may target the milk fat globule. More importantly, bacterial PLs are key virulence factors for numerous species. Two studies examined the use of nitrogen (N(2)) gas and examined its effect on psychrotrophs, proteases and lipase producers when the milk was stored in closed vessels; however, the effect on PLs producers is unknown. Here we show that by considering an open system the PLs producers were sooner or later excluded in raw milk (whereas the PLs producers in the non-treated controls culminated at 10(8)CFU/ml), by effective gas treatments that bring oxygen (O(2)) levels in milk lower than 0.1ppm. No increase of the PLs producers among the anaerobes was noticed during the course of the experiments. In the experiments performed at 6.0 degrees C, the delay after which the PLs producers were no longer detectable seemed independent of the initial level of PLs producers in raw milk (lower than 10(3)CFU/ml). We anticipate that flushing pure N(2) gas in raw milk tanks, considered as open systems, along the cold chain of raw milk storage and transportation, may be an additional technique to control psychrotrophs, and may also constitute an interesting perspective for limiting their spoilage and pathogenic potential in food materials in general.

  13. A model for the interfacial kinetics of phospholipase D activity on long-chain lipids.

    PubMed

    Majd, Sheereen; Yusko, Erik C; Yang, Jerry; Sept, David; Mayer, Michael

    2013-07-02

    The membrane-active enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond in phospholipids and plays a critical role in cell signaling. This catalytic reaction proceeds on lipid-water interfaces and is an example of heterogeneous catalysis in biology. Recently we showed that planar lipid bilayers, a previously unexplored model membrane for these kinetic studies, can be used for monitoring interfacial catalytic reactions under well-defined experimental conditions with chemical and electrical access to both sides of the lipid membrane. Employing an assay that relies on the conductance of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin A to monitor PLD activity, the work presented here reveals the kinetics of hydrolysis of long-chain phosphatidylcholine lipids in situ. We have developed an extension of a basic kinetic model for interfacial catalysis that includes product activation and substrate depletion. This model describes the kinetic behavior very well and reveals two kinetic parameters, the specificity constant and the interfacial quality constant. This approach results in a simple and general model to account for product accumulation in interfacial enzyme kinetics.

  14. Investigating interactions between phospholipase B-Like 2 and antibodies during Protein A chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tran, Benjamin; Grosskopf, Vanessa; Wang, Xiangdan; Yang, Jihong; Walker, Don; Yu, Christopher; McDonald, Paul

    2016-03-18

    Purification processes for therapeutic antibodies typically exploit multiple and orthogonal chromatography steps in order to remove impurities, such as host-cell proteins. While the majority of host-cell proteins are cleared through purification processes, individual host-cell proteins such as Phospholipase B-like 2 (PLBL2) are more challenging to remove and can persist into the final purification pool even after multiple chromatography steps. With packed-bed chromatography runs using host-cell protein ELISAs and mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrated that different therapeutic antibodies interact to varying degrees with host-cell proteins in general, and PLBL2 specifically. We then used a high-throughput Protein A chromatography method to further examine the interaction between our antibodies and PLBL2. Our results showed that the co-elution of PLBL2 during Protein A chromatography is highly dependent on the individual antibody and PLBL2 concentration in the chromatographic load. Process parameters such as antibody resin load density and pre-elution wash conditions also influence the levels of PLBL2 in the Protein A eluate. Furthermore, using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrated that there is a preference for PLBL2 to interact with IgG4 subclass antibodies compared to IgG1 antibodies.

  15. [Role of secreted and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Ferri, Nicola; Corsini, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) are enzymes that hydrolyze the ester bond of glycerophospholipids releasing free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, including the arachidonic acid, the precursor of the eicosanoids and the inflammatory cascades. PLA(2) are present in the atherosclerotic plaques and their direct involvement in the proatherogenic inflammatory response is well documented. Epidemiological and genetic studies have demonstrated the correlation of the PLA(2) mass and enzymatic activity with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The potential pro-atherogenic role of PLA(2) led to the development of two small molecules, varespladib, a reversible sPLA(2) inhibitor, and darapladib, a selective Lp-PLA(2) inhibitor. Both molecules have demonstrated antiatherosclerotic properties in animal models, and positive effects on atherosclerotic plaque composition evaluated in phase 2 clinical trials. On these grounds, the results of three phase 3 studies have recently been published: the VISTA-16 study with varespladib in patients with acute coronary syndrome, and the STABILITY and SOLID-TIMI 52 studies with darapladib in patients with stable coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome, respectively. Unexpectedly, both studies did not demonstrate an additional protective action of PLA 2 inhibitors over the standard of care treatment with statins, antiplatelet drugs, and coronary revascularization. In the present article, the enzymatic properties and the involvement of sPLA(2) and Lp-PLA(2) in atherogenesis are reviewed, with a focus on the results of experimental studies and clinical studies with both varespladib and darapladib inhibitors.

  16. Purification of the trypanosome phospholipase C which cleaves the variant surface glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, D.; Hart, G.W.; Englund, P.T.

    1986-05-01

    The surface coat of Trypanosoma brucei is composed of many copies of the Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG). This protein is tethered to the cell membrane by a glycolipid moiety which contains dimyristylphosphatidylinositol. Following cell lysis, an endogenous, membrane-bound phospholipase C cleaves the glycolipid and releases the VSG in soluble form. The authors have purified a lipase which they believe is responsible for VSG release. This enzyme, designated VSG lipase, is assayed by measuring release of butanol-soluble /sup 3/H from VSG labeled with (/sup 3/H)myristate. The purification involves detergent extraction of trypanosome membranes, ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic chromatography, and cation exchange chromatography. The enzyme is purified roughly 2500 fold and is nearly homogeneous. Based on SDS-PAGE, it has an apparent subunit molecular weight of 37,000 daltons. This polypeptide co-fractionates with the activity during several fractionation procedures. The enzyme has an apparent s/sub 20,w/ of 3.8 S. The purified VSG lipase is active in the presence of EDTA; its activity is inhibited by organomercurials and stimulated by dithiothreitol. The purified enzyme releases dimyristylglycerol from VSG.

  17. Cloning and molecular characterization of phospholipase D (PLD) delta gene from longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.).

    PubMed

    You, Xiangrong; Zhang, Yayuan; Li, Li; Li, Zhichun; Li, Mingjuan; Li, Changbao; Zhu, Jianhua; Peng, Hongxiang; Sun, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is a non-climacteric fruit with a short postharvest life. The regulation of phospholipase D (PLD) activity closely relates to postharvest browning and senescence of longan fruit. In this study, a novel cDNA clone of longan PLDδ (LgPLDδ) was obtained and registered in GenBank (accession No. JF791814). The deduced amino acid sequence possessed all of the three typical domains of plant PLDs, a C2 domain and two catalytic HxKxxxxD motifs. The tertiary structure of LgPLDδ was further predicted. The western blot result showed that the LgPLDδ protein was specifically recognized by PLDδ antibody. The Q-RT-PCR (real-time quantitative PCR) result showed that the level of LgPLDδ mRNA expression was higher in senescent tissues than in developing tissues, which was also high in postharvest fruit. The western-blotting result further certified the different expression of LgPLDδ. These results provided a scientific basis for further investigating the mechanism of postharvest longan fruit adapting to environmental stress.

  18. Structure of a king cobra phospholipase A2 determined from a hemihedrally twinned crystal.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sujuan; Gu, Lichuan; Wang, Qiuyan; Shu, Yuyan; Song, Shiying; Lin, Zhengjiong

    2003-09-01

    An acidic PLA(2) (OH APLA(2)-II) from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) shows greater phospholipase A(2) activity and weaker cardiotoxic and myotoxic activity than a homologous acidic PLA(2) from the same venom. The crystal of the enzyme belongs to space group P6(3). The crystals are invariably hemihedrally twinned, exhibiting perfect 622 Laue symmetry. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined using a hemihedral twinning program at 2.1 A resolution. The final model has reasonable stereochemistry and a crystallographic R factor of 19.5% (R(free) = 21.5%). The structure reveals the molecular arrangement and the mode of twinning. There are six independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. Owing to the presence of a non-crystallographic twofold parallel to the hemihedral twinning twofold, the molecular packing in the twinned crystal is extremely similar to that in an untwinned crystal for four of the molecules. This unique molecular arrangement may be related to the difficulty in recognizing the twinning. The structure was compared with the previously determined structure of a homologous acidic PLA(2) from the same source. The comparison shows structural changes that might be implicated in the increased catalytic activity and weakened toxicity.

  19. Purification and characterization of a novel phospholipase A2 from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom.

    PubMed

    Chiou, J Y; Chang, L S; Chen, L N; Chang, C C

    1995-08-01

    A novel phospholipase A2, designated as Oh-DE-2, was isolated from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) by successive chromatography on SP-Sephadex C-25, DE-52, and Q-Sepharose columns. Oh-DE-2 with pI 5.1 showed an apparent molecular weight of 14 kD as revealed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The amino acid sequence was homologous with those of PLA2S from Elapidae venoms. Oh-DE-2 was effectively inactivated by p-bromophenacyl bromide, indicating that the conserved His-48 is essential for its enzymatic activity. However, modification of the conserved Trp-19 did not cause a precipitous drop in the enzymatic activity of Oh-DE-2 as observed with PLA2S from Naja naja atra and Bungarus multicinctus venoms. A quenching study showed that the microenvironment of Trp in Oh-DE-2 was inaccessible to acrylamide, iodide, or cesium, a finding which was different from those observed with PLA2S from N. naja atra and B. multicinctus venoms. These results might suggest that, unlike other PLA2 enzymes, Trp-19 in Oh-DE-2 is not directly involved in its enzymatic mechanisms.

  20. Myxococcus CsgA, Drosophila Sniffer, and human HSD10 are cardiolipin phospholipases

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Tye O'Hara; Shimkets, Lawrence Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus development requires CsgA, a member of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase (SCAD) family of proteins. We show that CsgA and SocA, a protein that can replace CsgA function in vivo, oxidize the 2′-OH glycerol moiety on cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), dihydroxyacetone, and orthophosphate. A lipid extract enriched in DAGs from wild-type cells initiates development and lipid body production in a csgA mutant to bypass the mutational block. This novel phospholipase C-like reaction is widespread. SCADs that prevent neurodegenerative disorders, such as Drosophila Sniffer and human HSD10, oxidize cardiolipin with similar kinetic parameters. HSD10 exhibits a strong preference for cardiolipin with oxidized fatty acids. This activity is inhibited in the presence of the amyloid β peptide. Three HSD10 variants associated with neurodegenerative disorders are inactive with cardiolipin. We suggest that HSD10 protects humans from reactive oxygen species by removing damaged cardiolipin before it induces apoptosis. PMID:26338420

  1. The phospholipase complex PAFAH Ib regulates the functional organization of the Golgi complex

    PubMed Central

    Bechler, Marie E.; Doody, Anne M.; Racoosin, Esther; Lin, Lin; Lee, Kelvin H.

    2010-01-01

    We report that platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAFAH) Ib, comprised of two phospholipase A2 (PLA2) subunits, α1 and α2, and a third subunit, the dynein regulator lissencephaly 1 (LIS1), mediates the structure and function of the Golgi complex. Both α1 and α2 partially localize on Golgi membranes, and purified catalytically active, but not inactive α1 and α2 induce Golgi membrane tubule formation in a reconstitution system. Overexpression of wild-type or mutant α1 or α2 revealed that both PLA2 activity and LIS1 are important for maintaining Golgi structure. Knockdown of PAFAH Ib subunits fragments the Golgi complex, inhibits tubule-mediated reassembly of intact Golgi ribbons, and slows secretion of cargo. Our results demonstrate a cooperative interplay between the PLA2 activity of α1 and α2 with LIS1 to facilitate the functional organization of the Golgi complex, thereby suggesting a model that links phospholipid remodeling and membrane tubulation to dynein-dependent transport. PMID:20624900

  2. PAFAH Ib Phospholipase A2 Subunits Have Distinct Roles in Maintaining Golgi Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Bechler, Marie E.; Brown, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the phospholipase subunits of Platelet Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase (PAFAH) Ib, α1 and α2, partially localize to the Golgi complex and regulate its structure and function. Using siRNA knockdown of individual subunits, we find that α1 and α2 perform overlapping and unique roles in regulating Golgi morphology, assembly, and secretory cargo trafficking. Knockdown of either α1 or α2 reduced secretion of soluble proteins, but neither single knockdown reduced secretion to the same degree as knockdown of both. Knockdown of α1 or α2 inhibited reassembly of an intact Golgi complex to the same extent as knockdown of both. Transport of VSV-G was slowed but at different steps in the secretory pathway: reduction of α1 slowed trans Golgi network to plasma membrane transport, whereas α2 loss reduced endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi trafficking. Similarly, knockdown of either subunit alone disrupted the Golgi complex but with markedly different morphologies. Finally, knockdown of α1, or double knockdown of α1 and α2, resulted in a significant redistribution of kinase dead protein kinase D from the Golgi to the plasma membrane, whereas loss of α2 alone had no such effect. These studies reveal an unexpected complexity in the regulation of Golgi structure and function by PAFAH Ib. PMID:23262398

  3. Charge Shielding of PIP2 by Cations Regulates Enzyme Activity of Phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong Bae; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Huang, Weigang; Zhang, Qisheng; Koh, Duk-Su

    2015-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) of the plasma membrane by phospholipase C (PLC) generates two critical second messengers, inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. For the enzymatic reaction, PIP2 binds to positively charged amino acids in the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC. Here we tested the hypothesis that positively charged divalent and multivalent cations accumulate around the negatively charged PIP2, a process called electrostatic charge shielding, and therefore inhibit electrostatic PIP2-PLC interaction. This charge shielding of PIP2 was measured quantitatively with an in vitro enzyme assay using WH-15, a PIP2 analog, and various recombinant PLC proteins (β1, γ1, and δ1). Reduction of PLC activity by divalent cations, polyamines, and neomycin was well described by a theoretical model considering accumulation of cations around PIP2 via their electrostatic interaction and chemical binding. Finally, the charge shielding of PIP2 was also observed in live cells. Perfusion of the cations into cells via patch clamp pipette reduced PIP2 hydrolysis by PLC as triggered by M1 muscarinic receptors with a potency order of Mg2+ < spermine4+ < neomycin6+. Accumulation of divalent cations into cells through divalent-permeable TRPM7 channel had the same effect. Altogether our results suggest that Mg2+ and polyamines modulate the activity of PLCs by controlling the amount of free PIP2 available for the enzymes and that highly charged biomolecules can be inactivated by counterions electrostatically.

  4. Effect of detergents, trypsin, and bivalent metal ions on interfacial activation and functioning of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Madyarov, Sh R

    2014-07-01

    The effects of detergents, trypsin, and bivalent metal ions on production of phosphatidic and lysophosphatidic acids by the action of phospholipase D (PLD) on lecithin and lysolecithin were studied. It was found that these reaction products and dodecyl sulfate ions activate PLD, whereas other anionic detergents are less effective. A protective effect of the functioning enzyme against its hydrolytic inactivation by trypsin was found. Bivalent metal ions can be arranged in the following sequence by their ability to activate PLD in the hydrolysis of lecithin and lysolecithin: Ca2+>Sr2+>Ba2+>Mg2+. These results are considered in relation to a proposed mechanism of activation and functioning of PLD with the participation of clusters of phosphatidates and lysophosphatidates. Such Me2+-induced formation of rafts or microdomains from the products of hydrolysis of phospholipids can rationalize not only PLD activation and self-regulation, but also the action of this mechanism on other components and properties of biomembranes. PLD and other lipolytic enzymes can be classified as lateral vector enzymes.

  5. Characterization of opiate receptor heterogeneity using affinity ligands and phospholipase A/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Reichman, M.

    1985-01-01

    The primary aim of the dissertation was to study the heterogeneity of opiate receptors by utilizing affinity ligands, and by modification of the receptor lipid-microenvironment with phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/). The affinity ligands, 14-bromacetamidomorphine (BAM) and 14-chloroacetylnaltrexone (CAN), selectively inactivated high affinity dihydromorphine binding sites in an apparently irreversible manner (the inhibition was resistant to extensive washes of treated neural membrane homogenates). The inhibitory effect of PLA/sub 2/ (10 ng/ml) on opiate receptor subtypes was determined using (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine (..mu..-type agonist), (/sup 3/H)-enkephalin (delta agonist) and (/sup 3/H)-naloxone (..mu.. antagonist). PLA/sub 2/ abolished the high affinity antagonist binding site, whereas it inhibited high and low affinity agonist binding sites similarly. The results suggest that high affinity antagonist binding sites are different from high affinity agonist binding sites. Indirect binding assays demonstrated that the selectivities of ..mu..- and delta receptors are not affected significantly by PLA/sub 2/ treatment.

  6. Phospholipase C beta 4 in the medial septum controls cholinergic theta oscillations and anxiety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jonghan; Gireesh, Gangadharan; Kim, Seong-Wook; Kim, Duk-Soo; Lee, Sukyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2009-12-09

    Anxiety is among the most prevalent and costly diseases of the CNS, but its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Although attenuated theta rhythms have been observed in human subjects with increased anxiety, no study has been done on the possible physiological link between these two manifestations. We found that the mutant mouse for phospholipase C beta 4 (PLC-beta 4(-/-)) showed attenuated theta rhythm and increased anxiety, presenting the first animal model for the human condition. PLC-beta 4 is abundantly expressed in the medial septum, a region implicated in anxiety behavior. RNA interference-mediated PLC-beta 4 knockdown in the medial septum produced a phenotype similar to that of PLC-beta 4(-/-) mice. Furthermore, increasing cholinergic signaling by administering an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor cured the anomalies in both cholinergic theta rhythm and anxiety behavior observed in PLC-beta 4(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that (1) PLC-beta 4 in the medial septum is involved in controlling cholinergic theta oscillation and (2) cholinergic theta rhythm plays a critical role in suppressing anxiety. We propose that defining the cholinergic theta rhythm profile may provide guidance in subtyping anxiety disorders in humans for more effective diagnosis and treatments.

  7. Phosphatidic Acid Produced by Phospholipase D Promotes RNA Replication of a Plant RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Taniguchi, Takako; Manabe, Yuki; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+)RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids), but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+)RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV). We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate. PMID:26020241

  8. Effects of smoke inhalation on surfactant phospholipids and phospholipase A2 activity in the mouse lung.

    PubMed Central

    Oulton, M.; Moores, H. K.; Scott, J. E.; Janigan, D. T.; Hajela, R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of smoke inhalation on the pulmonary surfactant system were examined in mice exposed for 30 minutes to smoke generated from the burning of polyurethane foam. At 8 or 12 hours after exposure, surfactants were isolated separately from lung lavage (extracellular surfactant) and residual lung tissue (intracellular surfactant) for phospholipid analysis. Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was measured on a microsomal fraction prepared from the tissue homogenate. Smoke inhalation produced a twofold increase in extracellular surfactant total phospholipid. While there was no change in the total phospholipid or phosphatidylcholine (PC) content of the intracellular surfactant, smoke inhalation significantly decreased the disaturated species of PC (DSPC). The specific activity of PLA2 was reduced by more than 50% in both groups of exposed mice. Smoke inhalation appears to result in selective depletion of the DSPC of intracellular surfactant and PLA2 involved in its synthesis. This depletion may be compensated for by increased secretion or slower breakdown of the material present in the extracellular compartment. Images Figure 1 PMID:1987765

  9. Crystal forms of a lysine-49 phospholipase A 2 from the eastern cottonmouth snake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Laura L.; Rydel, Timothy J.; Muchmore, Steven W.; Holland, Debra R.; Watenpaugh, Keith D.; Finzel, Barry C.; Einspahr, Howard M.

    1990-09-01

    As part of an effort to determine the structure of a lysine-49 variant phospholipase A 2 from the venom of a North American pit viper, the eastern cottonmouth ( Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), we have produced five different crystal forms grown under a variety of crystallization conditions. They include an orthorthombic form (P2 12 12 1 or P2 12 12; a=87.8(3) Å, b=76.2(3) Å, c=57.4(4) Å), an hexagonal form (space group P6 122 or its enantiomer; a= b=62.22(3) Å, c=137.1(3) Å) and two tetragonal forms - a neutral pH form (space group P4 12 12 or its enantiomer; a = b = 81.99(3) Å) and high pH form (space group P4 12 12; a = b = 71.5(1) Å, c = 57.6(2) Å one molecule per asymmetric unit) — the latter of which was used for structure determination.

  10. Phospholipases A2 and neural membrane dynamics: Implications for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James C-M.; Simonyi, Agnes; Sun, Albert Y.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are essential enzymes in cells. They are not only responsible for maintaining the structural organization of cell membranes, but also play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell functions. Activation of PLA2s results in the release of fatty acids and lysophospholipids, products that are lipid mediators and compounds capable of altering membrane microdomains and physical properties. Although not fully understood, recent studies have linked aberrant PLA2 activity to oxidative signaling pathways involving NADPH oxidase that underlie the pathophysiology of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we review studies describing the involvement of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) in oxidative signaling pathways leading to neuronal impairment and activation of glial cell inflammatory responses. In addition, this review also includes information on the role of cPLA2 and exogenous secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) on membrane physical properties, dynamics, and membrane proteins. Unraveling the mechanisms that regulate specific types of PLA2s and their effects on membrane dynamics are important prerequisites towards understanding their roles in the pathophysiology of AD, and in the development of novel therapeutics to retard progression of the disease. PMID:21214562

  11. Distribution of glycosylinositol phosphoceramide-specific phospholipase D activity in plants.

    PubMed

    Kida, Takashi; Itoh, Aoi; Kimura, Akari; Matsuoka, Hisatsugu; Imai, Hiroyuki; Kogure, Kentaro; Tokumura, Akira; Tanaka, Tamotsu

    2016-11-08

    Previously, we detected an unknown sphingophospholipid in cabbage leaves and identified it as phytoceramide-1-phosphate (PC1P). We also found an enzyme activity that produces PC1P by glycosylinositol phosphoceramide (GIPC)-specific hydrolysis in cabbage leaves. To characterize the GIPC-specific phospholipase D (GIPC-PLD) activity, we investigated distributions of GIPC-PLD activity in 25 tissues of 10 plants. In most plants, the GIPC-PLD activity was the highest in roots. Young leaves of cabbage and Welsh onion had higher activities than corresponding aged outer leaves. The GIPC-PLD activities in leaves, stems and roots of mung bean were higher in the sprouting stage than in more mature stages. We also examined the distribution of substrate GIPC and product PC1P and found that GIPC was ubiquitously distributed at 50-280 nmol/g (wet wt) in tissues of plants, whereas PC1P was detectable (3-60 nmol/g wet wt.) only in tissues showing considerable GIPC-PLD activity. These results suggest a possibility that GIPC-PLD activity is involved in plant growth.

  12. Structure of Human GIVD Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Reveals Insights into Substrate Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Klein, Michael G.; Snell, Gyorgy; Lane, Weston; Zou, Hua; Levin, Irena; Li, Ke; Sang, Bi-Ching

    2016-07-01

    Cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2s) consist of a family of calcium-sensitive enzymes that function to generate lipid second messengers through hydrolysis of membrane-associated glycerophospholipids. The GIVD cPLA2 (cPLA2δ) is a potential drug target for developing a selective therapeutic agent for the treatment of psoriasis. Here, we present two X-ray structures of human cPLA2δ, capturing an apo state, and in complex with a substrate-like inhibitor. Comparison of the apo and inhibitor-bound structures reveals conformational changes in a flexible cap that allows the substrate to access the relatively buried active site, providing new insight into the mechanism for substrate recognition. The cPLA2δ structure reveals an unexpected second C2 domain that was previously unrecognized from sequence alignments, placing cPLA2δ into the class of membrane-associated proteins that contain a tandem pair of C2 domains. Furthermore, our structures elucidate novel inter-domain interactions and define three potential calcium-binding sites that are likely important for regulation and activation of enzymatic activity. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing cPLA2's function in signal transduction.

  13. Phospholipase D affects translocation of NPR1 to the nucleus in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Martin; Šašek, Vladimír; Chmelařová, Hana; Andrejch, Jan; Nováková, Miroslava; Hajšlová, Jana; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is a crucial component of plant-induced defense against biotrophic pathogens. Although the key players of the SA pathway are known, there are still gaps in the understanding of the molecular mechanism and the regulation of particular steps. In our previous research, we showed in Arabidopsis suspension cells that n-butanol, which specifically modulates phospholipase D activity, significantly suppresses the transcription of the pathogenesis related (PR-1) gene, which is generally accepted as the SA pathway marker. In the presented study, we have investigated the site of n-butanol action in the SA pathway. We were able to show in Arabidopsis plants treated with SA that n-butanol inhibits the transcription of defense genes (PR-1, WRKY38). Fluorescence microscopy of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants expressing 35S::NPR1-GFP (nonexpressor pathogenesis related 1) revealed significantly decreased nuclear localization of NPR1 in the presence of n-butanol. On the other hand, n-butanol did not decrease the nuclear localization of NPR1 in 35S::npr1C82A-GFP and 35S::npr1C216A-GFP mutants constitutively expressing NPR1 monomers. Mass spectrometric analysis of plant extracts showed that n-butanol significantly changes the metabolic fingerprinting while t-butanol had no effect. We found groups of the plant metabolites, influenced differently by SA and n-butanol treatment. Thus, we proposed several metabolites as markers for n-butanol action. PMID:25741350

  14. Secretory phospholipase A2 activity in blood serum: the challenge to sense.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, A S; Korotaeva, A A; Samoilova, E V; Volynsky, P E; Vodovozova, E L; Boldyrev, I A

    2014-11-07

    Excess levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is known to contribute to several inflammatory diseases including vascular inflammation correlating with coronary events in coronary artery disease. Thus a method to monitor sPLA2 activity in blood serum is urgently needed. Such method is still a challenge since existing fluorescent probes do not allow to monitor sPLA2 activity directly in blood serum. Here we analyze and overcome barriers in sPLA2 sensing methodology and report a fluorescent probe and a kinetic model of its hydrolysis by sPLA2. New probe is designed with a fluorophore and a quencher not interfering binding to the enzyme. At the same time phospholipid matrix bearing the probe promotes efficient initial quenching of the fluorophore. Kinetic model of probe hydrolysis takes into account signal change due to the side processes. The probe and the kinetic model applied together prove the concept that the activity of sPLA can be measured directly in blood serum.

  15. Phospholipase D-mTOR requirement for the Warburg effect in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Toschi, Alfredo; Lee, Evan; Thompson, Sebastian; Gadir, Noga; Yellen, Paige; Drain, C Michael; Ohh, Michael; Foster, David A

    2010-12-18

    A characteristic of cancer cells is the generation of lactate from glucose in spite of adequate oxygen for oxidative phosphorylation. This property - known as the "Warburg effect" or aerobic glycolysis - contrasts with anaerobic glycolysis, which is triggered in hypoxic normal cells. The Warburg effect is thought to provide a means for cancer cells to survive under conditions where oxygen is limited and to generate metabolites necessary for cell growth. The shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in response to hypoxia is mediated by the production of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) - a transcription factor family that stimulates the expression of proteins involved in glucose uptake and glycolysis. We reported previously that elevated phospholipase D (PLD) activity in renal and breast cancer cells is required for the expression of the α subunits of HIF1 and HIF2. We report here that the aerobic glycolysis observed in human breast and renal cancer cells is dependent on the elevated PLD activity. Intriguingly, the effect of PLD on the Warburg phenotype was dependent on the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the breast cancer cells and on mTORC2 in the renal cancer cells. These data indicate that elevated PLD-mTOR signaling, which is common in human cancer cells, is critical for the metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis.

  16. Revisiting the role of phospholipases C in virulence and the lifecycle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Chevalier, Fabien; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Frigui, Wafa; Pawlik, Alexandre; Boritsch, Eva C.; Bottai, Daria; Majlessi, Laleh; Herrmann, Jean Louis; Brosch, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis has developed different virulence mechanisms and virulence-associated tools during its evolution to survive and multiply inside the host. Based on previous reports and by analogy with other bacteria, phospholipases C (PLC) of M. tuberculosis were thought to be among these tools. To get deeper insights into the function of PLCs, we investigated their putative involvement in the intracellular lifestyle of M. tuberculosis, with emphasis on phagosomal rupture and virulence, thereby re-visiting a research theme of longstanding interest. Through the construction and use of an M. tuberculosis H37Rv PLC-null mutant (ΔPLC) and control strains, we found that PLCs of M. tuberculosis were not required for induction of phagosomal rupture and only showed marginal, if any, impact on virulence of M. tuberculosis in the cellular and mouse infection models used in this study. In contrast, we found that PLC-encoding genes were strongly upregulated under phosphate starvation and that PLC-proficient M. tuberculosis strains survived better than ΔPLC mutants under conditions where phosphatidylcholine served as sole phosphate source, opening new perspectives for studies on the role of PLCs in the lifecycle of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26603639

  17. The role of group IIF-secreted phospholipase A2 in epidermal homeostasis and hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Mariko; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Nishito, Yasumasa; Taya, Choji; Muramatsu, Kazuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Kambe, Naotomo; Kabashima, Kenji; Lambeau, Gérard; Gelb, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal lipids are important for skin homeostasis. However, the entire picture of the roles of lipids, particularly nonceramide lipid species, in epidermal biology still remains obscure. Here, we report that PLA2G2F, a functionally orphan-secreted phospholipase A2 expressed in the suprabasal epidermis, regulates skin homeostasis and hyperplasic disorders. Pla2g2f−/− mice had a fragile stratum corneum and were strikingly protected from psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer. Conversely, Pla2g2f-overexpressing transgenic mice displayed psoriasis-like epidermal hyperplasia. Primary keratinocytes from Pla2g2f−/− mice showed defective differentiation and activation. PLA2G2F was induced by calcium or IL-22 in keratinocytes and preferentially hydrolyzed ethanolamine plasmalogen-bearing docosahexaenoic acid secreted from keratinocytes to give rise to unique bioactive lipids (i.e., protectin D1 and 9S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid) that were distinct from canonical arachidonate metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes). Ethanolamine lysoplasmalogen, a PLA2G2F-derived marker product, rescued defective activation of Pla2g2f−/− keratinocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Our results highlight PLA2G2F as a previously unrecognized regulator of skin pathophysiology and point to this enzyme as a novel drug target for epidermal-hyperplasic diseases. PMID:26438362

  18. Characterization of phospholipases C beta and gamma and their possible roles in Chaetopterus egg activation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xunqin; Eckberg, William R

    2009-05-01

    Intracellular calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum is a hallmark at egg activation of both vertebrates and invertebrates. This fertilization-associated calcium release results from generation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) by one or more phospholipases C (PLC). We characterized Chaetopterus PLCbeta and gamma by reverse transcription/degenerate oligonucleotide primed PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end PCR. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the deduced PLCbeta protein shared the greatest homology with mammalian PLCbeta4; the deduced PLCgamma protein shared the greatest homology with starfish PLCgamma and diverged from mammalian PLCgamma before mammalian the PLCgamma1 and gamma2 isoforms diverged. Western blot analyses with specific anti-PLCbeta and gamma antibodies, respectively, revealed that 135 and 150 kDa proteins were expressed in eggs. The general PLC antagonist U-73122 blocked fertilization-induced egg activation; however, the inactive analog, U-73343, had no effect on egg activation. We further tested whether egg activation was G protein-PLCbeta and/or protein tyrosine kinase-PLCgamma dependent. Cholera and pertussis toxins, well-known effectors of G proteins, had no effect on egg activation; while two antagonists of PTK, genistein and tyrphostin B42, inhibited both fertilization-induced and artificial egg activation. Taken together, our studies suggested that PLC activity from eggs contributes to Chaetopterus egg activation and PLCgamma might play an important role during this biological process.

  19. Selective inhibitors and tailored activity probes for lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Joseph M. G.; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Whitby, Landon R.; Niphakis, Micah J.; Speers, Anna E.; Brown, Steven J.; Spicer, Timothy; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Ferguson, Jill; Hodder, Peter; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Gonzalez, Tara D.; Rosen, Hugh; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 or PLA2G7) binds to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, where it is thought to hydrolyze oxidatively truncated phospholipids. Lp-PLA2 has also been implicated as a pro-tumorigenic enzyme in human prostate cancer. Several inhibitors of Lp-PLA2 have been described, including darapladib, which is currently in phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of atherosclerosis. The selectivity that darapladib and other Lp-PLA2 inhibitors display across the larger serine hydrolase family has not, however, been reported. Here, we describe the use of both general and tailored activity-based probes for profiling Lp-PLA2 and inhibitors of this enzyme in native biological systems. We show that both darapladib and a novel class of structurally distinct carbamate inhibitors inactivate Lp-PLA2 in mouse tissues and human cell lines with high selectivity. Our findings thus identify both inhibitors and chemoproteomic probes that are suitable for investigating Lp-PLA2 function in biological systems. PMID:23260346

  20. A lobster phospholipase C-beta that associates with G-proteins in response to odorants.

    PubMed

    Xu, F; McClintock, T S

    1999-06-15

    A cDNA clone encoding a protein of 1116 amino acids with significant homology to beta-isoforms of phospholipase C was isolated from lobster olfactory organ cDNA libraries and named lobPLCbeta. This cDNA hybridized predominantly to a 9 kb transcript in RNA from olfactory organ, pereiopod, brain, and eye-eyestalk and to several smaller minor transcripts only in eye-eyestalk. An antiserum raised to the C terminus of lobPLCbeta detected immunoreactivity in a single 130 kDa band in olfactory aesthetasc hairs, olfactory organ, pereiopod, dactyl, and brain. In eye-eyestalk this 130 kDa band was abundant, and minor bands of 100, 79, and 57 kDa also were detected. In cross sections of the aesthetasc hairs, immunoreactivity was detected in the outer dendritic segments of the olfactory receptor neurons, the site of olfactory transduction. A complex odorant caused lobPLCbeta immunoreactivity to increase in membrane fractions and decrease in soluble fractions of homogenates of aesthetasc hairs. The odorant also increased the amount of lobPLCbeta in immunoprecipitates of Galphaq and Gbeta from homogenates of aesthetasc hairs. These results support the conclusion that lobPLCbeta mediates olfactory transduction.

  1. Phospholipase D1 deficiency in mice causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via an autophagy defect.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jang Ho; Park, Shi-Young; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Lee, Jae Sung; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Lee, Hui-Young; Yoon, Mee-Sup; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2016-12-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) as lipid droplets in the liver. Although lipid-metabolizing enzymes are considered important in NAFLD, the involvement of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) has not yet been studied. Here, we show that the genetic ablation of PLD1 in mice induces NAFLD due to an autophagy defect. PLD1 expression was decreased in high-fat diet-induced NAFLD. Subsequently, PLD1 deficiency led to an increase in hepatic TGs and liver weight. Autophagic flux was blocked in Pld1(-/-) hepatocytes, with decreased β-oxidation rate, reduced oxidation-related gene expression, and swollen mitochondria. The dynamics of autophagy was restored by treatment with the PLD product, phosphatidic acid (PA) or adenoviral PLD1 expression in Pld1(-/-) hepatocytes, confirming that lysosomal PA produced by PLD1 regulates autophagy. Notably, PLD1 expression in Pld1(-/-) liver significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation, compared with Pld1(-/-) liver. Thus, PLD1 plays an important role in hepatic steatosis via the regulation of autophagy.

  2. Phospholipase D1 decreases type I collagen levels in hepatic stellate cells via induction of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-Y; Jang, B-K; Jung, Y-A; Lee, E-J; Kim, H-S; Jeon, J-H; Kim, J-G; Lee, I-K; Kim, M-K; Park, K-G

    2014-06-20

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are major players in liver fibrogenesis. Accumulating evidence shows that suppression of autophagy plays an important role in the development and progression of liver disease. Phospholipase D1 (PLD1), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline, was recently shown to modulate autophagy. However, little is known about the effects of PLD1 on the production of type I collagen that characterizes liver fibrosis. Here, we examined whether PLD1 regulates type I collagen levels in HSCs through induction of autophagy. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PLD-1 (Ad-PLD1) reduced type I collagen levels in the activated human HSC lines, hTERT and LX2. Overexpression of PLD1 in HSCs led to induction of autophagy as demonstrated by increased LC3-II conversion and formation of LC3 puncta, and decreased p62 abundance. Moreover, inhibiting the induction of autophagy by treating cells with bafilomycin or a small interfering (si)RNA for ATG7 rescued Ad-PLD1-induced suppression of type I collagen accumulation in HSCs. The effects of PLD on type I collagen levels were not related to TGF-β/Smad signaling. Furthermore, treatment of cells with PA induced autophagy and inhibited type I collagen accumulation. The present study indicates that PLD1 plays a role in regulating type I collagen accumulation through induction of autophagy.

  3. Inhibition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C prevents bone marrow stromal cell senescence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunhui; Wang, Nan; Huang, Jie; Xin, Jie; Peng, Fen; Ren, Yinshi; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying

    2009-10-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can proliferate in vitro and can be transplanted for treating many kinds of diseases. However, BMSCs become senescent with long-term culture, which inhibits their application. To understand the mechanism underlying the senescence, we investigated the activity of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and levels of integrin beta4, caveolin-1 and ROS with BMSC senescence. The activity of PC-PLC and levels of integrin beta4, caveolin-1 and ROS increased greatly during cell senescence. Selective inhibition of increased PC-PLC activity with D609 significantly decreased the number of senescence-associated beta galactosidase positive cells in BMSCs. Furthermore, D609 restored proliferation of BMSCs and their differentiation into adipocytes. Moreover, D609 suppressed the elevated levels of integrin beta4, caveolin-1 and ROS. The data suggest that PC-PLC is involved in senescence of BMSCs, and its function is associated with integrin beta4, caveolin-1 and ROS.

  4. The potential role of postsynaptic phospholipase C activity in synaptic facilitation and behavioral sensitization in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Daniel; Condro, Michael C; Pearce, Kaycey; Glanzman, David L

    2008-07-01

    Previous findings indicate that synaptic facilitation, a cellular mechanism underlying sensitization of the siphon withdrawal response (SWR) in Aplysia, depends on a cascade of postsynaptic events, including activation of inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors and release of Ca2+ from postsynaptic intracellular stores. These findings suggest that phospholipase C (PLC), the enzyme that catalyzes IP3 formation, may play an important role in postsynaptic signaling during facilitation and learning in Aplysia. Using the PLC inhibitor U73122, we found that PLC activity is required for synaptic facilitation following a 10-min treatment with 5-HT, as measured at 20 min after 5-HT washout. Prior work has indicated that facilitation at this time is supported primarily by postsynaptic processes. To determine whether postsynaptic PLC activity is involved in 5-HT-mediated facilitatory actions, we examined the effect of U73122 on enhancement of the response of motor neurons isolated in cell culture to glutamate, the sensory neuron transmitter. A 10-min application of 5-HT induced persistent (>40 min) enhancement of glutamate-evoked potentials (Glu-EPs) recorded from isolated motor neurons, and this enhancement was blocked by U73122. Finally, we showed that injecting U73122 into intact animals before behavioral training impaired intermediate-term sensitization, indicating that PLC activity contributes to this form of nonassociative learning.

  5. Nuclear translocation of phospholipase C-zeta, an egg-activating factor, during early embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Sone, Yoshie; Ito, Masahiko; Shirakawa, Hideki; Shikano, Tomohide; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Shunichi . E-mail: shunm@research.twmu.ac.jp

    2005-05-13

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC{zeta}), a strong candidate of the egg-activating sperm factor, causes intracellular Ca{sup 2+} oscillations and egg activation, and is subsequently accumulated into the pronucleus (PN), when expressed in mouse eggs by injection of RNA encoding PLC{zeta}. Changes in the localization of expressed PLC{zeta} were investigated by tagging with a fluorescent protein. PLC{zeta} began to translocate into the PN formed at 5-6 h after RNA injection and increased there. Observation in the same embryo revealed that PLC{zeta} in the PN dispersed to the cytoplasm upon nuclear envelope breakdown and translocated again into the nucleus after cleavage. The dynamics was found in the second mitosis as well. When RNA was injected into fertilization-originated 1-cell embryos or blastomere(s) of 2-8-cell embryos, the nuclear localization of expressed PLC{zeta} was recognized in every embryo up to blastocyst. Thus, PLC{zeta} exhibited alternative cytoplasm/nucleus localization during development. This supports the view that the sperm factor could control cell cycle-dependent generation of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in early embryogenesis.

  6. Mechanosensitivity of human osteosarcoma cells and phospholipase C {beta}2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hoberg, M. . E-mail: Maik.Hoberg@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Gratz, H.-H.; Noll, M.; Jones, D.B.

    2005-07-22

    Bone adapts to mechanical load by osteosynthesis, suggesting that osteoblasts might respond to mechanical stimuli. We therefore investigated cell proliferation and phospholipase C (PLC) expression in osteoblasts. One Hertz uniaxial stretching at 4000 {mu}strains significantly increased the proliferation rates of human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and primary human osteoblasts. However, U-2/OS, SaOS-2, OST, and MNNG/HOS cells showed no significant changes in proliferation rate. We investigated the expression pattern of different isoforms of PLC in these cell lines. We were able to detect PLC {beta}1, {beta}3, {gamma}1, {gamma}2, and {delta}1 in all cells, but PLC {beta}2 was only detectable in the mechanosensitive cells. We therefore investigated the possible role of PLC {beta}2 in mechanotransduction. Inducible antisense expression for 24 h inhibited the translation of PLC {beta}1 in U-2/OS cells by 35% and PLC {beta}2 in MG-63 by 29%. Fluid shear flow experiments with MG-63 lacking PLC {beta}2 revealed a significantly higher level of cells losing attachment to coverslips and a significantly lower number of cells increasing intracellular free calcium.

  7. Phospholipase Dδ is involved in nitric oxide-induced stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Distéfano, Ayelen M; Scuffi, Denise; García-Mata, Carlos; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Laxalt, Ana M

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has recently emerged as a second messenger involved in the complex network of signaling events that regulate stomatal closure. Little is known about the signaling events occurring downstream of NO. Previously, we demonstrated the involvement of phospholipase D (PLD) in NO signaling during stomatal closure. PLDδ, one of the 12 Arabidopsis PLDs, is involved in dehydration stress responses. To investigate the role of PLDδ in NO signaling in guard cells, we analyzed guard cells responses using Arabidopsis wild type and two independent pldδ single mutants. In this work, we show that pldδ mutants failed to close the stomata in response to NO. Treatments with phosphatidic acid, the product of PLD activity, induced stomatal closure in pldδ mutants. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells involved H(2)O(2) and NO production, both required for ABA-induced stomatal closure. pldδ guard cells produced similar NO and H(2)O(2) levels as the wild type in response to ABA. However, ABA- or H(2)O(2)-induced stomatal closure was impaired in pldδ plants. These data indicate that PLDδ is downstream of NO and H(2)O(2) in ABA-induced stomatal closure.

  8. Revisiting the role of phospholipases C in virulence and the lifecycle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Le Chevalier, Fabien; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Frigui, Wafa; Pawlik, Alexandre; Boritsch, Eva C; Bottai, Daria; Majlessi, Laleh; Herrmann, Jean Louis; Brosch, Roland

    2015-11-25

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis has developed different virulence mechanisms and virulence-associated tools during its evolution to survive and multiply inside the host. Based on previous reports and by analogy with other bacteria, phospholipases C (PLC) of M. tuberculosis were thought to be among these tools. To get deeper insights into the function of PLCs, we investigated their putative involvement in the intracellular lifestyle of M. tuberculosis, with emphasis on phagosomal rupture and virulence, thereby re-visiting a research theme of longstanding interest. Through the construction and use of an M. tuberculosis H37Rv PLC-null mutant (ΔPLC) and control strains, we found that PLCs of M. tuberculosis were not required for induction of phagosomal rupture and only showed marginal, if any, impact on virulence of M. tuberculosis in the cellular and mouse infection models used in this study. In contrast, we found that PLC-encoding genes were strongly upregulated under phosphate starvation and that PLC-proficient M. tuberculosis strains survived better than ΔPLC mutants under conditions where phosphatidylcholine served as sole phosphate source, opening new perspectives for studies on the role of PLCs in the lifecycle of M. tuberculosis.

  9. Purification and characterization of a phospholipase A2-IIA from common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) intestine.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Daihan, Sooad K; Moubayed, Nadine M S; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2013-06-01

    A phospholipase A2 belonging to IIA group secretory PLA2 was isolated and purified to homogeneity from the intestine of common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) using acidic treatment (pH 1.5) and ammonium sulphate precipitation methods combined with single-column ion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to be a glycosylated monomeric protein with a molecular mass of about 14 kDa. The stingray sPLA2-IIA had optimum activity at 45 degrees C, unlike known mammalian PLA2-IIAs, which show optimum activity at 37 degrees C. The purified enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 290 U/mg at optimal conditions (pH 9.5 and 45 degrees C) in the presence of 6 mM NaDC and 8 mM CaCl2 with egg yolk as substrate. The NH2-terminal sequence of the enzyme and some protein fragments obtained from its tryptic digestion were also determined. All sequences obtained were similar to those of sPLA2-IIA. The enzyme also showed good stability in the presence of organic solvents, acidic and alkaline pH media and high temperature conditions. Thus, the purified enzyme exhibited a number of unique and promising properties, making it a potential possible candidate for future applications in the treatment of phospholipid-rich industrial effluents and synthesis of useful preparations for the food production and processing industry.

  10. Enigma (partially) resolved: phospholipase A2 receptor is the cause of "idiopathic" membranous glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Truong, Luan D; Seshan, Surya V

    2015-12-15

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a very significant kidney disease. It is one of the frequent causes of heavy protein excretion in urine. MGN is thought to be an immune-mediated disease caused by glomerular deposition of antigen-antibody complexes. The pathogenic antigen, however, has been an enigma until recently. It was discovered in 2009 that phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R), a normal transmembrane protein in podocyte plasma membrane, is the antigen causing MGN. Within 5 yr of its discovery, this seminal finding has leaded to novel insights into the treatment of this disease including diagnosis, therapy, and prediction of outcome. This finding also paves the way for fundamental studies on how and why autoimmunity against PLA2R develops. The discovery of PLA2A as the cause of "idiopathic" MGN after a half century of speculation, followed by further fundamental insights with such an expedient and successful application in patient care, embodies the elegance of science at its junction with society. This perspective traces the story of this remarkable discovery.

  11. Phospholipase C-dependent phosphoinositide breakdown induced by ELF-EMF in Peganum harmala calli.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Maria Piera; Piatti, Elena; Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Albertini, Maria Cristina; Accorsi, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    With the aim of examining the response of plant cells to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), we investigated the behaviour of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PtdIns 4,5-P(2)) molecule (the precursor of the phosphoinositide signal transduction cascade) by exposing callus cells from Peganum harmala to 50 Hz, 1 gauss EMF for 10 min and by examining the level and the fatty acid composition of PtdIns 4,5-P(2) after the exposure. Our results evidenced a statistically significant decrease in PtdIns 4,5-P(2) concentrations and a different involvement of the constituting fatty acids in the induced breakdown. The manipulation of the lipid-based signalling pathway by phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibitors (i.e., neomycin, U-73122 and ET-18-OCH(3)) seems to support the hypothesis that, as in animals, also in plants, the cell membrane is the primary impact site of ELF electromagnetic stimulus and that this interaction could probably involve the activation of PI signal transduction pathway including a heterotrimeric G protein.

  12. The existence of phospholipase A(2) activity in plant mitochondria and its activation by hyperosmotic stress in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Trono, Daniela; Soccio, Mario; Laus, Maura N; Pastore, Donato

    2013-02-01

    The activity of mitochondrial phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) was shown for the first time in plants. It was observed in etiolated seedlings from durum wheat, barley, tomato, spelt and green seedlings of maize, but not in potato and topinambur tubers and lentil etiolated seedlings. This result was achieved by a novel spectrophotometric assay based on the coupled PLA(2)/lipoxygenase reactions using 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine as substrate; the mitochondrial localisation was assessed by checking recovery of marker enzymes. Durum wheat mitochondrial PLA(2) (DWM-PLA(2)) showed maximal activity at pH 9.0 and 1mM Ca(2+), hyperbolic kinetics (K(m)=90±6μM, V(max)=29±1nmolmin(-1)mg(-1) of protein) and inhibition by methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, 5-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-4S-(7-phenylheptanoylamino)pentanoic acid and palmityl trifluoromethyl ketone. Reactive oxygen species had no effect on DWM-PLA(2), that instead was activated by about 50% and 95%, respectively, under salt (0.21M NaCl) and osmotic (0.42M mannitol) stress imposed during germination. Contrarily, a secondary Ca(2+)-independent activity, having optimum at pH 7.0, was stress-insensitive. We propose that the activation of DWM-PLA(2) is responsible for the strong increase of free fatty acids recently measured in mitochondria under the same stress conditions [Laus, et al., J. Exp. Bot. 62 (2011) 141-154] that, in turn, activate potassium channel and uncoupling protein, able to counteract hyperosmotic stress.

  13. Sustained Receptor Stimulation Leads to Sequestration of Recycling Endosomes in a Classical Protein Kinase C- and Phospholipase D-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Idkowiak-Baldys, Jolanta; Baldys, Aleksander; Raymond, John R.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable insight has been garnered on initial mechanisms of endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins and their subsequent trafficking through the endosomal compartment. It is also well established that ligand stimulation of many plasma membrane receptors leads to their internalization. However, stimulus-induced regulation of endosomal trafficking has not received much attention. In previous studies, we showed that sustained stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol esters led to sequestration of recycling endosomes in a juxtanuclear region. In this study, we investigated whether G-protein-coupled receptors that activate PKC exerted effects on endosomal trafficking. Stimulation of cells with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) led to sequestration of the 5-HT receptor (5-HT2AR) into a Rab11-positive juxtanuclear compartment. This sequestration coincided with translocation of PKC as shown by confocal microscopy. Mechanistically the observed sequestration of 5-HT2AR was shown to require continuous PKC activity because it was inhibited by pretreatment with classical PKC inhibitor Gö6976 and could be reversed by posttreatment with this inhibitor. In addition, classical PKC autophosphorylation was necessary for receptor sequestration. Moreover inhibition of phospholipase D (PLD) activity and inhibition of PLD1 and PLD2 using dominant negative constructs also prevented this process. Functionally this sequestration did not affect receptor desensitization or resensitization as measured by intracellular calcium increase. However, the PKC- and PLD-dependent sequestration of receptors resulted in co-sequestration of other plasma membrane proteins and receptors as shown for epidermal growth factor receptor and protease activated receptor-1. This led to heterologous desensitization of those receptors and diverted their cellular fate by protecting them from agonist-induced degradation. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel role for sustained receptor

  14. Identification of tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase-C (PI-PLC) family members and the role of PLC4 and PLC6 in HR and disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Jack H; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed; Fradin, Emilie F; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Ekengren, Sophia K; Meijer, Harold J G; Seifi, Alireza; Bai, Yuling; ten Have, Arjen; Munnik, Teun; Thomma, Bart P H J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2010-04-01

    The perception of pathogen-derived elicitors by plants has been suggested to involve phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase-C (PI-PLC) signalling. Here we show that PLC isoforms are required for the hypersensitive response (HR) and disease resistance. We characterised the tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] PLC gene family. Six Sl PLC-encoding cDNAs were isolated and their expression in response to infection with the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum was studied. We found significant regulation at the transcriptional level of the various SlPLCs, and SlPLC4 and SlPLC6 showed distinct expression patterns in C. fulvum-resistant Cf-4 tomato. We produced the encoded proteins in Escherichia coli and found that both genes encode catalytically active PI-PLCs. To test the requirement of these Sl PLCs for full Cf-4-mediated recognition of the effector Avr4, we knocked down the expression of the encoding genes by virus-induced gene silencing. Silencing of SlPLC4 impaired the Avr4/Cf-4-induced HR and resulted in increased colonisation of Cf-4 plants by C. fulvum expressing Avr4. Furthermore, expression of the gene in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced the Avr4/Cf-4-induced HR. Silencing of SlPLC6 did not affect HR, whereas it caused increased colonisation of Cf-4 plants by the fungus. Interestingly, Sl PLC6, but not Sl PLC4, was also required for resistance to Verticillium dahliae, mediated by the transmembrane Ve1 resistance protein, and to Pseudomonas syringae, mediated by the intracellular Pto/Prf resistance protein couple. We conclude that there is a differential requirement of PLC isoforms for the plant immune response and that Sl PLC4 is specifically required for Cf-4 function, while Sl PLC6 may be a more general component of resistance protein signalling.

  15. AMPK Signaling Involvement for the Repression of the IL-1β-Induced Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 Expression in VSMCs

    PubMed Central

    El Hadri, Khadija; Denoyelle, Chantal; Ravaux, Lucas; Viollet, Benoit; Foretz, Marc; Friguet, Bertrand; Rouis, Mustapha; Raymondjean, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Secretory Phospholipase A2 of type IIA (sPLA2 IIA) plays a crucial role in the production of lipid mediators by amplifying the neointimal inflammatory context of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), especially during atherogenesis. Phenformin, a biguanide family member, by its anti-inflammatory properties presents potential for promoting beneficial effects upon vascular cells, however its impact upon the IL-1β-induced sPLA2 gene expression has not been deeply investigated so far. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between phenformin coupling AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) function and the molecular mechanism by which the sPLA2 IIA expression was modulated in VSMCs. Here we find that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) treatment strongly repressed IL-1β-induced sPLA2 expression at least at the transcriptional level. Our study reveals that phenformin elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of the sPLA2 IIA expression and transient overexpression experiments of constitutively active AMPK demonstrate clearly that AMPK signaling is involved in the transcriptional inhibition of sPLA2-IIA gene expression. Furthermore, although the expression of the transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma-6 protein (BCL-6) was markedly enhanced by phenformin and AICAR, the repression of sPLA2 gene occurs through a mechanism independent of BCL-6 DNA binding site. In addition we show that activation of AMPK limits IL-1β-induced NF-κB pathway activation. Our results indicate that BCL-6, once activated by AMPK, functions as a competitor of the IL-1β induced NF-κB transcription complex. Our findings provide insights on a new anti-inflammatory pathway linking phenformin, AMPK and molecular control of sPLA2 IIA gene expression in VSMCs. PMID:26162096

  16. The roles of phospholipase C activation and alternative ADAR1 and ADAR2 pre-mRNA splicing in modulating serotonin 2C-receptor editing in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Claudia; Zimnisky, Ross; Mehta, Mukti; Shapiro, Lauren P.

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR), a Gq-protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptor, exists in multiple isoforms that result from RNA editing of five exonic adenosines that are converted to inosines. In the adult brain, editing of 5-HT2C pre-mRNA exhibits remarkable plasticity in response to environmental and neurochemical stimuli. Here, we investigated two potential mechanisms underlying these plastic changes in adult 5-HT2CR editing phenotypes in vivo: activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and alternative splicing of pre-mRNA encoding the editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADAR2. Studies on two inbred strains of mice (C57Bl/6 and Balb/c) revealed that sustained stimulation of PLC—a downstream effector of activated Gαq protein—increased editing of forebrain neocortical 5-HT2C pre-mRNA at two sites known to be targeted by ADAR2. Moreover, changes in relative expression of the alternatively spliced “a” and “b” mRNA isoforms of ADAR1 and ADAR2 also correlate with changes in 5-HT2CR editing. The site-specific changes in 5-HT2CR editing detected in mice with different “a” over “b” ADAR mRNA isoform ratios only partially overlap with those evoked by sustained PLC activation and are best explained by the increased editing efficiency of ADAR1. Thus, activation of PLC and alternative splicing of ADAR pre-mRNA have both overlapping and specific roles in modulating 5-HT2CR editing phenotypes. PMID:20651031

  17. Signal-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate without activation of phospholipase C: implications on gating of Drosophila TRPL (transient receptor potential-like) channel.

    PubMed

    Lev, Shaya; Katz, Ben; Tzarfaty, Vered; Minke, Baruch

    2012-01-06

    In Drosophila, a phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascade, couples photo-excitation of rhodopsin to the opening of the transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL) channels. A lipid product of PLC, diacylglycerol (DAG), and its metabolites, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may function as second messengers of channel activation. However, how can one separate between the increase in putative second messengers, change in pH, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) depletion when exploring the TRPL gating mechanism? To answer this question we co-expressed the TRPL channels together with the muscarinic (M1) receptor, enabling the openings of TRPL channels via G-protein activation of PLC. To dissect PLC activation of TRPL into its molecular components, we used a powerful method that reduced plasma membrane-associated PI(4,5)P(2) in HEK cells within seconds without activating PLC. Upon the addition of a dimerizing drug, PI(4,5)P(2) was selectively hydrolyzed in the cell membrane without producing DAG, inositol trisphosphate, or calcium signals. We show that PI(4,5)P(2) is not an inhibitor of TRPL channel activation. PI(4,5)P(2) hydrolysis combined with either acidification or application of DAG analogs failed to activate the channels, whereas PUFA did activate the channels. Moreover, a reduction in PI(4,5)P(2) levels or inhibition of DAG lipase during PLC activity suppressed the PLC-activated TRPL current. This suggests that PI(4,5)P(2) is a crucial substrate for PLC-mediated activation of the channels, whereas PUFA may function as the channel activator. Together, this study defines a narrow range of possible mechanisms for TRPL gating.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the heterodimeric crotoxin complex and the isolated subunits crotapotin and phospholipase A{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, K. F.; Murakami, M. T.; Toyama, M. H.; Marangoni, S.; Forrer, V. P.; Brandão Neto, J. R.; Polikarpov, I.; Arni, R. K.

    2007-04-01

    Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A{sub 2} and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A{sub 2} analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A{sub 2} and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A{sub 2} analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. The crotoxin complex crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.2, b = 68.7, c = 84.2 Å, and diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution. The crystal of the phospholipase A{sub 2} domain belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22 (or its enantiomorph P6{sub 5}22), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 38.7, c = 286.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. The crotapotin crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution; however, the highly diffuse diffraction pattern did not permit unambiguous assignment of the unit-cell parameters.

  19. New insights into the role of lipoprotein(a)-associated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tsimikas, Sotirios; Tsironis, Loukas D; Tselepis, Alexandros D

    2007-10-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] plays an important role in atherosclerosis. The biological effects of Lp(a) have been attributed either to apolipoprotein(a) or to its low-density lipoprotein-like particle. Lp(a) contains platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, an enzyme that exhibits a Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 activity and is complexed to lipoproteins in plasma; thus, it is also referred to as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. Substrates for lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 include phospholipids containing oxidatively fragmented residues at the sn-2 position (oxidized phospholipids; OxPLs). OxPLs may play important roles in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Plasma levels of OxPLs present on apolipoprotein B-100 particles (OxPL/apolipoprotein B) are correlated with coronary artery, carotid, and peripheral arterial disease. Furthermore, OxPL/apolipoprotein B levels in plasma are strongly correlated with Lp(a) levels, are preferentially sequestered on Lp(a), and thus are potentially subjected to degradation by the Lp(a)-associated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. The present review article focuses specifically on the characteristics of the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 associated with Lp(a) and discusses the possible role of this enzyme in view of emerging data showing that OxPLs in plasma are preferentially sequestered on Lp(a) and may significantly contribute to the increased atherogenicity of this lipoprotein.

  20. Tubular Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for coupling a vascular overflow graft or cannula to a heart pump. A pump pipe outlet is provided with an external tapered surface which receives the end of a compressible connula. An annular compression ring with a tapered internal bore surface is arranged about the cannula with the tapered internal surface in a facing relationship to the external tapered surface. The angle of inclination of the tapered surfaces is converging such that the spacing between the tapered surfaces decreases from one end of the external tapered surface to the other end thereby providing a clamping action of the tapered surface on a cannula which increases as a function of the length of cannula segment between the tapered surfaces. The annular compression ring is disposed within a tubular locking nut which threadedly couples to the pump and provides a compression force for urging the annular ring onto the cannula between the tapered surfaces. The nut has a threaded connection to the pump body. The threaded coupling to the pump body provides a compression force for the annular ring. The annular ring has an annular enclosure space in which excess cannula material from the compression between the tapered surfaces to "bunch up" in the space and serve as an enlarged annular ring segment to assist holding the cannula in place. The clamped cannula provides a seamless joint connection to the pump pipe outlet where the clamping force is uniformly applied to the cannula because of self alignment of the tapered surfaces. The nut can be easily disconnected to replace the pump if necessary.

  1. Design of specific peptide inhibitors of phospholipase A2: structure of a complex formed between Russell's viper phospholipase A2 and a designed peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikas; Jasti, Jayasankar; Kaur, Punit; Dey, Sharmistha; Srinivasan, A; Betzel, Ch; Singh, T P

    2002-10-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (EC 3.1.1.4) is a key enzyme of the cascade mechanism involved in the production of proinflammatory compounds known as eicosanoids. The binding of phospholipase A(2) to membrane surfaces and the hydrolysis of phospholipids are thought to involve the formation of a hydrophobic channel into which a single substrate molecule diffuses before cleavage. In order to regulate the production of proinflammatory compounds, a specific peptide inhibitor of PLA(2), Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser, has been designed. Phospholipase A(2) from Daboia russelli pulchella (DPLA(2)) and peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS) have been co-crystallized. The structure of the complex has been determined and refined to 2.0 A resolution. The structure contains two crystallographically independent molecules of DPLA(2), with one molecule of peptide specifically bound to one of them. The overall conformations of the two molecules are essentially similar except in three regions; namely, the calcium-binding loop including Trp31 (residues 25-34), the beta-wing consisting of two antiparallel beta-strands (residues 74-85) and the C-terminal region (residues 119-133). Of these, the most striking difference pertains to the orientation of Trp31 in the two molecules. The conformation of Trp31 in molecule A was suitable to allow the binding of peptide LAIYS, while that in molecule B prevented the entry of the ligand into the hydrophobic channel. The structure of the complex clearly showed that the OH group of Tyr of the inhibitor formed hydrogen bonds with both His48 N(delta1) and Asp49 O(delta1), while O(gamma)H of Ser was involved in a hydrogen bond with Trp31. Other peptide backbone atoms interact with protein through water molecules, while Leu, Ala and Ile form strong hydrophobic interactions with the residues of the hydrophobic channel.

  2. Lysophospholipids and their G protein-coupled receptors in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Feng; Li, Rong-Shan; Samuel, Sonia B; Cueto, Ramon; Li, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lysophospholipids (LPLs) are bioactive lipid-derived signaling molecules generated by the enzymatic and chemical processes of regiospecific phospholipases on substrates such as membrane phospholipids (PLs) and sphingolipids (SLs). They play a major role as extracellular mediators by activating G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and stimulating diverse cellular responses from their signaling pathways. LPLs are involved in various pathologies of the vasculature system including coronary heart disease and hypertension. Many studies suggest the importance of LPLs in their association with the development of atherosclerosis, a chronic and severe vascular disease. This paper focuses on the pathophysiological effects of different lysophospholipids on atherosclerosis, which may promote the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction and strokes. Their atherogenic biological activities take place in vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, monocytes and macrophages, dendritic cells, T-lymphocytes, platelets, etc.

  3. Lysophospholipids and their G protein-coupled receptors in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-Feng; Li, Rong-Shan; Samuel, Sonia B.; Cueto, Ramon; Li, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Lysophospholipids (LPLs) are bioactive lipid-derived signaling molecules generated by the enzymatic and chemical processes of regiospecific phospholipases on substrates such as membrane phospholipids (PLs) and sphingolipids (SLs). They play a major role as extracellular mediators by activating G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and stimulating diverse cellular responses from their signaling pathways. LPLs are involved in various pathologies of the vasculature system including coronary heart disease and hypertension. Many studies suggest the importance of LPLs in their association with the development of atherosclerosis, a chronic and severe vascular disease. This paper focuses on the pathophysiological effects of different lysophospholipids on atherosclerosis, which may promote the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction and strokes. Their atherogenic biological activities take place in vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, monocytes and macrophages, dendritic cells, T-lymphocytes, platelets, etc. PMID:26594106

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of myotoxin I, a Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} from Bothrops moojeni

    SciTech Connect

    Marchi-Salvador, D. P.; Silveira, L. B.; Soares, A. M.

    2005-10-01

    A new myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase from B. moojeni has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.18 Å resolution. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit, leading to a possible new oligomeric structure for Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. A new myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.18 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to space group C2. The unit-cell parameters are a = 56.8, b = 125.0, c = 64.7 Å, β = 105.5°. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit. This may suggest a new quaternary structure for this Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} in contrast to the dimeric and monomeric structures solved so far for this class of proteins.

  5. Phospholipase Cdelta3 regulates RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Kouchi, Zen; Igarashi, Takahiro; Shibayama, Nami; Inanobe, Shunichi; Sakurai, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Fukuda, Toshifumi; Yanagi, Shigeru; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fukami, Kiyoko

    2011-03-11

    Phospholipase Cδ3 (PLCδ3) is a key enzyme regulating phosphoinositide metabolism; however, its physiological function remains unknown. Because PLCδ3 is highly enriched in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, we examined the role of PLCδ3 in neuronal migration and outgrowth. PLCδ3 knockdown (KD) inhibits neurite formation of cerebellar granule cells, and application of PLCδ3KD using in utero electroporation in the developing brain results in the retardation of the radial migration of neurons in the cerebral cortex. In addition, PLCδ3KD inhibits axon and dendrite outgrowth in primary cortical neurons. PLCδ3KD also suppresses neurite formation of Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells induced by serum withdrawal or treatment with retinoic acid. This inhibition is released by the reintroduction of wild-type PLCδ3. Interestingly, the H393A mutant lacking phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolyzing activity generates supernumerary protrusions, and a constitutively active mutant promotes extensive neurite outgrowth, indicating that PLC activity is important for normal neurite outgrowth. The introduction of dominant negative RhoA (RhoA-DN) or treatment with Y-27632, a Rho kinase-specific inhibitor, rescues the neurite extension in PLCδ3KD Neuro2a cells. Similar effects were also detected in primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, the RhoA expression level was significantly decreased by serum withdrawal or retinoic acid in control cells, although this decrease was not observed in PLCδ3KD cells. We also found that exogenous expression of PLCδ3 down-regulated RhoA protein, and constitutively active PLCδ3 promotes the RhoA down-regulation more significantly than PLCδ3 upon differentiation. These results indicate that PLCδ3 negatively regulates RhoA expression, inhibits RhoA/Rho kinase signaling, and thereby promotes neurite extension.

  6. Phospholipase B activity and organophosphorus compound toxicity in cultured neural cells

    SciTech Connect

    Read, David J.; Langford, Lynda; Barbour, Helen R.; Forshaw, Philip J.; Glynn, Paul . E-mail: pg8@le.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OP) such as phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP) and mipafox (MPX) which cause delayed neuropathy, inhibit neuropathy target esterase (NTE), while OPs such as paraoxon (PXN) react more readily with acetylcholinesterase. In yeast and mammalian cell lines, NTE has been shown to have phospholipase B (PLB) activity which deacylates intracellular phosphatidylcholine to glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho) and can be detected by metabolic labeling with [{sup 14}C]choline. Here we investigated PLB activity in primary cultures of mouse neural cells. In cortical and cerebellar granule neurons and astrocytes, [{sup 14}C]GroPCho labeling was inhibited by PSP and MPX: phenyl dipentylphosphinate (PDPP), a non-neuropathic NTE inhibitor, was more potent, while PXN, was substantially less so. In all three cell types, conversion of [{sup 14}C]phosphatidylcholine to [{sup 14}C]GroPCho over 24 h was relatively small (2.3-14%). Consequently, even with > 80% inhibition of [{sup 14}C]GroPCho production, increased [{sup 14}C]phosphatidylcholine was not detected. At concentrations of 1-10 {mu}M, only PSP was cytotoxic to cortical and cerebellar granule neurons after 24-h exposure. Moreover, dramatic changes in glial cell morphology were induced by PSP, but not PDPP or MPX, with rapid (2-3 h) rounding up of astrocytes and of Schwann cells in cultures of dissociated mouse dorsal root ganglia. We conclude that PLB activity is present in a variety of cultured mouse neural cell types but that acute loss of this activity is not cytotoxic. Conversely, the rapid toxic effects of PSP in vitro suggest that a serine hydrolase distinct from NTE is required continuously by neurons and glia.

  7. Filamin and Phospholipase C-ε Are Required for Calcium Signaling in the Caenorhabditis elegans Spermatheca

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Ismar; Orozco, Jose M.; Cram, Erin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a myoepithelial tube that stores sperm and undergoes cycles of stretching and constriction as oocytes enter, are fertilized, and exit into the uterus. FLN-1/filamin, a stretch-sensitive structural and signaling scaffold, and PLC-1/phospholipase C-ε, an enzyme that generates the second messenger IP3, are required for embryos to exit normally after fertilization. Using GCaMP, a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we show that entry of an oocyte into the spermatheca initiates a distinctive series of IP3-dependent calcium oscillations that propagate across the tissue via gap junctions and lead to constriction of the spermatheca. PLC-1 is required for the calcium release mechanism triggered by oocyte entry, and FLN-1 is required for timely initiation of the calcium oscillations. INX-12, a gap junction subunit, coordinates propagation of the calcium transients across the spermatheca. Gain-of-function mutations in ITR-1/IP3R, an IP3-dependent calcium channel, and loss-of-function mutations in LFE-2, a negative regulator of IP3 signaling, increase calcium release and suppress the exit defect in filamin-deficient animals. We further demonstrate that a regulatory cassette consisting of MEL-11/myosin phosphatase and NMY-1/non-muscle myosin is required for coordinated contraction of the spermatheca. In summary, this study answers long-standing questions concerning calcium signaling dynamics in the C. elegans spermatheca and suggests FLN-1 is needed in response to oocyte entry to trigger calcium release and coordinated contraction of the spermathecal tissue. PMID:23671426

  8. Requirement of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 gamma in Lipid Droplet Formation.

    PubMed

    Su, Xi; Liu, Shuhui; Zhang, Xianwen; Lam, Sin Man; Hu, Xue; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Jizheng; Wang, Yun; Wu, Chunchen; Shui, Guanghou; Lu, Mengji; Pei, Rongjuan; Chen, Xinwen

    2017-03-20

    Lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in hepatocytes is a typical character of steatosis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, one of the risk factors related to steatosis, induced LD accumulation in cultured cells. However, the mechanisms of which HCV induce LD formation are not fully revealed. Previously we identified cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma (PLA2G4C) as a host factor upregulated by HCV infection and involved in HCV replication. Here we further revealed that PLA2G4C plays an important role in LD biogenesis and refined the functional analysis of PLA2G4C in LD biogenesis and HCV assembly. LD formation upon fatty acid and HCV stimulation in PLA2G4C knockdown cells was impaired and could not be restored by complementation with PLA2G4A. PLA2G4C was tightly associated in the membrane with the domain around the amino acid residues 260-292, normally in ER but relocated into LDs upon oleate stimulation. Mutant PLA2G4C without enzymatic activity was not able to restore LD formation in PLA2G4C knockdown cells. Thus, both the membrane attachment and the enzymatic activity of PLA2G4C were required for its function in LD formation. The participation of PLA2G4C in LD formation is correlated with its involvement in HCV assembly. Finally, PLA2G4C overexpression itself led to LD formation in hepatic cells and enhanced LD accumulation in the liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, suggesting its potential role in fatty liver disease.

  9. The diversity of algal phospholipase D homologs revealed by biocomputational analysis.

    PubMed

    Beligni, María Verónica; Bagnato, Carolina; Prados, María Belén; Bondino, Hernán; Laxalt, Ana María; Munnik, Teun; Ten Have, Arjen

    2015-10-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) participates in the formation of phosphatidic acid, a precursor in glycerolipid biosynthesis and a second messenger. PLDs are part of a superfamily of proteins that hydrolyze phosphodiesters and share a catalytic motif, HxKxxxxD, and hence a mechanism of action. Although HKD-PLDs have been thoroughly characterized in plants, animals and bacteria, very little is known about these enzymes in algae. To fill this gap in knowledge, we performed a biocomputational analysis by means of HMMER iterative profiling, using most eukaryotic algae genomes available. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that algae exhibit very few eukaryotic-type PLDs but possess, instead, many bacteria-like PLDs. Among algae eukaryotic-type PLDs, we identified C2-PLDs and PXPH-like PLDs. In addition, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense features several proteins phylogenetically related to oomycete PLDs. Our phylogenetic analysis also showed that algae bacteria-like PLDs (proteins with putative PLD activity) fall into five clades, three of which are novel lineages in eukaryotes, composed almost entirely of algae. Specifically, Clade II is almost exclusive to diatoms, whereas Clade I and IV are mainly represented by proteins from prasinophytes. The other two clades are composed of mitochondrial PLDs (Clade V or Mito-PLDs), previously found in mammals, and a subfamily of potentially secreted proteins (Clade III or SP-PLDs), which includes a homolog formerly characterized in rice. In addition, our phylogenetic analysis shows that algae have non-PLD members within the bacteria-like HKD superfamily with putative cardiolipin synthase and phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase activities. Altogether, our results show that eukaryotic algae possess a moderate number of PLDs that belong to very diverse phylogenetic groups.

  10. Unlike thyrotropin, thyroid-stimulating antibodies do not activate phospholipase C in human thyroid slices.

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, E; Van Sande, J; Ludgate, M; Corvilain, B; Rocmans, P; Dumont, J E; Mockel, J

    1991-01-01

    The effects of thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) and of thyrotropin (TSH) were compared, on the generation of cyclic AMP and inositol phosphates (InsP), in human thyroid slices incubated in vitro, and on the Rapoport cyclic AMP bioassay. The TSAb positive sera were obtained from 19 patients with Graves' disease. In 14 experiments with the slices system, TSH significantly increased cyclic AMP accumulation (TSH, 0.03-10 mU/ml) as well as the cyclic AMP-independent inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) generation (TSH, 1-10 mU/ml). In the same 14 experiments, TSAb (0.10-28 mg/ml) enhanced cyclic AMP intracellular levels as expected while they did not induce any InsP accumulation. Even when TSAb increased cyclic AMP levels to the same or higher values as those obtained with TSH concentrations allowing InsP3 generation. TSAb were still unable to activate the phosphatidylinositol-Ca2+ cascade. The patterns of the response curves of TSAb and TSH on cyclic AMP accumulation were different, suggesting that different mechanisms may be involved. In addition, unlike TSH, TSAb were not able to stimulate H2O2 generation, which in human tissue mainly depends on the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-Ca2+ cascade. Immunoglobulins from six additional Graves' patients lacking measurable cyclic AMP-stimulating activity in both slices and cells systems did not activate phospholipase C either. In conclusion, our results show that TSAb do not share all the metabolic actions of TSH on human thyroid tissue. The data provide support for the concept that the pathogenesis of Graves' disease can be fully accounted for by the ability of TSAb to stimulate adenylate cyclase. This work also confirms that TSH activates the cyclic AMP and the phosphatidylinositol cascade by independent pathways in the human thyroid. PMID:1673689

  11. Toxoplasma gondii inhibits mast cell degranulation by suppressing phospholipase Cγ-mediated Ca2+ mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Norah L.; Abi Abdallah, Delbert S.; Butcher, Barbara A.; Denkers, Eric Y.; Baird, Barbara; Holowka, David

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is well-known to subvert normal immune responses, however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In particular, its capacity to alter receptor-activated Ca2+-mediated signaling processes has not been well-characterized. In initial experiments, we found evidence that T. gondii infection inhibits Ca2+ responses to fMetLeuPhe in murine macrophages. To further characterize the mechanism of inhibition of Ca2+ mobilization by T. gondii, we used the well-studied RBL mast cell model to probe the capacity of T. gondii to modulate IgE receptor-activated signaling within the first hour of infection. Ca2+ mobilization that occurs via IgE/FcεRI signaling leads to granule exocytosis in mast cells. We found that T. gondii inhibits antigen-stimulated degranulation in infected cells in a strain-independent manner. Under these conditions, we found that cytoplasmic Ca2+ mobilization, particularly antigen-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, is significantly reduced. Furthermore, stimulation-dependent activation of Syk kinase leading to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase Cγ is inhibited by infection. Therefore, we conclude that inhibitory effects of infection are likely due to parasite-mediated inhibition of the tyrosine kinase signaling cascade that results in reduced hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Interestingly, inhibition of IgE/FcεRI signaling persists when tachyzoite invasion is arrested via cytochalasin D treatment, suggesting inhibition is mediated by a parasite-derived factor secreted into the cells during the invasion process. Our study provides direct evidence that immune subversion by T. gondii is initiated concurrently with invasion. PMID:23847603

  12. Overcoming hysteresis to attain reversible equilibrium folding for outer membrane phospholipase A in phospholipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Moon, C. Preston; Kwon, Sarah; Fleming, Karen G.

    2011-01-01

    The free energy of unfolding of a membrane protein from lipids into water (ΔGw,lo) describes its equilibrium thermodynamic stability. Knowing this parameter gives insight into a membrane protein’s sequence-structure-energy relationships. However, there are few measures of membrane protein stability because of the technical difficulties associated with unfolded and partially folded states. Here, we describe experimental process that allowed us to measure the ΔGw,lo of the outer membrane phospholipase A (OmpLA) into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC). To arrive at this reversible folding condition, we screened a large number of experimental variables: temperature, incubation time, salt concentration, pH, lipid composition as well as liposome morphology. The principal challenge we encountered under most conditions was hysteresis between folding and unfolding titrations. A second factor that compromised reversible folding was the observation that a fraction of the protein population tended to aggregate. We found that hysteresis could be completely eliminated on a feasible timescale by conducting experiments at acidic pH, by the slow dilution of the protein in the initial titration setup and by utilizing a low concentration of a detergent as a temporary “holdase” to solubilize the protein upon its initial dilution into folding conditions. We confirmed that the detergent did not disrupt the LUVs using fluorescence emission of lipid-sensitive dyes and light scattering. The results of our parameter search should be generally useful for efforts to measure of ΔGw,lo for other membrane proteins. PMID:21888919

  13. Asthenozoospermia and membrane remodeling enzymes: a new role for phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Anfuso, C D; Olivieri, M; Bellanca, S; Salmeri, M; Motta, C; Scalia, M; Satriano, C; La Vignera, S; Burrello, N; Caporarello, N; Lupo, G; Calogero, A E

    2015-11-01

    Phosholipase A2 (PLA2 ) activity in the seminal plasma and in sperm heads is closely related to sperm motility and male fertility. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of different isoforms of phospholipase in asthenozoospermia. To accomplish this, cPLA2 , phospho-cPLA2 , iPLA2 , and sPLA2 were evaluated by immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses in spermatozoa obtained from 22 normozoospermic men and 28 asthenozoospermic patients. We found significant differences in cPLA2 and its phosphorylated/activated form, iPLA2 , and sPLA2 content and distribution in normal and asthenozoospermic patients. cPLA2 was localized in heads, midpieces, and tails of all spermatozoa as constitutive enzyme, less expressed in the tail of spermatozoa with low progressive motility. While active phospho-cPLA2 distribution was homogeneous throughout the cell body of control-donor spermatozoa, lower levels were detected in the tails of asthenozoospermic patients, as opposed to its strong presence in heads. Low immunofluorescence signal for iPLA2 was found in astenozoospermic patients, whereas sPLA2 was significantly lower in the heads of asthenozoospermic patients. Spermatozoa with low progressive motility showed differences both in terms of total specific activity and of intracellular distribution. cPLA2 , iPLA2 , and sPLA2 specific activities correlated positively and in a significantly manner with sperm progressive motility both in normozoospermic men and asthenozoospermic patients. In conclusion, PLA2 s are expressed in different areas of human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa with low motility showed differences in total specific activity and enzyme distributions. We speculated that PLA2 expression and/or different distribution could be potential biomarkers of asthenozoospermia, one of the major causes of male factor infertility.

  14. Kinetic Evaluation of Cell Membrane Hydrolysis during Apoptosis by Human Isoforms of Secretory Phospholipase A2*

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Erin D.; Nelson, Jennifer; Griffith, Katalyn; Nguyen, Thaothanh; Streeter, Michael; Wilson-Ashworth, Heather A.; Gelb, Michael H.; Judd, Allan M.; Bell, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Some isoforms of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) distinguish between healthy and damaged or apoptotic cells. This distinction reflects differences in membrane physical properties. Because various sPLA2 isoforms respond differently to properties of artificial membranes such as surface charge, they should also behave differently as these properties evolve during a dynamic physiological process such as apoptosis. To test this idea, S49 lymphoma cell death was induced by glucocorticoid (6–48 h) or calcium ionophore. Rates of membrane hydrolysis catalyzed by various concentrations of snake venom and human groups IIa, V, and X sPLA2 were compared after each treatment condition. The data were analyzed using a model that evaluates the adsorption of enzyme to the membrane surface and subsequent binding of substrate to the active site. Results were compared temporally to changes in membrane biophysics and composition. Under control conditions, membrane hydrolysis was confined to the few unhealthy cells present in each sample. Increased hydrolysis during apoptosis and necrosis appeared to reflect substrate access to adsorbed enzyme for the snake venom and group X isoforms corresponding to weakened lipid-lipid interactions in the membrane. In contrast, apoptosis promoted initial adsorption of human groups V and IIa concurrent with phosphatidylserine exposure on the membrane surface. However, this observation was inadequate to explain the behavior of the groups V and IIa enzymes toward necrotic cells where hydrolysis was reduced or absent. Thus, a combination of changes in cell membrane properties during apoptosis and necrosis capacitates the cell for hydrolysis differently by each isoform. PMID:20139082

  15. Differential roles of phospholipases A2 in neuronal death and neurogenesis: implications for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; da Silva, Emanuelle R; Novaes, Barbara de A; Skaf, Heni D; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2010-12-01

    The involvement of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in Alzheimer disease (AD) was first investigated nearly 15 years ago. Over the years, several PLA(2) isoforms have been detected in brain tissue: calcium-dependent secreted PLA(2) or sPLA(2) (IIA, IIC, IIE, V, X, and XII), calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA(2) or cPLA(2) (IVA, IVB, and IVC), and calcium-independent PLA(2) or iPLA(2) (VIA and VIB). Additionally, numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested the role of different brain PLA(2) in both physiological and pathological events. This review aimed to summarize the findings in the literature relating the different brain PLA(2) isoforms with alterations found in AD, such as neuronal cell death and impaired neurogenesis process. The review showed that sPLA(2)-IIA, sPLA(2)-V and cPLA(2)-IVA are involved in neuronal death, whereas sPLA(2)-III and sPLA(2)-X are related to the process of neurogenesis, and that the cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) groups can be involved in both neuronal death and neurogenesis. In AD, there are reports of reduced activity of the cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) groups and increased expression of sPLA(2)-IIA and cPLA(2)-IVA. The findings suggest that the inhibition of cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) isoforms (yet to be determined) might contribute to impaired neurogenesis, whereas stimulation of sPLA(2)-IIA and cPLA(2)-IVA might contribute to neurodegeneration in AD.

  16. Evolution of a Rippled Membrane during Phospholipase A2 Hydrolysis Studied by Time-Resolved AFM

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Chad; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent; Peters, Günther H.

    2004-01-01

    The sensitivity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) for lipid membrane curvature is explored by monitoring, through time-resolved atomic force microscopy, the hydrolysis of supported double bilayers in the ripple phase. The ripple phase presents a corrugated morphology. PLA2 is shown to have higher activity toward the ripple phase compared to the gel phase in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes, indicating its preference for this highly curved membrane morphology. Hydrolysis of the stable and metastable ripple structures is monitored for equimolar DMPC/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)-supported double bilayers. As shown by high-performance liquid chromatography results, DSPC is resistant to hydrolysis at this temperature, resulting in a more gradual hydrolysis of the surface that leads to a change in membrane morphology without loss of membrane integrity. This is reflected in an increase in ripple spacing, followed by a sudden flattening of the lipid membrane during hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of the ripple phase results in anisotropic holes running parallel to the ripples, suggesting that the ripple phase has strip regions of higher sensitivity to enzymatic attack. Bulk high-performance liquid chromatography measurements indicate that PLA2 preferentially hydrolyzes DMPC in the DMPC/DSPC ripples. We suggest that this leads to the formation of a flat gel-phase lipid membrane due to enrichment in DSPC. The results point to the ability of PLA2 for inducing a compositional phase transition in multicomponent membranes through preferential hydrolysis while preserving membrane integrity. PMID:15240475

  17. Membrane Restructuring by Phospholipase A2 Is Regulated by the Presence of Lipid Domains

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Chad; Ocampo, Jackson; Duelund, Lars; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent; Peters, Günther H.

    2011-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids. This enzyme is sensitive to membrane structure, and its activity has been shown to increase in the presence of liquid-crystalline/gel (Lα/Lβ) lipid domains. In this work, we explore whether lipid domains can also direct the activity of the enzyme by inducing hydrolysis of certain lipid components due to preferential activity of the enzyme toward lipid domains susceptible to sPLA2. Specifically, we show that the presence of Lα/Lβ and Lα/Pβ′ phase coexistence in a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) system results in the preferential hydrolysis of the shorter-chained lipid component in the mixture, leading to an enrichment in the longer-chained component. The restructuring process is monitored by atomic force microscopy on supported single and double bilayers formed by vesicle fusion. We observe that during preferential hydrolysis of the DMPC-rich Lα regions, the Lβ and Pβ′ regions grow and reseal, maintaining membrane integrity. This result indicates that a sharp reorganization of the membrane structure can occur during sPLA2 hydrolysis without necessarily destroying the membrane. We confirm by high-performance liquid chromatography the preferential hydrolysis of DMPC within the phase coexistence region of the DMPC/DSPC phase diagram, showing that this preferential hydrolysis is accentuated close to the solidus phase boundary. Differential scanning calorimetry results show that this preferential hydrolysis in the presence of lipid domains leads to a membrane system with a higher-temperature melting profile due to enrichment in DSPC. Together, these results show that the presence of lipid domains can induce specificity in the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme, resulting in marked differences in the physical properties of the membrane end-product. PMID:21723818

  18. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelinase activities in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Pomerantsev, A P; Kalnin, K V; Osorio, M; Leppla, S H

    2003-11-01

    Bacillus anthracis is nonhemolytic, even though it is closely related to the highly hemolytic Bacillus cereus. Hemolysis by B. cereus results largely from the action of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and sphingomyelinase (SPH), encoded by the plc and sph genes, respectively. In B. cereus, these genes are organized in an operon regulated by the global regulator PlcR. B. anthracis contains a highly similar cereolysin operon, but it is transcriptionally silent because the B. anthracis PlcR is truncated at the C terminus. Here we report the cloning, expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of PC-PLC and SPH from B. cereus and B. anthracis. We also investigated the effects of expressing PlcR on the expression of plc and sph. In B. cereus, PlcR was found to be a positive regulator of plc but a negative regulator of sph. Replacement of the B. cereus plcR gene by its truncated orthologue from B. anthracis eliminated the activities of both PC-PLC and SPH, whereas introduction into B. anthracis of the B. cereus plcR gene with its own promoter did not activate cereolysin expression. Hemolytic activity was detected in B. anthracis strains containing the B. cereus plcR gene on a multicopy plasmid under control of the strong B. anthracis protective antigen gene promoter or in a strain carrying a multicopy plasmid containing the entire B. cereus plc-sph operon. Slight hemolysis and PC-PLC activation were found when PlcR-producing B. anthracis strains were grown under anaerobic-plus-CO(2) or especially under aerobic-plus-CO(2) conditions. Unmodified parental B. anthracis strains did not demonstrate obvious hemolysis under the same conditions.

  19. Carvacrol attenuates serum levels of total protein, phospholipase A2 and histamine in asthmatic guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Jalali, Sedigheh; Yahyazadeh, Negin; Boskabady, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S), drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml) or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group). Results: In sensitized animals, serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were significantly increased compared to control animals (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Significant reduction in TP, PLA2 and histamine levels were observed in treated groups with the two higher concentrations of carvacrol but dexamethasone treatment only decreased serum level of PLA2 (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Although the effect of the lowest concentration of the extract was less than that of dexamethasone (p<0.05 for TP and p<0.001 for PLA2), the effects of the two higher concentrations on PLA2 were similar to dexamethasone and on TP (p<0.01) and histamine (p<0.001) were higher than those of dexamethasone. Conclusion: These results showed that carvacrol reduced serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs which may indicate an anti-inflammatory effect of this agent in inflammatory disorders such as asthma. PMID:28078244

  20. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, J S; Thorner, J

    1993-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) generates two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol. The polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (PLC1) that encodes a protein of 869 amino acids (designated Plc1p) that bears greatest resemblance to the delta isoforms of mammalian PI-PLC in terms of overall sequence similarity and domain arrangement. Plc1p contains the conserved X and Y domains found in all higher eukaryotic PI-PLCs (51 and 29% identity, respectively, to the corresponding domains of rat delta 1 PI-PLC) and also contains a presumptive Ca(2+)-binding site (an E-F hand motif). Plc1p, modified by in-frame insertion of a His6 tract and a c-myc epitope near its amino terminus, was overexpressed from the GAL1 promoter, partially purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography, and shown to be an active PLC enzyme in vitro with properties similar to those of its mammalian counterparts. Plc1p activity was strictly Ca2+ dependent: at a high Ca2+ concentration (0.1 mM), the enzyme hydrolyzed PIP2 at a faster rate than phosphatidylinositol, and at a low Ca2+ concentration (0.5 microM), it hydrolyzed PIP2 exclusively. Cells carrying either of two different deletion-insertion mutations (plc1 delta 1::HIS3 and plc1 delta 2::LEU2) were viable but displayed several distinctive phenotypes, including temperature-sensitive growth (inviable above 35 degrees C), osmotic sensitivity, and defects in the utilization of galactose, raffinose, and glycerol at permissive temperatures (23 to 30 degrees C). The findings reported here suggest that hydrolysis of PIP2 in S. cerevisiae is required for a number of nutritional and stress-related responses. Images PMID:8395015

  1. Human group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yagami, Tatsurou; Ueda, Keiichi; Asakura, Kenji; Hata, Satoshi; Kuroda, Takayuki; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Takasu, Nobuo; Tanaka, Kazushige; Gemba, Takefumi; Hori, Yozo

    2002-01-01

    Expression of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is documented in the cerebral cortex (CTX) after ischemia, suggesting that sPLA2-IIA is associated with neurodegeneration. However, how sPLA2-IIA is involved in the neurodegeneration remains obscure. To clarify the pathologic role of sPLA2-IIA, we examined its neurotoxicity in rats that had the middle cerebral artery occluded and in primary cultures of cortical neurons. After occlusion, sPLA2 activity was increased in the CTX. An sPLA2 inhibitor, indoxam, significantly ameliorated not only the elevated activity of the sPLA2 but also the neurodegeneration in the CTX. The neuroprotective effect of indoxam was observed even when it was administered after occlusion. In primary cultures, sPLA2-IIA caused marked neuronal cell death. Morphologic and ultrastructural characteristics of neuronal cell death by sPLA2-IIA were apoptotic, as evidenced by condensed chromatin and fragmented DNA. Before apoptosis, sPLA2-IIA liberated arachidonic acid (AA) and generated prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an AA metabolite, from neurons. Indoxam significantly suppressed not only AA release, but also PGD2 generation. Indoxam prevented neurons from sPLA2-IIA-induced neuronal cell death. The neuroprotective effect of indoxam was observed even when it was administered after sPLA2-IIA treatment. Furthermore, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor significantly prevented neurons from sPLA2-IIA-induced PGD2 generation and neuronal cell death. In conclusion, sPLA2-IIA induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis, which might be associated with AA metabolites, especially PGD2. Furthermore, sPLA2 contributes to neurodegeneration in the ischemic brain, highlighting the therapeutic potential of sPLA2-IIA inhibitors for stroke.

  2. Cytosolic phospholipaseA2 inhibition with PLA-695 radiosensitizes tumors in lung cancer animal models.

    PubMed

    Thotala, Dinesh; Craft, Jeffrey M; Ferraro, Daniel J; Kotipatruni, Rama P; Bhave, Sandeep R; Jaboin, Jerry J; Hallahan, Dennis E

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted.

  3. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids. PMID:26978518

  4. Interaction of phospholipase D1 with a casein-kinase-2-like serine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Ganley, I G; Walker, S J; Manifava, M; Li, D; Brown, H A; Ktistakis, N T

    2001-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD)1 was phosphorylated in vivo and by an associated kinase in vitro following immunoprecipitation. Both phosphorylation events were greatly reduced in a catalytically inactive point mutant in which the serine residue at position 911 was converted into alanine (S911A). The kinase could be enriched from detergent-extracted brain membranes and bind and phosphorylate PLD1 that was immunoprecipitated from COS-7 cells. Using in-gel kinase assays we determined that the size of the kinase is approximately 40 kDa and that PLD1 is more effective than S911A in binding the kinase. Preliminary analysis of the phosphorylation sites on PLD1 suggested that the kinase belongs to the casein kinase 2 (CK2) family. Consistent with this, we found that the kinase could utilize GTP, and could be inhibited by heparin and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB). Membrane fractions from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that inducibly express PLD1 contained an endogenous kinase activity that phosphorylated PLD1 using GTP and was inhibited by DRB. Direct evidence that the kinase is CK2 came from observations that immunoprecipitates using PLD1 antibodies contained immunoreactive CK2alpha, and immunoprecipitates using CK2alpha antibodies contained immunoreactive PLD1. Co-expression of PLD1 in COS-7 cells with the two recombinant CK2 subunits, alpha or beta, suggests that the association of PLD1 with the kinase is through the beta subunit. Supporting this, phosphorylation of PLD1 by purified recombinant CK2alpha was enhanced by purified recombinant CK2beta. Assays measuring PLD1 catalytic activity following phosphorylation by CK2 suggest that this phosphorylation event does not influence PLD1-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in vitro. PMID:11171116

  5. Dependence of Phospholipase D1 Multi-monoubiquitination on Its Enzymatic Activity and Palmitoylation*

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hao; Gui, Yu; Du, Guangwei; Frohman, Michael A.; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is an important lipase in many cellular processes, including vesicular trafficking, cell survival, and cell migration. In the present study, we show that PLD1, but not PLD2, is posttranslationally modified by multi-monoubiquitination. Intriguingly, suppression of lipase activity either by mutation of the HKD motif (PLD1 H896R, K898R, or D903A) or the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding motif (PLD1 R691G,R695G) or through use of PLD-selective inhibitors impaired the ubiquitination of PLD1, although stimulation of lipase activity by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate did not enhance its ubiquitination. A palmitoylation-deficient mutant PLD1 allele, which exhibits altered patterns of vesicular trafficking, had significantly lower levels of monoubiquitination. In addition, the expression of ubiquitin-fused PLD1 induced aberrantly enlarged vesicles partially co-localized with the Golgi complex but not with early endosomes. The altered localization was reduced by the K898R mutation, suggesting a role of multi-monoubiquitination in PLD1 subcellular localization. Surprisingly, the degradation of PLD1, but not of PLD1 K898R or PLD2, was blocked by inhibitors of proteasomes but not by inhibitors of lysosomes or other proteases, suggesting a role of the ubiquitination in proteasomal degradation of PLD1. In summary, our studies show that PLD1, but not PLD2, is multi-monoubiquitinated. The ubiquitination modification might represent a novel regulatory mechanism in PLD1 functioning, particularly in the context of subcellular trafficking between different membrane compartments. PMID:20189990

  6. Legionella pneumophila Effector LpdA Is a Palmitoylated Phospholipase D Virulence Factor.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gunnar N; Aurass, Philipp; Oates, Clare V; Tate, Edward W; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Flieger, Antje; Frankel, Gad

    2015-10-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial pathogen that thrives in alveolar macrophages, causing a severe pneumonia. The virulence of L. pneumophila depends on its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which delivers more than 300 effector proteins into the host, where they rewire cellular signaling to establish a replication-permissive niche, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV requires substantial redirection of vesicle trafficking and remodeling of intracellular membranes. In order to achieve this, several T4SS effectors target regulators of membrane trafficking, while others resemble lipases. Here, we characterized LpdA, a phospholipase D effector, which was previously proposed to modulate the lipid composition of the LCV. We found that ectopically expressed LpdA was targeted to the plasma membrane and Rab4- and Rab14-containing vesicles. Subcellular targeting of LpdA required a C-terminal motif, which is posttranslationally modified by S-palmitoylation. Substrate specificity assays showed that LpdA hydrolyzed phosphatidylinositol, -inositol-3- and -4-phosphate, and phosphatidylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA) in vitro. In HeLa cells, LpdA generated PA at vesicles and the plasma membrane. Imaging of different phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and organelle markers revealed that while LpdA did not impact on membrane association of various PIP probes, it triggered fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Importantly, although LpdA is translocated inefficiently into cultured cells, an L. pneumophila ΔlpdA mutant displayed reduced replication in murine lungs, suggesting that it is a virulence factor contributing to L. pneumophila infection in vivo.

  7. M-Type Phospholipase A2 Receptor as Target Antigen in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Laurence H.; Bonegio, Ramon G.B.; Lambeau, Gérard; Beck, David M.; Powell, David W.; Cummins, Timothy D.; Klein, Jon B.; Salant, David J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic membranous nephropathy, a common form of the nephrotic syndrome, is an antibody-mediated autoimmune glomerular disease. Serologic diagnosis has been elusive because the target antigen is unknown. METHODS We performed Western blotting of protein extracts from normal human glomeruli with serum samples from patients with idiopathic or secondary membranous nephropathy or other proteinuric or autoimmune diseases and from normal controls. We used mass spectrometry to analyze the reactive protein bands and confirmed the identity and location of the target antigen with a monospecific antibody. RESULTS Serum samples from 26 of 37 patients (70%) with idiopathic but not secondary membranous nephropathy specifically identified a 185-kD glycoprotein in non-reduced glomerular extract. Mass spectrometry of the reactive protein band detected the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R). Reactive serum specimens recognized recombinant PLA2R and bound the same 185-kD glomerular protein as did the monospecific anti-PLA2R antibody. Anti-PLA2R autoantibodies in serum samples from patients with membranous nephropathy were mainly IgG4, the predominant immunoglobulin subclass in glomerular deposits. PLA2R was expressed in podocytes in normal human glomeruli and colocalized with IgG4 in immune deposits in glomeruli of patients with membranous nephropathy. IgG eluted from such deposits in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, but not in those with lupus membranous or IgA nephropathy, recognized PLA2R. CONCLUSIONS A majority of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy have antibodies against a conformation-dependent epitope in PLA2R. PLA2R is present in normal podocytes and in immune deposits in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, indicating that PLA2R is a major antigen in this disease. PMID:19571279

  8. Phospholipases A2 and Inflammatory Responses in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Grace Y.; Shelat, Phullara B.; Jensen, Michael B.; He, Yan; Sun, Albert Y.; Simonyi, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) belong to a superfamily of enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing the sn-2 fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. These enzymes are known to play multiple roles for maintenance of membrane phospholipid homeostasis and for production of a variety of lipid mediators. Over 20 different types of PLA2s are present in the mammalian cells, and in snake and bee venom. Despite their common function in hydrolyzing fatty acids of phospholipids, they are diversely encoded by a number of genes and express proteins that are regulated by different mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the group IV calcium-dependent cytosolic cPLA2, the group VI calcium-independent iPLA2, and the group II small molecule secretory sPLA2. In the central nervous system (CNS), these PLA2s are distributed among neurons and glial cells. Although the physiological role of these PLA2s in regulating neural cell function has not yet been clearly elucidated, there is increasing evidence for their involvement in receptor signaling and transcriptional pathways that link oxidative events to inflammatory responses that underline many neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies also reveal an important role of cPLA2 in modulating neuronal excitatory functions, sPLA2 in the inflammatory responses, and iPLA2 with childhood neurologic disorders associated with brain iron accumulation. The goal for this review is to better understand the structure and function of these PLA2s and to highlight specific types of PLA2s and their cross-talk mechanisms in these inflammatory responses under physiological and pathological conditions in the CNS. PMID:19855947

  9. Unusual venom phospholipases A2 of two primitive tree vipers Trimeresurus puniceus and Trimeresurus borneensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Ming; Peng, Hao-Fan; Tsai, Inn-Ho

    2005-06-01

    To explore the venom diversity of Asian pit vipers, we investigated the structure and function of venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) derived from two primitive tree vipers Trimeresurus puniceus and Trimeresurus borneensis. We purified six novel PLA2s from T. puniceus venom and another three from T. borneensis venom. All cDNAs encoding these PLA2s except one were cloned, and the molecular masses and N-terminal sequences of the purified enzymes closely matched those predicted from the cDNA. Three contain K49 and lack a disulfide bond at C61-C91, in contrast with the D49-containing PLA2s in both venom species. They are less thermally stable than other K49-PLA2s which contain seven disulfide bonds, as indicated by a decrease of 8.8 degrees C in the melting temperature measured by CD spectroscopy. The M110D mutation in one of the K49-PLA2s apparently reduced its edematous potency. A phylogenetic tree based on the amino-acid sequences of 17 K49-PLA2s from Asian pit viper venoms illustrates close relationships among the Trimeresurus species and intergeneric segregations. Basic D49-PLA2s with a unique Gly6 substitution were also purified from both venoms. They showed edema-inducing and anticoagulating activities. It is notable that acidic PLA2s from both venoms inhibited blood coagulation rather than platelet aggregation, and this inhibition was only partially dependent on enzyme activity. These results contribute to our understanding of the evolution of Trimeresurus pit vipers and the structure-function relationships between various subtypes of crotalid venom PLA2.

  10. Binding and internalization of extracellular type-I phospholipase A2 in uterine stromal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, G P; Fayard, J M; Tessier, C; Laugier, C

    1996-01-01

    The cellular uptake of extracellular type-I phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was investigated in rat uterine stromal cells (UIII) in culture, which were found to express the high-affinity binding site for mammalian type-I PLA2, with a measured KD of 6.4 nM, a Bmax of 0.1-1 pmol/mg of DNA at 4 degrees C, and a molecular mass of about 200 kDa. When UIII cells were treated with type-I PLA2 at 37 degrees C, the ligand specifically associated with the cells increased, reaching a plateau after 90 min of incubation, whose level was about 5-fold higher than that measured if cells were maintained at 4 degrees C. We could determine that the PLA2 was bound to plasma membrane receptors which were responsible for internalization of the ligand, and that the binding sites were still suitable for binding at the level of plasma membrane during UIII cell incubation at 37 degrees C. Proteolysis of internalized PLA2 could be clearly detected only after 90 min of UIII cell incubation with the ligand at 37 degrees C, and most of the intracellular PLA2 consisted of the apparently intact 14 kDa enzyme. By cross-linking studies, we found that most of the internalized PLA2 was not associated with the receptor, supporting the conclusion that in our experimental system a single pool of membrane receptors for mammalian type-I PLA2 undergoes cycles of ligand binding, intracellular transfer and release of PLA2, followed by restoration of binding sites on the plasma membrane. We calculated that the rate of internalization of the ligand by one receptor molecule in UIII cells at 37 degrees C is about three molecules of type-I PLA2 per h. PMID:8645137

  11. The sperm phospholipase C-ζ and Ca2+ signalling at fertilization in mammals.

    PubMed

    Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2016-02-01

    A series of intracellular oscillations in the free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration is responsible for activating mammalian eggs at fertilization, thus initiating embryo development. It has been proposed that the sperm causes these Ca(2+) oscillations after membrane fusion by delivering a soluble protein into the egg cytoplasm. We previously identified sperm-specific phospholipase C (PLC)-ζ as a protein that can trigger the same pattern of Ca(2+) oscillations in eggs seen at fertilization. PLCζ appears to be the elusive sperm factor mediating egg activation in mammals. It has potential therapeutic use in infertility treatments to improve the rate of egg activation and early embryo development after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. A stable form of recombinant human PLCζ could be a prototype for use in such in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. We do not yet understand exactly how PLCζ causes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) production in eggs. Sperm PLCζ is distinct among mammalian PI-specific PLCs in that it is far more potent in triggering Ca(2+) oscillations in eggs than other PLCs, but it lacks a PH domain that would otherwise be considered essential for binding to the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) substrate. PLCζ is also unusual in that it does not appear to interact with or hydrolyse plasma membrane PIP2. We consider how other regions of PLCζ may mediate its binding to PIP2 in eggs and how interaction of PLCζ with egg-specific factors could enable the hydrolysis of internal sources of PIP2.

  12. Structural basis of the anionic interface preference and kcat* activation of pancreatic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Yu, B Z; Poi, M J; Ramagopal, U A; Jain, R; Ramakumar, S; Berg, O G; Tsai, M D; Sekar, K; Jain, M K

    2000-10-10

    Pancreatic phospholipase A(2) (PLA2) shows a strong preference for the binding to the anionic interface and a consequent allosteric activation. In this paper, we show that virtually all the preference is mediated through 3 (Lys-53, -56, and -120) of the 12 cationic residues of bovine pancreatic PLA2. The lysine-to-methionine substitution enhances the binding of the enzyme to the zwitterionic interface, and for the K53,56,120M triple mutant at the zwitterionic interface is comparable to that for the wild type (WT) at the anionic interface. In the isomorphous crystal structure, the backbone folding of K53,56M K120,121A and WT are virtually identical, yet a significant change in the side chains of certain residues, away from the site of substitution, mostly at the putative contact site with the interface (i-face), is discernible. Such reciprocity, also supported by the spectroscopic results for the free and bound forms of the enzyme, is expected because a distal structural change that perturbs the interfacial binding could also affect the i-face. The results show that lysine-to-methionine substitution induces a structural change that promotes the binding of PLA2 to the interface as well as the substrate binding to the enzyme at the interface. The kinetic results are consistent with a model in which the interfacial Michaelis complex exists in two forms, and the complex that undergoes the chemical step is formed by the charge compensation of Lys-53 and -56. Analysis of the incremental changes in the kinetic parameters shows that the charge compensation of Lys-53 and -56 contributes to the activation and that of Lys-120 contributes only to the structural change that promotes the stability of the Michaelis complex at the interface. The charge compensation effects on these three residues also account for the differences in the anionic interface preference of the evolutionarily divergent secreted PLA2.

  13. Effect of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-phospholipase D overexpression on GPI metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Karl J; Hepworth, Matthew R; Raikwar, Nandita S; Deeg, Mark A; Sevlever, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    GPI-PLD [glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-specific phospholipase D (PLD)] is a secreted mammalian enzyme that specifically cleaves GPI-anchored proteins. In addition, the enzyme has been shown to cleave GPI anchor intermediates in cell lysates. The biosynthesis of the GPI anchor is well characterized; however, the mechanisms by which the levels of GPI anchor intermediates are regulated are still unknown. To investigate whether GPI-PLD plays a role in this regulation, we isolated stable HeLa cells overexpressing the enzyme. GPI-PLD-HeLa (GPI-PLD-transfected HeLa) cells showed a 3-fold increase in intracellular GPI-PLD activity and drastically decreased the levels of GPI-anchored proteins when compared with untransfected HeLa controls. Intracellular cleavage of GPI-anchored proteins has been suggested to occur early in the secretory pathway and, in agreement with this proposal, GPI-PLD activity in GPI-PLD-HeLa cells was detected not only in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, but also in the plasma membrane. The enzyme was also active in lipid rafts, membrane microdomains in which GPI-anchored proteins and GPI anchor intermediates are concentrated, indicating that intracellular GPI-PLD cleavage may also occur in this compartment. Pulse-chase paradigms revealed the turnover rate of the last intermediate of the GPI anchor pathway in GPI-PLD-HeLa cells to be accelerated compared with the controls. Furthermore, 1,10-phenanthroline, a GPI-PLD inhibitor, reversed this effect. Our studies demonstrated that GPI-PLD can cleave not only GPI-anchored proteins, but also GPI anchor intermediates intracellularly. This observation opens the possibility that GPI-PLD can influence the steady-state levels of GPI-anchored proteins by hydrolysing the anchor before and after its attachment to proteins. PMID:14611645

  14. Costimulation of AMPA and metabotropic glutamate receptors underlies phospholipase C activation by glutamate in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Hyun; Lee, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Doyun; Han, Young-Eun; Lee, Suk-Ho; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Ho, Won-Kyung

    2015-04-22

    Glutamate, a major neurotransmitter in the brain, activates ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs and mGluRs, respectively). The two types of glutamate receptors interact with each other, as exemplified by the modulation of iGluRs by mGluRs. However, the other way of interaction (i.e., modulation of mGluRs by iGluRs) has not received much attention. In this study, we found that group I mGluR-specific agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) alone is not sufficient to activate phospholipase C (PLC) in rat hippocampus, while glutamate robustly activates PLC. These results suggested that additional mechanisms provided by iGluRs are involved in group I mGluR-mediated PLC activation. A series of experiments demonstrated that glutamate-induced PLC activation is mediated by mGluR5 and is facilitated by local Ca(2+) signals that are induced by AMPA-mediated depolarization and L-type Ca(2+) channel activation. Finally, we found that PLC and L-type Ca(2+) channels are involved in hippocampal mGluR-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) induced by paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation, but not in DHPG-induced chemical LTD. Together, we propose that AMPA receptors initiate Ca(2+) influx via the L-type Ca(2+) channels that facilitate mGluR5-PLC signaling cascades, which underlie mGluR-LTD in rat hippocampus.

  15. Creating air-stable supported lipid bilayers by physical confinement induced by phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Han, Chung-Ta; Chao, Ling

    2014-05-14

    Supported lipid bilayer platforms have been used for various biological applications. However, the lipid bilayers easily delaminate and lose their natural structure after being exposed to an air-water interface. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that physical confinement can be used instead of chemical modifications to create air-stable membranes. Physical confinement was generated by the obstacle network induced by a peripheral enzyme, phospholipase A2. The enzyme and reacted lipids could be washed away from the obstacle network, which was detergent-resistant and strongly bonded to the solid support. On the basis of these properties, the obstacle framework on the solid support was reusable and lipid bilayers with the desired composition could be refilled and formed in the region confined by the obstacle framework. The results of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) indicate that the diffusivities of the lipid bilayers before drying and after rehydration were comparable, indicating the air stability of the physically confined membrane. In addition, we observed that the obstacles could trap a thin layer of water after the air-water interface passed through the lipid bilayer. Because the obstacles were demonstrated to be several times higher than a typical lipid membrane on a support, the obstacles may act as container walls, which can trap water above the lipid membrane. The water layer may have prevented the air-water interface from directly contacting the lipid membrane and, therefore, buffered the interfacial force, which could cause membrane delamination. The results suggest the possibility of using physical confinement to create air-stable membranes without changing local membrane rigidity or covering the membrane with protecting molecules.

  16. Phospholipase D1 in caveolae: regulation by protein kinase Calpha and caveolin-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Han, J M; Lee, S; Kim, Y; Lee, T G; Park, J B; Lee, S D; Suh, P G; Ryu, S H

    1999-03-23

    Caveolae are small plasma membrane invaginations that have been implicated in cell signaling, and caveolin is a principal structural component of the caveolar membrane. Previously we have demonstrated that protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) directly interacts with phospholipase D1 (PLD1), activating the enzymatic activity of PLD1 in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) [Lee, T. G., et al. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1347, 199-204]. In this study, using a detergent-free procedure for the purification of a caveolin-enriched membrane fraction (CEM) and immunoblot analysis, we show that PLD1 is enriched in the CEMs of 3Y1 rat fibroblasts. Purified PLD1 directly bound to a glutathione S-transferase-caveolin-1 fusion protein in in vitro binding assays. The association of PLD1 with caveolin-1 could be completely eliminated by preincubation of PLD1 with an oligopeptide corresponding to the scaffolding domain (amino acids 82-101) of caveolin-1, indicating that caveolin-1 interacts with PLD1 through the scaffolding domain. The peptide also inhibited PKCalpha-stimulated PLD1 activity and the interaction between PLD1 and PKCalpha with an IC50 of 0.5 microM. PMA elicits translocation of PKCalpha to the CEMs, inducing PLD activation through the interaction of PKCalpha with PLD1 in the CEMs. Caveolin-1 also coimmunoprecipitated with PLD1 in the absence of PMA, and the amounts of coimmunoprecipitated caveolin-1 decreased in response to treatment with PMA. Taken together, our results suggest a new mechanism for the regulation of the PKCalpha-dependent PLD activity through the molecular interaction between PLD1, PKCalpha, and caveolin-1 in caveolae.

  17. High specificity of human secretory class II phospholipase A2 for phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Snitko, Y; Yoon, E T; Cho, W

    1997-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid second messenger which stimulates platelet aggregation, cell proliferation and smooth-muscle contraction. The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-catalysed hydrolysis of phosphatidic acid (PA) is thought to be a primary synthetic route for LPA. Of the multiple forms of PLA2 present in human tissues, human secretory class-II PLA2 (hs-PLA2) has been implicated in the production of LPA from platelets and whole blood cells challenged with inflammatory stimuli. To explore further the possibility that hs-PLA2 is involved in the production of LPA, we rigorously measured the phospholipid head group specificity of hs-PLA2 by a novel PLA2 kinetic system using polymerized mixed liposomes. Kinetic analysis of recombinant hs-PLA2 demonstrates that hs-PLA2 strongly prefers PA as substrate over other phospholipids found in the mammalian plasma membrane including phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The order of preference is PA > PE approximately PS > PC. To identify amino acid residues of hs-PLA2 that are involved in its unique substrate specificity, we mutated two residues, Glu-56 and Lys-69, which were shown to interact with the phospholipid head group in the X-ray-crystallographic structure of the hs-PLA2-transition-state-analogue complex. The K69Y mutant showed selective inactivation toward PA whereas the E56K mutant displayed a most pronounced inactivation to PE. Thus it appears that Lys-69 is at least partially involved in the PA specificity of hs-PLA2 and Glu-56 in the distinction between PE and PC. In conjunction with a recent cell study [Fourcade, Simon, Viode, Rugani, Leballe, Ragab, Fournie, Sarda and Chap (1995) Cell 80, 919-927], these studies suggest that hs-PLA2 can rapidly hydrolyse PA molecules exposed to the outer layer of cell-derived microvesicles and thereby produce LPA.

  18. Phospholipase D signaling in serotonin-induced mitogenesis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Fanburg, B L

    2008-09-01

    We have previously reported the participation of mitogen-activated protein, Rho, and phosphoinositide-3 (PI3) kinases in separate pathways in serotonin (5-HT)-induced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In this study, we investigated the possible participation of phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in this growth process. 5-HT stimulated a time-dependent increase in [(3)H]phosphatidylbutanol and PA generation. Exposure of SMCs to 1-butanol or overexpression of an inactive mutant of human PLD1R898R blocked 5-HT-induced proliferation. Furthermore, 1-butanol inhibited 5-HT activation of S6K1 and S6 protein, downstream effectors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), by 80 and 72%, respectively, and partially blocked activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by 30% but had no effect on other associated signaling pathways. Exogenous PA caused cellular proliferation and revitalized cyclin D1 expression by 5-HT of the 1-butanol-treated cells. PA also reproduced activations by 5-HT of mTOR, S6K1, and ERK. Transfection with inactive human PLD1 reduced 5-HT-induced activation of S6K1 by approximately 50%. Inhibition of 5-HT receptor 2A (R 2A) with ketaserin blocked PLD activation by 5-HT. Inhibition with PI3-kinase inhibitor failed to block either activation of PLD by 5-HT or PA-dependent S6K1 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that ligation of the 5-HTR 2A by 5-HT initiates PLD activation in SMCs, and that its product, PA, is an early signaling molecule in 5-HT-induced pulmonary artery SMC proliferation. Signaling by PA produces its downstream effects primarily through the mTOR/S6K1 pathway and to a lesser extent through the ERK pathway. Hydrolysis of cell membrane lipid may be important in vascular effects of 5-HT.

  19. Binding of peroxiredoxin 6 to substrate determines differential phospholipid hydroperoxide peroxidase and phospholipase A2 activities

    PubMed Central

    Manevich, Yefim; Shuvaeva, Tea; Dodia, Chandra; Kazi, Altaf; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.

    2010-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) differs from other mammalian peroxiredoxins both in its ability to reduce phospholipid hydroperoxides at neutral pH and in having phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity that is maximal at acidic pH. We previously showed an active site C47 for peroxidase activity and a catalytic triad S32-H26-D140 necessary for binding of phospholipid and PLA2 activity. This study evaluated binding of reduced and oxidized phospholipid hydroperoxide to Prdx6 at cytosolic pH. Incubation of recombinant Prdx6 with 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine hydroperoxide (PLPCOOH) resulted in peroxidase activity, cys47 oxidation as detected with Prdx6-SO2(3) antibody, and a marked shift in the Prdx6 melting temperature by circular dichroism analysis indicating that PLPCOOH is a specific substrate for Prdx6. Preferential Prdx6 binding to oxidized liposomes was detected by changes in DNS-PE or bis-Pyr fluorescence and by ultrafiltration. Site-specific mutation of S32 or H26 in Prdx6 abolished binding while D140 mutation had no effect. Treatment of A549 cells with peroxides led to lipid peroxidation and translocation of Prdx6 from the cytosol to the cell membrane. Thus, the pH specificity for the two enzymatic activities of Prdx6 can be explained by the differential binding kinetics of the protein; Prdx6 binds to reduced phospholipid at acidic pH but at cytosolic pH binds only phospholipid that is oxidized compatible with a role for Prdx6 in the repair of peroxidized cell membranes. PMID:19236840

  20. Overexpression of porcine lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in swine.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaochun; Wang, Gangqi; Liu, Xingxing; Han, Xiaolei; Li, Zhuang; Ran, Guangyao; Li, Zhanjun; Song, Qi; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Yuhui; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2015-09-25

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA2) is associated with the risk of vascular disease. It circulates in human blood predominantly in association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and hydrolyses oxidized phospholipids into pro-inflammatory products. However, in the mouse circulation, it predominantly binds to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. To further investigate the effects of Lp-PLA2 in the circulation, we generated over-expressed Lp-PLA2 transgenic swine. The eukaryotic expression plasmid of porcine Lp-PLA2 which driven by EF1α promoter was constructed and generate transgenic swine via SCNT. The expression and activity of Lp-PLA2 in transgenic swine were evaluated, and the total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride (TG) levels in the fasting and fed states were also assessed. Compared with wild-type swine controls, the transgenic swine exhibited elevated Lp-PLA2 mRNA levels and activities, and the activity did not depend on the feeding state. The TC, HDL-C and LDL-C levels were not significantly increased. There was no change in the TG levels in the fasting state between transgenic and control pigs. However, in the fed state, the TG levels of transgenic swine were slightly increased compared with the control pigs and were significantly elevated compared with the fasting state. In addition, inflammatory gene (interleukin [IL]-6, monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were significantly increased. The results demonstrated that Lp-PLA2 is associated with triglycerides which may be helpful for understanding the relationship of this protein with cardiovascular disease.

  1. Evidence for two forms of phospholipase A2 in human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, P.; Langlais, J.; Ross, P.; Guerette, P.; Roberts, K.D.

    1988-03-01

    The molecular weight of the active unit of phospholipase A2 (PA2) in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa was determined using the radiation inactivation technique. Fresh spermatozoa possess more than one form of PA2 activity as judged by the biphasic nature of the curve obtained during enzyme inactivation. However, when stored frozen for several months followed by a period of heating for 60 min at 60 degrees C prior to irradiation, the sperm exhibited PA2 activity, which corresponded to a single low molecular mass form of 12,000 d when radioactive phosphatidylcholine (PC) was used as substrate and 8,000 d when radioactive phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was used as substrate. In fresh seminal fluid, only one active form of PA2 was detected as judged by the linear nature of the curve obtained during enzyme inactivation by irradiation. Using PC as substrate, the active unit was again estimated to be 12,000 d, whereas it corresponded to 18,000 d when PE was used. The PA2 activity associated with normal spermatozoa exhibited a 60% decrease in activity after storage at -20 degrees C for 48 hr followed by a heating period of 10 min at 60 degrees C. Long-term storage of spermatozoa at -20 degrees C also resulted in a similar decrease in the deacylation of PC. No further loss of activity was observed during subsequent heat treatment at 60 degrees C. Seminal plasma, however, showed no loss of activity following short (48 hr at 4 degrees C or -20 degrees C) or long-term storage and subsequent heat treatment. Thus, the behavior of PA2 when the effect of temperature was studied and in radiation inactivation experiments indicates that the low molecular weight component in the seminal plasma as well as in spermatozoa is temperature resistant. However, in fresh spermatozoa, a second form of PA2 was found and was sensitive to changes in temperature.

  2. Disposition and metabolism of darapladib, a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor, in humans.

    PubMed

    Dave, Mehul; Nash, Mike; Young, Graeme C; Ellens, Harma; Magee, Mindy H; Roberts, Andrew D; Taylor, Maxine A; Greenhill, Robert W; Boyle, Gary W

    2014-03-01

    The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of darapladib, a novel inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, was investigated in healthy male subjects using [(14)C]-radiolabeled material in a bespoke study design. Disposition of darapladib was compared following single i.v. and both single and repeated oral administrations. The anticipated presence of low circulating concentrations of drug-related material required the use of accelerator mass spectrometry as a sensitive radiodetector. Blood, urine, and feces were collected up to 21 days post radioactive dose, and analyzed for drug-related material. The principal circulating drug-related component was unchanged darapladib. No notable metabolites were observed in plasma post-i.v. dosing; however, metabolites resulting from hydroxylation (M3) and N-deethylation (M4) were observed (at 4%-6% of plasma radioactivity) following oral dosing, indicative of some first-pass metabolism. In addition, an acid-catalyzed degradant (M10) resulting from presystemic hydrolysis was also detected in plasma at similar levels of ∼5% of radioactivity post oral dosing. Systemic exposure to radioactive material was reduced within the repeat dose regimen, consistent with the notion of time-dependent pharmacokinetics resulting from enhanced clearance or reduced absorption. Elimination of drug-related material occurred predominantly via the feces, with unchanged darapladib representing 43%-53% of the radioactive dose, and metabolites M3 and M4 also notably accounting for ∼9% and 19% of the dose, respectively. The enhanced study design has provided an increased understanding of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties of darapladib in humans, and substantially influenced future work on the compound.

  3. Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) alpha mediates electrophysiologic responses of hippocampal pyramidal neurons to neurotoxic NMDA treatment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Kishimoto, Koji; Linden, David J; Sapirstein, Adam

    2007-04-03

    The arachidonic acid-generating enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A(2) alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) has been implicated in the progression of excitotoxic neuronal injury. However, the mechanisms of cPLA(2)alpha toxicity have yet to be determined. Here, we used a model system exposing mouse hippocampal slices to NMDA as an excitotoxic injury, in combination with simultaneous patch-clamp recording and confocal Ca(2+) imaging of CA1 pyramidal neurons. NMDA treatment caused significantly greater injury in wild-type (WT) than in cPLA(2)alpha null CA1 neurons. Bath application of NMDA evoked a slow inward current in voltage-clamped neurons (composed of both NMDA receptor-mediated and other conductances) that was smaller in cPLA(2)alpha null than in WT slices. This was not due to down-regulation of NMDA receptor function because NMDA receptor-mediated currents were equivalent in each genotype following brief photolysis of caged glutamate. Current-clamp recordings were made during and following NMDA exposure by eliciting a single action potential with a brief current injection. After NMDA exposure, WT CA1 neurons developed a spike-evoked plateau potential and an increased spike-evoked dendritic Ca(2+) transient. These effects were absent in CA1 neurons from cPLA(2)alpha null mice and WT neurons treated with a cPLA(2)alpha inhibitor. The Ca-sensitive K-channel toxins, apamin and paxilline, caused spike broadening and Ca(2+) enhancement in WT and cPLA(2)alpha null slices. NMDA application in WT and arachidonate applied to cPLA(2)alpha null cells occluded the effects of apamin/paxilline. These results indicate that cPLA(2)alpha activity is required for development of aberrant electrophysiologic events triggered by NMDA receptor activation, in part through attenuation of K-channel function.

  4. Role of Secretory Phospholipase A2 in CNS Inflammation: Implications in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Titsworth, W. Lee; Liu, Nai-Kui; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes which hydrolyze the acyl bond at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids to produce free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. These products are precursors of bioactive eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor (PAF). The hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by PLA2 is a rate-limiting step for generation of eicosanoids and PAF. To date, more than 10 isozymes of sPLA2 have been found in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Under physiological conditions, sPLA2s are involved in diverse cellular responses, including host defense, phospholipid digestion and metabolism. However, under pathological situations, increased sPLA2 activity and excessive production of free fatty acids and their metabolites may lead to inflammation, loss of membrane integrity, oxidative stress, and subsequent tissue injury. Emerging evidence suggests that sPLA2 plays a role in the secondary injury process after traumatic or ischemic injuries in the brain and spinal cord. Importantly, sPLA2 may act as a convergence molecule that mediates multiple key mechanisms involved in the secondary injury since it can be induced by multiple toxic factors such as inflammatory cytokines, free radicals, and excitatory amino acids, and its activation and metabolites can exacerbate the secondary injury. Blocking sPLA2 action may represent a novel and efficient strategy to block multiple injury pathways associated with the CNS secondary injury. This review outlines the current knowledge of sPLA2 in the CNS with emphasis placed on the possible roles of sPLA2 in mediating CNS injuries, particularly the traumatic and ischemic injuries in the brain and spinal cord. PMID:18673210