Science.gov

Sample records for covering wall openings

  1. 13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The boardandbatten wall covers an opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The board-and-batten wall covers an opening that was originally fitted with windows which allowed sunlight into the greenhouse. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. The Wall Coverings Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Students love nothing better than personalizing their space--desk, bedroom, or even their cars. This article describes a classroom challenge that gives students a chance to let their spirits soar with the invention of a new form of wall treatment. A trip to a big box store might prove to be most helpful for students to visualize their new product…

  3. 29 CFR 1910.23 - Guarding floor and wall openings and holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chute floor opening shall be guarded by one of the following: (i) Hinged floor opening cover of standard... use. Where operating conditions necessitate the feeding of material into any hatchway or chute opening... specifications. (2) Every chute wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet shall be guarded...

  4. 17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to filtration bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  5. 10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These groundlevel openings were ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These ground-level openings were part of the original heating system used to warm the greenhouse. The openings were likely related to the flues, while a larger opening to the west (not in photograph) contained an exterior-fed iron stove. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 19. View looking N at mill wall ruins with open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View looking N at mill wall ruins with open end of purging house in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  7. BEDROOM 1 SHOWING THE OPENING IN THE EXTERIOR WALL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEDROOM 1 SHOWING THE OPENING IN THE EXTERIOR WALL FOR AN AIR CONDITIONER. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening above level of main roof. Note structure is built on poured concrete foundation partly buried in hillside; view in southeast - Fort McKinley, Double Mine Building, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  9. Support pedestals for interconnecting a cover and nozzle band wall in a gas turbine nozzle segment

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner band portions. Each band portion includes a nozzle wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through the apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. Structural pedestals interconnect the cover and nozzle wall and pass through holes in the impingement plate to reduce localized stress otherwise resulting from a difference in pressure within the chamber of the nozzle segment and the hot gas path and the fixed turbine casing surrounding the nozzle stage. The pedestals may be cast or welded to the cover and nozzle wall.

  10. Guided-waves technique for inspecting the health of wall-covered building risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Peter W.; Chen, J. M.; Wan, X.

    2015-03-01

    The inspection technique uses guided ultrasonic waves (GW) has been proven effective in detecting pipes' defects. However, as of today, the technique has not attracted much market attention because of insufficient field tests and lack of traceable records with proven results in commercial applications. In this paper, it presents the results obtained by using GW to inspect the defects occurred in real gas risers that are commonly installed in tall buildings. The purpose of having risers is to deliver gas from any building external piping system to each household unit of the building. The risers extend from the external wall of the building, penetrate thorough the concrete wall, into the kitchen or bathroom of each household unit. Similar to in-service pipes, risers are prone to corrosion due to water leaks into the concrete wall. However, the corrosion occurs in the section of riser, which is covered by the concrete wall, is difficult to be inspected by conventional techniques. Hence, GW technique was employed. The effectiveness of GW technique was tested by laboratory and on-site experiments using real risers gathered from tall buildings. The experimental results show that GW can partially penetrate thorough the riser's section that is covered by wall. The integrity of the wall-covered section of a riser can be determined by the reflected wave signals generated by the corroded area that may exit inside the wall-covered section. Based on the reflected wave signal, one can determine the health of the wall-covered riser.

  11. High resolution PIV of flow over biofilm covered walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartenberger, Joel; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Microbial, 'slime' biofilms detrimentally affect the performance of engineered systems used every day from heat exchangers to large ocean-going vessels. The presence of a slime layer on a pipe wall or external boundary often leads to a significant increase in drag and may alter the nature of the turbulence in the adjacent flow. Despite these consequences, relatively few efforts have been undertaken to understand the underlying physical processes which couple biofilm characteristics with increased drag and other alterations to the flow. Experiments performed in a 1:14 scale replica of the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) at the University of Michigan investigate the effect of biofilm composition, coverage and thickness on the development of an external turbulent boundary layer (TBL) through the use of conventional and micro PIV. A range of fields of view (FOVs) were used to capture both the inner and outer regions of the boundary layer. The fine resolution of micro PIV gives an in-depth look at the near-wall region of the flow and may provide evidence linking specific biofilm features with flow characteristics while the less resolved, larger FOVs capture flow behavior to the freestream. Measurement techniques used to characterize the biofilm will be presented along with a description of the mean flow and turbulent fluctuations in the TBL.

  12. Advancing the quantification of humid tropical forest cover loss with multi-resolution optical remote sensing data: Sampling & wall-to-wall mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broich, Mark

    Humid tropical forest cover loss is threatening the sustainability of ecosystem goods and services as vast forest areas are rapidly cleared for industrial scale agriculture and tree plantations. Despite the importance of humid tropical forest in the provision of ecosystem services and economic development opportunities, the spatial and temporal distribution of forest cover loss across large areas is not well quantified. Here I improve the quantification of humid tropical forest cover loss using two remote sensing-based methods: sampling and wall-to-wall mapping. In all of the presented studies, the integration of coarse spatial, high temporal resolution data with moderate spatial, low temporal resolution data enable advances in quantifying forest cover loss in the humid tropics. Imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are used as the source of coarse spatial resolution, high temporal resolution data and imagery from the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor are used as the source of moderate spatial, low temporal resolution data. In a first study, I compare the precision of different sampling designs for the Brazilian Amazon using the annual deforestation maps derived by the Brazilian Space Agency for reference. I show that sampling designs can provide reliable deforestation estimates; furthermore, sampling designs guided by MODIS data can provide more efficient estimates than the systematic design used for the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization Forest Resource Assessment 2010. Sampling approaches, such as the one demonstrated, are viable in regions where data limitations, such as cloud contamination, limit exhaustive mapping methods. Cloud-contaminated regions experiencing high rates of change include Insular Southeast Asia, specifically Indonesia and Malaysia. Due to persistent cloud cover, forest cover loss in Indonesia has only been mapped at a 5-10 year interval using photo interpretation of single

  13. Mechanical Response of Open Channel Cover Made of Concrete Foam Due to External Loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syam, Bustami; Sebayang, Alexander; Gunawan, Indra; Muttaqin, Maraghi; Darmadi, Herry; Basuki, WS; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2017-01-01

    Open channel conduit is commonly constructed on side roadway, car park area, etc., with the aims to collect rainwater or seapage water. To avoid garbages following the waterflow, the conduit is equipped with adequate cover. In addition, the cover can also be functioned for temporary car park area. Thus, the conduit cover should strong enough to sustain external loading. This paper discusses the design and response of the conduit cover using finite element software ANSYS MECHANICAL version 17.5.

  14. 30 CFR 18.29 - Access openings and covers, including unused lead-entrance holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.29 Access openings and covers,...

  15. 30 CFR 18.29 - Access openings and covers, including unused lead-entrance holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.29 Access openings and covers,...

  16. The Open Classroom: Were Schools Without Walls Just Another Fad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The open-classroom movement originated in British public elementary schools after World War II. American educators who adopted the trend viewed informal education--or, as they came to call it, open classrooms or open education--as an answer to both the American education system's critics and the problems of U.S. society. Open classrooms' focus on…

  17. Canopy cover negatively affects arboreal ant species richness in a tropical open habitat.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, A C M; Ribas, C R

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis of a negative relationship between vegetation characteristics and ant species richness in a Brazilian open vegetation habitat, called candeial. We set up arboreal pitfalls to sample arboreal ants and measured the following environmental variables, which were used as surrogate of environmental heterogeneity: tree richness, tree density, tree height, circumference at the base of the plants, and canopy cover. Only canopy cover had a negative effect on the arboreal ant species richness. Vegetation characteristics and plant species composition are probably homogeneous in candeial, which explains the lack of relationship between other environmental variables and ant richness. Open vegetation habitats harbor a large number of opportunistic and generalist species, besides specialist ants from habitats with high temperatures. An increase in canopy cover decreases sunlight incidence and may cause local microclimatic differences, which negatively affect the species richness of specialist ants from open areas. Canopy cover regulates the richness of arboreal ants in open areas, since only few ant species are able to colonize sites with dense vegetation; most species are present in sites with high temperature and luminosity. Within open vegetation habitats the relationship between vegetation characteristics and species richness seems to be the opposite from closed vegetation areas, like forests.

  18. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.23 - Guarding floor and wall openings and holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... someone or shall be protected by removable standard railings. (7) Every temporary floor opening shall have..., a standard toe board shall be provided. (4) Every temporary wall opening shall have adequate guards... exclusively for special purposes (such as oiling, shafting, or filling tank cars) may have the railing on...

  1. Primary closure of the abdominal wall after "open abdomen" situation.

    PubMed

    Kääriäinen, M; Kuokkanen, H

    2013-01-01

    "Open abdomen" is a strategy used to avoid or treat abdominal compartment syndrome. It has reduced mortality both in trauma and non-trauma abdominal catastrophes but also has created a challenging clinical problem. Traditionally, open abdomen is closed in two phases; primarily with a free skin graft and later with a flap reconstruction. A modern trend is to close the abdomen within the initial hospitalization. This requires multi-professional co-operation. Temporary abdominal closure methods, e.g. negative pressure wound therapy alone or combined with mesh-mediated traction, have been developed to facilitate direct fascial closure. Components separation technique, mesh reinforcement or bridging of the fascial defect with mesh and perforator saving skin undermining can be utilized in the final closure if needed. These techniques can be combined. Choice of the treatment depends on the condition of the patient and size of the fascia and skin defect, and the state of the abdominal contents. In this paper we review the literature on the closure of an open abdomen and present the policy used in our institution in the open abdomen situations.

  2. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632, INTERIOR. OPEN CORRIDOR ALONG SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632, INTERIOR. OPEN CORRIDOR ALONG SOUTH WALL OF BUILDING. CAMERA IS NEAR HOT CELL NO. 1, FACES WEST TOWARDS WALL OF TEST-TRAIN ASSEMBLY (TRA-632A). NOTE MOTORIZED RAIL CRANE ABOVE STAIRWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-29-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Instantaneous response of elastic thin-walled structures with arbitrary open cross section to rapid heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xiaoqin; Mohan, Ram V.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized modeling and analysis approach of thermally-induced coupled vibrations of elastic thin-walled configurations with arbitrary open cross sections are presented in conjunction with a unified implicit transient methodology. Limited research appears in literature which takes into account the influence of rapid thermal heating effects on structures involving various forms of coupling. As a consequence, the dynamic response of such thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross section due to rapid heating are described here. Effects involving triple, double, and no coupling between bending and torsional vibrations caused by sudden heating on these structures are examined. Numerical test cases are presented which describe the influence of sudden heating on elastic thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross sections.

  4. Microbubbles and Blood Brain Barrier Opening: A Numerical Study on Acoustic Emissions and Wall Stress Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Goertz, David E.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound with microbubbles is an emerging technique for blood brain barrier (BBB) opening. Here, a comprehensive theoretical model of a bubble-fluid-vessel system has been developed which accounts for the bubble’s non-spherical oscillations inside a microvessel, and its resulting acoustic emissions. Numerical simulations of unbound and confined encapsulated bubbles were performed to evaluate the effect of the vessel wall on acoustic emissions and vessel wall stresses. Using a Marmottant shell model, the normalized second harmonic to fundamental emissions first decreased as a function of pressure (>50 kPa) until reaching a minima ("transition point") at which point they increased. The transition point of unbound compared to confined bubble populations occurred at different pressures and was associated with an accompanying increase in shear and circumferential wall stresses. As the wall stresses depend on the bubble to vessel wall distance, the stresses were evaluated for bubbles with their wall at a constant distance to a flat wall. As a result, the wall stresses were bubble size and frequency dependent and the peak stress values induced by bubbles larger than resonance remained constant versus frequency at a constant mechanical index. PMID:25546853

  5. Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene

    2011-05-01

    Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions.

  6. Open-ended Coaxial Cavities with Corrugated Inner and Outer Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, Zisis C.; Avramidis, Konstantinos A.; Tigelis, Ioannis G.

    2015-05-01

    In this work an open-ended coaxial cavity with a corrugated insert and a relatively small number of corrugations on the outer wall is studied. In particular, the Spatial Harmonics Method (SHM) is employed in order to derive the TE modes characteristic equation, which is then solved by truncation for the calculation of the corresponding eigenvalues. Special care is given in the expansion functions used in order to avoid numerical instabilities in the calculation of high-order spatial terms. Various cases of outer wall corrugations are studied numerically in order to identify the effect of the outer corrugations and understand the mode coupling mechanism.

  7. Partially uncovered Cheatham platinum-covered stent to treat complex aortic coarctation associated with aortic wall aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Butera, Gianfranco; Piazza, Luciane

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous treatment of aortic coarctation is a widely used option. Covered stents have increased the profile of efficacy and safety of this procedure. Here we report on a 32-year-old woman with significant aortic recoarctation associated with aortic wall aneurysm and close proximity of both lesions to the origin of both the subclavian arteries. It was decided to manually and partially uncover the proximal part of the stent to have a hybrid stent that could act as a bare stent at the level of the origin of the subclavian arteries and as a covered stent at the level of the aneurysm.

  8. Cooling Earth's temperature by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds for increasing cloud cover by closing open cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, R.

    2008-12-01

    The transition from open to closed cellular convection in marine stratocumulus is very sensitive to small concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) aerosols. Addition of small amounts of CCN (about 100 cm-3) to the marine boundary layer (MBL) can close the open cells and by that increase the cloud cover from about 40% to nearly 100%, with negative radiative forcing exceeding 100 wm-2. We show satellite measurements that demonstrate this sensitivity by inadvertent experiments of old and diluted ship tracks. With the methodology suggested by Salter and Latham for spraying sub-micron sea water drops that serve as CCN, it is possible to close sufficiently large area of open cells for achieving the negative radiative forcing that is necessary to balance the greenhouse gases positive forcing. We show calculations of the feasibility of such an undertaking, and suggest that this is an economically feasible method with the least potential risks, when compared to seeding marine stratocumulus for enhancing their albedo or with seeding the stratosphere with bright or dark aerosols. Global Circulation models coupled with the ocean and the ice are necessary to calculate the impact and the possible side effects.

  9. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    PubMed

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (p<0.05. The fresh cowpea leaf b-carotene and vitamin C content was 140.9 and 164.3 mg / 100g DM respectively and decreased (p<0.05) with drying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (p<0.05) with drying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention.

  10. Argon adsorption in open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rols, S.; Johnson, M.R.; Zeppenfeld, P.; Bienfait, M.; Vilches, O.E.; Schneble, J.

    2005-04-15

    Thermodynamic and neutron-diffraction measurements combined with molecular dynamics simulation are used to determine the adsorption energies and the structure of argon condensed in the various adsorption sites of purified open-ended single-wall nanotube bundles. On the basis of these experiments and the simulation results, a consistent adsorption scenario has been derived. The adsorption proceeds first by the population of the walls inside the open nanotubes and the formation of one-dimensional Ar chains in the grooves at the outer surface of the bundles, followed by the filling of the remaining axial sites inside the nanotubes and the completion of a quasihexagonal monolayer on the outer surface of the bundle. The measurements also provide an estimate of the relative abundance of the various adsorption sites revealing that a major part of the adsorbed Ar is stored inside the open-ended nanotubes. Nanotube bundles generally show a certain degree of heterogeneity and some interstitial sites should be populated over a range of Ar chemical potential. However, for the sample used here, diffraction data and simulations suggest that heterogeneity is not a key feature of the bundles and there is little direct evidence of interstitial sites being populated.

  11. Bacterial regrowth potential in alkaline sludges from open-sun and covered sludge drying beds.

    PubMed

    Alkan, U; Topaç, F O; Birden, B; Baskaya, H S

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the regrowth potentials of wastewater sludges dried in two pilot-scale drying processes namely, Open-Sun Sludge Drying Bed (OSDB) and Covered Sludge Drying Bed (CSDB). Quicklime and/or coal fly ash were added to raw sludge samples prior to drying processes in order to enhance bacterial inactivation. Following three drying cycles (March-April, June-July and August-October), sludge samples were taken from the beds for the regrowth experiments. Addition of alkaline materials prevented the regrowth of faecal coliforms in all rewetted samples except for the samples obtained after the rainfall events in OSDB. Rewetting of these samples in the regrowth experiments increased faecal coliform numbers by 3.5-7 log units. In contradiction, the observed bacterial numbers in rewetted alkaline samples from CSDB were below the EPA Class B criterion (2 million MPN g(-1) dry sludge). The combination of additional heat from solar collectors, protection from the rain and the unfavourable living conditions owing to alkaline materials appeared to inactivate bacteria more effectively in CSDB and hence eliminated regrowth potential more efficiently.

  12. Colloid retention at the meniscus-wall contact line in an open microchannel.

    PubMed

    Zevi, Yuniati; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Morales, Verónica L; Cakmak, M Ekrem; Medrano, Evelyn A; Sang, Wenjing; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2012-02-01

    Colloid retention mechanisms in partially saturated porous media are currently being researched with an array of visualization techniques. These visualization techniques have refined our understanding of colloid movement and retention at the pore scale beyond what can be obtained from breakthrough experiments. One of the remaining questions is what mechanisms are responsible for colloid immobilization at the triple point where air, water, and soil grain meet. The objective of this study was to investigate how colloids are transported to the air-water-solid (AWS) contact line in an open triangular microchannel, and then retained as a function of meniscus contact angle with the wall and solution ionic strength. Colloid flow path, meniscus shape and meniscus-wall contact angle, and colloid retention at the AWS contact line were visualized and quantified with a confocal microscope. Experimental results demonstrated that colloid retention at the AWS contact line was significant when the meniscus-wall contact angle was less than 16°, but was minimal for the meniscus-wall contact angles exceeding 20°. Tracking of individual colloids and computational hydrodynamic simulation both revealed that for small contact angles (e.g., 12.5°), counter flow and flow vortices formed near the AWS contact line, but not for large contact angles (e.g., 28°). This counter flow helped deliver the colloids to the wall surface just below the contact line. In accordance with DLVO and hydrodynamic torque calculations, colloid movement may be stopped when the colloid reached the secondary minimum at the wall near the contact line. However, contradictory to the prediction of the torque analysis, colloid retention at the AWS contact line decreased with increasing ionic strength for contact angles of 10-20°, indicating that the air-water interface was involved through both counter flow and capillary force. We hypothesized that capillary force pushed the colloid through the primary energy

  13. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82.

  14. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall. PMID:26668335

  15. 3D visualization of sheath folds in Ancient Roman marble wall coverings from Ephesos, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, Sebastian; Passchier, Cees W.; de Kemp, Eric A.; İlhan, Sinan

    2014-10-01

    Archaeological excavations and restoration of a palatial Roman housing complex in Ephesos, Turkey yielded 40 wall-decorating plates of folded mylonitic marble (Cipollino verde), derived from the internal Hellenides near Karystos, Greece. Cipollino verde was commonly used for decoration purposes in Roman buildings. The plates were serial-sectioned from a single quarried block of 1,25 m3 and provided a research opportunity for detailed reconstruction of the 3D geometry of meterscale folds in mylonitized marble. A GOCAD model is used to visualize the internal fold structures of the marble, comprising curtain folds and multilayered sheath folds. The sheath folds are unusual in that they have their intermediate axis normal to the parent layering. This agrees with regional tectonic studies, which suggest that Cipollino verde structures formed by local constrictional non-coaxial flow. Sheath fold cross-section geometry, exposed on the surface of a plate or outcrop, is found to be independent of the intersection angle of the fold structure with the studied plane. Consequently, a single surface cannot be used as an indicator of the three-dimensional geometry of transected sheath folds.

  16. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED...

  18. Crack opening area estimates in pressurized through-wall cracked elbows under bending

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, C.; Gilles, P.; Pignol, M.

    1997-04-01

    One of the most important aspects in the leak-before-break approach is the estimation of the crack opening area corresponding to potential through-wall cracks at critical locations during plant operation. In order to provide a reasonable lower bound to the leak area under such loading conditions, numerous experimental and numerical programs have been developed in USA, U.K. and FRG and widely discussed in literature. This paper aims to extend these investigations on a class of pipe elbows characteristic of PWR main coolant piping. The paper is divided in three main parts. First, a new simplified estimation scheme for leakage area is described, based on the reference stress method. This approach mainly developed in U.K. and more recently in France provides a convenient way to account for the non-linear behavior of the material. Second, the method is carried out for circumferential through-wall cracks located in PWR elbows subjected to internal pressure. Finite element crack area results are presented and comparisons are made with our predictions. Finally, in the third part, the discussion is extended to elbows under combined pressure and in plane bending moment.

  19. Numerical study of the effects of lamp configuration and reactor wall roughness in an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the assessment of a numerical procedure used to determine the UV lamp configuration and surface roughness effects on an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The performance of the open channel water disinfection UV reactor was numerically analyzed on the basis of the performance indictor reduction equivalent dose (RED). The RED values were calculated as a function of the Reynolds number to monitor the performance. The flow through the open channel UV reactor was modelled using a k-ε model with scalable wall function, a discrete ordinate (DO) model for fluence rate calculation, a volume of fluid (VOF) model to locate the unknown free surface, a discrete phase model (DPM) to track the pathogen transport, and a modified law of the wall to incorporate the reactor wall roughness effects. The performance analysis was carried out using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent 15.0). Four case studies were analyzed based on open channel UV reactor type (horizontal and vertical) and lamp configuration (parallel and staggered). The results show that lamp configuration can play an important role in the performance of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The effects of the reactor wall roughness were Reynolds number dependent. The proposed methodology is useful for performance optimization of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

  20. Spectral characteristics of airway opening and chest wall tidal flows in spontaneously breathing preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Habib, Robert H; Pyon, Kee H; Courtney, Sherry E; Aghai, Zubair H

    2003-05-01

    We compared the harmonic content of tidal flows measured simultaneously at the mouth and chest wall in spontaneously breathing very low birth weight infants (n = 16, 1,114 +/- 230 g, gestation age: 28 +/- 2 wk). Airway opening flows were measured via face mask-pneumotachograph (P-tach), whereas chest wall flows were derived from respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) excursions. Next, for each, we computed two spectral shape indexes: 1) harmonic distortion (k(d); k(d,P-tach) and k(d,RIP), respectively) defines the extent to which flows deviated from a single sine wave, and 2) the exponent of the power law (s; s(P-tach) and s(RIP), respectively), describing the spectral energy vs. frequency. P-tach and RIP flow spectra exhibited similar power law functional forms consistently in all infants. Also, mouth [s(P-tach) = 3.73 +/- 0.23% (95% confidence interval), k(d,P-tach) = 38.8 +/- 4.6%] and chest wall (s(RIP) = 3.51 +/- 0.30%, k(d,RIP) = 42.8 +/- 4.8%) indexes were similar and highly correlated (s(RIP) = 1.17 x s(P-tach) + 0.85; r(2) = 0.81; k(d,RIP) = 0.90 x k(d,P-tach) + 8.0; r(2) = 0.76). The corresponding time to peak tidal expiratory flow-to-expiratory time ratio (0.62 +/- 0.08) was higher than reported in older infants. The obtained s and k(d) values are similar to those reported in older and/or larger chronic lung disease infants, yet appreciably lower than for 1-mo-old healthy infants of closer age and/or size; this indicated increased complexity of tidal flows in very low birth weight babies. Importantly, we found equivalent flow spectral data from mouth and chest wall tidal flows. The latter are desirable because they avoid face mask artificial effects, including leaks around it, they do not interfere with ventilatory support delivery, and they may facilitate longer measurements that are useful in control of breathing assessment.

  1. Microbubbles and blood-brain barrier opening: a numerical study on acoustic emissions and wall stress predictions.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhah, Nazanin; Goertz, David E; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2015-05-01

    Focused ultrasound with microbubbles is an emerging technique for blood-brain barrier opening. Here, a comprehensive theoretical model of a bubble-fluid-vessel system has been developed which accounts for the bubble's nonspherical oscillations inside a microvessel, and its resulting acoustic emissions. Numerical simulations of unbound and confined encapsulated bubbles were performed to evaluate the effect of the vessel wall on acoustic emissions and vessel wall stresses. Using a Marmottant shell model, the normalized second harmonic to fundamental emissions first decreased as a function of pressure (>50 kPa) until reaching a minima ("transition point") at which point they increased. The transition point of unbound compared to confined bubble populations occurred at different pressures and was associated with an accompanying increase in shear and circumferential wall stresses. As the wall stresses depend on the bubble to vessel wall distance, the stresses were evaluated for bubbles with their wall at a constant distance to a flat wall. As a result, the wall stresses were bubble size and frequency dependent and the peak stress values induced by bubbles larger than resonance remained constant versus frequency at a constant mechanical index.

  2. Open-book Splitting of a Distally Based Peroneus Brevis Muscle Flap to Cover Large Leg and Ankle Defects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Large soft-tissue defects in the lower leg and ankle are a major problem for plastic surgeons. Many local flaps that are either proximally or distally based have been previously described to cover small defects. Larger defects may require a distant flap that is either pedicled or free. The peroneus brevis muscle flap is a well-known distally based safe flap that is used to cover a small defect. Methods: Ten distally based peroneus brevis muscle flaps were elevated in 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) with major lower third leg and ankle defects that were 6–12 cm in length and 6–10 cm in width, with open-book splitting of the proximal portion of the muscle to cover these large defects. Results: Flap survival was excellent, and partial skin graft loss in two cases healed with dressing. The average flap length was 10 cm, ranging between 6 and 12 cm. The average flap width was 8 cm, ranging between 6 and 10 cm. The donor site also healed uneventful. Conclusions: Open-book splitting of the distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap is ideally suited for moderate to large defects in the distal third of the lower leg and ankle. This modification of the distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap offers a convincing alternative for covering large defects of up to 12 × 10 cm in the distal leg and ankle region. PMID:26893997

  3. Investigation on Twisting and Side Wall Opening Occurring in Curved Hat Channel Products Made of High Strength Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamura, Masato; Fukui, Ayako; Yano, Hiroshi; Hama, Takayuki; Sunaga, Hideyuki; Makinouchi, Akitake; Asakawa, Motoo

    2011-08-01

    High strength steel sheets are becoming increasingly important for the weight reduction of automotive bodies to meet the requirements for reduced environmental impact. However, dimensional defects resulting from springback are serious issues, and effective methods of predicting and reducing such defects are necessary. In this study, we numerically and experimentally analyzed the mechanisms of dimensional inaccuracies caused by springback occurring in curved hat channel deep drawing products. The analysis was based on the static explicit FEM software "TP-STRUCT" (the solver part is known as "STAMP3D"). The results of the experiments and simulations similarly show that the twist angle is positive (right-hand system) when the drawing height is relatively large. We calculated the twist torque around the longitudinal axis using the stress distributions obtained by FE analysis. Through the investigation of twist torque and its transition during the drawing and die removal processes, we found that the negative torque generated by side wall opening occurring in the die removal process is the dominant factor of the positive twist. Knowing such mechanisms of twist in cases with a relatively large drawing height, we attempted to explore methods of reducing side wall opening by giving the side wall a stepped shape with the eventual aim of reducing twist. Consequently, we concluded that the stepped shape on the side wall has marked effects of reducing side wall opening, mainly through the elimination of bending-unbending effects on die shoulders, which was verified by observing the stress distribution obtained by FE analysis.

  4. 30 CFR 18.29 - Access openings and covers, including unused lead-entrance holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lead-entrance holes. 18.29 Section 18.29 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... unused lead-entrance holes. (a) Access openings in explosion-proof enclosures will be permitted only... Figure 1 in Appendix II.) (c) Holes in enclosures that are provided for lead entrances but which are...

  5. Wheelspace windage cover plate for turbine

    DOEpatents

    Lathrop, Norman Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Windage cover plates are secured between the wheels and spacer of a turbine rotor to prevent hot flow path gas ingestion into the wheelspace cavities. Each cover plate includes a linear, axially extending body curved circumferentially with a radially outwardly directed wall at one axial end. The wall defines a axially opening recess for receiving a dovetail lug. The cover plate includes an axially extending tongue received in a circumferential groove of the spacer. The cover plate is secured with the tongue in the groove and dovetail lug in the recess. Lap joints between circumferentially adjacent cover plates are provided.

  6. Pressure-sensing properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes covered with a corona-poled piezoelectric polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Takeshi; Tabata, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Utaka, Ken; Kubo, Osamu; Katayama, Mitsuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been studied extensively as sensing elements for chemical and biochemical sensors because of their excellent electrical properties, their ultrahigh ratio of surface area to volume, and the consequent extremely high sensitivity of their surface to the surrounding environment. The extremely high sensitivity indicates that SWNTs can operate as excellent transducers when combined with piezoelectric materials. In this paper, we present a touch sensor based on SWNT thin-film transistors (SWNT-TFTs) covered with a thin film of the piezoelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)). Devices were fabricated by spin-coating a P(VDF-TrFE) layer on an SWNT-TFT, which was followed by in situ corona poling to polarize the P(VDF-TrFE) layer. We studied the effect of the corona polarity on the device characteristics and revealed that poling with a negative corona discharge induced a large amount of hole doping in the SWNTs and improved the touch-sensing performance of the devices, while a positive discharge had a negligible effect. The poled devices exhibited regular, stable, and positive drain current modulation in response to intermittent pressing, and the response was proportional to the magnitude of the applied pressure, suggesting that it was caused by the piezoelectric effect of the polarized P(VDF-TrFE) layer. Furthermore, we also fabricated a device using horizontally aligned SWNTs with a lower SWNT density as an alternative transducer to an SWNT thin film, which demonstrated sensitivity as high as 70%/MPa.

  7. Laccases Direct Lignification in the Discrete Secondary Cell Wall Domains of Protoxylem1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Mathias; Benske, Anika; Smith, Rebecca A.; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ralph, John; Demura, Taku; Ellis, Brian; Samuels, A. Lacey

    2014-01-01

    Plants precisely control lignin deposition in spiral or annular secondary cell wall domains during protoxylem tracheary element (TE) development. Because protoxylem TEs function to transport water within rapidly elongating tissues, it is important that lignin deposition is restricted to the secondary cell walls in order to preserve the plasticity of adjacent primary wall domains. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inducible VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN7 (VND7) protoxylem TE differentiation system permits the use of mutant backgrounds, fluorescent protein tagging, and high-resolution live-cell imaging of xylem cells during secondary cell wall development. Enzymes synthesizing monolignols, as well as putative monolignol transporters, showed a uniform distribution during protoxylem TE differentiation. By contrast, the oxidative enzymes LACCASE4 (LAC4) and LAC17 were spatially localized to secondary cell walls throughout protoxylem TE differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that precise delivery of oxidative enzymes determines the pattern of cell wall lignification. This view was supported by lac4lac17 mutant analysis demonstrating that laccases are necessary for protoxylem TE lignification. Overexpression studies showed that laccases are sufficient to catalyze ectopic lignin polymerization in primary cell walls when exogenous monolignols are supplied. Our data support a model of protoxylem TE lignification in which monolignols are highly mobile once exported to the cell wall, and in which precise targeting of laccases to secondary cell wall domains directs lignin deposition. PMID:25157028

  8. Modelling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behaviour of RC buildings using OpenSees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, André; Rodrigues, Hugo; Arêde, António

    2015-06-01

    Recent earthquakes show that masonry infill walls should be taken into account during the design and assessment process of structures, since this type of non-structural elements increase the in-plane stiffness of the structure and consequently the natural period. An overview of the past researches conducted on the modelling of masonry infilled frame issues has been done, with discussion of past analytical investigations and different modelling approaches that many authors have proposed, including micro- and macro-modelling strategies. After this, the present work presents an improved numerical model, based on the Rodrigues et al. (J Earthq Eng 14:390-416, 2010) approach, for simulating the masonry infill walls behaviour in the computer program OpenSees. The main results of the in-plane calibration analyses obtained with one experimental test are presented and discussed. For last, two reinforced concrete regular buildings were studied and subjected to several ground motions, with and without infills' walls.

  9. Estimating the Bowen ratio over the open and ice-covered ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Edgar L.; Jordan, Rachel E.; Mahrt, Larry; Vickers, Dean

    2013-09-01

    The Bowen ratio, the ratio of the turbulent surface fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent (HL) heat, Bo ≡ Hs/HL, occurs throughout micrometeorology. It finds application in the Bowen ratio and energy budget method, where it provides both turbulent heat fluxes when only the available energy at the surface is known. It can yield an estimate of a missing Hs or HL if the other flux is known. We also suggest that the Bowen ratio may provide the missing piece needed to infer the surface sensible heat flux from satellite data. For this study, we analyze almost 9000 eddy-covariance measurements of Hs and HL. About half were made over sea ice; the other half, over the open ocean. These are saturated surfaces where the surface specific humidity is the saturation value at the surface temperature. Surface temperatures ranged from -44°C to 32°C and predict the Bowen ratio through the Bowen ratio indicator, Bo*=cp/>(Lv∂Qsat/∂Θ>)|Θs. Here cp is the specific heat of air at constant pressure, Lv is the latent heat of sublimation or vaporization, and ∂Qsat/∂Θ is the derivative of the saturation specific humidity (Qsat) with temperature (Θ). All quantities are evaluated at the surface temperature, Θs. Although Hs and HL can occur in nine possible combinations, in our data set, three combinations represent over 90% of the cases: Hs > 0 and HL > 0, Hs < 0 and HL < 0, and Hs < 0 and HL > 0. In each of these three cases, the data suggest Bo=aBo*, where a is 0.40, 3.27, and -0.65, respectively.

  10. Design of a High Resolution Open Access Global Snow Cover Web Map Service Using Ground and Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, J.; Ames, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the presented work is creating a freely accessible, dynamic and re-usable snow cover map of the world by combining snow extent and snow depth datasets from multiple sources. The examined data sources are: remote sensing datasets (MODIS, CryoLand), weather forecasting model outputs (OpenWeatherMap, forecast.io), ground observation networks (CUAHSI HIS, GSOD, GHCN, and selected national networks), and user-contributed snow reports on social networks (cross-country and backcountry skiing trip reports). For adding each type of dataset, an interface and an adapter is created. Each adapter supports queries by area, time range, or combination of area and time range. The combined dataset is published as an online snow cover mapping service. This web service lowers the learning curve that is required to view, access, and analyze snow depth maps and snow time-series. All data published by this service are licensed as open data; encouraging the re-use of the data in customized applications in climatology, hydrology, sports and other disciplines. The initial version of the interactive snow map is on the website snow.hydrodata.org. This website supports the view by time and view by site. In view by time, the spatial distribution of snow for a selected area and time period is shown. In view by site, the time-series charts of snow depth at a selected location is displayed. All snow extent and snow depth map layers and time series are accessible and discoverable through internationally approved protocols including WMS, WFS, WCS, WaterOneFlow and WaterML. Therefore they can also be easily added to GIS software or 3rd-party web map applications. The central hypothesis driving this research is that the integration of user contributed data and/or social-network derived snow data together with other open access data sources will result in more accurate and higher resolution - and hence more useful snow cover maps than satellite data or government agency produced data by

  11. ABORTED MICROSPORES Acts as a Master Regulator of Pollen Wall Formation in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Ding, Zhiwen; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Shi, Jianxin; Liang, Wanqi; Yuan, Zheng; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Schreiber, Lukas; Wilson, Zoe A.; Zhang, Dabing

    2014-01-01

    Mature pollen is covered by durable cell walls, principally composed of sporopollenin, an evolutionary conserved, highly resilient, but not fully characterized, biopolymer of aliphatic and aromatic components. Here, we report that ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) acts as a master regulator coordinating pollen wall development and sporopollenin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-wide coexpression analysis revealed 98 candidate genes with specific expression in the anther and 70 that showed reduced expression in ams. Among these 70 members, we showed that AMS can directly regulate 23 genes implicated in callose dissociation, fatty acids elongation, formation of phenolic compounds, and lipidic transport putatively involved in sporopollenin precursor synthesis. Consistently, ams mutants showed defective microspore release, a lack of sporopollenin deposition, and a dramatic reduction in total phenolic compounds and cutin monomers. The functional importance of the AMS pathway was further demonstrated by the observation of impaired pollen wall architecture in plant lines with reduced expression of several AMS targets: the abundant pollen coat protein extracellular lipases (EXL5 and EXL6), and CYP98A8 and CYP98A9, which are enzymes required for the production of phenolic precursors. These findings demonstrate the central role of AMS in coordinating sporopollenin biosynthesis and the secretion of materials for pollen wall patterning. PMID:24781116

  12. Secretory COPII Protein SEC31B Is Required for Pollen Wall Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bingchun; Shi, Haidan; Wang, Wanlei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Hui; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yinghui; Yang, Meidi; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The pollen wall protects pollen grains from abiotic and biotic stresses. During pollen wall development, tapetal cells play a vital role by secreting proteins, signals, and pollen wall material to ensure microspore development. But the regulatory mechanism underlying the secretory pathway of the tapetum is largely unknown. Here, we characterize the essential role of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COPII protein SECRETORY31B (SEC31B) in pollen wall development and the secretory activity of tapetal cells. The sporophyte-controlled atsec31b mutant exhibits severe pollen and seed abortion. Transmission electron microscopy observation indicates that pollen exine formation in the atsec31b mutant is disrupted significantly. AtSEC31B is a functional COPII protein revealed by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit site localization, interaction with AtSEC13A, and retarded ER-Golgi protein trafficking in the atsec31b mutant. A genetic tapetum-specific rescue assay indicates that AtSEC31B functions primarily in the tapetum. Moreover, deletion of AtSEC31B interrupted the formation of the ER-derived tapetosome and altered the location of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER9 protein in the tapetum. Therefore, this work demonstrates that AtSEC31B plays a vital role in pollen wall development by regulating the secretory pathway of the tapetal cells. PMID:27634427

  13. Variations of extent, area, and open water of the polar sea-ice covers: 1978-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Gloersen, P.; Campbell, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Scanning Multichannel microwave Radiometer (SMMR) which operated onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite from October 1978 to August 1987 obtained sequential synoptic observations of the entire Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers every 2 days through the clouds during night and day. It is a unique almost decade-long data set of the large-scale behavior of sea ice on earth. Ibis paper presents the results of an analysis of SMMR observations of the Arctic, Antarctic, and global sea ice area, extent, and open water within the ice pack. These data are corrected for instrumental drift and errors due to variations in the ecliptic angle. Also presented is an analysis based on a combination of Fourier and ordinary least-squares regression techniques which yields their interannual variations and trends. In the power spectra of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice areas and extents, the largest peaks are the dominant annual cycles, the second and third harmonics which are distinct, and the fourth and fifth which are identifiable. In order to remove the seasonal cycle, the first five harmonics are subtracted from the area and extent data, obtaining the residuals from which the trends are determined. During this 9-year period, the Arctic ice cover has negative trends of 1.9 +/- 1.3% for the extent and 1.6 +/- 1.6% for the area, with confidence levels of 95% as defined by the two-sigma criterion.

  14. Refinement and evaluation of crack-opening-area analyses for circumferential through-wall cracks in pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Wilkowski, G.; Choi, Y.H. |; Moberg, F.; Brickstad, B. |

    1995-04-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analyses for circumferentially cracked pipes are currently being conducted in the nuclear industry to justify elimination of pipe whip restraints and jet impingement shields which are present because of the expected dynamic effects from pipe rupture. The application of the LBB methodology frequently requires calculation of leak rates. These leak rates depend on the crack-opening area of a through-wall crack in the pipe. In addition to LBB analyses, which assume a hypothetical flaw size, there is also interest in the integrity of actual leaking cracks corresponding to current leakage detection requirements in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.45, or for assessing temporary repair of Class 2 and 3 pipes that have leaks as are being evaluated in ASME Section 11. This study was requested by the NRC to review, evaluate, and refine current analytical models for crack-opening-area analyses of pipes with circumferential through-wall cracks. Twenty-five pipe experiments were analyzed to determine the accuracy of the predictive models. Several practical aspects of crack-opening such as; crack-face pressure, off-center cracks, restraint of pressure-induced bending, cracks in thickness transition regions, weld residual stresses, crack-morphology models, and thermal-hydraulic analysis, were also investigated. 140 refs., 105 figs., 41 tabs.

  15. Role of Glycosyltransferases in Pollen Wall Primexine Formation and Exine Patterning1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenhua L.; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    The pollen cell wall is important for protection of male sperm from physical stresses and consists of an inner gametophyte-derived intine layer and a sporophyte-derived exine layer. The polymeric constituents of the robust exine are termed sporopollenin. The mechanisms by which sporopollenin is anchored onto microspores and polymerized in specific patterns are unknown, but the primexine, a transient cell wall matrix formed on the surface of microspores at the late tetrad stage, is hypothesized to play a key role. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) spongy (spg) and uneven pattern of exine (upex) mutants exhibit defective and irregular exine patterns. SPG2 (synonymous with IRREGULAR XYLEM9-LIKE [IRX9L]) encodes a family GT43 glycosyltransferase involved in xylan backbone biosynthesis, while UPEX1 encodes a family GT31 glycosyltransferase likely involved in galactosylation of arabinogalactan proteins. Imaging of developing irx9l microspores showed that the earliest detectable defect was in primexine formation. Furthermore, wild-type microspores contained primexine-localized epitopes indicative of the presence of xylan, but these were absent in irx9l. These data, together with the spg phenotype of a mutant in IRX14L, which also plays a role in xylan backbone elongation, indicate the presence of xylan in pollen wall primexine, which plays a role in exine patterning on the microspore surface. We observed an aberrant primexine and irregular patterns of incipient sporopollenin deposition in upex1, suggesting that primexine-localized arabinogalactan proteins could play roles in sporopollenin adhesion and patterning early in microspore wall development. Our data provide new insights into the biochemical and functional properties of the primexine component of the microspore cell wall. PMID:27495941

  16. Cam cover oil separator for crankcase ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosalik, M.E.

    1992-07-14

    This patent describes an engine cam cover for an engine having a longitudinal overhead camshaft, the cam cover having an internal oil separator for crankcase ventilation gas flow. It comprises: a side wall and a floor cooperating with a top wall of the cam cover an inlet opening to the chamber longitudinally near one end; an outlet opening from the chamber longitudinally near an opposite outlet end and in an upper portion adjacent the top wall; the chamber including a separation portion of relatively large flow area near the inlet; the floor having a portion sloping gradually downwardly toward the outlet end of the chamber and defining a shallow sump; a drain in the sump toward the outlet end to return collected oil to the cover interior and to a connected engine crankcase.

  17. The Berlin Wall: A Simulation for the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, William B., III

    2010-01-01

    November 9, 2009, marked the twentieth anniversary of the opening of the Berlin Wall. The Wall, a symbol of the Cold War, separated the German people for 28 years (1961-1989), keeping those on the East side isolated. Although the construction and dismantling of the Berlin Wall is a significant part of history, the topic is little covered in the…

  18. Moss Chloroplasts Are Surrounded by a Peptidoglycan Wall Containing D-Amino Acids[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Takayuki; Tanidokoro, Koji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Sato, Momo; Tadano, Shinji; Ishikawa, Hayato; Takio, Susumu; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that the plastids in green plants lost peptidoglycan (i.e., a bacterial cell wall-containing d-amino acids) during their evolution from an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium. Although wall-like structures could not be detected in the plastids of green plants, the moss Physcomitrella patens has the genes required to generate peptidoglycan (Mur genes), and knocking out these genes causes defects in chloroplast division. Here, we generated P. patens knockout lines (∆Pp-ddl) for a homolog of the bacterial peptidoglycan-synthetic gene encoding d-Ala:d-Ala ligase. ∆Pp-ddl had a macrochloroplast phenotype, similar to other Mur knockout lines. The addition of d-Ala-d-Ala (DA-DA) to the medium suppressed the appearance of giant chloroplasts in ∆Pp-ddl, but the addition of l-Ala-l-Ala (LA-LA), DA-LA, LA-DA, or d-Ala did not. Recently, a metabolic method for labeling bacterial peptidoglycan was established using ethynyl-DA-DA (EDA-DA) and click chemistry to attach an azide-modified fluorophore to the ethynyl group. The ∆Pp-ddl line complemented with EDA-DA showed that moss chloroplasts are completely surrounded by peptidoglycan. Our findings strongly suggest that the moss plastids have a peptidoglycan wall containing d-amino acids. By contrast, no plastid phenotypes were observed in the T-DNA tagged ddl mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27325639

  19. Static and free-vibrational response of semi-circular graphite-epoxy frames with thin-walled open sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. Scott; Johnson, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the three-dimensional static and free vibrational response of two graphite-epoxy, thin-walled, open section frames. The frames are semi-circular with a radius of three feet, and one specimen has an I cross section and the other has a channel cross section. The flexibility influence coefficients were measured in static tests for loads applied at midspan with the ends of the specimens clamped. Natural frequencies and modes were determined from vibrational tests for free and clamped end conditions. The experimental data is used to evaluate a new finite element which was developed specifically for the analysis of curved, thin-walled structures. The formulation of the element is based on a Vlasov-type, thin-walled, curved beam theory. The predictions from the finite element program generally correlated well with the experimental data for the symmetric I-specimen. Discrepancies in some of the data were found to be due to flexibility in the clamped end conditions. With respect to the data for the channel specimen, the correlation was less satisfactory. The finite element analysis predicted the out-of-plane response of the channel specimen reasonably well, but large discrepancies occurred between the predicted in-plane response and the experimental data. The analysis predicted a much more compliant in-plane response than was observed in the experiments.

  20. Primary Metabolism during Biosynthesis of Secondary Wall Polymers of Protoxylem Vessel Elements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, Keiko; Sawada, Yuji; Sano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shiro; Matsuda, Mami; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-01-01

    Xylem vessels, the water-conducting cells in vascular plants, undergo characteristic secondary wall deposition and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) transcription factors. Here, to identify changes in metabolism that occur during protoxylem vessel element differentiation, we subjected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 suspension culture cells carrying an inducible VND7 system to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based wide-target metabolome analysis and transcriptome analysis. Time-course data for 128 metabolites showed dynamic changes in metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis. The concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, an important intermediate of the glycolysis pathway, immediately decreased in the initial stages of cell differentiation. As cell differentiation progressed, specific amino acids accumulated, including the shikimate-related amino acids and the translocatable nitrogen-rich amino acid arginine. Transcriptome data indicated that cell differentiation involved the active up-regulation of genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing fructose 6-phosphate biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate biosynthesis from oxaloacetate, and phenylalanine biosynthesis, which includes shikimate pathway enzymes. Concomitantly, active changes in the amount of fructose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate were detected during cell differentiation. Taken together, our results show that protoxylem vessel element differentiation is associated with changes in primary metabolism, which could facilitate the production of polysaccharides and lignin monomers and, thus, promote the formation of the secondary cell wall. Also, these metabolic shifts correlate with the active transcriptional regulation of specific enzyme genes. Therefore, our observations indicate that primary metabolism is actively regulated during protoxylem vessel element differentiation to alter the cell’s metabolic

  1. A Distinct Pathway for Polar Exocytosis in Plant Cell Wall Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiangfeng; Law, Angus Ho Yin; Zhao, Teng; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M.T.; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Post-Golgi protein sorting and trafficking to the plasma membrane (PM) is generally believed to occur via the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In this study using Nicotiana tabacum pectin methylesterase (NtPPME1) as a marker, we have identified a TGN-independent polar exocytosis pathway that mediates cell wall formation during cell expansion and cytokinesis. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Golgi-derived secretory vesicles (GDSVs) labeled by NtPPME1-GFP are distinct from those organelles belonging to the conventional post-Golgi exocytosis pathway. In addition, pharmaceutical treatments, superresolution imaging, and dynamic studies suggest that NtPPME1 follows a polar exocytic process from Golgi-GDSV-PM/cell plate (CP), which is distinct from the conventional Golgi-TGN-PM/CP secretion pathway. Further studies show that ROP1 regulates this specific polar exocytic pathway. Taken together, we have demonstrated an alternative TGN-independent Golgi-to-PM polar exocytic route, which mediates secretion of NtPPME1 for cell wall formation during cell expansion and cytokinesis and is ROP1-dependent. PMID:27531442

  2. National Outcomes for Open Ventral Hernia Repair Techniques in Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, Samuel W; Oommen, Bindhu; Huntington, Ciara; Walters, Amanda L; Lincourt, Amy E; Kercher, Kent W; Augenstein, Vedra A; Heniford, B Todd

    2015-08-01

    Modern adjuncts to complex, open ventral hernia repair often include component separation (CS) and/or panniculectomy (PAN). This study examines nationwide data to determine how these techniques impact postoperative complications. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried from 2005 to 2013 for inpatient, elective open ventral hernia repairs (OVHR). Cases were grouped by the need for and type of concomitant advancement flaps: OVHR alone (OVHRA), OVHR with CS, OVHR with panniculectomy (PAN), or both CS and PAN (BOTH). Multivariate regression to control for confounding factors was conducted. There were 58,845 OVHR: 51,494 OVHRA, 5,357 CS, 1,617 PAN, and 377 BOTH. Wound complications (OVHRA 8.2%, CS 12.8%, PAN 14.4%, BOTH 17.5%), general complications (15.2%, 24.9%, 25.2%, 31.6%), and major complications (6.9%, 11.4%, 7.2%, 13.5%) were different between groups (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in mortality. Multivariate regression showed CS had higher odds of wound [odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-2.0], general (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-1.8), and major complications (OR 2.1, 95%, CI: 1.8-2.4), and longer length of stay by 2.3 days. PAN had higher odds of wound (OR 1.5, 95%, CI: 1.3-1.8) and general complications (OR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.5-2.0). Both CS and PAN had higher odds of wound (OR 2.2, 95%, CI: 1.5-3.2), general (OR 2.5, 95%, CI: 1.8-3.4), and major complications (OR 2.2, 95%CI: 1.4-3.4), and two days longer length of stay. In conclusion, patients undergoing OVHR that require CS or PAN have a higher independent risk of complications, which increases when the procedures are combined.

  3. The Influence of Internal Wall and Floor Covering Materials and Ventilation Type on Indoor Radon and Thoron Levels in Hospitals of Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Najafi, Farid; Haghparast, Abbas; Hemati, Lida; Sharafi, Kiomars; Kurd, Nematullah

    2016-01-01

    Background Building materials and the ventilation rate of a building are two main factors influencing indoor radon and thoron levels (two radioactive gases which have the most important role in human natural radiation exposure within dwellings). Objectives This analytical descriptive study was intended to determine the relationship between indoor radon and thoron concentrations and the building materials used in interior surfaces, as well as between those concentrations and the type of ventilation system (natural or artificial). Materials and Methods 102 measurements of radon and thoron levels were taken from different parts of three hospital buildings in the city of Kermanshah in the west of Iran, using an RTM-1688-2 radon meter. Information on the type of building material and ventilation system in the measurement location was collected and then analyzed using Stata 8 software and multivariate linear regression. Results In terms of radon and thoron emissions, travertine and plaster were found to be the most appropriate and inappropriate covering for walls, respectively. Furthermore, granite and travertine were discovered to be inappropriate materials for flooring, while plastic floor covering was found suitable. Natural ventilation performed better for radon, while artificial ventilation worked better for thoron. Conclusions Internal building materials and ventilation type affect indoor radon and thoron concentrations. Therefore, the use of proper materials and adequate ventilation can reduce the potential human exposure to radon and thoron. This is of utmost importance, particularly in buildings with a high density of residents, including hospitals. PMID:28180013

  4. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  5. Distribution of fish and macrozooplankton in ice-covered and open-water areas of the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, Alex; Cokelet, Edward D.

    2012-06-01

    The eastern Bering Sea shelf is a productive ecosystem with extensive commercial fisheries. Although the area is well-studied during summer months, little is known about the abundance and distribution of fish and macrozooplankton during periods of seasonal ice cover. The use of an icebreaker during the Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST) provided a platform for spring acoustic surveys of fish and zooplankton in ice-covered areas for the first time. Icebreaker measurements were complemented with observations from conventional vessels during spring and summer. In spring, very little backscatter from fish (dominated by walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma) was observed in the ice-covered northern areas where near-bottom waters were cold (<˜0.5 °C), including areas where walleye pollock are abundant in summer. The majority of fish were observed within 40 km (and often slightly inside) the ice edge over similar seafloor depths as in summer. Together, these observations suggest that pollock, a dominant component of the ecosystem, shift their distribution to a more restricted geographic area in spring, following the ice edge southeast along the bathymetry, away from areas of cold water and extensive ice cover, then reoccupying these areas in summer. In contrast, acoustic backscatter attributed to zooplankton (likely dominated by euphausiids) was more evenly distributed, and less restricted by water temperature and ice cover. The implications of this seasonal shift in fish distribution are uncertain, but this may affect predator-prey interactions by reducing overlap of pollock with euphausiids, an important prey source, while increasing overlap of adult and juvenile pollock and potentially increasing cannibalism.

  6. Effects of rat sex differences and lighting on locomotor exploration of a circular open field with free-standing central corners and without peripheral walls.

    PubMed

    Alstott, Jeff; Timberlake, William

    2009-01-23

    A typical open field consists of a square enclosure, bounded by four straight walls joined by identical corners. For decades behavioral researchers have used the open center and more sheltered perimeter of such fields to examine the effects of drugs, sex differences, and illumination on the behavioral expression of fear and anxiety. The present study "reversed" the relative security of the center and periphery of a circular field to re-examine the functional relation of open field behavior to experience, sex differences and lighting. Across six daily exposures, males in both the light and dark rapidly increased their preference for the center. Females in the light developed a similar pattern, though more slowly; females in the dark continued to spend the great majority of their time in the open periphery, including the edge of the field. The behavior of all groups, but especially the dark females, strongly supports the continued importance of environmental assessment in open field behavior.

  7. Polarization of 'water-skies' above arctic open waters: how polynyas in the ice-cover can be visually detected from a distance.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Ramón; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The foggy sky above a white ice-cover and a dark water surface (permanent polynya or temporary lead) is white and dark gray, phenomena called the 'ice-sky' and the 'water-sky,' respectively. Captains of icebreaker ships used to search for not-directly-visible open waters remotely on the basis of the water sky. Animals depending on open waters in the Arctic region may also detect not-directly-visible waters from a distance by means of the water sky. Since the polarization of ice-skies and water-skies has not, to our knowledge, been studied before, we measured the polarization patterns of water-skies above polynyas in the arctic ice-cover during the Beringia 2005 Swedish polar research expedition to the North Pole region. We show that there are statistically significant differences in the angle of polarization between the water-sky and the ice-sky. This polarization phenomenon could help biological and man-made sensors to detect open waters not directly visible from a distance. However, the threshold of polarization-based detection would be rather low, because the degree of linear polarization of light radiated by water-skies and ice-skies is not higher than 10%.

  8. Synthesis and Enhanced Field-Emission of Thin-Walled, Open-Ended, and Well-Aligned N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Thin-walled, open-ended, and well-aligned N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the quartz slides were synthesized by using acetonitrile as carbon sources. As-obtained products possess large thin-walled index (TWI, defined as the ratio of inner diameter and wall thickness of a CNT). The effect of temperature on the growth of CNTs using acetonitrile as the carbon source was also investigated. It is found that the diameter, the TWI of CNTs increase and the Fe encapsulation in CNTs decreases as the growth temperature rises in the range of 780–860°C. When the growth temperature is kept at 860°C, CNTs with TWI = 6.2 can be obtained. It was found that the filed-emission properties became better as CNT growth temperatures increased from 780 to 860°C. The lowest turn-on and threshold field was 0.27 and 0.49 V/μm, respectively. And the best field-enhancement factors reached 1.09 × 105, which is significantly improved about an order of magnitude compared with previous reports. In this study, about 30 × 50 mm2 free-standing film of thin-walled open-ended well-aligned N-doped carbon nanotubes was also prepared. The free-standing film can be transferred easily to other substrates, which would promote their applications in different fields. PMID:20672122

  9. Pectin Metabolism and Assembly in the Cell Wall of the Charophyte Green Alga Penium margaritaceum1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.; Sørensen, Iben; Popper, Zoë A.; Ochs, Julie; Andreas, Amanda; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Pielach, Anna; Sacks, Carly; Brechka, Hannah; Ruisi-Besares, Pia; Willats, William G.T.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2014-01-01

    The pectin polymer homogalacturonan (HG) is a major component of land plant cell walls and is especially abundant in the middle lamella. Current models suggest that HG is deposited into the wall as a highly methylesterified polymer, demethylesterified by pectin methylesterase enzymes and cross-linked by calcium ions to form a gel. However, this idea is based largely on indirect evidence and in vitro studies. We took advantage of the wall architecture of the unicellular alga Penium margaritaceum, which forms an elaborate calcium cross-linked HG-rich lattice on its cell surface, to test this model and other aspects of pectin dynamics. Studies of live cells and microscopic imaging of wall domains confirmed that the degree of methylesterification and sufficient levels of calcium are critical for lattice formation in vivo. Pectinase treatments of live cells and immunological studies suggested the presence of another class of pectin polymer, rhamnogalacturonan I, and indicated its colocalization and structural association with HG. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of the walls of P. margaritaceum, Physcomitrella patens, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) further suggested the conservation of pectin organization and interpolymer associations in the walls of green plants. The individual constituent HG polymers also have a similar size and branched structure to those of embryophytes. The HG-rich lattice of P. margaritaceum, a member of the charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants, was shown to be important for cell adhesion. Therefore, the calcium-HG gel at the cell surface may represent an early evolutionary innovation that paved the way for an adhesive middle lamella in multicellular land plants. PMID:24652345

  10. An in vivo pilot study of a microporous thin film nitinol-covered stent to assess the effect of porosity and pore geometry on device interaction with the vessel wall.

    PubMed

    Chun, Youngjae; Kealey, Colin P; Levi, Daniel S; Rigberg, David A; Chen, Yanfei; Tillman, Bryan W; Mohanchandra, K P; Shayan, Mahdis; Carman, Gregory P

    2017-03-01

    Sputter-deposited thin film nitinol constructs with various micropatterns were fabricated to evaluate their effect on the vessel wall in vivo when used as a covering for commercially available stents. Thin film nitinol constructs were used to cover stents and deployed in non-diseased swine arteries. Swine were sacrificed after approximately four weeks and the thin film nitinol-covered stents were removed for histopathologic evaluation. Histopathology revealed differences in neointimal thickness that correlated with the thin film nitinol micropattern. Devices covered with thin film nitinol with a lateral × vertical length = 20 × 40 µm diamond pattern had minimal neointimal growth with well-organized cell architecture and little evidence of ongoing inflammation. Devices covered with thin film nitinol with smaller fenestrations exhibited a relatively thick neointimal layer with inflammation and larger fenestrations showed migration of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells through the micro fenestrations. This "proof-of-concept" study suggests that there may be an ideal thin film nitinol porosity and pore geometry to encourage endothelialization and incorporation of the device into the vessel wall. Future work will be needed to determine the optimal pore size and geometry to minimize neointimal proliferation and in-stent stenosis.

  11. Resume and Report of Visitations to Schools Employing the Open-Space Concept of School Construction ("Schools-Without-Walls").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Robert

    Four schools were visited in an attempt to assess the merits of combining several classrooms in a large space as a method of school construction. Interviews with students and teachers as well as personal impressions form the basis for evaluation. Satisfactory results were found for schools-without-walls, school carpeting, acoustic control, team…

  12. Defective Pollen Wall 2 (DPW2) Encodes an Acyl Transferase Required for Rice Pollen Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianxin; Rautengarten, Carsten; Yang, Li; Uzair, Muhammad; Zhu, Lu; Luo, Qian; An, Gynheung; Waßmann, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic lipids are both essential structural components of the plant cuticle, an important interface between the plant and environment. Although cross links between aromatic and aliphatic or other moieties are known to be associated with the formation of leaf cutin and root and seed suberin, the contribution of aromatic lipids to the biosynthesis of anther cuticles and pollen walls remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile mutant, defective pollen wall 2 (dpw2), which showed an abnormal anther cuticle, a defective pollen wall, and complete male sterility. Compared with the wild type, dpw2 anthers have increased amounts of cutin and waxes and decreased levels of lipidic and phenolic compounds. DPW2 encodes a cytoplasmically localized BAHD acyltransferase. In vitro assays demonstrated that recombinant DPW2 specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acid moieties, using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors. Thus, The cytoplasmic hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:ω-hydroxy fatty acid transferase DPW2 plays a fundamental role in male reproduction via the biosynthesis of key components of the anther cuticle and pollen wall. PMID:27246096

  13. Various computational conditions of oscillatory natural convection of zero Prandtl number fluid in an open boat heated and cooled from opposing vertical walls

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Kazuto . Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science); Ozoe, Hiroyuki . Inst. of Advanced Material Study)

    1993-03-01

    The finite-difference computational scheme is developed for two-dimensional oscillatory natural convection of zero Prandtl number fluid in an open boat heated and cooled from opposing vertical walls. Various computational conditions are tested, such as the initial condition, time step length, finite-difference width, and finite-difference scheme. Instantaneous contour maps and velocity vectors in oscillatory states are presented in a series of maps to represent the fluctuating characteristics of two-dimensional roll cells. The physical conditions are for a boat with aspect ratio A = 3[minus]5 at Pr = 0 and Gr = 14,000-40,000.

  14. Putrescine Alleviates Iron Deficiency via NO-Dependent Reutilization of Root Cell-Wall Fe in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wang, Bin; Song, Wen Feng; Zheng, Shao Jian; Shen, Ren Fang

    2016-01-01

    Plants challenged with abiotic stress show enhanced polyamines levels. Here, we show that the polyamine putrescine (Put) plays an important role to alleviate Fe deficiency. The adc2-1 mutant, which is defective in Put biosynthesis, was hypersensitive to Fe deficiency compared with wild type (Col-1 of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]). Exogenous Put decreased the Fe bound to root cell wall, especially to hemicellulose, and increased root and shoot soluble Fe content, thus alleviating the Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, exogenous Put induced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) under both Fe-sufficient (+Fe) and Fe-deficient (-Fe) conditions, although the ferric-chelate reductase (FCR) activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were induced only under -Fe treatment. The alleviation of Fe deficiency by Put was diminished in the hemicellulose-level decreased mutant-xth31 and in the noa1 and nia1nia2 mutants, in which the endogenous NO levels are reduced, indicating that both NO and hemicellulose are involved in Put-mediated alleviation of Fe deficiency. However, the FCR activity and the expression of genes related to Fe uptake were still up-regulated under -Fe+Put treatment compared with -Fe treatment in xth31, and Put-induced cell wall Fe remobilization was abolished in noa1 and nia1nia2, indicating that Put-regulated cell wall Fe reutilization is dependent on NO. From our results, we conclude that Put is involved in the remobilization of Fe from root cell wall hemicellulose in a process dependent on NO accumulation under Fe-deficient condition in Arabidopsis. PMID:26578707

  15. Silostop Bunker Covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of the seal provided by the plastic cover is a key issue for minimizing losses in bunker and pile silos. Most bunker covers are 6 to 8 mil polyethylene sheets held in place by tires or tire sidewalls. Frequently there are problems with spoilage at the shoulders (i.e., against the walls),...

  16. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  17. 18. BATHROOM INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO SOUTH BEDROOM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. BATHROOM INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO SOUTH BEDROOM AT PHOTO CENTER, TOILET AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT BOTTOM, OPEN DOOR TO MEDICINE CABINET AT PHOTO RIGHT. A WALLPAPER WAINSCOT COVERS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL FIBERBOARD WALL COVERING. THE FLOOR IS LINOLEUM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  18. THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER TECHNOLOGY: A PROVEN AND COST EFFECTIVE METHOD TO VERIFY INTEGRITY AND MONITOR LONG TERM PERFORMANCE OF WALLS, FLOORS, CAPS, AND COVER SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER, J.; SULLIVAN, T.

    2002-03-11

    Currently, containment system failures are detected by monitoring wells downstream of the waste site. Clearly this approach is inefficient, as the contaminants will have migrated from the disposal area before they are detected. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict impending cover failure are needed. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Perfluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) technology can measure performance changes and integrity losses as the cover ages. This allows early detection of cover failure or pending failure so that repair or replacement can be made before contaminants leave the disposal cell. The PFT technology has been successfully applied to four subsurface barrier problems, one leak detection problem from underground ducts, and one surface cover problem. Testing has demonstrated that the PFTs are capable of accurately detecting and locating leaks down to fractions of an inch. The PFT technology has several advantages over competing approaches. The ability to simultaneously use multiple PFTs separates it from other gas tracer technologies. Using multiple tracers provides independent confirmation of flaw location, helps to clearly define transport pathways, and can be used for confirmatory testing (e.g., repeat the test using a new tracer). The PFT tests provide a direct measure of flaws in a barrier, whereas other measurements (pressure, moisture content, temperature, subsidence) provide indirect measures that need interpretation. The focus of the six PFT demonstrations has been on engineering aspects of the technology with the intent of finding if a flaw existed in the barrier. Work remains to be done on the scientific basis for this technology. This includes determining PFT diffusion rates through various materials (soils and barrier) as a function of moisture content, determining the effects of barometric pumping on PFT flow for cover systems, and determining wind effects on side slopes of cover systems and

  19. Transparent and Self-Supporting Graphene Films with Wrinkled- Graphene-Wall-Assembled Opening Polyhedron Building Blocks for High Performance Flexible/Transparent Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Huang, Xuankai; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Yunyong; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-03-22

    Improving mass loading while maintaining high transparency and large surface area in one self-supporting graphene film is still a challenge. Unfortunately, all of these factors are absolutely essential for enhancing the energy storage performance of transparent supercapacitors for practical applications. To solve the above bottleneck problem, we produce a novel self-supporting flexible and transparent graphene film (STF-GF) with wrinkled-wall-assembled opened-hollow polyhedron building units. Taking advantage of the microscopic morphology, the STF-GF exhibits improved mass loading with high transmittance (70.2% at 550 nm), a large surface area (1105.6 m(2)/g), and good electrochemical performance: high energy (552.3 μWh/cm(3)), power densities (561.9 mW/cm(3)), a superlong cycle life, and good cycling stability (the capacitance retention is ∼94.8% after 20,000 cycles).

  20. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L(-1) levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min(-1), and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L(-1) for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%.

  2. Cell Wall Invertase Promotes Fruit Set under Heat Stress by Suppressing ROS-Independent Cell Death1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reduced cell wall invertase (CWIN) activity has been shown to be associated with poor seed and fruit set under abiotic stress. Here, we examined whether genetically increasing native CWIN activity would sustain fruit set under long-term moderate heat stress (LMHS), an important factor limiting crop production, by using transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with its CWIN inhibitor gene silenced and focusing on ovaries and fruits at 2 d before and after pollination, respectively. We found that the increase of CWIN activity suppressed LMHS-induced programmed cell death in fruits. Surprisingly, measurement of the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde and the activities of a cohort of antioxidant enzymes revealed that the CWIN-mediated inhibition on programmed cell death is exerted in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner. Elevation of CWIN activity sustained Suc import into fruits and increased activities of hexokinase and fructokinase in the ovaries in response to LMHS. Compared to the wild type, the CWIN-elevated transgenic plants exhibited higher transcript levels of heat shock protein genes Hsp90 and Hsp100 in ovaries and HspII17.6 in fruits under LMHS, which corresponded to a lower transcript level of a negative auxin responsive factor IAA9 but a higher expression of the auxin biosynthesis gene ToFZY6 in fruits at 2 d after pollination. Collectively, the data indicate that CWIN enhances fruit set under LMHS through suppression of programmed cell death in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner that could involve enhanced Suc import and catabolism, HSP expression, and auxin response and biosynthesis. PMID:27462084

  3. Cover for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, H.

    1980-03-11

    A pressure vessel, containment or burst shield for a nuclear reactor has a substantially circular cover surmounting the cylindrical part (Shell) of the vessel and is preferably comprised of a plurality of circular or polylateral segments arranged concentrically and stressed inwardly by annular prestressing means. At least the outer polylateral segments and preferably all of the circular segments are provided on the upper surface with upwardly open circular grooves receiving the prestressing arrangement. The latter can comprise an outwardly open channel-shaped (U-section) supporting member receiving the stressing cables and means for transferring the radial stress of the annular stressing arrangement to the ring segment. The latter means may be wedges inserted between the support and a wall of the groove after the stressing arrangement has been placed under stress, E.G. By hydraulic means for spreading the annular stressing arrangement.

  4. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  5. Covering Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Ted; Krajicek, David; Hackney, Suzette; Moore, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents four brief articles on covering crime. Notes that reporting on crimes requires special skills for student reporters, editors, and photographers. Explains how to gain access to scenes, to develop journalistic ethics, and how to cover crime and its victims. Discusses the relation of race and ethnic issues to crime, and how visual…

  6. Covering All Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  7. Accumulation of N-Acetylglucosamine Oligomers in the Plant Cell Wall Affects Plant Architecture in a Dose-Dependent and Conditional Manner1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vanholme, Bartel; Vanholme, Ruben; Turumtay, Halbay; Goeminne, Geert; Cesarino, Igor; Goubet, Florence; Morreel, Kris; Rencoret, Jorge; Bulone, Vincent; Hooijmaijers, Cortwa; De Rycke, Riet; Gheysen, Godelieve; Ralph, John; De Block, Marc; Meulewaeter, Frank; Boerjan, Wout

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of short N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oligosaccharides on the physiology of plants, N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINYLTRANSFERASE (NodC) of Azorhizobium caulinodans was expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The corresponding enzyme catalyzes the polymerization of GlcNAc and, accordingly, β-1,4-GlcNAc oligomers accumulated in the plant. A phenotype characterized by difficulties in developing an inflorescence stem was visible when plants were grown for several weeks under short-day conditions before transfer to long-day conditions. In addition, a positive correlation between the oligomer concentration and the penetrance of the phenotype was demonstrated. Although NodC overexpression lines produced less cell wall compared with wild-type plants under nonpermissive conditions, no indications were found for changes in the amount of the major cell wall polymers. The effect on the cell wall was reflected at the transcriptome level. In addition to genes encoding cell wall-modifying enzymes, a whole set of genes encoding membrane-coupled receptor-like kinases were differentially expressed upon GlcNAc accumulation, many of which encoded proteins with an extracellular Domain of Unknown Function26. Although stress-related genes were also differentially expressed, the observed response differed from that of a classical chitin response. This is in line with the fact that the produced chitin oligomers were too small to activate the chitin receptor-mediated signal cascade. Based on our observations, we propose a model in which the oligosaccharides modify the architecture of the cell wall by acting as competitors in carbohydrate-carbohydrate or carbohydrate-protein interactions, thereby affecting noncovalent interactions in the cell wall or at the interface between the cell wall and the plasma membrane. PMID:24664205

  8. Differential Effects of Nitrogen Forms on Cell Wall Phosphorus Remobilization Are Mediated by Nitric Oxide, Pectin Content, and Phosphate Transporter Expression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chun Quan; Zhu, Xiao Fang; Hu, An Yong; Wang, Chao; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren-Fang

    2016-01-01

    NH4+ is a major source of inorganic nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa), and NH4+ is known to stimulate the uptake of phosphorus (P). However, it is unclear whether NH4+ can also stimulate P remobilization when rice is grown under P-deficient conditions. In this study, we use the two rice cultivars ‘Nipponbare’ and ‘Kasalath’ that differ in their cell wall P reutilization, to demonstrate that NH4+ positively regulates the pectin content and activity of pectin methylesterase in root cell walls under −P conditions, thereby remobilizing more P from the cell wall and increasing soluble P in roots and shoots. Interestingly, our results show that more NO (nitric oxide) was produced in the rice root when NH4+ was applied as the sole nitrogen source compared with the NO3−. The effect of NO on the reutilization of P from the cell walls was further demonstrated through the application of the NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and c-PTIO (NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide). What’s more, the P-transporter gene OsPT2 is up-regulated under NH4+ supplementation and is therefore involved in the stimulated P remobilization. In conclusion, our data provide novel (to our knowledge) insight into the regulatory mechanism by which NH4+ stimulates Pi reutilization in cell walls of rice. PMID:27208223

  9. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  10. The Arabidopsis Class III Peroxidase AtPRX71 Negatively Regulates Growth under Physiological Conditions and in Response to Cell Wall Damage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Sara; Ranocha, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the cell wall has a major impact on plant growth and development, and alteration of cell wall structural components is often detrimental to biomass production. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these negative effects are largely unknown. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with altered pectin composition because of either the expression of the Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase II (AnPGII; 35S:AnPGII plants) or a mutation in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene that encodes a putative pectin methyltransferase (qua2-1 plants), display severe growth defects. Here, we show that expression of Arabidopsis PEROXIDASE71 (AtPRX71), encoding a class III peroxidase, strongly increases in 35S:AnPGII and qua2-1 plants as well as in response to treatments with the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben, which also impairs cell wall integrity. Analysis of atprx71 loss-of-function mutants and plants overexpressing AtPRX71 indicates that this gene negatively influences Arabidopsis growth at different stages of development, likely limiting cell expansion. The atprx71-1 mutation partially suppresses the dwarf phenotype of qua2-1, suggesting that AtPRX71 contributes to the growth defects observed in plants undergoing cell wall damage. Furthermore, AtPRX71 seems to promote the production of reactive oxygen species in qua2-1 plants as well as plants treated with isoxaben. We propose that AtPRX71 contributes to strengthen cell walls, therefore restricting cell expansion, during normal growth and in response to cell wall damage. PMID:26468518

  11. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  12. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.

  13. Quantifying Environmental Limiting Factors on Tree Cover Using Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Santos, Maria J.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  14. The Role of the Plant-Specific ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 Protein in Arabidopsis Cell Wall Polysaccharide O-Acetylation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schultink, Alex; Naylor, Dan; Dama, Murali; Pauly, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A mutation in the ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 (AXY9) gene was found to be causative for the decreased xyloglucan acetylation phenotype of the axy9.1 mutant, which was identified in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants. The axy9.1 mutant also exhibits decreased O-acetylation of xylan, implying that the AXY9 protein has a broad role in polysaccharide acetylation. An axy9 insertional mutant exhibits severe growth defects and collapsed xylem, demonstrating the importance of wall polysaccharide O-acetylation for normal plant growth and development. Localization and topological experiments indicate that the active site of the AXY9 protein resides within the Golgi lumen. The AXY9 protein appears to be a component of the plant cell wall polysaccharide acetylation pathway, which also includes the REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION and TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins. The AXY9 protein is distinct from the TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins, reported to be polysaccharide acetyltransferases, but does share homology with them and other acetyltransferases, suggesting that the AXY9 protein may act to produce an acetylated intermediate that is part of the O-acetylation pathway. PMID:25681330

  15. 10. VIEW OF LAMINARFLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF LAMINAR-FLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102). NOTE GROUNDING CABLES NEAR BASEBOARD IN LOWER RIGHT BACKGROUND. WHITE SQUARE IN FOREGROUND IS A FLOOR DRAIN COVERED WITH TAPE. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. The Cell Wall Arabinose-Deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant murus5 Encodes a Defective Allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE21[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dugard, Christopher K.; Olek, Anna T.; Cooper, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional marker-based mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to determine that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low cell wall arabinose mutant murus5 (mur5) encodes a defective allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2 (RGP2). Marker analysis of 13 F2 confirmed mutant progeny from a recombinant mapping population gave a rough map position on the upper arm of chromosome 5, and deep sequencing of DNA from these 13 lines gave five candidate genes with G→A (C→T) transitions predicted to result in amino acid changes. Of these five, only insertional mutant alleles of RGP2, a gene that encodes a UDP-arabinose mutase that interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose and UDP-arabinofuranose, exhibited the low cell wall arabinose phenotype. The identities of mur5 and two SALK insertional alleles were confirmed by allelism tests and overexpression of wild-type RGP2 complementary DNA placed under the control of the 35S promoter in the three alleles. The mur5 mutation results in the conversion of cysteine-257 to tyrosine-257 within a conserved hydrophobic cluster predicted to be distal to the active site and essential for protein stability and possible heterodimerization with other isoforms of RGP. PMID:27217494

  17. Determining the Subcellular Location of Synthesis and Assembly of the Cell Wall Polysaccharide (1,3; 1,4)-β-d-Glucan in Grasses[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah M.; Ho, Yin Ying; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Van de Meene, Allison M.L.; Bain, Melissa P.; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S.

    2015-01-01

    The current dogma for cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis is that cellulose (and callose) is synthesized at the plasma membrane (PM), whereas matrix phase polysaccharides are assembled in the Golgi apparatus. We provide evidence that (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan [MLG]) does not conform to this paradigm. We show in various grass (Poaceae) species that MLG-specific antibody labeling is present in the wall but absent over Golgi, suggesting it is assembled at the PM. Antibodies to the MLG synthases, cellulose synthase-like F6 (CSLF6) and CSLH1, located CSLF6 to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, secretory vesicles, and the PM and CSLH1 to the same locations apart from the PM. This pattern was recreated upon expression of VENUS-tagged barley (Hordeum vulgare) CSLF6 and CSLH1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and, consistent with our biochemical analyses of native grass tissues, shown to be catalytically active with CSLF6 and CSLH1 in PM-enriched and PM-depleted membrane fractions, respectively. These data support a PM location for the synthesis of MLG by CSLF6, the predominant enzymatically active isoform. A model is proposed to guide future experimental approaches to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) of MLG assembly. PMID:25770111

  18. The Target of β-Expansin EXPB1 in Maize Cell Walls from Binding and Solid-State NMR Studies1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2016-01-01

    The wall-loosening actions of β-expansins are known primarily from studies of EXPB1 extracted from maize (Zea mays) pollen. EXPB1 selectively loosens cell walls (CWs) of grasses, but its specific binding target is unknown. We characterized EXPB1 binding to sequentially extracted maize CWs, finding that the protein primarily binds glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX), the major matrix polysaccharide in grass CWs. This binding is strongly reduced by salts, indicating that it is predominantly electrostatic in nature. For direct molecular evidence of EXPB1 binding, we conducted solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE), which is sensitive to distances between unpaired electrons and nuclei. By mixing 13C-enriched maize CWs with EXPB1 functionalized with a Mn2+ tag, we measured Mn2+-induced PRE. Strong 1H and 13C PREs were observed for the carboxyls of GAX, followed by more moderate PREs for carboxyl groups in homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan-I, indicating that EXPB1 preferentially binds GAX. In contrast, no PRE was observed for cellulose, indicating very weak interaction of EXPB1 with cellulose. Dynamics experiments show that EXPB1 changes GAX mobility in a complex manner: the rigid fraction of GAX became more rigid upon EXPB1 binding while the dynamic fraction became more mobile. Combining these data with previous results, we propose that EXPB1 loosens grass CWs by disrupting noncovalent junctions between highly substituted GAX and GAX of low substitution, which binds cellulose. This study provides molecular evidence of β-expansin’s target in grass CWs and demonstrates a new strategy for investigating ligand binding for proteins that are difficult to express heterologously. PMID:27729469

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Biomaterial and Open Flap Debridement in the Treatment of Two and Three Wall Intrabony Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ajwani, Himanshu; Shetty, Sharath; Gopalakrishnan, Dharmarajan; Kathariya, Rahul; Kulloli, Anita; Dolas, R S; Pradeep, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich concentrates are the most widely used regenerative biomaterials. Stimulation and acceleration of soft and hard tissue healing are due to local and continuous delivery of growth factors and proteins, mimicking the needs of the physiological wound healing and reparative tissue processes. This article aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy of open flap debridement (OFD) with or without platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the treatment of intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with forty intrabony defects were treated with either autologous PRF with open-flap debridement (test, n = 20) or open-flap debridement alone (control, n = 20). Soft tissue parameters included: Plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, relative attachment level and gingival marginal level (GML). The hard tissue parameters included-distances from: Cement enamel junction to the base of the defect (CEJ-BOD): Alveolar crest to the base of the defect (AC-BOD): And CEJ to AC. The parameters were recorded at baseline and at 9 months postoperatively calculated using standardized radiographs by image-analysis software. Results: Statistically significant (0.005*) intragroup improvements were seen with all the hard and soft parameters in both test and control groups, except for GML. Statistically significant improvements were seen with the mean defect fill (CEJ-BOD and AC-BOD) (P = 0.003*) when intergroup comparisons were made. Conclusions: Adjunctive use of PRF with OFD significantly improves defect fill when compared to OFD alone. PRF has consistently been showing regenerative potential; it is simple, easy and inexpensive biomaterial compared with bone grafts. PMID:25954068

  20. RNA-Seq Links the Transcription Factors AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 to Cell Wall Remodeling and Plant Defense Pathways1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bequette, Carlton J.; Fu, Zheng Qing; Loraine, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) are two related transcription factors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that have partially overlapping roles in several aspects of flower development, including floral organ initiation, identity specification, growth, and patterning. To better understand the biological processes regulated by these two transcription factors, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on ant ail6 double mutants. We identified thousands of genes that are differentially expressed in the double mutant compared with the wild type. Analyses of these genes suggest that ANT and AIL6 regulate floral organ initiation and growth through modifications to the cell wall polysaccharide pectin. We found reduced levels of demethylesterified homogalacturonan and altered patterns of auxin accumulation in early stages of ant ail6 flower development. The RNA-Seq experiment also revealed cross-regulation of AIL gene expression at the transcriptional level. The presence of a number of overrepresented Gene Ontology terms related to plant defense in the set of genes differentially expressed in ant ail6 suggest that ANT and AIL6 also regulate plant defense pathways. Furthermore, we found that ant ail6 plants have elevated levels of two defense hormones: salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and show increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These results suggest that ANT and AIL6 regulate biological pathways that are critical for both development and defense. PMID:27208279

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of the Green Alga Spirogyra pratensis (Charophyta) Suggests an Ancestral Role for Ethylene in Cell Wall Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Abiotic Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that ethylene regulates a diverse set of developmental and stress-related processes in angiosperms, yet its roles in early-diverging embryophytes and algae are poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that ethylene functions as a hormone in the charophyte green alga Spirogyra pratensis. Since land plants evolved from charophytes, this implies conservation of ethylene as a hormone in green plants for at least 450 million years. However, the physiological role of ethylene in charophyte algae has remained unknown. To gain insight into ethylene responses in Spirogyra, we used mRNA sequencing to measure changes in gene expression over time in Spirogyra filaments in response to an ethylene treatment. Our analyses show that at the transcriptional level, ethylene predominantly regulates three processes in Spirogyra: (1) modification of the cell wall matrix by expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases, (2) down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis, and (3) activation of abiotic stress responses. We confirmed that the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content were reduced by an ethylene treatment and that several abiotic stress conditions could stimulate cell elongation in an ethylene-dependent manner. We also found that the Spirogyra transcriptome harbors only 10 ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) homologs, several of which are regulated by ethylene. These results provide an initial understanding of the hormonal responses induced by ethylene in Spirogyra and help to reconstruct the role of ethylene in ancestral charophytes prior to the origin of land plants. PMID:27489312

  2. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Liao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean. PMID:26432877

  3. Evaluation of the scale dependent dynamic SGS model in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi in wall-bounded flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    The Scale Dependent Dynamic Model (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the dynamic procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa3d.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a model wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky Model (SM), the Scale Independent Dynamic Model (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the dynamic procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent dynamic model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of

  4. Comparative study of the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation during negative pressure wound therapy in laparostomy using the V.A.C. abdominal dressing and the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ingemansson, Richard

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the changes in microvascular blood flow in the small intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation, using the established V.A.C. abdominal dressing (VAC dressing) and a new abdominal dressing, the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system (ABThera dressing), in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Midline incisions were made in 12 pigs that were subjected to treatment with NPWT using the VAC or ABThera dressing. The microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall was measured before and after the application of topical negative pressures of −50, −75 and −125mmHg using laser Doppler velocimetry. Wound contraction and fluid evacuation were also measured. Baseline blood flow was defined as 100% in all settings. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 64·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of −50mmHg using the VAC dressing, and to 65·3±9·6% (P <0·05) after the application of −50mmHg using the ABThera dressing. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 39·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of −125mmHg using VAC and to 40·5±6·2% (P <0·05) after the application of −125mmHg using ABThera. No significant difference in reduction in blood flow could be observed between the two groups. The ABThera system afforded significantly better fluid evacuation from the wound, better drainage of the abdomen and better wound contraction than the VAC dressing.

  5. EVALUATING ECOREGIONS FOR SAMPLING AND MAPPING LAND-COVER PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecoregional stratification has been proposed for sampling and mapping land- cover composition and pattern over time. Using a wall-to-wall land-cover map of the United States, we evaluated geographic scales of variance for 17 landscape pattern indices, and compared stratification ...

  6. Estimating Landscape Pattern Metrics from a Sample of Land Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although landscape pattern metrics can be computed directly from wall-to-wall land-cover maps, statistical sampling offers a practical alternative when complete coverage land-cover information is unavailable. Partitioning a region into spatial units (“blocks”) to create a samplin...

  7. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  8. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  9. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  10. 48. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST, FIRST FLOOR ROOM, EAST WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST, FIRST FLOOR ROOM, EAST WALL, WITH SECRET DOOR TO BOXED STAIRWAY TO ROOM ABOVE OPEN IN PANELLED WALL - Montpelier, Montpelier Drive & State Route 197, Laurel, Prince George's County, MD

  11. Gullies in Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    6 April 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies in the wall of a large impact crater in Newton Basin near 41.9oS, 158.1oW. Such gullies may have formed by downslope movement of wet debris--i.e., water. Unfortunately, because the responsible fluid (if there was one) is no longer present today, only the geomorphology of the channels and debris aprons can be used to deduce that water might have been involved. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  12. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  13. Vehicle body cover

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, T.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes a vehicle body covered with a vehicle body cover which comprises: a front cover part, a rear cover part, a pair of side cover parts, and a roof cover part: the front cover part having portions adapted to cover only a hood, an area around a windshield and tops of front fenders of a vehicle body. The portion covering the hood is separated from the portions covering the tops of the fenders by cuts in the front cover part, the front cover part having an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the hood is hinged to the car body. The front cover part has a cut-out at a position corresponding to the windshield of the vehicle body and the front cover part has at least one cut-out at a position corresponding to where a rear view mirror is attached to the vehicle body; and the rear cover part having portions adapted to cover an area around a rear window, a trunk lid and a rear end of the vehicle body, the portion covering the trunk lid separated from the rest of the rear cover part by cuts corresponding to three sides of the trunk lid and an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the trunk lid is hinged to the vehicle body. The rear cover part has a hole at position corresponding to a trunk lid lock, a cut-out portion at a position corresponding to the rear window of the vehicle body, a cut-out at a position corresponding to a license plate of the vehicle body and cut-outs at positions corresponding to rear taillights of the vehicle body.

  14. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  15. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  16. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…

  17. Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100110.htm Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - series— ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The vaginal opening lies just below the urethral opening, and ...

  18. What Medicare Covers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your Medicare coverage — Original Medicare or a Medicare Advantage Plan (Part C). What Part A covers Medicare ... health plans cover Medicare health plans include Medicare Advantage, Medical Savings Account (MSA), Medicare Cost plans, PACE, ...

  19. 14. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102) SHOWING VIEWING WINDOWS IN WEST FALSE PARTION WALL, WEST WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102), AND ROLLS OF PLASTIC WRAP FOR COVERING CLEANED FAIRING ASSEMBLY - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 21. A LOW TIDE VIEW OF THE NORTH TRAINING WALL'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. A LOW TIDE VIEW OF THE NORTH TRAINING WALL'S CHANNEL FACING STONEWORK, LOOKING EAST FROM THE POINT WHERE MODERN RIPRAP BEGINS TO COVER THE WALL, ABOUT 2,000 FEET FROM THE WEST END. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. Commentary on Predictors of Failed Primary Abdominal Closure in the Trauma Patient with an Open Abdomen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    abdomen leads to the loss of abdominal wall domain and the need for skin autografting over viscera with planned ventral hernia.As the open abdomen...MAY 2013 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Commentary on "predictors of failed primary abdominal closure in the...Z39-18 Commentary on ‘‘Predictors of Failed Primary Abdominal Closure in the Trauma Patient with an Open Abdomen’’ Jonathan B. Lundy, MD Damage

  2. Cover crops for Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  3. Cover crop water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are being widely promoted because of soil health benefits. However, semi-arid dryland production systems, chronically short of water for crop production, may not be able to profitably withstand the yield reduction that follows cover crops because of cover crop water use. Some studies sug...

  4. Wall to Wall Optimal Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, Gregory P.; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Doering, Charles R.

    2013-11-01

    How much heat can be transported between impermeable fixed-temperature walls by incompressible flows with a given amount of kinetic energy or enstrophy? What do the optimal velocity fields look like? We employ variational calculus to address these questions in the context of steady 2D flows. The resulting nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations are solved numerically, and in some cases analytically, to find the maximum possible Nusselt number Nu as a function of the Péclect number Pe , a measure of the flow's energy or enstrophy. We find that in the fixed-energy problem Nu ~ Pe , while in the fixed-enstrophy problem Nu ~ Pe 10 / 17 . In both cases, the optimal flow consists of an array of convection cells with aspect ratio Γ (Pe) . Interpreting our results in terms of the Rayleigh number Ra for relevant buoyancy-driven problems, we find Nu <= 1 + 0 . 035 Ra and Γ ~ Ra - 1 / 2 for porous medium convection (which occurs with fixed energy), and Nu <= 1 + 0 . 115 Ra 5 / 12 and Γ ~ Ra - 1 / 4 for Rayleigh-Bénard convection (which occurs with fixed enstrophy and for free-slip walls). This work was supported by NSF awards PHY-0855335, DMS-0927587, and PHY-1205219 (CRD) and DMS-0928098 (GPC). Much of this work was completed at the 2012 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFD) Program at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

  5. VIEW TO THE NORTH TOWARD THE WING WALL AND CONCRETESLAB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE NORTH TOWARD THE WING WALL AND CONCRETE-SLAB CHANNEL WALL ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE NORTH END OF THE BRIDGE. NOTE THE SMALL CULVERT OPENING BEHIND SAGEBRUSH NEAR THE END OF THE WING WALL. 37 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Structure No. 61.5X, between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Crater Wall With Gullies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    8 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows gullies formed in the terraced wall of an impact crater on the floor of a larger crater near 39.1oS, 200.7oW. Gullies such as these are fairly common in craters and depressions at southern middle latitudes. They also occur in some areas at northern middle latitudes and in both polar regions. They may have formed by liquid water, or not--the Mars science community is still debating and discussing the issue. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  7. 12. INTERIOR OF FRONT BEDROOM SHOWING ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF FRONT BEDROOM SHOWING ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER ON BACK WALL, OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO LIVING ROOM AT PHOTO LEFT, AND OPEN SOLID DOOR TO BATHROOM AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  8. Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

  9. Accuracy assessment/validation methodology and results of 2010–11 land-cover/land-use data for Pools 13, 26, La Grange, and Open River South, Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakusz, J.W.; Dieck, J.J.; Langrehr, H.A.; Ruhser, J.J.; Lubinski, S.J.

    2016-01-11

    Similar to an AA, validation involves generating random points based on the total area for each map class. However, instead of collecting field data, two or three individuals not involved with the photo-interpretative mapping separately review each of the points onscreen and record a best-fit vegetation type(s) for each site. Once the individual analyses are complete, results are joined together and a comparative analysis is performed. The objective of this initial analysis is to identify areas where the validation results were in agreement (matches) and areas where validation results were in disagreement (mismatches). The two or three individuals then perform an analysis, looking at each mismatched site, and agree upon a final validation class. (If two vegetation types at a specific site appear to be equally prevalent, the validation team is permitted to assign the site two best-fit vegetation types.) Following the validation team’s comparative analysis of vegetation assignments, the data are entered into a database and compared to the mappers’ vegetation assignments. Agreements and disagreements between the map and validation classes are identified, and a contingency table is produced. This document presents the AA processes/results for Pools 13 and La Grange, as well as the validation process/results for Pools 13 and 26 and Open River South.

  10. Armored geomembrane cover engineering.

    PubMed

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities--a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  11. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  12. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  13. Indirect localization of a magnetic domain wall mediated by quasi walls.

    PubMed

    Lacour, D; Montaigne, F; Rougemaille, N; Belkhou, R; Raabe, J; Hehn, M

    2015-05-26

    The manipulation of magnetic domain walls in thin films and nanostructures opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied research. But controlling reliably the position of a moving domain wall still remains challenging. So far, most of the studies aimed at understanding the physics of pinning and depinning processes in the magnetic layer in which the wall moves (active layer). In these studies, the role of other magnetic layers in the stack has been often ignored. Here, we report an indirect localization process of 180° domain walls that occurs in magnetic tunnel junctions, commonly used in spintronics. Combining Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, magnetic configurations in both layers are resolved. When nucleating a 180° domain wall in the active layer, a quasi wall is created in the reference layer, atop the wall. The wall and its quasi wall must then be moved or positioned together, as a unique object. As a mutual effect, a localized change of the magnetic properties in the reference layer induces a localized quasi wall in the active layer. The two types of quasi walls are shown to be responsible for an indirect localization process of the 180° domain wall in the active layer.

  14. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  15. Periodicals Price Survey 2008: Embracing Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for open access as an emergent, global state of mind is everywhere. The "New York Times" went "open" last September, and the "Wall Street Journal" is slated to follow. Increasingly, scholarly communities are breaking with tradition and calling for the open sharing of research, software, and data. Amongst these global initiatives is the…

  16. Domain walls riding the wave.

    SciTech Connect

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the ferromagnetic wire is

  17. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Openings in the Side of a Vessel Below the Bulkhead or Weather Deck §...

  18. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Openings in the Side of a Vessel Below the Bulkhead or Weather Deck §...

  19. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Openings in the Side of a Vessel Below the Bulkhead or Weather Deck §...

  20. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Openings in the Side of a Vessel Below the Bulkhead or Weather Deck §...

  1. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    PubMed

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  2. Metal Covering of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathar, J

    1930-01-01

    This paper presents a relative determination of the wrinkling of a plate wall beam with variable number of supports and methods of attachment. The discussion is based entirely on tests with extensometer readings and number of wrinkles, with complete web and with cutout sections. The author notes that the number of corrugations increase with added stress, keeping constant edge spacing.

  3. Covering the State Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Stephen C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes how journalism majors at Ball State University are required to cover the annual sessions of the Indiana legislature, and discusses some of the experiences and problems that were encountered. (RB)

  4. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  5. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  6. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  7. Opening Talk: Opening Talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doebner, H.-D.

    2008-02-01

    ) with 170 participants and 89 contributions in the proceedings; it was centred on the foundations and extensions of quantum theory, on quantisation methods and on q-algebras. In QTS2-2001 in Cracow (Poland) with 175 participants and 81 contributions; the main topics were applications of quantum mechanics, representations of algebras and group theoretical techniques in physics. In the symposium QTS3-2003 in Cincinnati (USA) with 145 participants and 92 contributions, quantum field theory, loop quantum gravity, string and brane theory was discussed. The focus in QTS4-2005 in Varna (Bulgaria) with 228 participant and 105 contributions, was on conformal field theory, quantum gravity, noncommutative geometry and quantum groups. Three proceedings volumes were published with World Scientific and one volume with Heron Press. The promising and interesting programme for QTS5-2007 in Valladolid (Spain) attracted more than 200 participants; the contributions will be published in a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical and a volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This shows the wide scope of symmetry in connection with quantum physics and related sciences. In the background of the symposia series is the Conference Board with presently 13 members. The Board encourages scientists and Institutions to present detailed proposals for a QTS symposium; it agrees to one proposal and is prepared to assist in matters of organisation; the local organisers are responsible for the scientific programme and for the organisation, including the budget. The Board decided that the next symposium QTS6 will be held 2009 at the University of Kentucky in Lexington (USA); Alan Shapere is the chairman of the Local Organizing committee. In the name of all of you I express my appreciation and my thanks to the members of the Local Organizing Committee of QTS5, especially to Mariano del Olmo. The programme is outstanding; it covers recent and new developments in our field

  8. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  9. Great Wall of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.

    This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and

  10. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  11. Automatic cloud cover mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, J. P., III; Rosenfeld, A.

    1971-01-01

    A method of converting a picture into a 'cartoon' or 'map' whose regions correspond to differently textured regions is described. Texture edges in the picture are detected, and solid regions surrounded by these (usually broken) edges are 'colored in' using a propagation process. The resulting map is cleaned by comparing the region colors with the textures of the corresponding regions in the picture, and also by merging some regions with others according to criteria based on topology and size. The method has been applied to the construction of cloud cover maps from cloud cover pictures obtained by satellites.

  12. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  13. Generation of 2D Land Cover Maps for Urban Areas Using Decision Tree Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhle, J.

    2014-09-01

    A 2D land cover map can automatically and efficiently be generated from high-resolution multispectral aerial images. First, a digital surface model is produced and each cell of the elevation model is then supplemented with attributes. A decision tree classification is applied to extract map objects like buildings, roads, grassland, trees, hedges, and walls from such an "intelligent" point cloud. The decision tree is derived from training areas which borders are digitized on top of a false-colour orthoimage. The produced 2D land cover map with six classes is then subsequently refined by using image analysis techniques. The proposed methodology is described step by step. The classification, assessment, and refinement is carried out by the open source software "R"; the generation of the dense and accurate digital surface model by the "Match-T DSM" program of the Trimble Company. A practical example of a 2D land cover map generation is carried out. Images of a multispectral medium-format aerial camera covering an urban area in Switzerland are used. The assessment of the produced land cover map is based on class-wise stratified sampling where reference values of samples are determined by means of stereo-observations of false-colour stereopairs. The stratified statistical assessment of the produced land cover map with six classes and based on 91 points per class reveals a high thematic accuracy for classes "building" (99 %, 95 % CI: 95 %-100 %) and "road and parking lot" (90 %, 95 % CI: 83 %-95 %). Some other accuracy measures (overall accuracy, kappa value) and their 95 % confidence intervals are derived as well. The proposed methodology has a high potential for automation and fast processing and may be applied to other scenes and sensors.

  14. Coronary covered stents.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ismail Dogu; Fabris, Enrico; Serdoz, Roberta; Caiazzo, Gianluca; Foin, Nicolas; Abou-Sherif, Sara; Di Mario, Carlo

    2016-11-20

    Covered stents offer an effective bail-out strategy in vessel perforations, are an alternative to surgery for the exclusion of coronary aneurysms, and have a potential role in the treatment of friable embolisation-prone plaques. The aim of this manuscript is to offer an overview of currently available platforms and to report results obtained in prior studies.

  15. Part Long Section with Middle Wall at Crow of Reinforcing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Part Long Section with Middle Wall at Crow of Reinforcing Arch-Center of Bridge; Part Section Across Bridge at Center; Part Long Section with Middle Wall and Foot of Reinforcing Arch; South Side and East Entrance; View of Bridge and Schoharie River Looking South; One Aisle of Bridge - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  16. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  17. 17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. Stucco-painted white-covered the interior walls in order to seal-off any drafts and to reflect the sunlight entering through the east-facing windows. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 30. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WALL STREET GOLD MILL FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WALL STREET GOLD MILL FROM WEST TO EAST, PRIOR TO BEING COVERED WITH SHEET METAL IN 1966. PHOTOCOPY FROM A COLOR PRINT, JOSHUA TREE NATIONAL MONUMENT COLLECTION, "FACT FILE, PHOTOGRAPH FILE." - Wall Street Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 75 FR 55559 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of... on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube (LWRPT) from Mexico. The review covers imports of subject... duty order covering, inter alia, LWRPT from Mexico. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube...

  20. A prospective, controlled evaluation of the abdominal reapproximation anchor abdominal wall closure system in combination with VAC therapy compared with VAC alone in the management of an open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin L; Hamilton, David A; Davenport, Daniel L; Bernard, Andrew C; Kearney, Paul A; Chang, Phillip K

    2014-06-01

    Dramatic increases in damage control and decompressive laparotomies and a significant increase in patients with open abdominal cavities have resulted in numerous techniques to facilitate fascial closure. We hypothesized addition of the abdominal reapproximation anchor system (ABRA) to the KCI Abdominal Wound Vac™ (VAC) or KCI ABThera™ would increase successful primary closure rates and reduce operative costs. Fourteen patients with open abdomens were prospectively randomized into a control group using VAC alone (control) or a study group using VAC plus ABRA (VAC-ABRA). All patients underwent regular VAC changes; patients receiving VAC-ABRA also underwent concomitant daily elastomer adjustment of the ABRA system. Primary end points included abdominal closure, number of operating room (OR) visits, and OR time use. Eight patients were included in the VAC-ABRA group and six patients in the control group. Primary closure rates between groups were not statistically different; however, the number of trips to the OR and OR time use were different. Despite higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, larger starting wound size, and higher rates of abdominal compartment syndrome, closure rates in the VAC-ABRA group were similar to VAC alone. Importantly, however, fewer OR trips and less OR time were required for the VAC-ABRA group.

  1. [Covering of a thoraco-lumbar defect by omentoplasty].

    PubMed

    Le Fourn, B; Loirat, Y; Sartre, J Y; Lejeune, F; Pannier, M

    1997-02-01

    With a case of thoraco-lumbar defect, the authors discuss about different procedures to cover it. In this place, the better procedure is certainly the latissimus dorsi flap, in all combinations. The indication for omentoplasty at this spinal site should not be performed by first intention but by exclusion of other procedures, as in the case considered by the authors. It was a 37-year-old man, paraplegic from the age of 16, with a deep chronic spinal wound, secondary to sepsis of a posterior segmental fixations. A staphylococcus aureus infection which developed as a surgical complication was initially treated with antibiotics and surgical cleaning procedures without removing instrumentation. However, the infection remained active and the material was finally removed. Spinal immobilisation was strengthened by external fixation. The area was cleared of all suspect material, including bone graft, leaving a wide back-wound open to the spine. Spontaneous healing was first attempted, but the size and the chronicity of the wound led us to use pedicled greater omentum to close the defect. The omentum was pedicled on the right gastroepiploic vessels and transferred to the back wound through the posterior abdominal wall muscles, next to the right kidney. This procedure allows rapid healing. In association with suitable antibiotics, it has prevented any recurrent infection after 18 months of follow-up. It was no feasible to cover the wound with a latissimus dorsi flap, considering the importance of this muscle in the movements of a paraplegic and considering the initial impossibility of removing the external fixation.

  2. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  3. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  4. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  5. Side wall cooling for nozzle segments for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane segment includes outer and inner band portions with a vane extending therebetween and defining first and second cavities separated by an impingement plate for flowing cooling medium for impingement cooling of nozzle side walls. The side wall of each nozzle segment has an undercut region. The impingement plate has an inturned flange with a plurality of openings. Cooling inserts or receptacles having an open end are received in the openings and the base and side walls of the receptacles have apertures for receiving cooling medium from the first cavity and directing the cooling medium for impingement cooling of the side wall of the nozzle segment and a portion of the nozzle wall.

  6. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  7. 13. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) WITH SCALE - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  8. 12. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  9. 3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall of stacked 4' X 6' 's in foreground. Opening leads to refrigeration equipment area. Freezer room to the rear. - Curtis Wharf, Ice Plant, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  10. Electrically shielded enclosure with magnetically retained removable cover

    DOEpatents

    Rivers, Craig J.; Lee, Roanne A.; Jones, Glenn E.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is an electrically shielded enclosure having electrical components therein and a removable electrically shielded cover over an opening in the enclosure with a magnetic securement mechanism provided to removably secure the cover to the enclosure in a manner which will provide easy access, yet also provide an electrical seal between the cover and the enclosure capable of preventing the passage of electrical radiation through the joint between the cover and the enclosure. Magnets are provided on the enclosure peripherally around the opening and facing the cover, and a ferromagnetic surface is provided on the mating surface of the cover facing the magnets, with a continuous electrical seal provided between the magnets and the ferromagnetic surface on the cover to prevent the leakage of electromagnetic radiation therethrough. In one embodiment the electrical seal includes a flexible metal casing or surface, which is attached to the enclosure and positioned between the magnets and the ferromagnetic surface on the cover, and which is sufficiently flexible to be capable of conforming to the ferromagnetic surface to provide an electrical seal between the cover and the enclosure. In another embodiment, the electrical seal includes a metal mesh associated with the enclosure and positioned between the magnets on the enclosure and the ferromagnetic surface on the cover. The metal mesh is also capable of conforming to the surface of the ferromagnetic surface to thereby provide an electrical seal between the cover and the enclosure.

  11. Stream discharge measurements under ice cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noland, K. Michael; Jacobson, Nathan D.

    2000-01-01

    This training presentation shows procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure streamflow when streams are covered by ice. Although 'Ice Measurements' are generally more difficult to make than open-water measurements and are often made under uncomfortable conditions it is very important that ice measurements be made regularly during the winter. This is because a large part of many winter discharge records depend on such measurements.

  12. 16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED POST EXISTS IN MIDDLE OF ROOM. A SMALL OPENING HAS BEEN CUT INTO THE UPPER PORTION OF THE SOUTHEAST WALL THROUGH TO THE ADJOINING ROOM (106). GYPSUM BOARD ON WALLS WITH WOOD TRIM, FLUORESCENT LIGHTING, AND VINYL COMPOSITION TILE ON FLOORS ARE ALL LATER ADDITIONS. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  14. Wall contraction in Bloch wall films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartran, D. S.; Bourne, H. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The phenomenon of wall contraction characterized by a peak in the velocity-field relationship and a region of negative differential mobility is observed in uniaxial magnetic thin films of various magnetic properties by careful interrupted-pulse experiments. The observed results agree quite well with the theory for bulk samples when the extensive flux closure of thin film walls is accounted for by a suitable empirical scaling factor.

  15. Continental estimates of forest cover and forest cover changes in the dry ecosystems of Africa between 1990 and 2000

    PubMed Central

    Bodart, Catherine; Brink, Andreas B; Donnay, François; Lupi, Andrea; Mayaux, Philippe; Achard, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study provides regional estimates of forest cover in dry African ecoregions and the changes in forest cover that occurred there between 1990 and 2000, using a systematic sample of medium-resolution satellite imagery which was processed consistently across the continent. Location The study area corresponds to the dry forests and woodlands of Africa between the humid forests and the semi-arid regions. This area covers the Sudanian and Zambezian ecoregions. Methods A systematic sample of 1600 Landsat satellite imagery subsets, each 20 km × 20 km in size, were analysed for two reference years: 1990 and 2000. At each sample site and for both years, dense tree cover, open tree cover, other wooded land and other vegetation cover were identified from the analysis of satellite imagery, which comprised multidate segmentation and automatic classification steps followed by visual control by national forestry experts. Results Land cover and land-cover changes were estimated at continental and ecoregion scales and compared with existing pan-continental, regional and local studies. The overall accuracy of our land-cover maps was estimated at 87%. Between 1990 and 2000, 3.3 million hectares (Mha) of dense tree cover, 5.8 Mha of open tree cover and 8.9 Mha of other wooded land were lost, with a further 3.9 Mha degraded from dense to open tree cover. These results are substantially lower than the 34 Mha of forest loss reported in the FAO's 2010 Global Forest Resources Assessment for the same period and area. Main conclusions Our method generates the first consistent and robust estimates of forest cover and change in dry Africa with known statistical precision at continental and ecoregion scales. These results reduce the uncertainty regarding vegetation cover and its dynamics in these previously poorly studied ecosystems and provide crucial information for both science and environmental policies. PMID:23935237

  16. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  17. Container cover closure apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Griesau, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to handling and/or storing hazardous waste materials, such as radioactive materials, and is more specifically directed to loading and/or unloading radioactive material into or out of a container, such as a drum, by remote operation, and more particularly the present invention relates to the remote opening and/or closing of a container secured by a compression ring.

  18. A triceps musculocutaneous flap for chest-wall defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hartrampf, C.R. Jr.; Elliott, L.F.; Feldman, S. )

    1990-09-01

    A posterior upper arm flap based on the profunda brachii vessels has been described to cover soft-tissue defects in the upper anterolateral chest. In our series, the posterior upper arm skin is elevated with the long head of the triceps muscle to cover seven chest-wall defects resulting from indolent postradiation open wounds following partial TRAM flap failure (n = 2), soft-tissue deficiencies following partial TRAM flap loss (n = 3), and primarily as an ancillary flap in TRAM flap breast reconstruction (n = 2). This flap also may be used to supply well-vascularized tissue in the regions of the shoulder, axilla, and posterolateral back. A prerequisite for this operation is redundant tissue of the upper arm often present in middle-aged women and in patients with lymphedema following mastectomy. In our series of seven patients, all donor sites were closed primarily, and there was no subjective functional deficit following transfer of the long head of the triceps muscle.

  19. Cleopatra's Bedroom oblique with picture tube wall along walkway. Structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cleopatra's Bedroom oblique with picture tube wall along walkway. Structure is made solely of amber colored bottles. Roof supported by telephone poles. Areas of bottle wall above window opening collapsed in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  20. INTERIOR VIEW, WEST WALL OF NORTHWEST ATTIC CHAMBER. THIS SPACIOUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WEST WALL OF NORTHWEST ATTIC CHAMBER. THIS SPACIOUS ROOM INCLUDED A ROOF MONITOR FOR LIGHT AND VENTILATION AND A FIREPLACE FOR HEAT. THE WALL OPENING AND DOOR ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FIREPLACE GIVE ONTO A LARGE UNFINISHED SPACE LOCATED OVER THE HOUSE’S WEST WING - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 65. INTERIOR OF 1902 GENERATOR HOUSE. BASEMENT WALL OF 1901 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. INTERIOR OF 1902 GENERATOR HOUSE. BASEMENT WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE VISIBLE AT REAR. BASEMENT WALL OF 1873 WING AT RIGHT. OPENINGS MADE FOR MECHANICALLY TRANSMITTING POWER FROM STEAM ENGINES TO GENERATORS HAVE BEEN BRICKED UP. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  2. 7. Detail view of mill wall ruins looking E showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of mill wall ruins looking E showing arched openings for Jamaican Train and archeological excavations at base of wall. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  3. Beyond Walls: A Strategic Plan for James White Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews Univ., Berrien Springs, MI. James White Library.

    The strategic plan for the James White Library of Andrews University uses the phrase "beyond walls," rather than the catchphrase "library without walls," to acknowledge that printed matter is here to stay but that the paradigm in which it operates is open to innovation and exploration. The fundamental changes taking place in…

  4. Planned hernia repair and late abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, Ari; Tukiainen, Erkki

    2012-03-01

    Planned ventral hernia is a management strategy in which the abdominal fascial layer has been left unclosed and the viscera are covered only with original or grafted skin. Leaving the fascia open can be deliberate or unavoidable and most commonly results from staged repair of the abdominal wall due to trauma, peritonitis, pancreatitis, abdominal vascular emergencies, or abdominal compartment syndrome. The abdominal wall defects can be categorized as type I or II defects depending on whether there is intact, stable skin coverage. In defects with intact skin coverage, the most commonly used methods are the components separation technique and a prosthetic repair, sometimes used in combination. The advantages of the components separation technique is the ability to close the linea alba at the midline, creating a better functional result than a repair with inert mesh. Although the reherniation risk seems higher after components separation, the risk of infection is considerably lower. With a type II defect, with absent or unstable skin coverage, fascial repair alone is inadequate. Of the more complex reconstruction techniques, the use of a free tensor fasciae latae (TFL) flap utilizing a saphenous vein arteriovenous loop is the most promising. The advantages of the TFL flap include constant anatomy of the pedicle, a strong fascial layer, large-caliber vessels matching the size of the AV loop, and the ability to use large flaps (up to 20 × 35 cm). Whatever technique is used, the repair of complex abdominal wall defects requires close collaboration with plastic and abdominal surgeons, which is best managed in specialized centers.

  5. Influence of Cover Type on Silage Quality in Bunker Silos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of silage under reduced oxygen-permeability plastic film systems vs. standard white polyethylene film and tires was evaluated. In six trials (four in whole-plant corn, two in alfalfa), the Silostop two-step covering system (oxygen-barrier film on the side walls and top, woven plastic tar...

  6. 11. INTERIOR OF COVERED WALKWAY BEHIND SECOND FLOOR APARTMENTS. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF COVERED WALKWAY BEHIND SECOND FLOOR APARTMENTS. THE LEFT SIDE OF WALKWAY IS A CONCRETE RETAINING WALL. THE RIGHT SIDE IS PIERCED BY WINDOWS TO SECOND FLOOR KITCHENS, BATHROOMS, AND PANTRIES. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  7. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  8. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    DOEpatents

    Vohra, Arun

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  9. Performance evaluation of greenhouse dryer with opaque north wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Om; Kumar, Anil

    2014-04-01

    A laboratory scale modified solar active greenhouse dryer with opaque northern wall has been developed and tested for unload conditions at the Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India. The dryer has been tested under two conditions firstly with covered inside concrete floor and secondly when the floor is not covered. Inside covered floor conditions provide higher increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity.

  10. Wind tunnel wall interference (January 1980 - May 1988): A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Marie H.; Cole, Karen L.

    1988-01-01

    This selected bibliography lists 423 entries on the subject of wall interference during testing in wind tunnels. It is the third in a series of bibliographies on the subject. The first, NASA TM-87639, August 1986, is concerned with the reduction of wall interference by the use of adaptive walls. The second, NASA TP-89066, December 1986, is on wall interference in V/STOL and high lift testing. This, the third in the series, covers the wall interference literature published during the period January 1980 through May 1988, generally excluding those topics covered in the first two parts.

  11. Metallic Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan Michael (Inventor); Hofer, Richard Robert (Inventor); Mikellides, Ioannis G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A Hall thruster apparatus having walls constructed from a conductive material, such as graphite, and having magnetic shielding of the walls from the ionized plasma has been demonstrated to operate with nearly the same efficiency as a conventional non-magnetically shielded design using insulators as wall components. The new design is believed to provide the potential of higher power and uniform operation over the operating life of a thruster device.

  12. Albedo of a Dissipating Snow Cover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David A.; Kukla, George

    1984-12-01

    Albedos of surfaces covered with 50 cm of fresh dry snow following a major U.S. East Coast storm on 11-12 February 1983 ranged from 0.20 over a mixed coniferous forest to 0.80 over open farmland. As the snow cover dissipated, albedo decreased in a quasi-linear fashion over forests. It dropped rapidly at first, then slowly, over shrubland; while the opposite was observed over farmland.Following the melt, the albedo of snowfree surfaces ranged from 0.07 over a predominantly wet peat field to 0.20 over a field covered with corn stubble and yellow grass. The difference between snow-covered and snowfree albedo was 0.72 over the peaty field and 0.10 over the mixed forest.Visible band (0.28-0.69 m) reflectivities of snow-covered fields and shrubland were higher than those in the near-infrared (0.69-2.80 m), whereas the opposite was true over mixed coniferous forests. Visible and near-infrared reflectivities were approximately equal over deciduous forests.Data were collected in a series of low-altitude flights between 10 February and 24 March 1984 in northern New Jersey and southeastern New York with Eppley hemispheric pyranometers mounted on the wingtip of a Cessna 172 aircraft.

  13. The Rapidly Shrinking Arctic Multiyear Ice Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the most dramatic changes in the Arctic in recent years was the precipitous decline in the perennial ice cover. In 2007, the perennial ice area was 37% lower than climatological average and 28% lower than the previous low established in 2005. In 2008, the perennial ice recovered somewhat because of colder global temperatures but by only about 6% of average value. The trend in the ice area covered by perennial ice is now -12.5% per decade using data from 1979 to 2009 which compared to a previous report of -9% per decade derived from 1979 to 2000 data indicates an accelerated decline. To gain insight into the phenomenon, we studied the mUltiyear ice cover as detected by satellite sensor in winter. The multiyear ice as detected in winter represents ice that has generally survived two summers and therefore the thicker component of the perennial ice cover. Analysis of the thicker multiyear ice types indicates an even more rapid decline of 17% per decade. Such decline in the thick component of the Arctic ice cover that normally survives the summer means an even more vulnerable perennial ice cover. Much of the decline occurred in the western region of the Arctic Basin (Le., Chukchi and Beaufort Seas) where the open water area has been increasing by about 35% per decade. Such increase in low albedo ice free region causes the absorption of considerably more solar heat in the Arctic basin. This causes further decline in the ice cover in a process called ice-albedo feedback. A manifestation of such process is the observed trend in SST in the basin of about 0.5 + 0.2 degrees Celsius per decade as derived from satellite data

  14. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  15. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOEpatents

    Claunch, S.D.; Farrington, R.B.

    1997-02-04

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 17 figs.

  16. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOEpatents

    Claunch, Scott D.; Farrington, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  17. Infolding of covered stents used for aortic coarctation: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Wan, Andrea W; Lee, Kyong-Jin; Benson, Lee N

    2014-01-01

    Covered stents have been used for the treatment of aortic coarctation to protect the arterial wall during dilation. Early results have shown them to be safe and effective. We report two cases of infolding of the proximal edge of a covered aortic coarctation stent. Management required implantation of a second stent. Poor stent apposition to the vessel wall and/or recoil may allow conditions for these events to occur.

  18. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  19. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  20. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  1. Apparatus for impingement cooling a side wall adjacent an undercut region of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and vanes therebetween. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. Slots are formed through the inturned flange along the nozzle side wall. A plate having through-apertures extending between opposite edges thereof is disposed in each slot, the slots and plates being angled such that the cooling medium exiting the apertures in the second cavity lie close to the side wall for focusing and targeting cooling medium onto the side wall.

  2. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  3. INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET NORTH WALL. THE DOORS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, SOUTHEAST CABINET NORTH WALL. THE DOORS TO THE LEFT OF THE CHIMNEY MASS OPEN ONTO CLOSETS. ON THE RIGHT, THERE ARE TWO CLOSETS WITH JIB DOORS WITHIN THE CHIMNEY MASS. THE OPEN DOOR CONNECTS WITH THE DRAWING ROOM - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 11. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING BACK WALL ELECTRICAL HEATER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING BACK WALL ELECTRICAL HEATER, OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO BACK BEDROOM AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  6. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  7. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  8. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  9. 'Stucco' Walls-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial 'clodding' or cementation of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and makes up half of the projected 'Stucco Walls' image.

  10. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of an undercut region adjacent a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The inturned flange has a plurality of apertures for directing cooling steam to cool the side wall between adjacent nozzle segments.

  11. Cover crops and N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  12. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  13. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  14. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 land cover and impervious surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, James D.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Gass, Leila; Dewitz, Jon; Fry, Joyce A.; Wade, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    Release of NLCD 2006 provides the first wall-to-wall land-cover change database for the conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2006 focused on four primary products: 2001 land cover, 2006 land cover, land-cover change between 2001 and 2006, and impervious surface change between 2001 and 2006. The accuracy assessment was conducted by selecting a stratified random sample of pixels with the reference classification interpreted from multi-temporal high resolution digital imagery. The NLCD Level II (16 classes) overall accuracies for the 2001 and 2006 land cover were 79% and 78%, respectively, with Level II user's accuracies exceeding 80% for water, high density urban, all upland forest classes, shrubland, and cropland for both dates. Level I (8 classes) accuracies were 85% for NLCD 2001 and 84% for NLCD 2006. The high overall and user's accuracies for the individual dates translated into high user's accuracies for the 2001–2006 change reporting themes water gain and loss, forest loss, urban gain, and the no-change reporting themes for water, urban, forest, and agriculture. The main factor limiting higher accuracies for the change reporting themes appeared to be difficulty in distinguishing the context of grass. We discuss the need for more research on land-cover change accuracy assessment.

  15. 22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SAME POINT AS VIEW NO. 21. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 50 CFR 660.311 - Open access fishery-definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-definitions. 660.311... Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.311 Open access fishery—definitions. General definitions for the... specific to the open access fishery covered in this subpart and are in addition to those specified at §...

  17. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-02

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER.

  18. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  19. The USGS Land Cover Institute

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Institute (LCI) is located at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It provides a focal point for advancing USGS land cover studies and applications. Satellite images and other remotely sensed data play an important role in this research. Land Cover scientists investigate new ways to use satellite images and other data to map land cover. They assess national and global land cover characteristics and monitor how - and how rapidly - land cover changes. They also study the economic impacts of land cover as well as its effects on water quality, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, climate variability, and other environmental factors.

  20. MIR wall surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K

    1998-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of determining the layer thickness of a wall probed with a monostatic, hand-held implementation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). Our goal is to locate the layers of the wall, and measure its overall thickness. The physical constraints require the device to be held fixed or swept rapidly over the wall. Thus an insufficient amount of backscattered data are collected to use diffraction tomographic [3] techniques to form images. The problem is therefore one of determining the wall layers from a set of time series reflection data. We develop two channel signal processing algorithms to determine the location of the layers of a wall, using as inputs the time series returned from the wall and the incident pulse. We study the problem using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) computer code to simulate the electromagnetic propagation within and scattering from a wall probed with five pulses. We use the results to develop and test signal processing procedures for locating the individual layers. We study two classes of algorithms: a deconvolution approach to determine a layered impulse response, and a correlation approach. After testing the algorithms on the FDTD results, we down-select to a suitable method.

  1. Evaluating The National Land Cover Database Tree Canopy and Impervious Cover Estimates Across the Conterminous United States: A Comparison with Photo-Interpreted Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    The 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides 30-m resolution estimates of percentage tree canopy and percentage impervious cover for the conterminous United States. Previous estimates that compared NLCD tree canopy and impervious cover estimates with photo-interpreted cover estimates within selected counties and places revealed that NLCD underestimates tree and impervious cover. Based on these previous results, a wall-to-wall comprehensive national analysis was conducted to determine if and how NLCD derived estimates of tree and impervious cover varies from photo-interpreted values across the conterminous United States. Results of this analysis reveal that NLCD significantly underestimates tree cover in 64 of the 65 zones used to create the NCLD cover maps, with a national average underestimation of 9.7% (standard error (SE) = 1.0%) and a maximum underestimation of 28.4% in mapping zone 3. Impervious cover was also underestimated in 44 zones with an average underestimation of 1.4% (SE = 0.4%) and a maximum underestimation of 5.7% in mapping zone 56. Understanding the degree of underestimation by mapping zone can lead to better estimates of tree and impervious cover and a better understanding of the potential limitations associated with NLCD cover estimates. PMID:20676888

  2. Can shrub cover increase predation risk for a desert rodent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schooley, R.L.; Sharpe, Peter B.

    1996-01-01

    Previous research indicates that predation risk may influence activity patterns, habitat partitioning, and community structure of nocturnal desert rodents. Shrub microhabitat is typically considered safer than open microhabitat for these small mammals. We investigated predation risk for Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii), which are diurnal desert rodents that detect predators visually and use burrows for refuge. Our results suggested that shrub cover may increase risk for these squirrels by decreasing their ability to escape from predators. Our field experiment indicated that running speeds of juvenile squirrels were lower in shrub (Ceratoides lanata) habitat than in open areas. Shrub cover was also associated with shorter predator-detection distances (mammalian and avian) and fewer refuges (burrow entrances per hectare) than in open areas in one year but not in another. Our study demonstrated that the visual and locomotive obstruction of vegetative cover may increase predation risk for diurnal desert rodents and that elements of habitat-dependent risk may be temporally dynamic.

  3. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  4. Moving wall, continuous flow electronphoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H. (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrophoresis devices and more particularly to a moving wall, continuous flow device in which an electrophoresis chamber is angularly positionable with respect to the direction of moving belt walls. A frame with an electrophoresis chamber is rotatably supported between two synchronously driven belt walls. This allows the chamber to be angularly positionable with respect to the direction of belt travel, which compensates for electroosmotic flow within the electrophoresis chamber. Injection of a buffer solution via an opening and a homogenous sample stream via another opening is performed at the end of a chamber, and collection of buffer and the fractionated species particles is done by a conventional collection array at an opposite end of the chamber. Belts are driven at a rate which exactly matches the flow of buffer and sample through the chamber, which entrains the buffer to behave as a rigid electrophoretic medium, eliminating flow distortions (Poiseuille effect). Additionally, belt material for each belt is stored at one end of the device and is taken up by drive wheels at an opposite end. The novelty of this invention particularly lies in the electrophoresis chamber being angularly positionable between two moving belt walls in order to compensate for electroosmotic flow. Additionally, new belt material is continuously exposed within the chamber, minimizing flow distortion due to contamination of the belt material by the sample.

  5. Double wall vacuum tubing and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1989-01-01

    An evacuated double wall tubing is shown together with a method for the manufacture of such tubing which includes providing a first pipe of predetermined larger diameter and a second pipe having an O.D. substantially smaller than the I.D. of the first pipe. An evacuation opening is then in the first pipe. The second pipe is inserted inside the first pipe with an annular space therebetween. The pipes are welded together at one end. A stretching tool is secured to the other end of the second pipe after welding. The second pipe is then prestressed mechanically with the stretching tool an amount sufficient to prevent substantial buckling of the second pipe under normal operating conditions of the double wall pipe. The other ends of the first pipe and the prestressed second pipe are welded together, preferably by explosion welding, without the introduction of mechanical spacers between the pipes. The annulus between the pipes is evacuated through the evacuation opening, and the evacuation opening is finally sealed. The first pipe is preferably of steel and the second pipe is preferably of titanium. The pipes may be of a size and wall thickness sufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing or may be of a size and wall thickness insufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing, and the double wall pipe positioned with a sliding fit inside a third pipe of a load-bearing size.

  6. Opening the Dutch Open Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; de Wijn, A. G.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.

    2002-10-01

    We hope to "open the DOT" to the international solar physics community as a facility for high-resolution tomography of the solar atmosphere. Our aim is to do so combining peer-review time allocation with service-mode operation in a "hands-on-telescope" education program bringing students to La Palma to assist in the observing and processing. The largest step needed is considerable speedup of the DOT speckle processing.

  7. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  8. [Nursing care wall planning].

    PubMed

    Moreau, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Nursing care wall planners are not a tool for assessing workload, but a means of providing coherence and individualised monitoring of care. Its application is focused not only on team organisation, but also on the patient's needs.

  9. Stability of Thin-Walled Tubes Under Torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, L H

    1935-01-01

    In this report a theoretical solution is developed for the torsion on a round thin-walled tube for which the walls become unstable. The results of this theory are given by a few simple formulas and curves which cover all cases. The differential equations of equilibrium are derived in a simpler form than previously found, it being shown that many items can be neglected.

  10. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  11. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  12. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the perimeter of the cover opening and the closure device. (5) The floating membrane cover may be... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards-Surface impoundment floating... impoundment floating membrane cover. (a) This section applies to owners and operators subject to this...

  13. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the perimeter of the cover opening and the closure device. (5) The floating membrane cover may be... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards-Surface impoundment floating... impoundment floating membrane cover. (a) This section applies to owners and operators subject to this...

  14. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane therebetween. Each band includes a nozzle wall, a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and the nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The impingement plate has a turned flange welded to the inturned flange. A backing plate overlies the turned flange and aligned apertures are formed through the backing plate and turned flange to direct and focus cooling flow onto the side wall of the nozzle segment.

  15. Reconstruction of complex abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, A; Tukiainen, E

    2013-01-01

    Complex abdominal wall defects refer to situations where simple ventral hernia repair is not feasible because the defect is very large, there is a concomitant infection or failed previous re-pair attempt, or if there is not enough original skin to cover the repair. Usually a complex abdominal wall repair is preceded by a period of temporary abdominal closure where the short-term aims include closure of the catabolic drain, protection of the viscera and preventing fistula formation, preventing bowel adherence to the abdominal wall, and enabling future fascial and skin closure. Currently the best way to achieve these goals is the vacuum- and mesh-mediated fascial traction method achieving close to 90% fascial closure rates. The long-term aims of an abdominal closure following a planned hernia strategy include intact skin cover, fascial closure at midline (if possible), good functional outcome with innervated abdominal musculature, no pain and good cosmetic result. The main methods of abdominal wall reconstruction include the use of prosthetic (mesh) or autologous material (tissue flaps). In patients with original skin cover over the fascial defect (simple ventral hernia), the most commonly used method is hernia repair with an artificial mesh. For more complex defects, our first choice of reconstruction is the component separation technique, sometimes combined with a mesh. In contaminated fields where component separation alone is not feasible, a combination with a biological mesh can be used. In large defects with grafted skin, a free TFL flap is the best option, sometimes reinforced with a mesh and enhanced with components separation.

  16. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2010-02-01

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  17. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS states contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as such to the geometry at the Planck scale. In the second part, we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multicentered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  18. Closure of the open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Björck, Martin; D'Amours, Scott K; Hamilton, A E Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    The open abdomen is a valuable tool in the management of patients with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The longer an abdomen is left open, the greater the potential morbidity, however. From the very start, specific measures should be considered to increase the likelihood of definitive closure and prevent the development of visceral adhesions, lateralization, and/or loss of skin and fascia, ileus, fistulae, and malnutrition. Early definitive closure of all abdominal wall layers is the short-term goal of management once the need for the open abdomen has resolved. Several devices and strategies improve the chances for definitive closure. If a frozen abdomen develops, split-thickness skin grafting of a granulating open abdominal wound base is an alternative. Early coverage of the exposed viscera and acceptance of a large abdominal hernia permit earlier reversal of the catabolic state and lower the risk of fistula formation. When a stoma is required, sealing and separation can become problematic. If a fistula develops, a more complex situation prevails, requiring specific techniques to isolate its output and a longer-term strategy to restore intestinal continuity. Planning the closure of an open abdomen is a process that starts on the first day that the abdomen is opened. Multiple factors need to be addressed, optimized, and controlled to achieve the best outcome.

  19. Unilateral NMR study of a XVI century wall painted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proietti, N.; Capitani, D.; Rossi, E.; Cozzolino, S.; Segre, A. L.

    2007-06-01

    Wall paintings in the XVI century Serra Chapel in the "Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore" Rome, have been studied using unilateral NMR. In order to map the distribution of moisture content in the wall painted, a large number of Hahn echo measurements, covering large areas of the wall painting were performed. Because the intensity of the Hahn echo is proportional to the amount of moisture in the area under study, the experimental data were transformed into 2D gradient colour maps which allowed an easy visualization of the moisture content of the wall. The state of conservation of the wall painting was monitored using T2 measurements specially with regards to outcropping salt.

  20. 29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side of wall. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  1. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. High plains cover crop research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some recent statements have been made about the benefits of growing cover crops in mixtures as compared with single-species plantings of cover crops. Those stated benefits have included greatly reduced water use, enhanced soil microbiological activity, increased biomass productivity, and enhanced wa...

  3. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  4. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  5. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  6. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  7. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE TO THE EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT OF SASH WINDOW ON THE REAR WALL. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT WALL AT PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON BACK WALL AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  9. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  10. South interior wall, view to the East from near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South interior wall, view to the East from near the center of the building. At present there is open storage above the fluorescent lights. Behind the interior half wall, modern office occupy the area formerly used as a machine shop (See drawing copy NV-35-B-5) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  11. Thin film nitinol covered stents: design and animal testing.

    PubMed

    Levi, Daniel S; Williams, Ryan J; Liu, Jasen; Danon, Saar; Stepan, Lenka L; Panduranga, Mohanchandra K; Fishbein, Michael C; Carman, Greg P

    2008-01-01

    Interventionalists in many specialties have the need for improved, low profile covered stents. Thin films of nitinol (<5-10 microns) could be used to improve current covered stent technology. A "hot target" sputter deposition technique was used to create thin films of nitinol for this study. Covered stents were created from commercially available balloon-inflatable and self-expanding stents. Stents were deployed in a laboratory flow loop and in four swine. Uncovered stent portions served as controls. Postmortem examinations were performed 2-6 weeks after implantation. In short-term testing, thin film nitinol covered stents deployed in the arterial circulation showed no intimal proliferation and were easily removed from the arterial wall postmortem. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thin layer of endothelial cells on the thin film, which covered the entire film by 3 weeks. By contrast, significant neointimal hyperplasia occurred on the luminal side of stents deployed in the venous circulation. Extremely low-profile covered stents can be manufactured using thin films of nitinol. Although long-term studies are needed, thin film nitinol may allow for the development of low-profile, nonthrombogenic covered stents.

  12. 75 FR 57456 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China... duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period January 20, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and...

  13. Light-toned Layered Outcrops in Valles Marineris Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Valles Marineris a system of troughs, chasms, and pit chains that stretches more than 4,000 km (2,500 miles) across the martian western hemisphere. Outcrops of layered material found in mounds and mesas within the chasms of the Valles Marineris were known from the pictures taken by Mariner 9 in 1972 and the Viking orbiters of 1976-1980. One example of the those known previously is the mesa labeled 'Candor Mensa' in the context image (above); another example is the mound in the center of Ganges Chasma. For several decades, it has been widely speculated among Mars scientists that the light- and dark-toned layered materials in the Valles Marineris might have formed in lakes that had once filled the chasms during the most recent epoch of martian history; others thought they might result from volcanic ash deposited in the chasms. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have confirmed the presence of light- and dark-toned layered sedimentary rock outcrops in the Valles Marineris, but they have also revealed many more than were previously known and they have shown several good examples that these materials are coming out of the walls of the Valles Marineris chasms. The fact that these materials come out of the chasm walls means that the layers do not represent lakes (or volcanic debris) that formed in the Valles Marineris. Instead, they represent materials deposited and buried long before there ever was a Valles Marineris. They are seen now because of the faulting and erosion that opened up and widened the Valles Marineris troughs. The context image is a mosaic of Viking 1 orbiter images taken in 1976 showing a portion of the wall that separates western Ophir Chasma from western Candor Chasma in the Valles Marineris. This area is located around 5oS, 74oW. The white box labeled 'M17-00467' shows the location of a subframe of MOC image M17-00467 that was acquired in July 2000 to allow scientists to

  14. Musculoskeletal chest wall pain

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

    1985-01-01

    The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

  15. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  16. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  17. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  18. Small Vertex Cover Makes Petri Net Coverability and Boundedness Easier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, M.

    The coverability and boundedness problems for Petri nets are known to be Expspace-complete. Given a Petri net, we associate a graph with it. With the vertex cover number k of this graph and the maximum arc weight W as parameters, we show that coverability and boundedness are in ParaPspace. This means that these problems can be solved in space O(ef(k,W)poly(n)) where ef(k,W) is some exponential function and poly(n) is some polynomial in the size of the input. We then extend the ParaPspace result to model checking a logic that can express some generalizations of coverability and boundedness.

  19. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  20. Efficient Photovoltaic Current Generation at Ferroelectric Domain Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Jan; Fu, Deyi; Yang, Seung-Yeul; Alarcón-Lladó, Esther; Wu, Junqiao; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Ager, Joel W., III

    2011-09-01

    We elucidate the mechanism of a newly observed photovoltaic effect which occurs in ferroelectrics with periodic domain structures. Under sufficiently strong illumination, domain walls function as nanoscale generators of the photovoltaic current. The steps in the electrostatic potential function to accumulate electrons and holes on opposite sides of the walls while locally reducing the concentration of the oppositely charged carriers. As a result, the recombination rate adjacent to the walls is reduced, leading to a net diffusion current. In open circuit, photovoltages for periodically ordered domain walls are additive and voltages much larger than the band gap can be generated. The internal quantum efficiency for individual domain walls can be surprisingly high, approaching 10% for above band-gap photons. Although we have found the effect in BiFeO3 films, it should occur in any system with a similar periodic potential.

  1. Use of reinforced soil wall to support steam generator transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Davie, J.R.; Wang, J.T. ); Gladstone, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Consumers Power Company had the two steam generators at its Palisades Nuclear Plant in Michigan replaced in November 1990. This replacement was accomplished through a 26-foot wide by 28-foot high opening cut into the wall of the containment building, about 45 feet above the original ground surface. Because this ground surface was at an approximately 3-H:1-V slope, leveling was required before replacement in order to provide access for the steam generators and adequate support for the heavy-duty gantry crane system used to transfer the generators. A 25-foot high reinforced soil wall was constructed to achieve the level surface. This paper describes the design and construction of the heavily loaded reinforced soil wall, including ground improvement measures required to obtain adequate wall stability. The performance of the wall under test loading will also be presented and discussed.

  2. Magnetic Domain Wall Floating on a Spin Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Pramey; Kim, Se Kwon; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the transfer of angular momentum between a spin superfluid and a domain wall in an exchange coupled easy-axis and easy-plane magnetic insulator system. A domain wall in the easy-axis magnet absorbs spin angular momentum via disrupting the flow of a superfluid spin current in the easy-plane magnet. Focusing on an open geometry, where the spin current is injected electrically via a nonequilibrium spin accumulation, we derive analytical expressions for the resultant superfluid-mediated motion of the domain wall. The analytical results are supported by micromagnetic simulations. The proposed phenomenon extends the regime of magnon-driven domain-wall motion to the case where the magnons are condensed and exhibit superfluidity. Furthermore, by controlling the pinning of the domain wall, we propose a realization of a reconfigurable spin transistor. The long-distance dissipationless character of spin superfluids can thus be exploited for manipulating soliton-based memory and logic devices.

  3. The Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Avery, Paul; Blackburn, Kent; Wenaus, Torre; Wurthwein, Frank; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  4. Gullies in Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-388, 11 June 2003

    Many craters and troughs at polar and middle latitudes on Mars have gullies carved in their walls. These gullies may have formed by running water; others have suggested alternative, exotic fluids such as liquid or gaseous carbon dioxide. This view of martian gullies was acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). The image shows gullies in the wall of an old meteor impact crater near 39.0oS, 200.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  5. Gullied Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-371, 25 May 2003

    Gullies are common in some regions on middle- and polar-latitude slopes, such as crater walls. This March 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies on the north wall of a crater in the Atlantis Chaos region near 34.3oS, 178.0oW. The gullies might have formed by flow of a fluid--perhaps liquid water--sometime in the geologically recent martian past. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  6. 12. INTERIOR OF COVERED WALKWAY BEHIND SECOND FLOOR APARTMENTS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF COVERED WALKWAY BEHIND SECOND FLOOR APARTMENTS FROM OPPOSITE VIEW OF CA-XXX-11. DOOR AT PHOTO LEFT OPENS INTO THE KITCHEN OF THE WEST SIDE SECOND FLOOR APARTMENT. VIEW TO EAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  7. 7. WEST PORTAL. NOTE DECORATIVE ELEMENTS, INCLUDING DECORATIVE CAPS COVERING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST PORTAL. NOTE DECORATIVE ELEMENTS, INCLUDING DECORATIVE CAPS COVERING COMPRESSION BLOCKS. NAME OF THE BRIDGE COMPANY WITH HERALDIC CARTOUCHE BEARING NAMES OF THREE COUNTY COMMISSIONERS BELOW, AND OPEN SCROLL WORK IN WROUGHT IRON. - Peevy Road Bridge, Peevy Road spanning Perkiomen Creek in Upper Hanover Township, East Greenville, Montgomery County, PA

  8. 17 CFR 31.8 - Cover of leverage contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contracts entered into with leverage customers, and must at all times also maintain cover of at least 90... leverage customers. At least 25 percent of the amount of physical commodities subject to open long leverage... entered into with leverage customers: And, provided further, That the leverage transaction...

  9. South elevation of equipment building. Hood covers engine room air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation of equipment building. Hood covers engine room air intake. Engine exhaust is above hood, and door opens to heater room. Cable duct to tower is at right. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  10. Wall mounted combined radiactive-convective electric space heater

    SciTech Connect

    Meiser, R.; Burkert, J.; Bendel, R.

    1987-07-21

    A space heating apparatus is described for mounting on a wall surface of a room to be heated, the apparatus comprising: a housing including a substantially flat rear wall adapted for mounting to the wall surface. A front wall adjacent the rear wall, the front wall and the real wall conjointly defining a space between through which the air passes. The front wall has a lower portion extending upwardly from the bottom of the housing a solid uninterrupted mid portion devoid of any openings and a portion extending upwardly; an inlet means at the lower end of the housing admits and directs the air into the space; air outlet means at the upper end of the housing where heated air leaves the space and passes from the housing: a solid, uninterrupted metal plate having a first flat side and a second flat side; an electrically insulating plastic layer formed only on the first flat side of the metal plate; the metal plate being mounted in the space so as to partition the space into two convecting channels and having an upper portion extending above the mid portion of the front wall; the plastic layer and the rear wall conjointly defining one of the convecting channels for communicating with a portion of the air outlet means and for conducting a portion of the incoming air admitted to the space; the second flat side and the front wall with the solid uninterrupted mid portion conjointly defining the other one of the convecting channels; resistance heating means embedded in and throughout the plastic layer for heating the air rising in both of the convecting channels and for radiating heat from the second flat side of the plate; and the remainder of the outlet means being formed in the upper portion of the front wall so as to be disposed laterally of the upper portion of the metal plate.

  11. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  12. Adding crumb rubber into exterior wall materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han; Thong-On, Norasit; Zhang, Xiong

    2002-10-01

    In Arizona US, most houses are built with walls covered by stuccos/coatings/mortars. This paper presents an explorative investigation of adding crumb rubber into stuccos/coatings/mortars. A series of experiments are conducted to examine the thermal and mechanical performance of the crumb rubber mixes. The results show that, the mixes with crumb rubber do exhibit more desirable performances like being high in crack-resistance and thermal insulation, and low in thermal expansion/contraction. The drawback for the crumb rubber mixes is the reduction in compressive strength, but which can be compensated by other means. As a site experiment, an area of 100 square-feet of crumb rubber coatings for two mix designs is sprayed on a tire-adobe wall. After being sprayed more than 14 months, the coatings apparently are in good condition. Significance of this study is that this practice, if accepted, will yield improved products that consume large quantities of crumb rubber.

  13. Gullies and Streaks on Crater wall Kaiser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies emergent from a specific layer in the wall of an ancient crater within a much larger crater, Kaiser. Located at 46.4oS, 341.4oW, this picture obtained in early southern summer also shows a plethora of dark, and in some places squiggly, streaks. The streaks are thought to have been formed by the passage of dust devils that removed or disrupted a thin coating of dust from the surface. Such streaks commonly form at martian middle latitudes in late spring and early summer. The gullies in the crater wall were likely eroded by a fluid, perhaps water. This picture was obtained in January 2002; it covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the upper left.

  14. Integrally covered silicon solar cells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.; Somberg, H.

    1972-01-01

    The electron-beam technique for evaporating dielectric materials onto solar cells has been examined and developed. Titanium oxide cell antireflection coatings have been obtained which compare to silicon monoxide in environmental capabilities and which provide 3 to 4% improvement over SiO for glass covered cells. Evaporation processes have been obtained which provide a 50 to 100 micromil thick transparent (0.5 to 1.0% absorption per mil), low stressed integral cover capable of surviving space type qualification testing. Irradiation with 10 to the 15th power 1-MeV electrons shows 2% darkening, and long term UV irradiation incurs approximately 1.3% cover darkening for 50 micromil thick covers.

  15. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  16. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  17. A School without Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Len Tai

    1994-01-01

    During the summer, selected students of Hawaiian ancestry who have completed seventh or eighth grade participate in a boarding program with outdoor activities such as pulling taro, star gazing, and camping. The activities eliminate walls of doubt and fear and nurture self-confidence, creativity, personal growth, leadership, and cultural awareness.…

  18. Wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

  19. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  20. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  1. Specifications for updating USGS land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1983-01-01

    To meet the increasing demands for up-to-date land use and land cover information, a primary goal of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) national land use and land cover mapping program is to provide for periodic updating of maps and data in a timely and uniform manner. The technical specifications for updating existing USGS land use and land cover maps that are presented here cover both the interpretive aspects of detecting and identifying land use and land cover changes and the cartographic aspects of mapping and presenting the change data in conventional map format. They provide the map compiler with the procedures and techniques necessary to then use these change data to update existing land use and land cover maps in a manner that is both standardized and repeatable. Included are specifications for the acquisition of remotely sensed source materials, selection of compilation map bases, handling of data base corrections, editing and quality control operations, generation of map update products for USGS open file, and the reproduction and distribution of open file materials. These specifications are planned to become part of the National Mapping Division's Technical Instructions.

  2. Cylinder head cover structure for a V-type engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Nishida, M.; Hokazono, K.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a cylinder head cover structure for a cylinder engine having first and second cylinder heads for forming first and second cylinder banks, each cylinder head being provided, in an inner side wall thereof, with intake ports each communicating with a cylinder formed in the cylinder bank, at least one camshaft provided in each cylinder bank above intake and exhaust valves to drive the valves in synchronization with rotation of the engine and supported for rotation by a plurality of bearings, discrete intake passages each of which is connected to one of the intake ports of one of the cylinder banks and extends above the other cylinder bank, and cylinder head covers mounted on the respective cylinder heads, characterized in that recessed portions are formed in each of the cylinder head covers at corresponding portions of the camshaft and respective the discrete intake passages extend through corresponding ones of the recessed portions.

  3. Design of a three-component wall-mounted balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, Allen E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.

    1990-01-01

    The design and evaluation of a three-component, wall-mounted pyramidal balance for a small wind tunnel is discussed. The balance was designed to measure lift, drag, pitching moment, and angle of attack. The specific design of each component and mathematical models used to design the balance are covered. Balance evaluation consisted of calibration, tare, and interaction analysis.

  4. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  5. 1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS FORGEMAN'S HOUSE NO. 1 AT RIGHT - Mount Etna Iron Works, Forgeman's House No. 1, Legislative Route 07020 between junctions of T.R. 461 & 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  6. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  7. 4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  8. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. Interior view of wall detail of southeast wall, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of wall detail of southeast wall, view towards the southeast, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  10. EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL OF CRUSHING MILL IN CENTER. GABLE END OF BOILING HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  11. 40. RETAINING WALL CONSTRUCTION SHOWING PORTION OF COMPLETED WALL. BACKFILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. RETAINING WALL CONSTRUCTION SHOWING PORTION OF COMPLETED WALL. BACKFILLING BY POWER SHOVEL IN PROGRESS. ZION NP NEGATIVE NO. 1490. PHOTOGRAPHER: PARKER, NO DATE - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  12. Projectile fragmentation wall for CHICSi detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzanowski, A.; Czech, B.; Siwek, A.; Skwirczyńska, I.; Staszel, P.; CHIC Collaboration

    2002-04-01

    The Forward Wall Detector (FWD) is designed to identify projectile-like fragments from heavy-ion reactions at the CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala, Sweden. FWD covers the polar angle from 3.9° to 11.7° with geometrical efficiency of 81%. The single-detection module can be either of phoswich type (10 mm fast plastic+80 mm CsI(Tl)) or Δ E- E telescope (750 μm Si+80 mm CsI(Tl)). It is expected to have charge identification up to Z=18 and mass resolution for H and He isotopes.

  13. Pedicled fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap for the reconstruction of a large postoncologic abdominal wall resection defect: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nthumba, Peter; Barasa, Jack; Cavadas, Pedro C; Landin, Luis

    2012-02-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has been used to cover defects between the proximal third of the leg and lower abdomen, and with modification, may cover epigastric defects. We used the ALT flap to cover a full-thickness defect of over half the anterior abdominal wall. We conclude that abdominal wall defects of large sizes can be successfully reconstructed using an appropriately designed ALT flap; a simple, single-stage effective reconstruction.

  14. Open Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bough, Max, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal provides 12 brief articles focused on open education. Topics explored include (1) open education and reading, (2) mainstreaming, (3) characteristics of an open teacher, (4) administration of an open concept school, (5) an existential methodology in the language arts, (6) social studies in open education, (7) open education in early…

  15. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  16. Wind tunnels with adapted walls for reducing wall interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganzer, U.

    1979-01-01

    The basic principle of adaptable wind tunnel walls is explained. First results of an investigation carried out at the Aero-Space Institute of Berlin Technical University are presented for two dimensional flexible walls and a NACA 0012 airfoil. With five examples exhibiting very different flow conditions it is demonstrated that it is possible to reduce wall interference and to avoid blockage at transonic speeds by wall adaptation.

  17. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  18. Dielectric relaxation and charged domain walls in (K,Na)NbO3-based ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, A. A.; Alikin, D. O.; Turygin, A. P.; Abramov, A. S.; Hreščak, J.; Walker, J.; Rojac, T.; Bencan, A.; Malic, B.; Kholkin, A. L.; Shur, V. Ya.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of domain walls on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials is a well known phenomenon. Commonly, such "extrinsic" contributions to dielectric permittivity are discussed in terms of domain wall displacements under external electric field. In this work, we report on a possible contribution of charged domain walls to low frequency (10-106 Hz) dielectric permittivity in K1-xNaxNbO3 ferroelectric ceramics. It is shown that the effective dielectric response increases with increasing domain wall density. The effect has been attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation. The obtained results may open up possibilities for domain wall engineering in various ferroelectric materials.

  19. 25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST FROM A POINT ABOUT 500 FEET FROM THE MIDDLE HARBOR PARK FISHING PIER. (Panoramic view 1 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  1. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  2. A More Accurate Solution to the Elastic-Plastic Problem of Pressurized Thick-Walled Cylinders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    ACCURATE SOLUTION TO THE ELASTIC- PLASTIC PROBLEM OF PRESSURIZED THICK-WALLED CYLINDERS S. TYPE OF REPORT 4’ PERIOD COVERED Final 8. PERFORMING...o £ ) A MORE ACCURATE SOLUTION TO THE ELASTIC- PLASTIC PROBLEM OF PREr SURIZED THICK-WALLED CYLINDERS < • Peter C. T. Chen U.S. Army Armament...Watervllet, NY 12189 I iJSTRACT. A new method has been developed for solving the partially plastic problems of thlc’ -walled cylinders made of strain

  3. ARMF, TRA660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARMF, TRA-660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. VERTICAL LIFT DOOR IN WEST WALL. WINDOWS AND LOUVERS WERE LATER COVERED. H.K. FERGUSON 8956 MTR-ETR-660-53, 9/1959. INL INDEX NO. 531-0660-00-279-101994, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  5. Cassini Main Engine Assembly Cover Flight Management and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan P.; Millard, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has performed its four year Prime Mission at Saturn and is currently in orbit at Saturn performing a two year extended mission. 12Its main engine nozzles are susceptible to impact damage from micrometeoroids and on-orbit dust. The spacecraft has an articulating device known as the Main Engine Assembly (MEA) cover which can close and shield the main engines from these threats. The cover opens to allow for main engine burns that are necessary to maintain the trajectory. Periodically updated analyses of potential on-orbit dust hazard threats have resulted in the need to continue to use the MEA cover beyond its intended use and beyond its design life. This paper provides a detailed Systems-level overview of the flight management of the MEA cover device and its flight performance to date.

  6. 16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER, OPEN PANEL DOOR FROM BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON NORTH WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  7. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT (EAST) WALL AT PHOTO CENTER. ENTRY ROOM AND OPEN 1-LIGHT FRONT DOOR AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH ROOM. DOOR OPENING LEADS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH ROOM. DOOR OPENING LEADS TO STAIRWAY UP TO THE ABOVE-GROUND PORTION. NOTE THE SQUARE TUNNEL OPENING AT CENTER, AND THE CONDUIT SLEEVES AND PIPE PROTRUDING FROM THE NORTH WALL AT LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  10. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  11. Experimental Reconstruction of the Trachea with Urinary Bladder Wall

    PubMed Central

    Hirayasu, Tsuneo; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Uehara, Kanou; Kinjo, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate tracheal reconstruction with autologous bladder wall using modern refined surgical procedures. Methods: Experiments were performed on 16 female beagle dogs. Six tracheal cartilages were resected to create a tracheal deficit, then tracheal replacement with autologous bladder wall was performed. In the first 10 dogs (first series), the transplant site was covered with pedicled omental flap. In the next six dogs (second series), we performed tracheal reconstruction without omental covering, and secured tracheal cartilages above and below the graft with sutures to prevent excessive graft stretching. Results: No surgical mortality or lethal infection of the transplant site was encountered in either series. Complications in the first series comprised tracheal stenosis in four dogs. One dog died suddenly at 4 months postoperatively due to stent migration, so cartilage sutures were adopted in the second series. The lumen surface of the grafts was covered with squamous metaplastic epithelium. Osseous tissue was present in the submucosa of grafts, particularly prominently in areas lacking omental covering. Conclusions: Tracheal reconstruction using bladder wall may become clinically useful. A pedicled omental covering does not appear always necessary to prevent graft necrosis and infection. Ischemic stimulation may be involved with bone formation in grafts. PMID:27009558

  12. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  13. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  14. Prosthetics and Techniques in Repair of Animal's Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Karrouf, Gamal; Zaghloul, Adel; Abou-Alsaud, Mohamed; Barbour, Elie; Abouelnasr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity. PMID:27293982

  15. Prosthetics and Techniques in Repair of Animal's Abdominal Wall.

    PubMed

    Karrouf, Gamal; Zaghloul, Adel; Abou-Alsaud, Mohamed; Barbour, Elie; Abouelnasr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity.

  16. Curtain Wall Creates Ventilation Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Curtain-wall structure proposed for removing methane and airborne coal dust from hydrojet-jaw mining machines. Channel between curtain wall and mine wall forms closed exhaust passage. Through it, gas and dust continuously removed so high concentrations of these explosive materials not build up.

  17. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  18. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  19. 8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR NEW WINDOW OPENINGS. NORTH WING, FIRST FLOOR DURING REHABILITATION OF HOSPITAL BUILDING, 1938. PLEASE CREDIT: BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U. S. Naval Asylum, Laning Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. The original floor height is indicated by the joists on the left. The large opening on the right was formerly fitted with an exterior-fed iron stove used to heat the space on particularly cold days. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Detail, steps and walls, east corner, Burton Park Amphitheater, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, steps and walls, east corner, Burton Park Amphitheater, view to west (90mm lens). Open doorway to left of steps leads to stage wing area; steps lead to Club House grade level. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  2. 8. FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, NORTHEAST WALL SHOWING DOORWAYS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, NORTHEAST WALL SHOWING DOORWAYS TO BOXED WINDER STAIRWAYS, UP ON FAR RIGHT AND DOWN TO RIGHT OF FIREPLACE, WITH SHUTTERS OPEN - High Farm, House, Creek Road, 1 mile West of Easton Road, Pipersville, Bucks County, PA

  3. 6. View of mill wall ruins looking E showing arched ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of mill wall ruins looking E showing arched openings where fuel was fed to fire Jamaican Train. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  4. Insurance for electric and magnetic field litigation: Are you covered

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.R.; Stewart, C.A. III

    1993-04-01

    Electrical power generating companies, power transmission companies and large generators and users of electrical power recently felt the sting of a second shock. The first shock came when lawsuits were first filed against companies in the electrical power industry claiming real or imagined damages from electrical and magnetic fields ([open quotes]EMFs[close quotes]). The new and second shock is potentially more devastating because it comes from the [open quotes]safe hands[close quotes] of the insurance industry. Standard-form comprehensive general liability ([open quotes]CGL[close quotes]) insurance policies purchased by nearly every company in the electrical power industry for generations are supposed to cover EMF bodily injury and property damage claims. Not so, say the lawyers for the most prominent insurance company selling insurance coverage to electric utilities, Associated Electric Gas Insurance Services, Ltd. ([open quotes]AEGIS[close quotes]).

  5. COVERING A CORE BY EXTRUSION

    DOEpatents

    Karnie, A.J.

    1963-07-16

    A method of covering a cylindrical fuel core with a cladding metal ms described. The metal is forced between dies around the core from both ends in two opposing skirts, and as these meet the ends turn outward into an annular recess in the dics. By cutting off the raised portion formed by the recess, oxide impurities are eliminated. (AEC)

  6. Cover times of random searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  7. Resumes, Applications, and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Good resumes, applications, and cover letters broadcast one's abilities. They tell employers how one's qualifications match a job's responsibilities. If these critical preliminaries are constructed well, one has a better chance of landing interviews--and, eventually, a job. This article provides some guidelines for creating resumes and cover…

  8. Saving the Kilgore Covered Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Wilma

    1988-01-01

    Describes an American literature class project to save a covered bridge from collapse. Illustrates how student initiative in contacting government agencies and news media, learning the history of the bridge, and raising public awareness about the project led to a joint county agreement to preserve the historic span. (DHP)

  9. Fibrous insulations with transparent cover for passive use of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caps, R.; Fricke, J.

    1989-03-01

    Fibrous thermal insulation protected by a transparent pane instead of an opaque cover applied to the exterior of house walls exhibits an improved efficiency. The fibrous layer and the house wall behind it are heated upon absorption of solar radiation and thermal leakage from the interior of the house is significantly reduced. The transparently covered fibrous insulation is well suited to retrofit old residential and commercial buildings. The optimal design parameters for the fibrous layer are as follows: thickness, 5 cm; density, 10kg-m-3; fiber diameter, 20 μn; and albedo in the visible, ω vis> 0.9.

  10. Models of anxiety: responses of rats to novelty in an open space and an enclosed space.

    PubMed

    Ennaceur, A; Michalikova, S; Chazot, P L

    2006-07-15

    Exposure to novelty has been shown to induce anxiety responses in a variety of behavioural paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exposition of naïve rats to novelty would result in a comparable or a different pattern of responses in an open space versus enclosed space with or without the presence of an object in the centre of the field. Lewis and Wistar rats of both genders were used to illustrate and discuss the value and validity of these anxiety paradigms. We examined a wide range of measures, which cover several aspects of animals' responses. The results of this study revealed significant differences between the behaviour of animals in an open space and in the enclosed space. It also revealed significant differences in animal's responses to the presence and absence of an object in the open space and in the enclosed space. In the enclosed space, rats spent most of their time in the outer area with lower number of exits and avoided the object area except when there was an object, while in the open space rats displayed frequent short duration re-entries in the outer area and spent longer time in the object area in presence of an object. The time spent in the inner area (away from the outer area and the object area) was significantly longer and the number of faecal boli was significantly higher in the open space than in the enclosed space. In the present report, we will discuss the fundamental differences between enclosed space and open space models, and we will examine some methodological issues related to the current animal models of human behaviour in anxiety. In the enclosed space, animals can avoid the potential threat associated with the centre area of a box and chose the safety of walls and corners, whereas, in the open space animals have to avoid every parts of the field from which there was no safe escape. The response of animals to novelty in an open space model appears more relevant to anxiety than in an enclosed space

  11. Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738

  12. Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2006-01-01

    In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source…

  13. 17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BATHROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO THE WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO HALL AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND A 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON THE WEST WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  14. Interwall Friction and Sliding Behavior of Centimeters Long Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rufan; Ning, Zhiyuan; Xu, Ziwei; Zhang, Yingying; Xie, Huanhuan; Ding, Feng; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Qiang; Qian, Weizhong; Cui, Yi; Wei, Fei

    2016-02-10

    Here, we studied the interwall friction and sliding behaviors of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). The interwall friction shows a linear dependence on the pullout velocity of the inner wall. The axial curvature in DWCNTs causes the significant increase of the interwall friction. The axial curvature also affects the sliding behavior of the inner wall. Compared with the axial curvature, the opening ends of DWCNTs play tiny roles in their interwall friction.

  15. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  16. Probing Biological Processes on Supported Lipid Bilayers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Moran-Mirabal, Jose Manuel; Craighead, Harold; McEuen, Paul

    2006-03-01

    We have formed supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) by small unilamellar vesicle fusion on substrates containing single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT-FETs). We are able to detect the self-assembly of SLBs electrically with SWNT-FETs since their threshold voltages are shifted by this event. The SLB fully covers the NT surface and lipid molecules can diffuse freely in the bilayer surface across the NT. To study the interactions of important biological entities with receptors imbedded within the membrane, we have also integrated a membrane protein, GT1b ganglioside, in the bilayer. While bare gangliosides can diffuse freely across the NT, interestingly the NT acts as a diffusion barrier for the gangliosides when they are bound with tetanus toxin. This experiment opens the possibility of using SWNT-FETs as biosensors for label-free detection.

  17. Tailoring the chirality of magnetic domain walls by interface engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Ma, Tianping; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Kwon, Heeyoung; Won, Changyeon; Wu, Yizheng; Schmid, Andreas K

    2013-01-01

    Contacting ferromagnetic films with normal metals changes how magnetic textures respond to electric currents, enabling surprisingly fast domain wall motions and spin texture-dependent propagation direction. These effects are attributed to domain wall chirality induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at interfaces, which suggests rich possibilities to influence domain wall dynamics if the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can be adjusted. Chiral magnetism was seen in several film structures on appropriately chosen substrates where interfacial spin-orbit-coupling effects are strong. Here we use real-space imaging to visualize chiral domain walls in cobalt/nickel multilayers in contact with platinum and iridium. We show that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can be adjusted to stabilize either left-handed or right-handed Néel walls, or non-chiral Bloch walls by adjusting an interfacial spacer layer between the multilayers and the substrate. Our findings introduce domain wall chirality as a new degree of freedom, which may open up new opportunities for spintronics device designs.

  18. Nilpotent groups with a ℭ9-covering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarmizi, Rawdah Adawiyah; Sulaiman, Hajar

    2016-10-01

    A collection of proper subgroups of a group is called a covering if the union of the collection is equal to the whole group. A covering is irredundant if it has no proper sub-collection which also covers G. A covering of G in which all members are maximal subgroups is called maximal covering. For any integer n > 2, a covering with n members is called an n-covering. We denote the covering of G by ℭn-covering if it is an irredundant maximal n-covering with core free intersection for G, and a group G is a ℭn-group if G admits ℭn-covering. In this paper, we prove that a group G having a ℭ9-covering is nilpotent if and only if G ≅ (C2)8 or G ≅ (C3)5 or G ≅ (C5)3.

  19. ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS COVER FROM REGIONALLY AVAILABLE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the reliability of different approaches for estimating impervious cover including three empirical formulations for estimating impervious cover from population density data, estimation from categorized land cover data, and to ...

  20. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity... nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  1. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity... nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  2. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity... nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  3. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity... nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  4. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  5. Sky Cover from MFRSR Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  6. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering David A. Tonn et al Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St...NUWC 300055 Distribution A An antenna includes a tubular, conductive radiator having a longitudinal slot formed therein from a first end of the...conductive radiator to a second end of the conductive radiator. An antenna feed can be joined to the conductive radiator adjacent to and across the slot

  7. Wall Street's growing influence on plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    2000-04-01

    The advent of managed care has unleashed market forces on the health care system. One result of these new pressures is a shift from nonprofit to Wall Street-based financing. This report quantifies these trends by comparing health organizations' financial structures in the 1980s and now. The reasons behind this shift and the function of the stock market are examined. A review of Wall Street's key financial measures confirms that health care has shifted to the stock market as its principal means of financing. The stock market works by assigning a current price to a company's stock based on estimates for future earnings. Thus, companies desire predictability in their costs, revenues, and profits. Plastic surgeons can master this system by meeting the challenges imposed by Wall Street financing. Important steps include continuously measuring costs and outcomes of procedures, demanding cost data from hospitals and payers, using these data to improve costs and outcomes, and taking advantage of the system's openness to innovation and easier access to capital. As they seek to protect their role as medical decision makers under the new free-market system, plastic surgeons can benefit from understanding the mechanisms of the stock market.

  8. 49 CFR 179.220-13 - Inner container manway nozzle and cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... design with access opening at least 18 inches inside diameter, or at least 14 inches by 18 inches obround or oval. (b) Manway covers must be of approved type. Design must provide a secure closure of the... use of suitable gaskets. (d) Manway covers must be cast, forged, or fabricated metal complying...

  9. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyaert, Lou; Hall, Forrest G.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Loveland, Thomas R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-12 team's efforts focused on regional scale Surface Vegetation and Atmosphere (SVAT) modeling to improve parameterization of the heterogeneous BOREAS landscape for use in larger scale Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal one-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. This land cover classification was derived by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). This regional data set was developed for use by BOREAS investigators, especially those involved in simulation modeling, remote sensing algorithm development, and aircraft flux studies. Based on regional field data verification, this multitemporal one-kilometer AVHRR land cover mapping approach was effective in characterizing the biome-level land cover structure, embedded spatially heterogeneous landscape patterns, and other types of key land cover information of interest to BOREAS modelers.The land cover mosaics in this classification include: (1) wet conifer mosaic (low, medium, and high tree stand density), (2) mixed coniferous-deciduous forest (80% coniferous, codominant, and 80% deciduous), (3) recent visible bum, vegetation regeneration, or rock outcrops-bare ground-sparsely vegetated slow regeneration bum (four classes), (4) open water and grassland marshes, and (5) general agricultural land use/ grasslands (three classes). This land cover mapping approach did not detect small subpixel-scale landscape

  10. 1. View toward south, facade (north side or "A" wall) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View toward south, facade (north side or "A" wall) of perimeter acquisition radar building. The globe on the upper left is a shelter housing the Hercules tracker antenna. To the right is the utility tunnel leading to the par power plant. The antennae for the par are contained in the large lighter-toned shape covering most of the wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Double-Stud Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-06-22

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution that provides insulation to the interior of the wall assembly with the use of a double-stud wall. The guide describes two approaches to retrofitting the existing walls—one that involves replacing the existing cladding and the other that leaves the cladding in place. This guideline also covers the design principles related to the use of various insulation types and provides strategies and procedures for implementing the double-stud wall retrofit. It also includes an evaluation of important moisture-related and indoor air quality measures that need to be implemented to achieve a durable high-performance wall.

  12. Final covering of the Ronneburg uranium mining site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoepfner, Uwe

    2007-07-01

    The rehabilitation of WISMUT's former Ronneburg uranium mining site involves backfilling of waste rock to the Lichtenberg open pit. The relocation project comprises about 110 million m{sup 3} of sulphide-bearing and AMD-generating waste rock which makes it the most important and most cost-intensive single surface restoration project conducted by WISMUT at the Ronneburg site. The backfilled waste rock has to be covered on an area of about 220 ha to control water infiltration and gas diffusion. Design planning for the final cover placement which began in 2004 had to be based on a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis as well on field tests of alternative cover options which are in compliance with legal requirements. An intensive testing program concerning the vadose zone of soil covers has therefore been started in 2000. The paper presents an overview of the monitoring program and the results of the vadose zone measurements. The water of soil covers have to be predicted for extended evaluation periods. Therefore water balance simulations of single layer covers (storage and evaporation concept) taking current and future soil and climate conditions into account are performed with the HYDRUS 2D code. (author)

  13. Feedback Stabilization of Resistive Wall Modes in RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzonella, Tommaso

    2006-10-01

    The search of efficient strategies for active control of MHD instabilities is one of the main missions of existing devices and one active field of research where important contributions can come not only from tokamak devices but also from alternative configurations. Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) instabilities are known in particular to limit plasma performances in all toroidal devices with plasma duration exceeding the penetration time of the resistive magnetic boundary surrounding the plasma. RWMs are the main limit for tokamak high-beta advanced scenarios, where a high fraction of non-inductive current is requested to study long (in the limit steady state) operations. Historically RWMs were first observed in Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) devices, where the current gradient plays the role of the drive, typically with multi-mode spectrum whose composition depends on magnetic equilibrium field profiles. RFX-mod device is a large RFP (R=2 m, a=0.46 m) where active control of MHD instabilities is intensively studied by means of a system of 192 active saddle coils placed outside the resistive shell (50 ms for Bv diffusion time) fully covering its external surface and driven by a digital controller. This system provides a very powerful and flexible environment where the study of RWMs physics and their active stabilisation under different experimental conditions is possible. Recent results from RFX-mod show that the complete stabilisation of multi-mode RWM spectrum at high plasma currents (Ip=1 MA) is possible allowing discharges longer than 6 times the diffusion time of the shell. Different control schemes are tested as well, such as open loop operations (intrinsic error field correction and Resonant Field Amplification studies), feedback operations using different measurement systems or incomplete set of coils to simulate systems with partial coverage by active coils.

  14. Structure of axionic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M. C.; Sikivie, P.

    1985-09-01

    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  15. Inflatable O-ring seal would ease closing of hatch cover plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, K. J.

    1966-01-01

    Inflatable O-ring seal provides positive sealing means that does not require the manual exertion of a large compressive force during opening or closing of a rotary-type hatch cover plate. The O-ring is deflated during opening and closing and inflated after closure by a gas pressure source.

  16. Asymptotic dynamics of monopole walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R.

    2015-08-01

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are Abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  17. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  18. Numerical simulation of liquid jet impact on a rigid wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganin, A. A.; Guseva, T. S.

    2016-11-01

    Basic points of a numerical technique for computing high-speed liquid jet impact on a rigid wall are presented. In the technique the flows of the liquid and the surrounding gas are governed by the equations of gas dynamics in the density, velocity, and pressure, which are integrated by the CIP-CUP method on dynamically adaptive grids without explicitly tracking the gas-liquid interface. The efficiency of the technique is demonstrated by the results of computing the problems of impact of the liquid cone and the liquid wedge on a wall in the mode with the shockwave touching the wall by its edge. Numerical solutions of these problems are compared with the analytical solution of the problem of impact of the plane liquid flow on a wall. Applicability of the technique to the problems of the high-speed liquid jet impact on a wall is illustrated by the results of computing a problem of impact of a cylindrical liquid jet with the hemispherical end on a wall covered by a layer of the same liquid.

  19. Determining the polysaccharide composition of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Pettolino, Filomena A; Walsh, Cherie; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Bacic, Antony

    2012-09-01

    The plant cell wall is a chemically complex structure composed mostly of polysaccharides. Detailed analyses of these cell wall polysaccharides are essential for our understanding of plant development and for our use of plant biomass (largely wall material) in the food, agriculture, fabric, timber, biofuel and biocomposite industries. We present analytical techniques not only to define the fine chemical structures of individual cell wall polysaccharides but also to estimate the overall polysaccharide composition of cell wall preparations. The procedure covers the preparation of cell walls, together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based methods, for both the analysis of monosaccharides as their volatile alditol acetate derivatives and for methylation analysis to determine linkage positions between monosaccharide residues as their volatile partially methylated alditol acetate derivatives. Analysis time will vary depending on both the method used and the tissue type, and ranges from 2 d for a simple neutral sugar composition to 2 weeks for a carboxyl reduction/methylation linkage analysis.

  20. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  1. Distributed snow and rock temperature modelling in steep rock walls using Alpine3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberkorn, Anna; Wever, Nander; Hoelzle, Martin; Phillips, Marcia; Kenner, Robert; Bavay, Mathias; Lehning, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this study we modelled the influence of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous snow cover on the surface energy balance and thus on rock temperatures in two rugged, steep rock walls on the Gemsstock ridge in the central Swiss Alps. The heterogeneous snow depth distribution in the rock walls was introduced to the distributed, process-based energy balance model Alpine3D with a precipitation scaling method based on snow depth data measured by terrestrial laser scanning. The influence of the snow cover on rock temperatures was investigated by comparing a snow-covered model scenario (precipitation input provided by precipitation scaling) with a snow-free (zero precipitation input) one. Model uncertainties are discussed and evaluated at both the point and spatial scales against 22 near-surface rock temperature measurements and high-resolution snow depth data from winter terrestrial laser scans.In the rough rock walls, the heterogeneously distributed snow cover was moderately well reproduced by Alpine3D with mean absolute errors ranging between 0.31 and 0.81 m. However, snow cover duration was reproduced well and, consequently, near-surface rock temperatures were modelled convincingly. Uncertainties in rock temperature modelling were found to be around 1.6 °C. Errors in snow cover modelling and hence in rock temperature simulations are explained by inadequate snow settlement due to linear precipitation scaling, missing lateral heat fluxes in the rock, and by errors caused by interpolation of shortwave radiation, wind and air temperature into the rock walls.Mean annual near-surface rock temperature increases were both measured and modelled in the steep rock walls as a consequence of a thick, long-lasting snow cover. Rock temperatures were 1.3-2.5 °C higher in the shaded and sunny rock walls, while comparing snow-covered to snow-free simulations. This helps to assess the potential error made in ground temperature modelling when neglecting snow in steep bedrock.

  2. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development.

    PubMed

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall.

  3. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST... Dead covers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each port light with the sill located below the margin line must have a hinged, inside dead cover. (b) The dead cover on a port...

  4. 13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) OF AR-9, ALSO SHOWING MORE RECENT CONTROL ROOM BUILDING AT RIGHT. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. 7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM TAPE CONTROL SYSTEM (TECHNOLOGY CIRCA 1910) AT CENTER, AND ENTRY TO OFFICE AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. Plasma bullets behavior in a tube covered by a conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Xian, Y. B.; Xu, H. T.; Lu, X. P. Pei, X. K.; Gong, W. W.; Lu, Y.; Liu, D. W.; Yang, Y.

    2015-06-15

    In this work, for better applications of atmospheric pressure plasma jets, the physics of plasma streamers in a glass tube with a part of it covered by a conductor is investigated. To better understand the propagation mechanism of plasma bullets in capillary tubes passing through a curved or narrow passage for some biomedical or material applications, the propagation of plasma streamers in a tube covered by a floating conductor is investigated. For a plasma streamer propagating in a tube covered by a conductor, the plasma streamer is suppressed and becomes shorter, and a secondary streamer is generated in the tube at the downstream end of the conductor. The larger the area covered by the conductor, or the thinner the tube, the stronger the plasma streamer is inhibited. The electric potential of the conductor is measured to be as high as 6 kV. On the other hand, a higher voltage applied on the HV electrode, or a higher gas flow rate will make the secondary plasma streamer longer. It is found that the capacitor formed by the conductor outside the tube and the wall of the tube plays an important role in inhibiting the original plasma streamer and generating the secondary streamer. Moreover, the active species generated by the original plasma play important role in generating a secondary plasma streamer.

  8. DTM generation using land cover classification based on low density lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Zsófia; Zlinszky, András

    2014-05-01

    While the point density of local LIDAR surveys continues to increase, most regional or national LIDAR campaigns are carried out with medium or low density, and have the main purpose of DTM generation. Many different point selection and filtering algorithms are already established. Depending on land cover and vegetation, some perform better than others, but no algorithm exists that works perfectly for all types of land cover. Therefore, our method applies several different DTM generation and filtering algorithms for different spatial units depending on their land cover and vegetation. Land cover and vegetation are mapped based on the original raw LIDAR dataset. Two discrete echo airborne LIDAR measurements were used, one with 1 point/m2 and a larger area with 0.4 point/m2 density. The datasets were used together for DTM generation after relative georeferencing by strip adjustment. We defined several land cover categories depending on how they influence vertical distribution of LIDAR points: buildings, waterways, grasslands, crop fields, wetlands, and forests. The study area was classified to these categories based on a decision tree algorithm using parameters calculated from the original LIDAR dataset (sigmaZ, reflectance, aspect, slope, echoratio, roughness), at resolution identical to the output DTM. For the points within spatial units belonging to each of these categories, we implemented different filtering and interpolation methods to select ground points. For buildings, roof and wall points were removed and the resulting gap filled by interpolated based on the neighbouring data. In forests we calculated a first smooth approximate surface based on minimum points every 10 meter cells. We calculated a residual value for every point of this surface in this class. Then we analysed the point cloud based on residuals value and made an optimum threshold which classified the datasets for non-ground and ground points. In wetlands and croplands, the point height range

  9. 78 FR 40351 - Procedural Rule To Establish Supervisory Authority Over Certain Nonbank Covered Persons Based on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) is publishing a final rule that establishes procedures to implement requirements of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. That statutory provision authorizes the Bureau to supervise a nonbank covered person when the Bureau has reasonable cause to determine, by order, after notice to the person and a......

  10. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, LOOKING SOUTH (This northern-most facade of the barn was originally a board and batten wall with two sliding doors. In the early decades of the twentieth century Frederick Edward Arnold moved the wall and doors; they now make up the north end of bay 3. This was done to ease machine storage) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  11. Transonic interference reduction by limited ventilation wall panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John D.

    1986-01-01

    In two wind tunnels used for the two-dimensional airfoil tests, each wall above and below the model was modified by replacing small segments of the solid boundaries with perforated plates vented into sealed chambers. Perforated segments having approximately 40 percent open area were found to reduce the transonic wall interference to a negligible level, for a model chord-to-tunnel height ratio of 0.5. This report describes the physical arrangement and presents typical model pressure distributions to illustrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  12. Association Mapping of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes and Cell Wall Quality in Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, Laura; Wu, Y.; Zhu, L.; Brummer, E. C.; Saha, M.

    2016-05-31

    transcription factors from the rice gene network. Eight of fifteen (53%) of these have not previously been examined for this function. Some of these may represent novel grass-diverged cell wall regulators, while others are likely to have this function across angiosperms. A parallel effort of this project to expand knowledge of enzymes that have evolved to function in grass cell wall synthesis, revealed that a grass-diverged enzyme in rice, OsAT5, ferulates monolignols that are naturally incorporated into grass cell walls. This finding opens potential natural selection avenues for improving biomass composition for downstream processing by weak base pretreatment. Thus, this project has significantly expanded knowledge of cell wall synthesis and regulation in rice, information that can be used in reverse genetics and synthetic biology approaches to re-engineer cell walls for improved production of biofuel and high-value products. To lay the foundation for translating these results directly for switchgrass improvement, the project employed a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the major group of cell wall transcription factors that have been found to function in cell wall regulation, the R2R3 MYBs. This analysis concluded that known cell wall regulators are largely conserved across switchgrass, rice, maize, poplar, and Arabidopsis. This interpretation is also largely consistent with the gene network analysis described above, though both approaches provide evidence that some co-orthologs of Arabidopsis regulators have diminished or increased in importance based on gene expression patterns. Also, several clades containing dicot cell wall regulators have expanded, consistent with the evolution of new cell wall regulators. This latter result is supported by functional analysis of the R2R3 MYB protein SWAM1 in a collaboration between this project and the DOE-funded group of Dr. S. Hazen at the University of

  13. Segmentation, statistical analysis, and modelling of the wall system in ceramic foams

    SciTech Connect

    Kampf, Jürgen; Schlachter, Anna-Lena; Redenbach, Claudia; Liebscher, André

    2015-01-15

    Closed walls in otherwise open foam structures may have a great impact on macroscopic properties of the materials. In this paper, we present two algorithms for the segmentation of such closed walls from micro-computed tomography images of the foam structure. The techniques are compared on simulated data and applied to tomographic images of ceramic filters. This allows for a detailed statistical analysis of the normal directions and sizes of the walls. Finally, we explain how the information derived from the segmented wall system can be included in a stochastic microstructure model for the foam.

  14. Vesicles between plasma membrane and cell wall prior to visible senescence of Iris and Dendrobium flowers.

    PubMed

    Kamdee, Channatika; Kirasak, Kanjana; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-09-01

    Cut Iris flowers (Iris x hollandica, cv. Blue Magic) show visible senescence about two days after full opening. Epidermal cells of the outer tepals collapse due to programmed cell death (PCD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed irregular swelling of the cell walls, starting prior to cell collapse. Compared to cells in flowers that had just opened, wall thickness increased up to tenfold prior to cell death. Fibrils were visible in the swollen walls. After cell death very little of the cell wall remained. Prior to and during visible wall swelling, vesicles (paramural bodies) were observed between the plasma membrane and the cell walls. The vesicles were also found in groups and were accompanied by amorphous substance. They usually showed a single membrane, and had a variety of diameters and electron densities. Cut Dendrobium hybrid cv. Lucky Duan flowers exhibited visible senescence about 14 days after full flower opening. Paramural bodies were also found in Dendrobium tepal epidermis and mesophyll cells, related to wall swelling and degradation. Although alternative explanations are well possible, it is hypothesized that paramural bodies carry enzymes involved in cell wall breakdown. The literature has not yet reported such bodies in association with senescence/PCD.

  15. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  16. The Wonders of Word Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Amy; Krogness, Allison

    2001-01-01

    Describes using a word wall, a visible display categorizing words alphabetically, enabling children in early childhood classrooms to discover new words and to practice and expand their language skills. Suggests that a word wall helps to create a secure learning environment, builds student confidence, and contributes to independent reading and…

  17. The "Brick Wall" Graphic Organizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    A brick wall provides a fitting description of what happens when teachers try to teach a concept for which students are unprepared. When students are unsuccessful academically, their foundational knowledge may be missing, incomplete, or incorrect. As a result, students "hit a brick wall," and their academic progress stops because they do…

  18. Modal Behavior of Hemispheric Sea Ice Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, Per; Huang, Norden; Shen, Zheng

    1998-01-01

    Recent papers have described 18-year trends and annual oscillations in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents, areas, and enclosed open water areas based on a newly-formulated 18.2-year ice concentration time series. This time series includes data for the entire Arctic and Antarctic ice covers, as well as for previously defined subregions consisting of 5 sectors in the Antarctic and 9 regions in the Arctic. It was obtained by fine-tuning the sea ice algorithm tie points individually for each of the four sensors used to acquire the data. In this paper, we extend these analyses to an examination of the intrinsic modes of these time series, obtained by means of Empirical Mode Decomposition, with emphasis on periodicities greater than the annual cycle. Quasibiennial and quasiquadrennial oscillations observed with a different technique and reported earlier for the first 8.8 years of this time series were also observed in the present series. However, the intrinsic modes were not monochromatic; they feature frequency as well as amplitude modulation within their respective frequency bands. Modal periods of up to 18 years are observed, with important implications for the trend analyses published earlier. These results are compared with the oscillations in the Length-of-Day and North Atlantic Oscillation parameters similarly determined for the same 18.2-year period.

  19. Possible Genetic Origin of Limb-Body Wall Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gajzer, David C.; Hirzel, Alicia Cristina; Saigal, Gaurav; Rojas, Claudia Patricia; Rodriguez, Maria Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Limb body wall complex (LBWC) is characterized by multiple severe congenital malformations including an abdominal and/or thoracic wall defect covered by amnion, a short or absent umbilical cord with the placenta almost attached to the anterior fetal wall, intestinal malrotation, scoliosis, and lower extremity anomalies. There is no consensus about the etiology of LBWC and many cases with abnormal facial cleft do not meet the requirements for the true complex. We describe a series of four patients with LBWC and other malformations in an attempt to explain their etiology. There are several reports of fetuses with LBWC and absent gallbladder and one of our patients also had polysplenia. Absent gallbladder and polysplenia are associated with laterality genes including HOX, bFGF, transforming growth factor beta/activins/BMP4, WNT 1–8, and SHH. We postulate that this severe malformation may be due to abnormal genes involved in laterality and caudal development. PMID:26111189

  20. A Novel Thin Film Nitinol Covered Neurovascular Stent Significantly Decreases Intra-Aneurysmal Flow In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Youngjae; Hur, Soojung; Shayan, Mahdis; Kealey, Colin; Levi, Daniel; Mohanchandra, Kp; di Carlo, Dino; Carman, Gregory

    2013-11-01

    A novel thin film nitinol (TFN) stent has been developed to promote aneurysm quiescence by diminishing flow across the aneurysm's neck. Laboratory aneurysm models were used to assess the flow changes produced by stents covered with different patterns of TFN. Flow diversion stents were constructed by covering Wingspan stents (Boston Scientific, DxL:4x20mm) with TFNs (i.e., 77 and 82 percent porosity). The flow changes that occur after deployment of two different porous TFN covered stent in intracranial aneurysm models were evaluated in vitro. The 82 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced the intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity by 86.42 percent, while a 77 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced to intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity to 93.44 percent compared to a nonstented model. Local wall shear rates were also significantly reduced in wide-neck aneurysm model (i.e., 97.52 - 98.92 percent) with TFN stent placement. The results showed that TFN covered stents significantly reduced intra-aneurysmal flow velocity magnitudes and local wall shear rates. This suggests that TFN covered stents with both 77 and 82 percent porosity have great potential to promote thrombosis in both wide-necked and fusiform aneurysm sacs.

  1. A variety of Microbial Mats cover the Chimney Walls of the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, H.; Roalkvam, I.; Jørgensen, S. L.; Stokke, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Steen, I.

    2010-12-01

    Active vent chimneys of the Loki’s castle hydrothermal field at 73°N are the most northerly black smokers ever located. Vent fluids reach temperatures of >300°C, have a pH of around 5.5 and high concentrations of reduced compounds representing important energy sources for microbial life. Particularly they are extremely rich in methane (13.5 mM) and hydrogen (4.9 mM) while hydrogen sulphide concentrations are more typical for black smoker fluids (4.1 mM). Another characteristic of Loki’s castle is the unusually high abundance of microbial mats on the exterior of the chimneys. During a cruise in 2009 we used a ROV equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) to collect samples of five mats varying in color and texture. Pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences yielded 9000 - 25000 reads per sample. Although all mats were dominated by a relatively low number of OTUs, we observed large differences in microbial composition, richness, and evenness of the mats. Also, the most dominating metabolic process occurring in each mat seemed to vary considerably. Two of the mats were largely dominated (60-90% of the reads) by relatives of mesophilic sulfur oxidizing ɛ-Proteobacteria (e.g. Sulfurovum) while another mat was dominated (48 % of the reads) by organisms affiliated with methanotrophic Methylococcales. In the last two mats we found a high abundance ( >20% - >40% of the reads) of organisms clustering among thermophilic organisms such as Thermodesulfobacteriales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Thermotogales, and Aquificales. The observed variation of the microbial composition between the different mats is possibly linked to variations in temperature and chemistry of fluids diffusely venting from the chimney. The study was supplemented by pyrosequencing of environmental cDNA from three of the samples (totally 1 100 000 reads). This dataset, which is currently being analyzed, will provide more information about the most active phylotypes in the microbial mats, and give further insight about the major in situ microbial processes occurring in these environments.

  2. Methods for Cloud Cover Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glackin, D. L.; Huning, J. R.; Smith, J. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for cloud cover estimation are described relevant to assessing the performance of a ground-based network of solar observatories. The methods rely on ground and satellite data sources and provide meteorological or climatological information. One means of acquiring long-term observations of solar oscillations is the establishment of a ground-based network of solar observatories. Criteria for station site selection are: gross cloudiness, accurate transparency information, and seeing. Alternative methods for computing this duty cycle are discussed. The cycle, or alternatively a time history of solar visibility from the network, can then be input to a model to determine the effect of duty cycle on derived solar seismology parameters. Cloudiness from space is studied to examine various means by which the duty cycle might be computed. Cloudiness, and to some extent transparency, can potentially be estimated from satellite data.

  3. Arctic sea ice cover in connection with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, G. V.; Aleksandrov, E. I.; Glok, N. I.; Ivanov, N. E.; Smolyanitsky, V. M.; Kharlanenkova, N. E.; Yulin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Recently published studies on key issues in the evolution of Arctic sea ice cover are reviewed and attempts to answer disputable questions are made in the research part of the work. It is shown that climate warming, manifested in an increase in the surface air temperature, and reduction in the ice cover develop with a high degree of agreement in summer. Based on this fact, anomalies of the September ice-cover area have been retrieved from 1900. They show a significant decrease in the 1930-1940s, which is almost twice as low as in 2007-2012. The influence of fluctuations in the flow of warm and salty Atlantic water is noted in variations in the winter maximum of the ice-cover area in the Barents Sea. An accelerated positive trend has been ascertained for the air temperature in late autumn-early winter in 1993-2012 due to an increase in the open water area in late summer. Inherent regularities of the ice-cover-area variability made it possible to develop a prediction of the monthly values of sea-ice extent with a head time from 6 months to 2 years. Their strong correlation with summer air temperature is used to estimate the onset of summer ice clearance in the Arctic.

  4. Rough-Wall Channel Analysis Using Suboptimal Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, O.; Jimenez, J.; Tenpleton, J.

    2003-01-01

    The original aim of this work was to shed some light on the physics of turbulence over rough walls using large-eddy simulations and the suboptimal-control wall boundary conditions introduced by Nicoud et al. It was hoped that, if that algorithm was used to fit the mean velocity profile of the simulations to that of a rough-walled channel, instead of to a smooth one, the wall stresses introduced by the control algorithm would give some indication of what aspects of rough walls are most responsible for the modification of the flow in real turbulence. It was similarly expected that the structure of the resulting velocity fluctuations would share some of the characteristics of rough-walled flows, thus again suggesting what is intrinsic and what is accidental in the effect of geometric wall roughness. A secondary goal was to study the effect of 'unphysical' boundary conditions on the outside flow by observing how a relatively major change of the target velocity profile, and therefore presumably of the applied wall stresses, modifies properties such as the dominant length scales of the velocity fluctuations away from the wall. As will be seen below, this secondary goal grew more important during the course of the study, which was carried out during a short summer visit of the first two authors to the CTR. It became clear that there are open questions about the way in which the control algorithm models the boundary conditions, even for smooth walls, and that these questions make the physical interpretation of the results difficult. Considerable more work in that area seems to be needed before even relatively advanced large-eddy simulations, such as these, can be used to draw conclusions about the physics of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The numerical method is the same as in Nicoud et al. The modifications introduced in the original code are briefly described in section 2, but the original paper should be consulted for a full description of the algorithm. The results are

  5. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Opening the cusp

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, N.U. ); Toffoletto, F.R. ); Gussenhoven, M.S. )

    1991-03-01

    Defining the equatorward boundary of the cusp region in the ionosphere as the projection of the merging line from the magnetopause, the authors use a quantitative, geometrically realistic model to show how the local time span of the cusp increases with increasing merging rate for southward interplanetary magnetic field. Since the merging rate is fixed by the magnitude of the magnetic field component normal to the model magnetopause and then normalized to the cross-polar-cap potential, the result gives the variation of cusp local time span as a function of potential. From 0 kV up to 60 kV, the cusp expands from a point at noon to 2 hours on either side. Nearly tripling the voltage to 170 kV adds one more hour to each side, yielding a span from 0900 to 1500 LT. As an example of broad local time span during magnetically active periods, they present spacecraft observations of cusp particles during the grat storm of March 1989 that cover more than 8 hours of local time. An important aspect of the result is the demonstration that a merging line of fixed length on the magnetopause, as assumed in the model, maps to a projected length in the ionosphere that increases as the funnel-shaped cusp opens. This behavior contrasts with earlier models that have cleft rather than cusp geometry, where the projected merging line length is proportional only to its length on the magnetopause. The model results are used to construct the footprint of a flux transfer event by time variations of the merging rate, uniform along the length of the merging line. The cusp geometry distorts the field lines mapped from the magnetopause to yield footprints with dawn and dusk protrusions into the region of closed magnetic flux.

  7. Quantum and statistical mechanics in open systems: theory and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zueco, David

    2009-08-01

    Using the system-bath model Hamiltonian this thesis covers the equilibrium and out of equilibrium properties of quantum open systems. Topics included are the calculation of thermodynamical quantities of open systems, derivation of quantum master equations, phase space and numerical methods and Linear and non Linear Response Theory. Applications are the transport in periodic potentials and the dynamics of spins.

  8. Open Source Course Management Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In Fall 2003, Randolph-Macon Woman's College rolled out Claroline, an Open Source course management system for all the classes on campus. This document will cover some background on both Open Source in general and course management systems in specific, discuss technical challenges in the introduction and integration of the system and give some…

  9. Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

    2009-04-01

    The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was

  10. Open Smart Energy Gateway (OpenSEG)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    The Open Smart Energy Gateway (OpenSEG) aims to provide near-real time smart meter data to consumers without the delays or latencies associated with it being transported to the utility data center and then back to the consumer's application. To do this, the gateway queries the local Smart Meter to which it is bound to get energy consumption information at pre-defined intervals (minimum interval is 4 seconds). OpenSEG then stores the resulting data internally for retrieval by an external application.

  11. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  12. 75 FR 76955 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ...). The review covers Sun Group Co., Ltd. (Sun Group), a producer/exporter of light-walled rectangular... received a timely request from Sun Group Co., Ltd., a Chinese exporter/producer of light-walled rectangular...) (Initiation). On October 15, 2010, Sun Group filed a letter withdrawing its request for review. Period...

  13. 76 FR 18155 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit... the antidumping duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Mexico, covering the...

  14. 75 FR 25841 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico; Extension of Time Limit... light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Mexico, covering the period of January 30, 2008, to July...

  15. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  16. Heat resistant protective hand covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The heat resistant, protective glove is made up of first and second shell sections which define a palm side and a backside, respectively. The first shell section is made of a twill wave fabric of a temperature-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber. The second shell section is made of a knitted fabric of a temperature-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber. The first and second shell sections are secured to one another, e.g., by sewing, to provide the desired glove configuration and an opening for insertion of the wearer's hand. The protective glove also includes a first liner section which is secured to and overlies the inner surface of the first shell section and is made of a felt fabric of a temperature-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber and has a flame resistant, elastomenic coating on the surface facing and overlying the inner surface of the first shell section.

  17. [An example of multi-stage reconstruction of a full-thickness abdominal wall defect].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarzyk, Janusz; Elsaftawy, Ahmed; Jabłecki, Jerzy; Kaczmarzyk, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction is a highly complex procedure that may requires a multiple stages surgical operations. The aim of a such reconstruction is to close the abdominal wall defect and to create a support for the internal organs. It's a challenge for both general and reconstructive surgery. An incomplete thickness defects of the abdominal wall are so much easier to challenge than complete ones. Also the size of the primary defect determines the way and stages of the operation. Such defects can occur in necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall, after abdominal walls tumors removal, in traffic accidents or after "open abdomen" procedures (acute severe pancreatitis). In this paper the authors present a case of 62-yo patient which was operated because of large intestine perforation with various complications of which the most serious was the abdominal wall defect.

  18. Denitrification Walls: Successes and Limitations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, L. A.; Barkle, G. F.; Burgess, C. P.; Vojvodic-Vukovic, M.

    2001-05-01

    There is a need to develop practical and inexpensive approaches for removing nitrate from ground water because of its potential adverse effect on receiving aquatic environments. Denitrification walls may be one such approach for removing nitrate from shallow groundwater. In January 1996, we constructed a denitrification wall by digging a trench that intercepted groundwater and mixed the excavated soil with sawdust before the mix was returned to the trench. Sawdust provides a source of energy for denitrifying bacteria, which convert nitrate in groundwater entering the wall to nitrogen gas. For the past 5 years, nitrate concentrations in groundwater entering this wall have ranged from 5 to 16 mg N L-1 but have always been reduced to less than 2 mg N L-1 in the wall indicating nearly complete removal of nitrate from the groundwater. We showed that this nitrate removal could be accounted for by denitrification rates which ranged from 0.6 to 18.1 mg N m-3 h-1. More recently we have encountered problems with denitrification walls constructed into coarsely textured soils (such as sands) where the addition of sawdust decreased hydraulic conductivity. As a consequence groundwater flowed under rather than through the wall. We are attempting to circumvent this problem using coarser grades of carbon amendments. Particulate carbon (such as sawdust) is likely to support lower rates of nitrate removal, but for longer, than soluble carbon sources because solid carbon sources degrade more slowly.

  19. An open question.

    PubMed

    Ayling, John

    2004-01-01

    The lungs are surrounded by the pleural membranes. The visceral pleura directly covers the lung and is separated from the parietal pleura by a layer of surfactant, which reduces friction during respiratory movement. A potential space exists between these two layers, and they may become separated by fluid or air. A lung can collapse to the size of a fist under pressure from either. Standard treatment in the field for an open chest wound is an occlusive dressing. The first thing that can be used to occlude the wound is a gloved hand. After placing the dressing, evaluate the breath sounds and determine if they have improved. The dressing should be taped down on three sides, leaving one side open to relieve the pressure during exhalation (one-way valve). "Burping" the dressing involves lifting one side to make sure any pressure buildup is relieved, as occasionally the dressing can become adhered to the skin, which may lead to a tension pneumothorax. If, after ensuring the occlusive dressing is properly in place, the respiratory rate increases, distress level worsens, oxygen saturations fall and breath sounds decrease, then needle decompression is required. A neurovascular bundle is located underneath each rib, and it is important to avoid damage to that bundle by performing a decompression over the top of a rib. If the patient is intubated before the development of a tension pneumothorax, carefully evaluate the breath sounds (especially if the left-side sounds are diminished) to determine if the ET tube needs to be withdrawn a centimeter. The rescuer performing ventilation will usually recognize a tension pneumothorax by the difficulty in bagging the patient. Remember, when you perform a needle thoracentesis, you are creating an open chest wound. Early signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax include diminished or absent breath sounds, severe dyspnea, narrowing pulse pressure, tachycardia and restlessness. Neck veins may be distended, but this can be a normal

  20. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgery if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. Other reasons for removing the gallbladder by open surgery: Unexpected bleeding during the laparoscopic operation Obesity Pancreatitis (inflammation in the pancreas) Pregnancy ( ...

  1. On the mechanics of thin-walled laminated composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Ever J.; Lopez-Anido, Roberto; Davalos, Julio F.

    1993-01-01

    A formal engineering approach of the mechanics of thin-walled laminated beams based on kinematic assumptions consistent with Timoshenko beam theory is presented. Thin-walled composite beams with open or closed cross section subjected to bending and axial load are considered. A variational formulation is employed to obtain a comprehensive description of the structural response. Beam stiffness coefficients, which account for the cross section geometry and for the material anisotropy, are obtained. An explicit expression for the static shear correction factor of thin-walled composite beams is derived from energy equivalence. A numerical example involving a laminated I-beam is used to used to demonstrate the capability of the model for predicting displacements and ply stresses.

  2. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  3. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  4. Development of a Chest Wall Protector Effective in Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death by Chest Wall Impact (Commotio Cordis)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kartik; Mandleywala, Swati N.; Gannon, Michael P.; Estes, Nathan Anthony Mark; Weinstock, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Commotio cordis, sudden death with chest impact, occurs clinically despite chest wall protectors worn in sports. In an experimental model of commotio cordis, commercially available chest wall protectors failed to prevent ventricular fibrillation (VF). The goal of the current investigation was to develop a chest wall protector effective in the prevention of commotio cordis. Design: In the Tufts experimental model of commotio cordis the ability of chest protectors to prevent VF was assessed. Impacts were delivered with a 40-mph lacrosse ball, timed to the vulnerable period for VF. Intervention: A chest wall protector or no chest wall protector (control) was randomly assigned to be placed over the chest. Four iterative series of 2 to 4 different chest wall material combinations were assessed. Materials included 3 different foams (Accelleron [Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA], closed cell high density foam; Airilon [Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA], closed cell low density soft foam; and an open cell memory foam) that were adhered to a layer of TriDur (Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA), a flexible elastomeric coated aramid that was bonded to a semirigid polypropylene polymer (ImpacShield, Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA). Main Outcome Measure: Induction of VF by chest wall impact was the primary outcome. Results: Of 80 impacts without chest protectors, 43 (54%) resulted in VF. Ventricular fibrillation with chest protectors ranged from a high of 60% to a low of 5%. Of 12 chest protectors assessed, only 3 significantly lowered the risk of VF compared with impacts without chest protectors. These 3 chest protectors were combinations of Accelleron, Airilon, TriDur, and ImpacShield of different thicknesses. Protection increased linearly with the thicker combinations. Conclusions: Effective protection against VF with chest wall protection can be achieved in an experimental model of commotio cordis. Clinical Relevance: Chest protector designs

  5. 27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL FRAMING ELEVATIONS." Specifications No. ENG-04353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 27 of 148; file no. 1320/78. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, Rev. B; date: 15 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  7. OTVE combustor wall condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szemenyei, Brian; Nelson, Robert S.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonics, eddy current, and electromagnetic acoustic transduction (EMAT) technologies were evaluated to determine their capability of measuring wall thickness/wear of individual cooling channels in test specimens simulating conditions in the throat region of an OTVE combustion chamber liner. Quantitative results are presented for the eddy current technology, which was shown to measure up to the optimum 20-mil wall thickness with near single channel resolution. Additional results demonstrate the capability of the conventional ultrasonics and EMAT technologies to detect a thinning or cracked wall. Recommendations for additional eddy current and EMAT development tests are presented.

  8. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  9. Openness as infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry. PMID:21999327

  10. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  11. Open Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  12. A Citizen's Guide to Evapotranspiration Covers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide explains Evapotranspiration Covers which are Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are a type of cap placed over contaminated material, such as soil, landfill waste, or mining tailings, to prevent water from reaching it.

  13. Health Insurance: Understanding What It Covers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Insurance & Bills Health Insurance: Understanding What It Covers Health Insurance: Understanding What It Covers Family HealthHealthcare ManagementInsurance & BillsMenWomenYour ...

  14. Indicators: Lakeshore Habitat/Riparian Vegetative Cover

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Riparian and lakeshore vegetative cover consist of the vegetation corridor alongside streams, rivers, and lakes. Vegetative cover refers to overhanging or submerged tree limbs, shrubs, and other plants growing along the shore of the waterbody.

  15. Lumbar (Open) Microscopic Discectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... When the outer wall of a disc, the annulus fibrosus, becomes weakened, it may tear allowing the ... and alleviate the pain. The surgery involves a small incision in the skin over the spine, removal ...

  16. Penetration of the LCLS Injector Shield Wall at Sector 20

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D

    2010-12-10

    Penetrations through the LCLS injector shield wall are needed for the alignment of the accelerator, a diagnostic laser beam and utilities, and are shown in figure 1. The 1-inch diameter LCLS injector beam tube is blocked by the PPS stopper when the injector side of the wall is occupied. The two 3-inch diameter penetrations above and to the left of the beam tube are used by Precision Alignment and will be open only during installation of the injector beamline. Additional 3-inch diameter penetrations are for laser beams which will be used for electron beam diagnostics. These will not be plugged when the injector occupied. Other penetrations for the RF waveguide and other utilities are approximately 13-inch from the floor and as such are far from the line-of-sight of any radiation sources. The waveguide and utility penetrations pass only through the thicker wall as shown in the figure. The principal issue is with the two laser penetrations, since these will be open when the linac is operating and people are in the LCLS injector area. A principal concern is radiation streaming through the penetrations due to direct line-of sight of the PEP-2 lines. To answer this, fans of rays were traced through the 3-inch diameter laser penetrations as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 gives the top view of the shield walls, the main linac and PEP-2 lines, and the ray-fans. The fans appear to originate between the walls since their angular envelope is defined by the greatest angle possible when rays are just on the 3-inch diameter at the inner most and outermost wall surfaces. The crossovers of all possible rays lie half way between these two surfaces. As the end-on view of Figure 3 clearly shows, there is no direct line-of-sight through the laser penetrations of the PEP-2 or linac beamlines.

  17. Domain Wall Motion by the Magnonic Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzke, D.; Nowak, U.

    2011-07-01

    The recently discovered spin Seebeck effect refers to a spin current induced by a temperature gradient in a ferromagnetic material. It combines spin degrees of freedom with caloric properties, opening the door for the invention of new, spin caloritronic devices. Using spin model simulations as well as an innovative, multiscale micromagnetic framework we show that magnonic spin currents caused by temperature gradients lead to spin transfer torque effects, which can drag a domain wall in a ferromagnetic nanostructure towards the hotter part of the wire. This effect opens new perspectives for the control and manipulation of domain structures.

  18. Domain wall motion by the magnonic spin Seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Hinzke, D; Nowak, U

    2011-07-08

    The recently discovered spin Seebeck effect refers to a spin current induced by a temperature gradient in a ferromagnetic material. It combines spin degrees of freedom with caloric properties, opening the door for the invention of new, spin caloritronic devices. Using spin model simulations as well as an innovative, multiscale micromagnetic framework we show that magnonic spin currents caused by temperature gradients lead to spin transfer torque effects, which can drag a domain wall in a ferromagnetic nanostructure towards the hotter part of the wire. This effect opens new perspectives for the control and manipulation of domain structures.

  19. Theory of thin-walled rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldenveizer, A L

    1951-01-01

    Starting with the Love equations for bending of extensible shells, "principal stress states" are sought for a thin-walled rod of arbitrary but open cross section. Principal stress states exclude those local states arising from end conditions which damp out with distance from the ends. It is found that for rods of intermediate length, long enough to avoid local bending at a support, and short enough that elementary torsion and bending are not the most significant stress states, four principal states exist. Three of these states are associated with the planar distribution of axial stress and are equivalent to the engineering theory of extension and bending of solid sections. The fourth state resembles that which has been called in the literature "bending stress due to torsional", except that cross sections are permitted to bend and the shear along the center line of the cross section is permitted to differ from zero.

  20. An Exploration of Wall Retrofit Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Petrie, Thomas; Kosny, Jan; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Hulvey, Kimberly D

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed to examine wall retrofit options including replacing the cladding, adding insulation under the cladding, and multiple sealing methods that can be used when installing replacement windows in well-built or loosely-built rough openings. These experiments included thermal measurements in a hot box and air-leakage measurements. The retrofit claddings considered included wood-lap siding, vinyl siding, and vinyl siding with an integrated and formed foam insulation. Retrofit insulations included expanded and extruded polystyrene and foil-faced polyisocyanurate in various thicknesses. Air sealing methods for replacement windows included traditional caulking, exterior trim variations, loose-fill fiberglass, low-expansion foam, self-expanding foam inserts, and specialty tape. Results were applied to a model to estimate whole-house energy impacts for multiple climates.

  1. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    PubMed

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  2. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, G.F.

    1997-12-31

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method`s with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations.

  3. Open inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Linde, Andrei; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-08-01

    The open inflation scenario is attracting a renewed interest in the context of the string landscape. Since there are a large number of metastable de Sitter vacua in the string landscape, tunneling transitions to lower metastable vacua through the bubble nucleation occur quite naturally, which leads to a natural realization of open inflation. Although the deviation of Ω0 from unity is small by the observational bound, we argue that the effect of this small deviation on the large-angle CMB anisotropies can be significant for tensor-type perturbation in the open inflation scenario. We consider the situation in which there is a large hierarchy between the energy scale of the quantum tunneling and that of the slow-roll inflation in the nucleated bubble. If the potential just after tunneling is steep enough, a rapid-roll phase appears before the slow-roll inflation. In this case the power spectrum is basically determined by the Hubble rate during the slow-roll inflation. On the other hand, if such a rapid-roll phase is absent, the power spectrum keeps the memory of the high energy density there in the large angular components. Furthermore, the amplitude of large angular components can be enhanced due to the effects of the wall fluctuation mode if the bubble wall tension is small. Therefore, although even the dominant quadrupole component is suppressed by the factor (1-Ω0)2, one can construct some models in which the deviation of Ω0 from unity is large enough to produce measurable effects. We also consider a more general class of models, where the false vacuum decay may occur due to Hawking-Moss tunneling, as well as the models involving more than one scalar field. We discuss scalar perturbations in these models and point out that a large set of such models is already ruled out by observational data, unless there was a very long stage of slow-roll inflation after the tunneling. These results show that observational data allow us to test various assumptions concerning

  4. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  5. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  6. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  7. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  8. Selection of fungi by candidate cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified cropping systems that incorporate year-round ground cover, are known to maintain healthy soils. Information is available for producers regarding the benefits of specific cover crop species for soil fertility, weed and pest management. Even though it is widely recognized that cover crops ...

  9. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  10. Radiative feedback in Helmholtz resonators with more than one opening.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Hans Günter

    2016-11-01

    The resonance frequency of a Helmholtz resonator with several openings is derived, taking into account the radiation feedback between the different holes. This is done under the assumption that the distance between the openings is large as compared to their linear dimensions. The effect of a finite wall thickness of the resonator is also discussed. The radiation feedback can lead to a shift of the resonance position by more than 10%.

  11. 6. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO CENTER, FLUSH FRONT DOOR WITH GLAZING AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN PANELED DOOR TO BEDROOM NO. 2 AT LEFT PHOTO CENTER. DECORATIVE WOOD STRIPPING ON WALLS AND CEILING IS CARRIED THROUGHOUT REST OF ORIGINAL PORTION OF HOUSE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  12. INTERIOR OF EAST DOOR, SOUTH WALL, AND AISLE LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF EAST DOOR, SOUTH WALL, AND AISLE LOOKING EAST (This bay of the barn was originally used for livestock. Horse pens and milking stanchions remain. Floor was built with 1/4 inch gaps between the planks to allow air circulation. Photograph also shows the knee-high hinged doors that open for easy removal of manure) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  13. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in semiadhesive wall proximity.

    PubMed

    Sanguigno, Luigi; De Santo, Ilaria; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo A

    2011-11-01

    With examination of diffusion in heterogeneous media through fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, the temporal correlation of the intensity signal shows a long correlation tail and the characteristic diffusion time results are no longer easy to determine. Excluded volume and sticking effects have been proposed to justify such deviations from the standard behavior since all contribute and lead to anomalous diffusion mechanisms . Usually, the anomalous coefficient embodies all the effects of environmental heterogeneity providing too general explanations for the exotic diffusion recorded. Here, we investigated whether the reason of anomalies could be related to a lack of an adequate interpretative model for heterogeneous systems and how the presence of obstacles on the detection volume length scale could affect fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments. We report an original modeling of the autocorrelation function where fluorophores experience reflection or adsorption at a wall placed at distances comparable with the detection volume size. We successfully discriminate between steric and adhesion effects through the analysis of long time correlations and evaluate the adhesion strength through the evaluation of probability of being adsorbed and persistence time at the wall on reference data. The proposed model can be readily adopted to gain a better understanding of intracellular and nanoconfined diffusion opening the way for a more rational analysis of the diffusion mechanism in heterogeneous systems and further developing biological and biomedical applications.

  14. Interference on an airfoil of finite span in an open wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore

    1934-01-01

    The wall interference on an airfoil of finite span in an open-throat rectangular section has been treated theoretically and the result is presented in a convenient formula. Numerical results are given in tables and diagrams.

  15. A versatile strategy for grafting polymers to wood cell walls.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, T; Cabane, E; Chanana, M; Hass, P; Merk, V; Gierlinger, N; Burgert, I

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical structure of wood is composed of a cellulose skeleton of high structural order at various length scales. At the nanoscale and microscale the specific structural features of the cells and cell walls result in a lightweight structure with an anisotropic material profile of excellent mechanical performance. By being able to specifically functionalize wood at the level of cell and cell walls one can insert new properties and inevitably upscale them along the intrinsic hierarchical structure, to a level of large-scale engineering materials applications. For this purpose, however, precise control of the spatial distribution of the modifying substances in the complex wood structure is needed. Here we demonstrate a method to insert methacryl groups into wood cell walls using two different chemistry routes. By using these methacryl groups as the anchor points for grafting, various polymers can be inserted into the wood structure. Strikingly, depending on the methacryl precursor, the spatial distribution of the polymer differs strongly. As a proof of concept we grafted polystyrene as a model compound in the second modification step. In the case of methacryloyl chloride the polymer was located mainly at the interface between the cell lumina and the cell wall covering the inner surface of the cells and being traceable up to 2-3 μm in the cell wall, whereas in the case of methacrylic anhydride the polymer was located inside the whole cell wall. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and especially Raman spectroscopy were used for an in-depth analysis of the modified wood at the cell wall level.

  16. Fly on the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The email was addressed not only to me, but also to all the Project Knowledge Sharing Community at Ames Research Center. We were invited to sit in on a major project review as a new experiment in knowledge sharing. This first-of-its-kind opportunity had been conceived by Claire Smith, who leads the knowledge sharing program, as well as heading up the Center's Project Leadership Development Program and serving as coordinator of the APPL-West program at Ames. The objective was to offer Ames project practitioners the opportunity to observe project-review processes as they happen. Not that I haven't participated in my share of project reviews, but this seemed like a great way for me to get up-to-date about a new project, the Kepler mission, and to experience a review from a new perspective. Typically, when you're being reviewed, it's difficult to see what's happening objectively-the same way it is on a project. Presenters are always thinking, 'Okay, what's on my slides? How much time do I have left? What are they going to ask me?' So when Claire's email pinged on my computer, I quickly responded by asking her to save a place for me. It was to be an informational review about progress on the project: what the team had done, where they were going, and what they needed to do to get there. There were people on the project team from all over the United States, and it was the first time for them to get together from all aspects of the project. For our part, as observers, we were asked to abide by a couple of rules: Don't ask any questions. and don't talk about the specifics of what we saw or heard. The idea was that we weren't supposed to be noticed. We weren't to buzz around and bother people. Hence the name for this experinient: Fly on the Wall.

  17. My Big Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    It was June and I was in Yosemite National Park in California, 2,000-feet off the ground. I was climbing El Capitan, a majestic 3,000-foot high, mile-wide granite monolith--one of the most sought after and spectacular rock climbs in the world. After three days of climbing on its sheer face, and having completed the most difficult part of the route, my partner and I were heading down. A thunderstorm lasting all night and into the morning had soaked our tiny perch and all our worldly possessions. We began rappelling down the vertical wall by sliding to the ends of two 50meter ropes tied together and looped through a set of fixed rings bolted into the rock. At the end of the ropes was another rappel station consisting of a set of rings, placed by previous climbers for retreating parties, which we used to anchor ourselves to the rock face. We then pulled the ropes down from the rings above, threaded the ones in front of our noses and started down another rope length. Everything we brought up for our five-day climb to the summit we had to bring back down with us: ropes, climbing gear of every sort, sleeping bags, extra clothes, food, water, and other essentials. All this we either stuffed into a haul bag (an oversized reinforced duffel bag) or slung over our shoulders. The retreat was slow and methodical, akin to a train backing down a mountain, giving me ample time to think. My situation made me think about my work, mostly, about all the projects I have managed, or been involved in managing. As a NASA project manager, I have worked on a number of successful projects. I have also been involved in a number of projects I never saw the end of. I thought about all the projects I transferred off of for other opportunities, projects that were in full stride and ran out of funding, and ones put on the shelf because they would not meet a flight date. Oh yes, I have had many success, to be sure, or I would have burned out years ago. Lessons from both the successful and not

  18. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... mine opening is covered. The cover shall be a substantial material, such as metal or wood, topped...

  19. Simulation of turbulent wall pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to simulate the transient wall pressure field produced by a low speed fully turbulent boundary layer. The theoretical basis for the simulation has been discussed and preliminary results from a pressure simulation are presented.

  20. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  1. Wall effects in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevallier, J. P.; Vaucheret, X.

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis of current trends in the reduction and computation of wall effects is presented. Some of the points discussed include: (1) for the two-dimensional, transonic tests, various control techniques of boundary conditions are used with adaptive walls offering high precision in determining reference conditions and residual corrections. A reduction in the boundary layer effects of the lateral walls is obtained at T2; (2) for the three-dimensional tests, the methods for the reduction of wall effects are still seldom applied due to a lesser need and to their complexity; (3) the supports holding the model of the probes have to be taken into account in the estimation of perturbatory effects.

  2. Hall thruster with grooved walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Ning, Zhongxi; Yu, Daren

    2013-02-01

    Axial-oriented and azimuthal-distributed grooves are formed on channel walls of a Hall thruster after the engine undergoes a long-term operation. Existing studies have demonstrated the relation between the grooves and the near-wall physics, such as sheath and electron near-wall transport. The idea to optimize the thruster performance with such grooves was also proposed. Therefore, this paper is devoted to explore the effects of wall grooves on the discharge characteristics of a Hall thruster. With experimental measurements, the variations on electron conductivity, ionization distribution, and integrated performance are obtained. The involved physical mechanisms are then analyzed and discussed. The findings help to not only better understand the working principle of Hall thruster discharge but also establish a physical fundamental for the subsequent optimization with artificial grooves.

  3. Dependence of Polarimetric Scattering Mechanisms on Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, D. K.; Meyer, F.

    2011-03-01

    A method for statistically representing the polarimetric SAR scattering mechanisms of individual land cover classes is introduced and applied to ALOS PALSAR L-band quad-pol data. PALSAR scattering signatures are correlated with land cover classification maps to determine typical scattering mechanisms. The approach utilizes two free, open-source software tools, ESA's PolSARpro and the Alaska Satellite Facility's MapReady Remote Sensing Toolbox as well as Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, to compute the probability density functions of normalized decomposition components for each land cover class.The proposed method provides the ability to compare polarimetric decompositions, investigate scattering mechanisms, detect change in land cover classification, and discover inhomogeneities in the spectral characteristics of individual classes. The approach is first employed to compare the Freeman and Van Zyl three-component decomposition techniques, where the former is shown to introduce many pixels with 100% volume saturation.Ideally, the method yields distinctive scattering peaks for each land cover class with minimal variance in the individual scattering components. However, in some instances, bimodal peaks are found. These are shown to either represent changes between the original land classification and the SAR acquisitions, or the existence of spectral subclasses that were not differentiated in the original classification. Last, the method is used to determine the impact of Polarimetric Orientation Angle (POA) correction on the scattering signatures of urban land cover classes. POA compensation is shown to bring about a significant reduction in the volume scattering component.A method for statistically representing the polarimetric SAR scattering mechanisms of individual land cover classes is introduced and applied to ALOS PALSAR L-band quad-pol data. PALSAR scattering signatures are correlated with land cover classification maps to determine typical

  4. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  5. Will this open space work?

    PubMed

    Vischer, J

    1999-01-01

    Northern Oil is moving offices, and CEO Fritz Schumacher wants to make the most of the move in this fictional case study. He believes that adopting an open-plan work space will reinvent how the company works, not to mention cut costs. Facilities manager Sasha Pasternak also supports the open plan. Her job would be easier, and her budget would stretch further, if Northern had standardized workstations and used partitions, not walls. And she likes the way the new design flattens the organization: everyone has the same amount of space and the same ergonomically sound furniture. The new building would have more conference rooms and just-in-time work spaces for employees who worked mostly off-site. And although she knew that initial meetings between the architects and Northern employees hadn't yielded much support for open space--people were attached to their private offices--she expected that people would warm to the idea. But when the new design was unveiled, employees were less than enthusiastic. They hurled questions like, How will workers concentrate if they can't shut their office doors? How will people have confidential meetings with their boss? And why would people stay at Northern when the competition offers them private offices? There was even talk of circulating a petition refusing to move to the new space. A week later, the architect presented revised plans to the project group. The new options would add costs and reduce the amount of space savings, but offering a choice to employees might make them feel less threatened. What should the project team do? Five commentators offer advice.

  6. A New Eddy-Based Model for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-11

    results show it to work effectively as a correction scheme for spatial resolution effects in hot - wire anemometry measurements in wall-turbulence. 15...results show it to work effectively as a correction scheme for spatial resolution effects in hot - wire anemometry measurements in wall-turbulence. The...Carry out hot - wire anemometry experiments covering a large Reynolds number range. This involves the use of the High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer

  7. Influence and Modeling of Residual Stresses in Thick Walled Pressure Vessels with Through Holes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-12003 INFLUENCE AND MODELING OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN THICK WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS WITH...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 28/02/2012 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Influence and Modeling of...Residual Stresses in Thick Walled Pressure Vessels with Through Holes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  8. Transmembrane passage of hydrophobic compounds through a protein channel wall.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Elizabeth M; Patel, Dimki R; Lepore, Bryan W; Indic, Mridhu; van den Berg, Bert

    2009-03-19

    Membrane proteins that transport hydrophobic compounds have important roles in multi-drug resistance and can cause a number of diseases, underscoring the importance of protein-mediated transport of hydrophobic compounds. Hydrophobic compounds readily partition into regular membrane lipid bilayers, and their transport through an aqueous protein channel is energetically unfavourable. Alternative transport models involving acquisition from the lipid bilayer by lateral diffusion have been proposed for hydrophobic substrates. So far, all transport proteins for which a lateral diffusion mechanism has been proposed function as efflux pumps. Here we present the first example of a lateral diffusion mechanism for the uptake of hydrophobic substrates by the Escherichia coli outer membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL. A FadL mutant in which a lateral opening in the barrel wall is constricted, but which is otherwise structurally identical to wild-type FadL, does not transport substrates. A crystal structure of FadL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows that the opening in the wall of the beta-barrel is conserved and delineates a long, hydrophobic tunnel that could mediate substrate passage from the extracellular environment, through the polar lipopolysaccharide layer and, by means of the lateral opening in the barrel wall, into the lipid bilayer from where the substrate can diffuse into the periplasm. Because FadL homologues are found in pathogenic and biodegrading bacteria, our results have implications for combating bacterial infections and bioremediating xenobiotics in the environment.

  9. Correction factors for wind tunnels of elliptic section with partly open and partly closed test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riegels, Fritz W

    1951-01-01

    Jet boundary corrections for partly open and partly closed elliptical wind tunnels for the cases of one and two solid wall segments are presented. Also presented are the combinations of model span and extent of the solid portion of the tunnel wall for which the average correction factor is zero.

  10. An estimation of mechanical stress on alveolar walls during repetitive alveolar reopening and closure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng-Long; Song, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Zhao-Yan; Zhang, Su; Chen, Ya-Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Alveolar overdistension and mechanical stresses generated by repetitive opening and closing of small airways and alveoli have been widely recognized as two primary mechanistic factors that may contribute to the development of ventilator-induced lung injury. A long-duration exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to even small, shear stresses could lead to the changes in cytoskeleton and the production of inflammatory mediators. In this paper, we have made an attempt to estimate in situ the magnitudes of mechanical stresses exerted on the alveolar walls during repetitive alveolar reopening by using a tape-peeling model of McEwan and Taylor (35). To this end, we first speculate the possible ranges of capillary number (Ca) ≡ μU/γ (a dimensionless combination of surface tension γ, fluid viscosity μ, and alveolar opening velocity U) during in vivo alveolar opening. Subsequent calculations show that increasing respiratory rate or inflation rate serves to increase the values of mechanical stresses. For a normal lung, the predicted maximum shear stresses are <15 dyn/cm(2) at all respiratory rates, whereas for a lung with elevated surface tension or viscosity, the maximum shear stress will notably increase, even at a slow respiratory rate. Similarly, the increased pressure gradients in the case of elevated surface or viscosity may lead to a pressure drop >300 dyn/cm(2) across a cell, possibly inducing epithelial hydraulic cracks. In addition, we have conceived of a geometrical model of alveolar opening to make a prediction of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) required to splint open a collapsed alveolus, which as shown by our results, covers a wide range of pressures, from several centimeters to dozens of centimeters of water, strongly depending on the underlying pulmonary conditions. The establishment of adequate regional ventilation-to-perfusion ratios may prevent recruited alveoli from reabsorption atelectasis and accordingly, reduce the required levels of

  11. Effect of cavity fore wall modifications in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyakumar, S.; Yuvaraj, K. Arun; Jayaraman, K.; Cardona, F.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the complex behaviour of the cavity flow is essential for the design of supersonic combustor. The characteristics of the axisymmetric aft ramp cavity with fore wall modification have been experimentally studied in a blow-down type supersonic flow facility. The facility consists of a conventional CD nozzle that issues a flow Mach number of 1.88 to a supersonic combustor of circular cross section, which is placed immediately downstream of the nozzle. The axisymmetric cavities are incorporated within the combustor. The cavities are of open type and their length is kept constant while their depth varies. The aft wall of the cavities is inclined with three ramp angles and the fore wall is provided with a constant fillet radius of 3 mm. The performance of the cavity is analysed based on wall static pressures, momentum flux distribution at the exit of the combustor and stagnation pressure loss across the combustor. The study reveals that fore wall fillet cavities provide less cavity drag and stagnation pressure loss for various aft ramp angles under identical operating conditions.

  12. Ocean wave transmission and reflection by viscoelastic ice covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Shen, Hayley H.

    2015-08-01

    Modeling ice covers as viscoelastic continua, Zhao and Shen, (2013) applied a two-mode approximate method to determine the transmission and reflection between two different ice covers. This approximate solution considered only two modes of the dispersion relation. In addition, the horizontal boundary conditions were simplified by matching mean values over the interfaces. In this study, we employ a variational method (Fox and Squire, (1990)) to calculate the wave transmission and reflection from two connecting viscoelastic ice covers of different properties. The variational approach minimizes the overall error function at the interface of two ice covers, hence is more rigorous than the previous approximate method that minimized the difference between mean values at the interface. The effect of additional travelling and evanescent modes are also investigated. We compare results from different matching methods, as well as the effects of including additional modes. From this study, we find that additional modes do not always improve the results for our model. For all cases tested, two modes appear to be sufficient. These two modes represent the open-water-like and the elastic-pressure wave-like behavior. The two-mode approximate method and the variational method have similar results except at very short wave periods.

  13. Circular cylinders with soft porous cover for flow noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Thomas F.; Sarradj, Ennes

    2016-03-01

    The use of porous materials is one of several approaches to passively control or minimize the generation of flow noise. In order to investigate the possible reduction of noise from struts and other protruding parts (for example components of the landing gear or pantographs), acoustic measurements were taken in a small aeroacoustic wind tunnel on a set of circular cylinders with a soft porous cover. The aim of this study was to identify those materials that result in the best noise reduction, which refers to both tonal noise and broadband noise. The porous covers were characterized by their air flow resistivity, a parameter describing the permeability of an open-porous material. The results show that materials with low air flow resistivities lead to a noticeable flow noise reduction. Thereby, the main effect of the porous cylinder covers is that the spectral peak of the aeolian tone due to vortex shedding appears much narrower, but is not suppressed completely. Based on the measurement results, a basic model for the estimation of the total peak level of the aeolian tone was derived. In addition to the minimization of the vortex shedding noise, a reduction of broadband noise can be observed, especially at higher Reynolds numbers. The noise reduction increases with decreasing air flow resistivity of the porous covers, which means that materials that are highly permeable to air result in the best noise reduction.

  14. Open Babel: An open chemical toolbox

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A frequent problem in computational modeling is the interconversion of chemical structures between different formats. While standard interchange formats exist (for example, Chemical Markup Language) and de facto standards have arisen (for example, SMILES format), the need to interconvert formats is a continuing problem due to the multitude of different application areas for chemistry data, differences in the data stored by different formats (0D versus 3D, for example), and competition between software along with a lack of vendor-neutral formats. Results We discuss, for the first time, Open Babel, an open-source chemical toolbox that speaks the many languages of chemical data. Open Babel version 2.3 interconverts over 110 formats. The need to represent such a wide variety of chemical and molecular data requires a library that implements a wide range of cheminformatics algorithms, from partial charge assignment and aromaticity detection, to bond order perception and canonicalization. We detail the implementation of Open Babel, describe key advances in the 2.3 release, and outline a variety of uses both in terms of software products and scientific research, including applications far beyond simple format interconversion. Conclusions Open Babel presents a solution to the proliferation of multiple chemical file formats. In addition, it provides a variety of useful utilities from conformer searching and 2D depiction, to filtering, batch conversion, and substructure and similarity searching. For developers, it can be used as a programming library to handle chemical data in areas such as organic chemistry, drug design, materials science, and computational chemistry. It is freely available under an open-source license from http://openbabel.org. PMID:21982300

  15. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Robert L.; Cavallo, James

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  16. Derivation of jack movement influence coefficients as a basis for selecting wall contours giving reduced levels of interference in flexible walled test sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    This report covers work done in a transonic wind tunnel towards providing data on the influence of the movement of wall-control jacks on the Mach number perturbations along the test section. The data is derived using an existing streamline-curvature program, and in application is reduced to matrices of influence coefficients.

  17. 28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) in top of S wall in center bay of N room of mill. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  18. 45. View of end bay of W elevation showing openings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. View of end bay of W elevation showing openings in wall associated with sugar making process. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  19. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CA. 1960 OPEN STORAGE STRUCTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CA. 1960 OPEN STORAGE STRUCTURE, BRICK-WALLED NORTH PART, AND CORRUGATED-STEEL SOUTH PART, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. - New Haven Rail Yard, Work Equipment Shop, Vicinity of Cedar & Lamberton Streets, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO WALK-IN CLOSETS, AND 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON NORTH WALL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  1. 15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO VESTIBULE AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW THROUGH SOUTH WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  2. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE UNDER ROUND HEATER VENT HOLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  3. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO CENTER, AND SECOND 6 LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  4. 22. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER TWO LOOKING BACK THROUGH OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER TWO LOOKING BACK THROUGH OPEN DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER THREE. MIRRORED MEDICINE CABINET FLANKED BY 1-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOWS IN GROUPED ARRANGEMENT ON WEST WALL ABOVE SINK AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  5. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  6. View looking south out the door opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south out the door opening from the south side of the rotunda extension onto the "dog house" or vestibule positioned where the west Verandah of the south wing turns ninety degrees and continues along the south wall of the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 3. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CORNER; OPENING AT TOP WAS INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CORNER; OPENING AT TOP WAS INTAKE FOR CATTLE; CANTILEVERED HOG RUN (BUILDING 147) OBSCURES A PORTION OF THE BEEF KILL'S ORIGINAL GLASS BLOCK WALLS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  8. {open_quotes}Car Talk{close_quotes}: An autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, G.C.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Car Talk{close_quotes} - the Clinton administration`s vehicle for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from passenger cars and light-duty trucks-hit the wall amid charges and countercharges hurled by its frustrated participants. A careful post-mortem reveals lessons that can redeem the process for dealing with future public policy controversies.

  9. 17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL THROUGH WHICH A CONVEYOR ONCE PASSED FOR MOVING BODY PANELS TO AND FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. 5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF HOUSE SHOWING OPEN DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF HOUSE SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BASEMENT BELOW KITCHEN, ORIGINAL PAIRED WOODFRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ON KITCHEN WALL AND 1LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW ON STORM PORCH ADDITION. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  11. 18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL SHOWING CONVEYOR FOR MOVING MATERIAL TO THE SECOND FLOOR. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN ORIGINAL CONVEYOR FOR MOVING BODY PARTS). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. Wall thickness effect on the resistive wall mode stability in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.T.

    2005-07-15

    The effect of finite wall thickness on the stability of n=1 resistive wall modes in toroidal plasmas is investigated. A fusion reactor-relevant configuration is examined. The investigation employs a novel ideal-magnetohydrodynamics adaptive shooting code for axisymmetric plasmas, extended to take into account the wall thickness. Although finite wall thickness generally reduces the growth rate of the resistive wall modes, no contribution to stabilization is found to be made by the portion of the wall that is located beyond the critical position for perfectly conducting wall stabilization. Thus, when the inner side of the wall lies near the critical wall position, the scaling of the growth rate versus wall thickness in the realistic thick-wall calculation is significantly different from that of the usual thin-wall theory. The thin-wall estimate is relevant only when the wall is brought very close to the plasma and is not too thick.

  13. Effects of the flexibility of the arterial wall on the wall shear stresses and wall tension in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Fernandez, Miguel; Chomaz, Jean-Marc

    2005-11-01

    As an abdominal aortic aneurysm develops, large changes occur in the composition and structure of the arterial wall, which result in its stiffening. So far, most studies, whether experimental or numerical, have been conducted assuming the walls to be rigid. A numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions is performed in different models of aneurysms in order to analyze the effects that the wall compliance might have on the flow topology. Both symmetric and non-symmetric models of aneurysms are considered, all idealistic in shape. The wall mechanical properties are varied in order to simulate the progressive stiffening of the walls. The spatial and temporal distributions of wall tension are calculated for the different values of the wall elasticity and compared to the results for the rigid walls. In the case of rigid walls, the calculation of the wall shear stresses and pressure compare very well with experimental results.

  14. Chirality-dependent vapor-phase epitaxial growth and termination of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bilu; Liu, Jia; Tu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Jialu; Zheng, Ming; Zhou, Chongwu

    2013-09-11

    Structurally uniform and chirality-pure single-wall carbon nanotubes are highly desired for both fundamental study and many of their technological applications, such as electronics, optoelectronics, and biomedical imaging. Considerable efforts have been invested in the synthesis of nanotubes with defined chiralities by tuning the growth recipes but the approach has only limited success. Recently, we have shown that chirality-pure short nanotubes can be used as seeds for vapor-phase epitaxial cloning growth, opening up a new route toward chirality-controlled carbon nanotube synthesis. Nevertheless, the yield of vapor-phase epitaxial growth is rather limited at the present stage, due in large part to the lack of mechanistic understanding of the process. Here we report chirality-dependent growth kinetics and termination mechanism for the vapor-phase epitaxial growth of seven single-chirality nanotubes of (9, 1), (6, 5), (8, 3), (7, 6), (10, 2), (6, 6), and (7, 7), covering near zigzag, medium chiral angle, and near armchair semiconductors, as well as armchair metallic nanotubes. Our results reveal that the growth rates of nanotubes increase with their chiral angles while the active lifetimes of the growth hold opposite trend. Consequently, the chirality distribution of a nanotube ensemble is jointly determined by both growth rates and lifetimes. These results correlate nanotube structures and properties with their growth behaviors and deepen our understanding of chirality-controlled growth of nanotubes.

  15. Design and Test of a Deployable Radiation Cover for the REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carte, David B.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Jones, Michael P.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument contains a one-time deployable radiation cover that is opened using a shape memory alloy actuator (a "Frangibolt") from TiNi Aerospace and two torsion springs. The door will be held closed by the bolt for several years in cold storage during travel to the target asteroid, Bennu, and it is imperative to gain confidence that the door will open at predicted operational temperatures. This paper briefly covers the main design features of the radiation cover and measures taken to mitigate risks to cover deployment. As the chosen FD04 model Frangibolt actuator has minimal flight heritage, the main focus of this paper is the testing, results and conclusions with the FD04 while discussing key lessons learned with respect to the use of the FD04 actuator in this application.

  16. Opening and Closing in Open Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Orrin E.

    In open information systems, such as in the case of human interchange with the self and the environment, input quantities have no upper limits. The human information utilization system, however, is psychologically and behaviorally unable to accept ever increasing loads of information. Because of this apparent fact, human information systems should…

  17. Opening Up Access to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2008-01-01

    As the corpus of gray literature grows and the price of serials rises, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to integrate the free and open Web seamlessly into one's collections. Users, after all, are discovering these materials all the time via sites such as Google Scholar and Scirus or by searching arXiv.org or CiteSeer directly.…

  18. Investigating the Effect of Carbon Nanotube Diameter and Wall Number in Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Tom; Yu, LePing; Gibson, Christopher; Tune, Daniel; Alturaif, Huda; Al Othman, Zeid; Shapter, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Suspensions of single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were generated in the same solvent at similar concentrations. Films were fabricated from these suspensions and used in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells and their properties were compared with reference to the number of walls in the nanotube samples. It was found that single-walled nanotubes generally produced more favorable results; however, the double and multi-walled nanotube films used in this study yielded cells with higher open circuit voltages. It was also determined that post fabrication treatments applied to the nanotube films have a lesser effect on multi-walled nanotubes than on the other two types. PMID:28344309

  19. The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.; Ciancia, Marina; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G. T.

    2012-01-01

    The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. For example, the late divergent taxa of the Charophycean green algae possess cell walls containing assemblages of polymers with notable similarity to the cellulose, pectins, hemicelluloses, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensin, and lignin present in embryophyte walls. Ulvophycean seaweeds have cell wall components whose most abundant fibrillar constituents may change from cellulose to β-mannans to β-xylans and during different life cycle phases. Likewise, these algae produce complex sulfated polysaccharides, AGPs, and extensin. Chlorophycean green algae produce a wide array of walls ranging from cellulose–pectin complexes to ones made of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Larger and more detailed surveys of the green algal taxa including incorporation of emerging genomic and transcriptomic data are required in order to more fully resolve evolutionary trends within the green algae and in relationship with higher plants as well as potential applications of wall components in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22639667

  20. Isolation of the Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Canut, Hervé; Albenne, Cécile; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a method allowing the purification of the cell wall for studying both polysaccharides and proteins. The plant primary cell wall is mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95 % in mass) and of proteins (5-10 %). At the end of growth, specialized cells may synthesize a lignified secondary wall composed of polysaccharides (about 65 %) and lignin (about 35 %). Due to its composition, the cell wall is the cellular compartment having the highest density and this property is used for its purification. It plays critical roles during plant development and in response to environmental constraints. It is largely used in the food and textile industries as well as for the production of bioenergy. All these characteristics and uses explain why its study as a true cell compartment is of high interest. The proposed method of purification can be used for large amount of material but can also be downscaled to 500 mg of fresh material. Tools for checking the quality of the cell wall preparation, such as protein analysis and microscopy observation, are also provided.

  1. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOEpatents

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  2. Functional domain walls in multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Meier, Dennis

    2015-11-25

    During the last decade a wide variety of novel and fascinating correlation phenomena has been discovered at domain walls in multiferroic bulk systems, ranging from unusual electronic conductance to inseparably entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom. The domain walls represent quasi-2D functional objects that can be induced, positioned, and erased on demand, bearing considerable technological potential for future nanoelectronics. Most of the challenges that remain to be solved before turning related device paradigms into reality, however, still fall in the field of fundamental condensed matter physics and materials science. In this topical review seminal experimental findings gained on electric and magnetic domain walls in multiferroic bulk materials are addressed. A special focus is put on the physical properties that emerge at so-called charged domain walls and the added functionality that arises from coexisting magnetic order. The research presented in this review highlights that we are just entering a whole new world of intriguing nanoscale physics that is yet to be explored in all its details. The goal is to draw attention to the persistent challenges and identify future key directions for the research on functional domain walls in multiferroics.

  3. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  4. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  5. Field water balance of landfill final covers.

    PubMed

    Albright, William H; Benson, Craig H; Gee, Glendon W; Roesler, Arthur C; Abichou, Tarek; Apiwantragoon, Preecha; Lyles, Bradley F; Rock, Steven A

    2004-01-01

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into underlying waste. Conventional covers employing resistive barriers as well as alternative covers relying on water-storage principles were monitored in large (10 x 20 m), instrumented drainage lysimeters over a range of climates at 11 field sites in the United States. Surface runoff was a small fraction of the water balance (0-10%, 4% on average) and was nearly insensitive to the cover slope, cover design, or climate. Lateral drainage from internal drainage layers was also a small fraction of the water balance (0-5.0%, 2.0% on average). Average percolation rates for the conventional covers with composite barriers (geomembrane over fine soil) typically were less than 12 mm/yr (1.4% of precipitation) at humid locations and 1.5 mm/yr (0.4% of precipitation) at arid, semiarid, and subhumid locations. Average percolation rates for conventional covers with soil barriers in humid climates were between 52 and 195 mm/yr (6-17% of precipitation), probably due to preferential flow through defects in the soil barrier. Average percolation rates for alternative covers ranged between 33 and 160 mm/yr (6 and 18% of precipitation) in humid climates and generally less than 2.2 mm/yr (0.4% of precipitation) in arid, semiarid, and subhumid climates. One-half (five) of the alternative covers in arid, semiarid, and subhumid climates transmitted less than 0.1 mm of percolation, but two transmitted much more percolation (26.8 and 52 mm) than anticipated during design. The data collected support conclusions from other studies that detailed, site-specific design procedures are very important for successful performance of alternative landfill covers.

  6. Polarimetric Backscattering Behavior of River Ice Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermoz, S.; Gherboudj, I.; Allain, S.; Bernier, M.; Pottier, E.

    2009-04-01

    In many northern rivers of Canada, the formation of the ice covers leads to important situations: ice jamming, and then flooding of large areas. Thus, the monitoring of river ice is necessary. Gherboudj has developed a model in order to understand the interactions of the radar signal with the river ice cover. The model is improved to simulate the fully polarimetric response of a river ice cover. The aim of this work is to analyse the results of the simulations.

  7. Reach-scale effects of riparian forest cover on urban stream ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, A.H.; Faust, C.L.; Freeman, Mary C.; Meyer, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    We compared habitat and biota between paired open and forested reaches within five small streams (basin area 10?20 km2) in suburban catchments (9%?49% urban land cover) in the Piedmont of Georgia, USA. Stream reaches with open canopies were narrower than forested reaches (4.1 versus 5.0 m, respectively). There were no differences in habitat diversity (variation in velocity, depth, or bed particle size) between open and forested reaches. However, absence of local forest cover corresponded to decreased large wood and increased algal chlorophyll a standing crop biomass. These differences in basal food resources translated into higher densities of fishes in open (9.0 individuals?m?2) versus forested (4.9 individuals?m?2) reaches, primarily attributed to higher densities of the herbivore Campostoma oligolepis. Densities of terrestrial invertebrate inputs were higher in open reaches; however, trends suggested higher biomass of terrestrial inputs in forested reaches and a corresponding higher density of terrestrial prey consumed by water column feeding fishes. Reach-scale biotic integrity (macroinvertebrates, salamanders, and fishes) was largely unaffected by differences in canopy cover. In urbanizing areas where catchment land cover drives habitat and biotic quality, management practices that rely exclusively on forested riparian areas for stream protection are unlikely to be effective at maintaining ecosystem integrity.

  8. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  9. Composition and architecture of the cell walls of grasses and the mechanisms of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Final report for period September 1, 1988 - April 30, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2001-10-18

    This program was devoted toward complete understanding of the polysaccharide structure and architecture of the primary cell walls grasses and cereals, and the biosynthesis of the mixed-linkage beta-glucane, a cellulose interacting polymer that is synthesized uniquely by grass species and close relatives. With these studies as focal point, the support from DOE was instrumental in the development of new analytical means that enabled us to characterize carbohydrate structure, to reveal new features of cell wall dynamics during cell growth, and to apply these techniques in other model organisms. The support by DOE in these basic studies was acknowledged on numerous occasions in review articles covering current knowledge of cell wall structure, architecture, dynamics, biosynthesis, and in all genes related to cell wall biogenesis.

  10. The DEMO wall load challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horacek, J.; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-04-01

    For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m‑2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m‑2 for the design {\\tt {EU}}{\\tt {~}}{\\tt {DEMO1}}{\\tt {~2015}} assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m‑2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6–0.8 MW m‑2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.

  11. Debonding Stress Concentrations in a Pressurized Lobed Sandwich-Walled Generic Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-element stress analysis has been conducted on a lobed composite sandwich tank subjected to internal pressure and cryogenic cooling. The lobed geometry consists of two obtuse circular walls joined together with a common flat wall. Under internal pressure and cryogenic cooling, this type of lobed tank wall will experience open-mode (a process in which the honeycomb is stretched in the depth direction) and shear stress concentrations at the junctures where curved wall changes into flat wall (known as a curve-flat juncture). Open-mode and shear stress concentrations occur in the honeycomb core at the curve-flat junctures and could cause debonding failure. The levels of contributions from internal pressure and temperature loading to the open-mode and shear debonding failure are compared. The lobed fuel tank with honeycomb sandwich walls has been found to be a structurally unsound geometry because of very low debonding failure strengths. The debonding failure problem could be eliminated if the honeycomb core at the curve-flat juncture is replaced with a solid core.

  12. Numerical and experimental study of transient natural convection in an inclined wall cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J.; Avila, F.

    1995-09-01

    Transient natural convection in an open cavity with one inclined wall is analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The fluid and the cavity are in thermal equilibrium at the onset of the experiment. The inclined wall is heated in such a way that the wall temperature increases uniformly according to an hyperbolic tangent function. The transport equations are solved using a 2-D transient model with a non-orthogonal body fitted coordinate system and an exponential grid distribution for better spatial resolution near the inclined wall. Measurements of velocity and temperature are performed at some key points of the boundary layer and intrusion layer. The fluid motion and heat transfer are analyzed from the time at which heat is applied though the inclined wall to the time at which its effect is detected at the opposite sidewall. The main patterns of the fluid flow and heat transfer are well predicted as comparisons against experimental results indicate.

  13. The forced sound transmission of finite single leaf walls using a variational technique.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    The single wall is the simplest element of concern in building acoustics, but there still remain some open questions regarding the sound insulation of this simple case. The two main reasons for this are the effects on the excitation and sound radiation of the wall when it has a finite size, and the fact that the wave field in the wall is consisting of two types of waves, namely forced waves due to the exciting acoustic field, and free bending waves due to reflections in the boundary. The aim of the present paper is to derive simple analytical formulas for the forced part of the airborne sound insulation of a single homogeneous wall of finite size, using a variational technique based on the integral-differential equation of the fluid loaded wall. The so derived formulas are valid in the entire audible frequency range. The results are compared with full numerical calculations, measurements and alternative theory, with reasonable agreement.

  14. Variability of cell wall polysaccharides composition and hemicellulose enzymatic profile in an apple progeny.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Lopez, D; Laurens, F; Quéméner, B; Lahaye, M

    2011-12-01

    The genetic variability of apple cell walls polysaccharides chemical composition and structure was assessed in a progeny of 141 individuals harvested over 2 years. The variability of the hemicelluloses oligosaccharides released by glucanase was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The genetic contribution was distinguished from harvest year as well as from parental crossing patterns and scab resistance selection. Results showed that harvest year had a major impact on cell wall polysaccharide composition and structure. Within each harvest, genetic effect impact more significantly cell wall polysaccharide chemistry than does reciprocal crossing or early scab selection. Uronic acids, glucose, galactose and xylose contents as well as some glucomannan and xyloglucan structures have a high heritability. This first cell wall chemotyping of an apple progeny opens the way for future searches of genetic markers for the chemical variability of cell wall polysaccharides.

  15. Egress door opening assister

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Thomas L.

    2015-10-06

    A door opening spring assistance apparatus is set forth that will automatically apply a door opening assistance force using a combination of rods and coil springs. The release of the rods by the coil springs reduces the force required to set the door in motion.

  16. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  17. Open Source Molecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. PMID:27631126

  18. Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for…

  19. Guidelines on Open Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia.

    These Guidelines on open expression at the University of Pennsylvania include: (1) a statement of principles, expressing support for freedom of thought, inquiry, speech and lawful assembly, and for the need to ensure continuing openness and effectiveness of channels of communication; (2) a description of the newly created Committee on Open…

  20. Open Source Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.