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Sample records for covering hospital foodservice

  1. Assessment of foodservice quality and identification of improvement strategies using hospital foodservice quality model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyungjoo; Kim, Minyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess hospital foodservice quality and to identify causes of quality problems and improvement strategies. Based on the review of literature, hospital foodservice quality was defined and the Hospital Foodservice Quality model was presented. The study was conducted in two steps. In Step 1, nutritional standards specified on diet manuals and nutrients of planned menus, served meals, and consumed meals for regular, diabetic, and low-sodium diets were assessed in three general hospitals. Quality problems were found in all three hospitals since patients consumed less than their nutritional requirements. Considering the effects of four gaps in the Hospital Foodservice Quality model, Gaps 3 and 4 were selected as critical control points (CCPs) for hospital foodservice quality management. In Step 2, the causes of the gaps and improvement strategies at CCPs were labeled as "quality hazards" and "corrective actions", respectively and were identified using a case study. At Gap 3, inaccurate forecasting and a lack of control during production were identified as quality hazards and corrective actions proposed were establishing an accurate forecasting system, improving standardized recipes, emphasizing the use of standardized recipes, and conducting employee training. At Gap 4, quality hazards were menus of low preferences, inconsistency of menu quality, a lack of menu variety, improper food temperatures, and patients' lack of understanding of their nutritional requirements. To reduce Gap 4, the dietary departments should conduct patient surveys on menu preferences on a regular basis, develop new menus, especially for therapeutic diets, maintain food temperatures during distribution, provide more choices, conduct meal rounds, and provide nutrition education and counseling. The Hospital Foodservice Quality Model was a useful tool for identifying causes of the foodservice quality problems and improvement strategies from a holistic point of view

  2. A systematic review of hospital foodservice patient satisfaction studies.

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Immacolata; Nicolò, Rosanna; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo; Bianchi, Natalia; Ciliento, Gaetano; Gawronski, Orsola; Pomponi, Manuel; Roberti, Marco; Tiozzo, Emanuela; Raponi, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    The quality of hospital foodservice is one of the most relevant items of health care quality perceived by patients and by their families. Patient satisfaction is considered a way of measuring the quality of services provided. The purpose of this study was to retrieve and review the literature describing patient satisfaction with hospital foodservices. The systematic review was conducted on three electronic archives, PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1988 through 2012), to search for any articles reporting patient satisfaction with hospital foodservices. A total of 319 studies were identified. After removing duplicates, 149 abstracts were reviewed, particular attention being given to the presence of a description of the tool used. Thirty-one articles were selected and the full texts were reviewed. Half the studies (n=15) were performed in North America. Patient satisfaction scores were generally high, with some variation among hospitals and different modes of food delivery that was investigated through intervention studies. Qualitative studies were also reported (ethnographic-anthropologic methods with interviews and focus groups). Quantitative tools were represented by questionnaires, some of which relied on previous literature and only a few were validated with factorial analysis and/or Cronbach's α for internal consistency. Most analyses were conducted assuming a parametric distribution of results, an issue not primarily tested. More studies on the quality of hospital foodservice have been carried out in North America than in Europe. Also, a variety of tools, most of which have not been validated, have been used by the different investigating facilities. PMID:25634093

  3. Labor time spent in foodservice activities in one hospital: a 12-year profile.

    PubMed

    Matthews, M E; Zardain, M V; Mahaffey, M J

    1986-05-01

    Labor minutes per meal equivalent and percentage of time spent in direct work, indirect work, delay time, and total time were determined in an annual study of foodservice workers in a community hospital. Twelve activity sampling studies (from 1973 through 1984) were conducted for 7 days (Monday through Sunday), usually during the second week of February. The conventional foodservice, with the cook/hot-hold method of food production and service, averaged about 10 minutes for direct work, 1 minute for indirect work, 2 minutes for delay time, and 13 total labor minutes per meal equivalent for the 12 years. The data were similar to those of the study in the 1960s, of conventional hospital foodservices, with high productivity, which averaged about 11 minutes for direct work, 1 minute for indirect work, 2 minutes for delay time, and 14 total labor minutes per meal equivalent. Data averaged from the 1973 through 1984 studies compared with the data from the 1960s study showed that transportation, cleaning, and service required the most labor time (total of 58% in this study and total of 62% in the 1960s study). Methods reported in this article may be applied in other foodservices to identify labor time spent in work and delay activities to establish productivity guidelines for a foodservice department. PMID:3700926

  4. Getting a taste for food waste: a mixed methods ethnographic study into hospital food waste before patient consumption conducted at three New Zealand foodservice facilities.

    PubMed

    Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice. PMID:24231365

  5. Getting a taste for food waste: a mixed methods ethnographic study into hospital food waste before patient consumption conducted at three New Zealand foodservice facilities.

    PubMed

    Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice.

  6. Use of capital budgeting techniques by foodservice directors in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Daniels, R D; Gregoire, M B

    1993-01-01

    Foodservice directors, who often control one of the largest cost centers in the hospital, are being challenged to manage resources more effectively. Capital budgeting techniques can help enhance a department's cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to assess the use by foodservice directors in nongovernment, not-for-profit and investor-owned, for-profit hospitals of capital budgeting techniques such as payback period, average accounting rate of return, net present value, profitability index, and internal rate of return. Data collected from 84 directors included their use of capital budgeting techniques and operational information about their department. Results indicated that not-for-profit hospital foodservices had significantly more full-time equivalent employees than for-profit hospital foodservices--means of 66 and 52, respectively. Size of capital budget was not strongly correlated with any of the operational variables measured. Many of the directors in both types of hospitals used some capital budgeting techniques. However, directors in for-profit hospitals were much more likely than those in not-for-profit hospitals (92% vs 72%) to use capital budgeting techniques. PMID:8417095

  7. HACCP models for quality control of entrée production in hospital foodservice systems. I. Development of hazard analysis critical control point models.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J; David, B D

    1978-11-01

    HACCP models were developed as part of a research project for quality control of entrée production in three types of hospital foodservice systems: Conventional, cook/chill, and cook/freeze. Critical control points at process stages were identified. Time-temperature was a critical control point throughout entrée production in each model; time-temperature parameters were established for critical control points. Equipment sanitation and personnel sanitation are critical control points for which standards must be established by each foodservice system. Determination of the effectiveness of control measures included continuous monitoring of critical control points for time-temperature. Sanitation of equipment and personnel should be monitored using standards established by the foodservice system.

  8. HACCP models for quality control of entrée production in hospital foodservice systems. II. Quality assessment of beef loaves utilizing HACCP models.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J; David, B D

    1978-11-01

    HACCP models were developed for quality control of entrée production in three hospital foodservice systems: Conventional, cook/chill, and cook/freeze (1). The three systems were stimulated in a laboratory to evaluate the effectiveness of the HACCP models for quality control and to generate quantitative data for evaluating and comparing the quality of beef loaves produced under controlled conditions. Attributes measured were weight (yield) and microbiologic, nutritional, and sensory qualities. The only significant difference in the beef loaves among systems was sensory quality. Scores for overall acceptability of beef loaves in the conventional system were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than for those of the cook/chill and cook/freeze systems. The HACCP models were effective quality control tools for entrée production; implementation of the HACCP system is recommended for hospital foodservices. The importance of the time-temperature critical point for monitoring control points in hospital foodservice systems is emphasized.

  9. Significant Trends Are Now Reshaping the Industry Training for Foodservice and Hospitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiman, Tyrus

    1984-01-01

    The hospitality industry is one that is not adversely affected by the information revolution. As tourism is stimulated by government economic development efforts, opportunities in the food service and hospitality occupations are increasing, both for the young and for the unemployed who need retraining. (SK)

  10. The changing faces of foodservice.

    PubMed

    1991-03-20

    Asian and Hispanic immigrants will continue to flow into the United States through the '90s. The cultural diversity they bring can infuse an operation with energy. But language and cultural barriers will continue to challenge all levels and segments of foodservice. Our feature shows how operators can avoid misunderstandings with immigrant employees and patrons. PMID:10110329

  11. Assessment of a Foodservice Management Sanitation Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Charlotte C.; Casey, Ralph

    1979-01-01

    This study determined the extent to which a course in foodservice sanitation using National Institute for the Foodservice Industry materials affected the postcourse sanitation inspection scores in selected establishments. Both experimental and control establishments had significantly higher inspection scores after the course than they had prior to…

  12. Utilizing On-Campus Foodservice Facilities as a Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallmeyer, Martha A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Family and Consumer Sciences Department at Bradley University recognized the need to improve the quality of the laboratory experience in foodservice classes. A hands-on, real-world, learning experience was desired. Simultaneously, the university administration wanted to provide an on-campus foodservice for students from 8:00 p.m. to…

  13. Labor Productivity Standards in Texas School Foodservice Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrin, A. Rachelle; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this research was to investigate utilization of labor productivity standards and variables that affect productivity in Texas school foodservice operations. Methods: A questionnaire was developed, validated, and pilot tested, then mailed to 200 randomly selected Texas school foodservice directors. Descriptive statistics for…

  14. Forecasting in foodservice: model development, testing, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miller, J L; Thompson, P A; Orabella, M M

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to develop, test, and evaluate mathematical models appropriate for forecasting menu-item production demand in foodservice. Data were collected from residence and dining hall foodservices at Ohio State University. Objectives of the study were to collect, code, and analyze the data; develop and test models using actual operation data; and compare forecasting results with current methods in use. Customer count was forecast using deseasonalized simple exponential smoothing. Menu-item demand was forecast by multiplying the count forecast by a predicted preference statistic. Forecasting models were evaluated using mean squared error, mean absolute deviation, and mean absolute percentage error techniques. All models were more accurate than current methods. A broad spectrum of forecasting techniques could be used by foodservice managers with access to a personal computer and spread-sheet and database-management software. The findings indicate that mathematical forecasting techniques may be effective in foodservice operations to control costs, increase productivity, and maximize profits.

  15. Forecasting in foodservice: model development, testing, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miller, J L; Thompson, P A; Orabella, M M

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to develop, test, and evaluate mathematical models appropriate for forecasting menu-item production demand in foodservice. Data were collected from residence and dining hall foodservices at Ohio State University. Objectives of the study were to collect, code, and analyze the data; develop and test models using actual operation data; and compare forecasting results with current methods in use. Customer count was forecast using deseasonalized simple exponential smoothing. Menu-item demand was forecast by multiplying the count forecast by a predicted preference statistic. Forecasting models were evaluated using mean squared error, mean absolute deviation, and mean absolute percentage error techniques. All models were more accurate than current methods. A broad spectrum of forecasting techniques could be used by foodservice managers with access to a personal computer and spread-sheet and database-management software. The findings indicate that mathematical forecasting techniques may be effective in foodservice operations to control costs, increase productivity, and maximize profits. PMID:2019699

  16. A Biosecurity Checklist for School Foodservice Programs: Developing a Biosecurity Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to introduce the need for securing foodservice operations from bioterrorism, provide a checklist of suggestions for improving the security of foodservice operations, and assist individuals responsible for school food service programs in strengthening the safety of the foodservice operation. While not mandatory, the…

  17. 24 CFR 242.90 - Eligibility of mortgages covering hospitals in certain neighborhoods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hospitals in certain neighborhoods. 242.90 Section 242.90 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.90 Eligibility of mortgages covering hospitals in certain neighborhoods. (a) A...

  18. Workplace foodservice; perception of quality and trust.

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah; Hartwell, Heather; Hemingway, Ann; Chapleo, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In settings such as workplaces there is a growing acceptance that the food provided has a significant impact on health and wellbeing. This is a captive environment where the overall contribution of the meal served could be an important element of the overall diet and represents an under researched area. Despite growing demand, little information is available; time pressure when making food choice alongside the challenge of understanding information provided can act as barriers for healthy selection and can also decrease confidence in the food system. We would also argue that the fundamental human right of informing consumers what they are eating is not currently being addressed and is underscored. This study used focus groups to explore criteria that motivate peoples' food choice in a workplace foodservice setting. Thematic analysis was applied to categorise data according to frequently occurring responses. Data were collected from four focus groups in Germany and the UK with a total of 23 participants. Although there is little expectation in the quality of food served in the workplace, respondents valued any transparency of information and the opportunity to socialise with other work colleagues. Criteria of importance were identified as: Value for money, Variety, Naturalness, Nutrition, Portion Size, Taste, Visual Appearance, Origin, Animal welfare, Environmental impact, Fair Trade and Organic. Gaining insight into these criteria can enable operators to meet the needs and expectations of their customers in order to increase confidence in the food provided and in addition signpost a healthier selection. PMID:26686582

  19. Workplace foodservice; perception of quality and trust.

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah; Hartwell, Heather; Hemingway, Ann; Chapleo, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In settings such as workplaces there is a growing acceptance that the food provided has a significant impact on health and wellbeing. This is a captive environment where the overall contribution of the meal served could be an important element of the overall diet and represents an under researched area. Despite growing demand, little information is available; time pressure when making food choice alongside the challenge of understanding information provided can act as barriers for healthy selection and can also decrease confidence in the food system. We would also argue that the fundamental human right of informing consumers what they are eating is not currently being addressed and is underscored. This study used focus groups to explore criteria that motivate peoples' food choice in a workplace foodservice setting. Thematic analysis was applied to categorise data according to frequently occurring responses. Data were collected from four focus groups in Germany and the UK with a total of 23 participants. Although there is little expectation in the quality of food served in the workplace, respondents valued any transparency of information and the opportunity to socialise with other work colleagues. Criteria of importance were identified as: Value for money, Variety, Naturalness, Nutrition, Portion Size, Taste, Visual Appearance, Origin, Animal welfare, Environmental impact, Fair Trade and Organic. Gaining insight into these criteria can enable operators to meet the needs and expectations of their customers in order to increase confidence in the food provided and in addition signpost a healthier selection.

  20. Foodservice sourcebook: A quick-reference guide to industry information and sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this project was the development of a comprehensive, easily-updated sourcebook of information and references related to the foodservice industry for use by electric utility customer service staffs. The Foodservice Sourcebook'' consists of the following directories: (1)Foodservice Industry Leaders --- Leading Foodservice Operators (Fast Food; Full Service; Lodging; Diversified Restaurant, Cafeteria and Retail Chains, Transportation and Recreation Foodservice Operators; Contract Management Firms; Franchises; Parent and Subsidiary Company Finders; Institutional, Military, School, and Healthcare Foodservice Organizations; Independent Restaurant Operators), and Foodservice Trade and Restaurant Associations; (2) Equipment Manufacturer Directories --- Broilers; Fryers; Griddles; Hot Water Heaters; Ovens; Ranges; Refrigerators and Freezers; Steamers and Skillets; Ventilation and Exhaust Equipment; Warewashers; Leading Major Equipment Distributors; (3) Electric Utilities --- National Electric Customer Assistance Network; Electric Utility Foodservice Activities (Commercial Cooking, Test/Demonstration Kitchen, Equipment Efficiency Improvement, Lighting, Hot Water, Space Conditioning, and Refrigeration electric utility programs); (4) Foodservice Market Trends --- Excerpts from Restaurant Business: Restaurant Growth Index,'' September, 1989; (5) Foodservice Design/Operation Guide --- Excerpts from National Restaurant Association Facilities Operations Manual; and (6) Reference Bibliography --- Electric Power Research Institute, National Restaurant Association, and industry publications.

  1. School Foodservice Costs: Location Matters. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollinger, Michael; Ralston, Katherine; Guthrie, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which location influences school foodservice costs per meal. It does not examine the effects of cost variation on financial solvency of an school food authority (SFA) or the adequacy of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal reimbursements. Higher per meal costs do not necessarily indicate that an SFA is…

  2. Measuring School Foodservice Workers’ Perceptions of Organizational Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School foodservice workers (SFW) are a direct link to children eating school meals. SFW who perceive positive and supportive organizational culture at their school nutrition departments also may perceive that such environments foster their own promotion of healthful food choices by students. To date...

  3. Training Guide for Foodservice Personnel in Programs for Young Children. A Manual for Nutritionists, Dietitians, and Foodservice Specialists Who Are Developing and Conducting Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This manual is a competency-based curriculum planning guide for nutritionists, dietitians, and foodservice specialists to use in conducting preservice and inservice training programs for foodservice personnel in Head Start, day care, and other preschool programs. After an introductory chapter, which states the purpose of the manual, defines…

  4. Colorado Hospital Survey Covering Salaries, Wages, and Selected Personnel Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Hospital Association, Denver.

    The data presented in this survey were gathered by mailed questionnaires and cover salary data on 28 "key benchmark" job classifications considered to be most representative in Colorado hospitals regardless of size, location, or type. There are tables of selected benefits, personnel policies, and practices together with actual pay rates and rate…

  5. Training: An Opportunity for People with Disabilities in School Foodservice Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez, Paola; Arendt, Susan; Strohbehn, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study assessed current training methods and topics used at public school foodservice operations as well as school foodservice representatives' attitudes toward training employees with disabilities. Methods: A mixed method approach of data collection included two phases. Phase I used a more qualitative approach; interviews…

  6. HB 1347 and Its Relationship to Foodservice Outsourcing in Illinois Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined foodservice outsourcing in the State of Illinois. School administrators currently outsourcing foodservice were surveyed about their perceptions of HB1347 and its components. This study looked at HB1347 in Illinois, and its effects on outsourcing in school districts. Data for this study was collected from a survey sent to 100%…

  7. 42 CFR 413.118 - Payment for facility services related to covered ASC surgical procedures performed in hospitals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of time beginning with the first day of a hospital's cost reporting period that begins on or after... ASC surgical procedures performed in hospitals on an outpatient basis. 413.118 Section 413.118 Public... Payment for facility services related to covered ASC surgical procedures performed in hospitals on...

  8. Microbial assessment in school foodservices and recommendations for food safety improvement.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Y; Kim, S R; Kang, D H; Shim, W B; Seo, E; Chung, D H

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated microbial food safety in school foodservices. Five school foodservices were randomly selected, and samples from water, cooking utensils, tableware, foodservice surroundings, and linen were collected in summer and winter (N=420). Tap and drinking water samples were collected, samples of food contact surfaces were collected by swab-kit, and samples for foodservice workers' hands and gloves were prepared by glove juice method. Aerobic plate count (APC) and coliform bacterial populations were enumerated on plate count agar (PCA) and desoxycholate lactose agar, respectively. The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus was also examined by biochemical identification tests. In addition, PCA agar for APCs and Baird-Parker agar for S. aureus were used to enumerate airborne microorganisms. Higher APCs (< 0 to 5.1 log CFU/mL) than acceptable level were generally observed in water samples, while low coliform counts were found in the samples. High APCs were enumerated in cooking utensils, foodservice workers, tableware, and food-service surroundings, and coliforms were also found in the samples for both seasons. The presence of Salmonella was found from only 10% of plastic glove samples (summer), and the presence of L. monocytogenes was not observed in all samples. S. aureus was detected in some of water, cooking utensils, tableware, employees, and foodservice surroundings, and E. coli was observed in cooking utensils (10% to 20%; summer). No obvious airborne bacteria were detected. These results showed that sanitation practice in school foodservices should be improved, and the results may be useful in microbial assessment of school foodservices.

  9. 76 FR 62341 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-School Foodservice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ..., contact John Endahl, Senior Program Analyst, Office of Research and Analysis, Food and Nutrition Service... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--School Foodservice Indirect Cost Study AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), United...

  10. Consumer perceptions on sustainable practices implemented in foodservice organizations in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Seyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Sustainable practices in foodservice organizations including commercial and noncommercial ones are critical to ensure the protection of the environment for the future. With the rapid growth of the foodservice industry, wiser usage of input sources such as food, utilities, and single use packaging should be reconsidered for future generations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the customer's perceptions on sustainable practices and to identify the relationship among sustainable practices, social contribution and purchase intention. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted using content analyses by reviewing articles on sustainable food service practices published domestically and abroad. Thereafter, data were collected with a face-to-face survey using a questionnaire and analyzed with factor analyses and multiple regressions. RESULTS Sustainable practices classified with factor analysis consisted of 6 dimensions of green food material procurement, sustainable food preparation, green packaging, preservation of energy, waste management, and public relations on green activity, with a total of 25 green activities in foodservice operations. Consumers were not very familiar with the green activities implemented in the foodservice unit, with the lowest awareness of "green food material procurement (2.46 out of 5 points)", and the highest awareness of "green packaging (3.74)" and "waste management (3.28). The factors influencing the perception of social contribution by foodservice organizations among 6 sustainable practice dimensions were found to be public relations on green activity (β = 0.154), waste management (β = 0.204) and sustainable food preparation (β = 0.183). Green packaging (β = 0.107) and the social contribution of the foodservice organization (β = 0.761) had strong relationships with the image of the organization. The purchase intentions of customers was affected only by the foodservice image (β = 0.775). CONCLUSIONS The

  11. Foodservice employees benefit from interventions targeting barriers to food safety.

    PubMed

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Shanklin, Carol W; Roberts, Kevin R; Howells, Amber D; Barrett, Elizabeth B

    2009-09-01

    The number of foodborne illnesses traced to improper food handling in restaurants indicates a need for research to improve food safety in these establishments. Therefore, this 2-year longitudinal study investigated the effectiveness of traditional ServSafe (National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation, Chicago, IL) food-safety training and a Theory of Planned Behavior intervention program targeting employees' perceived barriers and attitudes toward important food-safety behaviors. The effectiveness of the training and intervention was measured by knowledge scores and observed behavioral compliance rates related to food-safety practices. Employees were observed for handwashing, thermometer usage, and proper handling of work surfaces at baseline, after receiving ServSafe training, and again after exposure to the intervention targeting barriers and negative attitudes about food-safety practices. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated training improved handwashing knowledge, but the intervention was necessary to improve overall behavioral compliance and handwashing compliance. Results suggest that registered dietitians; dietetic technicians, registered; and foodservice managers should implement a combination of training and intervention to improve knowledge and compliance with food-safety behaviors, rather than relying on training alone. Challenges encountered while conducting this research are discussed, and recommendations are provided for researchers interested in conducting this type of research in the future.

  12. Food Safety Training Is Associated with Improved Knowledge and Behaviours among Foodservice Establishments' Workers

    PubMed Central

    Adesokan, Hezekiah Kehinde; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Adesokan, Grace Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Though several studies have evaluated the association between food safety training and behavior, little has investigated different training components in association with food handlers' performance. Foodservice workers (N = 211) with at least two years' experience were willing to participate and were selected from major foodservice establishments in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, and completed a survey to evaluate the association between training, training area, duration, and refresher training and food safety knowledge and practices. We observed an association between training and knowledge (P = 0.000) as well as practices (P = 0.05) of food safety while different training areas contributed similarly to food handlers' knowledge (P = 0.17) and practices (P = 0.08). However, there was a significant decline in knowledge (P = 0.01) and practices (P = 0.001) with an increase in training duration. Furthermore, foodservice employees with refresher training demonstrated significantly higher knowledge (P = 0.000) and practice (P = 0.003) levels than those without, being about 45 and 14 times more likely to, respectively, improve their knowledge (OR = 45; 95% CI: 3.47–584.34) and practice (OR = 13.5; 95% CI: 2.01–90.69). Researchers should always consider varying training components before making assertions regarding effectiveness of training on foodservice workers' behaviour. PMID:26904658

  13. Whole-Grain Continuing Education for School Foodservice Personnel: Keeping Kids from Falling Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Barno, Trina; Caskey, Mary; Asche, Kimberly; Reicks, Marla

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this project was to develop and test whole-grain continuing education for school foodservice personnel. Methods: A continuing education program was developed to address planning, purchasing, preparing, and serving whole-grain food in schools. Participants completed a pre-post questionnaire to assess changes in knowledge,…

  14. School Foodservice Personnel's Struggle with Using Labels to Identify Whole-Grain Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yen Li; Orsted, Mary; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe how school foodservice personnel use current labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and the influence on purchasing for school meals. Methods: Focus groups explored labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and barriers to incorporating whole-grain foods in school meals. Qualitative analysis procedures and…

  15. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  16. Diabetes Preparedness in Schools: What Do Foodservice Personnel Need to Know to Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenci, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is increasing in youth, presenting a serious public health threat. Although type 1 diabetes has historically been more common in children, type 2 diabetes is on the rise, linked to increases in overweight and obesity among American youth, particularly those of high risk racial and ethnic groups. Foodservice personnel, along with other…

  17. Barriers and Opportunities Related to Whole Grain Foods in Minnesota School Foodservice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, David; Braun, Curtis; Dostal, Allison; Jeffery, Robert; Marquart, Len

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to identify barriers and opportunities associated with the introduction of whole grain foods into school cafeterias. The primary objective was to elicit input from school foodservice personnel (SFP) regarding their experiences in ordering, purchasing, preparing, and serving whole grain foods in…

  18. Work/Life Practices and the Recruitment and Retention of Large School Districts' Foodservice Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Mary Kate

    2010-01-01

    With the forthcoming retirement of school foodservice directors, the increasing pressures faced by employees at home and work, and the financial constraints of school districts, recruiting and retaining skilled and diverse employees will be challenging. Marketing work/life benefits to potential employees and supporting these policies to current…

  19. Educating Immigrant Hispanic Foodservice Workers about Food Safety Using Visual-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2013-01-01

    Providing food safety training to a diverse workforce brings with it opportunities and challenges that must be addressed. The study reported here provides evidence for benefits of using visual-based tools for food safety training when educating immigrant, Hispanic foodservice workers with no or minimal English language skills. Using visual tools…

  20. Attitudes of School Foodservice Directors about the Potential Benefits of School Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longley, Carol; Sneed, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Reauthorization Act of 2004 requires schools participating in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to establish a wellness policy. The purpose of this study was to examine school foodservice directors' attitudes about the potential benefits of the wellness policy. Methods: A survey research design was…

  1. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Schools

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy foodservice offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design Retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle and high schools. Participants 526 and 520 schools with valid data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) Food Service School Questionnaire. Main Outcome Measure(s) Scores for healthy/unhealthy foodservice offerings and healthy food preparation practices. Analysis Multivariable regression to determine significant associations among school characteristics and offerings/preparation practices. Results Public schools and schools participating in USDA Team Nutrition reported more healthy offerings and preparation than private or non-participating schools, respectively. Elementary schools reported less unhealthy offerings than middle or high schools; middle schools reported less unhealthy offerings than high schools. Schools requiring foodservice managers to have a college education reported more healthy preparation while those requiring completion of a foodservice training program reported less unhealthy offerings and more healthy preparation than schools without these requirements. Conclusions and Implications Results suggest the school nutrition environment may be improved by requiring foodservice managers to hold a nutrition-related college degree and/or successfully pass a foodservice training program, and by participating in a school-based nutrition program, such as USDA Team Nutrition. PMID:22963956

  2. Decision making and senior management: the implementation of change projects covering clinical management in SUS hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, José Márcio da Cunha; Gomes, Romeu

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the decision making process for senior management in public hospitals that are a part of the National Health Service in Brazil (hereafter SUS) in relation to projects aimed at changing clinical management. The methodological design of this study is qualitative in nature taking a hermeneutics-dialectics perspective in terms of results. Hospital directors noted that clinical management projects changed the state of hospitals through: improving their organizations, mobilizing their staff in order to increase a sense of order and systemizing actions and available resources. Technical rationality was the principal basis used in the decision making process for managers. Due to the reality of many hospitals having fragmented organizations, this fact impeded the use of aspects related to rationality, such as economic and financial factors in the decision making process. The incremental model and general politics also play a role in this area. We concluded that the decision making process embraces a large array of factors including rational aspects such as the use of management techniques and the ability to analyze, interpret and summarize. It also incorporates subjective elements such as how to select values and dealing with people's working experiences. We recognized that management problems are wide in scope, ambiguous, complex and do not come with a lot of structure in practice.

  3. Decision making and senior management: the implementation of change projects covering clinical management in SUS hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, José Márcio da Cunha; Gomes, Romeu

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the decision making process for senior management in public hospitals that are a part of the National Health Service in Brazil (hereafter SUS) in relation to projects aimed at changing clinical management. The methodological design of this study is qualitative in nature taking a hermeneutics-dialectics perspective in terms of results. Hospital directors noted that clinical management projects changed the state of hospitals through: improving their organizations, mobilizing their staff in order to increase a sense of order and systemizing actions and available resources. Technical rationality was the principal basis used in the decision making process for managers. Due to the reality of many hospitals having fragmented organizations, this fact impeded the use of aspects related to rationality, such as economic and financial factors in the decision making process. The incremental model and general politics also play a role in this area. We concluded that the decision making process embraces a large array of factors including rational aspects such as the use of management techniques and the ability to analyze, interpret and summarize. It also incorporates subjective elements such as how to select values and dealing with people's working experiences. We recognized that management problems are wide in scope, ambiguous, complex and do not come with a lot of structure in practice. PMID:27557021

  4. Menu label accuracy at a university's foodservices. An exploratory recipe nutrition analysis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Murray, Douglas; Chavarria, Stephanie; Zhao, Hang

    2015-09-01

    The increase in the weight of American adults and children has been positively associated with the prevalence of the consumption of food-away-from-home. The objective was to assess the accuracy of claimed nutritional information of foods purchased in contracted foodservices located on the campus of an institution of higher education. Fifty popular food items were randomly collected from five main dining outlets located on a selected campus in the northeastern United States. The sampling was repeated three times on separate occasions for an aggregate total of 150 food samples. The samples were then weighed and assessed for nutrient composition (protein, cholesterol, fiber, carbohydrates, total fat, calories, sugar, and sodium) using nutrient analysis software. Results were compared with foodservices' published nutrition information. Two group comparisons, claimed and measured, were performed using the paired-sample t-test. Descriptive statistics were used as well. Among the nine nutritional values, six nutrients (total fat, sodium, protein, fiber, cholesterol, and weight) had more than 10% positive average discrepancies between measured and claimed values. Statistical significance of the variance was obtained in four of the eight categories of nutrient content: total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol (P < .05). Significance was also reached in the variance of actual portion weight compared to the published claims (P < .001). Significant differences of portion size (weight), total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol were found among the sampled values and the foodservices' published claims. The findings from this study raise the concern that if the actual nutritional information does not accurately reflect the declared values on menus, conclusions, decisions and actions based on posted information may not be valid.

  5. Use of Visuals for Food Safety Education of Spanish-Speaking Foodservice Workers: A Case Study in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2012-01-01

    Providing food safety training to an audience whose native language is not English is always a challenge. In the study reported here, minimal-text visuals in Spanish were used to train Hispanic foodservice workers about proper handwashing technique and glove use based on the 2005 Food Code requirements. Overall, results indicated that visuals…

  6. Using student opinion and design inputs to develop an informed university foodservice menu.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Harwell, Heather; Brusca, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    The potential for Universities and Colleges to be settings that promote health and wellbeing has become the subject for debate where the role of foodservice has been acknowledged as influential. The aim of this research was to evaluate an effective design to promote healthy selections from university foodservice menus. The research was designed around a grounded theory approach utilizing semiological prompts based on different existing nutrition labeling schemes. A total of 39 students (17 male, 22 female) participated in seven focus groups at Montclair State University, US. The participants of this study clearly called for nutrition labeling on college menus and a prototype design had been agreed. The students also itemized five nutrients they wanted listed in a Traffic Light system of colors and then quantified on the menu: calories, sodium, sugar, fat and carbohydrates, plus beneficial ingredients or nutrients for display in menu icons. The nutrients and display order varies somewhat from industry and government standards, though the student recommendations are suggestive of common understandings of published nutrient guidelines. Students have a stake in how menu information is presented on campus and their opinions could positively impact the general selection of healthy foods. PMID:23707359

  7. Importance of relationship quality and communication on foodservice for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Back, Ki Joon; Shanklin, Carol W.

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote foodservice for the elderly, foodservice managers in Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs) must identify the main factors to enhance the satisfaction and behavioral intentions with food service. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between relationship quality (consisting of trust, commitment, and satisfaction) and communication in the formation of elderly's behavioral intentions with food services at CCRCs. A survey was administered to residents in two CCRCs and a total of 327 residents participated. A tested structural equation model exhibited good model fit and explanatory power of the study construct. Satisfaction directly influenced word-of-mouth and service quality has an influence on commitment. Commitment was a significant determinant of behavioral intentions to eat more often in the dining room. Also, communication showed positive association with trust. The results provided strong evidence for the importance of satisfaction and communication as a consequence of relationship marketing efforts. Suggestions for future research to better understand the elderly' behavioral intention judgments were given. PMID:21487500

  8. Microbiological evaluation of foodservice contact surfaces in Iowa assisted-living facilities.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Jeannie; Strohbehn, Catherine; Gilmore, Shirley A; Mendonca, Aubrey

    2004-11-01

    A study of 40 assisted-living facilities in Iowa was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of food-contact surfaces (work tables/counters, cooking equipment such as mixing bowls, and cutting boards) and a surface that could cross-contaminate food (refrigerator or freezer handles) to determine the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitation. Standards were set for foodservice for aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, and Staphylococcus aureus . Two facilities met standards for all five surfaces for each of the three tests. Fewer facilities met the standard for aerobic plate count than for the other two tests, and nearly three fourths of the facilities failed to meet the aerobic plate count for cutting boards. Critically, cross-contamination from these surfaces could result in contamination of food; thus, attention needs to be given to training and supervision to ensure proper hand washing and appropriate cleaning and sanitation procedures to reduce or eliminate cross-contamination. PMID:15499361

  9. Institutional Effectiveness Assessment Process, 1992-93. Executive Summary. Hospitality and Service Occupations Division, Food Sciences Department, Food Production Program, Food Production Management Program, Pastry and Specialty Baking Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Seattle Community Coll., Washington.

    In the 1992-93 academic year, the Hospitality and Food Sciences Department at South Seattle Community College conducted surveys of current and former students and local foodservice employers to determine the level of satisfaction with Department programs. Specifically, the surveys focused on four key outcomes: determining the extent to which…

  10. Hospital food waste and environmental and economic indicators--A Portuguese case study.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, C; Santos, T; Oliveira, V

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a comprehensive characterization of plate waste (food served but not eaten) at an acute care hospital in Portugal and elaborates on possible waste reduction measures. Even though waste prevention is a priority in Europe, large amounts of food are still being wasted every day, with hospitals giving rise to two to three times more food waste than other foodservice sectors. For this work the plate waste arising at the ward level was audited during 8 weeks, covering almost 8000 meals, using a general hospital as case study. Weighing the food served to patients and that returned after the meal allowed calculating plate waste for the average meal, as well as for individual meal items. Comparison of food waste arising showed that differences exist among wards, with some generating more waste than others. On average each patient throws away 953 g of food each day, representing 35% of the food served. This equates to 8.7 thousand tonnes of food waste being thrown away each year at hospitals across Portugal. These tonnes of food transformed into waste represent economic losses and environmental impacts, being estimated that 16.4 thousand tonnes of CO2 (equivalent) and 35.3 million euros are the annual national indicators in Portugal. This means that 0.5% of the Portuguese National Health budget gets thrown away as food waste. Given the magnitude of the food problem five measures were suggested to reduce food waste, and their potential impact and ease of implementation were discussed. Even though food waste is unavoidable the results obtained in this work highlight the potential financial and environmental savings for Portuguese hospitals, providing a basis to establish future strategies to tackle food waste.

  11. Hospital food waste and environmental and economic indicators--A Portuguese case study.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, C; Santos, T; Oliveira, V

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a comprehensive characterization of plate waste (food served but not eaten) at an acute care hospital in Portugal and elaborates on possible waste reduction measures. Even though waste prevention is a priority in Europe, large amounts of food are still being wasted every day, with hospitals giving rise to two to three times more food waste than other foodservice sectors. For this work the plate waste arising at the ward level was audited during 8 weeks, covering almost 8000 meals, using a general hospital as case study. Weighing the food served to patients and that returned after the meal allowed calculating plate waste for the average meal, as well as for individual meal items. Comparison of food waste arising showed that differences exist among wards, with some generating more waste than others. On average each patient throws away 953 g of food each day, representing 35% of the food served. This equates to 8.7 thousand tonnes of food waste being thrown away each year at hospitals across Portugal. These tonnes of food transformed into waste represent economic losses and environmental impacts, being estimated that 16.4 thousand tonnes of CO2 (equivalent) and 35.3 million euros are the annual national indicators in Portugal. This means that 0.5% of the Portuguese National Health budget gets thrown away as food waste. Given the magnitude of the food problem five measures were suggested to reduce food waste, and their potential impact and ease of implementation were discussed. Even though food waste is unavoidable the results obtained in this work highlight the potential financial and environmental savings for Portuguese hospitals, providing a basis to establish future strategies to tackle food waste. PMID:26427934

  12. Moderating effects of leader-member exchange (LMX) on job burnout in dietitians and chefs of institutional foodservice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate job burnout and leader-member exchange (LMX) levels as well as to evaluate buffering effects of LMX on burnout among dietitians and chefs at institutional foodservices. Hypotheses were proposed based on the Job Demands-Resources model and LMX theory. The study population consisted of dietitians and chefs who were in charge of managing unit operations in a nationwide contract management company. Positive/negative affectivity, workload, job burnout, and LMX scales that had been validated in previous research were adopted. A total of 552 questionnaires were distributed and 154 responses were returned. Results indicated that respondents' burnout levels were moderate and emotional exhaustion was greater than cynicism. In terms of LMX, the surveyed dietitians and chefs showed higher respect toward their supervisors than loyalty. When positive affectivity and negative affectivity were controlled, workload influenced emotional exhaustion and professional efficacy significantly. With affectivity and workload controlled, however, LMX did not influence any dimensions of burnout. The moderating effect of LMX on the relationship between workload and cynicism was significant. That is, the effect of workload on cynicism was weak if the dietitians and chefs perceived the relationship with their supervisor positively. Based on the findings and literature reviewed, how to mitigate job burnout among foodservice managers is discussed. PMID:21487501

  13. Moderating effects of leader-member exchange (LMX) on job burnout in dietitians and chefs of institutional foodservice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Eun

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate job burnout and leader-member exchange (LMX) levels as well as to evaluate buffering effects of LMX on burnout among dietitians and chefs at institutional foodservices. Hypotheses were proposed based on the Job Demands-Resources model and LMX theory. The study population consisted of dietitians and chefs who were in charge of managing unit operations in a nationwide contract management company. Positive/negative affectivity, workload, job burnout, and LMX scales that had been validated in previous research were adopted. A total of 552 questionnaires were distributed and 154 responses were returned. Results indicated that respondents' burnout levels were moderate and emotional exhaustion was greater than cynicism. In terms of LMX, the surveyed dietitians and chefs showed higher respect toward their supervisors than loyalty. When positive affectivity and negative affectivity were controlled, workload influenced emotional exhaustion and professional efficacy significantly. With affectivity and workload controlled, however, LMX did not influence any dimensions of burnout. The moderating effect of LMX on the relationship between workload and cynicism was significant. That is, the effect of workload on cynicism was weak if the dietitians and chefs perceived the relationship with their supervisor positively. Based on the findings and literature reviewed, how to mitigate job burnout among foodservice managers is discussed.

  14. [Analysis of sports injuries covered by German occupational accident insurance associations at a former district hospital over a period of six years].

    PubMed

    Raschka, C; Raschka, S; Hellstern, M

    2008-09-01

    An epidemiological analysis was carried out of 1,126 sports injuries covered by German occupational accident insurance at a small regional hospital over a period of six years, of which 86.6% were allotted to the sport at schools. The types of sport most frequently involved were general fitness sports (n = 486), soccer (n = 137), volleyball (n = 126), gymnastics (n = 125) and basketball (n = 121). In the general fitness sports (n = 228 women/girls, n = 258 men/boys), bruising injuries dominated (47%), followed by sprains (29%), mostly involving the upper extremities (53%). In soccer injuries (proportion of woman = 15%), bruising and injuries to the lower extremities ranked first. Falls (33%) and sprains (31%) were the most common gymnastics injuries. Injuries to the upper extremities were most common in volleyball and basketball with 72% and 68% respectively. The distribution of these sports injuries more or less mirrors the distribution of sports disciplines at schools and institutions like the Federal Border Police. Sporting activity here should include preventive elements such a proprioceptive training.

  15. A Survey to Determine if Significant Differences Exist in the Scoring of Select Management Areas for Fast Food and Full Service Restaurant Managers by Two-Year Foodservice Management Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Thomas A.

    A survey was conducted of students in 77 of the 144 two-year foodservice management programs in the United States to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward fast food restaurant management as compared to full service restaurant management. A total of 1,403 students from 44 programs responded. Results indicated that the food service…

  16. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  17. Covering Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Ted; Krajicek, David; Hackney, Suzette; Moore, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents four brief articles on covering crime. Notes that reporting on crimes requires special skills for student reporters, editors, and photographers. Explains how to gain access to scenes, to develop journalistic ethics, and how to cover crime and its victims. Discusses the relation of race and ethnic issues to crime, and how visual…

  18. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  19. Foodservices at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" provides an overview of the history, regulation, and administration of school lunch programs and related food services. The historical review discusses factors prompting federal intervention in food programs for school children and cites legislation mandating funding. The chapter then…

  20. Hospital Library Development. Hospital Library Handbooks No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    Addressed to the administrator of the hospital as well as the librarian, this handbook covers aspects of library service policy and long-range planning. While hospitals of all sizes are discussed, a special effort is made to cover problems of small hospitals (17 to 100 beds) in sparsely-settled regions. Contents: The library as a clinical service,…

  1. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  2. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  3. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy K.; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Esnault, Jacques; Driguez, Pierre-Alexandre; Duchaussoy, Philippe; Sizun, Philippe; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Petitou, Maurice; Sinaÿ, Pierre

    2001-05-01

    The cover picture shows how thrombosis occurs in the deep veins of the lower limbs. Stasis, which results from slow and turbulent blood flow, combined with hypercoagulation, caused, for example, by a surgical procedure, may result in thrombus formation. The synthetic sulfated pentasaccharide shown in part is a potent antithrombotic compound that exerts its effect by activation of the plasma protein antithrombin III. Conformationally locked monosaccharides have now been synthesized to demonstrate that L-iduronic acid, one part of the pentasaccharide, must adopt an unusual distorted conformation to activate antithrombin III. Such conformational effects might be relevant in explaining the unique biological properties of glycosaminoglycans that contain L-iduronic acid. In the background of the picture, a flight of vampire bats is attracted by the pentasaccharide. Vampire was the name given to South American blood-sucking bats (Latin name: desmodus rotundus) in 1761 by the French naturalist Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon (1707-1788). These bats are known to attack cattle and, very rarely, sleeping human beings. Although their saliva has been shown to contain an anticoagulant compound, they would also be happy to benefit from the pentasaccharide mentioned above, to suck the blood out of the vein more easily. More details about this compound which would be helpful to vampire bats are reported by Petitou, Sinaÿ et al. on p. 1670 ff.

  4. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  5. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  6. Managers' perceptions of customers' satisfactions with their hospital cafeteria services.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C M; Upton, E M

    1991-01-01

    It is important that hospital cafeterias deliver products that create customer satisfaction so that financial objectives are met. An exploratory descriptive survey of 12 selected hospital cafeterias used a self-administered questionnaire to determine how satisfied customers were with services provided. It also asked cafeteria managers to give their perceptions of their customers' relative satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the service. Principal components analysis, followed by varimax rotation, identified four underlying constructs of the 15 pre-selected foodservice characteristics used to measure relative satisfaction. A multiple regression model, controlling for country, hospital size and customer demographics, in which the dependent variable was overall rating, found that the independent variables, the underlying rating constructs--food and service--made a much greater impact on overall rating than environment and accessibility. Most cafeteria managers' predictions about their customers' satisfaction were within two standard deviations of their customers' mean scores of satisfaction. While the managers' close association with their service may have accounted for this, it does not necessarily follow that they have the power to implement policy and product improvements. PMID:10111595

  7. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  8. Reliability of the hospital nutrition environment scan for cafeterias, vending machines, and gift shops.

    PubMed

    Winston, Courtney P; Sallis, James F; Swartz, Michael D; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Peskin, Melissa F

    2013-08-01

    According to ecological models, the physical environment plays a major role in determining individual health behaviors. As such, researchers have started targeting the consumer nutrition environment of large-scale foodservice operations when implementing obesity-prevention programs. In 2010, the American Hospital Association released a call-to-action encouraging health care facilities to join in this movement and improve their facilities' consumer nutrition environments. The Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan (HNES) for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops was developed in 2011, and the present study evaluated the inter-rater reliability of this instrument. Two trained raters visited 39 hospitals in southern California and completed the HNES. Percent agreement, kappa statistics, and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Percent agreement between raters ranged from 74.4% to 100% and kappa statistics ranged from 0.458 to 1.0. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the overall nutrition composite scores was 0.961. Given these results, the HNES demonstrated acceptable reliability metrics and can now be disseminated to assess the current state of hospital consumer nutrition environments. PMID:23747171

  9. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  10. Available Equipment in School Foodservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Kay

    This report provides data on the National Food Service Management Institute's multi-year research project that identified type, style, age, and condition of available food service equipment in K-12 schools nationwide. The study found that smaller schools, serving less than 400 lunches per day, had kitchens equipped with ranges, small…

  11. Cover Your Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Cover Your Cough Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your Cough, Flyer for Health Care Settings English [324 KB] ...

  12. Cover crops for Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  13. Norovirus - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... Symptoms start within 24 to 48 hours of infection, and can last for 1 ... norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  14. Detail view of radiator cover in front assembly room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of radiator cover in front assembly room - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Hagan Hall, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue, Southeast, 578-586 Redwood Street, Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  16. On the Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Kate F.

    2006-01-01

    This is a discussion with Judith Warren regarding her painting on the cover of the present issue of American Psychologist. To Warren, the painting on the cover of this issue, Pentimento, speaks to the interplay of spontaneity and intentionality in psychotherapy.

  17. Silostop Bunker Covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of the seal provided by the plastic cover is a key issue for minimizing losses in bunker and pile silos. Most bunker covers are 6 to 8 mil polyethylene sheets held in place by tires or tire sidewalls. Frequently there are problems with spoilage at the shoulders (i.e., against the walls),...

  18. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  19. Oblique view of southeast and northeast sides with covered walk ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast and northeast sides with covered walk to Facility 367, Facility 324 beyond, view facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Hospital, Animal House, Near intersection of Hospital Way & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. When hospitals limit organizing activity.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, C B

    1988-01-01

    Since 1974, when the NLRA was extended to cover nonprofit medical institutions, hospitals have been faced with the challenge of accommodating their employees' right to engage in organizing and concerted activities while preventing such activities from disrupting patient care. Some hospitals have sought to protect the interests of patients by prohibiting solicitation and distribution in all areas to which patients and visitors have access. The Board and the courts have generally found such rules overly broad and violative of employee rights under the NLRA. In the following survey of cases involving solicitation/distribution rules, the author points out that the courts have consistently evaluated these rules on the basis of the special nature of the hospital setting. Accordingly, advises the author, hospital administrators who are promulgating distributions and solicitation rules covering a given location must consider the individual characteristics of that location, namely, its physical layout, the type of work performed there, and the availability of alternate space.

  1. 42 CFR 424.126 - Payment to the hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to the hospital. 424.126 Section 424.126... Foreign Country § 424.126 Payment to the hospital. (a) Conditions for payment. Medicare pays the hospital...) Reflects the hospital's intent to claim for all covered services furnished during a calendar year....

  2. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    PubMed

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  3. Covering the State Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Stephen C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes how journalism majors at Ball State University are required to cover the annual sessions of the Indiana legislature, and discusses some of the experiences and problems that were encountered. (RB)

  4. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  5. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  6. Hospital fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID

  7. Hospital fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols.

  8. Why urban voluntary hospitals close.

    PubMed Central

    Sager, A

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for the importance of understanding hospital closings and relocations. Broad descriptive data on closings, relocations, and other reconfigurations of beds in 52 large and mid-size U.S. cities are presented. The period covered is 1937 to 1980. Two contrasting outlooks on hospital closings and relocations are offered. As hypothesized, smaller and less specialized nonteaching hospitals and those located in minority neighborhoods or serving above-average proportions of minority or Medicaid-funded patients were more likely to close. A potentially more effective but more costly and less accessible system of urban health care appears to result. PMID:6360956

  9. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  10. Hospital philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean G; Clement, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    It remains an open question whether hospital spending on fundraising efforts to garner philanthropy is a good use of funds. Research and industry reports provide conflicting results. We describe the accounting and data challenges in analysis of hospital philanthropy, which include measurement of donations, measurement of fundraising expenses, and finding the relationships among organizations where these cash flows occur. With these challenges, finding conflicting results is not a surprise. PMID:23614267

  11. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation. PMID:14753323

  12. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  13. Covering All Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  14. Issue Cover (June 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Cover legend: Yeast cells were labeled with the fluorescent viability dyes propidium iodide (Red) and DiBAC4(3) (green) and the nucleus was stained with DAPI (blue). Cells were visualized using wide-field fluorescent microscopy. See Chadwick et al. Traffic 2016; 17(6):689-703. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12391. PMID:27174376

  15. Issue Cover (September 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Cover legend: Macrophages phagocytosing RFP-labeled E.coli. GFP-APPL2 labels the phagosomal membrane. Image produced by N. Condon. See Yeo et al. Traffic 2016; 17(9):1014-1026. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12415. PMID:27510703

  16. The architecture of enterprise hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong; Li, Haomin; Zhao, Chenhui; An, Jiye

    2005-01-01

    Because of the complexity of the hospital environment, there exist a lot of medical information systems from different vendors with incompatible structures. In order to establish an enterprise hospital information system, the integration among these heterogeneous systems must be considered. Complete integration should cover three aspects: data integration, function integration and workflow integration. However most of the previous design of architecture did not accomplish such a complete integration. This article offers an architecture design of the enterprise hospital information system based on the concept of digital neural network system in hospital. It covers all three aspects of integration, and eventually achieves the target of one virtual data center with Enterprise Viewer for users of different roles. The initial implementation of the architecture in the 5-year Digital Hospital Project in Huzhou Central hospital of Zhejiang Province is also described.

  17. Issue Cover (July 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cover legend: N-cadherin clusters colocalize with Rab5 at the macropinosomes. Confocal microscopy image of an Ncad-GFP (green) transfected COS7 cell fed with fluorescent-dextran to label macropinosomes (blue) followed by immunofluorescence staining of Rab5 (red) and the nucleus (cyan). See Wen et al. Traffic 2016; 17(7):769-785. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12402. PMID:27297702

  18. Hospitality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  19. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  20. Issue Cover (August 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Cover legend: Absence of the novel endolysosomal trafficking regulator WDR81 (green) induces the accumulation of tetherin (red) in enlarged early endosomes. WDR81 knock-out HeLa cells were genetically complemented with an HA-tagged WDR81 construct and imaged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The original image was processed with photo editing software and overlaid with artistic effects. See Rapiteanu et al. Traffic 2016; 17(8):940-958. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12409. PMID:27412792

  1. Hatch Cover Slides Through Hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, Charles; Okane, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Hatch cover for pressurized vessel provides tight seal but opened quickly from either side. In opening or closing, cover sweeps out relatively little volume within vessel, so it does not hinder movement of people or objects from vessel to outside or placement of people or objects near hatch. Cover uses internal pressure to create seal when closed. Design of cover eliminates leakage paths, and cover immune to hazards of sudden decompression or jamming when bolts and latches fail.

  2. What's new in tent hospitals?

    PubMed

    Laufman, H

    1989-06-01

    There will always be a need for some kind of rapidly deployable, easy to assemble, temporary shelter for use in military conflicts, large-scale military disasters, industrial accidents, major construction projects in remote areas, refugee relocation centers, military hospitals, and any temporary outdoor event requiring cover. The history of tenting is essentially a history of man's ingenuity in creating portable, rapidly erected, temporary shelter. This article will be limited to the stages of development of the latest in military tent hospitals. PMID:2498765

  3. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  4. Medicaid Expansion Affects Rural And Urban Hospitals Differently.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Brystana G; Reiter, Kristin L; Pink, George H; Holmes, George M

    2016-09-01

    Rural hospitals differ from urban hospitals in many ways. For example, rural hospitals are more reliant on public payers and have lower operating margins. In addition, enrollment in the health insurance Marketplaces of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has varied across rural and urban areas. This study employed a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate the average effect of Medicaid expansion in 2014 on payer mix and profitability for urban and rural hospitals, controlling for secular trends. For both types of hospitals, we found that Medicaid expansion was associated with increases in Medicaid-covered discharges. However, the increases in Medicaid revenue were greater among rural hospitals than urban hospitals, and the decrease in the proportion of costs for uncompensated care were greater among urban hospitals than rural hospitals. This preliminary analysis of the early effects of Medicaid expansion suggests that its financial impacts may be different for hospitals in urban and rural locations. PMID:27605649

  5. Cover crops and N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  6. Hospitals for sale.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael M; West, Daniel J; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The pace of hospital merger and acquisition activity reflects the economic theory of supply and demand: Publicly traded hospital companies, private equity funds, and large nonprofit hospital systems are investing capital to purchase and operate freestanding community hospitals at a time when many of those hospitals find themselves short of capital reserves and certain forms of management expertise. But the sale of those community hospitals also raises questions about the impact of absentee ownership on the communities which those hospitals serve.

  7. Understanding Hospital Value-Based Purchasing.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jo Ann

    2016-05-01

    This column is designed to provide a nursing perspective on new hospital quality measurements. Future articles will cover the various quality indicators hospitals face and the role of the nurse in meeting mandated benchmarks. Reader responses to this column are welcome and will help to make it more useful to nurses in meeting the challenges posed by health care reform and changing Medicare reimbursement programs.

  8. Unit Cost of Medical Services at Different Hospitals in India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1 = INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates

  9. CoverCAM - a land cover composition change assessment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Bie, C. D.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The cover-composition on a specific piece of land can change over time due to natural and anthropogenic factors. Accurate detection of where and when changes occur requires a method that uses remotely sensed imagery that represents a continuous and consistent record on the state of the green land-cover. Such data are offered through hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery. Until recently, NDVI-images were mainly used for anomaly mapping to monitor the influence of weather on vegetation; the monitoring basically assume that, over time, the land cover composition of a studied area remains static. This study presents a novel cover change assessment method, labelled ';CoverCAM' that extracts from hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery the probabilities that the original land cover composition did change. CoverCAM, unlike all existing change-detection methods, makes adjustments based on seasonal NDVI-anomalies experienced at landscape level. We tested the method by processing SPOT-VGT NDVI-imagery (10-day Maximum Value Composites; 1km pixels) for Andalucía, Spain. CoverCAM requires specification that two time periods are specified: a reference period (we used 2000-04), and a change detection period (we used 2005-10). All images of the reference period were classified using the ISODATA algorithm and by evaluating divergence statistics. The generated map depicts strata (group of polygons), characterized by temporal NDVI and standard deviation (SD) profiles. For the change assessment period, first, mean NDVI-values were calculated by decade and polygon (NDVId,p), and then for each pixel of the polygon its pixel change values specified through the remaining difference between the pixel NDVI and [NDVId,p × the SD value of the stratum for that decade]. The above process was repeated to produce decadal land cover change probability maps, each with its own undefined scale. The decadal change maps were then aggregated to annual change probability maps. This validation was only carried out for

  10. FLOOR COVERING--PART 1, RESILIENT COVERINGS. WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTER, RALPH; AND OTHERS

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE IN RELATED TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION IN APPRENTICE TRAINING FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE. THE MATERIAL WAS WRITTEN BY TRADE INSTRUCTORS AND JOURNEYMEN UNDER THE DIRECTION AND COORDINATION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE AND OTHERS. THE UNITS ARE (1)…

  11. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  12. Are You a Hospital Inpatient or Outpatient? If You have Medicare -- Ask!

    MedlinePlus

    ... care you get in a skilled nursing facility (SNF) following your hospital stay. • You’re an inpatient ... covers my care in a skilled nursing facility (SNF)? Medicare will only cover care you get in ...

  13. Audit to Target Food-Service Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's plan to look closely at whether the food-service-management companies running many school cafeterias are passing along all the discounts and rebates they receive from their suppliers to the districts that hire them. The plan to probe companies will begin in August, said Alison Decker, a…

  14. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Foodservice Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the food service cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 41 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  15. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  16. Hospital Charges of Potentially Preventable Pediatric Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sam; Kuo, Dennis Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Reducing the number of preventable hospitalizations represents a possible source of healthcare savings. However, the current literature lacks a description of the extent of potentially preventable pediatric hospitalizations. The study objectives are to (1) identify the charges and (2) demographic characteristics associated with potentially preventable pediatric hospitalizations. Methods Secondary analysis of the 2006 Kids’ Inpatient Database (weighted N=7,558,812). ICD-9-CM codes for 16 previously validated pediatric ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) conditions identified potentially preventable hospitalizations; seven additional conditions reflected updated care guidelines. Outcome variables included number of admissions, hospitalization days, and hospital charges. Demographic and diagnostic variables associated with an ACS condition were compared with regression analyses using appropriate person-level weights. Results Pediatric ACS hospitalizations totaled $4.05B in charges and 1,087,570 hospitalization days in 2006. Two respiratory conditions—asthma and bacterial pneumonia—comprised 48.4% of ACS hospital charges and 46.7% of ACS hospitalization days. In multivariate analysis, variables associated with an ACS condition included: male gender (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07–1.13); race/ethnicity of black (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.16–1.27) or Hispanic (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06–1.18); and emergency department (ED) as admission source (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.27–1.48). Conclusions Respiratory conditions comprised the largest proportion of potentially preventable pediatric hospitalizations, totaling as much as $1.96B in hospital charges. Children hospitalized with an ACS condition tend to be male, non-white, and admitted through the ED. Future research to prevent pediatric hospitalizations should examine targeted interventions in the primary care setting, specifically around respiratory conditions and minority populations. PMID:22922047

  17. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  18. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  19. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  20. Dielectric covered microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Lisa M.

    1988-11-01

    Microstrip antennas have many properties that make them suitable for airborne and satellite communications systems. These antennas are low in cost and lightweight. For these reasons, Rome Air Development Center is interested in verifying and augmenting existing design models for these antennas. The theory and results are presented for modeling microstrip antennas that are covered with a sheet of dielectric material. There are several reasons for designing a microstrip antenna covered with a dielectric material. This configuration would allow the modeling of antennas with an integrated radome. A cover layer could possibly be used to support a polarizer; to mount additional antenna elements on top of the cover layer to provide bandwidth enhancements; or to be used as a dual frequency antenna.

  1. Impact of Critical Access Hospital Conversion on Beneficiary Liability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Boyd H.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While the Medicare Critical Access Hospital (CAH) program has improved the financial viability of small rural hospitals and enhanced access to care in rural communities, the program puts beneficiaries at risk for paying a larger share of the cost of services covered under the Medicare part B benefit. Purpose: This paper examines the…

  2. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  3. The impact of payer-specific hospital case mix on hospital costs and revenues for third-party patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Roh, M P H Chul-Young

    2007-02-01

    Competition among hospitals and managed care have forced hospital industry to be more efficient. With higher degrees of hospital competition and managed care penetration, hospitals have argued that the rate of increase in hospital cost is greater than the rate of increase in hospital revenue. By developing a payer-specific case mix index (CMI) for third-party patients, this paper examined the effect of hospital case mix on hospital cost and revenue for third-party patients in California using the hospital financial and utilization data covering 1986-1998. This study found that the coefficients for CMIs in the third-party hospital revenue model were greater than those in the hospital cost model until 1995. Since 1995, however, the coefficients for CMIs in the third-party hospital revenue model have been less than those in hospital cost models. Over time, the differences in coefficients for CMIs in hospital revenue and cost models for third-party patients have become smaller and smaller although those differences are statistically insignificant.

  4. Costs of surgical procedures in Indian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite a growing volume of surgical procedures in low-income and middle-income countries, the costs of these procedures are not well understood. We estimated the costs of 12 surgical procedures commonly conducted in five different types of hospitals in India from the provider perspective, using a microcosting method. Design Cost and utilisation data were collected retrospectively from April 2010 to March 2011 to avoid seasonal variability. Setting For this study, we chose five hospitals of different types: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital and a 778-bed tertiary care teaching hospital based on their willingness to cooperate and data accessibility. The hospitals were from four states in India. The private, charitable and tertiary care hospitals serve urban populations, the district hospital serves a semiurban area and the private teaching hospital serves a rural population. Results Costs of conducting lower section caesarean section ranged from rupees 2469 to 41 087; hysterectomy rupees 4124 to 57 622 and appendectomy rupees 2421 to 3616 (US$1=rupees 52). We computed the costs of conducting lap and open cholecystectomy (rupees 27 732 and 44 142, respectively); hernia repair (rupees 13 204); external fixation (rupees 8406); intestinal obstruction (rupees 6406); amputation (rupees 5158); coronary artery bypass graft (rupees 177 141); craniotomy (rupees 75 982) and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (rupees 53 398). Conclusions Estimated costs are roughly comparable with rates of reimbursement provided by the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY)—India's government-financed health insurance scheme that covers 32.4 million poor families. Results from this type of study can be used to set and revise the reimbursement rates. PMID:23794591

  5. Thermal properties for vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

    2011-12-01

    Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

  6. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  7. Mental hospital regime in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Andoh, B

    1996-01-01

    Although non-private conventional mental hospitals in England and Wales have been in existence for about two centuries, the literature on the actual regimes in those hospitals is not enormous. Since Goffman's Asylums, things have changed in North America, the United Kingdom and elsewhere. However, not much has been written about the present position. This article (based on qualitative data collected over 12 months) describes the regimes in three conventional mental hospitals in S.E. England. It covers hospital policy on the admission of a patient, daily ward routine, the open-door policy, fire precautions, close observation, seclusion, search of patients and their belongings and the handling of patients' correspondence. It concludes that the regimes are reasonable.

  8. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  9. Hospitable Classrooms: Biblical Hospitality and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to a Christian hermeneutic of special education by suggesting the biblical concept of hospitality as a necessary characteristic of classroom and school environments in which students with disabilities and other marginalized students can be effectively incorporated into the body of the classroom. Christian hospitality, seen…

  10. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  11. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority.

  12. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority. PMID:23424818

  13. Management of medical waste in Tanzanian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Manyele, S V; Anicetus, H

    2006-09-01

    A survey was conducted to study the existing medical waste management (MWM) systems in Tanzanian hospitals during a nationwide health-care waste management-training programme conducted from 2003 to 2005. The aim of the programme was to enable health workers to establish MWM systems in their health facilities aimed at improving infection prevention and control and occupational health aspects. During the training sessions, a questionnaire was prepared and circulated to collect information on the MWM practices existing in hospitals in eight regions of the Tanzania. The analysis showed that increased population and poor MWM systems as well as expanded use of disposables were the main reasons for increased medical wastes in hospitals. The main disposal methods comprised of open pit burning (50%) and burying (30%) of the waste. A large proportion (71%) of the hospitals used dust bins for transporting waste from generation points to incinerator without plastic bags. Most hospitals had low incineration capacity, with few of them having fire brick incinerators. Most of the respondents preferred on-site versus off-site waste incineration. Some hospitals were using untrained casual labourers in medical waste management and general cleanliness. The knowledge level in MWM issues was low among the health workers. It is concluded that hospital waste management in Tanzania is poor. There is need for proper training and management regarding awareness and practices of medical waste management to cover all carders of health workers in the country.

  14. Hospitals as health educators

    MedlinePlus

    ... than your local hospital. From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals offer information families need to ... care and breastfeeding Parenting Baby sign language Baby yoga or massage Babysitting courses for teens Exercise classes ...

  15. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  16. Cover times of random searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  17. Saving the Kilgore Covered Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Wilma

    1988-01-01

    Describes an American literature class project to save a covered bridge from collapse. Illustrates how student initiative in contacting government agencies and news media, learning the history of the bridge, and raising public awareness about the project led to a joint county agreement to preserve the historic span. (DHP)

  18. COVERING A CORE BY EXTRUSION

    DOEpatents

    Karnie, A.J.

    1963-07-16

    A method of covering a cylindrical fuel core with a cladding metal ms described. The metal is forced between dies around the core from both ends in two opposing skirts, and as these meet the ends turn outward into an annular recess in the dics. By cutting off the raised portion formed by the recess, oxide impurities are eliminated. (AEC)

  19. ESTIMATING AND PROJECTING IMPERVIOUS COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective methods to estimate and project impervious cover can help identify areas where a watershed is at risk of changing rapidly from one with relatively pristine streams to one with streams with significant symptoms of degradation. In collaboration with the USEPA, Region 4, ...

  20. Resumes, Applications, and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Good resumes, applications, and cover letters broadcast one's abilities. They tell employers how one's qualifications match a job's responsibilities. If these critical preliminaries are constructed well, one has a better chance of landing interviews--and, eventually, a job. This article provides some guidelines for creating resumes and cover…

  1. The Great Cover-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leigh Ann

    2007-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the author created a short, online questionnaire to capture data about middle schoolers and book covers, and after several pilot studies she posted it to SurveyMonkey.com. The study includes the fiction books for middle school from the 2005 Quick Picks list. Over the course of a week, participants reported to the school…

  2. 42 CFR 416.75 - Performance of listed surgical procedures on an inpatient hospital basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inpatient hospital basis. 416.75 Section 416.75 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... on an inpatient hospital basis. The inclusion of any procedure as a covered surgical procedure under § 416.65 does not preclude its coverage in an inpatient hospital setting under Medicare....

  3. 48 CFR 831.7001-4 - Medical services and hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital care. 831.7001-4 Section 831.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and Procedures 831.7001-4 Medical services and hospital care. (a) VA may pay the customary student... Government. (b) When the customary student's health fee does not cover medical services or hospital care,...

  4. 42 CFR 403.321 - State systems for hospital outpatient services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State systems for hospital outpatient services. 403... Control Systems § 403.321 State systems for hospital outpatient services. CMS may approve a State's..., projections for the first 12-month period covered by the assurance for each hospital, in both the...

  5. University Hospitals for Sale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1984-01-01

    Although faculty opposition stopped the sale of Harvard's McLean Hospital to the Hospital Corporation of America (HCA), a partnership remains a possibility. Issues related to the proposed sale as well as those affecting hospital economics are considered. Proposed terms of the sale are included. (JN)

  6. HOSPITALS FOR RURAL PEOPLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANNY, ELSIE S.; ROGERS, CHARLES E.

    MODERN ADVANCEMENTS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE HAVE PRECIPITATED THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE UP-TO-DATE HOSPITAL FACILITIES REASONABLY CLOSE TO ALL PEOPLE. RURAL COMMUNITIES HAVE UTILIZED FEDERAL AID, STATE AID, ASSISTANCE FROM FOUNDATIONS, CIVIC BONDS, AND VOLUNTEER CONTRIBUTIONS AND DRIVES TO ERECT AND EQUIP HOSPITALS. HOSPITAL CARE FOR RURAL PEOPLE USUALLY…

  7. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  8. ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS COVER FROM REGIONALLY AVAILABLE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the reliability of different approaches for estimating impervious cover including three empirical formulations for estimating impervious cover from population density data, estimation from categorized land cover data, and to ...

  9. Sky Cover from MFRSR Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  10. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J. C.; Berg, L. K.; Flynn, C.; Long, C. N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  11. Covers by polars of arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Eaves, B.C. . Systems Optimization Lab.); Hoffman, A.J. )

    1990-08-01

    For a collection of hyperplanes passing through the origin in euclidean space let S be the induced subdivision. Let T be the collection of polars of the full cells of S. If only the origin lies in all hyperplanes, T forms a {kappa} {approximately} fold cover of euclidean space. If, in addition, the collection of hyperplanes is of size m and is regular, then {kappa} is m {minus} 1 choose n {minus} 1. Other similar results relate to spheres, hemispheres, and linear programming.

  12. Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The 465-bed Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital is the largest medical facility on the California coast between Los Angeles and the San Francisco bay area. The hospital dates back to 1888, when a group of local citizens began raising funds to build a "cottage-style" hospital for the growing community. Their original plans called for a complex in which each medical specialty would be housed in a separate bungalow. Even then, however, such a decentralized plan was too costly, so work began instead on a single cottage for all hospital departments. The first Cottage Hospital opened in 1891, with 25 beds housed in a two story Victorian building. Now a hugh medical complex employing some 1,500 people, the hospital continues to be called "Cottage" after the original home-like building. Rodney J. Lamb has been Hospital Administrator for the last 30 years.

  13. Energy Conservation in Foodservice: A Course for Foodservice Personnel. Instructor's Guide. Course Outline and Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Lewis C., Jr.

    Lesson plans and student handouts for a course dealing with conserving energy in food service operations comprise this publication. The course is intended for all persons involved in the preparation of food in public and commercial institutions. By using the strategies discussed, participants should be able to analyze energy usage, identify…

  14. Hospital diversification strategy.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    To determine the impact of health system restructuring on the levels of hospital diversification and operating ratio this article analyzed 94 teaching hospitals and 94 community hospitals during the period 2008-2013. The 47 teaching hospitals are matched with 47 other teaching hospitals experiencing the same financial market position in 2008, but with different levels of preference for risk and diversification in their strategic plan. Covariates in the analysis included levels of hospital competition and the degree of local government planning (for example, highly regulated in New York, in contrast to Texas). Moreover, 47 nonteaching community hospitals are matched with 47 other community hospitals in 2008, having varying manager preferences for service-line diversification and risk. Diversification and operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield better financial position, and the better operating profits provide the firm the wherewithal to diversify. Some services are in a growth phase, like bariatric weight-loss surgery and sleep disorder clinics. Hospital managers' preferences for risk/return potential were considered. An institution life cycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification, and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger. PMID:25223156

  15. Hospital diversification strategy.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    To determine the impact of health system restructuring on the levels of hospital diversification and operating ratio this article analyzed 94 teaching hospitals and 94 community hospitals during the period 2008-2013. The 47 teaching hospitals are matched with 47 other teaching hospitals experiencing the same financial market position in 2008, but with different levels of preference for risk and diversification in their strategic plan. Covariates in the analysis included levels of hospital competition and the degree of local government planning (for example, highly regulated in New York, in contrast to Texas). Moreover, 47 nonteaching community hospitals are matched with 47 other community hospitals in 2008, having varying manager preferences for service-line diversification and risk. Diversification and operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield better financial position, and the better operating profits provide the firm the wherewithal to diversify. Some services are in a growth phase, like bariatric weight-loss surgery and sleep disorder clinics. Hospital managers' preferences for risk/return potential were considered. An institution life cycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification, and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger.

  16. [110 years--University Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital "Maichin dom"].

    PubMed

    Zlatkov, V

    2014-01-01

    The first specialized Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital in Bulgaria was founded based on the idea of Queen Maria Luisa (1883). Construction began in 1896 and the official opening of the hospital took place on November 19, 1903. What is unique about the University Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital "Maichin dom" is above all the fact that the Bulgarian school of obstetrics and gynecology was founded within its institution. Currently, the hospital has nearly 400 beds and 600 employees who work at nine clinics and six laboratories, covering the entire spectrum of obstetric and gynecological activities. Its leading specialists still continue to embody the highest level of professionalism and dedication. The future development of the hospital is chiefly associated with the renovation of facilities, resources and equipment and with the enhancement of the professional competence of the staff and of the quality of hospital products to improve the health and satisfaction of the patients.

  17. Television documentaries lifting hospital, medical center profiles.

    PubMed

    Rees, T

    2001-01-01

    The nation's hospitals and medical centers are enjoying the legacy of TV audiences' addiction to medical dramas. Cable television has met the challenge with documentary coverage of real live hospitals. The medium offers many benefits and few disadvantages for those marketing managers with the courage to welcome camera crews. Lynn Hopkins Cantwell is director of public relations and marketing for Children's National Medical Center, Washington, D.C., which was covered in a seven-instrument "Lifeline" documentary for the Discovery Channel. James G. Gosky is director of communications for The MetroHealth System, Cleveland, which was the subject of two installments of "Trauma: Life in th ER," produced for the Learning Channel. These marketing pros describe the myriad details they faced when their respective hospitals went "on camera." Among the key factors were good communications with all constituents, attention to detail, and follow-up. PMID:11209289

  18. How to make a hospital-based wound center financially viable: the Georgetown University Hospital model.

    PubMed

    Attinger, Christopher E; Hoang, Han; Steinberg, John; Couch, Kara; Hubley, Katherine; Winger, Linda; Kugler, Margaret

    2008-11-01

    As the medical need and expenditure for chronic wound care have increased markedly over the past decade, wound centers have grown exponentially throughout the country. They can be community-based or hospital-based, and in either case, can be run by the facility or by a national chain. The wound center's viability is dependent on generated revenue, and its clinical effectiveness is based on a multidisciplinary approach to wound care. By incorporating the wound center into an existing hospital system, one can take advantage of the hospital's resources to effectively treat the more complex patients. Additionally, by focusing on limb salvage, the hospital attracts the critical limb ischemia and other complex patients that often require inpatient admission. We examined the Georgetown University Hospital Center for Wound Healing performance over the first 6 years of operation. Since opening the wound center in 1999, the number of outpatient visits has doubled, the wound care inpatient census has doubled, and the operative cases have increased 3-fold. Because the outpatient segment of the wound center can at best cover its direct cost, it cannot financially justify its existence. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) can increase the revenue to the point where the indirect costs are covered as well and the wound center can be revenue neutral. Due to the medical complexity of limb salvage patients, the inpatient collections are much higher than those of the outpatient wound center and therefore can serve as justification for the latter's financial viability. More importantly, with the wound center in place, the hospital can provide the local/regional community with a comprehensive service that can effectively treat the most challenging wounds. The success is built on a multidisciplinary team approach, use of evidence-based treatment protocols, efficient clinical structure, and a supportive hospital system. The beneficiaries include the patient with a healed wound, the physician with a

  19. Measuring Hospital Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Ruchlin, Hirsch S.; Leveson, Irving

    1974-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive method for quantifying hospital output and estimating hospital productivity. A number of less comprehensive productivity measures that can be quantified from data available from regional third-party payers and from the American Hospital Association are also developed and evaluated as proxies for the comprehensive measure, which is based on local area data. Methods are discussed for estimating the necessary variables on a regional or national level. PMID:4461703

  20. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  1. Methods for Cloud Cover Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glackin, D. L.; Huning, J. R.; Smith, J. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for cloud cover estimation are described relevant to assessing the performance of a ground-based network of solar observatories. The methods rely on ground and satellite data sources and provide meteorological or climatological information. One means of acquiring long-term observations of solar oscillations is the establishment of a ground-based network of solar observatories. Criteria for station site selection are: gross cloudiness, accurate transparency information, and seeing. Alternative methods for computing this duty cycle are discussed. The cycle, or alternatively a time history of solar visibility from the network, can then be input to a model to determine the effect of duty cycle on derived solar seismology parameters. Cloudiness from space is studied to examine various means by which the duty cycle might be computed. Cloudiness, and to some extent transparency, can potentially be estimated from satellite data.

  2. Hospital-sponsored primary care: I. Organizational and financial effects.

    PubMed Central

    Shortell, S M; Wickizer, T M; Wheeler, J R

    1984-01-01

    Findings are presented from a seven-year (1976-83) evaluation of the Community Hospital Program (CHP), a national demonstration program sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to assist 54 community hospitals in improving the organization of access to primary care. Upon grant expiration, 66 per cent of hospital-sponsored group practices continued under some form of hospital sponsorship; over 90 per cent developed or were planning to develop spin-off programs; and new physicians were recruited and retained in the community. About 9 per cent of hospital admissions were accounted for by group physicians and grantee hospitals experienced a greater annual increase in their market share of admissions than competing hospitals in the area. While only three of the groups generated sufficient revenue to cover expenses during the grant period, 21 additional groups broke even during the first post-grant year. Productivity and cost per visit compared favorably with most other forms of care. Hospitalization rates from the hospital-sponsored practices were somewhat lower than those for other forms of care. Medical director leadership and involvement and the organization design of the practice were among several key factors associated with higher performing practices. The ability of such joint hospital-physician ventures to meet the needs of the poor and elderly in a time of Medicare and Medicaid cutbacks is discussed along with suggestions for targeting future initiatives in primary care. PMID:6742268

  3. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  4. [Music in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Bouteloup, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Occasional events, regular workshops, concerts, shows, artists in residence, cultural outings...Hospital does not necessarily have to be a place of silence and sadness. But this situation has not always been so straightforward as on the face of it, nothing is more incompatible with a hospital environment than music, which, by definition, is festive and noisy. PMID:20684389

  5. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  6. Library Services in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Social Security, London (England).

    The memorandum gives guidance to the provision and organization of library services at hospitals both for staff and for patients. It also draws attention to the assistance available from outside sources towards the development and maintenance of these services so hospital authorities may make the most effective use of the available facilities.…

  7. Hospitals are dangerous places.

    PubMed

    de Richemond, Albert L

    2010-01-01

    Hospital fire dangers are real, widespread, and ever present, the article demonstrates, spelling out the locations, conditions, and ignition potentials which exist in such a setting. Knowledge of codes and standards, good maintenance practices, and frequent drills in fire prevention and suppression are among the practices recommended for keeping a hospital fire from becoming a disaster, the author says. PMID:20873506

  8. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  9. Hospitality services generate revenue.

    PubMed

    Bizouati, S

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider.

  10. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  11. Hospital 360°.

    PubMed

    Giraldo Valencia, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Liliana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    There are forces that are greater than the individual performance of each hospital institution and of the health system structural of each country. The world is changing and to face up to the future in the best possible way, we need to understand how contexts and emerging trends link up and how they affect the hospital sector. The Columbian Association of Hospitals and Clinics, ACHC, has thus come up with the Hospital 360° concept which uses hospitals capable of anticipating changing contexts by means of the transition between present and future and takes on board the experience of global, socio-economic, demographic, political, environmental and technological fields as its model. Hospital 360° is an invitation to reinvent processes and institution themselves allowing them to adapt and incorporate a high degree of functional flexibility. Hospital 360° purses goals of efficiency, effectiveness and relevance, but also of impact and sustainability, and is coherent with the internal needs of hospital institutions and society for long-term benefits. PMID:26521380

  12. Mental hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  13. [Music in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Bouteloup, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Occasional events, regular workshops, concerts, shows, artists in residence, cultural outings...Hospital does not necessarily have to be a place of silence and sadness. But this situation has not always been so straightforward as on the face of it, nothing is more incompatible with a hospital environment than music, which, by definition, is festive and noisy.

  14. Handbook on Hospital Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prynne, T. A.

    Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

  15. Designing sustainable acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cory, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    The need to provide sustainable hospitals lies in the fact that we have an obligation to act responsibly towards good stewardship of our environment and the world's precious resources, ensuring a healthy future for coming generations. As such, a sustainable hospital must sit squarely in a sustainable society, and the global and local context should be considered when designing a sustainable health facility.

  16. Hospitality services generate revenue.

    PubMed

    Bizouati, S

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider. PMID:10127850

  17. Release of information: are hospitals taking a hit?

    PubMed

    Bellenghi, G Michael; Coffey, Bonnie; Fournier, Joseph E; McDavid, Jan P

    2008-11-01

    Outsourcing release-of-information requests helps hospitals alleviate administrative and compliance burdens and expense. Recently, state lawmakers have begun to draft legislation reducing the maximum fee that may be charged for copies of electronically stored records. The reduced fees may not cover expenses. If such legislation makes it difficult for outsourcing companies to make a profit from this service, hospitals ultimately could bear the expense and risk. PMID:18990845

  18. [Hospital medicine in Chile].

    PubMed

    Eymin, Gonzalo; Jaffer, Amir K

    2013-03-01

    After 15 years of development of Hospital Medicine in Chile, there are several benefits of this discipline. Among others, a reduction in the length of hospital stay, readmissions, costs, and improved medical teaching of students, residents and fellows have been observed. However, in South América there are only isolated groups dedicated to Hospital Medicine in Chile, Argentina and Brazil, with a rather slow growth. The unjustified fear of competition from sub specialists, and the fee for service system of payment in our environment may be important factors to understand this phenomenon. The aging of the population makes imperative to improve the safety of our patients and to optimize processes and resources within the hospital, to avoid squandering healthcare resources. The following is a detailed and evidence-based article, on how hospital medicine might benefit both the public and prívate healthcare systems in Chile. PMID:23900327

  19. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  20. An organizational metamodel for hospital emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Kubilay

    2014-10-01

    I introduce an organizational model describing the response of the hospital emergency department. The hybrid simulation/analytical model (called a "metamodel") can estimate a hospital's capacity and dynamic response in real time and incorporate the influence of damage to structural and nonstructural components on the organizational ones. The waiting time is the main parameter of response and is used to evaluate the disaster resilience of health care facilities. Waiting time behavior is described by using a double exponential function and its parameters are calibrated based on simulated data. The metamodel covers a large range of hospital configurations and takes into account hospital resources in terms of staff and infrastructures, operational efficiency, and the possible existence of an emergency plan; maximum capacity; and behavior both in saturated and overcapacitated conditions. The sensitivity of the model to different arrival rates, hospital configurations, and capacities and the technical and organizational policies applied during and before a disaster were investigated. This model becomes an important tool in the decision process either for the engineering profession or for policy makers. PMID:25397658

  1. Hospitality as an Environmental Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    1991-01-01

    Compares stewardship and hospitality as they relate to the biosphere. Traces the origin of the word "hospitality," discusses cultural traditions of hospitality, and applies the concept of hospitality to the natural world. Considers forms of symbiosis in nature: commensals, mutualism, and parasitism. Hospitality promotes respect, humility, and…

  2. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  3. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 'tween-decks unless all hatch beams are in place under the hatch covers. (c) Missing, broken, or poorly... covers and hatch beams not of uniform size shall be placed only in the hatch, deck, and section in...

  4. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 'tween-decks unless all hatch beams are in place under the hatch covers. (c) Missing, broken, or poorly... covers and hatch beams not of uniform size shall be placed only in the hatch, deck, and section in...

  5. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival. PMID:3300300

  6. Philanthropy and hospital financing.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D G; Clement, J P; Wheeler, J R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores the relationships among donations to not-for-profit hospitals, the returns provided by these hospitals, and fund-raising efforts. It tests a model of hospital behavior and addresses an earlier debate regarding the supply price of donations. DATA SOURCES. The main data source is the California Office of Statewide Health Planning data tapes of hospital financial disclosure reports for fiscal years 1980/1981 through 1986/1987. Complete data were available for 160 hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Three structural equations (donations, returns, and fund-raising) are estimated as a system using a fixed-effects, pooled cross-section, time-series least squares regression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Estimation results reveal the expected positive relation between donations and returns. The reverse relation between returns and donations is insignificant. The estimated effect of fund-raising on donations is insignificantly different from zero, and the effect of donations on fund-raising is negative. Fund-raising and returns are negatively associated with one another. CONCLUSION. The empirical results presented here suggest a positive donations-returns relations and are consistent with a positive supply price for donations. Hospitals appear to view a trade-off between providing returns and soliciting donations, but donors do not respond equally to these two activities. Attempts to increase free cash flow through expansion of community returns or fund-raising activity, at least in the short run, are not likely to be highly successful financing strategies for many hospitals. PMID:8537223

  7. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  8. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival.

  9. Hospitals' internal accountability.

    PubMed

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  10. Coney Island Hospital focuses on healthcare for ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Since its beginnings as a first aid station on the famous New York beach, Coney Island Hospital has evolved as a well-known public hospital serving a multi-cultural community. Part of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corp. it has made extensive efforts to provide "ethnically correct" services to all of its constituents. These measures have been covered by National Public Radio and recognized as a "best practices" example by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Profile's article offers insights about how it's done and how it is publicized, including what its associate director calls "ethnic marketing on the cheap." PMID:11552591

  11. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  12. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  13. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  14. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  15. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  16. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  17. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or...

  1. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or...

  2. Selection of fungi by candidate cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified cropping systems that incorporate year-round ground cover, are known to maintain healthy soils. Information is available for producers regarding the benefits of specific cover crop species for soil fertility, weed and pest management. Even though it is widely recognized that cover crops ...

  3. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.327 Cover. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c), (e), (f), and (g) of this section, each buried transmission line must be installed with a minimum cover as follows: Location Normal... of a transmission line or main with the minimum cover, the transmission line or main may be...

  4. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.327 Cover. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c), (e), (f), and (g) of this section, each buried transmission line must be installed with a minimum cover as follows: Location Normal... of a transmission line or main with the minimum cover, the transmission line or main may be...

  5. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but can also be caused by fungi. Hospital construction. Hospital staff do everything they can to prevent ... patients staying at hospitals where there is ongoing construction or renovation. 5 This is thought to be ...

  6. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  7. Does health plan generosity enhance hospital market power?

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

    2015-12-01

    We test whether the generosity of employer-sponsored health insurance facilitates the exercise of market power by hospitals. We construct indices of health plan generosity and the price and volume of hospital services using data from Truven MarketScan for 601 counties from 2001 to 2007. We use variation in the industry and union status of covered workers within a county over time to identify the causal effects of generosity. Although OLS estimates fail to reject the hypothesis that generosity facilitates the exercise of hospital market power, IV estimates show a statistically significant and economically important positive effect of plan generosity on hospital prices in uncompetitive markets, but not in competitive markets. Our results suggest that most of the aggregate effect of hospital market structure on prices found in previous work may be coming from areas with generous plans.

  8. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms.

  9. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAH Conditions of Participation . What are the location requirements for CAH status? Critical Access Hospitals must be ... clinic that does not meet the CAH distance requirements? As of January 1, 2008, all CAHs, including ...

  10. Objections to hospital philosophers.

    PubMed Central

    Ruddick, W; Finn, W

    1985-01-01

    Like morally sensitive hospital staff, philosophers resist routine simplification of morally complex cases. Like hospital clergy, they favour reflective and principled decision-making. Like hospital lawyers, they refine and extend the language we use to formulate and defend our complex decisions. But hospital philosophers are not redundant: they have a wider range of principles and categories and a sharper eye for self-serving presuppositions and implicit contradictions within our practices. As semi-outsiders, they are often best able to take an 'external point of view,' unburdened by routine, details, and departmental loyalties. Their clarifications can temporarily disrupt routine, but can eventually improve staff morale, hence team practice and patient welfare. PMID:3981573

  11. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed? Todd says that there is no standard definition for hospital beds, a fact that consumers shopping ... in retail stores that don’t meet the definition of medical devices under the law, but which ...

  12. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms. PMID:1743965

  13. Home versus hospital confinement

    PubMed Central

    Barry, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    The case for hospital rather than home delivery has been powerfully argued, especially in and since the Report of the Peel Committee. Nevertheless, evidence of comparison with other countries, notably the Netherlands, suggests the choice is not necessarily simple. Some general practitioner units are now reporting perinatal mortality rates which are consistently lower than those of specialist units, and recent statistical analyses suggest that the presence of more high risk cases in consultant units does not explain this. The only big controlled home-versus-hospital trial did not lead to a significantly lower perinatal mortality rate in the hospital group. The onus of proof now seems to lie with those who advocate 100 per cent hospital confinement. PMID:7373581

  14. Antimicrobial Stewardship: The Need to Cover All Bases.

    PubMed

    Friedman, N Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has necessitated an approach to guide the use of antibiotics. The necessity to guide antimicrobial use via stewardship has never been more urgent. The decline in anti-infective innovation and the failure of currently available antimicrobials to treat some serious infections forces clinicians to change those behaviors that drive antimicrobial resistance. The majority of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs function in acute-care hospitals, however, hospitals are only one setting where antibiotics are prescribed. Antimicrobial use is also high in residential aged care facilities and in the community. Prescribing in aged care is influenced by the fact that elderly residents have lowered immunity, are susceptible to infection and are frequently colonized with multi-resistant organisms. While in the community, prescribers are faced with public misconceptions about the effectiveness of antibiotics for many upper respiratory tract illnesses. AMS programs in all of these locations must be sustainable over a long period of time in order to be effective. A future with effective antimicrobials to treat bacterial infection will depend on AMS covering all of these bases. This review discusses AMS in acute care hospitals, aged care and the community and emphasizes that AMS is critical to patient safety and relies on government, clinician and community engagement.

  15. Wheelspace windage cover plate for turbine

    DOEpatents

    Lathrop, Norman Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Windage cover plates are secured between the wheels and spacer of a turbine rotor to prevent hot flow path gas ingestion into the wheelspace cavities. Each cover plate includes a linear, axially extending body curved circumferentially with a radially outwardly directed wall at one axial end. The wall defines a axially opening recess for receiving a dovetail lug. The cover plate includes an axially extending tongue received in a circumferential groove of the spacer. The cover plate is secured with the tongue in the groove and dovetail lug in the recess. Lap joints between circumferentially adjacent cover plates are provided.

  16. Managing diversity in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Sullivan, D B

    1993-01-01

    Hospital work force diversity, although potentially a source of creativity and improved problem solving, is often a source of political strife and the mistreatment of people based on their identification with one or another of the diverse groups that are employed in hospitals. Factors linked to these phenomena are discussed and are the basis for suggestions about how administrators can deal with the organizational pathologies that are often associated with unmanaged work force diversity.

  17. [Hospital organizational structure].

    PubMed

    Bittar, O J

    1994-01-01

    The basic point for an Institution to work is the existence of a definite organizational structure that puts together similar areas allowing decisions and the operationalization of different tasks. Knowledge and analysis of structures of private and public hospitals and a bibliography review about the issue is the purpose of this paper. Suggestions are given about the elaboration of small structures and the utilization of matrix management in order to accomplish the hospitals objectives.

  18. Organizational leadership in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Longest, B B; Darr, K; Rakich, J S

    1993-01-01

    Hospitals face very dynamic environments and must meet diverse needs in the communities they serve and respond to multiple expectations imposed by their stakeholders. Coupled with these variables, the fact that leadership in these organizations is a shared phenomenon makes organizational leadership in them very complicated. An integrative overview of the organizational leadership role of CEOs in hospitals is presented, and determinants of success in playing this role are discussed.

  19. Internal combustion engine timing chain cover

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, A.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine end and timing chain cover for a multi-cylinder, automotive vehicle type engine having a generally horizontally arranged engine block with a forward end and upper and lower portions, and a generally horizontally extending crankshaft with a forward end portion, and a timing chain mechanism on the block forward end above crankshaft: It comprises: a unitary, a cast metal, dish-like, cover having a forward wall surrounded by an integral edge wall shaped to fit over and mount upon the forward end of the engine block with the cover forming an enclosed cavity at the front end of the engine and with the cover cavity adapted to receive and enclose the engine timing chain mechanism portions located on the engine forward end; the cover having a hole formed in its lower portion in alignment with the engine crankshaft, and with the engine crankshaft forward end portion extending through the hole and being surrounded by a seal; the seal being mounted within the hole in the cover, within an open, rabbit-like groove surrounding the hold and opening forwardly of the cover, so that the seal may be removed in a forward direction relative to the engine and replaced without removing the cover when the cover is mounted upon the block with the crankshaft extending therethrough; and bolt receiving openings formed on the cover edge wall through which mounting bolts may be positioned for fastening the cover upon the engine.

  20. Cogeneration for hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    With health care costs on the rise, hospitals are looking for ways to reduce operating expenses-especially utility bills. But hospitals, more than anyone else, need a continuous source of electricity, heating and air conditioning. They cannot turn off medical equipment or climate control systems in the name of energy conservation. Hospital Corporation of America (HCA), with the help of the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has found a way to supply affordable and efficient power to a mid-size hospital in Houston, Texas. A 500-kilowatt (kw) gasfired cogeneration system, sold as a package, is now being field-tested at the Medical Center Del Oro, a 258-bed hospital facility. The cogeneration system, which began operating last month, will supply the medical center with 145 tons of cooling (or 2.3 MMBtu/hour space heating) and 500,000 Btu/hour for water heating, in addition to the 500 kw of electricity. A Caterpillar continuous-duty turbocharged gas-fueled engine serves as the prime mover, and heat is recovered from its exhaust and from water used to cool the engine. A Trane single-effect absorption chiller supplies chilled water for air conditioning the hospital.

  1. Financing hospital disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and response have gained increased attention in the United States as a result of terrorism and disaster threats. However, funding of hospital preparedness, especially surge capacity, has lagged behind other preparedness priorities. Only a small portion of the money allocated for national preparedness is directed toward health care, and hospitals receive very little of that. Under current policy, virtually the entire funding stream for hospital preparedness comes from general tax revenues. Medical payers (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance) directly fund little, if any, of the current bill. Funding options to improve preparedness include increasing the current federal grants allocated to hospitals, using payer fees or a tax to subsidize preparedness, and financing other forms of expansion capability, such as mobile hospitals. Alternatively, the status quo of marginal preparedness can be maintained. In any event, achieving higher levels of preparedness likely will take the combined commitment of the hospital industry, public and private payers, and federal, state, and local governments. Ultimately, the costs of preparedness will be borne by the public in the form of taxes, higher healthcare costs, or through the acceptance of greater risk.

  2. Sisters in Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh-Braam, A H

    1985-11-01

    This study focuses on hospital sisters in 30 Dutch hospitals. The so-called role-set approach has been adopted. In this approach the sisters are the focal persons. Direct superiors, specialists, registered nurses and student nurses acted as role-senders. The possible number of respondents is 600 (120 of each group). The response of hospital sisters is 100%, that of role-senders 88%. The study started out as an attempt to collect background information on the causes of wastage of sisters. High wastage rates are generally regarded as an indication of an unfavourable working environment. Since hospital sisters occupy a key position in hospitals, the ward problems will be studied from their angle. Although wastage rates have dropped recently, it does not necessarily follow that the working environment has improved. Wastage is known to act as a safety valve, thus allowing tensions to resolve. The threat of unemployment clogs this outlet, which increases the tensions on the hospital ward. Data from the study show that work overload is one of the major stress factors for sisters. Analyses demonstrated that there exists a relationship between work overload and tensions with the management and direct superiors, tensions in job execution, irritableness on the ward, low self-esteem, health complaints and psychological condition. Sisters with an excessive job involvement refer to work overload more often than their moderate colleagues. There is a relationship between an unfavourable working environment and irritableness of sisters.

  3. Tight margins lead hospitals to cost accounting systems.

    PubMed

    Nemes, J

    1990-12-17

    Hospital margins are getting tighter, and healthcare executives are realizing that they can't afford not to know whether payments for care are covering their costs. And they're realizing that without some type of cost accounting system, they probably don't have a true understanding of what their costs are.

  4. Health care quality in NHS hospitals.

    PubMed

    Youssef, F N; Nel, D; Bovaird, T

    1996-01-01

    Hospitals provide the same type of service, but they do not all provide the same quality of service. No one knows this better than patients. Reports the results of a market research exercise initiated to ascertain the different factors which patients of health care identify as being necessary to provide error-free service quality in the NHS hospitals. To measure patients' satisfaction with NHS hospitals, the internationally-used market research technique called SERVQUAL was used in order to measure patients' expectations before admission, record their perceptions after discharge from the hospital, and then to close the gap between them. This technique compares expectations with perceptions of service received across five broad dimensions of service quality, namely: tangibility; reliability; responsiveness; assurance; and empathy. This analysis covered 174 patients who had completed the SERVQUAL questionnaire, including patients who had had treatment in surgical, orthopaedic, spinal injury, medicinal, dental and other specialties in the West Midlands region. Recorded the average weighted NHS service quality score overall for the five dimensions as significantly negative.

  5. Health care quality in NHS hospitals.

    PubMed

    Youssef, F N; Nel, D; Bovaird, T

    1996-01-01

    Hospitals provide the same type of service, but they do not all provide the same quality of service. No one knows this better than patients. Reports the results of a market research exercise initiated to ascertain the different factors which patients of health care identify as being necessary to provide error-free service quality in the NHS hospitals. To measure patients' satisfaction with NHS hospitals, the internationally-used market research technique called SERVQUAL was used in order to measure patients' expectations before admission, record their perceptions after discharge from the hospital, and then to close the gap between them. This technique compares expectations with perceptions of service received across five broad dimensions of service quality, namely: tangibility; reliability; responsiveness; assurance; and empathy. This analysis covered 174 patients who had completed the SERVQUAL questionnaire, including patients who had had treatment in surgical, orthopaedic, spinal injury, medicinal, dental and other specialties in the West Midlands region. Recorded the average weighted NHS service quality score overall for the five dimensions as significantly negative. PMID:10156537

  6. [Communication among hospital leaders].

    PubMed

    Haberey-Knuessi, Véronique; Heeb, Jean-Luc; De Morgan, Paula Emilie

    2013-12-01

    New management styles imposed on hospital institutions in recent years, have fundamentally changed the organization of the latter. Many texts discuss the consequences, specifically on the field of communication. The aim of this study was to understand the real impact of new management methods on communication by managers in hospital, but also on care teams in termes of satisfaction and/or stress. This two-year study was conducted among 900 executives in hospitals in Western Switzerland using a mixed methodology. A first phase of questionnaires highlighted the problematic areas, while a second phase in the form of organized group interviews in each hospital, had the objective of achieving a better understanding of the relationship between management and communication. The latter proved to be particularly significant in terms of results, and this is the one we focused on in this article.These results indeed show that a crucial role is given to communication by carers, and, at the same time a lessening of the time devoted to relationships, both among peers and with patients. Frustration then arises, which is not without consequences both for the management of patients and the institutions themselves. It is by means of these results that awareness is raised of the omnipresence of communication at all levels and the major advantages that positive dynamic supports. And, on the contrary, of the serious problems which may arise from management practice that do not give due importance to the dimension of communication, present in all sectors of the hospital. PMID:24490450

  7. Utilization of hospital resources.

    PubMed

    Black, C D; Roos, N P; Burchill, C A

    1995-12-01

    A population-based approach was used to analyze the utilization patterns of hospital care by Manitoba residents during the fiscal year 1991/1992. Patterns were analyzed for eight administrative regions, with use assigned to the patient's region of residence, regardless of the location of the hospitalization. Regional boundaries consistent with those used for presentation of data on health status and socioeconomic risk permitted integration of findings across the Population Health Information System. Marked differences in acute hospital use were found. Residents of the urban Winnipeg ("good health") region had the lowest rates of use of acute care overall, and northern rural ("poor health") regions had significantly higher rates of use. However, almost one half of hospital days by Winnipeg residents were used in long-stay care (60+ days), while rural residents were more likely to use short-stay hospital care. Despite a concentration of surgical specialists in Winnipeg, there were only small regional differences in overall rates of surgery. PMID:7500670

  8. Development of a resettable, flexible aperture cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A flexible aperture cover and latch were developed for the Thermal Ion Detection Experiment (TIDE). The latch utilized a high-output paraffin (HOP) linear motor to supply the force to operate the latch. The initial approach for the cover was to use a heat-treated, coiled strip of 0.05 mm (.002-inch)-thick beryllium-copper as the cover. Development test results showed that one end of the cover developed a trajectory during release that threatened to impact against adjacent instruments. An alternative design utilizing constant force springs and a flexible, metallized Kapton cover was then tested. Results from development tests, microgravity tests, and lessons learned during the development of the aperture cover are discussed.

  9. A new porous polyetherurethane wound covering.

    PubMed

    Bruin, P; Jonkman, M F; Meijer, H J; Pennings, A J

    1990-02-01

    A polyetherurethane (PEU) wound covering with non-interconnected micropores up to approximately 5 microns has been prepared by means of a phase inversion process. This highly elastic, very thin (15-20 microns), pliable wound covering showed good, immediate adherence to wet wound surfaces and high water vapor permeability, but was impermeable to bacteria. In guinea pigs epidermal wound healing of partial-thickness wounds under PEU wound coverings was accelerated compared with uncovered controls and an occlusive wound covering, OpSite. Water in liquid form or wound exudate could not leak through the PEU covering, but its high water vapor permeability induced concentration of the wound exudate into a jellylike clot layer, which apparently accelerated reepithelialization. The main conclusion from a clinical study on 20 donor sites was that the use of the PEU covering reduced pain, besides prevention of fluid retention. No differences in epithelialization were seen in comparison to tulle gras-treated wounds.

  10. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  11. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  12. The Cover Time of Cartesian Product Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohammed; Cooper, Colin; Radzik, Tomasz

    Let P = G□H be the cartesian product of graphs G,H. We relate the cover time COV[P] of P to the cover times of its factors. When one of the factors is in some sense larger than the other, its cover time dominates, and can become of the same order as the cover time of the product as a whole. Our main theorem effectively gives conditions for when this holds. The probabilistic technique which we introduce, based on the blanket time, is more general and may be of independent interest, as might some of our lemmas.

  13. Hospitals as interpretation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

    1991-01-01

    In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

  14. Internal auditing in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization.

  15. Disproportionate-share hospital payment reductions may threaten the financial stability of safety-net hospitals.

    PubMed

    Neuhausen, Katherine; Davis, Anna C; Needleman, Jack; Brook, Robert H; Zingmond, David; Roby, Dylan H

    2014-06-01

    Safety-net hospitals rely on disproportionate-share hospital (DSH) payments to help cover uncompensated care costs and underpayments by Medicaid (known as Medicaid shortfalls). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) anticipates that insurance expansion will increase safety-net hospitals' revenues and will reduce DSH payments accordingly. We examined the impact of the ACA's Medicaid DSH reductions on California public hospitals' financial stability by estimating how total DSH costs (uncompensated care costs and Medicaid shortfalls) will change as a result of insurance expansion and the offsetting DSH reductions. Decreases in uncompensated care costs resulting from the ACA insurance expansion may not match the act's DSH reductions because of the high number of people who will remain uninsured, low Medicaid reimbursement rates, and medical cost inflation. Taking these three factors into account, we estimate that California public hospitals' total DSH costs will increase from $2.044 billion in 2010 to $2.363-$2.503 billion in 2019, with unmet DSH costs of $1.381-$1.537 billion.

  16. 42 CFR 418.202 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures necessary for pain control or acute or chronic symptom management. Inpatient care may also be... terminal illness are covered. Appliances may include covered durable medical equipment as described in... or management of the patient's terminal illness. Equipment is provided by the hospice for use in...

  17. 42 CFR 418.202 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... procedures necessary for pain control or acute or chronic symptom management. Inpatient care may also be... terminal illness are covered. Appliances may include covered durable medical equipment as described in... or management of the patient's terminal illness. Equipment is provided by the hospice for use in...

  18. 42 CFR 418.202 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... procedures necessary for pain control or acute or chronic symptom management. Inpatient care may also be... terminal illness are covered. Appliances may include covered durable medical equipment as described in... or management of the patient's terminal illness. Equipment is provided by the hospice for use in...

  19. 42 CFR 418.202 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... procedures necessary for pain control or acute or chronic symptom management. Inpatient care may also be... terminal illness are covered. Appliances may include covered durable medical equipment as described in... or management of the patient's terminal illness. Equipment is provided by the hospice for use in...

  20. Urban land cover classification using hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, G.; Ahamed, J. Mohammed; Hebbar, R.; Raj, U.

    2014-11-01

    Urban land cover classification using remote sensing data is quite challenging due to spectrally and spatially complex urban features. The present study describes the potential use of hyperspectral data for urban land cover classification and its comparison with multispectral data. EO-1 Hyperion data of October 05, 2012 covering parts of Bengaluru city was analyzed for land cover classification. The hyperspectral data was initially corrected for atmospheric effects using MODTRAN based FLAASH module and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation was applied to reduce data dimensionality. The threshold Eigen value of 1.76 in VNIR region and 1.68 in the SWIR region was used for selection of 145 stable bands. Advanced per pixel classifiers viz., Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used for general urban land cover classification. Accuracy assessment of the classified data revealed that SVM was quite superior (82.4 per cent) for urban land cover classification as compared to SAM (67.1 per cent). Selecting training samples using end members significantly improved the classification accuracy by 20.1 per cent in SVM. The land cover classification using multispectral LISS-III data using SVM showed lower accuracy mainly due to limitation of spectral resolution. The study indicated the requirement of additional narrow bands for achieving reasonable classification accuracy of urban land cover. Future research is focused on generating hyperspectral library for different urban features.

  1. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... soil Consolidated rock Inches (Millimeters) Class 1 locations 30 (762) 18 (457) Class 2, 3, and 4... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation.... (d) A main may be installed with less than 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover if the law of...

  2. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... soil Consolidated rock Inches (Millimeters) Class 1 locations 30 (762) 18 (457) Class 2, 3, and 4... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation.... (d) A main may be installed with less than 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover if the law of...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.14 - Covered employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., color, national origin, or sex (when covered by section 16 and section 401) in its employment practices... provide work experience which contributes to the education or training of the individuals involved; (iii... origin, or sex (when covered by section 16 or section 401) in such employment practices tends to...

  4. 49 CFR 15.7 - Covered persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Covered persons. 15.7 Section 15.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.7 Covered persons. Persons subject to the requirements of part 15 are: (a) Each airport operator and...

  5. 42 CFR 6.4 - Covered individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered individuals. 6.4 Section 6.4 Public Health... COVERAGE OF CERTAIN GRANTEES AND INDIVIDUALS § 6.4 Covered individuals. (a) Officers and employees of a... if they meet the requirements of section 224(g)(5) of the Act. (c) An individual physician or...

  6. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  7. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  8. AsMA journal covers, a history.

    PubMed

    Day, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    The cover of our journal has changed quite often over the years. As we look forward to changing the name and design of the journal, it seems appropriate to reflect on the previous journal titles and covers. A brief history follows.

  9. Roadmap to increased cover crop adoption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are increasingly utilized by farmers and promoted by agronomists for the multiple benefits they contribute to soil and crop management systems. Yet, only a small percentage of cropland is planted to cover crops. In June of 2012, the National Wildlife Federation brought together 36 of the...

  10. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  11. 7 CFR 353.4 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products covered. 353.4 Section 353.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT CERTIFICATION § 353.4 Products covered. Plants and plant products...

  12. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  13. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  14. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  15. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  16. 16 CFR 700.1 - Products covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products covered. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.1 Products covered. (a)...

  17. Landfill Gas Effects on Evapotranspirative Landfill Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, M. A.; Mattson, E.; Ankeny, M.; Kelsey, J.

    2005-05-01

    The performance of an evapotranspirative landfill cover can be adversely affected by transport of landfill gases to the plant root zone. Healthy plant communities are critical to the success and effectiveness of these vegetated landfill covers. Poor vegetative cover can result in reduced transpiration, increased percolation, and increased erosion regardless of the thickness of the cover. Visual inspections of landfill covers indicate that vegetation-free areas are not uncommon at municipal waste landfills. Data from soil profiles beneath these areas suggest that anaerobic conditions in the plant-rooting zone are controlling plant distribution. On the same landfill, aerobic conditions exist at similar depths beneath well-vegetated areas. The movement of methane and carbon dioxide, generated by degradation of organic wastes, into the overlying soil cover displaces oxygen in the root zone. Monitoring data from landfills in semi-arid areas indicate that barometric pumping can result in hours of anaerobic conditions in the root zone. Microbial consumption of oxygen in the root zone reduces the amount of oxygen available for plant root respiration but consumption of oxygen and methane also produce water as a reaction byproduct. This biogenic water production can be on the order of centimeters of water per year which, while increasing water availability, also has a negative feedback on transport of landfill gases through the cover. Accounting for these processes can improve evapotranspirative landfill cover design at other sites.

  18. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  1. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  2. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section...

  3. Timely precipitation drives cover crop outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops can expand ecosystem services, though sound management recommendations for their use within semi-arid cropping systems is currently constrained by a lack of information. This study was conducted to determine agroecosystem responses to late-summer seeded cover crops under no-till managem...

  4. Hospital structure and consumer satisfaction.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, G V

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between hospital structural characteristics and patient satisfaction with hospital care. Teaching hospitals and private hospitals were expected to receive higher ratings of patient satisfaction than were nonteaching and government-controlled hospitals, because they generally are reputed to be technologically superior. Results show that, in general, most patients are satisfied with their hospital stays, but they are clearly more dissatisfied with their stays in teaching hospitals. Although a number of other correlates of patient satisfaction with the hospital stay are identified, no measure succeeds in reducing to insignificance the strong relationship between teaching status and dissatisfaction. Some suggestions are made as to why teaching hospital receive relatively poor evaluations from their patients. PMID:7228714

  5. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  6. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  7. Hospital restructuring and burnout.

    PubMed

    Greenglass, Esther R; Burke, Ronald J

    2002-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations are experiencing changes as a result of extensive downsizing, restructuring, and merging. In Canada, government-sponsored medicine has been affected as hospitals have merged or closed, reducing essential medical services and resulting in extensive job loss for hospital workers, particularly nurses. Hospital restructuring has also resulted in greater stress and job insecurity in nurses. The escalation of stressors has created burnout in nurses. This study examines predictors of burnout in nurses experiencing hospital restructuring using the MBI-General Survey which yields scores on three scales: Emotional exhaustion, Cynicism, and Professional efficacy. Multiple regressions were conducted where each burnout scale was the criterion and stressors (e.g., amount of work, use of generic workers to do nurses' work), restructuring effects, social support, and individual resources (e.g., control coping, self-efficacy, prior organizational commitment) were predictors. There were differences in the amount of variance accounted for in the burnout components by stressors and resources. Stressors contributed most to emotional exhaustion and least to professional efficacy. Individual resources were more likely to contribute to professional efficacy and least to emotional exhaustion. Stressors and resources accounted for approximately equal amounts of variance in cynicism. Three conclusions were drawn. First, present findings parallel others by showing that individual coping patterns contribute to professional efficacy. Second, emotional exhaustion was found to be the prototype of stress. Third, prior organizational commitment, self-efficacy, and control coping resulted in lower burnout.

  8. Planning Australia's hospital workforce.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mary; Gavel, Paul; Conn, Warwick

    2002-01-01

    Growing government support has been evident during the past decade for macro-level workforce planning to ensure that future populations have access to appropriate health care services. Population ageing is impacting on workforce requirements and on workforce supply within Australia and internationally. Changes in financing and the organisation of health services are impacting on the availability of training and on the quality of working life. The age and gender profile and career expectations of young Australians are changing. These factors are all adding to the importance and complexity of workforce planning. This paper draws on data from various sources to describe Australia's hospital workforce, to explore supply-side workforce trends and to discuss some contemporary issues of concern to policy makers and workforce planners. The paper finds that in recent years there has been a 3 per cent decline in the number of full time equivalent staff in public hospitals, while the number in the private hospital workforce has increased by 28 per cent. The paper concludes that, nationally, there are serious limitations in the data available to describe and monitor the hospital workforce and that there is a need to remedy this situation.

  9. Hospital Library Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    Although this handbook is addressed primarily to the hopital administrator, it contains material of interest to the librarian as well. Basic requirements for providing good library services to hospital staff are identified as: (1) well chosen and well trained manpower; (2) a current collection of information materials; and (3) appropriate space in…

  10. In-hospital resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Christine

    2016-09-21

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article outlined the response sequence required for cardiac arrest in an in-hospital environment and discussed effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation. PMID:27654563

  11. Incarceration and hospital care.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D

    2006-01-01

    Risk for jail or prison recidivism is well documented among incarcerated individuals with schizophrenia. However, it is less clear that risk is also high for psychiatric hospital readmission after accounting for mediating influences such as psychopathology severity, functioning level, substance misuse, and demographic characteristics. Relative to counterparts without prior time in jail, this study therefore assessed whether formerly incarcerated individuals with schizophrenia were more likely to repeatedly use hospital care after controlling for level of functioning and symptomatology. Among 315 inpatients, former inmates had a greater mean number of previous hospital stays than other patients (t = -2.13; df = 305; p = 0.03) and were more likely to visit the emergency room or be rehospitalized within 3 months of discharge (chi2 = 8.83; df = 1; p = 0.003). They were twice as likely to be readmitted, moreover, even after accounting in logistic regression for age, sex, race, global functioning, psychopathology severity, alcohol abuse or dependence, and drug abuse or dependence (OR = .49; CI = .26-.95). Implications for community care are discussed, and the suggestion is made that jail diversion programs should be renamed and refocused as "jail and hospital diversion." PMID:16462553

  12. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value. PMID:17077707

  13. Cost characteristics of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smet, Mike

    2002-09-01

    Modern hospitals are complex multi-product organisations. The analysis of a hospital's production and/or cost structure should therefore use the appropriate techniques. Flexible functional forms based on the neo-classical theory of the firm seem to be most suitable. Using neo-classical cost functions implicitly assumes minimisation of (variable) costs given that input prices and outputs are exogenous. Local and global properties of flexible functional forms and short-run versus long-run equilibrium are further issues that require thorough investigation. In order to put the results based on econometric estimations of cost functions in the right perspective, it is important to keep these considerations in mind when using flexible functional forms. The more recent studies seem to agree that hospitals generally do not operate in their long-run equilibrium (they tend to over-invest in capital (capacity and equipment)) and that it is therefore appropriate to estimate a short-run variable cost function. However, few studies explicitly take into account the implicit assumptions and restrictions embedded in the models they use. An alternative method to explain differences in costs uses management accounting techniques to identify the cost drivers of overhead costs. Related issues such as cost-shifting and cost-adjusting behaviour of hospitals and the influence of market structure on competition, prices and costs are also discussed shortly. PMID:12220092

  14. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  15. Peptic ulcer in hospital

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, H. Daintree

    1962-01-01

    This study corresponds to an estimated 142,250 admissions for peptic ulcer to the wards of National Health Service hospitals in England and Wales during the two years 1956 and 1957. It presents a picture of the incidence and mortality of complications and surgical treatment throughout England and Wales. PMID:14036965

  16. Hospital and outpatient care for psychotic patients during the last three decades. Subsequent hospital and outpatient treatment of psychotic patients hospitalized for the first time in 1949--50, 1959--60 or 1969--70.

    PubMed

    Salokangas, R K

    1980-07-01

    The study deals with the development in the extent of hospital treatment and trends concerning outpatient visits for psychotics in Turku hospitalized for the first time in 1949--50 (period of shock therapy), 1959--60 (period of neuroleptics) or 1969--70 (period of intensified outpatient treatment). The bed capacity for psychiatric patients increased in Turku in the 1950-s, but has declined slowly since then. The number of hospitalized cases nevertheless continued to rise up to the 1970's. The number of caretaking personnel in the outpatient sector has increased five-fold and the extent of outpatient visits 20-fold over the 25 years covered by the study. After the introduction of neuroleptics, first hospitalizations became shorter, as fewer and fewer patients remained in long-term hospital treatment. At the same time the annual extent of hospital treatment declined, whereas rehospitalizations became more frequent. Along with intensified outpatient treatment first hospitalizations became still shorter, but the total need for hospital treatment was not reduced. During intensified outpatient treatment, rehospitalization was rapid and, at first, frequent; subsequently rehospitalizations became less frequent compared to the period of neuroleptics. In the 1970's intensive outpatient treatment provided immediately after the first hospital stay appears to be most clearly associated with a reduction in the number of hospital treatment days of schizophrenics. In the case of psychoses of old age an increased extent of outpatient treatment did not lead to a decline in the need for hospital treatment. PMID:7004091

  17. Energy saving cover for mobile home

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, M.L.

    1980-06-10

    An insulating and weatherproof protective cover adapted to protect and insulate a mobile home has an outer layer of waterproof material and an inner layer preferably of foam-type insulating material bonded to the outer layer for enclosing the roof and side walls of a mobile home. Openings are cut in the sides to permit the opening and closing of windows and doors. Transparent coverings may be provided which roll up and away from the window openings. Door panels may be provided and hinged from the sides of the mobile home cover to insulate the door. Tiedowns are provided along the lower edge of the cover and may be used to secure the cover to the undercarriage of the mobile home or its supporting pad.

  18. Reducing hospital parking area crime: strategies that work.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    For hospitals, crime in parking garages and lots--ranging from assaults and murder to car theft and car break-ins--is reported second only to Emergency Department areas in the number of incidents. And, in recent reviews of lawsuits against hospitals for negligent or inadequate security, parking areas rank first in incidents that generate such actions. In our most recent special report on dealing with hospital parking area crime (see the June 1997 issue), we focused on the use of camera surveillance and improved lighting to reduce such crime. In this report, which will also cover recent developments in those strategies, we will focus on two Omaha, NE, hospitals which stress deployment of manpower and education of employees to achieve results.

  19. [Leadership in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Current concepts in leadership and governance on the level of supervisory board, management and departments are often considered as insufficient to cope with the profound structural change which actually takes place in the German health care system. While vertical and horizontal disconnecting is typical of the professional bureaucracy of hospitals, transition from functional to divisional structure further increases this risk. Accordingly, medical experts are oriented towards their professional peers and patient care on the one side; on the other side the management gets isolated and looses operative and strategic control. Several studies provide evidence for the relevance of role models to serve as agents of change, which are now developed into the concept of "Clinical Governance": evidence-based medicine, guidelines, continuous quality improvement, safety culture, resource accountability and organisational learning. The present situation makes it necessary to extend this conception, which focuses on the departmental level in an organisation with divisional features, to one of "Clinical Corporate Governance". This term, which also includes supervisory structures and the management board and is relevant for the total hospital and company, respectively, is based on the corporate governance concept. Inside the hospital, the management and the heads of the departments have to agree that (1) experts really need to be integrated into the decision process, and that (2) the outcomes of the entire hospital have to be regarded as equal or superior to the aims of a single department. The public image of the hospital should be one of a strong and reliable partner in health care and health care business on a local, regional and national level. Members of the supervisory board should clearly put corporate aspects above political and other implications and pay attention to personal independence from the leaders of the medical departments.

  20. Improving Hospital Discharge Time

    PubMed Central

    El-Eid, Ghada R.; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of patients left their room before noon in the postintervention period (P < 0.001), though there was no statistical difference in before noon discharge. Hospital LOS dropped from 3.4 to 3.1 days postintervention (P < 0.001). ED mean LOS of patients admitted to the hospital was significantly lower in the postintervention period (6.9 ± 7.8 vs 5.9 ± 7.7 hours; P < 0.001). Six Sigma methodology can be an effective change management tool to improve discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific. PMID:25816029

  1. [Leadership in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Current concepts in leadership and governance on the level of supervisory board, management and departments are often considered as insufficient to cope with the profound structural change which actually takes place in the German health care system. While vertical and horizontal disconnecting is typical of the professional bureaucracy of hospitals, transition from functional to divisional structure further increases this risk. Accordingly, medical experts are oriented towards their professional peers and patient care on the one side; on the other side the management gets isolated and looses operative and strategic control. Several studies provide evidence for the relevance of role models to serve as agents of change, which are now developed into the concept of "Clinical Governance": evidence-based medicine, guidelines, continuous quality improvement, safety culture, resource accountability and organisational learning. The present situation makes it necessary to extend this conception, which focuses on the departmental level in an organisation with divisional features, to one of "Clinical Corporate Governance". This term, which also includes supervisory structures and the management board and is relevant for the total hospital and company, respectively, is based on the corporate governance concept. Inside the hospital, the management and the heads of the departments have to agree that (1) experts really need to be integrated into the decision process, and that (2) the outcomes of the entire hospital have to be regarded as equal or superior to the aims of a single department. The public image of the hospital should be one of a strong and reliable partner in health care and health care business on a local, regional and national level. Members of the supervisory board should clearly put corporate aspects above political and other implications and pay attention to personal independence from the leaders of the medical departments. PMID:19545081

  2. Direct admission to the hospital: An alternative approach to hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Leyenaar, JoAnna K; Lagu, Tara; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate use of emergency departments (EDs) is a focus of national healthcare reform efforts, and patients requiring hospital admission account for a substantial proportion of ED utilization. Despite this, little attention has been paid to evaluating direct admission to the hospital as an alternative to hospital admissions beginning in the ED. In this Perspective, we discuss the role of hospital medicine in the changing epidemiology of hospital admissions, the potential risks and benefits of direct admission to the hospital, and the need for research to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this admission approach. We propose that transitions of care research and quality improvement, historically focused on hospital-to-home transitions, be expanded to address transitions into the hospital. PMID:26588666

  3. Hospital-acquired infections - when are hospitals legally liable?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, David

    2012-04-12

    Hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial infections) are acquired in healthcare settings by patients admitted for reasons unrelated to the infection or not previously infected when admitted to the facility. Liability for hospital-acquired infections depends on whether the hospital: (i) has introduced best practice infection control measures; (ii) has implemented best practice infection control measures; or (iii) will be vicariously liable for negligent or intentional failures by staff to comply with the infection control measures implemented. A hospital and hospital administrators may be held directly liable for not introducing or implementing best practice infection control measures, resulting in harm to patients. The hospital may also be held vicariously liable where patients have been harmed because hospital staff negligently or intentionally failed to comply with the infection control measures that have been implemented by the hospital, during the course and scope of their employment.

  4. Going all digital in a university hospital: a unified large-scale PACS for multiple departments and hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Raimund

    2001-08-01

    In 1997, a large PACS was first introduced at Innsbruck University Hospital in the context of a new traumatology centre. In the subsequent years, this initial PACS setting covering only one department was expanded to most of the hospital campus, with currently some 250 viewing stations attached. Constantly connecting new modalities and viewing stations created the demand for several redesigns from the original PACS configuration to cope with the increasing data load. We give an account of these changes necessary to develop a multi hospital PACS and the considerations that lead us there. Issues of personnel for running a large scale PACS are discussed and we give an outlook to the new information systems currently under development for archiving and communication of general medical imaging data and for simple telemedicine networking between several large university hospitals.

  5. Management of hospitals solid waste in Khartoum State.

    PubMed

    Saad, Suhair A Gayoum

    2013-10-01

    This research had been conducted during year 2012 to review existing data on hospital waste management for some of Khartoum town hospitals and to try to produce appropriate proposals acceptable for waste management and final treatment methods. The overall status of hospital waste management in Khartoum has been assessed through direct visits and designated questionnaires. Eight main hospitals were covered in the study with an overall bed capacity of 2,978. The current waste management practice observed at all studied hospitals was that most of waste, office, general, food, construction debris, and hazardous chemical materials were all mixed together as they are generated, collected, and finally disposed of. Only a small portion of waste in some hospitals (part of potentially infectious, body parts, and sharps) are collected separately and treated in a central incinerator. The estimated value of per bed generation rate in the studied hospitals was found to be 0.87 kg/day, which lies within the range for the low-income countries. In all studied hospitals, it was found that workers were working under very poor unsafe conditions with very low salaries ($35 to $45 per month on average). About 90 % were completely illiterate or had very low education levels. At the national level, no laws considering hospital waste, or even hazardous waste, were found; only some federal general environmental regulations and some procedures from town and city localities for controlling general municipal waste exist. At the hospital level, no policies or rules were found, except in the radiotherapy center, where they manage radioactive wastes under the laws of the Sudanese Atomic Agency. Urgent actions are needed for the remediation and prevention of hazards associated with this type of waste. PMID:23644667

  6. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250{degrees}C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure.

  7. [Hospital clinical ethics committees].

    PubMed

    Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor

    2007-01-01

    The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethical dilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of

  8. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. As a result, these graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.

  9. Astrobiology of Antarctic ice Covered Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, P. T.; Fritsen, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Antarctica contains a number of permanently ice-covered lakes which have often been used as analogs of purported lakes on Mars in the past. Antarctic subglacial lakes, such as Lake Vostok, have also been viewed as excellent analogs for an ice covered ocean on the Jovian moon Europa, and to a lesser extend on Mars. Lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of East Antarctica have ice covers that range from 3 to 20 meters thick. Water salinities range from fresh to hypersaline. The thinner ice-covered lakes have a well-documented ecology that relies on the limited available nutrients and the small amount of light energy that penetrates the ice covers. The thickest ice-covered lake (Lake Vida in Victoria Valley) has a brine beneath 20 m of ice that is 7 times sea water and maintains a temperature below -10 degrees Celsius. This lake is vastly different from the thinner ice-covered lakes in that there is no communication with the atmosphere. The permanent ice cover is so thick, that summer melt waters can not access the sub-ice brine and so the ice grows from the top up, as well as from the bottom down. Brine trapped beneath the ice is believed to be ancient, stranded thousands of years ago when the ice grew thick enough to isolate it from the surface. We view Lake Vida as an excellent analog for the last aquatic ecosystem to have existed on Mars under a planetary cooling. If, as evidence is now increasingly supporting, standing bodies of water existed on Mars in the past, their fate under a cooling would be to go through a stage of permanent ice cover establishment, followed by a thickening of that ice cover until the final stage just prior to a cold extinction would be a Lake Vida-like lake. If dust storms or mass movements covered these ancient lakes, remnants may well be in existence in the subsurface today. A NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) project will drill the Lake Vida ice cover and access the brine and sediments beneath in

  10. Development of integral covers on solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P.; Somberg, H.

    1971-01-01

    The electron-beam technique for evaporating a dielectric material onto solar cells is investigated. A process has been developed which will provide a highly transparent, low stress, 2 mil thick cover capable of withstanding conventional space type qualification tests including humidity, thermal shock, and thermal cycling. The covers have demonstrated the ability to withstand 10 to the 15th power 1 MeV electrons and UV irradiation with minor darkening. Investigation of the cell AR coating has produced a space qualifiable titanium oxide coating which will give an additional 6% current output over similar silicon oxide coated cells when covered by glass.

  11. 77 FR 48733 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definitions of Covered Business Method...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Covered Business Method Patents, 77 FR 7080 (Feb. 10, 2012), to provide rules specific to the transitional... Method Patents, 77 FR 7080 (Feb. 10, 2012) and Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents... Covered Business Method Patents, 77 FR 7080 (Feb. 10, 2012) (notice of proposed rulemaking)...

  12. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  13. [Volgograd military hospital--70 years].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V Ia; Alborov, Z Ts

    2012-01-01

    History of the Volgograd military hospital dates back to July 24, 1941, when on the basis of the regional children's bone tuberculosis sanatorium in Krasnodar was transformed into 2150th military hospital consisted of 240 beds. Since May 1944 relocated in the city of Stalingrad became a garrison hospital. Today the hospital is a multidisciplinary health centre of the Russian Defense Ministry. Annually, the hospital performed at least 3000 surgical procedures, including more than 37%--are complex. In surgery, improved endovideosurgical direction, over 31% of emergency operations performed using this method. Since December 2009 the hospital became a structural division of the District Hospital in 1602 in Rostov on Don. The close connection between the branch and district hospital allows for complex diagnostic situations to consult leading experts, including consultation, thus ensuring the most effective treatment results.

  14. Hanging on the hospital telephone.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jane

    2016-09-21

    When someone dear to you is admitted to hospital in an emergency, you are not in a calm frame of mind. You want news, and fast. But when you call the hospital, the phone just keeps ringing. PMID:27654550

  15. E-procurement in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Julio Villalobos; Orrit, Joan; Villalobos, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the history, current status, advantages of and opposition to the implementation of e-procurement in hospitals and examines the results of its implementation in a psychiatric hospital.

  16. Guide to Choosing a Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... the following and more: • Find hospitals by name, city, county, state, or ZIP code. • Check the results ... by the hospital name, or by ZIP Code, City, State or Territory, or County. • Select General Search, ...

  17. Hospital Preparedness and SARS

    PubMed Central

    Wallington, Tamara; Rutledge, Tim; Mederski, Barbara; Rose, Keith; Kwolek, Sue; McRitchie, Donna; Ali, Azra; Wolff, Bryan; White, Diane; Glassman, Edward; Ofner, Marianna; Low, Don E.; Berger, Lisa; McGeer, Allison; Wong, Tom; Baron, David; Berall, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    On May 23, 2003, Toronto experienced the second phase of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. Ninety cases were confirmed, and >620 potential cases were managed. More than 9,000 persons had contact with confirmed or potential case-patients; many required quarantine. The main hospital involved during the second outbreak was North York General Hospital. We review this hospital’s response to, and management of, this outbreak, including such factors as building preparation and engineering, personnel, departmental workload, policies and documentation, infection control, personal protective equipment, training and education, public health, management and administration, follow-up of SARS patients, and psychological and psychosocial management and research. We also make recommendations for other institutions to prepare for future outbreaks, regardless of their origin. PMID:15200807

  18. Measuring patient-perceived quality of care in US hospitals using Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Jared B; Brownstein, John S; Tuli, Gaurav; Nsoesie, Elaine O; McIver, David J; Rozenblum, Ronen; Wright, Adam; Bourgeois, Florence T; Greaves, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients routinely use Twitter to share feedback about their experience receiving healthcare. Identifying and analysing the content of posts sent to hospitals may provide a novel real-time measure of quality, supplementing traditional, survey-based approaches. Objective To assess the use of Twitter as a supplemental data stream for measuring patient-perceived quality of care in US hospitals and compare patient sentiments about hospitals with established quality measures. Design 404 065 tweets directed to 2349 US hospitals over a 1-year period were classified as having to do with patient experience using a machine learning approach. Sentiment was calculated for these tweets using natural language processing. 11 602 tweets were manually categorised into patient experience topics. Finally, hospitals with ≥50 patient experience tweets were surveyed to understand how they use Twitter to interact with patients. Key results Roughly half of the hospitals in the US have a presence on Twitter. Of the tweets directed toward these hospitals, 34 725 (9.4%) were related to patient experience and covered diverse topics. Analyses limited to hospitals with ≥50 patient experience tweets revealed that they were more active on Twitter, more likely to be below the national median of Medicare patients (p<0.001) and above the national median for nurse/patient ratio (p=0.006), and to be a non-profit hospital (p<0.001). After adjusting for hospital characteristics, we found that Twitter sentiment was not associated with Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) ratings (but having a Twitter account was), although there was a weak association with 30-day hospital readmission rates (p=0.003). Conclusions Tweets describing patient experiences in hospitals cover a wide range of patient care aspects and can be identified using automated approaches. These tweets represent a potentially untapped indicator of quality and may be valuable to

  19. How hospitals approach price transparency.

    PubMed

    Houk, Scott; Cleverley, James O

    2014-09-01

    A survey of finance leaders found that hospitals with lower charges were more likely than other hospitals to emphasize making prices defensible rather than simply transparent. Finance leaders of hospitals with higher charges were more likely to express concern that price transparency would cause a reduction in hospital revenue by forcing them to lower charges. Those respondents said commercial payers likely will have to agree to renegotiate contracts for price transparency to be a financially viable proposition. PMID:25647890

  20. 46 CFR 45.145 - Hatchway covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be at least 4.25 times the maximum stress in the structure calculated with the following assumed...) of this section and the thickness of mild steel plating forming the tops of covers must be at least...

  1. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  2. Land cover mapping from remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. M.; Wong, C. J.; AlSultan, Sultan

    2006-04-01

    Remote sensing data have been widely used for land cover mapping using supervised and unsupervised methods. The produced land cover maps are useful for various applications. This paper examines the use of remote sensing data for land cover mapping over Saudi Arabia. Three supervised classification techniques Maximum Likelihood, ML, Minimum Distance-to-Mean, MDM, and Parallelepiped, P were applied to the imageries to extract the thematic information from the acquired scene by using PCI Geomatica software. Training sites were selected within each scene. This study shows that the ML classifier was the best classifier and produced superior results and achieved a high degree of accuracy. The preliminary analysis gave promising results of land cover mapping over Saudi Arabia by using Landsat TM imageries.

  3. Dust mite-proof pillow cover (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount of dust mites encase mattresses, box springs, and pillows with mite-proof covers. Further methods consist of washing bedding once a week in hot water, and dusting with a wet cloth once a ...

  4. Cyclic covers that are not stably rational

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliot-Thélène, J.-L.; Pirutka, A.

    2016-08-01

    Using methods developed by Kollár, Voisin, ourselves and Totaro, we prove that a cyclic cover of P C^n, n≥ 3, of prime degree p, ramified along a very general hypersurface f(x_0,\\dots , x_n)=0 of degree mp, is not stably rational if m(p-1) . In dimension 3 we recover double covers of P^3 C ramified along a very general surface of degree 4 (Voisin) and double covers of P^3 C ramified along a very general surface of degree 6 (Beauville). We also find double covers of P^4 C ramified along a very general hypersurface of degree 6. This method also enables us to produce examples over a number field.

  5. Childrens Hospital Inservice Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Joan

    A description is provided of a 15-month, in-service nursing education program at Childrens Hospital (Los Angeles, California). The first sections of the paper describe Childrens Hospital and provide a rationale for the hospital-based program. A listing of program goals and objectives is also provided, indicating that the curriculum is designed to…

  6. Hospitality Services. Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This student activity book contains pencil-and-paper activities for use in a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The activities are organized into 29 chapters on the following topics: hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization/management structures in…

  7. Strategic market planning for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zallocco, R L; Joseph, W B; Doremus, H

    1984-01-01

    The application of strategic market planning to hospital management is discussed, along with features of the strategic marketing management process. A portfolio analysis tool, the McKinsey/G.E. Business Screen, is presented and, using a large urban hospital as an example, discussed in detail relative to hospital administration. Finally, strategic implications of the portfolio analysis are examined.

  8. Before Hospitalization: A Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Beverly H.

    1974-01-01

    A tour of the hospital, a puppet show, and a discussion period afterwards over lemonade and cookies are all part of one hospital's efforts to prepare children and their families for the hospitalization, surgery, or other experiences young patients must undergo. (Author/CS)

  9. Hospitality Studies: Escaping the Tyranny?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashley, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore current strands in hospitality management education and research, and suggest that future programs should reflect a more social science informed content. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current research in hospitality management education and in the study of hospitality and…

  10. Library Hospitality: Some Preliminary Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric D. M.; Kazmer, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Library scholars and practitioners have frequently reflected on the various factors that in combination make up a hospitable library, but there has been little theoretical synthesis of the notion of the library as a place of hospitality. The hospitality industry provides a rich vein of theoretical material from which to draw definitions of…

  11. Pediatric urinary tract infections: an analysis of hospitalizations, charges, and costs in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew; McHugh, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of pediatric uninary tract infection (UTI)s on the economy and inpatient healthcare utilization in the USA. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and hospital economics was performed on children less than 18 years of age admitted with a UTI between 2000 and 2006 using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database. Our results were stratified as follows. Hospital admissions—nearly 50,000 children/year were admitted with a UTI. Pediatric UTIs represented 1.8% of all pediatric hospitalizations. Seventy-three percent of patients were female and 40% were under 1 year of age. Payer information—from 2000 to 2006, pediatric insurance coverage shifted from the private sector to the public sector. Hospital cost—in 2000, estimated hospital costs for UTIs were $2,858 per hospitalization and rose to $3,838 by 2006. Mean hospital charges increased from $6,279 to $10,489 per stay. By 2006, aggregate hospital charges exceeded $520 million. Our results indicate that UTIs are among the most common pediatric admission diagnoses. Hospitalization is more common in females and younger children. Since 2000, hospital charges for UTIs increased disproportionately to hospital costs. Over time, more children hospitalized with a UTI depend on public agencies to cover healthcare expense. More efforts are needed to evaluate cost-effective strategies for evaluation and treatment of UTIs. PMID:20711740

  12. Coverings of topological semi-abelian algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucuk, Osman; Demir, Serap

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we study on a category of topological semi-abelian algebras which are topological models of given an algebraic theory T whose category of models is semi-abelian; and investigate some results on the coverings of topological models of such theories yielding semi-abelian categories. We also consider the internal groupoid structure in the semi-abelian category of T-algebras, and give a criteria for the lifting of internal groupoid structure to the covering groupoids.

  13. Repositioning of Covered Stents: The Grip Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, John Martin; Guo Xiaofeng; Midia, Mehran

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: Retrieval and repositioning of a stent deployed beyond its intended target region may be a difficult technical challenge. Materials and Methods: A balloon-mounted snare technique, a variant of the coaxial loop snare technique, is described. Results: The technique is described for the repositioning of a covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent and a covered biliary stent. Conclusion: The balloon-mounted snare technique is a useful technique for retrieval of migrated stents.

  14. Land cover classification for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff and shows characteristic flashy streamflow and poor water quality commonly associated with urban streams. This data set represents the floodplain land cover as derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographic imagery. The land cover classifications represent current conditions (2009).

  15. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  16. Special study on vegetative covers. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

  18. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-07-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day.

  19. A study of patients' expectations and satisfaction in Singapore hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lim, P C; Tang, N K

    2000-01-01

    In today's highly competitive healthcare environment, hospitals increasingly realise the need to focus on service quality as a means to improve their competitive position. Customer-based determinants and perceptions of service quality therefore play an important role when choosing a hospital. This paper attempts to determine the expectations and perceptions of patients through the use of a generic, internationally used market research technique called SERVQUAL. An analysis covering 252 patients revealed that there was an overall service quality gap between patients' expectations and perceptions. Thus, improvements are required across all the six dimensions, namely, tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and accessibility and affordability.

  20. A study of patients' expectations and satisfaction in Singapore hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lim, P C; Tang, N K

    2000-01-01

    In today's highly competitive healthcare environment, hospitals increasingly realise the need to focus on service quality as a means to improve their competitive position. Customer-based determinants and perceptions of service quality therefore play an important role when choosing a hospital. This paper attempts to determine the expectations and perceptions of patients through the use of a generic, internationally used market research technique called SERVQUAL. An analysis covering 252 patients revealed that there was an overall service quality gap between patients' expectations and perceptions. Thus, improvements are required across all the six dimensions, namely, tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and accessibility and affordability. PMID:11484647

  1. Hospital mergers and market overlap.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, G R; Jones, V G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To address two questions: What are the characteristics of hospitals that affect the likelihood of their being involved in a merger? What characteristics of particular pairs of hospitals affect the likelihood of the pair engaging in a merger? DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Hospitals in the 12 county region surrounding the San Francisco Bay during the period 1983 to 1992 were the focus of the study. Data were drawn from secondary sources, including the Lexis/Nexis database, the American Hospital Association, and the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development of the State of California. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen hospital mergers during the study period were identified. A random sample of pairs of hospitals that did not merge was drawn to establish a statistically efficient control set. Models constructed from hypotheses regarding hospital and market characteristics believed to be related to merger likelihood were tested using logistic regression analysis. DATA COLLECTION: See Data Sources/Study Setting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis shows that the likelihood of a merger between a particular pair of hospitals is positively related to the degree of market overlap that exists between them. Furthermore, market overlap and performance difference interact in their effect on merger likelihood. In an analysis of individual hospitals, conditions of rivalry, hospital market share, and hospital size were not found to influence the likelihood that a hospital will engage in a merger. CONCLUSIONS: Mergers between hospitals are not driven directly by considerations of market power or efficiency as much as by the existence of specific merger opportunities in the hospitals' local markets. Market overlap is a condition that enables a merger to occur, but other factors, such as the relative performance levels of the hospitals in question and their ownership and teaching status, also play a role in influencing the likelihood that a merger will in fact take place. PMID

  2. [Cytological investigation of needle aspiration and endoscopy samples using stain-covered glass slides (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Böttcher-Ramdohr, G; von Wichert, P; Stein, E

    1977-10-28

    Early morning sputum (n = 46), sputum and bronchial secretion obtained by aspiration (n = 87), pleural, ascitic, and pericardial fluids (n = 53), and pulmonary aspirate and gastric wash-out fluid (n = 10) were investigated cytologicallly using stain-covered glass slides (Testsimplets, Boehringer Mannheim). It was shown that the method was equal to classical cytological stains (Pappeheim and Papanicolaou) when exudates and biopsy material were investigated. The method is suitable for diagnostic purposes in hospitals and practice.

  3. Vegetative soil covers for hazardous waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peace, Jerry L.

    Shallow land burial has been the preferred method for disposing of municipal and hazardous wastes in the United States because it is the simplest, cheapest, and most cost-effective method of disposal. Arid and semiarid regions of the western United States have received considerable attention over the past two decades in reference to hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste disposal. Disposal is based upon the premise that low mean annual precipitation, high evapotranspiration, and low or negligible recharge, favor waste isolation from the environment for long periods of time. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that containment of municipal and hazardous wastes in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers utilizing natural soils and native vegetation i.e., vegetative soil covers, will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for hazardous waste landfills. Vegetative soil cover design combines layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem that maintains the natural water balance. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards' equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data from 1919 to 1996 are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 1 m (3 ft) cover is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  4. [Refuse disposal at the hospital].

    PubMed

    Knoll, K H

    1990-02-01

    For the classification of hospital-wastes in the categories infectious-contaminate or special waste are only significant views of the prevention by nosocomial infection in the hospital. Solely infectious waste become removed hospital-intern and -extern on conditions of hygienic prevention, namely through secure packing during the transport, combustion or desinfection. Special wastes to be defeated by special-conditions. The hygienist of the hospital is only competent for the classification of the wastes in the hospital as well as for their refuse.

  5. The dust covering factor in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalevski, Marko

    2016-08-01

    We undertook a critical investigation of a common estimator of the dust covering factor in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The infrared radiation emitted by the obscuring dusty structure ("the dusty torus") is nothing but a reprocessed fraction of the accretion disk emission, so the ratio of their luminosities (L_torus /L_AGN) should correspond to the fraction of the AGN sky obscured by dust. Using state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we calculated a grid of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) emitted by the clumpy two-phase dusty structure. Using this grid of SEDs, we studied the relation between L_torus /L_AGN and the dust covering factor for different parameters of the torus. We found that in case of type 1 AGNs, due to the torus anisotropy, L_torus/L AGN underestimate low covering factors and overestimate high covering factors. In type 2 AGNs covering factors are always underestimated. Our results provide a novel easy-to-use method to account for anisotropy and obtain correct covering factors. Using two samples from the literature, we demonstrated the importance of these effects for inferring the obscured AGN fraction. We found that after the anisotropy is properly accounted for, the dust covering factors show very weak dependence on L_AGN, with values in the range of approx. 0.6 ‑ 0.7. Our results suggest a higher fraction of obscured AGNs at high luminosities than those found by X-ray surveys. We discuss the possible causes of this discrepancy and demonstrate that it is partially due to the presence of a Compton-thick AGN population, which is missed by X-ray surveys, but not by infrared.

  6. AVHRR channel selection for land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Hoffer, R.M.; Chapman, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Mapping land cover of large regions often requires processing of satellite images collected from several time periods at many spectral wavelength channels. However, manipulating and processing large amounts of image data increases the complexity and time, and hence the cost, that it takes to produce a land cover map. Very few studies have evaluated the importance of individual Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels for discriminating cover types, especially the thermal channels (channels 3, 4 and 5). Studies rarely perform a multi-year analysis to determine the impact of inter-annual variability on the classification results. We evaluated 5 years of AVHRR data using combinations of the original AVHRR spectral channels (1-5) to determine which channels are most important for cover type discrimination, yet stabilize inter-annual variability. Particular attention was placed on the channels in the thermal portion of the spectrum. Fourteen cover types over the entire state of Colorado were evaluated using a supervised classification approach on all two-, three-, four- and five-channel combinations for seven AVHRR biweekly composite datasets covering the entire growing season for each of 5 years. Results show that all three of the major portions of the electromagnetic spectrum represented by the AVHRR sensor are required to discriminate cover types effectively and stabilize inter-annual variability. Of the two-channel combinations, channels 1 (red visible) and 2 (near-infrared) had, by far, the highest average overall accuracy (72.2%), yet the inter-annual classification accuracies were highly variable. Including a thermal channel (channel 4) significantly increased the average overall classification accuracy by 5.5% and stabilized inter-annual variability. Each of the thermal channels gave similar classification accuracies; however, because of the problems in consistently interpreting channel 3 data, either channel 4 or 5 was found to be a more

  7. Covered California: The Impact of Provider and Health Plan Market Power on Premiums.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M; Kessell, Eric; Brandt, Margareta

    2015-12-01

    We explain the establishment of Covered California, California's health insurance marketplace. The marketplace uses an active purchaser model, which means that Covered California can selectively contract with some health plans and exclude others. During the 2014 open-enrollment period, it enrolled 1.3 million people, who are covered by eleven health plans. We describe the market shares of health plans in California and in each of the nineteen rating regions. We examine the empirical relationship between measures of provider market concentration--spanning health plans, hospitals, and medical groups--and rating region premiums. To do this, we analyze premiums for silver and bronze plans for specific age groups. We find both medical group concentration and hospital concentration to be positively associated with premiums, while health plan concentration is not statistically significant. We simulate the impact of reducing hospital concentration to levels that would exist in moderately competitive markets. This produces a predicted overall premium reduction of more than 2 percent. However, in three of the nineteen rating regions, the predicted premium reduction was more than 10 percent. These results suggest the importance of provider market concentration on premiums. PMID:26447023

  8. Covered California: The Impact of Provider and Health Plan Market Power on Premiums.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M; Kessell, Eric; Brandt, Margareta

    2015-12-01

    We explain the establishment of Covered California, California's health insurance marketplace. The marketplace uses an active purchaser model, which means that Covered California can selectively contract with some health plans and exclude others. During the 2014 open-enrollment period, it enrolled 1.3 million people, who are covered by eleven health plans. We describe the market shares of health plans in California and in each of the nineteen rating regions. We examine the empirical relationship between measures of provider market concentration--spanning health plans, hospitals, and medical groups--and rating region premiums. To do this, we analyze premiums for silver and bronze plans for specific age groups. We find both medical group concentration and hospital concentration to be positively associated with premiums, while health plan concentration is not statistically significant. We simulate the impact of reducing hospital concentration to levels that would exist in moderately competitive markets. This produces a predicted overall premium reduction of more than 2 percent. However, in three of the nineteen rating regions, the predicted premium reduction was more than 10 percent. These results suggest the importance of provider market concentration on premiums.

  9. Simulation in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Proctor, T

    1996-01-01

    Health care costs continue to rise because increased demand for services and limited budgets put pressure on resources, however efficiently they may be used. Proposes discrete event simulation as an effective tool in the search for more efficient health care systems. Looks at the application of a desktop computer simulation package to model part of a hospital subsystem. The simulation package shows how efficiency might be improved by moderating available resources and times taken to complete tasks. Maintains that the principles expounded here are applicable to many different aspects of health care management. PMID:10161783

  10. Blast noise propagation above a snow cover.

    PubMed

    Albert, D G; Hole, L R

    2001-06-01

    A porous medium model of a snow cover, rather than a viscoelastic treatment, has been used to simulate measured, horizontally traveling acoustic waveform propagation above a dry snow cover 11-20 cm thick. The waveforms were produced by explosions of 1-kg charges at propagation distances of 100 to 1400 m. These waveforms, with a peak frequency around 30 Hz, show pulse broadening effects similar to those previously seen for higher-frequency waves over shorter propagation distances. A rigid-ice-frame porous medium ("rigid-porous") impedance model, which includes the effect of the pores within the snow but ignores any induced motion of the ice particles, is shown to produce much better agreement with the measured waveforms compared with a viscoelastic solid treatment of the snow cover. From the acoustic waveform modeling, the predicted average snow cover depth of 18 cm and effective flow resistivities of 16-31 kPa s m(-2) agree with snow pit observations and with previous acoustic measurements over snow. For propagation in the upwind direction, the pulse broadening caused by the snow cover interaction is lessened, but the overall amplitude decay is greater because of refraction of the blast waves. PMID:11425110

  11. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankaran, M.; Hanan, N.P.; Scholes, R.J.; Ratnam, J.; Augustine, D.J.; Cade, B.S.; Gignoux, J.; Higgins, S.I.; Le, Roux X.; Ludwig, F.; Ardo, J.; Banyikwa, F.; Bronn, A.; Bucini, G.; Caylor, K.K.; Coughenour, M.B.; Diouf, A.; Ekaya, W.; Feral, C.J.; February, E.C.; Frost, P.G.H.; Hiernaux, P.; Hrabar, H.; Metzger, K.L.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ringrose, S.; Sea, W.; Tews, J.; Worden, J.; Zambatis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties 1-3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) are thought to be important in regulating woody cover1,2,4,5, but perceptions differ on which of these are the primary drivers of savanna structure. Here we show, using data from 854 sites across Africa, that maximum woody cover in savannas receiving a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of less than ???650 mm is constrained by, and increases linearly with, MAP. These arid and semi-arid savannas may be considered 'stable' systems in which water constrains woody cover and permits grasses to coexist, while fire, herbivory and soil properties interact to reduce woody cover below the MAP-controlled upper bound. Above a MAP of ???650 mm, savannas are 'unstable' systems in which MAP is sufficient for woody canopy closure, and disturbances (fire, herbivory) are required for the coexistence of trees and grass. These results provide insights into the nature of African savannas and suggest that future changes in precipitation 6 may considerably affect their distribution and dynamics. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Monthly fractional green vegetation cover associated with land cover classes of the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Tarpley, Dan; Mitchell, Ken; Csiszar, Ivan; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Reed, Bradley C.

    2001-01-01

    The land cover classes developed under the coordination of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) have been analyzed for a study area that includes the Conterminous United States and portions of Mexico and Canada. The 1-km resolution data have been analyzed to produce a gridded data set that includes within each 20-km grid cell: 1) the three most dominant land cover classes, 2) the fractional area associated with each of the three dominant classes, and 3) the fractional area covered by water. Additionally, the monthly fraction of green vegetation cover (fgreen) associated with each of the three dominant land cover classes per grid cell was derived from a 5-year climatology of 1-km resolution NOAA-AVHRR data. The variables derived in this study provide a potential improvement over the use of monthly fgreen linked to a single land cover class per model grid cell.

  13. Improving Land Cover Product-Based Estimates of the Extent of Fragmented Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changing land use/land cover on regional and global climate ecosystems depends on accurate estimates of the extent of critical land cover types such as Arctic wetlands and fire scars in boreal forests. To address this information requirement, land cover products at coarse spatial resolution such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) -based maps and the MODIS Land Cover Product are being produced. The accuracy of the extent of highly fragmented cover types such as fire scars and ponds is in doubt because much (the numerous scars and ponds smaller than the pixel size) is missed. A promising method for improving areal estimates involves modeling the observed distribution of the fragment sizes as a type of truncated distribution, then estimating the sum of unobserved sizes in the lower, truncated tail and adding it to the sum of observed fragment sizes. The method has been tested with both simulated and actual cover products.

  14. [Satisfaction of hospitalized patients in a hospital in Apurimac, Peru].

    PubMed

    Sihuin-Tapia, Elsa Yudy; Gómez-Quispe, Oscar Elisban; Ibáñez-Quispe, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the satisfaction of hospitalized patients in the Sub-regional Hospital of Andahuaylas, 175 patients were surveyed using the Servqual multidimensional model. The estimate of variables associated with the satisfaction of the hospitalized patients was performed by using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found 25.0% satisfaction. Lower levels of satisfaction were associated with having a secondary level education (aOR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.64) and with having been hospitalized in the surgery department (aOR 0.14, CI: 95%: 0.04 to 0.53). It was concluded that there was a low level of satisfaction with the quality of care received by hospitalized patients and this was associated with the level of education and type of hospital department. PMID:26338391

  15. [Family and psychiatric hospitalization in a general hospital].

    PubMed

    de Mello, Rita Mello; Schneider, Jacó Fernando

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to identify the reasons that lead relatives to hospitalize patients in a psychiatric unit of a general hospital. It is a qualitative study based on Alfred Schutz' phenomenological sociology. Fourteen relatives, each with one family member hospitalized, were interviewed from August to October 2009. The guiding question of the phenomenological interview was "What do you expect from psychiatric hospitalization in a general hospital?". Phenomenological sociology was used to understand and interpret the interviews. Statements showed three concrete categories, that lead to the reasons for: treatment guidelines and continuity; prospects for improvement; ideas about normality. This research shows the experiences of relatives, contributing with mental health professionals' reflection about their actions and about the involvement of families in a general hospital's psychiatric unit. PMID:21987981

  16. [Satisfaction of hospitalized patients in a hospital in Apurimac, Peru].

    PubMed

    Sihuin-Tapia, Elsa Yudy; Gómez-Quispe, Oscar Elisban; Ibáñez-Quispe, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the satisfaction of hospitalized patients in the Sub-regional Hospital of Andahuaylas, 175 patients were surveyed using the Servqual multidimensional model. The estimate of variables associated with the satisfaction of the hospitalized patients was performed by using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found 25.0% satisfaction. Lower levels of satisfaction were associated with having a secondary level education (aOR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.64) and with having been hospitalized in the surgery department (aOR 0.14, CI: 95%: 0.04 to 0.53). It was concluded that there was a low level of satisfaction with the quality of care received by hospitalized patients and this was associated with the level of education and type of hospital department.

  17. The Second Lebanon War Experience at Western Galilee Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lino, Bartholomew; Eisenman, Arie; Schuster, Richard; Giloni, Carlos; Bharoum, Masad; Daniel, Moshe; Dallas, Cham

    2016-02-01

    The summer of 2006 in northern Israel served as the battleground for the second war against Hezbollah based along Israel's border with southern Lebanon. Western Galilee Hospital (WGH), which is located only 6 miles from the Lebanese border, served as a major medical center in the vicinity of the fighting. The hospital was directly impacted by Hezbollah with a Katyusha rocket, which struck the ophthalmology department on the 4th floor. WGH was able to utilize a 450-bed underground facility that maintained full hospital functionality throughout the conflict. In a major feat of rapid evacuation, the entire hospital population was relocated under the cover of darkness to these bunkers in just over 1 hour, thus emptying the building prior to the missile impact. Over half of the patients presenting during the conflict did not incur physical injury but qualified as acute stress disorder patients. The particulars of this evacuation remain unique owing to the extraordinary circumstances, but many of the principles employed in this maneuver may serve as a template for other hospitals requiring emergency evacuation. Hospital functionality drastically changed to accommodate the operational reality of war, and many of these tactics warrant closer investigation for possible implementation in other conflict zones.

  18. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. As a result, these graphical methods formore » evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.« less

  19. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  20. Some new worldwide cloud-cover models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, S. J.; Somerville, P. N.

    1981-01-01

    Using daily measurements of day and night infrared, and incoming and absorbed solar radiation obtained from a Tiros satellite over a period of approximately 45 months, and integrated over 2.5 deg latitude-longitude grids, the proportion of cloud cover over each grid each day was derived for the entire period. For each of four 3-month periods, for each grid location, estimates a and b of the two parameters of the best-fit beta distribution were obtained. The (a, b) plane was divided into a number of regions. All the geographical locations whose (a, b) estimates were in the same region in the (a, b) plane were said to have the same cloud cover type for that season. For each season, the world is thus divided into separate cloud-cover types.

  1. Ecoregions and land cover trends in Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Sall, M.; Wood, E.C.; Cushing, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines long-term changes in Senegal's natural resources. We monitor and quantify land use and land cover changes occurring across Senegal using nearly 40 years of satellite imagery, aerial surveys, and fieldwork. We stratify Senegal into ecological regions and present land use and land cover trends for each region, followed by a national summary. Results aggregated to the national level show moderate change, with a modest decrease in savannas from 74 to 70 percent from 1965 to 2000, and an expansion of cropland from 17 to 21 percent. However, at the ecoregion scale, we observed rapid change in some and relative stability in others. One particular concern is the decline in Senegal's biodiverse forests. However, in the year 2000, Senegal's savannas, woodlands, and forests still cover more than two-thirds of the country, and the rate of agricultural expansion has slowed.

  2. Classifying Land Cover Using Spectral Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawiye, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studying land cover has become increasingly important as countries try to overcome the destruction of wetlands; its impact on local climate due to seasonal variation, radiation balance, and deteriorating environmental quality. In this investigation, we have been studying the spectral signatures of the Jamaica Bay wetland area based on remotely sensed satellite input data from LANDSAT TM and ASTER. We applied various remote sensing techniques to generate classified land cover output maps. Our classifiers relied on input from both the remote sensing and in-situ spectral field data. Based upon spectral separability and data collected in the field, a supervised and unsupervised classification was carried out. First results suggest good agreement between the land cover units mapped and those observed in the field.

  3. [Yesterdays and happenings at hospitals of Tehuacán, Puebla, México].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The history of the hospital of Tehuacán, the second city importance in Puebla State, began in 1744, when the Hospital de San Juan de Dios (Hospital of St. John) was founded; in 1820, it was converted into the Municipal of Civil Hospital. The medical establishement continues to provide services to the poor to this day annual also covers health public workers of services for the municipality. The Hospital de la Cruz Roja Mexicana (The Mexican Red Cross Hospital) was created in 1934 provide medical services for accident victims: The hospital services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) began in 1953; an earthquake destroyed the building in 1973, and a new hospital was inaugurated in 1979; at present, it readers services to 98,000 persons. The Sanatorio del Sagrado Corazón (Sacred Heart Sanatorium) is a private religious institution founded at the beginning of the second half the 20th century. In 1996, the Hospital General (General Hospital) began to provide services, takes care of the poor of the geographical region, and is financed with federal funds. The Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para Trabajadores del Estado (Institute of Securtiy and Social Services for the Workers of the State, ISSSTE) has a small hospital with 10 beds, it was founded in 1995. PMID:15087055

  4. [Yesterdays and happenings at hospitals of Tehuacán, Puebla, México].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The history of the hospital of Tehuacán, the second city importance in Puebla State, began in 1744, when the Hospital de San Juan de Dios (Hospital of St. John) was founded; in 1820, it was converted into the Municipal of Civil Hospital. The medical establishement continues to provide services to the poor to this day annual also covers health public workers of services for the municipality. The Hospital de la Cruz Roja Mexicana (The Mexican Red Cross Hospital) was created in 1934 provide medical services for accident victims: The hospital services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) began in 1953; an earthquake destroyed the building in 1973, and a new hospital was inaugurated in 1979; at present, it readers services to 98,000 persons. The Sanatorio del Sagrado Corazón (Sacred Heart Sanatorium) is a private religious institution founded at the beginning of the second half the 20th century. In 1996, the Hospital General (General Hospital) began to provide services, takes care of the poor of the geographical region, and is financed with federal funds. The Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para Trabajadores del Estado (Institute of Securtiy and Social Services for the Workers of the State, ISSSTE) has a small hospital with 10 beds, it was founded in 1995.

  5. Opportunistic immunisation in hospital

    PubMed Central

    Conway, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To assess the potential for administering catch up and scheduled immunisations during hospital admission.
METHODS—Immunisation status according to the child's principal carer was checked against official records for 1000 consecutively admitted preschool age children. Junior doctors were instructed to offer appropriate vaccination before discharge, and consultants were asked to reinforce this proactive policy on ward rounds.
RESULTS—Excluding those children who were not fully immunised against pertussis through parental choice, 142 children (14.2%) had missed an age appropriate immunisation and 41 were due a scheduled immunisation. None had a valid contraindication. Only 43 children were offered vaccination on the ward but uptake was 65% in this group.
CONCLUSIONS—Admission to hospital provides opportunities for catch up and routine immunisations and can contribute to the health care of an often disadvantaged group of children. These opportunities are frequently missed. Junior doctors must be encouraged to see opportunistic immunisation as an important part of their routine work.
 PMID:10519717

  6. Hospital-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Babady, N Esther

    2016-06-01

    Hospital-associated infection (HAI) in immunocompromised patients can result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are especially worrisome because of the limited choice of remaining antibiotics available when a patient becomes colonized or infected with an MDRO. It is therefore important that immunocompromised patients be cared for in an environment that limits the risk for acquiring infections. However, with healthcare being increasingly delivered in settings other than the traditional inpatient hospital wards, a bigger effort will need to be set forth to prevent or rapidly diagnose HAI. The last few years have seen a significant increase in the number of singleplex and multiplex molecular assays for the detection of many of the organisms responsible for HAI, but more is needed as infections caused by organisms like Legionella pneumophila and Aspergillus species are still diagnosed with methods that have relatively low yield and are slow to provide actionable results. Finally, the use of novel techniques for outbreak investigations will provide new information on transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings and allow stronger, evidence-based recommendations to be developed for prevention of HAIs in the immunocompromised host. PMID:27337459

  7. Design of paediatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica

    2016-05-01

    The impact of healthcare environments on children and young people's (CYP) health and psychosocial wellbeing has attracted much attention in recent years. This sits within the realm of the political drive for enhanced awareness of the need to take account of the rights and voice of the child. Perhaps as a direct result of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and recognition from evidence in adult population studies of the impact of healthcare environments on psychosocial healing, contemporary times have witnessed a discernible movement towards enhancing quality care by promoting child and adolescent-friendly hospital environments. The Council of Europe guidelines on child-friendly health care moved to place the rights and needs of children at the heart of health care. The Council acknowledges that the delivery of child-oriented services, which includes the notion of family-centred care, should be delivered in child and family friendly environments. However, knowledge about what constitutes a child-friendly healthcare environment from CYP's perspective is often lacking with hospital architectural blueprints predominantly designed around adult proxy-reported assumptions about the needs and desires of children.

  8. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    PubMed Central

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:26729142

  9. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    PubMed

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  10. Structural determinants of hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Longo, D R; Chase, G A

    1984-05-01

    In a retrospective case-control study, structural characteristics of hospitals that closed during the years 1976-1980 were contrasted with three comparison groups: hospitals that were acquired in a merger; hospitals that joined a multihospital system; and hospitals that remained autonomously opened, to investigate these characteristics as predictors of closure. Characteristics investigated included environmental, structural, and process variables. The independent variables were measured 5 years prior to outcome. Findings indicate that closed hospitals resemble hospitals acquired in a merger ("failure"), and likewise autonomous hospitals resemble hospitals that join a multihospital system ("success"). The most important predictors of hospital failure were the physician-to-population ratio, the East North Central and West North Central census regions, the level of diversification, low occupancy rate, location in a standard metropolitan statistical area, the chief executive officer's lack of affiliation in the American College of Hospital Administrators, profit status, bed size of less than 50, and presence in a state with a rate-setting agency. Surprisingly, this study shows the bed-to-population ratio to be unrelated to closure. In addition, the findings strongly support the open-system perspective, which, unlike the closed-system perspective, is concerned with the vulnerability of the organization to the uncontrollable and often unpredictable influences of the environment.

  11. Hospital service offerings: does Catholic ownership matter?

    PubMed

    White, Kenneth R; Begun, James W; Tian, Wenqiang

    2006-01-01

    Controlling for market and organizational characteristics, Catholic hospitals in 2001 offered more stigmatized and compassionate care services than investor-owned hospitals, and more stigmatized services than public hospitals. There were no differences between Catholic hospitals and other nonprofit hospitals, however, in the number of compassionate, stigmatized, and access services offered. This may reflect growing isomorphism in the nonprofit hospital sector.

  12. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, J.A.; Coan, M.J.; Homer, C.G.; Meyer, D.K.; Wickham, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

  13. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Stehman, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 Alaska land cover classification is the first 30-m resolution land cover product available covering the entire state of Alaska. The accuracy assessment of the NLCD 2001 Alaska land cover classification employed a geographically stratified three-stage sampling design to select the reference sample of pixels. Reference land cover class labels were determined via fixed wing aircraft, as the high resolution imagery used for determining the reference land cover classification in the conterminous U.S. was not available for most of Alaska. Overall thematic accuracy for the Alaska NLCD was 76.2% (s.e. 2.8%) at Level II (12 classes evaluated) and 83.9% (s.e. 2.1%) at Level I (6 classes evaluated) when agreement was defined as a match between the map class and either the primary or alternate reference class label. When agreement was defined as a match between the map class and primary reference label only, overall accuracy was 59.4% at Level II and 69.3% at Level I. The majority of classification errors occurred at Level I of the classification hierarchy (i.e., misclassifications were generally to a different Level I class, not to a Level II class within the same Level I class). Classification accuracy was higher for more abundant land cover classes and for pixels located in the interior of homogeneous land cover patches. ?? 2011.

  14. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  15. COVER Project and Earth resources research transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Results of research in the remote sensing of natural boreal forest vegetation (the COVER project) are summarized. The study objectives were to establish a baseline forest test site; develop transforms of LANDSAT MSS and TM data for forest composition, biomass, leaf area index, and net primary productivity; and perform tasks required for testing hypotheses regarding observed spectral responses to changes in leaf area index in aspen. In addition, the transfer and documentation of data collected in the COVER project (removed from the Johnson Space Center following the discontinuation of Earth resources research at that facility) is described.

  16. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  17. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  18. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  19. Edwards plateau: Analysis of land cover trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, B.A.; Hester, D.J.; Casey, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends project studies the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) change in land use and land cover in the United States on an ecoregional basis. The Edwards Plateau ecoregion is the focus of this report. Landsat imagery from five dates during a nearly 30-year period are interpreted for randomly selected sample blocks. The resulting data provide the foundation for estimating change. Along with the image analysis, site visits to 90% of the sampled areas, geographical profiles, and socioeconomic data for the ecoregion are synthesized to assess regional driving forces and consequences of change. Complete project methodology can be found in Loveland et al [1].

  20. Total quality in acute care hospitals: guidelines for hospital managers.

    PubMed

    Holthof, B

    1991-08-01

    Quality improvement can not focus exclusively on peer review and the scientific evaluation of medical care processes. These essential elements have to be complemented with a focus on individual patient needs and preferences. Only then will hospitals create the competitive advantage needed to survive in an increasingly market-driven hospital industry. Hospital managers can identify these patients' needs by 'living the patient experience' and should then set the hospital's quality objectives according to its target patients and their needs. Excellent quality program design, however, is not sufficient. Successful implementation of a quality improvement program further requires fundamental changes in pivotal jobholders' behavior and mindset and in the supporting organizational design elements.

  1. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery.

  2. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery. PMID:26356212

  3. Reserve capacity of public and private hospitals in response to demand uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Ana; Roibás, David; Wall, Alan

    2012-07-01

    A feature of hospitals is that they face uncertain demand for the services they offer. To cover fluctuations in demand, they need to maintain reserve service capacity in the form of beds, equipment, personnel, etc. to minimize the probability of excess queuing or turning away patients, creating a trade-off between reserve service capacity and economic costs. Using a simple theoretical framework, we show how the reserve capacity established depends on institutional characteristics that can affect the objective of the hospital. In particular, we show that private and public hospitals may provide different levels of reserve capacity. In an empirical application using a panel data set of Spanish hospitals over the period 1996-2006, we model reserve service capacity using a distance frontier approach. Our results show that private hospitals generally react to a lesser extent to demand uncertainty than public hospitals.

  4. Has competition increased hospital technical efficiency?

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Park, Jungwon; Lim, Seunghoo; Park, Sang-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Hospital competition and managed care have affected the hospital industry in various ways including technical efficiency. Hospital efficiency has become an important topic, and it is important to properly measure hospital efficiency in order to evaluate the impact of policies on the hospital industry. The primary independent variable is hospital competition. By using the 2001-2004 inpatient discharge data from Florida, we calculate the degree of hospital competition in Florida for 4 years. Hospital efficiency scores are developed using the Data Envelopment Analysis and by using the selected input and output variables from the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey of Hospitals for those acute care general hospitals in Florida. By using the hospital efficiency score as a dependent variable, we analyze the effects of hospital competition on hospital efficiency from 2001 to 2004 and find that when a hospital was located in a less competitive market in 2003, its technical efficiency score was lower than those in a more competitive market.

  5. To hospitalize or not to hospitalize? That is the question: an analysis of decision making in the nursing home.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Lipson, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the processes and factors that influence physicians' decision-making processes as regarding hospitalization of nursing home residents. In a large nonprofit nursing home, 6 full-time male physicians and 1 female nurse practitioner completed questionnaires that described the medical decision-making process for 52 nursing home residents for whom hospitalization was considered. The questionnaire covered the following topics: medical event description, the decision-making process, considerations in making treatment decisions, and the role of advance directives. Hospitalized residents had fewer treatments considered and fewer treatments chosen than those who were not hospitalized. Residents with fractures were the most commonly hospitalized residents, whereas residents in frailer conditions, with breathing problems, and for whom the physician considered quality of life to be most important were less likely to be hospitalized. The results of this study clarify the complexity of factors affecting the decision-making process and suggest a methodology that may assist in discerning those factors in the future. PMID:16903616

  6. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    PubMed

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  7. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income. PMID:26652043

  8. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  9. Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence—Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared with non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor's degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.98; P = 0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.77–1.01; P = 0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions The lower mortality we find in Magnet hospitals is largely attributable to measured nursing characteristics but there is a mortality advantage above and beyond what we could measure. Magnet recognition identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:24022082

  10. Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence— Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared to non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet vs. non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor’s degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.98, p=0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-1.01, p=0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions Magnet hospitals have lower mortality than is fully accounted for by measured characteristics of nursing. Magnet recognition likely both identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:23047129

  11. IK Brunel's Crimean war hospital.

    PubMed

    Merridew, C G

    2014-07-01

    "Those wonderful huts…" (Florence Nightingale). This is the story of the British Civil Hospital, erected in 1855 at Renkioi on the south Dardanelles coast of Turkey. The spectacular hospital was a portable one designed by British engineer IK Brunel. It was his only health-related project, and it was known as a Civil Hospital because its staff were all civilians, despite its patients being military.

  12. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  13. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... an approved mill or plant for utilization. When such covers are forwarded from a northern port to a mill or plant in California for utilization, or from a California port to another California...

  14. 39 CFR 960.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES RELATIVE TO IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO... initiating the proceeding or designating the matter for hearing. The failure to designate a proceeding as an... proceedings on the application. (c) If a proceeding includes both matters covered by the Act and...

  15. 31 CFR 800.207 - Covered transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered transaction. 800.207 Section 800.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS,...

  16. Unique cover crops for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane production practices provide a tremendous opportunity for the use of cover crops following the final sugarcane harvest in the fall of one year and prior to replanting sugarcane during the summer of the next year. A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years...

  17. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 16.104 Proceedings covered. (a... labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act at 29 U.S.C. 216(e) and 29 CFR part 579. (ii) Violations and debarment in Federal contracts under the Walsh-Healey Act at 41 U.S.C. 39 and 41 CFR...

  18. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States may be authorized either (1) through a Mexican border port named in the permit for vacuum... vacuum fumigation by an approved method or without vacuum fumigation when the covers are to be moved to... northern port for vacuum fumigation thereat or for movement to a mill or plant for utilization...

  19. 5 CFR 890.903 - Covered services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participation agreements with the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) consistent with sections 1814(a) and 1866 of the Social Security Act, and receive Medicare part A payments in accordance with the...) of the Social Security Act), which are: (1) Covered under both Medicare part B and the...

  20. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use of mail covers as an investigative technique for law enforcement or the protection of national... of mail matter as allowed by law, to obtain information in order to: (i) Protect national security... identification of property, proceeds or assets forfeitable under law. (2) For the purposes of § 233.3 record is...

  1. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  2. 24 CFR 1710.105 - Cover page.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.105... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cover page. 1710.105 Section 1710.105 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  3. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Covered entities. 46.5 Section 46.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT PUBLIC UTILITY FILING REQUIREMENTS AND FILING...

  4. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  5. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  6. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  7. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  8. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  9. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  10. GENERATING HIGH QUALITY IMPERVIOUS COVER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) from urban/ suburban areas is rapidly increasing as the population increases in the United States. Research in recent years has consistently shown a strong relationship between the percentage of impervious cover in a drainage basin and the health...

  11. Effect of ice cover on hydropower production

    SciTech Connect

    Yapa, P.D.; Shen H.T.

    1984-09-01

    For hydropower developments in northern regions, the annual occurrence of river ice cover presents various problems of operation and management. The existence of an ice cover can lead to a substantial loss in power production. This loss in power due to the presence of ice cover, however, can be minimized with appropriate ice control measures. In this technical note, a quantitative analysis of power loss is carried out for the St. Lawrence Power Project. Major factors that affect the magnitude of power loss are examined to provide some information for future ice-related hydropower operations. The St. Lawrence River, which conveys water from the Great Lakes Basin to the Atlantic Ocean, has been utilized for hydroelectric power production since the early 1900's. The St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project, constructed in 1954-58, developed the hydropower potential of the upper St. Lawrence River. The Moses-Saunders Power Dam is located about 100 miles downstream of the outlet of Lake Ontario. Since the development of this power project, the regulation of flow through the dam in relation to the ice conditions has been an important element in its winter operation. The existence of an ice cover reduces the power production capability of the river significantly.

  12. 45 CFR 13.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 13.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These rules...)(2) of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7(f), 1320a-7a(c)(2), or 1395u(j)(2). If a...

  13. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 16.104 Proceedings covered. (a... labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act at 29 U.S.C. 216(e) and 29 CFR part 579. (ii) Violations and debarment in Federal contracts under the Walsh-Healey Act at 41 U.S.C. 39 and 41 CFR...

  14. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 16.104 Proceedings covered. (a... labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act at 29 U.S.C. 216(e) and 29 CFR part 579. (ii) Violations and debarment in Federal contracts under the Walsh-Healey Act at 41 U.S.C. 39 and 41 CFR...

  15. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 16.104 Proceedings covered. (a... labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act at 29 U.S.C. 216(e) and 29 CFR part 579. (ii) Violations and debarment in Federal contracts under the Walsh-Healey Act at 41 U.S.C. 39 and 41 CFR...

  16. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transcription, photograph, photocopy or any other facsimile of the image of the outside cover, envelope, wrapper... Inspector may also delegate any or all authority to the Manager, Inspector Service Operations Support Group... Support Group, may delegate this authority to no more than two designees at each Operations Support...

  17. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use of mail covers as an investigative technique for law enforcement or the protection of national... of mail matter as allowed by law, to obtain information in order to: (i) Protect national security... commission or attempted commission of acts constituting a crime, or (ii) Protect the national security....

  18. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use of mail covers as an investigative technique for law enforcement or the protection of national... of mail matter as allowed by law, to obtain information in order to: (i) Protect national security... commission or attempted commission of acts constituting a crime, or (ii) Protect the national security....

  19. Judge a Book by Its Cover?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Steven C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the reaction of feminist students at Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) to a photograph, "Heaven and Hell" (A. Serrano), on the cover of the book "Arresting Images: Impolitic Art and Uncivil Actions" (S. Dubin). Their position that the photograph promotes violence toward women is one interpretation; another is that it is a powerful…

  20. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.31 Hatch coverings. (a) No cargo... unless the working area available for such employees extends for a distance of 10 feet (3.05 m) or...

  1. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... organization primarily engaged in the business of providing financial services or credit, a mutual savings bank... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.5 Covered entities. Entities to which the general rule in § 46.4(b) applies are the following: (a) Any investment bank, bank holding company, foreign...

  2. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Any proceeding in which the Department may prescribe a lawful present or future rate is not covered by....S.C. 1766) Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 604, 606, 607(e), 608, 671) Federal Seed Act (7...

  3. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Any proceeding in which the Department may prescribe a lawful present or future rate is not covered by....S.C. 1766) Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 604, 606, 607(e), 608, 671) Federal Seed Act (7...

  4. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Any proceeding in which the Department may prescribe a lawful present or future rate is not covered by....S.C. 1766) Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 604, 606, 607(e), 608, 671) Federal Seed Act (7...

  5. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  6. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... with section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  7. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  8. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... with section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  9. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An... with section 501(1) and (3) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (LMRA) (29......

  10. 45 CFR 13.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 13.3 Proceedings covered. (a) These rules apply only to adversary adjudications. For the purpose of these rules, only an adjudication required to... and participates in the proceeding, constitutes an adversary adjudication. These rules do not apply...

  11. 22 CFR 171.41 - Covered employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PUBLIC Ethics in Government Act Provisions § 171.41 Covered employees. (a) Officers and employees (including special Government employees as defined in 18 U.S.C. 202) whose positions are classified at grades... Director of the Office of Government Ethics to be of equal classification to GS-16; (c) Employees in...

  12. 22 CFR 171.41 - Covered employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PUBLIC Ethics in Government Act Provisions § 171.41 Covered employees. (a) Officers and employees (including special Government employees as defined in 18 U.S.C. 202) whose positions are classified at grades... Director of the Office of Government Ethics to be of equal classification to GS-16; (c) Employees in...

  13. 17 CFR 148.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... denial actions under section 8c of the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 U.S.C. 12c, and registered futures association disciplinary and membership denial actions under section 17 of the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 U.S.C... covered if they are otherwise adjudicatory proceedings. For the Commission, the types of...

  14. 14 CFR 120.215 - Covered employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered employees. 120.215 Section 120.215 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements...

  15. "Proximal Sensing" capabilities for snow cover monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valt, Mauro; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Plini, Paolo; Salzano, Roberto; Giusti, Marco; Montagnoli, Mauro; Sigismondi, Daniele; Cagnati, Anselmo

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal snow cover represents one of the most important land cover class in relation to environmental studies in mountain areas, especially considering its variation during time. Snow cover and its extension play a relevant role for the studies on the atmospheric dynamics and the evolution of climate. It is also important for the analysis and management of water resources and for the management of touristic activities in mountain areas. Recently, webcam images collected at daily or even hourly intervals are being used as tools to observe the snow covered areas; those images, properly processed, can be considered a very important environmental data source. Images captured by digital cameras become a useful tool at local scale providing images even when the cloud coverage makes impossible the observation by satellite sensors. When suitably processed these images can be used for scientific purposes, having a good resolution (at least 800x600x16 million colours) and a very good sampling frequency (hourly images taken through the whole year). Once stored in databases, those images represent therefore an important source of information for the study of recent climatic changes, to evaluate the available water resources and to analyse the daily surface evolution of the snow cover. The Snow-noSnow software has been specifically designed to automatically detect the extension of snow cover collected from webcam images with a very limited human intervention. The software was tested on images collected on Alps (ARPAV webcam network) and on Apennine in a pilot station properly equipped for this project by CNR-IIA. The results obtained through the use of Snow-noSnow are comparable to the one achieved by photo-interpretation and could be considered as better as the ones obtained using the image segmentation routine implemented into image processing commercial softwares. Additionally, Snow-noSnow operates in a semi-automatic way and has a reduced processing time. The analysis

  16. How Scientists Differentiate Between Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Before scientists can transform raw satellite image data into land cover maps, they must decide on what categories of land cover they would like to use. Categories are simply the types of landscape that the scientists are trying to map and can vary greatly from map to map. For flood maps, there may be only two categories-dry land and wet land-while a standard global land cover map may have seventeen categories including closed shrub lands, savannas, evergreen needle leaf forest, urban areas, and ice/snow. The only requirement for any land cover category is that it have a distinct spectral signature that a satellite can record. As can be seen through a prism, many different colors (wavelengths) make up the spectra of sunlight. When sunlight strikes objects, certain wavelengths are absorbed and others are reflected or emitted. The unique way in which a given type of land cover reflects and absorbs light is known as its spectral signature. Anyone who has flown over the midwestern United States has seen evidence of this phenomenon. From an airplane window, the ground appears as a patchwork of different colors formed by the fields of crops planted there. The varying pigments of the leaves, the amount of foliage per square foot, the age of the plants, and many other factors create this tapestry. Most imaging satellites are sensitive to specific wavelengths of light, including infrared wavelengths that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Passive satellite remote sensors-such as those flown on Landsat 5, Landsat 7, and Terra-have a number of light detectors (photoreceptors) on board that measure the energy reflected or emitted by the Earth. One light detector records only the blue part of the spectrum coming off the Earth. Another observes all the yellow-green light and still another picks up on all the near-infrared light. The detectors scan the Earth's surface as the satellite travels in a circular orbit very nearly from pole-to-pole. To differentiate between types of

  17. The presence of ethics programs in critical access hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Rosenberg, Marie-Claire; Mackenzie, Todd; Weeks, William B

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of ethics committees in rural critical access hospitals across the United States. Several studies have investigated the presence of ethics committees in rural health care facilities. The limitation of these studies is in the definition of 'rural hospital' and a regional or state focus. These limitations have created large variations in the study findings. In this nation-wide study we used the criteria of a critical access hospital (CAH), as defined by the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program (Flex Program, 2007), to bring consistency and clarity to the assessment of the presence of ethics committees in rural hospitals. The Flex Monitoring Team conducted a national telephone survey of 381 CAH administrators throughout the United States. The survey covered a wide variety of questions concerning hospitals' community benefit, impact activities, and whether the hospital had a formally established an ethics committee. About 230 (60%) of the respondents indicated they had a formally established ethics committee or ethics consultation program at their CAH. The prevalence of ethics committees declined as the CAH location became increasingly rural along a rural-urban continuum. Unlike CAHs, all rural Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers have ethics committees. The results of this study provide an understanding of the limited presence of ethics committee in rural America and the need to consider new approaches for providing ethics assistance. A virtual ethics committee network may be the most efficient and effective way of providing rural hospitals access to a knowledgeable ethics committee or consultant. PMID:20714785

  18. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - wearing gloves

  19. The physician exodus from hospitals.

    PubMed

    Royce, P C

    1997-04-01

    Physicians are spending increasingly less of their work week in the hospital. This is true of surgeons because they are performing more ambulatory surgery, often off the hospital premises, and for primary care physicians because they are delegating hospital care of their patients to others. What are the effects of this physician exodus on hospitals, patients, physicians, and medical education? Some of these consequences are explored, from disruptions in the continuity of care, to increase in practice productivity, to preparing undergraduates for the realities of medical practice.

  20. Psychiatric hospitalization in Poland.

    PubMed

    Frydman, L

    1983-01-01

    An overview of psychiatric hospitalization in Poland is presented in the context of Polish political and socio-cultural developments. The areas addressed include: the characteristics of the patient population; the organization of Polish mental health service; the nature of psychiatric treatment; psychiatric legislation; patients' rights; and the training and social status of the various mental health professionals. In spite of the meager resources allocated to mental health services, and the consequent staff shortages and overcrowded, drab living conditions in psychiatric facilities, the care afforded patients is generally humane and nonoppressive. Polish psychiatry has succeeded in maintaining its professional autonomy and has assumed a leadership role in the modernization of its service delivery system.

  1. Controlling hospital library theft

    PubMed Central

    Cuddy, Theresa M.; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other libraries control their theft. Through regularly scheduling inventories, monitoring items, advertising, and using specific security measures, we have successfully controlled the library theft. The January 2002 inventory resulted in meeting our goal of zero missing books and videocassettes. We work to maintain that goal. PMID:12883573

  2. Controlling hospital library theft.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Theresa M; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-04-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other libraries control their theft. Through regularly scheduling inventories, monitoring items, advertising, and using specific security measures, we have successfully controlled the library theft. The January 2002 inventory resulted in meeting our goal of zero missing books and videocassettes. We work to maintain that goal.

  3. 7 CFR 1437.503 - Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops. 1437.503 Section 1437.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.503 - Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops. 1437.503 Section 1437.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER...

  5. Quantification of global gross forest cover loss.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthew C; Stehman, Stephen V; Potapov, Peter V

    2010-05-11

    A globally consistent methodology using satellite imagery was implemented to quantify gross forest cover loss (GFCL) from 2000 to 2005 and to compare GFCL among biomes, continents, and countries. GFCL is defined as the area of forest cover removed because of any disturbance, including both natural and human-induced causes. GFCL was estimated to be 1,011,000 km(2) from 2000 to 2005, representing 3.1% (0.6% per year) of the year 2000 estimated total forest area of 32,688,000 km(2). The boreal biome experienced the largest area of GFCL, followed by the humid tropical, dry tropical, and temperate biomes. GFCL expressed as the proportion of year 2000 forest cover was highest in the boreal biome and lowest in the humid tropics. Among continents, North America had the largest total area and largest proportion of year 2000 GFCL. At national scales, Brazil experienced the largest area of GFCL over the study period, 165,000 km(2), followed by Canada at 160,000 km(2). Of the countries with >1,000,000 km(2) of forest cover, the United States exhibited the greatest proportional GFCL and the Democratic Republic of Congo the least. Our results illustrate a pervasive global GFCL dynamic. However, GFCL represents only one component of net change, and the processes driving GFCL and rates of recovery from GFCL differ regionally. For example, the majority of estimated GFCL for the boreal biome is due to a naturally induced fire dynamic. To fully characterize global forest change dynamics, remote sensing efforts must extend beyond estimating GFCL to identify proximate causes of forest cover loss and to estimate recovery rates from GFCL.

  6. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P[8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161

  7. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Amood Al-Kamarany, Mohammed; Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009-July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013-December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P[8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161

  8. The School Foodservice Handbook (A Guide for School Administrators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    School food service should be considered a vital aspect of school operations, not an appendage to the educational program. This handbook revolves around the federal Child Nutrition and National School Lunch program serving about 24 million pupils daily in over 90 percent of the nation's 89,200 public schools. The booklet helps explain various…

  9. Presence of microorganisms from isolated Megaselia spp. in foodservice establishments.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Esteban, J Guillermo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la transmisión de patógenos por insectos es una creciente preocupación para la salud pública. Más concretamente, las moscas son conocidas por ser capaces de transmitir el agente infeccioso mecánicamente. Objetivo: el presente trabajo muestra un estudio en los servicios de restauración en los que se aisló por primera vez en la literatura Megaselia spp, detectándose la presencia de microorganismos en estas moscas. Método: se basa en análisis microbiológicos y entomológicos. Resultados: la presencia de aerobios mesófilos y Enterobacteriaceae se han encontrado en todas las muestras, superando los límites establecidos en el 41,7% (5/12) para las bacterias aerobias mesófilas y el 66,7% (8/12) para Enterobacteriaceae. Por otra parte, en el 25 y 66,7% de las moscas analizadas se detectó la presencia de Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Conclusiones: hay un binomio entre la presencia de microorganismos y Megaselia spp., lo que demuestra la importancia de mantener una vigilancia más estricta en las medidas higiénico-sanitarias en los servicios de restauración.

  10. School Foodservice Costs: Location Matters. Economic Research Report Number 117

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollinger, Michael; Ralston, Katherine; Guthrie, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Over 42 million meals--31.2 million lunches and 11 million breakfasts--were served on a typical school day in fiscal year 2009 to children through USDA's National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs. School food authorities (SFAs) operate local school feeding programs and deliver the meals to the schools. SFAs must serve appealing,…

  11. Pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark H; Habig, Karel; Wright, Christopher; Hughes, Amy; Davies, Gareth; Imray, Chirstopher H E

    2015-12-19

    Pre-hospital care is emergency medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. It traditionally incorporated a breadth of care from bystander resuscitation to statutory emergency medical services treatment and transfer. New concepts of care including community paramedicine, novel roles such as emergency care practitioners, and physician delivered pre-hospital emergency medicine are re-defining the scope of pre-hospital care. For severely ill or injured patients, acting quickly in the pre-hospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions greatly affecting outcomes. The transfer of skills and procedures from hospital care to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies, challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations requires management that is tailored to the patient's clinical need and setting. Pre-hospital clinicians should be generalists with a broad understanding of medical, surgical, and trauma pathologies, who will often work from locally developed standard operating procedures, but who are able to revert to core principles. Pre-hospital emergency medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management skills (especially in major incidents, which have their own set of management principles). Traditionally, research into the hyper-acute phase (the first hour) of disease has been difficult, largely because physicians are rarely present and issues of consent, transport expediency, and resourcing of research. However, the pre-hospital phase is acknowledged as a crucial period, when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neuronal and cardiac tissue can be prevented. The development of pre-hospital emergency medicine into a sub-specialty in its own right should bring focus to this period of care. PMID:26738719

  12. Multidecadal Changes in Near-Global Cloud Cover and Estimated Cloud Cover Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Joel

    2005-01-01

    The first paper was Multidecadal changes in near-global cloud cover and estimated cloud cover radiative forcing, by J. R. Norris (2005, J. Geophys. Res. - Atmos., 110, D08206, doi: lO.l029/2004JD005600). This study examined variability in zonal mean surface-observed upper-level (combined midlevel and high-level) and low-level cloud cover over land during 1971-1 996 and over ocean during 1952-1997. These data were averaged from individual synoptic reports in the Extended Edited Cloud Report Archive (EECRA). Although substantial interdecadal variability is present in the time series, long-term decreases in upper-level cloud cover occur over land and ocean at low and middle latitudes in both hemispheres. Near-global upper-level cloud cover declined by 1.5%-sky-cover over land between 1971 and 1996 and by 1.3%-sky-cover over ocean between 1952 and 1997. Consistency between EECRA upper-level cloud cover anomalies and those from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) during 1984-1 997 suggests the surface-observed trends are real. The reduction in surface-observed upper-level cloud cover between the 1980s and 1990s is also consistent with the decadal increase in all-sky outgoing longwave radiation reported by the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (EMS). Discrepancies occur between time series of EECRA and ISCCP low-level cloud cover due to identified and probable artifacts in satellite and surface cloud data. Radiative effects of surface-observed cloud cover anomalies, called "cloud cover radiative forcing (CCRF) anomalies," are estimated based on a linear relationship to climatological cloud radiative forcing per unit cloud cover. Zonal mean estimated longwave CCRF has decreased over most of the globe. Estimated shortwave CCRF has become slightly stronger over northern midlatitude oceans and slightly weaker over northern midlatitude land areas. A long-term decline in the magnitude of estimated shortwave CCRF occurs over low-latitude land and ocean

  13. Segmentation in local hospital markets.

    PubMed

    Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L

    1993-01-01

    This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice.

  14. Faculty Internships for Hospitality Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Christine; Hales, Jonathan A; Wiener, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Internships can help hospitality faculty build industry relationships while also ensuring the best and most current training for their students. Many hospitality organizations have structured faculty internships available or are willing to work with faculty to provide individualized internship opportunities. Career and technical educators in…

  15. Practicing Hospitality in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Rebecca; Huyser, Mackenzi

    2013-01-01

    This article explores pedagogical approaches to teaching students how to practice hospitality toward the other. Using case examples from the college classroom, the authors discuss the roots of Christian hospitality and educational theory on transformative learning to explore how students experience engaging with others after they have…

  16. Management of the Hospital Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Alvis G.

    1976-01-01

    Hospital studies indicate the need for an environmental/sanitarian specialist for control of nosocomial infection and maintenance of a quality environment. The author recommends these requirements for certification as a hospital environmentalist: academic studies including toxicology, epidemiology, hygiene, management, and an internship in…

  17. Comparing Candidate Hospital Report Cards

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.L.; Rivenburgh, R.D.; Scovel, J.C.; White, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    We present graphical and analytical methods that focus on multivariate outlier detection applied to the hospital report cards data. No two methods agree which hospitals are unusually good or bad, so we also present ways to compare the agreement between two methods. We identify factors that have a significant impact on the scoring.

  18. Latex in the Hospital Environment

    MedlinePlus

    LATEX in the Hospital Environment Updated Fall 2015 This list provides a guide to some of the most common objects containing latex and offers some ... remover–Sepha Pharm) 1 LATEX in the Hospital Environment (continued) Frequently contains LATEX OR/Infection Control masks, ...

  19. Hospitality Management Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Bob, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Seven articles on hospitality management training discuss the following: computerized management games for restaurant manager training, work placement, real-life exercises, management information systems in hospitality degree programs, modular programming, service quality concepts in the curriculum, and General National Vocational Qualifications…

  20. The Sounds of Earth Record Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This gold aluminum cover was designed to protect the Voyager 1 and 2 'Sounds of Earth' gold-plated records from micrometeorite bombardment, but also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Flying aboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

  1. Lifetime cover in private insurance markets.

    PubMed

    Brown, H Shelton; Connelly, Luke B

    2005-03-01

    In the last few decades, private health insurance rates have declined in many countries. In countries and states with community rating, a major cause is adverse selection. In order to address age-based adverse selection, Australia has recently begun a novel approach which imposes stiff penalties for buying private insurance later in life, when expected costs are higher. In this paper, we analyze Australia's Lifetime Cover in the context of a modified version of the Rothschild-Stiglitz insurance model (Rothschild and Stiglitz, 1976). We allow empirically-based probabilities to increase by age for low-risk types. The model highlights the shortcomings of the Australian plan. Based on empirically-based probabilities of illness, we predict that Lifetime Cover will not arrest adverse selection. The model has many policy implications for government regulation encouraging long-term health coverage.

  2. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Watkins, Thomas R; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Burchell, Timothy D; Rosseel, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  3. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.; Berg, L. K.; Flynn, C.; Long, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  4. Tides of global ice-covered oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    2016-08-01

    The tides of an ice-covered ocean are examined using a Cartesian representation of the elastic and fluid equations. Although unconstrained by any observations, the ocean tides of a Neoproterozoic "snowball" Earth could have been significantly larger than they are today. Time-mean tidal-residual circulations would then have been set up that are competitive with the circulation driven by geothermal heating. In any realistic configuration, the snowball Earth would have had an ice cover that is in the thin shell limit, but by permitting the ice thickness to become large, more interesting ice tidal response can be found, ones conceivably of application to bodies in the outer Solar System or hypothetical exoplanets. Little can be said concerning a reduction in tidal dissipation necessary to avoid a crisis in the history of the lunar orbit.

  5. Pin-Retraction Mechanism On Quick-Release Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Quick-release cover includes pin-retraction mechanism releasing cover quickly from lower of two sets of pin connections holding cover. Cover released at top by pulling lever as described in "Lever-Arm Pin Puller" (NPO-18788). Removal of cover begins when technician or robot pulls upper-pin-release lever. Cover swings downward until tabs on lower pins are pulled through slots in their receptacles. Lower pins are then free.

  6. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available.

  7. Corrosion of two oxide-covered steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz-Tonhauser, Melissa

    Determining the corrosive response of pipeline steel under laboratory immersion conditions can be difficult when an adequate reproduction of feild conditions is required. The difficulty is multiplied when testing an oxide-covered surface. Corrosion standards do not adequately cover testing oxide-covered steels. Methodology is developed to test the corrosive response of oxide-covered steels, especially pre-immersion surface oxides such as millscale. The methodology focuses on open-circuit potential monitoring, polarization, mass loss and surface examination. Procedures are recommended for specimen preparation, equipment to handle hostile media, test sequencing, specimen cleaning, and preparation for post-immersion examination. Long standing belief's regarding the interaction of millscale in the corrosive response of a steel originating from pre-1950's steel immersed in sea water that have propagated are: the presence of millscale causes pitting and scatter in corrosive testing results or is negligible due to quick removal. Results from A36 and X70 steels in dearated high chloride ion containing environments indicate that an adjustment of historical industry perspectives of millscale is required. Millscale does not cause pitting. Pitting is material/environment dependent. A material/environment that is prone to pitting will, at least initially, experience a concentration of the corrosion at breaks in the millscale. The presence of millscale does not ensure pitting will occur. Scatter in the corrosion parameters determined from mass loss and polarizations are not related to the presence or absence of millscale but due to a combination of testing methodology and material/environment. Removal of millscale is material/environment dependent requiring very acidic conditions to negate the interaction in the materials corrosive response. The presence of millscale can be enhanced by oxide growth during immersion.

  8. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  9. Hospital transformation and organisational learning.

    PubMed

    Ho, W

    1999-12-01

    Kwong Wah Hospital was founded by the charity organisation Tung Wah Group of Hospitals some 88 years ago, with management transfer to the Hong Kong Hospital Authority in 1991. Capitalizing both from the traditional caring culture of its founder, as well as opportunities in the new management environment, the hospital has scored remarkable successes in service quality, community partnership, organisational effectiveness, and staff development. Underpinning these transformations were Structure, Process, People, and Culture strategies. The learning imperative is heavily mandated or the success of each of these strands of development. Indeed, the embodiment of a learning organisation culture provides the impetus in sustaining the change momentum, towards achieving the Vision of becoming a 'Most Preferred Hospital' in Hong Kong. PMID:10673847

  10. New directions in hospital governance.

    PubMed

    Shortell, S M

    1989-01-01

    This article suggests new directions for hospital governance to meet the demands of a rapidly changing health care environment. Board members must increasingly play roles as risk takers, strategic directors, experts, mentors, and evaluators. Lessons from other industries regarding risk taking, use of expertise, and streamlining decision making must be adapted to meet hospital needs. Recent data suggest that these needs may still differ by hospital ownership despite a convergence in investor-owned and not-for-profit corporate structures. The effectiveness of hospital boards in the future will depend on their ability to: (1) manage a diverse group of stakeholders; (2) involve physicians in the management and governance process; (3) meet the governance needs of multi-institutional systems and hospital restructuring; (4) meet the challenges of diversification and vertical integration; and (5) understand strategy formulation and implementation as interdependent and interrelated processes.

  11. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  12. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... covered commodities means covered commodities (of the same type) presented for retail sale in a...

  13. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... covered commodities means covered commodities (of the same type) presented for retail sale in a...

  14. 43 CFR 5.1 - What does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION Areas Administered by the... does this subpart cover? This subpart covers commercial filming and still photography activities...

  15. 43 CFR 5.1 - What does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION Areas Administered by the... does this subpart cover? This subpart covers commercial filming and still photography activities...

  16. Physicians and foundation hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cooper, John; Black, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Foundation NHS Trusts will be constituted in the same way as Mutual Societies, and local people and patients will be invited to become subscribers. Subscribers will elect a board of governors who will appoint the non-executive directors of the Trusts. Foundation Trusts will be outside the performance management system, but will be subject to a regulator and to inspection. Contracts with commissioners will be legally enforceable. Issues discussed in the article include: financial borrowing; whether competition is being reintroduced; poaching staff; fears of a two-tier health service; fragmentation of the NHS; the impact on research and teaching; and the impact on the current 'target culture'. Local communities and patient groups may welcome involvement with their local hospitals, but special interest groups could be a danger. Foundation Trusts may bring back some of the better features of NHS Trusts as originally conceived, and offer better opportunities for clinicians to influence local policies and priorities. Fears of yet another organisational change are an important issue. Only time will tell whether the outcome will justify the effort the changes will involve. PMID:14703035

  17. LANDSAT applications by the Adirondack Park Agency for land cover analyses and forest cover change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banta, J. S.; Curran, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Adirondack Park Agency is using LANDSAT imagery to provide current, consistent parkwide data on forest cover, forest change and other land cover characteristics for the Adirondack Park, an area of 9,375 sq. miles (24,280 sq km). Boundaries of the study area were digitized and the data were enhanced and geographically rectified. A classification scheme was devised which emphasized the basic land cover types of the Park: hardwoods, spruce-fir, pine, wet conifer, brushland, grassland, agricultural areas, exposed earth, urban areas, and water bodies. Cover type classifications for disturbed forest land were also chosen: cut hardwoods, regenerating hardwoods, and cut spruce fir. Field verification of 1978 classification revealed an accurate differentiation of forest types within types and between nonforested/forested areas. The classification accurately detects forest land disturbances; however, it is not always descriptive of the level of disturbance.

  18. Seasonality of hospital admissions for mental disorders in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Phan Minh; Rocklöv, Joacim; Giang, Kim Bao; Nilsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown a relationship between seasonality in weather patterns and depressive and behavioural disorders, especially in temperate climate regions. However, there is a lack of studies describing the seasonal patterns of hospital admissions for a variety of mental disorders in tropical and subtropical nations. The aim of this study has been to examine the relationship between seasons and daily hospital admissions for mental disorders in Hanoi, Vietnam. Designs A 5-year database (2008–2012) compiled by Hanoi Mental Hospital covering mental disorder admissions diagnosed by the International Classification of Diseases 10 was analysed. A negative binominal regression model was applied to estimate the associations between seasonality and daily hospital admissions for mental disorders, for all causes and for specific diagnoses. Results The summer season indicated the highest relative risk (RR=1.24, confidence interval (CI)=1.1–1.39) of hospital admission for mental disorders, with a peak in these cases in June (RR=1.46, CI=1.19–1.7). Compared to other demographic groups, males and the elderly (aged over 60 years) were more sensitive to seasonal risk changes. In the summer season, the RR of hospital visits among men increased by 26% (RR=1.26, CI=1.12–1.41) and among the elderly by 23% (RR=1.23, CI=1.03–1.48). Furthermore, when temperatures including minimum, mean, and maximum increased 1°C, the number of cases for mental disorders increased by 1.7%, 2%, and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The study results showed a correlation between hospital admission for mental disorders and season. PMID:27566716

  19. Insurance covered and non-covered complementary and alternative medicine utilisation among adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shu-Fang; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Kuo, Ken N

    2008-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been characterized by prevalence, cost, and patterns of use. Factors determining its utilization have also been analyzed, either generally or for specific diseases, but few studies have considered the determinants of its frequency of use. Taiwan's pluralistic health care system and comprehensive insurance program covering Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provide an interesting case to explore what forms of CAM people use, why and how often they use them. By using Taiwan's 2001 National Health Interview Survey and linking it with National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data, this study aims to investigate the socio-demographic, economic, behavioral and health determinants of use and frequency of use for both non-covered and covered CAM in Taiwan. The former consists of services practiced by non-regulated or non-NHI contracted practitioners and the latter includes those TCM covered by NHI. Our study showed that the determinants of using non-covered and covered CAM differ with respect to socio-demographic and behavioral factors, and health needs. Our evidence suggests that future CAM research must delineate between use and frequency of use to better understand the underlying factors contributing to initiation and continuity of CAM use.

  20. Modelling land cover dynamics: integration of fine-scale land cover data with landscape attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Benoît; Lambin, Eric

    Land cover change detection based on remote sensing data allows the identification of major processes of change and, by inference, the characterization of land use dynamics. Empirical diagnostic models of land use/cover change can be developed from these observations. To grasp the complexity of landscape mosaics and changes in land use, fine-scale land cover and socio-economic data are required. Case studies need to be representative of conditions at a broader scale, and selected where sufficient knowledge on social and ecological processes leading to land use changes exists. For this reason, collaboration between remote sensing specialists and human ecologists conducting long-term field-based land use studies is extremely productive. Continental-scale analysis of Africa was conducted to detect land cover change "hot spots". Fine-scale analyses were performed for validation purposes and to understand better the land cover change processes. Spatial statistical models of land cover change can be developed in order to anticipate where changes are more likely to occur next. Such predictive information is essential to support the implementation of appropriate policy responses to, for example, land degradation that would lead to the depletion of essential resources. Results of a spatial model of deforestation in southern Cameroon are discussed.

  1. Genotoxicity evaluation of hospital wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Preeti; Mathur, N; Bhatnagar, P; Nagar, P; Srivastava, S

    2009-10-01

    In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients reach the wastewater. Indeed, some of the substances found in wastewaters are genotoxic and are suspected to be a possible cause of the cancers observed in the last decades. Genotoxicity tests are an excellent means to study the toxicity and the risk associated with these releases. This paper points out the areas of concern for hospital wastewater disposal and reports the findings of genotoxicity tests for hospital effluents from 3 major hospitals in Delhi, namely All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Apollo and Escorts. Mutagenicity of hospital wastewaters from effluent treatment plants (before and after treatment) was studied. The results of this study show that the genotoxicity of hospital wastewaters is highly reduced after the treatment process. This study calls for establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. The results of this study call for further detailed study in this area.

  2. [Hospitals' evolution through the ages].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The predecessor institutions of modern hospitals--Byzantine nosocómeion, European hospitale and Islamic maristan--were dissimilar both in their patients and their aims. The first charitable organizations in West Europe (Rome) and in the East (Cesarea in Cappadocia) were rather hospices. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire (476 A.D.), some monastic centers were prepared to provide medical assistance to religious and secular patients. Since the XI and XII Centuries in all of Christian Europe the charitable institutions, designated as hospitale, multiplied. Among the Italian ones, the Roman Santo Spirito (Holy Ghost) Hospital, built in the 1201-1204 period, reached a preeminet position. This one soon became the most important of the entire Christendom (archihospital), with a lot of affiliated hospitals in Europe and later in America. The first American hospital, Saint Nicholas Hospital, opened on December 29, 1503 in Santo Domingo, obtained in 1541 its affiliation to the Santo Spirito archihospital. Regarding continental America, the first health centers were established in Mexico: the Immaculate Conception Hospital and the Saint Lazarus Hospital, both established by Hernán Cortés. For its part, clinical teaching was systematized at the Saint Francis Hospital in Padua and by there moved to Leyden. In Mexico, the chair of medical clinics or practical medicine was established in 1806 at the Saint Andrew Hospital. During the XX century, Dr. Ignacio Chávez was the driving force behind the creation of the modern Mexican Health Institutes. These ones are dedicated to the treatment of poor patients, as well as to medical teaching and research.

  3. [Analysis of a complex health division at the Modena General Hospital by means of DRG indicators].

    PubMed

    Vecchi, Elena; Righi, Elena; Cavazzuti, Lucia; Bicocchi, Marco; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2003-01-01

    The authors have assessed the activity of a complex division (three wards) at the Modena General Hospital. The parameters used were DRG indicators: Case-Mix Index; Performance Index and Resources Index. It is a in-house hospital analysis, since the benchmark is based on the three units average figures. The analysis covers 1479 patients hospitalized during the first 6 months of the year 2000. The authors have taken into account overall DGRs, surgical DGRs and recurrent DGRs. Making allowance for the limits of such comparison, the study shows some differences as regards efficiency and cost-curbing policies, with the surgical unit having the largest and most diversified number of cases.

  4. A study of hospital and medical libraries in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed Central

    al-Ogla, S

    1998-01-01

    The study reported examined the status of hospital libraries, their sponsoring organizations, their staff, the academic qualifications of the head of the library, collection size, available space, buildings, and services. The study was limited to the hospitals with libraries for staff in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The data were collected through questionnaires sent to a sample of fifteen hospitals with medical libraries. Twelve libraries responded. This is the first study of its kind in Saudi Arabia, and it is hoped that similar surveys will be done covering the whole kingdom. PMID:9549013

  5. The Status of Hospital Information Systems in Iranian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohammed; Ayat, Masar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The area of e-Health is broad and has an excellent growth potential. An increasing number of experts believe that e-Health will fuel the next breakthroughs in health system improvements throughout the world, but there is frequent evidence of unsustainable use of e-Health systems in medical centres, particularly hospitals, for different reasons in different countries. Iran is also a developing country which is presently adopting this promising technology for its traditional healthcare delivery but there is not much information about the use of e-Health systems in its hospitals, and the weakness and opportunities of utilization of such Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Methods: For this research, a number of Hospitals from Isfahan, Iran, are selected using convenient sampling. E-health research professionals went there to observe their HIS and collect required data as a qualitative survey. The design of interview questions was based on the researchers’ experiences and knowledge in this area along with elementary interviews with experts on HIS utilization in hospitals. Results: Efficient administration of e-health implementation improves the quality of healthcare, reduces costs and medical errors, makes healthcare resources available to rural areas, etc. However, there are numerous issues affecting the successful utilization of e-health in Hospitals, such as a lack of a perfect HIS implementation plan and well-defined strategy, inadequate IT-security for the protection of e-health-related data, improper training and educational issues, legal challenges, privacy concerns, improper documentation of lessons learned, resistance to the application of new technologies, and finally a lack of recovery plan and disaster management. These results along with some informative stories are extracted from interview sessions to uncover associated challenges of HIS utilization in Iranian hospitals. Conclusion: The utilization of e-health in Iranian hospitals

  6. Spatial distribution and accessibility to public sector tertiary care teaching hospitals in Karachi: A Geographic Information Systems application.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Ali, Mir Shabbar

    2016-07-01

    Optimal utilization of specialized curative healthcare services is contingent on spatial access to tertiary-care hospitals by the targeted population. The objectives of this study were to determine the spatial distribution of public sector tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Karachi, and to use GIS and network analysis for modeling the accessibility to these hospitals for Karachi residents. Maps of three, six, and nine kilometer buffers were created around the five selected hospitals to determine which towns of Karachi are either entirely or partially covered/accessible. Most of the towns in Karachi were covered either partially or completely by the three buffers and service areas of 3,6, and 9 kilometers around the five selected hospitals. This study highlights the limitations of using publicly available data for road network, and the need for creating and making available in public domain, comprehensive road network vector dataset in conjunction with population breakdowns by administrative subdivisions. PMID:27427142

  7. Yelp Reviews Of Hospital Care Can Supplement And Inform Traditional Surveys Of The Patient Experience Of Care.

    PubMed

    Ranard, Benjamin L; Werner, Rachel M; Antanavicius, Tadas; Schwartz, H Andrew; Smith, Robert J; Meisel, Zachary F; Asch, David A; Ungar, Lyle H; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about how real-time online rating platforms such as Yelp may complement the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey, which is the US standard for evaluating patients' experiences after hospitalization. We compared the content of Yelp narrative reviews of hospitals to the topics in the HCAHPS survey, called domains in HCAHPS terminology. While the domains included in Yelp reviews covered the majority of HCAHPS domains, Yelp reviews covered an additional twelve domains not found in HCAHPS. The majority of Yelp topics that most strongly correlate with positive or negative reviews are not measured or reported by HCAHPS. The large collection of patient- and caregiver-centered experiences found on Yelp can be analyzed with natural language processing methods, identifying for policy makers the measures of hospital quality that matter most to patients and caregivers. The Yelp measures and analysis can also provide actionable feedback for hospitals.

  8. Spatial distribution and accessibility to public sector tertiary care teaching hospitals in Karachi: A Geographic Information Systems application.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Ali, Mir Shabbar

    2016-07-01

    Optimal utilization of specialized curative healthcare services is contingent on spatial access to tertiary-care hospitals by the targeted population. The objectives of this study were to determine the spatial distribution of public sector tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Karachi, and to use GIS and network analysis for modeling the accessibility to these hospitals for Karachi residents. Maps of three, six, and nine kilometer buffers were created around the five selected hospitals to determine which towns of Karachi are either entirely or partially covered/accessible. Most of the towns in Karachi were covered either partially or completely by the three buffers and service areas of 3,6, and 9 kilometers around the five selected hospitals. This study highlights the limitations of using publicly available data for road network, and the need for creating and making available in public domain, comprehensive road network vector dataset in conjunction with population breakdowns by administrative subdivisions.

  9. Yelp Reviews Of Hospital Care Can Supplement And Inform Traditional Surveys Of The Patient Experience Of Care.

    PubMed

    Ranard, Benjamin L; Werner, Rachel M; Antanavicius, Tadas; Schwartz, H Andrew; Smith, Robert J; Meisel, Zachary F; Asch, David A; Ungar, Lyle H; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about how real-time online rating platforms such as Yelp may complement the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey, which is the US standard for evaluating patients' experiences after hospitalization. We compared the content of Yelp narrative reviews of hospitals to the topics in the HCAHPS survey, called domains in HCAHPS terminology. While the domains included in Yelp reviews covered the majority of HCAHPS domains, Yelp reviews covered an additional twelve domains not found in HCAHPS. The majority of Yelp topics that most strongly correlate with positive or negative reviews are not measured or reported by HCAHPS. The large collection of patient- and caregiver-centered experiences found on Yelp can be analyzed with natural language processing methods, identifying for policy makers the measures of hospital quality that matter most to patients and caregivers. The Yelp measures and analysis can also provide actionable feedback for hospitals. PMID:27044971

  10. [Clinical cost analysis of balloon kyphoplasty--is there a possibility of cost-covering treatment?].

    PubMed

    Chmielnicki, M; McDougall, A M; Prokop, A

    2014-06-01

    Financial pressure on hospitals has been a major issue in the health care system of the past years and the financial situation is often what decides about the future of the hospitals. Therefore today the economic feasibility of patient treatment in hospitals is more important than ever before. After the degradation of the case-based lump sum of I09D to I09F on a one and two level kyphoplasty we took that as motivation to do a cost analysis on 10 randomised cases. The average age of the patients was 75 years (m : f = 2 : 8), the average stay in hospital was 8 days (3-12 d). The analysis was done by a searching of documents in cooperation with the firm GFG-Beratungsgesellschaft mbH (Mönchengladbach, Germany). We found that the average overall cost which includes the cost of hospital stay and the expenditure on material was 7512.53 € and the average earnings of the cases was 7610,97 €, the difference and in that way the proceeds was 98.44 €. On that result performance of a one-level kyphoplasty especially after the degradation of the case-based lump sum in 2013 is possible in a cost-covering way, an increase in profit may be possible by a decrement of hospital stay. In 2014 one- and two-stage kyphoplasty once underwent a reduction of G-DRG from I09F to I09E. At the same time the cost weight of lump compensation I09E was increased by 0.071 with the result that in 2014, with an increased federal base value of 3156.82 € (in 2013 the federal base rate value was 3068.37 €), additional proceeds of 404,92 € can be realised in the field of one- and two-stage kyphoplasty compared to in 2013. On that result a one-level kyphoplasty especially after the degradation of the case-based lump sum in 2013 and in 2014 is possible in a cost-covering manner, an increase in profit may be possible by a decrement of hospital stay.

  11. A computerized hospital maintenance system.

    PubMed

    Kresch, E; Katz, P; Schwartz, H; Hamarman, H

    1985-01-01

    The Biomedical Instrumentation Department at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital maintains most of the clinical equipment owned by the hospital and provides support to six other hospitals, as well. In order to document these services, a computerized support system has been developed. This system maintains the inventory of equipment, documents the occurrence of repair and preventive maintenance procedures, generates lists of items due for maintenance and inspection, and prints reports and summaries of all activities performed by department staff. The system was designed for ease of use and requires a minimum of training for personnel who use it. PMID:10271514

  12. Preventable hospitalizations and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Blustein, J; Hanson, K; Shea, S

    1998-01-01

    "Preventable" hospitalizations have been proposed as indicators of poor health plan performance. In this study of elderly Medicare beneficiaries, however, we found that preventable hospitalizations are also more common among elders of lower socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship persisted even when an up-to-date severity-of-illness adjustment system was used. To the extent that indicators of health plan "performance" reflect enrollees' characteristics, plans will be rewarded for marketing their services to wealthier, healthier, and better-educated patients. Further work is needed to clarify issues of accountability for preventable hospitalizations and other putative indices of health plan performance. PMID:9558796

  13. Energy audits at 48 hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, E.

    1981-11-01

    Staff at the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) conducted energy audits at 48 hospitals in four states (New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee) between 1978 and 1980. Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ORAU developed and organized a computerized data base containing information from these audits. This paper describes the ORAU audit process; summarizes the data collected from these audits on hospital characteristics annual energy use, and the audit recommendations; and analyzes the audit data in terms of cost effectiveness, type of recommendations, and the relationship between potential energy saving and characteristics of the individual hospital.

  14. Trends affecting hospitals' human resources.

    PubMed

    Neudeck, M M

    1985-01-01

    Hospital workers at every level--from administrators to housekeepers--will be affected by the interaction of changes already underway in the healthcare industry. Societal forces that will affect the hospital workforce include demographic change, the rise of the participatory ethic and decentralization, a growing philosophy of job entitlement, and new pressures for unionization. At the same time, the industry is faced with changing manpower requirements, cost containment, and the oversupply of physicians. This article identifies some of the likely effects of these changes on hospital human resources and suggests ways that administrators can prepare for them.

  15. Assessing Greek Public Hospitals' Websites.

    PubMed

    Tsirintani, Maria; Binioris, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    Following a previous (2011) survey, this study assesses the web pages of Greek public hospitals according to specific criteria, which are included in the same web page evaluation model. Our purpose is to demonstrate the evolution of hospitals' web pages and document e-health applications trends. Using descriptive methods we found that public hospitals have made significant steps towards establishing and improving their web presence but there is still a lot of work that needs to be carried out in order to take advantage of the benefits of new technologies in the e-health ecosystem.

  16. [Management or strategy within hospitals].

    PubMed

    Branciard, A; Mosse, P

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on certain number of hospital departments to identify the kind of variables which determine decision-making and decision-implementation as concerns innovations, both in medical process and hospital organization. Among the internal variables, one can quote the size of the hospital, its ownership type, its main field of activity, its situation in the local health structure, its resources ... Among the external variables one can quote the supply of care at the local level, the local health networking, the state of technological development, interrelationship of the health sector, the manufacturing sector and the research sector, the presence of managerial tools and skills...

  17. Covering a Crucible with Metal Containing Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    In a procedure that partly resembles the lost-wax casting process, a crucible made of a brittle material (ceramic, quartz, or glass) is covered with a layer of metal containing channels. The metal cover and the channels can serve any or all of several purposes, depending upon the application: Typically, the metal would serve at least partly to reinforce the crucible. The channels could be used as passages for narrow objects that could include thermocouples and heat-transfer strips. Alternatively or in addition, channels could be used as flow paths for liquid or gaseous coolants and could be positioned and oriented for position- or direction-selective cooling. In some cases, the channels could be filled with known gases and sealed so that failure of the crucibles could be indicated by instruments that detect the gases. The process consists of three main steps. In the first step, a pattern defining the channels is formed by wrapping or depositing a material in the desired channel pattern on the outer surface of the crucible. The pattern material can be a plastic, wax, low-ash fibrous material, a soluble material, or other suitable material that can subsequently be removed easily. In a proof-of-concept demonstration (see figure), the crucible was an alumina cylinder and the mold material was plastic tie-down tape. In the second step, the patterned crucible is coated with metal. In one variation of the second step, a very thin layer containing or consisting of an electrically conductive material (e.g., gold, silver, or carbon) is painted or otherwise deposited on the mold-covered crucible, then the covering metal required for the specific application is electrodeposited on the very thin conducting layer. In another variation of the second step, the metal coat is formed by chemical vapor deposition. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, a layer of nickel 0.003 in. ( 0.08 mm) thick was electrodeposited. In the third step, the patterned material is removed. This is

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... in many US hospitals do not fully support breastfeeding. Some of the Ten Steps on which hospitals ...

  19. In-hospital Cardiac Arrest at Cork University Hospital.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, E; Deasy, C

    2016-01-01

    We describe the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at Cork University Hospital over a one year time period (2011), prior to the implementation of national early warning scoring (NEWS) systems. There were 43 217 coded CUH admissions, in 2011, to 518 in-patient beds. The Hospital In-Patient Enquiry Database was used to identify adults (>/= 18 years) who sustained IHCA. Available Utstein variables were collected. Fifty-two patients were found to be incorrectly coded IHCA. 17 of 63 (27.0%) IHCA survived to discharge. IHCA with shockable rhythm had significantly higher survival. IHCA survival was significantly lower on wards versus any other hospital location. Median days of stay prior to arrest were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. All survivors (n = 17) had intact neurological outcome post-event. Our outcomes from IHCA are poorest on hospital wards when compared to other areas of the hospital. Those that survive have excellent function and one-year survival.

  20. [Computer alert and quality of care: application to the surveillance of hospital infections].

    PubMed

    Safran, E; Pittet, D; Borst, F; Thurler, G; Schulthess, P; Rebouillat, L; Lagana, M; Berney, J P; Berthoud, M; Copin, P

    1994-11-01

    The Centre Informatique of Geneva University Hospital is developing, in the environment of its hospital information system, DIOGENE, a computerized alert system for surveillance of hospital infections. This hospital information system is based on an open distributed architecture and a relational database system, and covers many medical applications. This environment allows the development of alerts useful for detecting patients at risk. The alerts offer to clinicians a mean to control their efficacy in patient care. They are a new application of telematics for surveillance in clinical epidemiology, and are a tool for quality assurance. Two examples of alerts established for hospital infection control activities are presented. The first alert systematically detects all cases of patients colonized by or infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The second alert helps to organize prospective surveillance of bloodstream infections in order to identify some risk factors for infection and propose preventive measures.

  1. Improving the performance of floating solar pool covers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, M.A.; Lowrey, P. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-11-01

    Experimental and analytical analyses are presented for the evaluation of heat transfer through floating solar swimming pool covers. Two improved floating solar swimming pool cover designs are proposed and investigated in this paper. The results conclusively show that both new cover designs should have significantly better performance than conventional floating solar swimming pool covers.

  2. Snow cover in the Siberian forest-steppe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zykov, I. V.

    1985-01-01

    A study is made of the snow cover on an experimental agricultural station in Mariinsk in the winter of 1945 to 1946. Conditions of snow cover formation, and types and indicators of snow cover are discussed. Snow cover structure and conditions and nature of thawing are described.

  3. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  4. Using cash cover crops to provide pollinator provisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, the use of winter cover crops in MN and SD has been slow to be adopted. The short growing season and potential for late wet springs make cover crops risky to farmers with little economic return. The use of cash cover crops in this area offers the standard advantages of other cover crops, wi...

  5. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  6. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  7. EFFECTS OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON LAND-COVER CLASS ACCURACY

    EPA Science Inventory



    Utilizing land-cover data gathered as part of the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set accuracy assessment, several logistic regression models were formulated to analyze the effects of patch size and land-cover heterogeneity on classification accuracy. Specific land-cover ...

  8. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  9. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  10. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  11. 10 CFR 950.22 - Covered event determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered event determination. 950.22 Section 950.22 Energy... Covered event determination. (a) Completeness review. Upon notification of a covered event from the... with paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Covered Event Determination. The Claims Administrator...

  12. 29 CFR 4.110 - What contracts are covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What contracts are covered. 4.110 Section 4.110 Labor...Namara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Covered Contracts Generally § 4.110 What contracts are covered. The Act covers service contracts of the Federal agencies described in §§ 4.107-4.108. Except as...

  13. 22 CFR 1006.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true What is a covered transaction? 1006.200 Section... (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1006.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is a nonprocurement or procurement transaction that is subject to the prohibitions of this part. It may be...

  14. 22 CFR 1508.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true What is a covered transaction? 1508.200 Section... (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1508.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is a nonprocurement or procurement transaction that is subject to the prohibitions of this part. It may be...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a covered transaction? 1404.200 Section... (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is a nonprocurement or procurement transaction that is subject to the prohibitions of this part. It may be...

  16. 2 CFR 180.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a covered transaction? 180.200... (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 180.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is a nonprocurement or procurement transaction that is subject to the prohibitions of this part. It may be...

  17. 10 CFR 950.22 - Covered event determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Covered event determination. 950.22 Section 950.22 Energy... Covered event determination. (a) Completeness review. Upon notification of a covered event from the... with paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Covered Event Determination. The Claims Administrator...

  18. 10 CFR 950.31 - Covered event dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Covered event dispute resolution. 950.31 Section 950.31... § 950.31 Covered event dispute resolution. (a) If a sponsor disagrees with the Covered Event...) days of receipt of the Covered Event Determination, deliver to the Claims Administrator written...

  19. 10 CFR 950.22 - Covered event determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Covered event determination. 950.22 Section 950.22 Energy... Covered event determination. (a) Completeness review. Upon notification of a covered event from the... with paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Covered Event Determination. The Claims Administrator...

  20. 10 CFR 950.31 - Covered event dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Covered event dispute resolution. 950.31 Section 950.31... § 950.31 Covered event dispute resolution. (a) If a sponsor disagrees with the Covered Event...) days of receipt of the Covered Event Determination, deliver to the Claims Administrator written...