Synchrotron-based far-infrared spectroscopy of nickel tungstate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalinko, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Roy, P.; Evarestov, R. A.
2016-07-01
Monoclinic antiferromagnetic NiWO4 was studied by far-infrared (30-600 cm-1) absorption spectroscopy in the temperature range of 5-300 K using the synchrotron radiation from SOLEIL source. Two isomorphous CoWO4 and ZnWO4 tungstates were investigated for comparison. The phonon contributions in the far-infrared range of tungstates were interpreted using the first-principles spin-polarized linear combination of atomic orbital calculations. No contributions from magnetic excitations were found in NiWO4 and CoWO4 below their Neel temperatures down to 5 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamba, Aldo; Tabacchi, Gloria; Fois, Ettore
2009-09-01
First principles studies on periodic TS-1 models at Ti content corresponding to 1.35% and 2.7% in weight of TiO2 are presented. The problem of Ti preferential siting is addressed by using realistic models corresponding to the TS-1 unit cell [TiSi95O192] and adopting for the first time a periodic DFT approach, thus providing an energy scale for Ti in the different crystallographic sites in nondefective TS-1. The structure with Ti in site T3 is the most stable, followed by T4 (+0.3 kcal/mol); the less stable structure, corresponding to Ti in T1, is 5.6 kcal/mol higher in energy. The work has been extended to investigate models with two Ti's per unit cell [Ti2Si94O192] (2.7%). The possible existence of Ti-O-Ti bridges, formed by two corner-sharing TiO4 tetrahedra, is discussed. By using cluster models cut from the optimized periodic DFT structures, both vibrational (DFT) and electronic excitation spectra (TDDFT) have been calculated and favorably compared with the experimental data available on TS-1. Interesting features emerged from excitation spectra: (i) Isolated tetrahedral Ti sites show a Beer-Lambert behavior, with absorption intensity proportional to concentration. Such a behavior is gradually lost when two Ti's occupy sites close to each other. (ii) The UV-vis absorption in the 200-250 nm region can be associated with transitions from occupied states delocalized on the framework oxygens to empty d states localized on Ti. Such extended-states-to-local-states transitions may help the interpretation of the photovoltaic activity recently detected in Ti zeolites.
Chamber Clearing First Principles Modeling
Loosmore, G
2009-06-09
LIFE fusion is designed to generate 37.5 MJ of energy per shot, at 13.3 Hz, for a total average fusion power of 500 MW. The energy from each shot is partitioned among neutrons ({approx}78%), x-rays ({approx}12%), and ions ({approx}10%). First wall heating is dominated by x-rays and debris because the neutron mean free path is much longer than the wall thickness. Ion implantation in the first wall also causes damage such as blistering if not prevented. To moderate the peak-pulse heating, the LIFE fusion chamber is filled with a gas (such as xenon) to reduce the peak-pulse heat load. The debris ions and majority of the x-rays stop in the gas, which re-radiates this energy over a longer timescale (allowing time for heat conduction to cool the first wall sufficiently to avoid damage). After a shot, because of the x-ray and ion deposition, the chamber fill gas is hot and turbulent and contains debris ions. The debris needs to be removed. The ions increase the gas density, may cluster or form aerosols, and can interfere with the propagation of the laser beams to the target for the next shot. Moreover, the tritium and high-Z hohlraum debris needs to be recovered for reuse. Additionally, the cryogenic target needs to survive transport through the gas mixture to the chamber center. Hence, it will be necessary to clear the chamber of the hot contaminated gas mixture and refill it with a cool, clean gas between shots. The refilling process may create density gradients that could interfere with beam propagation, so the fluid dynamics must be studied carefully. This paper describes an analytic modeling effort to study the clearing and refilling process for the LIFE fusion chamber. The models used here are derived from first principles and balances of mass and energy, with the intent of providing a first estimate of clearing rates, clearing times, fractional removal of ions, equilibrated chamber temperatures, and equilibrated ion concentrations for the chamber. These can be used
Uranyl tungstate and zirconium tungstate in salt melts
Kryukova, A.I.; Bragina, R.A.; Kazantsev, G.N.; Korshunov, I.A.
1988-05-01
The article discusses the preparation, properties, and behavior of uranyl tungstate and zirconium tungstate in salt melts. Procedures for their preparation are presented. The radiographic and IR spectroscopic characteristics, the thermal stability, and solubility and stability in chloride-tungstate melts of different composition have been studied.
Description of charge conjugation from first principles
Lujan-Peschard, C.; Napsuciale, M.
2006-09-25
We construct the charge conjugation operator as a unitary automorphism in the spinor space ((1/2), 0) + (0 (1/2)) from first principles. We calculate its eigenspinors and derive the equation of motion they satisfy. The mapping associated to charge conjugation is constructed from parity eigenstates which are considered as particle and antiparticle.
Rediscovering First Principles through Online Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kidney, Gary W.; Puckett, Edmond G.
2003-01-01
Describes an evaluation of Web-based instruction at the University of Houston-Clear Lake (Texas) that showed that the design team had been distracted from many first principles of instructional design by the creative chaos on the Web and discusses how self-reflection and role definitions allowed the team to overcome these disappointments and…
First principle thousand atom quantum dot calculations
Wang, Lin-Wang; Li, Jingbo
2004-03-30
A charge patching method and an idealized surface passivation are used to calculate the single electronic states of IV-IV, III-V, II-VI semiconductor quantum dots up to a thousand atoms. This approach scales linearly and has a 1000 fold speed-up compared to direct first principle methods with a cost of eigen energy error of about 20 meV. The calculated quantum dot band gaps are parametrized for future references.
Electron-phonon interactions from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giustino, Feliciano
2017-01-01
This article reviews the theory of electron-phonon interactions in solids from the point of view of ab initio calculations. While the electron-phonon interaction has been studied for almost a century, predictive nonempirical calculations have become feasible only during the past two decades. Today it is possible to calculate from first principles many materials properties related to the electron-phonon interaction, including the critical temperature of conventional superconductors, the carrier mobility in semiconductors, the temperature dependence of optical spectra in direct and indirect-gap semiconductors, the relaxation rates of photoexcited carriers, the electron mass renormalization in angle-resolved photoelectron spectra, and the nonadiabatic corrections to phonon dispersion relations. In this article a review of the theoretical and computational framework underlying modern electron-phonon calculations from first principles as well as landmark investigations of the electron-phonon interaction in real materials is given. The first part of the article summarizes the elementary theory of electron-phonon interactions and their calculations based on density-functional theory. The second part discusses a general field-theoretic formulation of the electron-phonon problem and establishes the connection with practical first-principles calculations. The third part reviews a number of recent investigations of electron-phonon interactions in the areas of vibrational spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, transport, and superconductivity.
Origin of Spinel Nanocheckerboards via First Principles.
Kornbluth, Mordechai; Marianetti, Chris A
2015-06-05
Self-organizing nanocheckerboards have been experimentally fabricated in Mn-based spinels but have not yet been explained with first principles. Using density-functional theory, we explain the phase diagram of the ZnMn_{x}Ga_{2-x}O_{4} system and the origin of nanocheckerboards. We predict total phase separation at zero temperature and then show the combination of kinetics, thermodynamics, and Jahn-Teller physics that generates the system's observed behavior. We find that the {011} surfaces are strongly preferred energetically, which mandates checkerboard ordering by purely geometrical considerations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yong-Hyun; Zhang, S. B.
2006-03-01
Despite being one of the most important macroscopic measures and a long history even before the quantum mechanics, the concept of pH has rarely been mentioned in microscopic theories, nor being incorporated computationally into first-principles theory of aqueous solutions. Here, we formulate a theory for the pH dependence of solution formation energy by introducing the proton chemical potential as the microscopic counterpart of pH in atomistic solution models. Within the theory, the general acid-base chemistry can be cast in a simple pictorial representation. We adopt density-functional molecular dynamics to demonstrate the usefulness of the method by studying a number of solution systems including water, small solute molecules such as NH3 and HCOOH, and more complex amino acids with several functional groups. For pure water, we calculated the auto- ionization constant to be 13.2 with a 95 % accuracy. For other solutes, the calculated dissociation constants, i.e., the so- called pKa, are also in reasonable agreement with experiments. Our first-principles pH theory can be readily applied to broad solution chemistry problems such as redox reactions.
First principles studies on anatase surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selcuk, Sencer
TiO2 is one of the most widely studied metal oxides from both the fundamental and the technological points of view. A variety of applications have already been developed in the fields of energy production, environmental remediation, and electronics. Still, it is considered to have a high potential for further improvement and continues to be of great interest. This thesis describes our theoretical studies on the structural and electronic properties of anatase surfaces, and their (photo)chemical behavior. Recently much attention has been focused on anatase crystals synthesized by hydrofluoric acid assisted methods. These crystals exhibit a high percentage of {001} facets, generally considered to be highly reactive. We used first principles methods to investigate the structure of these facets, which is not yet well understood. Our results suggest that (001) surfaces exhibit the bulk-terminated structure when in contact with concentrated HF solutions. However, 1x4-reconstructed surfaces, as observed in UHV, become always more stable at the typical temperatures used to clean the as-prepared crystals in experiments. Since the reconstructed surfaces are only weakly reactive, we predict that synthetic anatase crystals with dominant {001} facets should not exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity. Understanding how defects in solids interact with external electric fields is important for technological applications such as memristor devices. We studied the influence of an external electric field on the formation energies and diffusion barriers of the surface and the subsurface oxygen vacancies at the anatase (101) surface from first principles. Our results show that the applied field can have a significant influence on the relative stabilities of these defects, whereas the effect on the subsurface-to-surface defect migration is found to be relatively minor. Charge carriers play a key role in the transport properties and the surface chemistry of TiO2. Understanding their
Iron diffusion from first principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wann, E.; Ammann, M. W.; Vocadlo, L.; Wood, I. G.; Lord, O. T.; Brodholt, J. P.; Dobson, D. P.
2013-12-01
The cores of Earth and other terrestrial planets are made up largely of iron1 and it is therefore very important to understand iron's physical properties. Chemical diffusion is one such property and is central to many processes, such as crystal growth, and viscosity. Debate still surrounds the explanation for the seismologically observed anisotropy of the inner core2, and hypotheses include convection3, anisotropic growth4 and dendritic growth5, all of which depend on diffusion. In addition to this, the main deformation mechanism at the inner-outer core boundary is believed to be diffusion creep6. It is clear, therefore, that to gain a comprehensive understanding of the core, a thorough understanding of diffusion is necessary. The extremely high pressures and temperatures of the Earth's core make experiments at these conditions a challenge. Low-temperature and low-pressure experimental data must be extrapolated across a very wide gap to reach the relevant conditions, resulting in very poorly constrained values for diffusivity and viscosity. In addition to these dangers of extrapolation, preliminary results show that magnetisation plays a major role in the activation energies for diffusion at low pressures therefore creating a break down in homologous scaling to high pressures. First principles calculations provide a means of investigating diffusivity at core conditions, have already been shown to be in very good agreement with experiments7, and will certainly provide a better estimate for diffusivity than extrapolation. Here, we present first principles simulations of self-diffusion in solid iron for the FCC, BCC and HCP structures at core conditions in addition to low-temperature and low-pressure calculations relevant to experimental data. 1. Birch, F. Density and composition of mantle and core. Journal of Geophysical Research 69, 4377-4388 (1964). 2. Irving, J. C. E. & Deuss, A. Hemispherical structure in inner core velocity anisotropy. Journal of Geophysical
Polaron formation, native defects, and electronic conduction in metal tungstates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, Khang
2017-07-01
Iron tungstate (FeWO4 ) and manganese tungstate (MnWO4 ) belong to a family of wolframite-type materials that has applications in various areas, including supercapacitors, batteries, and multiferroics. A detailed understanding of bulk properties and defect physics in these transition-metal tungstates has been lacking, however, impeding possible improvement of their functional properties. Here, we report a first-principles study of FeWO4 and MnWO4 using screened hybrid density-functional calculations. We find that in both compounds the electronic structures near the band edges are predominantly the highly localized transition-metal d states, which allows for the formation of both hole polarons at the Fe (Mn) sites and electron polarons at the W sites. The dominant native point defects in FeWO4 (MnWO4 ) under realistic synthesis conditions are, however, the hole polarons at the Fe (Mn) sites and negatively charged Fe (Mn) vacancies. The presence of low-energy and highly mobile polarons provides an explanation for the good p -type conductivity observed in experiments and the ability of the materials to store energy via a pseudocapacitive mechanism.
Numerical Inductance Calculations Based on First Principles
Shatz, Lisa F.; Christensen, Craig W.
2014-01-01
A method of calculating inductances based on first principles is presented, which has the advantage over the more popular simulators in that fundamental formulas are explicitly used so that a deeper understanding of the inductance calculation is obtained with no need for explicit discretization of the inductor. It also has the advantage over the traditional method of formulas or table lookups in that it can be used for a wider range of configurations. It relies on the use of fast computers with a sophisticated mathematical computing language such as Mathematica to perform the required integration numerically so that the researcher can focus on the physics of the inductance calculation and not on the numerical integration. PMID:25402467
Phonon-phonon interactions: First principles theory
Gibbons, T. M.; Bebek, M. B.; Kang, By.; Stanley, C. M.; Estreicher, S. K.
2015-08-28
We present the details of a method to perform molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations without thermostat and with very small temperature fluctuations ±ΔT starting with MD step 1. It involves preparing the supercell at the time t = 0 in physically correct microstates using the eigenvectors of the dynamical matrix. Each initial microstate corresponds to a different distribution of kinetic and potential energies for each vibrational mode (the total energy of each microstate is the same). Averaging the MD runs over many initial microstates further reduces ΔT. The electronic states are obtained using first-principles theory (density-functional theory in periodic supercells). Three applications are discussed: the lifetime and decay of vibrational excitations, the isotope dependence of thermal conductivities, and the flow of heat at an interface.
Primordial Black Holes from First Principles (Overview)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Casey; Bloomfield, Jolyon; Moss, Zander; Russell, Megan; Face, Stephen; Guth, Alan
2017-01-01
Given a power spectrum from inflation, our goal is to calculate, from first principles, the number density and mass spectrum of primordial black holes that form in the early universe. Previously, these have been calculated using the Press- Schechter formalism and some demonstrably dubious rules of thumb regarding predictions of black hole collapse. Instead, we use Monte Carlo integration methods to sample field configurations from a power spectrum combined with numerical relativity simulations to obtain a more accurate picture of primordial black hole formation. We demonstrate how this can be applied for both Gaussian perturbations and the more interesting (for primordial black holes) theory of hybrid inflation. One of the tools that we employ is a variant of the BBKS formalism for computing the statistics of density peaks in the early universe. We discuss the issue of overcounting due to subpeaks that can arise from this approach (the ``cloud-in-cloud'' problem). MIT UROP Office- Paul E. Gray (1954) Endowed Fund.
Numerical inductance calculations based on first principles.
Shatz, Lisa F; Christensen, Craig W
2014-01-01
A method of calculating inductances based on first principles is presented, which has the advantage over the more popular simulators in that fundamental formulas are explicitly used so that a deeper understanding of the inductance calculation is obtained with no need for explicit discretization of the inductor. It also has the advantage over the traditional method of formulas or table lookups in that it can be used for a wider range of configurations. It relies on the use of fast computers with a sophisticated mathematical computing language such as Mathematica to perform the required integration numerically so that the researcher can focus on the physics of the inductance calculation and not on the numerical integration.
First-principles determination of magnetic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ruqian; Yang, Zongxian; Hong, Jisang
2003-02-01
First-principles density functional theory calculations have achieved great success in the exciting field of low-dimension magnetism, in explaining new phenomena observed in experiments as well as in predicting novel properties and materials. As known, spin-orbit coupling (SOC) plays an extremely important role in various magnetic properties such as magnetic anisotropy, magnetostriction, magneto-optical effects and spin-dynamics. Using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave approach, we have carried out extensive investigations for the effects of SOC in various materials. Results of selected examples, such as structure and magnetic properties of Ni/Cu(001), magnetism and magnetic anisotropy in magnetic Co/Cu(001) thin films, wires and clusters, magnetostriction in FeGa alloys and magneto-optical effects in Fe/Cr superlattices, are discussed.
First principles approach to ionicity of fragments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilania, Ghanshyam; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Valone, Steven M.
2015-02-01
We develop a first principles approach towards the ionicity of fragments. In contrast to the bond ionicity, the fragment ionicity refers to an electronic property of the constituents of a larger system, which may vary from a single atom to a functional group or a unit cell to a crystal. The fragment ionicity is quantitatively defined in terms of the coefficients of contributing charge states in a superposition of valence configurations of the system. Utilizing the constrained density functional theory-based computations, a practical method to compute the fragment ionicity from valence electron charge densities, suitably decomposed according to the Fragment Hamiltonian (FH) model prescription for those electron densities, is presented for the first time. The adopted approach is illustrated using BeO, MgO and CaO diatomic molecules as simple examples. The results are compared and discussed with respect to the bond ionicity scales of Phillips and Pauling.
Anisotropic Spin Hall Effect from First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy
2011-03-01
We present first principles calculations of the intrinsic non-dissipative spin Hall conductivity (SHC) for 3 d , 4 d and 5 d transition metals focusing in particular on the anisotropy of the SHC in nonmagnetic hcp metals and in antiferromagnetic Cr. For the metals of this study we generally find large anisotropies. We derive the general relation between the SHC vector and the direction of spin-polarization and discuss its consequences for hcp metals. Especially, it is predicted that for systems where the SHC changes sign due to the anisotropy the spin Hall effect may be tuned such that the spin polarization is parallel either to the electric field or to the spin current. Additionally, we describe our computational method [2,3] emphasizing the Wannier interpolation technique and the definition of the conserved spin current. This work is supported by the DFG Project MO 1731/3-1 and HGF-YIG grant VH-NG-513.
First-principles simulations of thiophene oligomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherlis, Damian; Marzari, Nicola
2003-03-01
Conducting polymers, extensively investigated for their use in electronic and nanotechnology applications, have recently gained prominence for their possible use as molecular actuators in mechanical and bioengineering devices. We have focused our efforts on thiophene-based compounds, a class of materials that can be designed for high stress generation and large linear displacement (actuation strain), ideally outperforming mammalian muscle. Key features for the development of these materials are the microscopic binding properties of thiophene and thiophene oligomers stacks, where applied electric fields lead to oxidation and enhanced pi-pi bonding. We have completed the structural studies of neutral and charged oligothiophene dimers, in the search for efficient dimerization mechanisms. A comparison between different density-functional and quantum-chemistry approaches is critically presented, as are solvation effects, described in this work with a combination of first-principles molecular dynamics and a QM/MM approach for the solvating medium.
Intrinsic ferroelectric switching from first principles.
Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M
2016-06-16
The existence of domain walls, which separate regions of different polarization, can influence the dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electronic properties of ferroelectric materials. In particular, domain-wall motion is crucial for polarization switching, which is characterized by the hysteresis loop that is a signature feature of ferroelectric materials. Experimentally, the observed dynamics of polarization switching and domain-wall motion are usually explained as the behaviour of an elastic interface pinned by a random potential that is generated by defects, which appear to be strongly sample-dependent and affected by various elastic, microstructural and other extrinsic effects. Theoretically, connecting the zero-kelvin, first-principles-based, microscopic quantities of a sample with finite-temperature, macroscopic properties such as the coercive field is critical for material design and device performance; and the lack of such a connection has prevented the use of techniques based on ab initio calculations for high-throughput computational materials discovery. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of 90° domain walls (separating domains with orthogonal polarization directions) in the ferroelectric material PbTiO3 to provide microscopic insights that enable the construction of a simple, universal, nucleation-and-growth-based analytical model that quantifies the dynamics of many types of domain walls in various ferroelectrics. We then predict the temperature and frequency dependence of hysteresis loops and coercive fields at finite temperatures from first principles. We find that, even in the absence of defects, the intrinsic temperature and field dependence of the domain-wall velocity can be described with a nonlinear creep-like region and a depinning-like region. Our model enables quantitative estimation of coercive fields, which agree well with experimental results for ceramics and thin films. This agreement between model and experiment suggests
Intrinsic ferroelectric switching from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.
2016-06-01
The existence of domain walls, which separate regions of different polarization, can influence the dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electronic properties of ferroelectric materials. In particular, domain-wall motion is crucial for polarization switching, which is characterized by the hysteresis loop that is a signature feature of ferroelectric materials. Experimentally, the observed dynamics of polarization switching and domain-wall motion are usually explained as the behaviour of an elastic interface pinned by a random potential that is generated by defects, which appear to be strongly sample-dependent and affected by various elastic, microstructural and other extrinsic effects. Theoretically, connecting the zero-kelvin, first-principles-based, microscopic quantities of a sample with finite-temperature, macroscopic properties such as the coercive field is critical for material design and device performance; and the lack of such a connection has prevented the use of techniques based on ab initio calculations for high-throughput computational materials discovery. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of 90° domain walls (separating domains with orthogonal polarization directions) in the ferroelectric material PbTiO3 to provide microscopic insights that enable the construction of a simple, universal, nucleation-and-growth-based analytical model that quantifies the dynamics of many types of domain walls in various ferroelectrics. We then predict the temperature and frequency dependence of hysteresis loops and coercive fields at finite temperatures from first principles. We find that, even in the absence of defects, the intrinsic temperature and field dependence of the domain-wall velocity can be described with a nonlinear creep-like region and a depinning-like region. Our model enables quantitative estimation of coercive fields, which agree well with experimental results for ceramics and thin films. This agreement between model and experiment suggests
First principles model of carbonate compaction creep
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keszthelyi, Daniel; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjørn
2016-05-01
Rocks under compressional stress conditions are subject to long-term creep deformation. From first principles we develop a simple micromechanical model of creep in rocks under compressional stress that combines microscopic fracturing and pressure solution. This model was then upscaled by a statistical mechanical approach to predict strain rate at core and reservoir scale. The model uses no fitting parameter and has few input parameters: effective stress, temperature, water saturation porosity, and material parameters. Material parameters are porosity, pore size distribution, Young's modulus, interfacial energy of wet calcite, the dissolution, and precipitation rates of calcite, and the diffusion rate of calcium carbonate, all of which are independently measurable without performing any type of deformation or creep test. Existing long-term creep experiments were used to test the model which successfully predicts the magnitude of the resulting strain rate under very different effective stress, temperature, and water saturation conditions. The model was used to predict the observed compaction of a producing chalk reservoir.
Transition Metal Nitrides: A First Principles Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Ashish; Singh, A. K.
2016-04-01
The present work describes the structural stability and electronic and mechanical properties of transition metal nitrides (TmNs: B1 cubic structure (cF8, Fm ‾ overline 3 m)) using first principles density functional theory (DFT) within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The lattice constant of TmNs increases with increasing the atomic radii of the transition metals. Stability of the TmNs decreases from IVB to VIB groups due to increase in formation energy/atom. The bonding characteristics of these nitrides have been explained based on electronic density of states and charge density. All the TmNs satisfy Born stability criteria in terms of elastic constants except CrN and MoN that do not exist in equilibrium binary phase diagrams. The groups IVB and V-VIB nitrides are associated with brittle and ductile behaviour based on G/B ratios, respectively. The estimated melting temperatures of these nitrides exhibit reasonably good agreement with calculated with B than those of the C11 for all nitrides.
Phonon Engineering in Metals from First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanzillo, Nicholas; Thomas, J.; Watson, E. B.; Washington, M.; Nayak, Saroj K.
2013-03-01
The electron-phonon interaction in metallic systems controls the electronic transport properties, including both electrical and thermal resistivity. The effect of compressive strain on the electron-phonon interaction in metals is investigated using first-principles density functional theory, and we propose various ways to ``engineer'' this interaction for various technological applications. In particular, we show that by applying compressive strain on the FCC crystals of Al, Cu, Ag and Au, the net electron-phonon scattering rate decreases and likewise the electrical resistivity decreases with increasing pressure. This trend is corroborated by experimental measurements of the resistance of a 0.5 mm diameter high-purity Al wire pressurized up to 2 GPa in a solid-media pressure apparatus at room temperature. The rate of the decrease in electrical resistivity as a function of pressure as determined by experiment is matched by the rate predicted by theory. Our simulations show that Al nanowires have the same response to strain as the bulk crystal; the net electron-phonon scattering can be reduced through compressive strain. Modifying the electron-phonon interaction in metallic structures shows great promise for future nano-electronic devices.
THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND FIRST-PRINCIPLES CALCULATIONS
Turchi, P; Abrikosov, I; Burton, B; Fries, S; Grimvall, G; Kaufman, L; Korzhavyi, P; Manga, R; Ohno, M; Pisch, A; Scott, A; Zhang, W
2005-12-15
The increased application of quantum mechanical-based methodologies to the study of alloy stability has required a re-assessment of the field. The focus is mainly on inorganic materials in the solid state. In a first part, after a brief overview of the so-called ab initio methods with their approximations, constraints, and limitations, recommendations are made for a good usage of first-principles codes with a set of qualifiers. Examples are given to illustrate the power and the limitations of ab initio codes. However, despite the ''success'' of these methodologies, thermodynamics of complex multi-component alloys, as used in engineering applications, requires a more versatile approach presently afforded within CALPHAD. Hence, in a second part, the links that presently exist between ab initio methodologies, experiments, and CALPHAD approach are examined with illustrations. Finally, the issues of dynamical instability and of the role of lattice vibrations that still constitute the subject of ample discussions within the CALPHAD community are revisited in the light of the current knowledge with a set of recommendations.
Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI) Cost Model
Mary Alice Price
2010-07-11
The Nevada Test Site (NTS) began operating Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) under the Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based and cost-effective program, in December 2006. The NTS SFPI Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Systems (COMPASS) Model is made up of specific elements (MC&A plan, graded safeguards, accounting systems, measurements, containment, surveillance, physical inventories, shipper/receiver differences, assessments/performance tests) and various sub-elements, which are each assigned effectiveness and contribution factors that when weighted and rated reflect the health of the MC&A program. The MC&A Cost Model, using an Excel workbook, calculates budget and/or actual costs using these same elements/sub-elements resulting in total costs and effectiveness costs per element/sub-element. These calculations allow management to identify how costs are distributed for each element/sub-element. The Cost Model, as part of the SFPI program review process, enables management to determine if spending is appropriate for each element/sub-element.
Thermodynamics of magnetic systems from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eisenbach, Markus; Brown, Gregory; Rusanu, Aurelian; Nicholson, Don M.
2012-02-01
Density functional calculations have proven to be a useful tool in the study of ground state properties of many materials. The investigation of finite temperature magnetism on the other hand has to rely usually on the usage of empirical models that allow the large number of evaluations of the system's Hamiltonian that are required to obtain the phase space sampling needed to obtain the free energy, specific heat, magnetization, susceptibility, and other quantities as function of temperature. We have demonstrated a solution to this problem that harnesses the computational power of today's large massively parallel computers by combining a classical Monte-Carlo calculations with our first principles multiple scattering electronic structure code (LSMS) for constrained magnetic states. Here we will present recent advances in our method that improve the convergence as well as applications to 3d element based ferromagnets. This research was performed at Oak Ridge National Lab and sponsored in parts by the Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Scientific User Facilities Division, the Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and the Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Science of
First-principles calculations of novel materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jifeng
Computational material simulation is becoming more and more important as a branch of material science. Depending on the scale of the systems, there are many simulation methods, i.e. first-principles calculation (or ab-initio), molecular dynamics, mesoscale methods and continuum methods. Among them, first-principles calculation, which involves density functional theory (DFT) and based on quantum mechanics, has become to be a reliable tool in condensed matter physics. DFT is a single-electron approximation in solving the many-body problems. Intrinsically speaking, both DFT and ab-initio belong to the first-principles calculation since the theoretical background of ab-initio is Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation and both are aimed at solving the Schrodinger equation of the many-body system using the self-consistent field (SCF) method and calculating the ground state properties. The difference is that DFT introduces parameters either from experiments or from other molecular dynamic (MD) calculations to approximate the expressions of the exchange-correlation terms. The exchange term is accurately calculated but the correlation term is neglected in HF. In this dissertation, DFT based first-principles calculations were performed for all the novel materials and interesting materials introduced. Specifically, the DFT theory together with the rationale behind related properties (e.g. electronic, optical, defect, thermoelectric, magnetic) are introduced in Chapter 2. Starting from Chapter 3 to Chapter 5, several representative materials were studied. In particular, a new semiconducting oxytelluride, Ba2TeO is studied in Chapter 3. Our calculations indicate a direct semiconducting character with a band gap value of 2.43 eV, which agrees well with the optical experiment (˜ 2.93 eV). Moreover, the optical and defects properties of Ba2TeO are also systematically investigated with a view to understanding its potential as an optoelectronic or transparent conducting material. We find
Dipole strength from first principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miorelli, Mirko; Bacca, Sonia; Barnea, Nir; Hagen, Gaute; Jansen, Gustav R.; Papenbrock, Thomas; Orlandini, Giuseppina
2016-09-01
The electric dipole polarizability quantifies the low-energy behavior of the dipole strength. It is related to the proton and neutron distributions of the nucleus, and thereby can be used to constrain the neutron equation of state and the physics of neutron stars. Only recently however, new developments in ab initio methods finally allowed first principles studies of the dipole strength in medium-mass nuclei. Using the Lorentz integral transform coupled cluster method with the newly developed chiral interaction NNLOsat we study the low energy behavior of the dipole strength in 4He, 16O and 22O. For the exotic 22O we observe large contributions to the dipole strength at very low energy, indicating the presence of a pygmy dipole resonance, in agreement with what experimentally found by Leistenschneider et al.. We then study correlations between the electric dipole polarizability and the charge radius in 16O and 40Ca using a variety of realistic Hamiltonians, showing the importance of three-nucleon forces. We aknowledge NRC and NSERC.
High Pressure Hydrogen from First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, M. A.
2014-12-01
Typical approximations employed in first-principles simulations of high-pressure hydrogen involve the neglect of nuclear quantum effects (NQE) and the approximate treatment of electronic exchange and correlation, typically through a density functional theory (DFT) formulation. In this talk I'll present a detailed analysis of the influence of these approximations on the phase diagram of high-pressure hydrogen, with the goal of identifying the predictive capabilities of current methods and, at the same time, making accurate predictions in this important regime. We use a path integral formulation combined with density functional theory, which allows us to incorporate NQEs in a direct and controllable way. In addition, we use state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo calculations to benchmark the accuracy of more approximate mean-field electronic structure calculations based on DFT, and we use GW and hybrid DFT to calculate the optical properties of the solid and liquid phases near metallization. We present accurate predictions of the metal-insulator transition on the solid, including structural and optical properties of the molecular phase. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by LDRD Grant No. 13-LW-004.
First Principles Quantitative Modeling of Molecular Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Zhanyu
In this thesis, we report theoretical investigations of nonlinear and nonequilibrium quantum electronic transport properties of molecular transport junctions from atomistic first principles. The aim is to seek not only qualitative but also quantitative understanding of the corresponding experimental data. At present, the challenges to quantitative theoretical work in molecular electronics include two most important questions: (i) what is the proper atomic model for the experimental devices? (ii) how to accurately determine quantum transport properties without any phenomenological parameters? Our research is centered on these questions. We have systematically calculated atomic structures of the molecular transport junctions by performing total energy structural relaxation using density functional theory (DFT). Our quantum transport calculations were carried out by implementing DFT within the framework of Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF). The calculated data are directly compared with the corresponding experimental measurements. Our general conclusion is that quantitative comparison with experimental data can be made if the device contacts are correctly determined. We calculated properties of nonequilibrium spin injection from Ni contacts to octane-thiolate films which form a molecular spintronic system. The first principles results allow us to establish a clear physical picture of how spins are injected from the Ni contacts through the Ni-molecule linkage to the molecule, why tunnel magnetoresistance is rapidly reduced by the applied bias in an asymmetric manner, and to what extent ab initio transport theory can make quantitative comparisons to the corresponding experimental data. We found that extremely careful sampling of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone of the Ni surface is crucial for accurate results in such a spintronic system. We investigated the role of contact formation and its resulting structures to quantum transport in several molecular
Metal decorated graphdiyne: A first principle study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayebi, Payman; Zaminpayma, Esmaeil
2017-09-01
In this work, we performed first principles calculations based on self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding to investigate mechanical and electronic properties of the optimized graphdiyne sheet, nanoribbons and transition metal decorated with Ag, Fe and Co atoms in the different sites. Then we calculated electronic properties of the graphdiyne sheet under uniaxial elastic strain in two different crystal directions. It is shown that the carbon bond length values for the graphdiyne structure are agreeable with experimental and other theoretical values. Our results show that the charge transferred to the graphdiyne from Ag and Fe atoms but to the Co decorated charge transferred to the Co atom from the graphdiyne. From the results, it can be seen that the graphdiyne is a direct semiconductor with doubly degenerated for both the valence band maximum and the conduction band minimum in the 6C hole site. Also, by Metal decorated of the graphdiyne, the structures become also direct semiconductor for the Ag decorated and indirect for Co and Fe decorated for the 6C- hole, top and bridge sites while the structure have metallic behavior for the 18C- hole site. Our results from the band structure of the GDY nanoribbons with the size of N = 1, 2, 3 and 4, indicate that all of them are nonzero band gaps at the Γ point. It can be seen that the energy gap decreases with increasing of nanoribbons size. Finally, we found that the gap energy increase with applying strain and also the structure remain direct semiconductor.
Transversity from First Principles in QCD
Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins
2012-02-16
Transversity observables, such as the T-odd Sivers single-spin asymmetry measured in deep inelastic lepton scattering on polarized protons and the distributions which are measured in deeply virtual Compton scattering, provide important constraints on the fundamental quark and gluon structure of the proton. In this talk I discuss the challenge of computing these observables from first principles; i.e.; quantum chromodynamics, itself. A key step is the determination of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions (LFWFs) of hadrons - the QCD eigensolutions which are analogs of the Schroedinger wavefunctions of atomic physics. The lensing effects of initial-state and final-state interactions, acting on LFWFs with different orbital angular momentum, lead to T-odd transversity observables such as the Sivers, Collins, and Boer-Mulders distributions. The lensing effect also leads to leading-twist phenomena which break leading-twist factorization such as the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions. A similar rescattering mechanism also leads to diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing. It is thus important to distinguish 'static' structure functions, the probability distributions computed the target hadron's light-front wavefunctions, versus 'dynamical' structure functions which include the effects of initial- and final-state rescattering. I also discuss related effects such as the J = 0 fixed pole contribution which appears in the real part of the virtual Compton amplitude. AdS/QCD, together with 'Light-Front Holography', provides a simple Lorentz-invariant color-confining approximation to QCD which is successful in accounting for light-quark meson and baryon spectroscopy as well as hadronic LFWFs.
First principles investigation of substituted strontium hexaferrite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixit, Vivek
This dissertation investigates how the magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite change upon the substitution of foreign atoms at the Fe sites. Strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12O19, is a commonly used hard magnetic material and is produced in large quantities (around 500,000 tons per year). For different applications of strontium hexaferrite, its magnetic properties can be tuned by a proper substitution of the foreign atoms. Experimental screening for a proper substitution is a cost-intensive and time-consuming process, whereas computationally it can be done more efficiently. We used the 'density functional theory' a first principles based method to study substituted strontium hexaferrite. The site occupancies of the substituted atoms were estimated by calculating the substitution energies of different configurations. The formation probabilities of configurations were used to calculate the magnetic properties of substituted strontium hexaferrite. In the first study, Al-substituted strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-x AlxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. It was found that at the annealing temperature the non-magnetic Al +3 ions preferentially replace Fe+3 ions from the 12 k and 2a sites. We found that the magnetization decreases and the magnetic anisotropy field increases as the fraction, x of the Al atoms increases. In the second study, SrFe12-xGaxO19 and SrFe12-xInxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. In the case of SrFe12-xGaxO19, the sites where Ga+3 ions prefer to enter are: 12 k, 2a, and 4f1. For SrFe12-xInxO19, In+3 ions most likely to occupy the 12k, 4f1 , and 4f2 sites. In both cases the magnetization was found to decrease slightly as the fraction of substituted atom increases. The magnetic anisotropy field increased for SrFe12-xGaxO 19, and decreased for SrFe12-xInxO19 as the concentration of substituted atoms increased. In the third study, 23 elements (M) were screened for their possible substitution in strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-xMxO 19
Electronic absorption spectra from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazra, Anirban
Methods for simulating electronic absorption spectra of molecules from first principles (i.e., without any experimental input, using quantum mechanics) are developed and compared. The electronic excitation and photoelectron spectra of ethylene are simulated, using the EOM-CCSD method for the electronic structure calculations. The different approaches for simulating spectra are broadly of two types---Frank-Condon (FC) approaches and vibronic coupling approaches. For treating the vibrational motion, the former use the Born-Oppenheimer or single surface approximation while the latter do not. Moreover, in our FC approaches the vibrational Hamiltonian is additively separable along normal mode coordinates, while in vibronic approaches a model Hamiltonian (obtained from ab initio electronic structure theory) provides an intricate coupling between both normal modes and electronic states. A method called vertical FC is proposed, where in accord with the short-time picture of molecular spectroscopy, the approximate excited-state potential energy surface that is used to calculate the electronic spectrum is taken to reproduce the ab initio potential at the ground-state equilibrium geometry. The potential energy surface along normal modes may be treated either in the harmonic approximation or using the full one-dimensional potential. Systems with highly anharmonic potential surfaces can be treated and expensive geometry optimizations are not required, unlike the traditional FC approach. The ultraviolet spectrum of ethylene between 6.2 and 8.7 eV is simulated using vertical FC. While FC approaches for simulation are computationally very efficient, they are not accurate when the underlying approximations are unreasonable. Then, vibronic coupling model Hamiltonians are necessary. Since these Hamiltonians have an analytic form, they are used to map the potential energy surfaces and understand their topology. Spectra are obtained by numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonians. The
First Principles Atomistic Model for Carbon-Doped Boron Suboxide
2014-09-01
First Principles Atomistic Model for Carbon-Doped Boron Suboxide by Amol B Rahane, Jennifer S Dunn, and Vijay Kumar ARL-TR-7106...2014 First Principles Atomistic Model for Carbon-Doped Boron Suboxide Amol B Rahane Dr Vijay Kumar Foundation 1969 Sector 4 Gurgaon...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2013–July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE First Principles Atomistic Model for Carbon-Doped Boron Suboxide
Designing Interactive Learning Environments: An Approach from First Principles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Bernard; Cong, Chunyu
2007-01-01
Purpose: Today's technology supports the design of more and more sophisticated interactive learning environments. This paper aims to argue that such design should develop from first principles. Design/methodology/approach: In the paper by first principles is meant: learning theory and principles of course design. These principles are briefly…
Materials Databases Infrastructure Constructed by First Principles Calculations: A Review
Lin, Lianshan
2015-10-13
The First Principles calculations, especially the calculation based on High-Throughput Density Functional Theory, have been widely accepted as the major tools in atom scale materials design. The emerging super computers, along with the powerful First Principles calculations, have accumulated hundreds of thousands of crystal and compound records. The exponential growing of computational materials information urges the development of the materials databases, which not only provide unlimited storage for the daily increasing data, but still keep the efficiency in data storage, management, query, presentation and manipulation. This review covers the most cutting edge materials databases in materials design, and their hot applications such as in fuel cells. By comparing the advantages and drawbacks of these high-throughput First Principles materials databases, the optimized computational framework can be identified to fit the needs of fuel cell applications. The further development of high-throughput DFT materials database, which in essence accelerates the materials innovation, is discussed in the summary as well.
Prediction on technetium triboride from first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Xiaojia; Xing, Wandong; Meng, Fanyan; Yu, Rong
2017-02-01
Taking the Tc-B binary system as an example, here we report the first-principles prediction on new phases of technetium borides, TcB3, which has an unprecedented stoichiometry. Crystal structures, phase stability, electronic properties and mechanical properties of TcB3 have been investigated using first-principles calculations. The hexagonal P 6 bar m 2 structure (No.187) TcB3 with a high value of hardness (29 GPa) is energetically stable against decomposition into other compounds under pressures above 4 GPa, indicating that TcB3 can be synthesized above this pressure.
Fermions in d = 1 + 2 dimensions from first principles
Carrillo-Ruiz, Ma. Georgina; Napsuciale, Mauro
2006-09-25
In this work we construct states describing planar electrons ('spin' (1/2) particles with well defined parity) in d = 1 + 2 from first principles and show that they satisfy Dirac equation, which turns out to be the covariant form of the eigenvalue equation for spatial inversion (parity) just like in d = 1 + 3.
First principles calculation of two dimensional antimony and antimony arsenide
Pillai, Sharad Babu Narayan, Som; Jha, Prafulla K.; Dabhi, Shweta D.
2016-05-23
This work focuses on the strain dependence of the electronic properties of two dimensional antimony (Sb) material and its alloy with As (SbAs) using density functional theory based first principles calculations. Both systems show indirect bandgap semiconducting character which can be transformed into a direct bandgap material with the application of relatively small strain.
Diagnosis: Reasoning from first principles and experiential knowledge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Linda J. F.; Lawler, Dennis G.
1987-01-01
Completeness, efficiency and autonomy are requirements for suture diagnostic reasoning systems. Methods for automating diagnostic reasoning systems include diagnosis from first principles (i.e., reasoning from a thorough description of structure and behavior) and diagnosis from experiential knowledge (i.e., reasoning from a set of examples obtained from experts). However, implementation of either as a single reasoning method fails to meet these requirements. The approach of combining reasoning from first principles and reasoning from experiential knowledge does address the requirements discussed above and can possibly ease some of the difficulties associated with knowledge acquisition by allowing developers to systematically enumerate a portion of the knowledge necessary to build the diagnosis program. The ability to enumerate knowledge systematically facilitates defining the program's scope, completeness, and competence and assists in bounding, controlling, and guiding the knowledge acquisition process.
First-principles quantum chemistry in the life sciences.
van Mourik, Tanja
2004-12-15
The area of computational quantum chemistry, which applies the principles of quantum mechanics to molecular and condensed systems, has developed drastically over the last decades, due to both increased computer power and the efficient implementation of quantum chemical methods in readily available computer programs. Because of this, accurate computational techniques can now be applied to much larger systems than before, bringing the area of biochemistry within the scope of electronic-structure quantum chemical methods. The rapid pace of progress of quantum chemistry makes it a very exciting research field; calculations that are too computationally expensive today may be feasible in a few months' time! This article reviews the current application of 'first-principles' quantum chemistry in biochemical and life sciences research, and discusses its future potential. The current capability of first-principles quantum chemistry is illustrated in a brief examination of computational studies on neurotransmitters, helical peptides, and DNA complexes.
First-principles modeling of electrostatically doped perovskite systems.
Stengel, Massimiliano
2011-04-01
Macroscopically, confined electron gases at polar oxide interfaces are rationalized within the simple "polar catastrophe" model. At the microscopic level, however, many other effects such as electric fields, structural distortions and quantum-mechanical interactions enter into play. Here, we show how to bridge the gap between these two length scales, by combining the accuracy of first-principles methods with the conceptual simplicity of model Hamiltonian approaches. To demonstrate our strategy, we address the equilibrium distribution of the compensating free carriers at polar LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) interfaces. Remarkably, a model including only calculated bulk properties of SrTiO(3) and no adjustable parameters accurately reproduces our full first-principles results. Our strategy provides a unified description of charge compensation mechanisms in SrTiO(3)-based systems.
Hybrid first-principles/neural networks model for column flotation
Gupta, S.; Liu, P.H.; Svoronos, S.A.; Sharma, R.; Abdel-Khalek, N.A.; Cheng, Y.; El-Shall, H.
1999-03-01
A new model for phosphate column flotation is presented which for the first time relates the effects of operating variables such as frother concentration on column performance. This is a hybrid model that combines a first-principles model with artificial neural networks. The first-principles model is obtained from material balances on both phosphate particles and gangue (undesired material containing mostly silica). First-order rates of net attachment are assumed for both. Artificial neural networks relate the attachment rate constants to the operating variables. Experiments were conducted in a 6-in.-dia. (152-mm-dia.) laboratory column to provide data for neural network training and model validation. The model successfully predicts the effects of frother concentration, particle size, air flow rate and bubble diameter on grade and recovery.
First-principles modeling of hard and soft matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Car, Roberto
2013-03-01
Electronic and atomistic processes are key to bio-inspired functional materials and nanocatalysts for energy applications. This talk will review recent simulation studies and discuss the challenges that first-principles quantum mechanical approaches face when addressing these issues. Supported by DOE-DE-FG02-06ER-46344, DOE-DE-SC0008626, DOE-DE-SC0005180, and NSF-CHE-0956500.
Configurational thermodynamics of alloys from first principles: effective cluster interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruban, A. V.; Abrikosov, I. A.
2008-04-01
Phase equilibria in alloys to a great extent are governed by the ordering behavior of alloy species. One of the important goals of alloy theory is therefore to be able to simulate these kinds of phenomena on the basis of first principles. Unfortunately, it is impossible, even with present day total energy software, to calculate entirely from first principles the changes in the internal energy caused by changes of the atomic configurations in systems with several thousand atoms at the rate required by statistical thermodynamics simulations. The time-honored solution to this problem that we shall review in this paper is to obtain the configurational energy needed in the simulations from an Ising-type Hamiltonian with so-called effective cluster interactions associated with specific changes in the local atomic configuration. Finding accurate and reliable effective cluster interactions, which take into consideration all relevant thermal excitations, on the basis of first-principles methods is a formidable task. However, it pays off by opening new exciting perspectives and possibilities for materials science as well as for physics itself. In this paper we outline the basic principles and methods for calculating effective cluster interactions in metallic alloys. Special attention is paid to the source of errors in different computational schemes. We briefly review first-principles methods concentrating on approximations used in density functional theory calculations, Green's function method and methods for random alloys based on the coherent potential approximation. We formulate criteria for the validity of the supercell approach in the calculations of properties of random alloys. The generalized perturbation method, which is an effective and accurate tool for obtaining cluster interactions, is described in more detail. Concentrating mostly on the methodological side we give only a few examples of applications to the real systems. In particular, we show that the ground
First principles study of ``111'' type iron arsenide superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murugan, A.; Kanagaprabha, S.; Palanichamy, R. Rajeswara
2013-06-01
First principles calculations are performed using Tight-binding LMTO method with Local density approximation (LDA) and Atomic sphere approximation (ASA) to understand the electronic properties of of iron arsenide compounds. The estimated superconducting transition temperature (Tc) for LiFeAs and NaFeAs are ˜18K, ˜26K respectively and is in agreement with the experimental value. The pressure dependence of superconducting transition temperature is also investigated.
Predictions of the Properties of Water from First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bukowski, Robert; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; van der Avoird, Ad
2007-03-01
A force field for water has been developed entirely from first principles, without any fitting to experimental data. It contains both pairwise and many-body interactions. This force field predicts the properties of the water dimer and of liquid water in excellent agreement with experiments, a previously elusive objective. Precise knowledge of the intermolecular interactions in water will facilitate a better understanding of this ubiquitous substance.
Materials Databases Infrastructure Constructed by First Principles Calculations: A Review
Lin, Lianshan
2015-10-13
The First Principles calculations, especially the calculation based on High-Throughput Density Functional Theory, have been widely accepted as the major tools in atom scale materials design. The emerging super computers, along with the powerful First Principles calculations, have accumulated hundreds of thousands of crystal and compound records. The exponential growing of computational materials information urges the development of the materials databases, which not only provide unlimited storage for the daily increasing data, but still keep the efficiency in data storage, management, query, presentation and manipulation. This review covers the most cutting edge materials databases in materials design, and their hotmore » applications such as in fuel cells. By comparing the advantages and drawbacks of these high-throughput First Principles materials databases, the optimized computational framework can be identified to fit the needs of fuel cell applications. The further development of high-throughput DFT materials database, which in essence accelerates the materials innovation, is discussed in the summary as well.« less
Evolutionary approach for determining first-principles hamiltonians.
Hart, Gus L W; Blum, Volker; Walorski, Michael J; Zunger, Alex
2005-05-01
Modern condensed-matter theory from first principles is highly successful when applied to materials of given structure-type or restricted unit-cell size. But this approach is limited where large cells or searches over millions of structure types become necessary. To treat these with first-principles accuracy, one 'coarse-grains' the many-particle Schrodinger equation into 'model hamiltonians' whose variables are configurational order parameters (atomic positions, spin and so on), connected by a few 'interaction parameters' obtained from a microscopic theory. But to construct a truly quantitative model hamiltonian, one must know just which types of interaction parameters to use, from possibly 10(6)-10(8) alternative selections. Here we show how genetic algorithms, mimicking biological evolution ('survival of the fittest'), can be used to distil reliable model hamiltonian parameters from a database of first-principles calculations. We demonstrate this for a classic dilemma in solid-state physics, structural inorganic chemistry and metallurgy: how to predict the stable crystal structure of a compound given only its composition. The selection of leading parameters based on a genetic algorithm is general and easily applied to construct any other type of complex model hamiltonian from direct quantum-mechanical results.
Morphology Tuning of Strontium Tungstate Nanoparticles
Joseph, S.; George, T.; George, K. C.; Sunny, A. T.; Mathew, S.
2007-08-22
Strontium tungstate nanocrystals in two different morphologies are successfully synthesized by controlled precipitation in aqueous and in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) medium. Structural characterizations are carried out by XRD and SEM. The average particle size calculated for the SrWO4 prepared in the two different solvents ranges 20-24 nm. The SEM pictures show that the surface morphologies of the SrWO4 nanoparticles in aqueous medium resemble mushroom and the SrWO4 nanoparticles in PVA medium resemble cauliflower. Investigations on the room temperature luminescent properties of the strontium tungstate nanoparticles prepared in aqueous and PVA medium shows strong emissions around 425 nm.
A high-resolution tungstate membrane label
Hainfeld, J.F.; Quaite, F.E. ); Lipka, J.J. )
1990-01-01
A new class of membrane labels was synthesized which contain a tungstate cluster (having 11 tungsten atoms) and an aliphatic organo-tin moiety with various chain lengths (C{sub 4}, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, C{sub 18}, C{sub 22}). These molecules were found to insert into synthetic phospholipid vesicles and biological membranes (human red blood cell membranes). The tungstate clusters can be individually visualized in the high resolution STEM or seen en mass in thin-sectioned labeled membranes in the CTEM. These new labels should provide a means for direct high-resolution imaging of lipid-phase systems.
Diffusion in thorium carbide: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.
2015-12-01
The prediction of the behavior of Th compounds under irradiation is an important issue for the upcoming Generation-IV nuclear reactors. The study of self-diffusion and hetero-diffusion is a central key to fulfill this goal. As a first approach, we obtained, by means of first-principles methods, migration and activation energies of Th and C atoms self-diffusion and diffusion of He atoms in ThC. We also calculate diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature.
Error propagation in first-principles kinetic Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Döpking, Sandra; Matera, Sebastian
2017-04-01
First-principles kinetic Monte Carlo models allow for the modeling of catalytic surfaces with predictive quality. This comes at the price of non-negligible errors induced by the underlying approximate density functional calculation. On the example of CO oxidation on RuO2(110), we demonstrate a novel, efficient approach to global sensitivity analysis, with which we address the error propagation in these multiscale models. We find, that we can still derive the most important atomistic factors for reactivity, albeit the errors in the simulation results are sizable. The presented approach might also be applied in the hierarchical model construction or computational catalyst screening.
Hardness of covalent and ionic crystals: first-principle calculations.
Simůnek, Antonín; Vackár, Jirí
2006-03-03
A new concept, the strength of bond, and a new form expressing the hardness of covalent and ionic crystals are presented. Hardness is expressed by means of quantities inherently coupled to the atomistic structure of matter, and, therefore, hardness can be determined by first-principles calculations. Good agreement between theory and experiment is observed in the range of 2 orders of magnitude. It is shown that a lower coordination number of atoms results in higher hardness, contrary to common opinion presented in general literature.
First-Principles Study of the Elastic Properties of Nitrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korabel'nikov, D. V.; Zhuravlev, Yu. N.
2017-04-01
Elastic properties of nitrates LiNO3, NaNO3, KNO3 and NH4NO3 are studied from first principles in gradient approximation of the density functional theory by method of linear combination of atomic orbitals using CRYSTAL software complex. Elastic constants and modules, hardness, Poisson coefficient, and anisotropy parameters are calculated. Sound velocity, Debye temperature, thermal conductivity and Gruneisen parameter are evaluated. Mechanical stability, anisotropy and the series dependencies are shown for the examined compounds. Strong elastic anisotropy indicates anisotropy of interatomic interactions. The elastic constants are in good agreement with available experimental data.
First-Principles Calculation of forces and phonons in solid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Zhenhua; Shelton, William
We have developed a multiple scattering theory approach to calculate Hellmann-Feynman forces and phonons via the calculation of the force constant and dynamical matrix. To demonstrate the accuracy and validity of our approach we compare with the ELK code, which is a full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FLAPW) based method. As we will show our forces and phonon dispersion curves are in good agreement with the FLAPW code. This work lays the foundation for developing a first principles approach for calculation of phonons in substitutionally disordered materials.
First-principles study of blue silicate phosphors.
Ishida, M; Imanari, Y; Isobe, T; Kuze, S; Ezuhara, T; Umeda, T; Ohno, K; Miyazaki, S
2010-09-29
First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the optical property of blue silicate phosphor, CMS:Eu. The optical absorption property is discussed based on electronic band structure and density of states. Our calculation results indicate that hybridization of the wavefunction plays an important role for nonradiative migration of electrons and holes. The calculated optical absorption spectrum could reproduce the optical features of the experimental excitation spectrum. It is also demonstrated that a practical approach using computational materials screening is effective in phosphor materials development.
First-principles study of transition metal carbides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connétable, Damien
2016-12-01
This study investigates the physical properties of transition metal carbides compounds associated with the Nb-C, Ti-C, Mo-C and W-C alloys systems using first-principles calculations. The ground-state properties (lattice parameters, cohesive energies and magnetism) were analyzed and compared to the experimental and theoretical literature. The simulations are in excellent agreement with experimental findings concerning atomic positions and structures. Elastic properties, computed using a finite-differences approach, are then discussed in detail. To complete the work, their lattice dynamics properties (phonon spectra) were investigated. These results serve to establish that some structures, which are mechanically stable, are dynamically unstable.
Derivation of instanton rate theory from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Jeremy O.
2016-03-01
Instanton rate theory is used to study tunneling events in a wide range of systems including low-temperature chemical reactions. Despite many successful applications, the method has never been obtained from first principles, relying instead on the "Im F" premise. In this paper, the same expression for the rate of barrier penetration at finite temperature is rederived from quantum scattering theory [W. H. Miller, S. D. Schwartz, and J. W. Tromp, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 4889 (1983)] using a semiclassical Green's function formalism. This justifies the instanton approach and provides a route to deriving the rate of other processes.
First principle study of PEO-AgI polymer systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, B. Keshav; Verma, Mohan L.
2017-07-01
First principle calculations based on density functional theory is performed to analyze cation (Ag+) conductivity in polyethylene oxide (PEO) based systems. The relaxed polymer structures are simulated, bond lengths and the charge density distributions around interacting atoms provides the strong bonding nature between higher electro-negative oxygen and silver atoms. Projected density of states and density of states explain s-p hybridization between orbitals, to increase in cation concentration in polymer systems, to reduce in the forbidden energy gap and to increase the ionic conductivity due to gradual increase the number of dispersing AgI molecules in polymer systems.
First principles pseudopotential calculations on aluminum and aluminum alloys
Davenport, J.W.; Chetty, N.; Marr, R.B.; Narasimhan, S.; Pasciak, J.E.; Peierls, R.F.; Weinert, M.
1993-12-31
Recent advances in computational techniques have led to the possibility of performing first principles calculations of the energetics of alloy formation on systems involving several hundred atoms. This includes impurity concentrations in the 1% range as well as realistic models of disordered materials (including liquids), vacancies, and grain boundaries. The new techniques involve the use of soft, fully nonlocal pseudopotentials, iterative diagonalization, and parallel computing algorithms. This approach has been pioneered by Car and Parrinello. Here the authors give a review of recent results using parallel and serial algorithms on metallic systems including liquid aluminum and liquid sodium, and also new results on vacancies in aluminum and on aluminum-magnesium alloys.
Transition metal doped arsenene: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Minglei; Wang, Sake; Du, Yanhui; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng
2016-12-01
Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of 3d transition metal (TM) atoms substitutional doping of an arsenene monolayer. Based on the binding energy, the TM-substituted arsenene systems were found to be robust. Magnetic states were obtained for Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Fe doping. More importantly, a half-metallic state resulted from Ti and Mn doping, while the spin-polarized semiconducting state occurred with V, Cr and Fe doping. Our studies demonstrated the potential applications of TM-substituted arsenene for spintronics and magnetic storage devices.
Large impurity effects in rubrene crystals: First-principles calculations
Tsetseris, L.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.
2008-01-01
Carrier mobilities of rubrene films are among the highest values reported for any organic semiconductor. Here, we probe with first-principles calculations the sensitivity of rubrene crystals on impurities. We find that isolated oxygen impurities create distinct peaks in the electronic density of states consistent with observations of defect levels in rubrene and that increased O content changes the position and shape of rubrene energy bands significantly. We also establish a dual role of hydrogen as individual H species and H impurity pairs create and annihilate deep carrier traps, respectively. The results are relevant to the performance and reliability of rubrene-based devices.
Value of first principles and phenomenological modeling in mineral processing
Concha, F.
1995-12-31
There is confusion in naming the several models developed in Mineral Processing. The authors often hear of empirical, first principle, mechanistic and phenomenological models. The objective of this paper is to clarify and distinguish between these models, based on a philosophical and linguistic analysis. A state of the art review for mathematical modeling in Mineral Processing is also made. The advantage of considering Mineral Processing as a series of unit operations was recognized by Gaudin a long time ago. He divided the area into four unit operations: (1) comminution, (2) classification, (3) concentration and (4) dewatering.
Collective modes in light nuclei from first principles.
Dytrych, T; Launey, K D; Draayer, J P; Maris, P; Vary, J P; Saule, E; Catalyurek, U; Sosonkina, M; Langr, D; Caprio, M A
2013-12-20
Results for ab initio no-core shell model calculations in a symmetry-adapted SU(3)-based coupling scheme demonstrate that collective modes in light nuclei emerge from first principles. The low-lying states of 6Li, 8Be, and 6He are shown to exhibit orderly patterns that favor spatial configurations with strong quadrupole deformation and complementary low intrinsic spin values, a picture that is consistent with the nuclear symplectic model. The results also suggest a pragmatic path forward to accommodate deformation-driven collective features in ab initio analyses when they dominate the nuclear landscape.
First-principles study of Frenkel pair recombination in tungsten
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Shi-Yao; Jin, Shuo; Li, Yu-Hao; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong
2017-02-01
The recombination of one Frenkel pair in tungsten has been investigated through first-principles simulation. Two different recombination types have been identified: instantaneous and thermally activated. The small recombination barriers for thermally activated recombination cases indicate that recombination can occur easily with a slightly increased temperature. For both of the two recombination types, recombination occurs through the self-interstitial atom moving towards the vacancy. The recombination process can be direct or through replacement sequences, depending on the vertical distance between the vacancy and the <1 1 1> line of self-interstitial atom pair.
First-principles molecular dynamics of metals: A Lagrangian formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stengel, Massimiliano; de Vita, Alessandro
2000-12-01
A set of first-principles molecular-dynamics equations of motion involving fractional orbital occupations is derived from a rotationally invariant time-independent Lagrangian function. All velocity-dependent force terms can be removed from these equations by introducing an additional time-dependent term in the Lagrangian. The resulting scheme is formally equivalent to a recently proposed scheme [J. YandeVondele and A. DeVita, Phys. Rev. B 60, 13 241 (1999)], which is thus put on a firmer theoretical basis, and completed by a constant of motion resulting from the analytical expression of energy conservation.
Thermoelastic properties of random alloys from first-principles theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, L.; Vitos, L.; Kwon, S. K.; Johansson, B.; Ahuja, R.
2006-03-01
We present a first-principles description of the temperature-dependent elastic constants in random alloys. The substitutional disorder is treated using the coherent potential approximation implemented within the frameworks of exact muffin-tin orbitals theory. The temperature effects are approximated as the sum of electronic and thermal expansion contributions. Calculations on pure Nb demonstrate that this approach correctly accounts for the main temperature dependence of cubic elastic constants. When extended to Nb-Zr solid solution, the theoretical results show good agreement with experiments at temperatures ≲300K .
First-Principles Simulations of Armchair-Edge Graphene Nanostrips.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Junwen; Mintmire, John W.; Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter T.
2007-03-01
We have carried out a series of first-principles, local-density functional band structure calculations of finite-width graphene nanostrips with armchair edges. A simple nearest-neighbor tight-binding model predicts that the band structures of these materials should be directly related to those of zigzag single wall carbon nanotubes, with two-thirds of the structures being small gap semiconductors and one-third of the structures being zero gap systems. The band gap in the semiconducting strips would be expected to decrease monotonically with increasing strip width. In our first-principles results, we find that in addition to the zero gap systems becoming finite gap quasimetallic systems because of symmetry breaking (as in the single-walled nanotubes), we also find that the semiconducting strips split into two families with band gaps that deviate from the simple nearest-neighbor tight binding model. Within the framework of our computational results, we compare the band structures of graphene, single-walled nanotubes, graphene nanostrips, and other carbon nanostructures. This work was supported by the US Office of Naval Research and the DoD HPCMO CHSSI program, both directly and through the US Naval Research Laboratory.
First principles calculations of La2CuO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plamada, Andrei; Kozhevnikov, Anton; Haehner, Urs; Jiang, Mi; Staar, Peter; Maier, Thomas; Schulthess, Thomas
We use the DFT+DCA method for a high-end study of the electronic structure properties of La2CuO4. The parameters of a tight-binding model are created using the first-principles electronic structure calculations. The all-electron full-potential linearised augmented plane-wave method is used to solve the non-interacting band problem. Then the set of physically relevant Wannier functions is chosen as a basis for the underlying Hubbard model. The Wannier functions and the corresponding non-interacting Hamiltonian Hnm0 (k) are created using the well-established downfolding approach. The screened Coulomb interaction parameters Unm of the model are computed using the constrained random-phase approximation technique. The double counting term is assumed to be a constant multiplied by the identity operator in the correlated subspace and it is determined based on first-principles considerations. The resulting ab-initio parameterisation of the Hubbard model is solved within dynamical cluster approximation (DCA).
First-Principles Informed Thermodynamics of CRUD Deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, Christopher John
The recent emphasis in the United States on developing abundant domestic sources of energy, together with an increasing awareness of the environmental hazards of fossil fuels, has led to a fresh look at the challenges of nuclear energy within the science and engineering community. One of these challenges is controlling the precipitation of porous oxide deposits onto the nuclear fuel rod cladding from the primary coolant during operation of pressurized light-water reactors (PWRs). These deposits, called CRUD (an acronym for Chalk River Unidentified Deposits), are a major concern to reactor operation because they reduce fuel lifetime and efficiency by reducing heat transfer to the coolant, promote corrosion, and depress neutron flux. This dissertation provides fundamental insights into the process by which CRUD is formed in PWRs by providing a framework linking the results of first-principles calculations to experimental data. The technique developed to facilitate the investigation is referred to as Density Functional Theory (DFT) referenced semi-empirical thermodynamics; It links 0K first-principles calculations with high temperature thermodynamics by redefining the reference chemical potentials of the constituent elements. The technique permits aqueous chemistry to be incorporated into thermodynamic calculations and allows for the prediction of temperature and pressure dependent free energies of materials that are experimentally inaccessible or have not yet been measured. The ability to extend accurate first-principles calculations to high temperatures and aqueous environments allows the stability of crystal surfaces, calculated with DFT techniques, to be predicted at conditions representative of an operating PWR. Accurate values of surface energies are used in fulfilling the principal goal of this dissertation, which is to investigate the aqueous thermodynamics of formation of nickel oxide (NiO) and nickel ferrite (NiFe 2O4) crystallites as representative CRUD
Ziegler Natta heterogeneous catalysis by first principles computer experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boero, M.; Parrinello, M.; Terakura, K.
1999-09-01
In this work we present a first attempt to study the polymerization process of ethylene in a realistic Ziegler-Natta heterogeneous system by means of first principles molecular dynamics. In particular, we simulate, in a very unbiased way, both the deposition of the catalyst TiCl 4 on the (110) active surface of a solid MgCl 2 support and the polymer chain formation. By using a constrained molecular dynamics approach, we work out the energetics and the reaction pathway of the polymerization process as it occurs in a laboratory or an industrial plant. The good agreement of the results of our simulations with the available experimental data indicates that these kinds of simulations can be used as a skilful approach to study the details of the reaction mechanism which are not accessible to experimental probes. This offers a tool to improve the production and/or to design reactants and products for practical use.
First-principles study of point defects in thorium carbide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez Daroca, D.; Jaroszewicz, S.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.
2014-11-01
Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. One of the most important issues to be studied is their behavior under irradiation. A first approach to this goal is the study of point defects. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we study the stability and formation energies of vacancies, interstitials and Frenkel pairs in thorium carbide. We find that C isolated vacancies are the most likely defects, while C interstitials are energetically favored as compared to Th ones. These kind of results for ThC, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. For this reason, we compare with results on other compounds with the same NaCl-type structure.
First-principles calculations of PuO(2+/-x).
Petit, L; Svane, A; Szotek, Z; Temmerman, W M
2003-07-25
The electronic structure of PuO(2+/-x) was studied using first-principles quantum mechanics, realized with the self-interaction corrected local spin density method. In the stoichiometric PuO2 compound, Pu occurs in the Pu(IV) oxidation state, corresponding to a localized f4 shell. If oxygen is introduced onto the octahedral interstitial site, the nearby Pu atoms turn into Pu(V) (f3) by transferring electrons to the oxygen. Oxygen vacancies cause Pu(III) (f5) to form by taking up electrons released by oxygen. At T = 0, the PuO2 compound is stable with respect to free oxygen, but the delicate energy balance suggests the possible deterioration of the material during long-term storage.
Accurate first principles model potentials for intermolecular interactions.
Gordon, Mark S; Smith, Quentin A; Xu, Peng; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V
2013-01-01
The general effective fragment potential (EFP) method provides model potentials for any molecule that is derived from first principles, with no empirically fitted parameters. The EFP method has been interfaced with most currently used ab initio single-reference and multireference quantum mechanics (QM) methods, ranging from Hartree-Fock and coupled cluster theory to multireference perturbation theory. The most recent innovations in the EFP model have been to make the computationally expensive charge transfer term much more efficient and to interface the general EFP dispersion and exchange repulsion interactions with QM methods. Following a summary of the method and its implementation in generally available computer programs, these most recent new developments are discussed.
Auger recombination in sodium-iodide scintillators from first principles
McAllister, Andrew; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André; Kioupakis, Emmanouil
2015-04-06
Scintillator radiation detectors suffer from low energy resolution that has been attributed to non-linear light yield response to the energy of the incident gamma rays. Auger recombination is a key non-radiative recombination channel that scales with the third power of the excitation density and may play a role in the non-proportionality problem of scintillators. In this work, we study direct and phonon-assisted Auger recombination in NaI using first-principles calculations. Our results show that phonon-assisted Auger recombination, mediated primarily by short-range phonon scattering, dominates at room temperature. We discuss our findings in light of the much larger values obtained by numerical fits to z-scan experiments.
First-principles prediction of disordering tendencies in pyrochlore oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chao; Stanek, C. R.; Sickafus, K. E.; Uberuaga, B. P.
2009-03-01
Using first-principles calculations, we systematically predict the order-disorder energetics of series of zirconate (A2Zr2O7) , hafnate (A2Hf2O7) , titanate (A2Ti2O7) , and stannate (A2Sn2O7) pyrochlores. The disordered defect-fluorite structure is modeled using an 88-atom two-sublattice special quasirandom structure (SQS) that closely reproduces the most relevant near-neighbor intrasublattice and intersublattice pair-correlation functions of the random mixture. The order-disorder transition temperatures of these pyrochlores estimated from our SQS calculations show overall good agreement with existing experiments. We confirm previous studies suggesting that the bonding in pyrochlores is not purely ionic and thus electronic effects also play a role in determining their disordering tendencies. Our results have important consequences for numerous applications, including nuclear waste forms and fast ion conductors.
Electromagnetic response of C12 : A first-principles calculation
Lovato, A.; Gandolfi, S.; Carlson, J.; ...
2016-08-15
Here, the longitudinal and transverse electromagnetic response functions ofmore » $$^{12}$$C are computed in a ``first-principles'' Green's function Monte Carlo calculation, based on realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions and associated one- and two-body currents. We find excellent agreement between theory and experiment and, in particular, no evidence for the quenching of measured versus calculated longitudinal response. This is further corroborated by a re-analysis of the Coulomb sum rule, in which the contributions from the low-lying $$J^\\pi\\,$$=$$\\, 2^+$$, $0^+$ (Hoyle), and $4^+$ states in $$^{12}$$C are accounted for explicitly in evaluating the total inelastic strength.« less
Vibrational and thermophysical properties of PETN from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez, Joseph M.; Landerville, Aaron C.; Oleynik, Ivan I.
2017-01-01
Thermophysical properties are urgently sought as input for meso- and continuum-scale modeling of energetic materials (EMs). However, experimental data are often limited as they cover a narrow region of specific pressures and temperatures. Such modeling of EMs can be greatly improved by inclusion of thermophysical properties over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, provided such data could be reliably obtained from theory. We demonstrate such a capability by calculating the PVT equation of state, heat capacities, and coefficients of thermal expansion for pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) using first-principles density functional theory, which includes proper description of van der Waals interactions, zero-point energy and thermal contributions to free energy calculated using the quasi-harmonic approximation. Further, we investigate the evolution of the vibration spectrum of PETN as a function of pressure.
Point defects in thorium nitride: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.
2016-11-01
Thorium and its compounds (carbides and nitrides) are being investigated as possible materials to be used as nuclear fuels for Generation-IV reactors. As a first step in the research of these materials under irradiation, we study the formation energies and stability of point defects in thorium nitride by means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory. We focus on vacancies, interstitials, Frenkel pairs and Schottky defects. We found that N and Th vacancies have almost the same formation energy and that the most energetically favorable defects of all studied in this work are N interstitials. These kind of results for ThN, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically.
Stability of hydrogenated graphene: a first-principles study
Yi, Ding; Yang, Liu; Xie, Shijie; ...
2015-02-10
In order to explain the disagreement between present theoretical and experimental investigations on the stability of hydrogenated graphene, we have systematically studied hydrogenated graphene with different configurations from the consideration of single-side and double-side adsorption using first-principles calculations. Both binding energy and formation energy are calculated to characterize the stability of the system. It is found that single-side hydrogenated graphene is always unstable. However, for double-side hydrogenation, some configurations are stable due to the increased carbon–carbon sp3 hybridization compared to single-side hydrogenation. Furthermore, it is found that the system is energetically favorable when an equal number of hydrogen atoms aremore » adsorbed on each side of the graphene.« less
Infrared Spectroscopy of Functionalized Graphene Sheets from First Principle Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cui; Dabbs, Daniel; Aksay, Ilhan; Car, Roberto; Selloni, Annabella
2014-03-01
Detailed characterization of the structure of functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) is an important and challenging task which could help to improve the performance of FGS materials for technological applications. We present here first principles calculations for the infrared (IR) spectra of different FGS models aimed at identifying the IR signatures of different functional groups and defect sites on FGSs. We found that vacancies and edges have significant effects on the IR frequencies of the functional groups on FGSs. In particular, hydroxyl groups close to vacancies have higher stretching and lower bending frequencies in comparison to hydroxyls in defect free regions of FGSs. More interestingly, the OH vibrations of carboxyl groups at edges exhibit unique features in the high frequency IR bands, which originate from the interactions with neighboring groups and the relative orientation of the carboxyl with respect to the FGS plane. Our results are supported by experimental IR measurements on FGS powders.
First-principles simulation of molecular dissociation-recombination equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kylänpää, Ilkka; Rantala, Tapio T.
2011-09-01
For the first time, the equilibrium composition of chemical dissociation-recombination reaction is simulated from first-principles, only. Furthermore, beyond the conventional ab initio Born-Oppenheimer quantum chemistry the effects from the thermal and quantum equilibrium dynamics of nuclei are consistently included, as well as, the nonadiabatic coupling between the electrons and the nuclei. This has been accomplished by the path integral Monte Carlo simulations for full NVT quantum statistics of the H_3^+ ion. The molecular total energy, partition function, free energy, entropy, and heat capacity are evaluated in a large temperature range: from below room temperature to temperatures relevant for planetary atmospheric physics. Temperature and density dependent reaction balance of the molecular ion and its fragments above 4000 K is presented, and also the density dependence of thermal ionization above 10 000 K is demonstrated.
First-principles study of interface doping in ferroelectric junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Pin-Zhi; Cai, Tian-Yi; Ju, Sheng; Wu, Yin-Zhong
2016-04-01
Effect of atomic monolayer insertion on the performance of ferroelectric tunneling junction is investigated in SrRuO3/BaTiO3/SrRuO3 heterostrucutures. Based on first-principles calculations, the atomic displacement, orbital occupancy, and ferroelectric polarization are studied. It is found that the ferroelectricity is enhanced when a (AlO2)- monolayer is inserted between the electrode SRO and the barrier BTO, where the relatively high mobility of doped holes effectively screen ferroelectric polarization. On the other hand, for the case of (LaO)+ inserted layer, the doped electrons resides at the both sides of middle ferroelectric barrier, making the ferroelectricity unfavorable. Our findings provide an alternative avenue to improve the performance of ferroelectric tunneling junctions.
Electronic Stopping Power in LiF from First Principles
Pruneda, J. M.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Artacho, Emilio
2007-12-07
Using time-dependent density-functional theory we calculate from first principles the rate of energy transfer from a moving proton or antiproton to the electrons of an insulating material, LiF. The behavior of the electronic stopping power versus projectile velocity displays an effective threshold velocity of {approx}0.2 a.u. for the proton, consistent with recent experimental observations, and also for the antiproton. The calculated proton/antiproton stopping-power ratio is {approx}2.4 at velocities slightly above the threshold (v{approx}0.4 a.u.), as compared to the experimental value of 2.1. The projectile energy loss mechanism is observed to be extremely local.
Two Dimensional Ice from First Principles: Structures and Phase Transitions.
Chen, Ji; Schusteritsch, Georg; Pickard, Chris J; Salzmann, Christoph G; Michaelides, Angelos
2016-01-15
Despite relevance to disparate areas such as cloud microphysics and tribology, major gaps in the understanding of the structures and phase transitions of low-dimensional water ice remain. Here, we report a first principles study of confined 2D ice as a function of pressure. We find that at ambient pressure hexagonal and pentagonal monolayer structures are the two lowest enthalpy phases identified. Upon mild compression, the pentagonal structure becomes the most stable and persists up to ∼2 GPa, at which point the square and rhombic phases are stable. The square phase agrees with recent experimental observations of square ice confined within graphene sheets. This work provides a fresh perspective on 2D confined ice, highlighting the sensitivity of the structures observed to both the confining pressure and the width.
First-principles study of optical excitations in alphaquartz
Chang, Eric K.; Rohlfing, Michael; Louie, Steven G.
1999-06-15
The properties of silicon dioxide have been studied extensively over the years. However, there still remain major unanswered questions regarding the nature of the optical spectrum and the role of excitonic effects in this technologically important material. In this work, we present an ab initio study of the optical absorption spectrum of alpha-quartz, using a newly developed first-principles method which includes self-energy and electron-hole interaction effects. The quasiparticle band structure is computed within the GW approximation to obtain a quantitative description of the single-particle excitations. The Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron-hole excitations is solved to obtain the optical spectrum and to understand the spatial extent and physical properties of the excitons. The theoretical absorption spectrum is found to be in excellent agreement with the measured spectrum. We show that excitonic effects are crucial in the frequency range up to 5 eV above the absorption threshold.
First-principles studies of native defects in olivine phosphates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, Khang; Johannes, Michelle
2011-03-01
Olivine phosphates Li M PO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) are promising candidates for rechargeable Li-ion battery electrodes because of their energy storage capacity and electrochemical and thermal stability. It is known that native defects have strong effects on the performance of olivine phosphates. Yet, the formation and migration of these defects are not fully understood, and we expect that once such understanding has been established, one can envisage a solution for improving the materials' performance. In this talk, we present our first-principles density-functional theory studies of native point defects and defect complexes in Li M PO4 , and discuss the implications of these defects on the performance of the materials. Our results also provide guidelines for obtaining different native defects in experiments.
Systematic First-Principles Study of Binary Metal Hydrides.
Bourgeois, Natacha; Crivello, Jean-Claude; Cenedese, Pierre; Joubert, Jean-Marc
2017-08-14
First-principles calculations were systematically performed for 31 binary metal-hydrogen (M-H) systems on a set of 30 potential crystal structures selected on the basis of experimental data and possible interstitial sites. For each M-H system, the calculated enthalpies of formation were represented as functions of H composition. The zero-point energy correction was considered for the most stable hydrides via additional harmonic phonon calculations. The sequence of stable hydrides (ground-state) given by the convex hull was found in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. In addition, new high pressure dihydrides and trihydrides were predicted, providing orientations for new materials synthesis. The overall results provide a global overview of hydride relative stabilities and relevant input data for thermodynamic modeling methods.
Thermoelectric properties of titanium dioxide polymorphs from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayerl, Dylan; Kioupakis, Emmanouil
2014-03-01
Titanium oxides are promising materials for high-temperature thermoelectrics because of their high Seebeck coefficients, thermal stability, and natural abundance. We use first-principles calculations to investigate the thermoelectric transport properties of several titanium dioxide polymorphs. Our methodology is based on density functional and many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. The maximally localized Wannier function method is employed to interpolate the GW bands in the Brillouin zone. We use the Boltzmann transport formalism within the constant relaxation time approximation to determine the temperature and carrier-density dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, electron mobility, and electron thermal conductivity from the calculated electronic band structures. We demonstrate agreement with experimentally measured transport parameters and enhanced power factor at high temperature in certain heavily doped phases. This research was supported as part of CSTEC, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Computational resources were provided by the DOE NERSC facility.
Simulating fluid-phase equilibria of water from first principles.
McGrath, Matthew J; Siepmann, J Ilja; Kuo, I-Feng W; Mundy, Christopher J; Vandevondele, Joost; Hutter, Jürg; Mohamed, Fawzi; Krack, Matthias
2006-01-19
Efficient Monte Carlo algorithms and a mixed-basis set electronic structure program were used to compute from first principles the vapor-liquid coexistence curve of water. A water representation based on the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange and correlation functionals yields a saturated liquid density of 900 kg/m3 at 323 K and normal boiling and critical temperatures of 350 and 550 K, respectively. An analysis of the structural and electronic properties of the saturated liquid phase shows an increase of the asymmetry of the local hydrogen-bonded structure despite the persistence of a 4-fold coordination and decreases of the molecular dipole moment and of the spread of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital with increasing temperature.
First-principles study of high explosive decomposition energetics
Wu, C J
1998-08-21
The mechanism of the gas phase unimolecular decomposition of hexahydro-1,3,5,- trinitro- 1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) has been investigated using first principles gradient corrected density functional theory. Our results show that the dominant reaction channel is the N-NO* bond rupture, which has a barrier of 34.2 kcal/mol at the B- PW9 l/cc-pVDZ level and is 18.3 kcal/mol lower than that of the concerted ring fission to three methylenenitramine molecules. In addition, we have carried out a systematic study of homolytic bond dissociation energies of 14 other high explosives at the B-PW91/D95V level. We find that the correlation between the weakest bond strength and high explosive sensitivity is strong
Photoelectron Spectra of Aqueous Solutions from First Principles
Gaiduk, Alex P.; Govoni, Marco; Seidel, Robert; Skone, Jonathan H.; Winter, Bernd; Galli, Giulia
2016-06-08
We present a combined computational and experimental study of the photoelectron spectrum of a simple aqueous solution of NaCl. Measurements were conducted on microjets, and first-principles calculations were performed using hybrid functionals and many-body perturbation theory at the G0W0 level, starting with wave functions computed in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show excellent agreement between theory and experiments for the positions of both the solute and solvent excitation energies on an absolute energy scale and for peak intensities. The best comparison was obtained using wave functions obtained with dielectric-dependent self-consistent and range-separated hybrid functionals. Our computational protocol opens the way to accurate, predictive calculations of the electronic properties of electrolytes, of interest to a variety of energy problems.
First-principles modeling hydrogenation of bilayered boron nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Wang; Peng, Zhang; Xiang-Mei, Duan
2016-05-01
We have investigated the structural and electronic characteristics of hydrogenated boron-nitride bilayer (H-BNBN-H) using first-principles calculations. The results show that hydrogenation can significantly reduce the energy gap of the BN-BN into the visible-light region. Interestingly, the electric field induced by the interface dipoles helps to promote the formation of well-separated electron-hole pairs, as demonstrated by the charge distribution of the VBM and CBM. Moreover, the applied bias voltage on the vertical direction of the bilayer could modulate the band gap, resulting in transition from semiconductor to metal. We conclude that H-BNBN-H could improve the solar energy conversion efficiency, which may provide a new way for tuning the electronic devices to meet different environments and demands. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574167).
Principles of silicon surface chemistry from first principles
Doren, D.J.
1996-10-01
First principles theoretical studies of dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, SiH{sub 4} and other species on Si(100)-2x1 demonstrate some common principles that permit qualitative understanding of the mechanisms of reactive adsorption on Si. The structures of transition states and the interactions among surface sites can also be understood in terms of correlations between surface structure and local electron density. For example, the transition states for dissociative adsorption involve buckled surface dimers, which present both electrophilic and nucleophilic reaction sites and allow efficient addition across the dimer. A surface Diels-Alder reaction will also be described, in which symmetric addition to an unbuckled surface dimer is allowed by orbital symmetry. The Diets-Alder product establishes novel reactive surface sites that may be useful for subsequent surface modification. This work has been done in collaboration with Sharmila Pai, Robert Konecny and Anita Robinson Brown.
Vibrational and Thermophysical Properties of PETN from First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez, Joseph; Landerville, Aaron; Oleynik, Ivan
2015-06-01
Thermophysical properties are urgently sought as input for meso- and continuum-scale modeling of energetic materials (EMs). However, empirical data in this regard are often limited to specific pressures and temperatures. Such modeling of EMs can be greatly improved by inclusion of thermophysical properties over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, provided such data could be reliably obtained from theory. We demonstrate such a capability by calculating the equation of state, heat capacities, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Gruneissen parameters for pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) using first-principles density functional theory, which includes proper description of van der Waals interactions and zero-point and thermal free energy contributions to pressure, the latter being calculated using the quasi-harmonic approximation. Further, we investigate the evolution of the vibration spectrum of PETN as a function of pressure.
First principles nuclear magnetic resonance signatures of graphene oxide.
Lu, Ning; Huang, Ying; Li, Hai-bei; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong
2010-07-21
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in graphene oxide (GO) structure studies. However, the detailed relationship between its spectroscopic features and the GO structural configuration remains elusive. Based on first principles (13)C chemical shift calculations using the gauge including projector augmented waves method, we provide a reliable spectrum-structure connection. The (13)C chemical shift in GO is found to be very sensitive to the atomic environment, even for the same type of oxidation groups. Factors determining the chemical shifts of epoxy and hydroxy groups have been discussed. GO structures previously reported in the literature have been checked from the NMR point of view. The energetically favorable hydroxy chain structure is not expected to be widely existed in real GO samples according to our NMR simulations. The epoxy pair species we proposed previously is also supported by chemical shift calculations.
First principles nuclear magnetic resonance signatures of graphene oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Ning; Huang, Ying; Li, Hai-bei; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong
2010-07-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in graphene oxide (GO) structure studies. However, the detailed relationship between its spectroscopic features and the GO structural configuration remains elusive. Based on first principles C13 chemical shift calculations using the gauge including projector augmented waves method, we provide a reliable spectrum-structure connection. The C13 chemical shift in GO is found to be very sensitive to the atomic environment, even for the same type of oxidation groups. Factors determining the chemical shifts of epoxy and hydroxy groups have been discussed. GO structures previously reported in the literature have been checked from the NMR point of view. The energetically favorable hydroxy chain structure is not expected to be widely existed in real GO samples according to our NMR simulations. The epoxy pair species we proposed previously is also supported by chemical shift calculations.
Carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbide designed from first principles
Jay, Antoine; Vast, Nathalie; Sjakste, Jelena; Duparc, Olivier Hardouin
2014-07-21
The carbon-rich boron-carbide (B{sub 11}C)C-C has been designed from first principles within the density functional theory. With respect to the most common boron carbide at 20% carbon concentration B{sub 4}C, the structural modification consists in removing boron atoms from the chains linking (B{sub 11}C) icosahedra. With C-C instead of C-B-C chains, the formation of vacancies is shown to be hindered, leading to enhanced mechanical strength with respect to B{sub 4}C. The phonon frequencies and elastic constants turn out to prove the stability of the carbon-rich phase, and important fingerprints for its characterization have been identified.
Auger recombination in sodium-iodide scintillators from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAllister, Andrew; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André; Kioupakis, Emmanouil
2015-04-01
Scintillator radiation detectors suffer from low energy resolution that has been attributed to non-linear light yield response to the energy of the incident gamma rays. Auger recombination is a key non-radiative recombination channel that scales with the third power of the excitation density and may play a role in the non-proportionality problem of scintillators. In this work, we study direct and phonon-assisted Auger recombination in NaI using first-principles calculations. Our results show that phonon-assisted Auger recombination, mediated primarily by short-range phonon scattering, dominates at room temperature. We discuss our findings in light of the much larger values obtained by numerical fits to z-scan experiments.
First principle study of manganese doped cadmium sulphide sheet
Kumar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2014-04-24
First-principle electronic structure calculations for cadmium sulphide (CdS) sheet in hexagonal phase, with Manganese substitution and addition, as well as including the Cd defects, are investigated. The lattice constants calculated for CdS sheet agrees fairly well with results reported for thin films experimentally. The calculations of total spin density of states and partial density of states in different cases shows substantial magnetic dipole moments acquired by the sheet. A magnetic dipole moment 5.00612 μ{sub B} and band gap of the order 1 eV are found when cadmium atom is replaced by Manganese. The magnetism acquired by the sheet makes it functionally important candidate in many applications.
First principles studies of electron tunneling in proteins
Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.
2014-01-01
A first principles study of electronic tunneling along the chain of seven Fe/S clusters in respiratory complex I, a key enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain, is described. The broken-symmetry states of the Fe/S metal clusters calculated at both DFT and semi-empirical ZINDO levels were utilized to examine both the extremely weak electronic couplings between Fe/S clusters and the tunneling pathways, which provide a detailed atomistic-level description of the charge transfer process in the protein. One-electron tunneling approximation was found to hold within a reasonable accuracy, with only a moderate induced polarization of the core electrons. The method is demonstrated to be able to calculate accurately the coupling matrix elements as small as 10−4 cm−1. A distinct signature of the wave properties of electrons is observed as quantum interferences of multiple tunneling pathways. PMID:25383312
Hydrogen storage in LiH: A first principle study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.
2014-04-01
First principles calculations have been performed on the Lithium hydride (LiH) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory. We have extended our calculations for LiH+2H and LiH+6H in NaCl structure. The structural stability of three compounds have been studied. It is found that LiH with 6 added Hydrogen atoms is most stable. The obtained results for LiH are in good agreement with reported experimental data. Electronic structures of three compounds are also studied. Out of three the energy band gap in LiH is ˜3.0 eV and LiH+2H and LiH+6H are metallic.
Thermodynamics of Magnetic Systems from First Principles: WL-LSMS
Eisenbach, Markus; Zhou, Chenggang; Nicholson, Don M; Brown, Greg; Larkin, Jeffrey M; Schulthess, Thomas C
2010-01-01
Density Functional calculations have proven to be a powerful tool to study the ground state of many materials. For finite temperatures the situation is less ideal and one is often forced to rely on models with parameters either fitted to zero temperature first principles calculations or experimental results. This approach is especially unsatisfacory in inhomogeneous systems, nano particles, or other systems where the model parameters could vary significantly from one site to another. Here we describe a possible solution to this problem by combining classical Monte Carlo calculations the Wang-Landau method in this case with a firs principles electronic structure calculation, specifically our locally selfconsistent multiple scallering code (LSMS). The combined code shows superb scaling behavior on massively parallel computers. The code sustained 1.836 Petaflop/s on 223232 cores of the Cray XT5 jaguar system at Oak Ridge.
First-principles study on superconductivity of solid oxygen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Takahiro; Mukai, Kenta; Shimizu, Katsuya
2012-12-01
The superconductivity of solid oxygen in ζ phase was investigated by first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. Using a monoclinic C2/m structure, we calculated the superconducting transition temperature by the Allen-Dynes formula and obtained 2.4 K at 100 GPa for the effective screened Coulomb repulsion constant μ* of 0.13. The transition temperature slowly decreases with increasing pressure and becomes 1.3 K at 200 GPa. The phonon analysis shows that the electron-phonon coupling is dominantly enhanced by the intermolecular vibrations of O2 rather than the intramolecular ones. The phonon modes showing the strong electron-phonon coupling were found to be concentrated in the phonon frequency range of 100-150 cm-1 at around the M-point in the Brillouin zone.
First-principles investigation of PVDF and its copolymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjan, V.; Yu, Liping; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Bernholc, J.
2009-03-01
Recently, PVDF and its copolymers have generated significant interest due to their electroactive properties [1] and potential for ultra-high energy-storage applications [2]. In this talk, we present the results of first-principles calculations of stable phases and dielectric properties of different copolymers and terpolymers of PVDF at varying concentrations. Our results show that at very high concentrations of Chloro-trifluoroethylene (CTFE), PVDF/CTFE displays sharp transitions between non-polar (α) and polar (β) phases. On the contrary, the same transitions in copolymers with trifluoroethylene (TrFE) and tetrafluoroethylene (TeFE) are not sharp and happen at lower concentrations. We discuss the interplay of copolymer admixture on the dielectric properties of PVDF and discuss the suitability of copolymers for energy storage and electroactive applications. [1] S. G. Lu et al., App. Phys. Lett. 93, 042905 (2008). [2] V. Ranjan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 047801 (2007).
Free-Carrier Absorption in Silicon from First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Guangsha; Kioupakis, Emmanouil
The absorption of light by free carriers in semiconductors such as silicon results in intraband electron or hole excitations, and competes with optical transitions across the band gap. Free-carrier absorption therefore reduces the efficiency of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells because it competes with the generation of electron-hole pairs. In this work, we use first-principles calculations based on density functional theory to investigate direct and phonon-assisted free-carrier absorption in silicon. We determine the free-carrier absorption coefficient as a function of carrier concentration and temperature and compare to experiment. We also identify the dominant phonon modes that contributing to phonon-assisted free-carrier absorption processes, and analyze the results to evaluate the impact of this loss mechanism on the efficiency of silicon solar cells. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation CAREER award through Grant No. DMR-1254314. Computational resources were provided by the DOE NERSC facility.
Calculating Natural Optical Activity of Molecules from First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srebro-Hooper, Monika; Autschbach, Jochen
2017-05-01
Computations of natural optical activity (OA) from first principles (ab initio) have become indispensable in chiroptical studies of molecular systems. Calculations are used to assign absolute configurations and to analyze chiroptical data, providing a basis for understanding their origin as well as for assigning and predicting experimental results. In this article, methodology for OA computations is outlined and accompanied by a review of selected, mainly recent (ca. 2010-2016) achievements in optical rotation, electronic and vibrational circular dichroism, and Raman OA calculations. We discuss some important aspects of the computational models and methodological developments, along with recently proposed approaches to analyze and interpret OA parameters. We highlight applications of chiroptical computational methods in studies of helicenes and chiral nanoparticles.
NMR shifts for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from first-principles
Thonhauser, Timo; Ceresoli, Davide; Marzari, Nicola N.
2009-09-03
We present first-principles, density-functional theory calculations of the NMR chemical shifts for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, starting with benzene and increasing sizes up to the one- and two-dimensional infinite limits of graphene ribbons and sheets. Our calculations are performed using a combination of the recently developed theory of orbital magnetization in solids, and a novel approach to NMR calculations where chemical shifts are obtained from the derivative of the orbital magnetization with respect to a microscopic, localized magnetic dipole. Using these methods we study on equal footing the 1H and 13C shifts in benzene, pyrene, coronene, in naphthalene, anthracene, naphthacene, and pentacene, and finally in graphene, graphite, and an infinite graphene ribbon. Our results show very good agreement with experiments and allow us to characterize the trends for the chemical shifts as a function of system size.
First-principles study of fluorination of L-Alanine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreepad, H. R.; Ravi, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Dayananda, H. M.; Umakanth, K.; Manohara, B. M.
2013-02-01
First-principles calculations based on Density Functional Theory have been done on effect of fluorination of an important amino acid - L-Alanine. Its structure has been simulated. The unit cell is orthorhombic with lattice parameters a=5.90Å, b=13.85Å and c=5.75Å with volume 470 (Å)3. Bond lengths and bond angles have been estimated. Electronic Density of States calculations show that the material has a band gap of 4.47eV. Electronic band structure indicates that the material can be effectively used for NLO applications. The electronic contribution to the dielectric constant has been calculated and its average value comes out to be 2.165.
First principle study of manganese doped cadmium sulphide sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2014-04-01
First-principle electronic structure calculations for cadmium sulphide (CdS) sheet in hexagonal phase, with Manganese substitution and addition, as well as including the Cd defects, are investigated. The lattice constants calculated for CdS sheet agrees fairly well with results reported for thin films experimentally. The calculations of total spin density of states and partial density of states in different cases shows substantial magnetic dipole moments acquired by the sheet. A magnetic dipole moment 5.00612 μB and band gap of the order 1 eV are found when cadmium atom is replaced by Manganese. The magnetism acquired by the sheet makes it functionally important candidate in many applications.
Elastic and piezoresistive properties of nickel carbides from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelling, Jeffrey; Zahn, Peter; Schuster, Jörg; Gemming, Sibylle
2017-01-01
The nickel-carbon system has received increased attention over the past years due to the relevance of nickel as a catalyst for carbon nanotube and graphene growth, where nickel carbide intermediates may be involved or carbide interface layers form in the end. Nickel-carbon composite thin films comprising Ni3C are especially interesting in mechanical sensing applications. Due to the metastability of nickel carbides, formation conditions and the coupling between mechanical and electrical properties are not yet well understood. Using first-principles electronic structure methods, we calculated the elastic properties of Ni3C ,Ni2C , and NiC , as well as changes in electronic properties under mechanical strain. We observe that the electronic density of states around the Fermi level does not change under the considered strains of up to 1%, which correspond to stresses up to 3 GPa . Relative changes in conductivity of Ni3C range up to maximum values of about 10%.
First-principles study of interface doping in ferroelectric junctions
Wang, Pin-Zhi; Cai, Tian-Yi; Ju, Sheng; Wu, Yin-Zhong
2016-01-01
Effect of atomic monolayer insertion on the performance of ferroelectric tunneling junction is investigated in SrRuO3/BaTiO3/SrRuO3 heterostrucutures. Based on first-principles calculations, the atomic displacement, orbital occupancy, and ferroelectric polarization are studied. It is found that the ferroelectricity is enhanced when a (AlO2)− monolayer is inserted between the electrode SRO and the barrier BTO, where the relatively high mobility of doped holes effectively screen ferroelectric polarization. On the other hand, for the case of (LaO)+ inserted layer, the doped electrons resides at the both sides of middle ferroelectric barrier, making the ferroelectricity unfavorable. Our findings provide an alternative avenue to improve the performance of ferroelectric tunneling junctions. PMID:27063704
First-principles simulations of electrostatic interactions between dust grains
Itou, H. Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.
2014-12-15
We investigated the electrostatic interaction between two identical dust grains of an infinite mass immersed in homogeneous plasma by employing first-principles N-body simulations combined with the Ewald method. We specifically tested the possibility of an attractive force due to overlapping Debye spheres (ODSs), as was suggested by Resendes et al. [Phys. Lett. A 239, 181–186 (1998)]. Our simulation results demonstrate that the electrostatic interaction is repulsive and even stronger than the standard Yukawa potential. We showed that the measured electric field acting on the grain is highly consistent with a model electrostatic potential around a single isolated grain that takes into account a correction due to the orbital motion limited theory. Our result is qualitatively consistent with the counterargument suggested by Markes and Williams [Phys. Lett. A 278, 152–158 (2000)], indicating the absence of the ODS attractive force.
Liquid-state paramagnetic relaxation from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rantaharju, Jyrki; Vaara, Juha
2016-10-01
We simulate nuclear and electron spin relaxation rates in a paramagnetic system from first principles. Sampling a molecular dynamics trajectory with quantum-chemical calculations produces a time series of the instantaneous parameters of the relevant spin Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonians are, in turn, used to numerically solve the Liouville-von Neumann equation for the time evolution of the spin density matrix. We demonstrate the approach by studying the aqueous solution of the Ni2 + ion. Taking advantage of Kubo's theory, the spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation rates are extracted from the simulations of the time dependence of the longitudinal and transverse magnetization, respectively. Good agreement with the available experimental data is obtained by the method.
Stability of hydrogenated graphene: a first-principles study
Yi, Ding; Yang, Liu; Xie, Shijie; Saxena, Avadh
2015-02-10
In order to explain the disagreement between present theoretical and experimental investigations on the stability of hydrogenated graphene, we have systematically studied hydrogenated graphene with different configurations from the consideration of single-side and double-side adsorption using first-principles calculations. Both binding energy and formation energy are calculated to characterize the stability of the system. It is found that single-side hydrogenated graphene is always unstable. However, for double-side hydrogenation, some configurations are stable due to the increased carbon–carbon sp^{3} hybridization compared to single-side hydrogenation. Furthermore, it is found that the system is energetically favorable when an equal number of hydrogen atoms are adsorbed on each side of the graphene.
Fundamental limits on transparency: first-principles calculations of absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peelaers, Hartwin
2013-03-01
Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a technologically important class of materials with applications ranging from solar cells, displays, smart windows, and touch screens to light-emitting diodes. TCOs combine high conductivity, provided by a high concentration of electrons in the conduction band, with transparency in the visible region of the spectrum. The requirement of transparency is usually tied to the band gap being sufficiently large to prevent absorption of visible photons. This is a necessary but not sufficient condition: indeed, the high concentration of free carriers can also lead to optical absorption by excitation of electrons to higher conduction-band states. A fundamental understanding of the factors that limit transparency in TCOs is essential for further progress in materials and applications. The Drude theory is widely used, but it is phenomenological in nature and tends to work poorly at shorter wavelengths, where band-structure effects are important. First-principles calculations have been performed, but were limited to direct transitions; as we show in the present work, indirect transitions assisted by phonons or defects actually dominate. Our calculations are the first to address indirect free-carrier absorption in a TCO completely from first principles. We present results for SnO2, but the methodology is general and is also being applied to ZnO and In2O3. The calculations provide not just quantitative results but also deeper insights in the mechanisms that govern absorption processes in different wavelength regimes, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be used in more efficient devices. For SnO2, we find that absorption is modest in the visible, and much stronger in the ultraviolet and infrared. Work performed in collaboration with E. Kioupakis and C.G. Van de Walle, and supported by DOE, NSF, and BAEF.
Leptogenesis from first principles in the resonant regime
Garny, Mathias; Kartavtsev, Alexander; Hohenegger, Andreas
2013-01-15
The lepton asymmetry generated by the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos with a quasi-degenerate mass spectrum is resonantly enhanced. In this work, we study this scenario within a first-principle approach. The quantum field theoretical treatment is applicable for mass splittings of the order of the width of the Majorana neutrinos, for which the enhancement is maximally large. The non-equilibrium evolution of the mixing Majorana neutrino fields is described by a formal analytical solution of the Kadanoff-Baym equations, that is obtained by neglecting the back-reaction. Based on this solution, we derive approximate analytical expressions for the generated asymmetry and compare them to the Boltzmann result. We find that the resonant enhancement obtained from the Kadanoff-Baym approach is smaller compared to the Boltzmann approach, due to additional contributions that describe coherent transitions between the Majorana neutrino species. We also discuss corrections to the masses and widths of the degenerate pair of Majorana neutrinos that are relevant for very small mass splitting, and compare the approximate analytical result for the lepton asymmetry with numerical results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of leptogenesis in the resonant regime by a first-principle approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applicable for mass differences of the order of the width. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-equilibrium evolution described by Kadanoff-Baym equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical solution can be obtained neglecting backreaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resonant enhancement is smaller compared to the classical Boltzmann approach.
Emergent symmetries in atomic nuclei from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Launey, K. D.; Dreyfuss, A. C.; Baker, R. B.; Draayer, J. P.; Dytrych, T.
2015-04-01
An innovative symmetry-guided approach and its applications to light and intermediate-mass nuclei is discussed. This approach, with Sp(3, R) the underpinning group, is based on our recent remarkable finding, namely, we have identified the symplectic Sp(3,R) as an approximate symmetry for low-energy nuclear dynamics. This study presents the results of two complementary studies, one that utilizes realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and unveils symmetries inherent to nuclear dynamics from first principles (or ab initio), and another study, which selects important components of the nuclear interaction to explain the primary physics responsible for emergent phenomena, such as enhanced collectivity and alpha clusters. In particular, within this symmetry-guided framework, ab initio applications of the theory to light nuclei reveal the emergence of a simple orderly pattern from first principles. This provides a strategy for determining the nature of bound states of nuclei in terms of a relatively small fraction of the complete shell-model space, which, in turn, can be used to explore ultra-large model spaces for a description of alpha-cluster and highly deformed structures together with associated rotations. We find that by using only a fraction of the model space extended far beyond current no-core shell-model limits and a long-range interaction that respects the symmetries in play, the outcome reproduces characteristic features of the low-lying 0+ states in 12C (including the elusive Hoyle state of importance to astrophysics) and agrees with ab initio results in smaller spaces. For these states, we offer a novel perspective emerging out of no-core shell-model considerations, including a discussion of associated nuclear deformation, matter radii, and density distribution. The framework we find is also extensible beyond 12C, namely, to the low-lying 0+ states of 8Be as well as the ground-state rotational band of Ne, Mg, and Si isotopes.
First principles electrochemistry: Electrons and protons reacting as independent ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llano, Jorge; Eriksson, Leif A.
2002-12-01
We here present a first principles approach to calculate standard Gibbs energies and the corresponding observables (standard electrode potentials in the hydrogen scale ESHE0 and pKa values) of stoichiometric reactions involving electrons and/or protons as independent species in solution, from absolute electrochemical potentials defined according to quantum and statistical mechanics. In order to pass from the conventional electrodic and thermodynamic descriptions of electrochemistry to the first principles approach based on estimating absolute electrochemical potentials, we revisit the problem of the absolute and relative electrochemical scales from the macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints. A microscopic definition of the absolute electrochemical potential is presented in order to enable an identical thermodynamic treatment of any species in a given phase, i.e., electrons, protons, atoms, molecules, atomic and molecular ions, and electronically excited species. We show that absolute standard chemical potentials in the mole fraction scale can be easily computed with wave function and density functional theories in conjunction with self-consistent reaction field models. Based on Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics and experimental solvation data, we estimate an internally compatible set of absolute standard chemical and electrochemical potentials of protons and solvated electrons in the molality and molarity scales in aqueous solution at 298 K and 1 atm, within an absolute error of ±0.5 kcal/mol. This scheme enables a consistent and simultaneous description of the Gibbs energy changes and the observables (ESHE0 and pKa 's) of electron, proton, and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in aqueous solution at 298 K and 1 atm.
Sodium tungstate modulates ATM function upon DNA damage.
Rodriguez-Hernandez, C J; Llorens-Agost, M; Calbó, J; Murguia, J R; Guinovart, J J
2013-05-21
Both radiotherapy and most effective chemotherapeutic agents induce different types of DNA damage. Here we show that tungstate modulates cell response to DNA damaging agents. Cells treated with tungstate were more sensitive to etoposide, phleomycin and ionizing radiation (IR), all of which induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Tungstate also modulated the activation of the central DSB signalling kinase, ATM, in response to these agents. These effects required the functionality of the Mre11-Nbs1-Rad50 (MRN) complex and were mimicked by the inhibition of PP2A phosphatase. Therefore, tungstate may have adjuvant activity when combined with DNA-damaging agents in the treatment of several malignancies.
First Principles Studies of ABO3 Perovskite Surfaces and Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilania, Ghanshyam
Perovskite-type complex oxides, with general formula ABO 3, constitute one of the most prominent classes of metal oxides which finds key applications in diverse technological fields. In recent years, properties of perovskites at reduced dimensions have aroused considerable interest. However, a complete atomic-level understanding of various phenomena is yet to emerge. To fully exploit the materials opportunities provided by nano-structured perovskites, it is important to characterize and understand their bulk and near-surface electronic structure along with the electric, magnetic, elastic and chemical properties of these materials in the nano-regime, where surface and interface effects naturally play a dominant role. In this thesis, state-of-the-art first principles computations are employed to systematically study properties of one- and two-dimensional perovskite systems which are of direct technological significance. Specifically, our bifocal study targets (1) polarization behavior and dielectric response of ABO3 ferroelectric nanowires, and (2) oxygen chemistry relevant for catalytic properties of ABO3 surfaces. In the first strand, we identify presence of novel closure or vortex-like polarization domains in PbTIO3 and BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanowires and explore ways to control the polarization configurations by means of strain and surface chemistry in these prototypical model systems. The intrinsic tendency towards vortex polarization at reduced dimensions and the underlying driving forces are discussed and previously unknown strain induced phase transitions are identified. Furthermore, to compute the dielectric permittivity of nanostructures, a new multiscale model is developed and applied to the PbTiO3 nanowires with conventional and vortex-like polarization configurations. The second part of the work undertaken in this thesis is comprised of a number of ab initio surface studies, targeted to investigate the effects of surface terminations, prevailing chemical
Revising Intramolecular Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET) from First-Principles.
Escudero, Daniel
2016-09-20
Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) plays relevant roles in many areas of chemistry, including charge separation processes in photovoltaics, natural and artificial photosynthesis, and photoluminescence sensors and switches. As in many other photochemical scenarios, the structural and energetic factors play relevant roles in determining the rates and efficiencies of PET and its competitive photodeactivation processes. Particularly, in the field of fluorescent sensors and switches, intramolecular PET is believed (in many cases without compelling experimental proof) to be responsible of the quench of fluorescence. There is an increasing experimental interest in fluorophore's molecular design and on achieving optimal excitation/emission spectra, excitation coefficients, and fluorescence quantum yields (importantly for bioimaging purposes), but less efforts are devoted to fundamental mechanistic studies. In this Account, I revise the origins of the fluorescence quenching in some of these systems with state-of-the-art quantum chemical tools. These studies go beyond the common strategy of analyzing frontier orbital energy diagrams and performing PET thermodynamics calculations. Instead, the potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the lowest-lying excited states are explored with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations and the radiative and nonradiative decay rates from the involved excited states are computed from first-principles using a thermal vibration correlation function formalism. With such a strategy, this work reveals the real origins of the fluorescence quenching, herein entitled as dark-state quenching. Dark states (those that do not absorb or emit light) are often elusive to experiments and thus, computational investigations can provide novel insights into the actual photodeactivation mechanisms. The success of the dark-state quenching mechanism is demonstrated for a wide variety of
Safeguards First Principles Initiative at the Nevada Test Site
Geneva Johnson
2007-07-08
The Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was selected as a test bed for the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI). The implementation of the SFPI is evaluated using the system effectiveness model and the program is managed under an approved MC&A Plan. The effectiveness model consists of an evaluation of the critical elements necessary to detect, deter, and/or prevent the theft or diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The modeled results indicate that the MC&A program established under this variance is still effective, without creating unacceptable risk. Extensive performance testing is conducted through the duration of the pilot to ensure the protection system is effective and no material is at an unacceptable risk. The pilot was conducted from January 1, 2007, through May 30, 2007. This paper will discuss the following activities in association with SFPI: 1. Development of Timeline 2. Crosswalk of DOE Order and SFPI 3. Peer Review 4. Deviation 5. MC&A Plan and Procedure changes 6. Changes implemented at NTS 7. Training 8. Performance Test
NMR quadruopole spectra of PZT from first-principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Dandan; Walter, Eric J.; Krakauer, Henry
2006-03-01
High performance piezoelectric materials are disordered alloys, so it can be difficult to determine the local atomic geometry. Recently, high field NMR measurements have shown great promise as a microscopic probe of ABO3 perovskite-based alloys by their ability to resolve line-splittings due to nuclear quadrupolar coupling with the electric field gradient (EFG) at the nucleus. We report first-principles LDA calculations of the EFG's in monoclinic and tetragonal Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 systems using the linear augmented planewave (LAPW) method, and we compute NMR static powder spectra for ^91Zr, ^47Ti, and ^17O atoms as a function of applied strain. With decreasing c/a ratio PZT converts from tetragonal to monoclinic symmetry. We observe that the calculated NMR spectra show dramatic deviations with decreasing c/a from that in tetragonal P4mm well before the electric polarization begins to rotate away from the [001] direction. This indicates that NMR measurements can be a very accurate probe of local structural changes in perovskite piezoelectrics. G. L. Hoatson, D. H. Zhou, F. Fayon, D. Massiot, and R. L. Vold, Phys. Rev. B, 66, 224103 (2002).
First principles study of O defects in CdSe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
T-Thienprasert, J.; Limpijumnong, S.; Du, M.-H.; Singh, D. J.
2012-08-01
Recently, the vibrational signatures related to oxygen defects in oxygen-doped CdSe were measured using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy by Chen et al.(2008) [1]. They observed two absorption bands centered at ∼1991.77 and 2001.3 cm-1, which they attributed to the LVMs of OCd, in the samples grown with the addition of CdO and excess Se. For the samples claimed to be grown with even more excess Se, three high-frequency modes (1094.11, 1107.45, and 1126.33) were observed and assigned to the LVMs of OSe-VCd complex. In this work, we explicitly calculated the vibrational signatures of OCd and OSe-VCd complex defects based on first principles approach. The calculated vibrational frequencies of OCd and OSe-VCd complex are inconsistent with the frequencies observed by Chen et al., indicating that their observed frequencies are from other defects. Potential defects that could explain the experimentally observed modes are suggested.
Simulation of infrared avalanche photodiodes from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Storebø, Asta Katrine; Goldar, Dara; Brudevoll, Trond
2017-02-01
The present article deals with device physics and modeling of an Hg0.28Cd0.72Te wide-area electron-initiated avalanche photodiode, with main input data extracted from first principles electronic structure codes. Due to the large dimensions of 30 μm x 30 μm x 11 μm a method which combines Monte Carlo transport simulation in the active multiplication layer with `weak conduction' modeling in the charge carrier exit paths is introduced. Consequences resulting from adding perturbative, non-self-consistent small-signal analyses upon a self-consistent, large-signal background bias simulation are briefly examined. Likewise, the issue of ambipolar versus independent electron-hole transport in the absorption layer is discussed. We investigate the effects of alloy scattering on avalanche gain and compare alloy scattering rates used in some recent studies. Alloy scattering is for this particular device and model shown to increase the gain by more than an order of magnitude at typical bias voltages.
Predicted boron-carbide compounds: A first-principles study
Wang, De Yu; Yan, Qian; Wang, Bing; Wang, Yuan Xu Yang, Jueming; Yang, Gui
2014-06-14
By using developed particle swarm optimization algorithm on crystal structural prediction, we have explored the possible crystal structures of B-C system. Their structures, stability, elastic properties, electronic structure, and chemical bonding have been investigated by first-principles calculations with density functional theory. The results show that all the predicted structures are mechanically and dynamically stable. An analysis of calculated enthalpy with pressure indicates that increasing of boron content will increase the stability of boron carbides under low pressure. Moreover, the boron carbides with rich carbon content become more stable under high pressure. The negative formation energy of predicted B{sub 5}C indicates its high stability. The density of states of B{sub 5}C show that it is p-type semiconducting. The calculated theoretical Vickers hardnesses of B-C exceed 40 GPa except B{sub 4}C, BC, and BC{sub 4}, indicating they are potential superhard materials. An analysis of Debye temperature and electronic localization function provides further understanding chemical and physical properties of boron carbide.
First-principles investigation of antiphase boundaries in perovskites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naumov, Ivan; Rabe, Karin
2002-03-01
The lowering of the dielectric constant of Ba_xSr_1-xTiO3 (BST) films compared to bulk can be attributed, at least in part, to the effects of defects associated with film growth. In BST films grown on MgO substrates, such defects include antiphase boundaries (APBs), which have been clearly observed using electron microscopy. In this work, using a first-principles pseudopotential approach based on variational density functional pertubation theory, we have investigated the structure, lattice dynamics and dielectric properties of two relevant APBs in SrTiO3 (Sr-rich and Ti-rich) using ordered supercells. Comparison with bulk SrTiO3 shows that the Born effective charges and electronic dielectric tensor decrease and the characteristic low-frequency polar mode increases in frequency, leading to a significant lowering of the lattice contribution to the dielectric response. We suggest that this change can be understood as the result of the disruption of the Ti-O chains normal to the APB, and thus that this mechanism is also relevant to the solid solution. This work is supported by U. Maryland/Rutgers NSF-MRSEC DMR-00-80008.
First-principles calculations of mobilities in MOSFETs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadjisavvas, George; Tsetseris, Leonidas; Evans, Matthew; Pantelides, Sokrates
2007-03-01
Nano-scale MOSFETs demonstrate interesting electron transport behavior. Straining the silicon lattice results in significant increases in carrier mobility up to 100%. Transport properties are known to depend also on the presence of interface traps. Due to their significance, a large number of studies have obtained mobilities, but in an empirical and semi-classical fashion, whereas, in nano-devices quantum mechanical effects and atomic-scale structural details are the key factors of mobility calculations. Here we use a recently developed method[1] for first-principles calculations of mobilites within DFT to probe the effect of strain and interface point defects (e.g., dangling bonds) on mobilities in double gate ultra-thin SOI (UTSOI) MOSFETs. The transport properties are described in a fully self-consistent quantum mechanical fashion and mobilities are calculated within the Born approximation. The results show that biaxial tensile strain is shown to significantly increase carrier mobility in UTSOI devices by suppressing the effective scattering from atomic-scale interface inhomogeneities; the effect of dangling bonds on mobility in a UTSOI channel is weaker than in conventional MOSFETs because the carrier density peaks at the center of the channel. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant ECS-0524655 and by AFOSR Grant 4224224232. [1] M.H. Evans et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 106802 (2005).
Adsorption of 3-pyrroline on Si(100) from first principles.
Romero, Aldo H; Sbraccia, Carlo; Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi
2004-05-22
The chemisorption of 3-pyrroline (C(4)H(7)N) on Si(100) is studied from first principles. Three different structures can be realized for which, depending on the temperature, the chemisorption process is facile (for two of them it is essentially barrierless); among these configurations the most favored one, from a thermodynamical point of view, is a dissociated structure obtained through an exothermic reaction characterized by the formation of a N-Si bond and a H-Si bond in which the H atom is detached from the molecule. Several other chemisorption structures are possible which, however, require overcoming a significant energy barrier and often breaking multiple bonds. A number of reaction paths going from one stable structure to another have been investigated. We have also generated, for the two basic adsorption structures, theoretical scanning tunneling microscopy images which could facilitate the interpretation of experimental measurements, and we propose a possible reaction mechanism for nitrogen incorporation. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.
First-principles prediction of disordering tendencies in pyrochlore oxides
Jiang Chao; Stanek, C. R.; Sickafus, K. E.; Uberuaga, B. P.
2009-03-01
Using first-principles calculations, we systematically predict the order-disorder energetics of series of zirconate (A{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}), hafnate (A{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}), titanate (A{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and stannate (A{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}) pyrochlores. The disordered defect-fluorite structure is modeled using an 88-atom two-sublattice special quasirandom structure (SQS) that closely reproduces the most relevant near-neighbor intrasublattice and intersublattice pair-correlation functions of the random mixture. The order-disorder transition temperatures of these pyrochlores estimated from our SQS calculations show overall good agreement with existing experiments. We confirm previous studies suggesting that the bonding in pyrochlores is not purely ionic and thus electronic effects also play a role in determining their disordering tendencies. Our results have important consequences for numerous applications, including nuclear waste forms and fast ion conductors.
First-principles Simulations and the Criticality of Calving Glaciers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallot, D.; Åström, J. A.; Schäfer, M.; Welty, E.; O'Neel, S.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Liu, Y.; Riikilä, T.; Zwinger, T.; Timonen, J.; Moore, J.
2014-12-01
The algoritm of a first principles calving-simulation computer-code is outlined and demonstrated. The code is particle-based and uses Newtonian dynamics to simulate ice-fracture, motion and calving. The code can simulate real-size glacier but is only able to simualte individual calving events within a few tens of minutes in duration. The code couples to the Elmer/Ice ice flow-simulation code: Elmer is employed to produce various glacier geomteries, which are then tested for stability using the particle code. In this way it is possible to pin-point the location of calving fronts. The particle simulation code and field observations are engaged to investigate the criticality of calving glaciers. The calving mass and inter-event waiting times both have power-law distributions with the same critical exponents as found for Abelian sand-pile models. This indicate that calving glaciers share characteristics with Self-Organized Critical systems (SOC). This would explain why many glacier found in nature may become unstable as a result of even minor changes in their environment. An SOC calving glacier at the critical point will display so large fluctuations in calving rate that it will render the concept 'average calving rate' more or less useless. I.e. 'average calving rate' will depend on measurement time and always have fluctuaions in the range of 100% more or less independent of the averaging time.
A First-principles Molecular Dynamics Investigation of Superionic Conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, Brandon; Marzari, Nicola
2007-03-01
Superionic materials---solids with liquid-like transport properties---have found widespread use in a variety of applications in fuel cells, switches, sensors, and batteries. However, reasons for fast-ion conduction in such materials, as well as the specific atomistic mechanisms involved, remain ill understood. Our work uses first-principles molecular dynamics to illuminate the mechanisms, pathways, and motivations for superionic conductivity in two materials representing different classes of ion conductors: α-AgI, an archetypal Type-I superionic; and CsHSO4, an anhydrous solid-state electrolyte candidate for hydrogen fuel cells. For α-AgI, we trace common pathways for silver ion conduction and discuss how a chemical signature in the electronic structure relates to enhanced silver ion mobility. We also characterize the dynamical lattice structure in the superionic phase and present the likely motivations for its existence. For CsHSO4, we isolate the dominant atomistic mechanisms involved in superprotonic conduction and discuss the effect of correlated diffusive events in enhancing proton transport. We also offer a detailed description of the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network topology in the course of proton diffusion and discuss the relevance of atomistic processes with competing timescales in facilitating proton transport.
First principles molecular dynamics study of filled ice hydrogen hydrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jingyun; Kuo, Jer-Lai; Iitaka, Toshiaki
2012-08-01
We investigated structural changes, phase diagram, and vibrational properties of hydrogen hydrate in filled-ice phase C2 by using first principles molecular dynamics simulation. It was found that the experimentally reported "cubic" structure is unstable at low temperature and/or high pressure: The "cubic" structure reflects the symmetry at high (room) temperature where the hydrogen bond network is disordered and the hydrogen molecules are orientationally disordered due to thermal rotation. In this sense, the "cubic" symmetry would definitely be lowered at low temperature where the hydrogen bond network and the hydrogen molecules are expected to be ordered. At room temperature and below 30 GPa, it is the thermal effects that play an essential role in stabilizing the structure in "cubic" symmetry. Above 60 GPa, the hydrogen bonds in the framework would be symmetrized and the hydrogen bond order-disorder transition would disappear. These results also suggest the phase behavior of other filled-ice hydrates. In the case of rare gas hydrate, there would be no guest molecules' rotation-nonrotation transition since the guest molecules keep their spherical symmetry at any temperature. On the contrary methane hydrate MH-III would show complex transitions due to the lower symmetry of the guest molecule. These results would encourage further experimental studies, especially nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and neutron scattering, on the phases of filled-ice hydrates at high pressures and/or low temperatures.
Gypsum under pressure: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giacomazzi, Luigi; Scandolo, Sandro
2010-02-01
We investigate by means of first-principles methods the structural response of gypsum (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) to pressures within and above the stability range of gypsum-I (P≤4GPa) . Structural and vibrational properties calculated for gypsum-I are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Compression within gypsum-I takes place predominantly through a reduction in the volume of the CaO8 polyhedra and through a distortion of the hydrogen bonds. The distance between CaSO4 layers becomes increasingly incompressible, indicating a mechanical limit to the packing of water molecules between the layers. We find that a structure with collapsed interlayer distances becomes more stable than gypsum-I above about 5 GPa. The collapse is concomitant with a rearrangement of the hydrogen-bond network of the water molecules. Comparison of the vibrational spectra calculated for this structure with experimental data taken above 5 GPa supports the validity of our model for the high-pressure phase of gypsum.
First-principles prediction of disordering tendencies in complex oxides
Jiang, Chao; Stanek, Christopher R; Sickafus, Kurt E; Uberuaga, Blas P
2008-01-01
The disordering tendencies of a series of zirconate (A{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) , hafnate (A{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}), titanate (A{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and stannate (A{sub 2} Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}) pyrochlores are predicted in this study using first-principles total energy calculations. To model the disordered (A{sub 1/2}B{sub 1/2})(O{sub 7/8}/V{sub 1/8}){sub 2} fluorite structure, we have developed an 88-atom two-sublattice special quasirandom structure (SQS) that closely reproduces the most important near-neighbor intra-sublattice and inter-sublattice pair correlation functions of the random alloy. From the calculated disordering energies, the order-disorder transition temperatures of those pyrochlores are further predicted and our results agree well with the existing experimental phase diagrams. It is clearly demonstrated that both size and electronic effects play an important role in determining the disordering tendencies of pyrochlore compounds.
First-principles simulation on Seebeck coefficient in silicon nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Koichi
2017-06-01
The Seebeck coefficients of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were simulated on the basis of first-principles calculation using various atomistic structure models. The electronic band structures of fully hydrogen-terminated SiNW models give the correct image of quantum mechanical confinement from bulk silicon to SiNW for each axial direction, and the change in the density of states by dimensional reduction to SiNW enhances the thermoelectric performance in terms of the Seebeck coefficient, compared with those of bulk silicon and silicon nanosheets. The uniaxial tensile strain for the SiNW models does not strongly affect the Seebeck coefficient even for the SiNW system with giant piezoresistivity. In contrast, dangling bonds on a wire wall sharply reduce the Seebeck coefficient of SiNW and totally degrade thermoelectric performance from the viewpoint of the power factor. The exclusion of dangling bonds is a key element for the design and application of high-performance thermoelectric nanowires of semiconducting materials.
Coarse graining approach to First principles modeling of structural materials
Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don M; Rusanu, Aurelian; Samolyuk, German D; Wang, Yang; Stoller, Roger E; Zhang, X.-G.; Stocks, George Malcolm
2013-01-01
Classical Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations characterizing extended defects typically require millions of atoms. First principles calculations employed to understand these defect systems at an electronic level cannot, and should not deal with such large numbers of atoms. We present an e cient coarse graining (CG) approach to calculate local electronic properties of large MD-generated structures from the rst principles. We used the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method for two types of iron defect structures 1) screw-dislocation dipoles and 2) radiation cascades. The multiple scattering equations are solved at fewer sites using the CG. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force eld. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with rst-principles based on full local structure information, while atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. This CG approach reduces computational costs signi cantly and makes large-scale structures amenable to rst principles study. Work is sponsored by the USDoE, O ce of Basic Energy Sciences, Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the ORNL, which is supported by the O ce of Science of the USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.
Solubility of nonelectrolytes: a first-principles computational approach.
Jackson, Nicholas E; Chen, Lin X; Ratner, Mark A
2014-05-15
Using a combination of classical molecular dynamics and symmetry adapted intermolecular perturbation theory, we develop a high-accuracy computational method for examining the solubility energetics of nonelectrolytes. This approach is used to accurately compute the cohesive energy density and Hildebrand solubility parameters of 26 molecular liquids. The energy decomposition of symmetry adapted perturbation theory is then utilized to develop multicomponent Hansen-like solubility parameters. These parameters are shown to reproduce the solvent categorizations (nonpolar, polar aprotic, or polar protic) of all molecular liquids studied while lending quantitative rigor to these qualitative categorizations via the introduction of simple, easily computable parameters. Notably, we find that by monitoring the first-order exchange energy contribution to the total interaction energy, one can rigorously determine the hydrogen bonding character of a molecular liquid. Finally, this method is applied to compute explicitly the Flory interaction parameter and the free energy of mixing for two different small molecule mixtures, reproducing the known miscibilities. This methodology represents an important step toward the prediction of molecular solubility from first principles.
First principles investigation of the vibrational properties of hydrous wadsleyite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuchiya, Jun
2017-04-01
Wadsleyite is the primary constituent mineral in the upper part of the Earth's transition zone and this phase can be a significant water reservoir in the Earth. There have been large numbers of reports about the structure, stability, and physical properties of hydrous wadsleyite. The vibrational measurements such as FTIR and Raman are the most commonly used for investigating the OH defects in wadsleyite. There are major and minor doublets of OH stretching bands in hydrous wadsleyite, the former exist around 3300 cm-1 with dν/dP˜-10 cm-1 and the latter around 3600 cm-1 with almost no pressure dependence. There is a broad consensus that main absorption band is interpreted as the OH stretching modes existing in the M3 vacancy. On the other hand, the minor OH band is not well constrained so far. Since the stable hydrogen defects are usually less mobile in wadsleyite crystal, the determination of minor and metastable hydrogen defects are more important for investigating the transport properties including the electrical conductivity and the deformation properties. Here I investigated the structural and vibrational properties of hydrous wadsleyite using first principles techniques in order to clarify the minor metastable hydrogen positions under high-pressure.
Mechanical responses of borophene sheets: a first-principles study.
Mortazavi, Bohayra; Rahaman, Obaidur; Dianat, Arezoo; Rabczuk, Timon
2016-10-05
Recent experimental advances for the fabrication of various borophene sheets introduced new structures with a wide range of applications. Borophene is the boron atom analogue of graphene. Borophene exhibits various structural polymorphs all of which are metallic. In this work, we employed first-principles density functional theory calculations to investigate the mechanical properties of five different single-layer borophene sheets. In particular, we analyzed the effect of the loading direction and point vacancy on the mechanical response of borophene. Moreover, we compared the thermal stabilities of the considered borophene systems. Based on the results of our modelling, borophene films depending on the atomic configurations and the loading direction can yield a remarkable elastic modulus in the range of 163-382 GPa nm and a high ultimate tensile strength from 13.5 GPa nm to around 22.8 GPa nm at the corresponding strain from 0.1 to 0.21. Our study reveals the remarkable mechanical characteristics of borophene films.
First-principles reinvestigation of bulk WO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamdi, Hanen; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Ghosez, Philippe; Bousquet, Eric
2016-12-01
Using first-principles calculations, we analyze the structural properties of tungsten trioxide WO3. Our calculations rely on density functional theory and the use of the B1-WC hybrid functional, which provides very good agreement with experimental data. We show that the hypothetical high-symmetry cubic reference structure combines several ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive (antipolar cation motions, rotations, and tilts of oxygen octahedra) structural instabilities. Although the ferroelectric instability is the largest, the instability related to antipolar W motions combines with those associated to oxygen rotations and tilts to produce the biggest energy reduction, yielding a P 21/c ground state. This nonpolar P 21/c phase is only different from the experimentally reported P c ground state by the absence of a very tiny additional ferroelectric distortion. The calculations performed on a stoichiometric compound so suggest that the low-temperature phase of WO3 is not intrinsically ferroelectric and that the experimentally observed ferroelectric character might arise from extrinsic defects such as oxygen vacancies. Independently, we also identify never observed R 3 m and R 3 c ferroelectric metastable phases with large polarizations and low energies close to the P 21/c ground state, which makes WO3 a potential antiferroelectric material. The relative stability of various phases is discussed in terms of the anharmonic couplings between different structural distortions, highlighting a very complex interplay.
First Principles Thermoelasticity of Tantalum at High Pressures
Orlikowski, D.A.; Soderlind, P.; Moriarty, J.
2002-06-21
The thermoelastic properties of bcc tantalum have been investigated over a broad range of temperatures (up to 12000 K) and pressures (up to 10 Mbar) using first-principles methods that account for cold, electron-thermal, and ion-thermal contributions. Specifically, we have combined ab initio all electron electronic-structure calculations for the cold and electron-thermal contributions to the elastic moduli with phonon contributions for the ion-thermal part calculated using model generalized pseudopotential theory (MGPT). For the latter, a summation of terms over the Brillouin zone is performed within the quasi-harmonic approximation, where each term is composed of a strain derivative of the phonon frequency at a particular k-point. At ambient pressure, the resulting temperature dependence of the elastic moduli is in excellent agreement with ultrasonic measurements. The experimentally observed anomalous behavior of C44 at low temperatures is shown to originate from the electron-thermal contribution. At higher temperatures, the dominant contribution to the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli comes from thermal expansion. Also, the pressure dependence of the moduli compares well with recent diamond and cell measurements up to 105 GPa. The calculated longitudinal and bulk sound velocities at higher pressure and temperature agree well with data obtained from shock experiments. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the Steinberg-Guinan model is examined for ambient pressure.
Thermal conductivity of silicene from first-principles
Xie, Han; Bao, Hua E-mail: hua.bao@sjtu.edu.cn; Hu, Ming E-mail: hua.bao@sjtu.edu.cn
2014-03-31
Silicene, as a graphene-like two-dimensional material, now receives exceptional attention of a wide community of scientists and engineers beyond graphene. Despite extensive study on its electric property, little research has been done to accurately calculate the phonon transport of silicene so far. In this paper, thermal conductivity of monolayer silicene is predicted from first-principles method. At 300 K, the thermal conductivity of monolayer silicene is found to be 9.4 W/mK and much smaller than bulk silicon. The contributions from in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations to thermal conductivity are quantified, and the out-of-plane vibration contributes less than 10% of the overall thermal conductivity, which is different from the results of the similar studies on graphene. The difference is explained by the presence of small buckling, which breaks the reflectional symmetry of the structure. The flexural modes are thus not purely out-of-plane vibration and have strong scattering with other modes.
First-principles study on surface stability of tantalum carbides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Wen-Li; Sygnatowicz, Michael; Lu, Guang-Hong; Liu, Feng; Shetty, Dinesh K.
2016-02-01
Using first-principles method, surface energies of crystal planes of different tantalum carbide phases have been calculated. Quantum size effects are shown to possibly play a considerable role in determining accurate surface energies of these metallic films, which have been neglected in previous works. The γ-TaC phase has a more stable (0 0 1) surface than the close-packed (1 1 1) surface. In the α-Ta2C phase, (0 0 1) surface with only Ta termination is more stable than that of mixed Ta-C termination because the metallic bonds between Ta atoms are weaker than the Ta-C covalent bonds. The same is true for the ζ-Ta4C3 phase. The introduction of structural vacancies in the ζ-Ta4C3 -x phase creates more direct Ta metallic bonds, making the Ta-terminated surfaces even more stable. This is consistent with the experimental observations of cleavage of the basal planes, lamellae bridging of cracks, and the high fracture toughness of ζ-Ta4C3 -x.
Electrostatic engineering of strained ferroelectric perovskites from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cazorla, Claudio; Stengel, Massimiliano
2015-12-01
Design of novel artificial materials based on ferroelectric perovskites relies on the basic principles of electrostatic coupling and in-plane lattice matching. These rules state that the out-of-plane component of the electric displacement field and the in-plane components of the strain are preserved across a layered superlattice, provided that certain growth conditions are respected. Intense research is currently directed at optimizing materials functionalities based on these guidelines, often with remarkable success. Such principles, however, are of limited practical use unless one disposes of reliable data on how a given material behaves under arbitrary electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. Here we demonstrate, by focusing on the prototypical ferroelectrics PbTiO3 and BiFeO3 as test cases, how such information can be calculated from first principles in a systematic and efficient way. In particular, we construct a series of two-dimensional maps that describe the behavior of either compound (e.g., concerning the ferroelectric polarization and antiferrodistortive instabilities) at any conceivable choice of the in-plane lattice parameter, a , and out-of-plane electric displacement, D . In addition to being of immediate practical applicability to superlattice design, our results bring new insight into the complex interplay of competing degrees of freedom in perovskite materials and reveal some notable instances where the behavior of these materials depart from what naively is expected.
Electron-hole excitations and optical spectra from first principles
Rohlfing, Michael; Louie, Steven G.
2000-08-15
We present a recently developed approach to calculate electron-hole excitations and the optical spectra of condensed matter from first principles. The key concept is to describe the excitations of the electronic system by the corresponding one- and two-particle Green's function. The method combines three computational techniques. First, the electronic ground state is treated within density-functional theory. Second, the single-particle spectrum of the electrons and holes is obtained within the GW approximation to the electron self-energy operator. Finally, the electron-hole interaction is calculated and a Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved, yielding the coupled electron-hole excitations. The resulting solutions allow the calculation of the entire optical spectrum. This holds both for bound excitonic states below the band gap, as well as for the resonant spectrum above the band gap. We discuss a number of technical developments needed for the application of the method to real systems. To illustrate the approach, we discuss the excitations and optical spectra of spatially isolated systems (atoms, molecules, and semiconductor clusters) and of extended, periodic crystals (semiconductors and insulators). (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Lattice thermal conductivity of borophene from first principle calculation
Xiao, Huaping; Cao, Wei; Ouyang, Tao; Guo, Sumei; He, Chaoyu; Zhong, Jianxin
2017-01-01
The phonon transport property is a foundation of understanding a material and predicting the potential application in mirco/nano devices. In this paper, the thermal transport property of borophene is investigated by combining first-principle calculations and phonon Boltzmann transport equation. At room temperature, the lattice thermal conductivity of borophene is found to be about 14.34 W/mK (error is about 3%), which is much smaller than that of graphene (about 3500 W/mK). The contributions from different phonon modes are qualified, and some phonon modes with high frequency abnormally play critical role on the thermal transport of borophene. This is quite different from the traditional understanding that thermal transport is usually largely contributed by the low frequency acoustic phonon modes for most of suspended 2D materials. Detailed analysis further reveals that the scattering between the out-of-plane flexural acoustic mode (FA) and other modes likes FA + FA/TA/LA/OP ↔ TA/LA/OP is the predominant phonon process channel. Finally the vibrational characteristic of some typical phonon modes and mean free path distribution of different phonon modes are also presented in this work. Our results shed light on the fundamental phonon transport properties of borophene, and foreshow the potential application for thermal management community. PMID:28374853
Thermalisation of a quantum system from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ithier, Gregoire; Benaych-Georges, Florent
2015-03-01
How does a quantum system reach thermodynamical equilibrium? Answering such a question from first principles is, perhaps surprisingly, still an open issue (Popescu Nat. Phys. 2006, Goldstein PRL 2006, Genway PRL 2013). We present here a new model comprising an arbitrary quantum system interacting with a large arbitrary quantum environment, both initially prepared in a quantum pure state. We then demonstrate that thermalisation is an emergent property of the unitary evolution under a Schrödinger equation of this large composite system. The key conceptual tool of our method is the phenomenon of ``measure concentration'' appearing with functions defined on large dimension Hilbert spaces, a phenomenon which cancels out any effect of the microscopic structure of interaction Hamiltonians. Using our model, we first characterize the transient evolution or decoherence of the system and show its universal character. We then focus on the stationary regime and recover the canonical state well known from statistical thermodynamics. This finding leads us to propose an alternative and more general definition of the canonical partition function, that includes, among other things, the possibility of describing partial thermalisation.
Stress dependent defect energetics in Tungsten from first-principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossain, Md.; Marian, Jaime
2013-03-01
Tungsten (W) is an important material for high temperature applications due to its refractory nature. However, like all transition metals from the VI-A group, W suffers from low-temperature brittleness and lack of ductility, which poses serious questions for its use as a structural material. Tungsten's mechanical properties can be enhanced by alloying with elements with d-electrons, such as Re, which has resulted in successful commercial alloys. In this work, we obtain the formation and migration energetics of Re solute atoms in terms of their interaction with vacancies and dislocations. To explore the influence of external stresses on Re transport properties, we examine the role of hydrostatic and shear deformation on the vacancy formation energy (VFE) and migration energy barrier (Em) in BCC W from first-principles calculations by developing a pseudopotential with 6s2, 6p0, 5d4, and 5f0 electronic states for the valence electrons. We find that under hydrostatic deformation, increase or decrease of vacancy formation energy depends on the type of deformation - tensile or compressive, while for shear deformation it decreases irrespective of the magnitude of applied deformation. On the other hand, migration energy barrier always decreases under hydrostatic deformation, but shows path-length dependent behavior under shear deformation. This talk will discuss the underlying principles and possible routes for enhancing mechanical strength from a physics perspective.
First-principles structural design of superhard materials.
Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Yanchao; Lv, Jian; Zhu, Chunye; Li, Qian; Zhang, Miao; Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming
2013-03-21
We reported a developed methodology to design superhard materials for given chemical systems under external conditions (here, pressure). The new approach is based on the CALYPSO algorithm and requires only the chemical compositions to predict the hardness vs. energy map, from which the energetically preferable superhard structures are readily accessible. In contrast to the traditional ground state structure prediction method where the total energy was solely used as the fitness function, here we adopted hardness as the fitness function in combination with the first-principles calculation to construct the hardness vs. energy map by seeking a proper balance between hardness and energy for a better mechanical description of given chemical systems. To allow a universal calculation on the hardness for the predicted structure, we have improved the earlier hardness model based on bond strength by applying the Laplacian matrix to account for the highly anisotropic and molecular systems. We benchmarked our approach in typical superhard systems, such as elemental carbon, binary B-N, and ternary B-C-N compounds. Nearly all the experimentally known and most of the earlier theoretical superhard structures have been successfully reproduced. The results suggested that our approach is reliable and can be widely applied into design of new superhard materials.
Four superhard carbon allotropes: a first-principles study.
He, Chaoyu; Sun, Lizhong; Zhang, Chunxiao; Peng, Xiangyang; Zhang, Kaiwang; Zhong, Jianxin
2012-06-21
Using a generalized genetic algorithm, we propose four new sp(3) carbon allotropes with 5-6-7 (5-6-7-type Z-ACA and Z-CACB) or 4-6-8 (4-6-8-type Z4-A(3)B(1) and A4-A(2)B(2)) carbon rings. Their stability, mechanical and electronic properties are systematically studied using a first-principles method. We find that the four new carbon allotropes show amazing stability in comparison with the carbon phases proposed recently. Both 5-6-7-type Z-ACA and Z-CACB are direct band-gap semiconductors with band gaps of 2.261 eV and 4.196 eV, respectively. However, the 4-6-8-type Z4-A(3)B(1) and A4-A(2)B(2) are indirect band-gap semiconductors with band gaps of 3.105 eV and 3.271 eV, respectively. Their mechanical properties reveal that all the four carbon allotropes proposed in present work are superhard materials, which are comparable to diamond.
Predicted boron-carbide compounds: a first-principles study.
Wang, De Yu; Yan, Qian; Wang, Bing; Wang, Yuan Xu; Yang, Jueming; Yang, Gui
2014-06-14
By using developed particle swarm optimization algorithm on crystal structural prediction, we have explored the possible crystal structures of B-C system. Their structures, stability, elastic properties, electronic structure, and chemical bonding have been investigated by first-principles calculations with density functional theory. The results show that all the predicted structures are mechanically and dynamically stable. An analysis of calculated enthalpy with pressure indicates that increasing of boron content will increase the stability of boron carbides under low pressure. Moreover, the boron carbides with rich carbon content become more stable under high pressure. The negative formation energy of predicted B5C indicates its high stability. The density of states of B5C show that it is p-type semiconducting. The calculated theoretical Vickers hardnesses of B-C exceed 40 GPa except B4C, BC, and BC4, indicating they are potential superhard materials. An analysis of Debye temperature and electronic localization function provides further understanding chemical and physical properties of boron carbide.
Realtime capable first principle based modelling of tokamak turbulent transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Citrin, Jonathan; Breton, Sarah; Felici, Federico; Imbeaux, Frederic; Redondo, Juan; Aniel, Thierry; Artaud, Jean-Francois; Baiocchi, Benedetta; Bourdelle, Clarisse; Camenen, Yann; Garcia, Jeronimo
2015-11-01
Transport in the tokamak core is dominated by turbulence driven by plasma microinstabilities. When calculating turbulent fluxes, maintaining both a first-principle-based model and computational tractability is a strong constraint. We present a pathway to circumvent this constraint by emulating quasilinear gyrokinetic transport code output through a nonlinear regression using multilayer perceptron neural networks. This recovers the original code output, while accelerating the computing time by five orders of magnitude, allowing realtime applications. A proof-of-principle is presented based on the QuaLiKiz quasilinear transport model, using a training set of five input dimensions, relevant for ITG turbulence. The model is implemented in the RAPTOR real-time capable tokamak simulator, and simulates a 300s ITER discharge in 10s. Progress in generalizing the emulation to include 12 input dimensions is presented. This opens up new possibilities for interpretation of present-day experiments, scenario preparation and open-loop optimization, realtime controller design, realtime discharge supervision, and closed-loop trajectory optimization.
First principles molecular dynamics without self-consistent field optimization.
Souvatzis, Petros; Niklasson, Anders M N
2014-01-28
We present a first principles molecular dynamics approach that is based on time-reversible extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization. The optimization-free dynamics keeps the computational cost to a minimum and typically provides molecular trajectories that closely follow the exact Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Only one single diagonalization and Hamiltonian (or Fockian) construction are required in each integration time step. The proposed dynamics is derived for a general free-energy potential surface valid at finite electronic temperatures within hybrid density functional theory. Even in the event of irregular functional behavior that may cause a dynamical instability, the optimization-free limit represents a natural starting guess for force calculations that may require a more elaborate iterative electronic ground state optimization. Our optimization-free dynamics thus represents a flexible theoretical framework for a broad and general class of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.
A First-Principle Kinetic Theory of Meteor Plasma Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers
2015-11-01
Every second millions of tiny meteoroids hit the Earth from space, vast majority too small to observe visually. However, radars detect the plasma they generate and use the collected data to characterize the incoming meteoroids and the atmosphere in which they disintegrate. This diagnostics requires a detailed quantitative understanding of formation of the meteor plasma. Fast-descending meteoroids become detectable to radars after they heat due to collisions with atmospheric molecules sufficiently and start ablating. The ablated material then collides into atmospheric molecules and forms plasma around the meteoroid. Reflection of radar pulses from this plasma produces a localized signal called a head echo. Using first principles, we have developed a consistent collisional kinetic theory of the near-meteoroid plasma. This theory shows that the meteoroid plasma develops over a length-scale close to the ion mean free path with a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution. The spatial distribution of the plasma density shows significant deviations from a Gaussian law usually employed in head-echo modeling. This analytical model will serve as a basis for more accurate quantitative interpretation of the head echo radar measurements. Work supported by NSF Grant 1244842.
First-principles studies of atomic dynamics in tetrahedrite thermoelectrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Junchao; Zhu, Mengze; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Ke, Xianglin; Morelli, Donald T.; Lai, Wei
2016-10-01
Cu12Sb4S13-based tetrahedrites are high-performance thermoelectrics that contain earth-abundant and environmentally friendly elements. At present, the mechanistic understanding of their low lattice thermal conductivity (<1 W m-1 K-1 at 300 K) remains limited. This work applies first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, along with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments, to study the incoherent and coherent atomic dynamics in Cu10.5NiZn0.5Sb4S13, in order to deepen our insight into mechanisms of anomalous dynamic behavior and low lattice thermal conductivity in tetrahedrites. Our study of incoherent dynamics reveals the anomalous "phonon softening upon cooling" behavior commonly observed in inelastic neutron scattering data. By examining the dynamic Cu-Sb distances inside the Sb[CuS3]Sb cage, we ascribe softening to the decreased anharmonic "rattling" of Cu in the cage. On the other hand, our study of coherent dynamics reveals that acoustic modes are confined in a small region of dynamic scattering space, which we hypothesize leads to a minimum phonon mean free path. By assuming a Debye model, we obtain a lattice minimum thermal conductivity value consistent with experiments. We believe this study furthers our understanding of the atomic dynamics of tetrahedrite thermoelectrics and will more generally help shed light on the origin of intrinsically low lattice thermal conductivity in these and other structurally similar materials.
Auger recombination in scintillator materials from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André
2015-03-01
Scintillators convert high energy radiation into lower energy photons which are easier to detect and analyze. One of the uses of these devices is identifying radioactive materials being transported across national borders. However, scintillating materials have a non-proportional light yield in response to incident radiation, which makes this task difficult. One possible cause of the non-proportional light yield is non-radiative Auger recombination. Auger recombination can occur in two ways - direct and phonon-assisted. We have studied both types of Auger recombination from first principles in the common scintillating material sodium iodide. Our results indicate that the phonon-assisted process, assisted primarily by short-range optical phonons, dominates the direct process. The corresponding Auger coefficients are 5 . 6 +/- 0 . 3 ×10-32cm6s-1 for the phonon-assisted process versus 1 . 17 +/- 0 . 01 ×10-33cm6s-1 for the direct process. At higher electronic temperatures the direct Auger recombination rate increases but remains lower than the phonon-assisted rate. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation CAREER award through Grant No. DMR-1254314 and NA-22. Computational Resources provide by LLNL and DOE NERSC Facility.
"Postural first" principle when balance is challenged in elderly people.
Lion, Alexis; Spada, Rosario S; Bosser, Gilles; Gauchard, Gérome C; Anello, Guido; Bosco, Paolo; Calabrese, Santa; Iero, Antonella; Stella, Giuseppe; Elia, Maurizio; Perrin, Philippe P
2014-08-01
Human cognitive processing limits can lead to difficulties in performing two tasks simultaneously. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cognitive load on both simple and complex postural tasks. Postural control was evaluated in 128 noninstitutionalized elderly people (mean age = 73.6 ± 5.6 years) using a force platform on a firm support in control condition (CC) and mental counting condition (MCC) with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Then, the same tests were performed on a foam support. Sway path traveled and area covered by the center of foot pressure were recorded, low values indicating efficient balance. On firm support, sway path was higher in MCC than in CC both in EO and EC conditions (p < 0.001). On foam support, sway path was higher in CC than in MCC in EC condition (p < 0.001), area being higher in CC than in MCC both in EO (p < 0.05) and EC (p < 0.001) conditions. The results indicate that cognitive load alters balance control in a simple postural task (i.e. on firm support), which is highlighted by an increase of energetic expenditure (i.e. increase of the sway path covered) to balance. Awareness may not be increased and the attentional demand may be shared between balance and mental task. Conversely, cognitive load does not perturb the realization of a new complex postural task. This result showed that postural control is prioritized ("postural first" principle) when seriously challenged.
First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo
2014-03-01
Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.
First-principles investigation of Ag-doped gold nanoclusters.
Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Mei-Li; Wu, Di; Liu, Pei-Xun; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Liang-An; She, Yi; Liu, Qing-Fen; Fan, Fei-Yue
2011-01-01
Gold nanoclusters have the tunable optical absorption property, and are promising for cancer cell imaging, photothermal therapy and radiotherapy. First-principle is a very powerful tool for design of novel materials. In the present work, structural properties, band gap engineering and tunable optical properties of Ag-doped gold clusters have been calculated using density functional theory. The electronic structure of a stable Au(20) cluster can be modulated by incorporating Ag, and the HOMO-LUMO gap of Au(20-) (n)Ag(n) clusters is modulated due to the incorporation of Ag electronic states in the HOMO and LUMO. Furthermore, the results of the imaginary part of the dielectric function indicate that the optical transition of gold clusters is concentration-dependent and the optical transition between HOMO and LUMO shifts to the low energy range as the Ag atom increases. These calculated results are helpful for the design of gold cluster-based biomaterials, and will be of interest in the fields of radiation medicine, biophysics and nanoscience.
First Principles Structure Calculations Using the General Potential Lapw Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Su-Huai
We have developed a completely general first principles self-consistent full-potential linearized-augmented-plane -wave (LAPW) method program within the density functional formalism to calculate electronic band structure, total energy, pressure and other quantities. No symmetry assumptions are used for the crystal structure. Shape unrestricted charge densities and potentials are calculated inside muffin -tin (MT) spheres as well as in the interstitial regions. All contributions to the Hamiltonian matrix elements are completely taken into account. The core states are treated fully relativistically using the spherical part of the potential only. Scalar relativistic effects are included for the band-states, and spin-orbit coupling is included using a second variation procedure. Both core states and valence states are treated self-consistently, the frozen core approximation is not required. The fast Fourier transformation method is used wherever it is applicable, and this greatly improves the efficiency. This state-of-the-art program has been tested extensively to check the accuracy and convergence properties by comparing calculated electronic band structures, ground state properties, equations of state and cohesive energies for bulk W and GaAs with other theoretical calculations and experimental results. It has been successfully applied to calculate and predict structural and metal-insulator phase transitions for close-packed crystal BaSe and BaTe and the geometric structure of the d-band metal W(001) surface. The results are in generally good agreement with experiment.
First principles statistical mechanics of alloys and magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eisenbach, Markus; Khan, Suffian N.; Li, Ying Wai
Modern high performance computing resources are enabling the exploration of the statistical physics of phase spaces with increasing size and higher fidelity of the Hamiltonian of the systems. For selected systems, this now allows the combination of Density Functional based first principles calculations with classical Monte Carlo methods for parameter free, predictive thermodynamics of materials. We combine our locally selfconsistent real space multiple scattering method for solving the Kohn-Sham equation with Wang-Landau Monte-Carlo calculations (WL-LSMS). In the past we have applied this method to the calculation of Curie temperatures in magnetic materials. Here we will present direct calculations of the chemical order - disorder transitions in alloys. We present our calculated transition temperature for the chemical ordering in CuZn and the temperature dependence of the short-range order parameter and specific heat. Finally we will present the extension of the WL-LSMS method to magnetic alloys, thus allowing the investigation of the interplay of magnetism, structure and chemical order in ferrous alloys. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division and it used Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility resources at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
First-principles study of tantalum-arsenic binary compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jifeng; Singh, David J.
2017-01-01
The electronic properties and phase stability of binary tantalum arsenides are investigated using first-principles calculations. We find strong covalent bonding between Ta and As in TaAs2. In the lower As content compounds, the Ta is less covalent and donates charge to the As backbone. The covalency of other compounds becomes smaller with the increase of Ta composition. Compounds on the convex hull are TaAs2, TaAs, Ta5As4, and Ta3As, while Ta2As is slightly above the hull. Trends in the electronic and other properties are discussed. We identify the space group of TaAs2 to be centrosymmetric C2/m and find semimetallic behavior in TaAs and TaAs2. The other binary compounds are metallic systems with finite density of states at the Fermi level. The plasma energies show moderate conductivity anisotropy in Ta5As4 and Ta2As, which are also the most conductive compounds among the binary phases.
First principles based mean field model for oxygen reduction reaction.
Jinnouchi, Ryosuke; Kodama, Kensaku; Hatanaka, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Yu
2011-12-21
A first principles-based mean field model was developed for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) taking account of the coverage- and material-dependent reversible potentials of the elementary steps. This model was applied to the simulation of single crystal surfaces of Pt, Pt alloy and Pt core-shell catalysts under Ar and O(2) atmospheres. The results are consistent with those shown by past experimental and theoretical studies on surface coverages under Ar atmosphere, the shape of the current-voltage curve for the ORR on Pt(111) and the material-dependence of the ORR activity. This model suggests that the oxygen associative pathway including HO(2)(ads) formation is the main pathway on Pt(111), and that the rate determining step (RDS) is the removal step of O(ads) on Pt(111). This RDS is accelerated on several highly active Pt alloys and core-shell surfaces, and this acceleration decreases the reaction intermediate O(ads). The increase in the partial pressure of O(2)(g) increases the surface coverage with O(ads) and OH(ads), and this coverage increase reduces the apparent reaction order with respect to the partial pressure to less than unity. This model shows details on how the reaction pathway, RDS, surface coverages, Tafel slope, reaction order and material-dependent activity are interrelated.
DNA translocation through graphene nanopores: a first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Shenglin; Yang, Zhixiong; Ni, Xiang; Zhang, Hua; Ouyang, Jun; Fangping, Ouyang
2014-03-01
With first-principles transport simulation, a biosensor device built from a graphene nanoribbon containing a nanopore is designed for DNA sequencing. The four DNA nucleobases can be distinguished from one another by detecting the transverse-currents of this device. To investigate the transport properties and mechanisms of such a device, we examine the motion effects of nucleobases. The analysis of the transmission spectra and frontier orbital energy shows that the transverse-currents variation of the device strongly results from the long-range interaction between nucleobases and the device. This interaction makes transverse-currents ultra-sensitive to the molecule inside the pore. By rotating the nucleotides inside the pore, the transverse-currents of the device vary along with the changes of molecular orientation. Due to the long-range interaction, when nucleobases chain translocates through nanopore of the device, the influences of adjacent nucleobases on transverse-currents cannot be ignored. These novel effects of nucleobases on the transport capacity of the device provide some theoretical guidance for the design of graphene-based nanopore sensor devices.
First principles molecular dynamics without self-consistent field optimization
Souvatzis, Petros; Niklasson, Anders M. N.
2014-01-28
We present a first principles molecular dynamics approach that is based on time-reversible extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization. The optimization-free dynamics keeps the computational cost to a minimum and typically provides molecular trajectories that closely follow the exact Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Only one single diagonalization and Hamiltonian (or Fockian) construction are required in each integration time step. The proposed dynamics is derived for a general free-energy potential surface valid at finite electronic temperatures within hybrid density functional theory. Even in the event of irregular functional behavior that may cause a dynamical instability, the optimization-free limit represents a natural starting guess for force calculations that may require a more elaborate iterative electronic ground state optimization. Our optimization-free dynamics thus represents a flexible theoretical framework for a broad and general class of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.
First principles calculation of the activity of cytochrome P450
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Ellis, S. W.; Tucker, G. T.; Boyes, R. N.
1998-04-01
The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes is of enormous interest in the biological sciences due to the wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds which it metabolises, including many drugs. We describe the use of first principles quantum mechanical modeling techniques, based on density functional theory, to determine the outcome of interactions between an enzyme and a number of compounds. Specifically, we calculate the spin state of an Fe3+ ion present in a haem moiety at the active site of these enzymes. The spin state of this ion indicates if the catalytic reaction will proceed. The computational results obtained compare favorably with experimental data. Only the principle components of the active site of the enzyme are included in the computational models, demonstrating that only a small fragment of the protein needs to be included in the models in order to accurately reproduce this aspect of the enzymes' function. These results open the way for further investigation of this superfamily of enzymes using the methods detailed in this paper.
High-Pressure Hydrogen from First-Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, Miguel A.
2014-03-01
The main approximations typically employed in first-principles simulations of high-pressure hydrogen are the neglect of nuclear quantum effects (NQE) and the approximate treatment of electronic exchange and correlation, typically through a density functional theory (DFT) formulation. In this talk I'll present a detailed analysis of the influence of these approximations on the phase diagram of high-pressure hydrogen, with the goal of identifying the predictive capabilities of current methods and, at the same time, making accurate predictions in this important regime. We use a path integral formulation combined with density functional theory, which allows us to incorporate NQEs in a direct and controllable way. In addition, we use state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo calculations to benchmark the accuracy of more approximate mean-field electronic structure calculations based on DFT, and we use GW and hybrid DFT to calculate the optical properties of the solid and liquid phases near metallization. We present accurate predictions of the metal-insulator transition on the solid, including structural and optical properties of the molecular phase. MAM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by LDRD Grant No. 13-LW-004.
First-Principle Characterization for Singlet Fission Couplings.
Yang, Chou-Hsun; Hsu, Chao-Ping
2015-05-21
The electronic coupling for singlet fission, an important parameter for determining the rate, has been found to be too small unless charge-transfer (CT) components were introduced in the diabatic states, mostly through perturbation or a model Hamiltonian. In the present work, the fragment spin difference (FSD) scheme was generalized to calculate the singlet fission coupling. The largest coupling strength obtained was 14.8 meV for two pentacenes in a crystal structure, or 33.7 meV for a transition-state structure, which yielded a singlet fission lifetime of 239 or 37 fs, generally consistent with experimental results (80 fs). Test results with other polyacene molecules are similar. We found that the charge on one fragment in the S1 diabatic state correlates well with FSD coupling, indicating the importance of the CT component. The FSD approach is a useful first-principle method for singlet fission coupling, without the need to include the CT component explicitly.
Lattice thermal conductivity of borophene from first principle calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Huaping; Cao, Wei; Ouyang, Tao; Guo, Sumei; He, Chaoyu; Zhong, Jianxin
2017-04-01
The phonon transport property is a foundation of understanding a material and predicting the potential application in mirco/nano devices. In this paper, the thermal transport property of borophene is investigated by combining first-principle calculations and phonon Boltzmann transport equation. At room temperature, the lattice thermal conductivity of borophene is found to be about 14.34 W/mK (error is about 3%), which is much smaller than that of graphene (about 3500 W/mK). The contributions from different phonon modes are qualified, and some phonon modes with high frequency abnormally play critical role on the thermal transport of borophene. This is quite different from the traditional understanding that thermal transport is usually largely contributed by the low frequency acoustic phonon modes for most of suspended 2D materials. Detailed analysis further reveals that the scattering between the out-of-plane flexural acoustic mode (FA) and other modes likes FA + FA/TA/LA/OP ↔ TA/LA/OP is the predominant phonon process channel. Finally the vibrational characteristic of some typical phonon modes and mean free path distribution of different phonon modes are also presented in this work. Our results shed light on the fundamental phonon transport properties of borophene, and foreshow the potential application for thermal management community.
Electronic and structural reconstruction in titanate heterostructures from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulder, Andrew T.; Fennie, Craig J.
2014-03-01
Recent advances in transition metal oxide heterostructures have opened new routes to create materials with novel functionalities and properties. One direction has been to combine a Mott insulating perovskite with an electronic d1 configuration, such as LaTiO3, with a band insulating d0 perovskite, such as SrTiO3. An exciting recent development is the demonstration of interfacial conductivity in GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures that display a complex structural motif of octahedral rotations and ferromagnetic properties similar to bulk GdTiO3. In this talk we present our first principles investigation of the interplay of structural, electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom for a wide range of d1/d0 titanate heterostructures. We find evidence for both rotation driven ferroelectricity and a symmetry breaking electronic reconstruction with a concomitant structural distortion at the interface. We argue that these materials represent an ideal platform to realize novel functionalities such as the electric field control of electronic and magnetic properties.
First-principles simulations of warm dense lithium fluoride.
Driver, K P; Militzer, B
2017-04-01
We perform first-principles path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to explore warm dense matter states of LiF. Our simulations cover a wide density-temperature range of 2.08-15.70gcm^{-3} and 10^{4}-10^{9} K. Since PIMC and DFT-MD accurately treat effects of atomic shell structure, we find a pronounced compression maximum and a shoulder on the principal Hugoniot curve attributed to K-shell and L-shell ionization. The results provide a benchmark for widely used EOS tables, such as SESAME, LEOS, and models. In addition, we compute pair-correlation functions that reveal an evolving plasma structure and ionization process that is driven by thermal and pressure ionization. Finally, we compute electronic density of states of liquid LiF from DFT-MD simulations and find that the electronic gap can remain open with increasing density and temperature to at least 15.7 gcm^{-3}.
First-principles simulations of warm dense lithium fluoride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driver, K. P.; Militzer, B.
2017-04-01
We perform first-principles path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to explore warm dense matter states of LiF. Our simulations cover a wide density-temperature range of 2.08 -15.70 g cm-3 and 104-109 K. Since PIMC and DFT-MD accurately treat effects of atomic shell structure, we find a pronounced compression maximum and a shoulder on the principal Hugoniot curve attributed to K-shell and L-shell ionization. The results provide a benchmark for widely used EOS tables, such as SESAME, LEOS, and models. In addition, we compute pair-correlation functions that reveal an evolving plasma structure and ionization process that is driven by thermal and pressure ionization. Finally, we compute electronic density of states of liquid LiF from DFT-MD simulations and find that the electronic gap can remain open with increasing density and temperature to at least 15.7 g cm-3 .
Predicting catalysis: understanding ammonia synthesis from first-principles calculations.
Hellman, A; Baerends, E J; Biczysko, M; Bligaard, T; Christensen, C H; Clary, D C; Dahl, S; van Harrevelt, R; Honkala, K; Jonsson, H; Kroes, G J; Luppi, M; Manthe, U; Nørskov, J K; Olsen, R A; Rossmeisl, J; Skúlason, E; Tautermann, C S; Varandas, A J C; Vincent, J K
2006-09-14
Here, we give a full account of a large collaborative effort toward an atomic-scale understanding of modern industrial ammonia production over ruthenium catalysts. We show that overall rates of ammonia production can be determined by applying various levels of theory (including transition state theory with or without tunneling corrections, and quantum dynamics) to a range of relevant elementary reaction steps, such as N(2) dissociation, H(2) dissociation, and hydrogenation of the intermediate reactants. A complete kinetic model based on the most relevant elementary steps can be established for any given point along an industrial reactor, and the kinetic results can be integrated over the catalyst bed to determine the industrial reactor yield. We find that, given the present uncertainties, the rate of ammonia production is well-determined directly from our atomic-scale calculations. Furthermore, our studies provide new insight into several related fields, for instance, gas-phase and electrochemical ammonia synthesis. The success of predicting the outcome of a catalytic reaction from first-principles calculations supports our point of view that, in the future, theory will be a fully integrated tool in the search for the next generation of catalysts.
First-principle studies on the Li-Te system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Youchun; Tian, Fubo; Li, Da; Duan, Defang; Liu, Yunxian; Liu, Bingbing; Zhou, Qiang; Cui, Tian
2017-01-01
First-principle evolutionary calculation was performed to search for all probable stable lithium tellurium compounds. In addition to the well-known structures of Fm-3m Li2Te and Pnma Li2Te, several novel structures, including those of P4/nmm Li2Te, Imma Li8Te2, and C2/m Li9Te2, were determined under high pressure. The transformation sequence of Li2Te induced by pressure was presented as follows. The phase transition occurred at 7.5 GPa while transforming from Fm-3m phase to Pnma structure, then transformed to P4/nmm phase at 14 GPa. P4/nmm Li2Te can remain stable at least up to 140 GPa. Li8Te2 and Li9Te2 were stable at 8-120 GPa and 80-120 GPa, respectively. Interestingly, Li8Te2 and Li9Te2 were predicted to be metallic under high pressure, Li2Te would metalize on compression. P4/nmm Li2Te is likely a super ionic conductor due to the special characteristic. Metallic P4/nmm Li2Te may be a candidate mixed conductor material under extreme pressure. Charge transfer was studied using Bader charge analysis. Charge transferred from Li to Te, and the relative debilitated ionicity between Li and Te atoms existed at high pressure.
Accurate line intensities of methane from first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikitin, Andrei V.; Rey, Michael; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.
2017-10-01
In this work, we report first-principle theoretical predictions of methane spectral line intensities that are competitive with (and complementary to) the best laboratory measurements. A detailed comparison with the most accurate data shows that discrepancies in integrated polyad intensities are in the range of 0.4%-2.3%. This corresponds to estimations of the best available accuracy in laboratory Fourier Transform spectra measurements for this quantity. For relatively isolated strong lines the individual intensity deviations are in the same range. A comparison with the most precise laser measurements of the multiplet intensities in the 2ν3 band gives an agreement within the experimental error margins (about 1%). This is achieved for the first time for five-atomic molecules. In the Supplementary Material we provide the lists of theoretical intensities at 269 K for over 5000 strongest transitions in the range below 6166 cm-1. The advantage of the described method is that this offers a possibility to generate fully assigned exhaustive line lists at various temperature conditions. Extensive calculations up to 12,000 cm-1 including high-T predictions will be made freely available through the TheoReTS information system (http://theorets.univ-reims.fr, http://theorets.tsu.ru) that contains ab initio born line lists and provides a user-friendly graphical interface for a fast simulation of the absorption cross-sections and radiance.
First-principles investigation of hydrous post-perovskite
Townsend, Joshua P.; Tsuchiya, Jun; Bina, Craig R.; ...
2015-04-11
A stable, hydrogen-defect structure of post-perovskite (hy-ppv, Mg1–xSiH2xO3) has been determined by first-principles calculations of the vibrational and elastic properties up to 150 GPa. Among three potential hy-ppv structures analyzed, one was found to be stable at pressures relevant to the lower-mantle D" region. Hydrogen has a pronounced effect on the elastic properties of post-perovskite due to magnesium defects associated with hydration, including a reduction of the zero-pressure bulk (K0) and shear (G0) moduli by 5% and 8%, respectively, for a structure containing ~1 wt.% H2O. However, with increasing pressure the moduli of hy-ppv increase significantly relative to ppv, resultingmore » in a structure that is only 1% slower in bulk compressional velocity and 2.5% slower in shear-wave velocity than ppv at 120 GPa. In contrast, the reduction of certain anisotropic elastic constants (Cij) in hy-ppv increases with pressure (notably, C55, C66, and C23), indicating that hydration generally increases elastic anisotropy in hy-ppv at D" pressures. Calculated infrared absorption spectra show two O–H stretching bands at ~3500 cm–1 that shift with pressure to lower wavenumber by about 2 cm–1/GPa. At 120 GPa the hydrogen bonds in hy-ppv are still asymmetric. Furthermore, the stability of a hy-ppv structure containing 1–2 wt.% H2O at D" pressures implies that post-perovskite may be a host for recycled or primordial hydrogen near the Earth’s core-mantle boundary.« less
First-principles investigation of hydrous post-perovskite
Townsend, Joshua P.; Tsuchiya, Jun; Bina, Craig R.; Jacobsen, Steven D.
2015-04-11
A stable, hydrogen-defect structure of post-perovskite (hy-ppv, Mg_{1–x}SiH_{2x}O_{3}) has been determined by first-principles calculations of the vibrational and elastic properties up to 150 GPa. Among three potential hy-ppv structures analyzed, one was found to be stable at pressures relevant to the lower-mantle D" region. Hydrogen has a pronounced effect on the elastic properties of post-perovskite due to magnesium defects associated with hydration, including a reduction of the zero-pressure bulk (K_{0}) and shear (G_{0}) moduli by 5% and 8%, respectively, for a structure containing ~1 wt.% H_{2}O. However, with increasing pressure the moduli of hy-ppv increase significantly relative to ppv, resulting in a structure that is only 1% slower in bulk compressional velocity and 2.5% slower in shear-wave velocity than ppv at 120 GPa. In contrast, the reduction of certain anisotropic elastic constants (C_{ij}) in hy-ppv increases with pressure (notably, C_{55}, C_{66}, and C_{23}), indicating that hydration generally increases elastic anisotropy in hy-ppv at D" pressures. Calculated infrared absorption spectra show two O–H stretching bands at ~3500 cm^{–1} that shift with pressure to lower wavenumber by about 2 cm^{–1}/GPa. At 120 GPa the hydrogen bonds in hy-ppv are still asymmetric. Furthermore, the stability of a hy-ppv structure containing 1–2 wt.% H_{2}O at D" pressures implies that post-perovskite may be a host for recycled or primordial hydrogen near the Earth’s core-mantle boundary.
First principles modeling of nonlinear incidence rates in seasonal epidemics.
Ponciano, José M; Capistrán, Marcos A
2011-02-01
In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence rate function that characterizes epidemic models. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence rate function, which results from modeling the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS model with both the classical and the LHD incidence rate functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR model with both incidence rate functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the model with the LHD incidence rate may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our model was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS model with classical incidence rate predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS model with LHD incidence rate will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the models' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics.
Monolayer II-VI semiconductors: A first-principles prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Hui; Li, Xian-Bin; Chen, Nian-Ke; Xie, Sheng-Yi; Tian, Wei Quan; Chen, Yuanping; Xia, Hong; Zhang, S. B.; Sun, Hong-Bo
2015-09-01
A systematic study of 32 honeycomb monolayer II-VI semiconductors is carried out by first-principles methods. While none of the two-dimensional (2D) structures can be energetically stable, it appears that BeO, MgO, CaO, ZnO, CdO, CaS, SrS, SrSe, BaTe, and HgTe honeycomb monolayers have a good dynamic stability. The stability of the five oxides is consistent with the work published by Zhuang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 212102 (2013), 10.1063/1.4831972]. The rest of the compounds in the form of honeycomb are dynamically unstable, revealed by phonon calculations. In addition, according to the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation evolution from these unstable candidates, we also find two extra monolayers dynamically stable, which are tetragonal BaS [P 4 /n m m (129 ) ] and orthorhombic HgS [P 21/m (11 ) ] . The honeycomb monolayers exist in the form of either a planar perfect honeycomb or a low-buckled 2D layer, all of which possess a band gap and most of them are in the ultraviolet region. Interestingly, the dynamically stable SrSe has a gap near visible light, and displays exotic electronic properties with a flat top of the valence band, and hence has a strong spin polarization upon hole doping. The honeycomb HgTe has recently been reported to achieve a topological nontrivial phase under appropriate in-plane tensile strain and spin-orbital coupling (SOC) [J. Li et al., arXiv:1412.2528]. Some II-VI partners with less than 5 % lattice mismatch may be used to design novel 2D heterojunction devices. If synthesized, potential applications of these 2D II-VI families could include optoelectronics, spintronics, and strong correlated electronics.
First-principle simulations of electronic structure in semicrystalline polyethylene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyassari, A.; Unge, M.; Hedenqvist, M. S.; Gedde, U. W.; Nilsson, F.
2017-05-01
In order to increase our fundamental knowledge about high-voltage cable insulation materials, realistic polyethylene (PE) structures, generated with a novel molecular modeling strategy, have been analyzed using first principle electronic structure simulations. The PE structures were constructed by first generating atomistic PE configurations with an off-lattice Monte Carlo method and then equilibrating the structures at the desired temperature and pressure using molecular dynamics simulations. Semicrystalline, fully crystalline and fully amorphous PE, in some cases including crosslinks and short-chain branches, were analyzed. The modeled PE had a structure in agreement with established experimental data. Linear-scaling density functional theory (LS-DFT) was used to examine the electronic structure (e.g., spatial distribution of molecular orbitals, bandgaps and mobility edges) on all the materials, whereas conventional DFT was used to validate the LS-DFT results on small systems. When hybrid functionals were used, the simulated bandgaps were close to the experimental values. The localization of valence and conduction band states was demonstrated. The localized states in the conduction band were primarily found in the free volume (result of gauche conformations) present in the amorphous regions. For branched and crosslinked structures, the localized electronic states closest to the valence band edge were positioned at branches and crosslinks, respectively. At 0 K, the activation energy for transport was lower for holes than for electrons. However, at room temperature, the effective activation energy was very low (˜0.1 eV) for both holes and electrons, which indicates that the mobility will be relatively high even below the mobility edges and suggests that charge carriers can be hot carriers above the mobility edges in the presence of a high electrical field.
Liquid Water from First Principles: Validation of Different Sampling Approaches
Mundy, C J; Kuo, W; Siepmann, J; McGrath, M J; Vondevondele, J; Sprik, M; Hutter, J; Parrinello, M; Mohamed, F; Krack, M; Chen, B; Klein, M
2004-05-20
A series of first principles molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for liquid water to assess the validity and reproducibility of different sampling approaches. These simulations include Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations using the program CPMD with different values of the fictitious electron mass in the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics using the programs CPMD and CP2K in the microcanonical ensemble, and Metropolis Monte Carlo using CP2K in the canonical ensemble. With the exception of one simulation for 128 water molecules, all other simulations were carried out for systems consisting of 64 molecules. It is found that the structural and thermodynamic properties of these simulations are in excellent agreement with each other as long as adiabatic sampling is maintained in the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations either by choosing a sufficiently small fictitious mass in the microcanonical ensemble or by Nos{acute e}-Hoover thermostats in the canonical ensemble. Using the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Troullier-Martins or Goedecker-Teter-Hutter pseudopotentials, simulations at a fixed density of 1.0 g/cm{sup 3} and a temperature close to 315 K yield a height of the first peak in the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function of about 3.0, a classical constant-volume heat capacity of about 70 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, and a self-diffusion constant of about 0.1 Angstroms{sup 2}/ps.
A first-principles theoretical approach to heterogeneous nanocatalysis.
Negreiros, Fabio R; Aprà, Edoardo; Barcaro, Giovanni; Sementa, Luca; Vajda, Stefan; Fortunelli, Alessandro
2012-02-21
A theoretical approach to heterogeneous catalysis by sub-nanometre supported metal clusters and alloys is presented and discussed. Its goal is to perform a computational sampling of the reaction paths in nanocatalysis via a global search in the phase space of structures and stoichiometry combined with filtering which takes into account the given experimental conditions (catalytically relevant temperature and reactant pressure), and corresponds to an incremental exploration of the disconnectivity diagram of the system. The approach is implemented and applied to the study of propylene partial oxidation by Ag(3) supported on MgO(100). First-principles density-functional theory calculations coupled with a Reactive Global Optimization algorithm are performed, finding that: (1) the presence of an oxide support drastically changes the potential energy landscape of the system with respect to the gas phase, favoring configurations which interact positively with the electrostatic field generated by the surface; (2) the reaction energy barriers for the various mechanisms are crucial in the competition between thermodynamically and kinetically favored reaction products; (3) a topological database of structures and saddle points is produced which has general validity and can serve for future studies or for deriving general trends; (4) the MgO(100) surface captures some major features of the effect of an oxide support and appears to be a good model of a simple oxide substrate; (5) strong cooperative effects are found in the co-adsorption of O(2) and other ligands on small metal clusters. The proposed approach appears as a viable route to advance the role of predictive computational science in the field of heterogeneous nanocatalysis. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012
First Principles Design of Non-Centrosymmetric Metal Oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Joshua Aaron
The lack of an inversion center in a material's crystal structure can result in many useful material properties, such as ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity and non-linear optical behavior. Recently, the desire for low power, high efficiency electronic devices has spurred increased interest in these phenomena, especially ferroelectricity, as well as their coupling to other material properties. By studying and understanding the fundamental structure-property relationships present in non-centrosymmetric materials, it is possible to purposefully engineer new compounds with the desired "acentric" qualities through crystal engineering. The families of ABO3 perovskite and ABO2.5 perovskite-derived brownmillerite oxides are ideal for such studies due to their wide range of possible chemistries, as well as ground states that are highly tunable owing to strong electron-lattice coupling. Furthermore, control over the B-O-B bond angles through epitaxial strain or chemical substitution allows for the rapid development of new emergent properties. In this dissertation, I formulate the crystal-chemistry criteria necessary to design functional non-centrosymmetric oxides using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Recently, chemically ordered (AA')B2O 6 oxides have been shown to display a new form of rotation-induced ferroelectric polarizations. I now extend this property-design methodology to alternative compositions and crystal classes and show it is possible to induce a host of new phenomena. This dissertation will address: 1) the formulation of predictive models allowing for a priori design of polar oxides, 2) the optimization of properties exhibited by these materials through chemical substitution and cation ordering, and 3) the use of strain to control the stability of new phases. Completion of this work has led to a deeper understanding of how atomic structural features determine the physical properties of oxides, as well as the successful elucidation of
First-principles studies of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds
Zhou Yi; Wen Bin; Ma Yunqing; Melnik, Roderick; Liu Xingjun
2012-03-15
The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated in detail based on density functional theory. Our results indicate that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds calculated here are mechanically stable except for P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2}. Furthermore, we found that Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is the ground state stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. The polycrystalline elastic modulus has been deduced by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds in our study, except for NiTa, are ductile materials by corresponding G/K values and poisson's ratio. The calculated heats of formation demonstrated that Ni{sub 2}Ta are thermodynamically unstable. Our results also indicated that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds analyzed here are conductors. The density of state demonstrated the structure stability increases with the Ta concentration. - Graphical abstract: Mechanical properties and formation heats of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are discussed in detail in this paper. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated by first principle calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2} are mechanically unstable phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is ground stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are conducting materials.
Thermodynamic stability and properties of boron subnitrides from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ektarawong, A.; Simak, S. I.; Alling, B.
2017-02-01
We use the first-principles approach to clarify the thermodynamic stability as a function of pressure and temperature of three different α -rhombohedral-boron-like boron subnitrides, with the compositions of B6N , B13N2 , and B38N6 , proposed in the literature. We find that, out of these subnitrides with the structural units of B12(N-N), B12(NBN), and [B12(N-N) ] 0.33[B12(NBN)] 0.67 , respectively, only B38N6 , represented by [B12(N-N) ] 0.33[B12(NBN)] 0.67 , is thermodynamically stable. Beyond a pressure of about 7.5 GPa depending on the temperature, also B38N6 becomes unstable, and decomposes into cubic boron nitride and α -tetragonal-boron-like boron subnitride B50N2 . The thermodynamic stability of boron subnitrides and relevant competing phases is determined by the Gibbs free energy, in which the contributions from the lattice vibrations and the configurational disorder are obtained within the quasiharmonic and the mean-field approximations, respectively. We calculate lattice parameters, elastic constants, phonon and electronic density of states, and demonstrate that [B12(N-N) ] 0.33[B12(NBN)] 0.67 is both mechanically and dynamically stable, and is an electrical semiconductor. The simulated x-ray powder-diffraction pattern as well as the calculated lattice parameters of [B12(N-N) ] 0.33[B12(NBN)] 0.67 are found to be in good agreement with those of the experimentally synthesized boron subnitrides reported in the literature, verifying that B38N6 is the stable composition of α -rhombohedral-boron-like boron subnitride.
A digitally reconstructed radiograph algorithm calculated from first principles
Staub, David; Murphy, Martin J.
2013-01-15
Purpose: To develop an algorithm for computing realistic digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) that match real cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections with no artificial adjustments. Methods: The authors used measured attenuation data from cone-beam CT projection radiographs of different materials to obtain a function to convert CT number to linear attenuation coefficient (LAC). The effects of scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare were first removed from the attenuation data. Using this conversion function the authors calculated the line integral of LAC through a CT along rays connecting the radiation source and detector pixels with a ray-tracing algorithm, producing raw DRRs. The effects of scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare were then included in the DRRs through postprocessing. Results: The authors compared actual CBCT projections to DRRs produced with all corrections (scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare) and to uncorrected DRRs. Algorithm accuracy was assessed through visual comparison of projections and DRRs, pixel intensity comparisons, intensity histogram comparisons, and correlation plots of DRR-to-projection pixel intensities. In general, the fully corrected algorithm provided a small but nontrivial improvement in accuracy over the uncorrected algorithm. The authors also investigated both measurement- and computation-based methods for determining the beam hardening correction, and found the computation-based method to be superior, as it accounted for nonuniform bowtie filter thickness. The authors benchmarked the algorithm for speed and found that it produced DRRs in about 0.35 s for full detector and CT resolution at a ray step-size of 0.5 mm. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated a DRR algorithm calculated from first principles that accounts for scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare in order to produce accurate DRRs. The algorithm is computationally efficient, making it a good candidate for iterative CT reconstruction techniques
Risk reduction and the privatization option: First principles
Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Russell, M.; Cummings, R.C.; Valdez, G.; Duemmer, C.L.
1997-06-25
The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) faces a challenging mission. To increase efficiency, EM is undertaking a number of highly innovative initiatives--two of which are of particular importance to the present study. One is the 2006 Plan, a planning and budgeting process that seeks to convert the clean-up program from a temporally and fiscally open-ended endeavor to a strictly bounded one, with firm commitments over a decade-long horizon. The second is a major overhauling of the management and contracting practices that define the relationship between the Department and the private sector, aimed at cost reduction by increasing firms` responsibilities and profit opportunities and reducing DOE`s direct participation in management practices and decisions. The goal of this paper is to provide an independent perspective on how EM should create new management practices to deal with private sector partners that are motivated by financial incentives. It seeks to ground this perspective in real world concerns--the background of the clean-up effort, the very difficult technical challenges it faces, the very real threats to environment, health and safety that have now been juxtaposed with financial drivers, and the constraints imposed by government`s unique business practices and public responsibilities. The approach is to raise issues through application of first principles. The paper is targeted at the EM policy officer who must implement the joint visions of the 2006 plan and privatization within the context of the tradeoff between terminal risk reduction and interim risk management.
First Principles Modeling of Nonlinear Incidence Rates in Seasonal Epidemics
2011-01-01
In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence rate function that characterizes epidemic models. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence rate function, which results from modeling the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS model with both the classical and the LHD incidence rate functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR model with both incidence rate functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the model with the LHD incidence rate may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our model was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS model with classical incidence rate predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS model with LHD incidence rate will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the models' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics. PMID:21379320
A first-principles theoretical approach to heterogeneous nanocatalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negreiros, Fabio R.; Aprà, Edoardo; Barcaro, Giovanni; Sementa, Luca; Vajda, Stefan; Fortunelli, Alessandro
2012-02-01
A theoretical approach to heterogeneous catalysis by sub-nanometre supported metal clusters and alloys is presented and discussed. Its goal is to perform a computational sampling of the reaction paths in nanocatalysis via a global search in the phase space of structures and stoichiometry combined with filtering which takes into account the given experimental conditions (catalytically relevant temperature and reactant pressure), and corresponds to an incremental exploration of the disconnectivity diagram of the system. The approach is implemented and applied to the study of propylene partial oxidation by Ag3 supported on MgO(100). First-principles density-functional theory calculations coupled with a Reactive Global Optimization algorithm are performed, finding that: (1) the presence of an oxide support drastically changes the potential energy landscape of the system with respect to the gas phase, favoring configurations which interact positively with the electrostatic field generated by the surface; (2) the reaction energy barriers for the various mechanisms are crucial in the competition between thermodynamically and kinetically favored reaction products; (3) a topological database of structures and saddle points is produced which has general validity and can serve for future studies or for deriving general trends; (4) the MgO(100) surface captures some major features of the effect of an oxide support and appears to be a good model of a simple oxide substrate; (5) strong cooperative effects are found in the co-adsorption of O2 and other ligands on small metal clusters. The proposed approach appears as a viable route to advance the role of predictive computational science in the field of heterogeneous nanocatalysis.
Next generation extended Lagrangian first principles molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niklasson, Anders M. N.
2017-08-01
Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] is formulated for general Hohenberg-Kohn density-functional theory and compared with the extended Lagrangian framework of first principles molecular dynamics by Car and Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)]. It is shown how extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics overcomes several shortcomings of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, while improving or maintaining important features of Car-Parrinello simulations. The accuracy of the electronic degrees of freedom in extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, with respect to the exact Born-Oppenheimer solution, is of second-order in the size of the integration time step and of fourth order in the potential energy surface. Improved stability over recent formulations of extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is achieved by generalizing the theory to finite temperature ensembles, using fractional occupation numbers in the calculation of the inner-product kernel of the extended harmonic oscillator that appears as a preconditioner in the electronic equations of motion. Material systems that normally exhibit slow self-consistent field convergence can be simulated using integration time steps of the same order as in direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, but without the requirement of an iterative, non-linear electronic ground-state optimization prior to the force evaluations and without a systematic drift in the total energy. In combination with proposed low-rank and on the fly updates of the kernel, this formulation provides an efficient and general framework for quantum-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.
First principles explanation of the positive Seebeck coefficient of lithium.
Xu, Bin; Verstraete, Matthieu J
2014-05-16
Lithium is one of the simplest metals, with negative charge carriers and a close reproduction of free-electron dispersion. Experimentally, however, Li is one of a handful of elemental solids (along with Cu, Ag, and Au) where the sign of the Seebeck coefficient (S) is opposite to that of the carrier. This counterintuitive behavior still lacks a satisfactory interpretation. We calculate S fully from first principles, within the framework of Allen's formulation of Boltzmann transport theory. Here it is crucial to avoid the constant relaxation time approximation, which gives a sign for S which is necessarily that of the carriers. Our calculated S are in excellent agreement with experimental data, up to the melting point. In comparison with another alkali metal, Na, we demonstrate that within the simplest nontrivial model for the energy dependency of the electron lifetimes, the rapidly increasing density of states (DOS) across the Fermi energy is related to the sign of S in Li. The exceptional energy dependence of the DOS is beyond the free-electron model, as the dispersion is distorted by the Brillouin zone edge; this has a stronger effect in Li than other alkali metals. The electron lifetime dependency on energy is central, but the details of the electron-phonon interaction are found to be less important, contrary to what has been believed for several decades. Band engineering combined with the mechanism exposed here may open the door to new "ambipolar" thermoelectric materials, with a tunable sign for the thermopower even if either n- or p-type doping is impossible.
First principles investigation of copper and silver intercalated molybdenum disulfide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guzman, D. M.; Onofrio, N.; Strachan, A.
2017-02-01
We characterize the energetics and atomic structures involved in the intercalation of copper and silver into the van der Waals gap of molybdenum disulfide as well as the resulting ionic and electronic transport properties using first-principles density functional theory. The intercalation energy of systems with formula (Cu,Ag)xMoS2 decreases with ion concentration and ranges from 1.2 to 0.8 eV for Cu; Ag exhibits a stronger concentration dependence from 2.2 eV for x = 0.014 to 0.75 eV for x = 1 (using the fcc metal as a reference). Partial atomic charge analysis indicates that approximately half an electron is transferred per metallic ion in the case of Cu at low concentrations and the ionicity decreases only slightly with concentration. In contrast, while Ag is only slightly less ionic than Cu for low concentrations, charge transfer reduces significantly to approximately 0.1 e for x = 1. This difference in ionicity between Cu and Ag correlates with their intercalation energies. Importantly, the predicted values indicate the possibility of electrochemical intercalation of both Cu and Ag into MoS2 and the calculated activation energies associated with ionic transport within the gaps, 0.32 eV for Cu and 0.38 eV for Ag, indicate these materials to be good ionic conductors. Analysis of the electronic structure shows that charge transfer leads to a shift of the Fermi energy into the conduction band resulting in a semiconductor-to-metal transition. Electron transport calculations based on non-equilibrium Green's function show that the low-bias conductance increases with metal concentration and is comparable in the horizontal and vertical transport directions. These properties make metal intercalated transition metal di-chalcogenides potential candidates for several applications including electrochemical metallization cells and contacts in electronics based on 2D materials.
Next generation extended Lagrangian first principles molecular dynamics.
Niklasson, Anders M N
2017-08-07
Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] is formulated for general Hohenberg-Kohn density-functional theory and compared with the extended Lagrangian framework of first principles molecular dynamics by Car and Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)]. It is shown how extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics overcomes several shortcomings of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, while improving or maintaining important features of Car-Parrinello simulations. The accuracy of the electronic degrees of freedom in extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, with respect to the exact Born-Oppenheimer solution, is of second-order in the size of the integration time step and of fourth order in the potential energy surface. Improved stability over recent formulations of extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is achieved by generalizing the theory to finite temperature ensembles, using fractional occupation numbers in the calculation of the inner-product kernel of the extended harmonic oscillator that appears as a preconditioner in the electronic equations of motion. Material systems that normally exhibit slow self-consistent field convergence can be simulated using integration time steps of the same order as in direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, but without the requirement of an iterative, non-linear electronic ground-state optimization prior to the force evaluations and without a systematic drift in the total energy. In combination with proposed low-rank and on the fly updates of the kernel, this formulation provides an efficient and general framework for quantum-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.
First principle kinetic studies of zeolite-catalyzed methylation reactions.
Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van der Mynsbrugge, Jeroen; Vandichel, Matthias; Hemelsoet, Karen; Lesthaeghe, David; Ghysels, An; Marin, Guy B; Waroquier, Michel
2011-02-02
Methylations of ethene, propene, and butene by methanol over the acidic microporous H-ZSM-5 catalyst are studied by means of state of the art computational techniques, to derive Arrhenius plots and rate constants from first principles that can directly be compared with the experimental data. For these key elementary reactions in the methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) process, direct kinetic data became available only recently [J. Catal.2005, 224, 115-123; J. Catal.2005, 234, 385-400]. At 350 °C, apparent activation energies of 103, 69, and 45 kJ/mol and rate constants of 2.6 × 10(-4), 4.5 × 10(-3), and 1.3 × 10(-2) mol/(g h mbar) for ethene, propene, and butene were derived, giving following relative ratios for methylation k(ethene)/k(propene)/k(butene) = 1:17:50. In this work, rate constants including pre-exponential factors are calculated which give very good agreement with the experimental data: apparent activation energies of 94, 62, and 37 kJ/mol for ethene, propene, and butene are found, and relative ratios of methylation k(ethene)/k(propene)/k(butene) = 1:23:763. The entropies of gas phase alkenes are underestimated in the harmonic oscillator approximation due to the occurrence of internal rotations. These low vibrational modes were substituted by manually constructed partition functions. Overall, the absolute reaction rates can be calculated with near chemical accuracy, and qualitative trends are very well reproduced. In addition, the proposed scheme is computationally very efficient and constitutes significant progress in kinetic modeling of reactions in heterogeneous catalysis.
First-principles study of polyacetylene derivatives bearing nitroxide radicals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilgiç, Beyza; Kılıç, Çetin; Esat, Burak
2011-09-01
Electrodes made of organic polymers bearing redox-active radical pendant groups have attractive features for use in rechargeable batteries. Electronic structure and electrochemical properties of cathode- and anode-active organic polymers are investigated here by means of first-principles calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory. We consider organic radical polymers (ORPs) that consist of trans-polyacetylene derivatives bearing a variety of nitroxide radicals. A number of neutral and charged supercells are utilized to compute the ionization potentials and electron affinities as well as the one-electron states of these ORPs. By revealing the polyacetylene-derived highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) as well as the radical-derived singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO), the variation of the SOMO energy within the HOMO-LUMO gap is determined in the course of the oxidization or reduction of ORPs. Our results indicate that the ionization potential I and electron affinity A of polyacetylene would act as a lower or upper bound in the variation of the electrochemical potential of cathode- or anode-active ORPs in the course of battery discharge or charge owing to pinning of the radical-derived SOMO to the polyacetylene-derived HOMO or LUMO. Accordingly, it is anticipated that the electrochemical “window” [-I,-A] of the polymeric backbone of ORPs will impose certain limitations in accomplishing a high charge/discharge voltage range in a totally organic rechargeable battery with positive and negative electrodes made of cathode- and anode-active ORPs, respectively. On the other hand, our findings suggest that one could, in principle, take advantage of using two different (conducting) polymeric backbones in the anode and cathode with adjusted HOMO and LUMO offsets once the electron transfer is accomplished to take place through the conducting backbones.
A digitally reconstructed radiograph algorithm calculated from first principles
Staub, David; Murphy, Martin J.
2013-01-01
Purpose: To develop an algorithm for computing realistic digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) that match real cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections with no artificial adjustments. Methods: The authors used measured attenuation data from cone-beam CT projection radiographs of different materials to obtain a function to convert CT number to linear attenuation coefficient (LAC). The effects of scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare were first removed from the attenuation data. Using this conversion function the authors calculated the line integral of LAC through a CT along rays connecting the radiation source and detector pixels with a ray-tracing algorithm, producing raw DRRs. The effects of scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare were then included in the DRRs through postprocessing. Results: The authors compared actual CBCT projections to DRRs produced with all corrections (scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare) and to uncorrected DRRs. Algorithm accuracy was assessed through visual comparison of projections and DRRs, pixel intensity comparisons, intensity histogram comparisons, and correlation plots of DRR-to-projection pixel intensities. In general, the fully corrected algorithm provided a small but nontrivial improvement in accuracy over the uncorrected algorithm. The authors also investigated both measurement- and computation-based methods for determining the beam hardening correction, and found the computation-based method to be superior, as it accounted for nonuniform bowtie filter thickness. The authors benchmarked the algorithm for speed and found that it produced DRRs in about 0.35 s for full detector and CT resolution at a ray step-size of 0.5 mm. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated a DRR algorithm calculated from first principles that accounts for scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare in order to produce accurate DRRs. The algorithm is computationally efficient, making it a good candidate for iterative CT reconstruction techniques
Modulation of glucose transporters in rat diaphragm by sodium tungstate.
Girón, M D; Caballero, J J; Vargas, A M; Suárez, M D; Guinovart, J J; Salto, R
2003-05-08
Oral administration of sodium tungstate is an effective treatment for diabetes in animal models. We examined the effects of 6 weeks of oral administration of tungstate on glucose transporters (GLUT) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat diaphragm. Diabetes decreased GLUT4 expression while tungstate treatment normalized not only GLUT4 protein but also GLUT4 mRNA in the diabetic rats. Furthermore, treatment increased GLUT4 protein in plasma and internal membranes, suggesting a stimulation of its translocation to the plasma membrane. Tungstate had no effect on healthy animals. There were no differences in the total amount of GLUT1 transporter in any group. We conclude that the normoglycemic effect of tungstate may be partly due to a normalization of the levels and subcellular localization of GLUT4, which should result in an increase in muscle glucose uptake.
First-principles modeling of titanate/ruthenate superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junquera, Javier
2013-03-01
The possibility to create highly confined two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) at oxide interfaces has generated much excitement during the last few years. The most widely studied system is the 2DEG formed at the LaO/TiO2 polar interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, where the polar catastrophe at the interface has been invoked as the driving force. More recently, partial or complete delta doping of the Sr or Ti cations at a single layer of a SrTiO3 matrix has also been used to generate 2DEG. Following this recipe, we report first principles characterization of the structural and electronic properties of (SrTiO3)5/(SrRuO3)1 superlattices, where all the Ti of a given layer have been replaced by Ru. We show that the system exhibits a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas extremely confined to the 4 d orbitals of Ru in the SrRuO3 layer, a fact that is independent of the level of correlation included in the simulations. For hybrid functionals or LDA+U, every interface in the superlattice behaves as minority-spin half-metal ferromagnet, with a magnetic moment of μ = 2.0 μB/SrRuO3 unit. The shape of the electronic density of states, half metallicity and magnetism are explained in terms of a simplified tight-binding model, considering only the t2 g orbitals plus (i) the bi-dimensionality of the system, and (ii) strong electron correlations. Possible applications are discussed, from their eventual role in thermoelectric applications to the possible tuning of ferromagnetic properties of the 2DEG with the polarization of the dielectric. Work done in collaboration with P. García, M. Verissimo-Alves, D. I. Bilc, and Ph. Ghosez. Financial support provided by MICINN Grant FIS2009-12721-C04-02, and by the European Union Grant No. CP-FP 228989-2 ``OxIDes.'' The authors thankfully acknowledge the computer resources, technical expertise and assistance provided by the BSC/RES.
Electron Exchange and Conduction in Nontronite from First-Principles
Alexandrov, Vitali Y.; Neumann, Anke; Scherer, Michelle; Rosso, Kevin M.
2013-01-11
Fe-bearing clay minerals serve as an important source and sink for electrons in redox reactions in various subsurface geochemical environments, and electron transfer (ET) properties of the Fe2+/Fe3+ redox couple play a decisive role in a variety of physicochemical processes involving clays. Here, we apply first-principles calculations using both periodic GGA+U planewave and Hartree-Fock molecular-cluster frameworks in conjuction with small polaron hopping approach and Marcus electron transfer theory to examine electron exchange mobilities in an Fe-rich smectite, taking nontronite as a case study. GGA+U calculations of the activation barrier for small-polaron migration provide rates of electron hopping that agree very well with values deduced from variable temperature Mössbauer data (M. V. Schaefer, et. al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 540, (2011)), indicating a surprisingly fast electron mobility at room temperature. Based on molecular cluster calculations, we show that the state with tetrahedral Fe2+ ion in the nontronite lattice is about 0.9 eV higher than the one with octahedral Fe2+. Also, evaluation of the ET rates for the Fe2+/Fe3+ electron hopping in tetrahedral (TS) and octahedral sheets (OS), as well as across the sheets (TS–OS) shows that the dominant contribution to the bulk electronic conductivity should come from the ET within the OS. Deprotonation of structural OH groups mediating ET between the Fe ions in the OS is found to decrease the internal reorganization energy and to increase the magnitude of the electronic coupling matrix element, whereas protonation (to OH2 groups) has the opposite effect. Overall, our calculations suggest that the major factors affecting ET rates are the nature and structure of the nearest-neighbor local environment and the degree of covalency of the bonds between Fe and ligands mediating electron hops. The generally higher reorganization energy and weaker electronic coupling found in Fe-bearing clay minerals leads to
First principles investigation of Fe and Al bearing phase H
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuchiya, J.; Tsuchiya, T.
2015-12-01
exploration of these hydrous phases, such as the spin transition of Fe in phase H and the possibility of further phase transition of this new hydrous mineral using first principles calculation techniques and discuss the possible effects of this hydrous phase at the bottom of lower mantle.
ABINIT: First-principles approach to material and nanosystem properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonze, X.; Amadon, B.; Anglade, P.-M.; Beuken, J.-M.; Bottin, F.; Boulanger, P.; Bruneval, F.; Caliste, D.; Caracas, R.; Côté, M.; Deutsch, T.; Genovese, L.; Ghosez, Ph.; Giantomassi, M.; Goedecker, S.; Hamann, D. R.; Hermet, P.; Jollet, F.; Jomard, G.; Leroux, S.; Mancini, M.; Mazevet, S.; Oliveira, M. J. T.; Onida, G.; Pouillon, Y.; Rangel, T.; Rignanese, G.-M.; Sangalli, D.; Shaltaf, R.; Torrent, M.; Verstraete, M. J.; Zerah, G.; Zwanziger, J. W.
2009-12-01
ABINIT [ http://www.abinit.org] allows one to study, from first-principles, systems made of electrons and nuclei (e.g. periodic solids, molecules, nanostructures, etc.), on the basis of Density-Functional Theory (DFT) and Many-Body Perturbation Theory. Beyond the computation of the total energy, charge density and electronic structure of such systems, ABINIT also implements many dynamical, dielectric, thermodynamical, mechanical, or electronic properties, at different levels of approximation. The present paper provides an exhaustive account of the capabilities of ABINIT. It should be helpful to scientists that are not familiarized with ABINIT, as well as to already regular users. First, we give a broad overview of ABINIT, including the list of the capabilities and how to access them. Then, we present in more details the recent, advanced, developments of ABINIT, with adequate references to the underlying theory, as well as the relevant input variables, tests and, if available, ABINIT tutorials. Program summaryProgram title: ABINIT Catalogue identifier: AEEU_v1_0 Distribution format: tar.gz Journal reference: Comput. Phys. Comm. Programming language: Fortran95, PERL scripts, Python scripts Computer: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Operating system: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Sequential, or parallel with proven speed-up up to one thousand processors. RAM: Ranges from a few Mbytes to several hundred Gbytes, depending on the input file. Classification: 7.3, 7.8 External routines: (all optional) BigDFT [1], ETSF IO [2], libxc [3], NetCDF [4], MPI [5], Wannier90 [6] Nature of problem: This package has the purpose of computing accurately material and nanostructure properties: electronic structure, bond lengths, bond angles, primitive cell size, cohesive energy, dielectric properties, vibrational properties, elastic properties, optical properties, magnetic properties, non-linear couplings, electronic and
First-principles calculations of conductivity in transparent semiconducting oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varley, Joel Basile
2011-12-01
Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are exceptional materials that possess the unique combination of nearly metallic conductivity and optical transparency over the visible portion of the spectrum. With such features, TCOs have become critical components of many present and emerging technologies. Today these materials are already ubiquitous, appearing in windows, flat-panel displays, portable electronics, solar cells, solid-state light-emitters, and transistors. Thanks to the ever-growing list of applications that rely on TCOs, the recent surge of interest in these materials has focused on understanding the fundamental properties and doping opportunities in a variety of traditional as well as promising new TCOs. Using state-of-the-art first-principles calculations, we address several important issues in a number of technologically relevant TCOs. First, the origins of unintentional conductivity. Many TCOs exhibit high levels of n-type conductivity, even when not intentionally doped. For SnO 2, In2O3 and Ga2O3, we demonstrate that this is not due to oxygen vacancies, as is commonly assumed, but must be attributed to unintentional incorporation of impurities, with hydrogen being a prime candidate. Second, the push for higher doping levels. We suggest several donor impurities as candidate dopants with high solubility. We also investigate limitations on doping due to the formation or incorporation of compensating centers. Among intrinsic defects, cation vacancies are the most likely candidates; we also study impurities that act as acceptors. In the case of SnO2, group-V impurities are intriguing since they can act either as donors on the Sn site or acceptors on the O site. Third, the prospects for p-type doping. Here we find that none of the investigated acceptors will lead to effective hole doping. We demonstrate that the reason for this behavior is the tendency for strong localization of holes in the oxygen-derived valence bands, and relate this to the issue of
Nanoflare Statistics from First Principles: Fractal Geometry and Temperature Synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aschwanden, Markus J.; Parnell, Clare E.
2002-06-01
We derive universal scaling laws for the physical parameters of flarelike processes in a low-β plasma, quantified in terms of spatial length scales l, area A, volume V, electron density ne, electron temperature Te, total emission measure M, and thermal energy E. The relations are specified as functions of two independent input parameters, the power index a of the length distribution, N(l)~l-a, and the fractal Haussdorff dimension D between length scales l and flare areas, A(l)~lD. For values that are consistent with the data, i.e., a=2.5+/-0.2 and D=1.5+/-0.2, and assuming the RTV scaling law, we predict an energy distribution N(E)~E-α with a power-law coefficient of α=1.54+/-0.11. As an observational test, we perform statistics of nanoflares in a quiet-Sun region covering a comprehensive temperature range of Te~1-4 MK. We detected nanoflare events in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) with the 171 and 195 Å filters from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), as well as in soft X-rays with the AlMg filter from the Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope (SXT), in a cospatial field of view and cotemporal time interval. The obtained frequency distributions of thermal energies of nanoflares detected in each wave band separately were found to have power-law slopes of α~1.86+/-0.07 at 171 Å (Te~0.7-1.1 MK), α~1.81+/-0.10 at 195 Å (Te~1.0-1.5 MK), and α~1.57+/-0.15 in the AlMg filter (Te~1.8-4.0 MK), consistent with earlier studies in each wavelength. We synthesize the temperature-biased frequency distributions from each wavelength and find a corrected power-law slope of α~1.54+/-0.03, consistent with our theoretical prediction derived from first principles. This analysis, supported by numerical simulations, clearly demonstrates that previously determined distributions of nanoflares detected in EUV bands produced a too steep power-law distribution of energies with slopes of α~2.0-2.3 mainly because of this temperature bias. The temperature-synthesized distributions of
First-principles modelling of materials: From polythiophene to phosphorene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziletti, Angelo
As a result of the computing power provided by the current technology, computational methods now play an important role in modeling and designing materials at the nanoscale. The focus of this dissertation is two-fold: first, new computational methods to model nanoscale transport are introduced, then state-of-the-art tools based on density functional theory are employed to explore the properties of phosphorene, a novel low dimensional material with great potential for applications in nanotechnology. A Wannier function description of the electron density is combined with a generalized Slater-Koster interpolation technique, enabling the introduction of a new computational method for constructing first-principles model Hamiltonians for electron and hole transport that maintain the density functional theory accuracy at a fraction of the computational cost. As a proof of concept, this new approach is applied to model polythiophene, a polymer ubiquitous in organic photovoltaic devices. A new low dimensional material, phosphorene - a single layer of black phosphorous - the phosphorous analogue of graphene was first isolated in early 2014 and has attracted considerable attention. It is a semiconductor with a sizable band gap, which makes it a perfect candidate for ultrathin transistors. Multi-layer phosphorene transistors have already achieved the highest hole mobility of any two-dimensional material apart from graphene. Phosphorene is prone to oxidation, which can lead to degradation of electrical properties, and eventually structural breakdown. The calculations reported here are some of the first to explore this oxidation and reveal that different types of oxygen defects are readily introduced in the phosphorene lattice, creating electron traps in some situations. These traps are responsible for the non-ambipolar behavior observed by experimental collaborators in air-exposed few-layer black phosphorus devices. Calculation results predict that air exposure of phosphorene
First-principles study of semiconductor and metal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sungho
In this dissertation, we study the electronic and geometric structure of semiconductors and metal surfaces based on quantum mechanical first-principles calculations. We determine the geometry of vacancy defects of hydrogen adsorbed on a Pd(111) surface by treating the motion of a hydrogen atom, in addition to electrons, quantum mechanically. The calculated ground state wave function has high probability density in the hcp site located at the center of the vacancy instead of the fcc sites where the potential is minimum and hydrogen atoms on a Pd(111) surface normally adsorb. The geometry of quantum mechanically determined divacancy provides a simple and clear explanation for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of these defects that appear as three-lobed objects as observed in recent experiments [Mitsui, et al, Nature 422, 705 (2003)]. We employ the same principle to successfully elucidate the STM images of larger size vacancy defects. Our model also provides a compelling argument to explain the unusual recent experimental result that aggregates of three or more hydrogen vacancies are much more active in adsorption of hydrogen molecules while two-vacancy defects are never inactive. The InAs (110) surfaces appear lower than GaSb in STM images. This height difference is caused primarily by differences in the electronic structure of the two materials according to our calculations in a good agreement with measurements. In contrast, local variations in the apparent height of (110) surface atoms at InSb- or GaAs-like interfaces arise primarily from geometric distortions associated with local differences in bond length. The arsenic atoms adsorb preferably at the bridge sites between the dimerized Sb atoms on Sb-terminating (001) surfaces. Indium atoms, on the other hand, have somewhat equal probabilities at a few different sites on Ga-terminating (001) surfaces. Our calculated energies for atomic intermixing indicate that anion exchanges are exothermic for As
Doping of rhenium disulfide monolayers: a systematic first principles study.
Çakır, Deniz; Sahin, Hasan; Peeters, François M
2014-08-21
The absence of a direct-to-indirect band gap transition in ReS2 when going from the monolayer to bulk makes it special among the other semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides. The functionalization of this promising layered material emerges as a necessity for the next generation technological applications. Here, the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of substitutionally doped ReS2 monolayers at either the S or Re site were systematically studied by using first principles density functional calculations. We found that substitutional doping of ReS2 depends sensitively on the growth conditions of ReS2. Among the large number of non-metallic atoms, namely H, B, C, Se, Te, F, Br, Cl, As, P, and N, we identified the most promising candidates for n-type and p-type doping of ReS2. While Cl is an ideal candidate for n-type doping, P appears to be the most promising candidate for p-type doping of the ReS2 monolayer. We also investigated the doping of ReS2 with metal atoms, namely Mo, W, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Nb, Zn, Ru, Os and Pt. Mo, Nb, Ti, and V atoms are found to be easily incorporated in a single layer of ReS2 as substitutional impurities at the Re site for all growth conditions considered in this work. Tuning chemical potentials of dopant atoms energetically makes it possible to dope ReS2 with Fe, Co, Cr, Mn, W, Ru, and Os at the Re site. We observe a robust trend for the magnetic moments when substituting a Re atom with metal atoms such that depending on the electronic configuration of dopant atoms, the net magnetic moment of the doped ReS2 becomes either 0 or 1 μB. Among the metallic dopants, Mo is the best candidate for p-type doping of ReS2 owing to its favorable energetics and promising electronic properties.
Electron field emission in nanostructures: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driscoll, Joseph Andrew
The objective of this work was to study electron field emission from several nanostructures using a first-principles framework. The systems studied were carbon nanowires, graphene nanoribbons, and nanotubes of varying composition. These particular structures were chosen because they have recently been identified as showing novel physical phenomena, as well as having tremendous industrial applications. We examined the field emission under a variety of conditions, including laser illumination and the presence of adsorbates. The goal was to explore how these conditions affect the field emission performance. In addition to the calculations, this dissertation has presented computational developments by the author that allowed these demanding calculations to be performed. There are many possible choices for basis when performing an electronic structure calculation. Examples are plane waves, atomic orbitals, and real-space grids. The best choice of basis depends on the structure of the system being analyzed and the physical processes involved (e.g., laser illumination). For this reason, it was important to conduct rigorous tests of basis set performance, in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. There are no existing benchmark calculations for field emission, but transport calculations for nanostructures are similar, and so provide a useful reference for evaluating the performance of various basis sets. Based on the results, for the purposes of studying a non-periodic nanostructure under field emission conditions, we decided to use a real-space grid basis which incorporates the Lagrange function approach. Once a basis was chosen, in this case a real-space grid, the issue of boundary conditions arose. The problem is that with a non-periodic system, field emitted electron density can experience non-physical reflections from the boundaries of the calculation volume, leading to inaccuracies. To prevent this issue, we used complex absorbing potentials (CAPs) to absorb
First-principles models of equilibrium tellurium isotope fractionation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haghnegahdar, M. A.; Schauble, E. A.; Fornadel, A. P.; Spry, P. G.
2013-12-01
In this study, equilibrium mass-dependent isotopic fractionation among representative Te-bearing species is estimated with first-principles thermodynamic calculations. Tellurium is a group 16 element (along with O, S, and Se) with eight stable isotopes ranging in mass from 120Te to 130Te, and six commonly-occurring oxidation states: -II, -I, 0, +II, +IV, and +VI. In its reduced form, Te(-II), tellurium has a unique crystal-chemical role as a bond partner for gold and silver in epithermal and orogenic gold deposits, which likely form when oxidized Te species (e.g., H2TeO3, TeO32-) or perhaps polytellurides (e.g., Te22-) interact with precious metals in hydrothermal solution. Te(IV) is the most common oxidation state at the Earth's surface, including surface outcrops of telluride ore deposits, where tellurite and tellurate minerals form by oxidation. In the ocean, dissolved tellurium tends to be scavenged by particulate matter. Te(VI) is more abundant than Te(IV) in the ocean water (1), even though it is thought to be less stable thermodynamically. This variety of valence states in natural systems and range of isotopic masses suggest that tellurium could exhibit geochemically useful isotope abundance variations. Tellurium isotope fractionations were determined for representative molecules and crystals of varying complexity and chemistry. Gas-phase calculations are combined with supermolecular cluster models of aqueous and solid species. These in turn are compared with plane-wave density functional theory calculations with periodic boundary conditions. In general, heavyTe/lightTe is predicted to be higher for more oxidized species, and lower for reduced species, with 130Te/125Te fractionations as large as 4‰ at 100οC between coexisting Te(IV) and Te(-II) or Te(0) compounds. This is a much larger fractionation than has been observed in naturally occurring redox pairs (i.e., Te (0) vs. Te(IV) species) so far, suggesting that disequilibrium processes may control
Interaction of rat liver glucocorticoid receptor with sodium tungstate.
Murakami, N; Healy, S P; Moudgil, V K
1982-06-15
Effects of sodium tungstate on various properties of rat liver glucocorticoid receptor were examined at pH7 and pH 8. At pH 7, [3H]triamcinolone acetonide binding in rat liver cytosol preparations was completely blocked in the presence of 10--20 mM-sodium tungstate at 4 degrees C, whereas at 37 degrees C a 30 min incubation of cytosol receptor preparation with 1 mM-sodium tungstate reduced the loss of unoccupied receptor by 50%. At pH 8.0, tungstate presence during the 37 degrees C incubation maintained the steroid-binding capacity of unoccupied glucocorticoid receptor at control (4 degrees C) levels. In addition, heat-activation of cytosolic glucocorticoid-receptor complex was blocked by 1 mM- and 10 mM-sodium tungstate at pH 7 and pH 8 respectively. The DNA-cellulose binding by activated receptor was also inhibited completely and irreversibly by 5 mM-tungstate at pH 7, whereas at pH 8 no significant effect was observed with up to 20 mM-tungstate. The entire DNA-cellulose-bound glucocorticoid-receptor complex from control samples could be extracted by incubation with 1 mM- and 20 mM-tungstate at pH 7 and pH 8 respectively, and appeared to sediment as a 4.3--4.6 S molecule, both in 0.01 M- and 0.3 M-KCl-containing sucrose gradients. Tungstate effects are, therefore, pH-dependent and appear to involve an interaction with both the non-activated and the activated forms of the glucocorticoid receptor.
Application of Merrill's First Principles of Instruction in a Museum Education Context
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Kari Ross
2015-01-01
In an effort to support a solid grounding in educational theory within the field of museum education, three texts considered essential reading for museum educators were surveyed for correlations with Merrill's First Principles of Instruction, an influential work in the field of instructional design. Each of five First Principles were found to be…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cappelletti, John
1989-01-01
Details the following thoughts on directing for the theater: select the play, read the play, read the play again, ask questions, discover the spine, form a concept, cast the play, listen to the actors, make it move, make it spontaneous, make it real, look for obstacles, make it relevant, and make it important. (PRA)
Structural and electronic phase transitions of ThS2 from first-principles calculations
Guo, Yongliang; Wang, Changying; Qiu, Wujie; ...
2016-10-07
Performed a systematic study using first-principles methods of the pressure-induced structural and electronic phase transitions in ThS2, which may play an important role in the next generation nuclear energy fuel technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trinkle, Dallas R.; Yasi, Joseph A.; Hector, Louis G.
Predictive modeling of strength from first-principles electronic structure methods offers great promise to inform Mg alloy design. Simulating the mechanical behavior for new alloys requires an understanding of mechanisms for deformation at atomic-length scales, with accurate chemistry, extended to larger length- and time-scales. To design ductile Mg alloys, we identify solutes that strengthen basal slip and increase cross-slip. First-principles modeling of dislocations predict dislocation motion under stress through a field of solutes at a finite temperature. First-principles flexible boundary conditions compute accurate core structures of basal and prismatic dislocations, and dislocation/solute interactions. We develop new models to predict the solute-strengthening for basal dislocations; cross-slip from basal- to prismatic-slip for α-type screw dislocations; and cross-slip stress with solutes. First-principles data provides insight into the response of dislocations to solutes and quantitative data to build new predictive models.
First-principle simulation of shock-wave experiments for aluminum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minakov, Dmitry V.; Levashov, Pavel R.; Khishchenko, Konstantin V.
2012-03-01
We present first-principle calculations of shock Hugoniots, release isentropes and sound speed measurements on the principle Hugoniot of aluminum. Most of the results are in good agreement with experiments and a wide-range equation of state.
Materials Data on Co(WO4)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project
Kristin Persson
2016-04-23
Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations
Materials Data on Co(WO4)2 (SG:13) by Materials Project
Kristin Persson
2014-09-30
Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations
Niobium hyperfine structure in crystal calcium tungstate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, D. L.; Kikuchi, C.
1972-01-01
A study of the niobium hyperfine structure in single crystal calcium tungstate was made by the combination of the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance (EPR/ENDOR). The microwave frequency was about 9.4 GHz and the radio frequency from 20MHz to 70 MHz. The rare earth ions Nd(3+), U(3+), or Tm(3+) were added as the charge compensator for Nb(5+). To create niobium paramagnetic centers, the sample was irradiated at 77 deg K with a 10 thousand curie Co-60 gamma source for 1 to 2 hours at a dose rate of 200 K rads per hour and then transferred quickly into the cavity. In a general direction of magnetic field, the spectra showed 4 sets of 10 main lines corresponding to 4 nonequivalent sites of niobium with I = 9/2. These 4 sets of lines coalesced into 2 sets of 10 in the ab-plane and into a single set of 10 along the c-axis. This symmetry suggested that the tungsten ions are substituted by the niobium ions in the crystal.
Kaczmarek, Anna M; Liu, Ying-Ya; Van der Voort, Pascal; Van Deun, Rik
2013-04-21
In this paper, various microstructures of yttrium and lanthanum tungstates were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, at pH 5, in a ligand-free environment, and in the presence of a dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS) surfactant. It was observed that the shape of the nanobuilding blocks, and therefore the architecture of the microstructures, could be tuned by controlling the reaction conditions, such as the source of the rare earth, the amount of a surfactant and the reaction time. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2 adsorption were employed to characterize the obtained products. The photoluminescent properties of Eu(3+) and Dy(3+) doped tungstate materials were investigated. Luminescence measurements showed an efficient charge transfer from the WO4(2-) groups to Eu(3+) and Dy(3+) ions. It was found that under UV excitation the Dy(3+) doped Y(WO3)2(OH)3 and La2(WO4)3 precursors exhibit white emission.
Application of First Principles Ni-Cd and Ni-H2 Battery Models to Spacecraft Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Timmerman, Paul; Bugga, Ratnakumar; DiStefano, Salvador
1997-01-01
The conclusions of the application of first principles model to spacecraft operations are: the first principles of Bi-phasic electrode presented model provides an explanation for many behaviors on voltage fading on LEO cycling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vladimirov, P. V.; Borodin, V. A.
2017-02-01
Beryllium selected as a neutron multiplier material for the tritium breeding blanket of fusion reactor should withstand high doses of fast neutron irradiation. The damage produced by irradiation is usually evaluated assuming that the number of atomic displacements to the threshold displacement energy, Ed, which is considered as an intrinsic material parameter. In this work the value of Ed for hcp beryllium is estimated simultaneously from classical and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Quite similar quantitative pictures of defect production are observed in both simulation types, though the predicted displacement threshold values seem to be approximately two times higher in the first-principles approach. We expect that, after more detailed first-principles investigations, this approach can be used for scaling the damage prediction predictions by classical molecular dynamics, opening a way for more consistent calculations of displacement damage in materials.
First Principles Calculations for X-ray Resonant Spectra and Elastic Properties
Lee, Yongbin
2004-01-01
In this thesis, we discuss applications of first principles methods to x-ray resonant spectra and elastic properties calculation. We start with brief reviews about theoretical background of first principles methods, such as density functional theory, local density approximation (LDA), LDA+U, and the linear augmented plane wave (LAPW) method to solve Kohn-Sham equations. After that we discuss x-ray resonant scattering (XRMS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and the branching problem in the heavy rare earths Ledges. In the last chapter we discuss the elastic properties of the second hardest material AlMgB_{14}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, T.; Mori, M.; Matsunaga, K.; Tanaka, I.
2010-09-01
Based on first principles calculations for crystals and experimental thermochemical data for aqueous solutions and molecules, Pourbaix diagrams of alkaline earth metal systems at 298.15 K are constructed. Phonon frequencies are computed for all crystals of interests by the first principles method. Then individual contributions of zero-point energies and vibrational free energies are examined. The contribution of the zero-point energy is found to be 7-8% of the total formation free energy at 298.15 K in hydroxides, which can be ascribed to the presence of high frequency OH stretching modes. The agreements between computed and experimental Pourbaix diagrams are quite satisfactory.
Suzuki, T; Mori, M; Matsunaga, K; Tanaka, I
2010-09-29
Based on first principles calculations for crystals and experimental thermochemical data for aqueous solutions and molecules, Pourbaix diagrams of alkaline earth metal systems at 298.15 K are constructed. Phonon frequencies are computed for all crystals of interests by the first principles method. Then individual contributions of zero-point energies and vibrational free energies are examined. The contribution of the zero-point energy is found to be 7-8% of the total formation free energy at 298.15 K in hydroxides, which can be ascribed to the presence of high frequency OH stretching modes. The agreements between computed and experimental Pourbaix diagrams are quite satisfactory.
Atta Mills, Ebenezer Fiifi Emire; Yan, Dawen; Yu, Bo; Wei, Xinyuan
2016-01-01
We propose a consolidated risk measure based on variance and the safety-first principle in a mean-risk portfolio optimization framework. The safety-first principle to financial portfolio selection strategy is modified and improved. Our proposed models are subjected to norm regularization to seek near-optimal stable and sparse portfolios. We compare the cumulative wealth of our preferred proposed model to a benchmark, S&P 500 index for the same period. Our proposed portfolio strategies have better out-of-sample performance than the selected alternative portfolio rules in literature and control the downside risk of the portfolio returns.
First-principles calculation of the Curie temperature Slater-Pauling curve.
Takahashi, C; Ogura, M; Akai, H
2007-09-12
It is well known that the magnetizations as a function of the valence electron number per atom of 3d transition metal substitutional alloys form the so-called Slater-Pauling curve. Similarly, the Curie temperatures of these alloys also show systematic behaviour against the valence electron number. Though this fact has long been known, no attempt has been made so far to explain this behaviour from first principles. In this paper we calculate T(C) of 3d transition metal alloys in the framework of first-principles electronic structure calculation based on the local density approximation.
Growth mechanisms of ZnO(0001) investigated using the first-principles calculation
Fujiwara, Katsutoshi; Ishii, Akira; Abe, Tomoki; Ando, Koshi
2012-09-15
We investigated the dynamics of zinc (Zn) and oxygen (O) adsorbed atoms (adatoms) on a Zn-polar ZnO(0001) surface using the first-principles calculation. The results of the first-principles calculation revealed that a high-quality ZnO crystalline growth condition is induced by wurtzite structure packing under a Zn-rich growth condition using a Zn-polar ZnO(0001) surface. However, it was shown that an O adatom is not sufficient to promote surface atomic diffusion. For high-quality ZnO crystal, promoting surface diffusion of adatoms using high temperature is important.
Effects of sodium tungstate on oxidative stress enzymes in rats.
Sachdeva, Sherry; Kushwaha, Pramod; Flora, S J S
2013-09-01
Tungsten, due to its distinguished physical properties, has wide industrial and military applications. Environmental exposure to tungsten, which mainly occurs through various sources like food, water, soil, etc., is of growing concern as various toxic effects have recently been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of sodium tungstate on various biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress in erythrocytes and soft tissue damage in rats. Male rats were administered to 119 mg, 238 mg/kg of sodium tungstate orally or 20 mg and 41 mg/kg through i.p. route, for 14 consecutive days. The results demonstrated a significant increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and an increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes. Erythrocyte glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity showed significant inhibition, while tissue ROS and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels increased accompanied by a decreased reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) ratio. These changes were supported by an increase in plasma transaminases activities, creatinine, and urea levels, suggesting hepatic and renal injury. These biochemical alterations were prominent in rats intraperitoneally administrated with sodium tungstate than oral administration, suggesting more pronounced toxicity. The study also suggests oxidative stress as one of the major mechanism involved in the toxic manifestations of sodium tungstate.
Effects of sodium tungstate on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas.
Rodríguez-Gallardo, J; Silvestre, R A; Egido, E M; Marco, J
2000-08-18
Both the direct effect of sodium tungstate on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas, and the insulin response to glucose and arginine in pancreases isolated from tungstate-pretreated rats were studied. Infusion of tungstate stimulated insulin output in a dose-dependent manner. The insulinotropic effect of tungstate was observed at normal (5.5 mM), and moderately high (9 mM) glucose concentrations, but not at a low glucose concentration (3.2 mM). Tungstate-induced insulin output was blocked by diazoxide, somatostatin, and amylin, suggesting several targets for tungstate at the B-cell secretory machinery. Glucagon release was not modified by tungstate. Pancreases from chronically tungstate-treated rats showed an enhanced response to glucose but not to arginine. Our results indicate that the reported reduction of glycemia caused by tungstate administration is, at least in part, due to its direct insulinotropic activity. Furthermore, chronic tungstate treatment may prime the B-cell, leading to over-response to a glucose stimulus.
2005-02-22
GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Methodology For First Principle Calculations Of Electrical Levels For Radiation Induced Defects In Silicates ...materials, space materials, Silicon on Insulator ( SOI ) materials 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON DONALD J SMITH
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Sunghye; Koszalka, Tiffany A.
2016-01-01
The First Principles of Instruction (FPI) represent ideologies found in most instructional design theories and models. Few attempts, however, have been made to empirically test the relationship of these FPI to instructional outcomes. This study addresses whether the degree to which FPI are implemented in courses makes a difference to student…
First-principles calculation of nonlinear optical responses by Wannier interpolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chong; Liu, Xiaoyu; Kang, Lei; Gu, Bing-Lin; Xu, Yong; Duan, Wenhui
2017-09-01
Various nonlinear optical (NLO) responses, like shift current and second harmonic generation (SHG), are revealed to be closely related to topological quantities involving the Berry connection and Berry curvature. First-principles prediction of NLO responses is of great importance to fundamental research and device design, but efficient computational methods are still lacking. The main challenge is that the calculations require a very dense k -point sampling that is computationally expensive and a proper treatment of the gauge problem for topological quantities. Here we present a Wannier interpolation method for first-principles calculation of NLO responses, which overcomes the challenge. This method interpolates physical quantities accurately for any desired k point with little computational cost and constructs a smooth gauge by the perturbation theory. To demonstrate the method, we study shift current of monolayer GeS and WS2 as well as SHG of bulk GaAs, getting good agreements with previous results. We show that the traditional sum rule method converges slowly with the number of bands, whereas the perturbation way does not. Moreover, our method is easily adapted to build tight-binding models for the following theoretical investigations. Last but not least, the method is compatible with most first-principles approaches, including density functional theory and beyond. With these advantages, Wannier interpolation is a promising method for first-principles studies of NLO phenomena.
Khokhlov, Alexei; Austin, Joanna; Bacon, C.
2015-03-02
Hydrogen has emerged as an important fuel across a range of industries as a means of achieving energy independence and to reduce emissions. DDT and the resulting detonation waves in hydrogen-oxygen can have especially catastrophic consequences in a variety of industrial and energy producing settings related to hydrogen. First-principles numerical simulations of flame acceleration and DDT are required for an in-depth understanding of the phenomena and facilitating design of safe hydrogen systems. The goals of this project were (1) to develop first-principles petascale reactive flow Navier-Stokes simulation code for predicting gaseous high-speed combustion and detonation (HSCD) phenomena and (2) demonstrate feasibility of first-principles simulations of rapid flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture (2H_{2} + O_{2}). The goals of the project have been accomplished. We have developed a novel numerical simulation code, named HSCD, for performing first-principles direct numerical simulations of high-speed hydrogen combustion. We carried out a series of validating numerical simulations of inert and reactive shock reflection experiments in shock tubes. We then performed a pilot numerical simulation of flame acceleration in a long pipe. The simulation showed the transition of the rapidly accelerating flame into a detonation. The DDT simulations were performed using BG/Q Mira at the Argonne National Laboratory, currently the fourth fastest super-computer in the world.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Sunghye; Koszalka, Tiffany A.
2016-01-01
The First Principles of Instruction (FPI) represent ideologies found in most instructional design theories and models. Few attempts, however, have been made to empirically test the relationship of these FPI to instructional outcomes. This study addresses whether the degree to which FPI are implemented in courses makes a difference to student…
First principles study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of magnesium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel Rahim, G. P.; Rodríguez M, J. A.; Moreno-Armenta, M. G.
2016-02-01
We investigated the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Mg, in the CS (simple cubic), NiAs (Nickel arsenide), FCC (rock-salt), R (Rhombohedral), Diamond and WZ (wurtzite) phases. Calculations were performed using the first-principles pseudo-potential method within the framework of spin-density functional theory (DFT).
First-principles calculations of shear moduli for Monte Carlo-simulated Coulomb solids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ogata, Shuji; Ichimaru, Setsuo
1990-01-01
The paper presents a first-principles study of the shear modulus tensor for perfect and imperfect Coulomb solids. Allowance is made for the effects of thermal fluctuations for temperatures up to the melting conditions. The present theory treats the cases of the long-range Coulomb interaction, where volume fluctuations should be avoided in the Ewald sums.
First-principles calculations of shear moduli for Monte Carlo-simulated Coulomb solids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ogata, Shuji; Ichimaru, Setsuo
1990-01-01
The paper presents a first-principles study of the shear modulus tensor for perfect and imperfect Coulomb solids. Allowance is made for the effects of thermal fluctuations for temperatures up to the melting conditions. The present theory treats the cases of the long-range Coulomb interaction, where volume fluctuations should be avoided in the Ewald sums.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowen, J. Philip; Sorensen, Jennifer B.; Kirschner, Karl N.
2007-01-01
The analysis explains the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and fragment relaxation involved in calculating the interaction energies using various first principle theories. Interacting the correlated fragment and increasing the size of the basis set can help in decreasing the BSSE to a great extent.
First-principles Calculations of Twin-boundary and Stacking-fault Energies in Magnesium
2010-01-01
The interfacial energies of twin boundaries and stacking faults in metal magnesium have been calculated using first-principles supercell approach...Four types of twin boundaries and two types of stacking faults are investigated, namely, those due to the mirror reflection, the mirror glide and the
First principles study of CrH and CrM2H
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanagaprabha, S.; Santhosh, M.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Iyakutti, K.
2013-06-01
First principles calculation were performed using Tight-binding LMTO method with Local density approximation (LDA) and Atomic sphere approximation (ASA) to understand the electronic properties of CrH. A pressure induced structural phase transition from cubic to hexagonal structure of CrH is predicted. The stability of CrM2H is analyzed.
First-principles modelling of Earth and planetary materials at high pressures and temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillan, M. J.; Alfè, D.; Brodholt, J.; Vocadlo, L.; Price, G. D.
2006-08-01
Atomic-scale materials modelling based on first-principles quantum mechanics is playing an important role in the science of the Earth and the other planets. We outline the basic theory of this kind of modelling and explain how it can be applied in a variety of different ways to probe the thermodynamics, structure and transport properties of both solids and liquids under extreme conditions. After a summary of the density functional formulation of quantum mechanics and its practical implementation through pseudopotentials, we outline the simplest way of applying first-principles modelling, namely static zero-temperature calculations. We show how calculations of this kind can be compared with static compression experiments to demonstrate the accuracy of first-principles modelling at pressures reached in planetary interiors. Noting that virtually all problems concerning planetary interiors require an understanding of materials at high temperatures as well as high pressures, we then describe how first-principles lattice dynamics gives a powerful way of investigating solids at temperatures not too close to the melting line. We show how such calculations have contributed to important progress, including the recent discovery of the post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3 in the D'' layer at the base of the Earth's mantle. A range of applications of first-principles molecular dynamics are then reviewed, including the properties of metallic hydrogen in Jupiter and Saturn, of water, ammonia and methane in Uranus and Neptune, and of oxides and silicates and solid and liquid iron and its alloys in the Earth's deep interior. Recognizing the importance of phase equilibria throughout the planetary sciences, we review recently developed techniques for the first-principles calculation of solid and liquid free energies, melting curves and chemical potentials of alloys. We show how such calculations have contributed to an improved understanding of the temperature distribution and the chemical
Tungstate sulfuric acid (TSA)/KMnO4 as a novel heterogeneous system for rapid deoximation.
Karami, Bahador; Montazerozohori, Morteza
2006-09-28
Neat chlorosulfonic acid reacts with anhydrous sodium tungstate to give tungstate sulfuric acid (TSA), a new dibasic inorganic solid acid in which two sulfuric acid molecules connect to a tungstate moiety via a covalent bond. A variety of oximes were oxidized to their parent carbonyl compounds under mild conditions with excellent yields in short times by a heterogeneous wet TSA/KMnO4 in dichloromethane system.
Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.
2012-11-01
A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.
Magnetically induced phonon splitting in ACr2O4 spinels from first principles
Wysocki, Aleksander L.; Birol, Turan
2016-04-22
We study the magnetically-induced phonon splitting in cubic ACr2O4 (A=Mg, Zn, Cd) spinels from first principles and demonstrate that the sign of the splitting, which is experimentally observed to be opposite in CdCr2O4 compared to ZnCr2O4 and MgCr2O4, is determined solely by the particular magnetic ordering pattern observed in these compounds. We further show that this interaction between magnetism and phonon frequencies can be fully described by the previously proposed spin-phonon coupling model [C. J. Fennie and K. M. Rabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 205505 (2006)] that includes only the nearest neighbor exchange. In conclusion, using this model with materialsmore » specific parameters calculated from first principles, we provide additional insights into the physics of spin-phonon coupling in this intriguing family of compounds.« less
First-principles materials applications and design of nonlinear optical crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zheshuai; Jiang, Xingxing; Kang, Lei; Gong, Pifu; Luo, Siyang; Lee, Ming-Hsien
2014-06-01
With the development of laser technology and related scientific fields, understanding of the structure-property relationships in nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals is becoming more and more important. In this article, first-principles studies based on density functional theory, and their applications to elucidate the microscopic origins of the linear and NLO properties in NLO crystals, are reviewed. The ab initio approaches have the ability to accurately predict the optical properties in NLO crystals, and the developed analysis tools are vital to investigating their intrinsic mechanism. This microscopic understanding has further guided molecular engineering design for NLO crystals with novel structures and properties. It is anticipated that first-principle material approaches will greatly improve the search efficiency and greatly help experiments to save resources in the exploration of new NLO crystals with good performance.
Zhou, Fei; Nielson, Weston; Xia, Yi; Ozolins, Vidvuds
2014-10-27
First-principles prediction of lattice thermal conductivity K_{L} of strongly anharmonic crystals is a long-standing challenge in solid state physics. Using recent advances in information science, we propose a systematic and rigorous approach to this problem, compressive sensing lattice dynamics (CSLD). Compressive sensing is used to select the physically important terms in the lattice dynamics model and determine their values in one shot. Non-intuitively, high accuracy is achieved when the model is trained on first-principles forces in quasi-random atomic configurations. The method is demonstrated for Si, NaCl, and Cu_{12}Sb_{4}S_{13}, an earth-abundant thermoelectric with strong phononphonon interactions that limit the room-temperature K_{L} to values near the amorphous limit.
Zhou, Fei; Nielson, Weston; Xia, Yi; ...
2014-10-27
First-principles prediction of lattice thermal conductivity KL of strongly anharmonic crystals is a long-standing challenge in solid state physics. Using recent advances in information science, we propose a systematic and rigorous approach to this problem, compressive sensing lattice dynamics (CSLD). Compressive sensing is used to select the physically important terms in the lattice dynamics model and determine their values in one shot. Non-intuitively, high accuracy is achieved when the model is trained on first-principles forces in quasi-random atomic configurations. The method is demonstrated for Si, NaCl, and Cu12Sb4S13, an earth-abundant thermoelectric with strong phononphonon interactions that limit the room-temperature KLmore » to values near the amorphous limit.« less
Zhou, Fei; Nielson, Weston; Xia, Yi; Ozoliņš, Vidvuds
2014-10-01
First-principles prediction of lattice thermal conductivity κ_{L} of strongly anharmonic crystals is a long-standing challenge in solid-state physics. Making use of recent advances in information science, we propose a systematic and rigorous approach to this problem, compressive sensing lattice dynamics. Compressive sensing is used to select the physically important terms in the lattice dynamics model and determine their values in one shot. Nonintuitively, high accuracy is achieved when the model is trained on first-principles forces in quasirandom atomic configurations. The method is demonstrated for Si, NaCl, and Cu_{12}Sb_{4}S_{13}, an earth-abundant thermoelectric with strong phonon-phonon interactions that limit the room-temperature κ_{L} to values near the amorphous limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Joseph W.; Rabe, Karin M.
2012-11-01
In this concept paper, the development of strategies for the integration of first-principles methods with crystallographic database mining for the discovery and design of novel ferroelectric materials is discussed, drawing on the results and experience derived from exploratory investigations on three different systems: (1) the double perovskite Sr(Sb1/2Mn1/2)O3 as a candidate semiconducting ferroelectric; (2) polar derivatives of schafarzikite MSb2O4; and (3) ferroelectric semiconductors with formula M2P2(S,Se)6. A variety of avenues for further research and investigation are suggested, including automated structure type classification, low-symmetry improper ferroelectrics, and high-throughput first-principles searches for additional representatives of structural families with desirable functional properties.
Equation of state for technetium from X-ray diffraction and first-principle calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mast, Daniel S.; Kim, Eunja; Siska, Emily M.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Lavina, Barbara; Forster, Paul M.
2016-08-01
The ambient temperature equation of state (EoS) of technetium metal has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The metal was compressed using a diamond anvil cell and using a 4:1 methanol-ethanol pressure transmitting medium. The maximum pressure achieved, as determined from the gold pressureEquation of state for technetium from X-ray diffraction and first-principle calculations scale, was 67 GPa. The compression data shows that the HCP phase of technetium is stable up to 67 GPa. The compression curve of technetium was also calculated using first-principles total-energy calculations. Utilizing a number of fitting strategies to compare the experimental and theoretical data it is determined that the Vinet equation of state with an ambient isothermal bulk modulus of B0T=288 GPa and a first pressure derivative of B‧=5.9(2) best represent the compression behavior of technetium metal.
Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y.; Bennion, Brian J.; ...
2015-10-22
Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale First-Principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to study the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out Density functional theory calculations for a quantum mechanical (QM) sub- system consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM sub-system is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite temperature sampling by First-Principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholinemore » catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations shows two energies barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, the second barrier (8.5 kcal/mole) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment.« less
First-principles study of intrinsic dielectric loss [in oxides] at microwave frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antons, Armin
2003-03-01
Ceramic dielectric materials play an important role in microwave communication systems such as cellular phones. One of the most important requirements for such materials, along with a high and weakly temperature-dependent dielectric constant, is a low dielectric loss. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a fully first-principles approach to computing dielectric loss at microwave frequencies by focusing on the intrinsic losses which arise from anharmonic processes within the crystal, while neglecting extrinsic mechanisms associated with defects such as vacancies, impurity phases, and grain boundaries. Using SrO as our model system, we have computed the loss arising from two-phonon processes using third order force-constant matrices, phonon dispersion relations, phonon eigenvectors, and Born effective charges calculated from first principles using density-functional perturbation theory techniques. Progress in extending the work to SrTiO3 will also be discussed.
Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y.; Bennion, Brian J.; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C.
2015-10-22
Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale First-Principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to study the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out Density functional theory calculations for a quantum mechanical (QM) sub- system consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM sub-system is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite temperature sampling by First-Principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholine catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations shows two energies barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, the second barrier (8.5 kcal/mole) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment.
First-principle optimal local pseudopotentials construction via optimized effective potential method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mi, Wenhui; Zhang, Shoutao; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming; Miao, Maosheng
2016-04-01
The local pseudopotential (LPP) is an important component of orbital-free density functional theory, a promising large-scale simulation method that can maintain information on a material's electron state. The LPP is usually extracted from solid-state density functional theory calculations, thereby it is difficult to assess its transferability to cases involving very different chemical environments. Here, we reveal a fundamental relation between the first-principles norm-conserving pseudopotential (NCPP) and the LPP. On the basis of this relationship, we demonstrate that the LPP can be constructed optimally from the NCPP for a large number of elements using the optimized effective potential method. Specially, our method provides a unified scheme for constructing and assessing the LPP within the framework of first-principles pseudopotentials. Our practice reveals that the existence of a valid LPP with high transferability may strongly depend on the element.
Grain growth in U-Mo alloy: a combined first-principles and phase field study
Mei, Zhi-Gang; Liang, Linyun; Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, Tom; O'Hare, Edward; Yacout, Abdellatif M.; Hofman, Gerard; Anitescu, Mihai
2016-05-01
Grain size is an important factor in controlling the swelling behavior in irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuels. Increasing the grain size in UeMo fuel particles by heat treatment is believed to delay the fuel swelling at high fission density. In this work, a multiscale simulation approach combining first-principles calculation and phase field modeling is used to investigate the grain growth behavior in U-7Mo alloy. The density functional theory based first-principles calculations were used to predict the material properties of U-7Mo alloy. The obtained grain boundary energies were then adopted as an input parameter for mesoscale phase field simulations. The effects of annealing temperature, annealing time and initial grain structures of fuel particles on the grain growth in U-7Mo alloy were examined. The predicted grain growth rate compares well with the empirical correlation derived from experiments. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
First-principles studies of the piezomagnetic effect in transition-metal fluorides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Sai; Belashchenko, Kirill
2014-03-01
The piezomagnetic effect can facilitate the manipulation of magnetization by strain, especially in combination with a piezoelectric element. We formulate a model suitable for the first-principles evaluation of the piezomagnetic coefficients and apply it to the series of transition-metal fluorides (MnF2, FeF2, CoF2) . The longitudinal piezomagnetic tensor component Λzxy reaches a maximum at finite temperature similar to the longitudinal magnetoelectric susceptibility. This component is due to the symmetry-breaking response of the parameters of the microscopic spin Hamiltonian to strain, which is calculated from first principles. The transverse component Λxyz, which is entirely due to spin-orbit coupling, is evaluated by minimizing the total energy with respect to the canting of the local moments. The results are compared with available experimental data.
First-principles investigation of mechanical properties of silicene, germanene and stanene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortazavi, Bohayra; Rahaman, Obaidur; Makaremi, Meysam; Dianat, Arezoo; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rabczuk, Timon
2017-03-01
Two-dimensional allotropes of group-IV substrates including silicene, germanene and stanene have recently attracted considerable attention in nanodevice fabrication industry. These materials involving the buckled structure have been experimentally fabricated lately. In this study, first-principles density functional theory calculations were utilized to investigate the mechanical properties of single-layer and free-standing silicene, germanene and stanene. Uniaxial tensile and compressive simulations were carried out to probe and compare stress-strain properties; such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and ultimate strength. We evaluated the chirality effect on the mechanical response and bond structure of the 2D substrates. Our first-principles simulations suggest that in all studied samples application of uniaxial loading can alter the electronic nature of the buckled structures into the metallic character. Our investigation provides a general but also useful viewpoint with respect to the mechanical properties of silicene, germanene and stanene.
Thermal conductivity of glassy GeTe4 by first-principles molecular dynamics.
Bouzid, Assil; Zaoui, Hayat; Luca Palla, Pier; Ori, Guido; Boero, Mauro; Massobrio, Carlo; Cleri, Fabrizio; Lampin, Evelyne
2017-03-29
A transient thermal regime is achieved in glassy GeTe4 by first-principles molecular dynamics following the recently proposed "approach-to-equilibrium" methodology. The temporal and spatial evolution of the temperature do comply with the time-dependent solution of the heat equation. We demonstrate that the time scales required to create the hot and the cold parts of the system and observe the resulting approach to equilibrium are accessible to first-principles molecular dynamics. Such a strategy provides the thermal conductivity from the characteristic decay time. We rationalize in detail the impact on the thermal conductivity of the initial temperature difference, the equilibration duration, and the main simulation features.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal
2016-04-01
We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac function for the d electrons with eg symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data.
First-principles based calculation of phonon spectrain substitutionally disordered alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Subhradip
2013-02-01
A first-principles based solution to the longstanding problem of calculating the phonon spectra in substitutional disordered alloys where strong force-constant disorder plays a significantrole is provided by a combination of first-principles electronicstructure tools, physically reasonable models of force-constant in alloyenvironments, and the Itinerant Coherent-Potntial Approximation (ICPA) by Ghosh and co-workers (S. Ghosh et. al., Physical Review B 66, 214206 (2002)). Wehere present the salient features of such hybrid formalism and illustrate its capability by the computation of phonon spectrafor disordered alloys with large size mismatch of end point components. We demonstrate that the consideration of local environments insize-mismatched alloys is crucial in understanding the microscopicinterplay of forces between various pairs of chemical specie and a correctdepiction of these is important for computation of accurate phonondispersions in these systems.
Grain growth in U-7Mo alloy: A combined first-principles and phase field study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Zhi-Gang; Liang, Linyun; Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, Tom; O'Hare, Edward; Yacout, Abdellatif M.; Hofman, Gerard; Anitescu, Mihai
2016-05-01
Grain size is an important factor in controlling the swelling behavior in irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuels. Increasing the grain size in U-Mo fuel particles by heat treatment is believed to delay the fuel swelling at high fission density. In this work, a multiscale simulation approach combining first-principles calculation and phase field modeling is used to investigate the grain growth behavior in U-7Mo alloy. The density functional theory based first-principles calculations were used to predict the material properties of U-7Mo alloy. The obtained grain boundary energies were then adopted as an input parameter for mesoscale phase field simulations. The effects of annealing temperature, annealing time and initial grain structures of fuel particles on the grain growth in U-7Mo alloy were examined. The predicted grain growth rate compares well with the empirical correlation derived from experiments.
Tadano, Terumasa; Tsuneyuki, Shinji
2015-12-31
We show a first-principles approach for analyzing anharmonic properties of lattice vibrations in solids. We firstly extract harmonic and anharmonic force constants from accurate first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. Using the many-body perturbation theory of phonons, we then estimate the phonon scattering probability due to anharmonic phonon-phonon interactions. We show the validity of the approach by computing the lattice thermal conductivity of Si, a typical covalent semiconductor, and selected thermoelectric materials PbTe and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based on the Boltzmann transport equation. We also show that the phonon lifetime and the lattice thermal conductivity of the high-temperature phase of SrTiO{sub 3} can be estimated by employing the perturbation theory on top of the solution of the self-consistent phonon equation.
Properties of Single-Layer Boron Sheets: First-Principle Study through MatCloud Platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zong-Guo; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Qin, Shao-Jing; Wang, Chui-Lin
2017-07-01
Electronic structures in two kinds of boron structures are investigated by the first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations. One structure is from theoretical prediction, and the other is from experimental investigation. Binding energy calculations suggest that the boron structure designed from theory is more stable than that made by experiment. Elastic constants calculations show that both structures are mechanically stable. The electronic structure results show that the theoretical designed structure exhibits semi-metal behavior, while the other structure exhibits metallic character. No magnetic phenomenal is discovered from them. All the calculations are carried out by the first principles calculation through the MatCloud platform, which is developed by our research group. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11547177
A biosensor based on graphene nanoribbon with nanopores: a first-principles devices-design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, Fang-Ping; Peng, Sheng-Lin; Zhang, Hua; Weng, Li-Bo; Xu, Hui
2011-05-01
A biosensor device, built from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with nanopores, was designed and studied by first-principles quantum transport simulation. We have demonstrated the intrinsic transport properties of the device and the effect of different nucleobases on device properties when they are located in the nanopores of GNRs. It was found that the device's current changes remarkably with the species of nucleobases, which originates from their different chemical compositions and coupling strengths with GNRs. In addition, our first-principles results clearly reveal that the distinguished ability of a device's current depends on the position of the pore to some extent. These results may present a new way to read off the nucleobases sequence of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule by such GNRs-based device with designed nanopores
Zhou, Fei; Nielson, Weston; Xia, Yi; Ozoliņš, Vidvuds
2014-10-31
First-principles prediction of lattice thermal conductivity κ(L) of strongly anharmonic crystals is a long-standing challenge in solid-state physics. Making use of recent advances in information science, we propose a systematic and rigorous approach to this problem, compressive sensing lattice dynamics. Compressive sensing is used to select the physically important terms in the lattice dynamics model and determine their values in one shot. Nonintuitively, high accuracy is achieved when the model is trained on first-principles forces in quasirandom atomic configurations. The method is demonstrated for Si, NaCl, and Cu(12)Sb(4)S(13), an earth-abundant thermoelectric with strong phonon-phonon interactions that limit the room-temperature κ(L) to values near the amorphous limit.
Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y; Bennion, Brian J; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C
2015-12-08
Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to the study of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out density functional theory calculations for a quantum-mechanical (QM) subsystem consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM subsystem is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite-temperature sampling by first-principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholine catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations show two energy barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme-catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. The second barrier (8.5 kcal/mol) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment.
Roy, Tapta Kanchan; Kopysov, Vladimir; Nagornova, Natalia S; Rizzo, Thomas R; Boyarkin, Oleg V; Gerber, R Benny
2015-05-18
Calculated structures of the two most stable conformers of a protonated decapeptide gramicidin S in the gas phase have been validated by comparing the vibrational spectra, calculated from first- principles and measured in a wide spectral range using infrared (IR)-UV double resonance cold ion spectroscopy. All the 522 vibrational modes of each conformer were calculated quantum mechanically and compared with the experiment without any recourse to an empirical scaling. The study demonstrates that first-principles calculations, when accounting for vibrational anharmonicity, can reproduce high-resolution experimental spectra well enough for validating structures of molecules as large as of 200 atoms. The validated accurate structures of the peptide may serve as templates for in silico drug design and absolute calibration of ion mobility measurements.
Guidez, Emilie B; Gordon, Mark S
2015-03-12
The modeling of dispersion interactions in density functional theory (DFT) is commonly performed using an energy correction that involves empirically fitted parameters for all atom pairs of the system investigated. In this study, the first-principles-derived dispersion energy from the effective fragment potential (EFP) method is implemented for the density functional theory (DFT-D(EFP)) and Hartree-Fock (HF-D(EFP)) energies. Overall, DFT-D(EFP) performs similarly to the semiempirical DFT-D corrections for the test cases investigated in this work. HF-D(EFP) tends to underestimate binding energies and overestimate intermolecular equilibrium distances, relative to coupled cluster theory, most likely due to incomplete accounting for electron correlation. Overall, this first-principles dispersion correction yields results that are in good agreement with coupled-cluster calculations at a low computational cost.
First-Principles Atomic Force Microscopy Image Simulations with Density Embedding Theory.
Sakai, Yuki; Lee, Alex J; Chelikowsky, James R
2016-05-11
We present an efficient first-principles method for simulating noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) images using a "frozen density" embedding theory. Frozen density embedding theory enables one to efficiently compute the tip-sample interaction by considering a sample as a frozen external field. This method reduces the extensive computational load of first-principles AFM simulations by avoiding consideration of the entire tip-sample system and focusing on the tip alone. We demonstrate that our simulation with frozen density embedding theory accurately reproduces full density functional theory simulations of freestanding hydrocarbon molecules while the computational time is significantly reduced. Our method also captures the electronic effect of a Cu(111) substrate on the AFM image of pentacene and reproduces the experimental AFM image of Cu2N on a Cu(100) surface. This approach is applicable for theoretical imaging applications on large molecules, two-dimensional materials, and materials surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Z.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.
2010-12-01
First-principles quasi-harmonic calculations play a fundamental role in mineral physics because they can predict the structure and thermodynamic properties of materials at pressure and temperature conditions that are still challenging for experiments. They also enable calculations of thermal elastic properties by providing the second derivatives of the free energies with respect to strains. However, these are demanding computations requiring hundreds of medium size jobs running on ~10^2 cores each. Here we introduce an approach that requires only calculations of static elastic constants and phonon density of states for strain-free configurations. This approach decreases the number of calculations by more than one order of magnitude. We show results for several minerals that are in very good agreement with some previous first-principles results and experimental data. Research supported by NSF under ATM-0428774 (VLab) and EAR-1019853. The computations were performed at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).
First principles finite temperature magnetism of defects in Fe using Wang-Landau method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusanu, Aurelian; Nicholson, D. M.; Odbadrakh, Kh.; Brown, Gregory; Eisenbach, Markus
2011-03-01
Magnetic structure of materials with defects presents a strong dependence on local atomic arrangements. This dependence affects mechanical, magneto-caloric, and magnetization properties. Insights into thermodynamic and magnetic fluctuations at defects in Fe are obtained from first principle analysis by deploying the first principle local self consistent multiple scattering method(LSMS) and Wang-Landau statistical method. The computation of thermodynamic properties requires the sampling of a large number of configurations. To reduce the computational effort a Heisenberg model will be used to speed the configuration sampling procedures. The approach will be demonstrated for Fe systems and will address the magnetic structure of defects. This work was supported by the Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DoE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Calculations performed at the National Center for Computational Sciences.
Amigó-Correig, Marta; Barceló-Batllori, Sílvia; Soria, Guadalupe; Krezymon, Alice; Benani, Alexandre; Pénicaud, Luc; Tudela, Raúl; Planas, Anna Maria; Fernández, Eduardo; Carmona, Maria del Carmen; Gomis, Ramon
2012-01-01
This study aims at exploring the effects of sodium tungstate treatment on hypothalamic plasticity, which is known to have an important role in the control of energy metabolism. Adult lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were orally treated with sodium tungstate. Arcuate and paraventricular nuclei and lateral hypothalamus were separated and subjected to proteomic analysis by DIGE and mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging were also performed. Sodium tungstate treatment reduced body weight gain, food intake, and blood glucose and triglyceride levels. These effects were associated with transcriptional and functional changes in the hypothalamus. Proteomic analysis revealed that sodium tungstate modified the expression levels of proteins involved in cell morphology, axonal growth, and tissue remodeling, such as actin, CRMP2 and neurofilaments, and of proteins related to energy metabolism. Moreover, immunohistochemistry studies confirmed results for some targets and further revealed tungstate-dependent regulation of SNAP25 and HPC-1 proteins, suggesting an effect on synaptogenesis as well. Functional test for cell activity based on c-fos-positive cell counting also suggested that sodium tungstate modified hypothalamic basal activity. Finally, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed that tungstate treatment can affect neuronal organization in the hypothalamus. Altogether, these results suggest that sodium tungstate regulates proteins involved in axonal and glial plasticity. The fact that sodium tungstate could modulate hypothalamic plasticity and networks in adulthood makes it a possible and interesting therapeutic strategy not only for obesity management, but also for other neurodegenerative illnesses like Alzheimer's disease.
First-principles investigation of anistropic hole mobilities in organic semiconductors.
Wen, Shu-Hao; Li, An; Song, Junling; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Han, Ke-Li; Goddard, William A
2009-07-02
We report a simple first-principles-based simulation model (combining quantum mechanics with Marcus-Hush theory) that provides the quantitative structural relationships between angular resolution anisotropic hole mobility and molecular structures and packing. We validate that this model correctly predicts the anisotropic hole mobilities of ruberene, pentacene, tetracene, 5,11-dichlorotetracene (DCT), and hexathiapentacene (HTP), leading to results in good agreement with experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canning, Andrew
2013-03-01
Inorganic scintillation phosphors (scintillators) are extensively employed as radiation detector materials in many fields of applied and fundamental research such as medical imaging, high energy physics, astrophysics, oil exploration and nuclear materials detection for homeland security and other applications. The ideal scintillator for gamma ray detection must have exceptional performance in terms of stopping power, luminosity, proportionality, speed, and cost. Recently, trivalent lanthanide dopants such as Ce and Eu have received greater attention for fast and bright scintillators as the optical 5d to 4f transition is relatively fast. However, crystal growth and production costs remain challenging for these new materials so there is still a need for new higher performing scintillators that meet the needs of the different application areas. First principles calculations can provide a useful insight into the chemical and electronic properties of such materials and hence can aid in the search for better new scintillators. In the past there has been little first-principles work done on scintillator materials in part because it means modeling f electrons in lanthanides as well as complex excited state and scattering processes. In this talk I will give an overview of the scintillation process and show how first-principles calculations can be applied to such systems to gain a better understanding of the physics involved. I will also present work on a high-throughput first principles approach to select new scintillator materials for fabrication as well as present more detailed calculations to study trapping process etc. that can limit their brightness. This work in collaboration with experimental groups has lead to the discovery of some new bright scintillators. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and carried out under U.S. Department of Energy Contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Ballistic phonon thermal conductance in graphene nano-ribbon: First-principles calculations
Nakamura, Jun; Tomita, Hiroki
2013-12-04
Ballistic phonon thermal conductances for graphene nanoribbons are investigated using first-principles calculations with the density functional perturbation theory and the Landauer theory. The phonon thermal conductance per unit width for GNR is larger than that for graphene and increases with decreasing ribbon width. The normalized thermal conductances with regard to a thermal quantum for GNRs are higher than those for the single-walled carbon nanotube that have circumferential lengths corresponding to the width of GNR.
The ideal tensile strength of tungsten and tungsten alloys by first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giusepponi, Simone; Celino, Massimo
2013-04-01
The ideal tensile strength in the [0 0 1] direction of bcc crystal tungsten and its alloys (W-Re, W-Ta and W-V) has been investigated by using first-principles total energy method based on the density functional theory. Crystalline tungsten containing a single substitutional defect (concentration of defects about 2%) has been characterized in terms of structural and mechanical properties. The maximum tensile stress required to reach elastic instability under increasing load has been further computed.
The effects of vacancies in the mechanical properties of tungsten: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giusepponi, Simone; Celino, Massimo
2015-01-01
Both mechanical and structural properties of bcc crystal tungsten in presence of mono and divacancy defects has been investigated by using accurate first-principles total energy methods based on density functional theory. A model for tungsten containing a concentration of vacancies of about 2% and 4% has been developed and used to compute the maximum tensile stress required to reach elastic instability under increasing load. Moreover stress effects on the crystalline structure have been characterized in terms of structural displacements.
Energetics of point and planar defects in aluminium from first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denteneer, P. J. H.; Soler, J. M.
1991-06-01
Formation energies of the vacancy and self-interstitial in Al, as well as energies of intrinsic, extrinsic, and twin-boundary stacking faults are calculated from first-principles. The electronic structure and forces on the atoms are calculated in the framework of the Augmented Plane Wave method using new algorithms proposed by Williams and Soler, enabling an ab initio approach to long-standing questions on defects in metals.
First principles total energy study of NbCr{sub 2} + V Laves phase ternary system
Ormeci, A.; Chen, S.P.; Wills, J.M.; Albers, R.C.
1999-04-01
The C15 NbCr{sub 2} + V Laves phase ternary system is studied by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. Equilibrium lattice parameters, cohesive energies, density of states and formation energies of substitutional defects are calculated. Results of all these calculations show that in the C15 NbCr{sub 2} + V compounds, V atoms substitute Cr atoms only.
First-principles study of He point-defects in HCP rare-earth metals
Li, Yang; Chen, Ru; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Wu, Z.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao
2011-05-01
He defect properties in Sc, Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu were studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the formation energy of an interstitial He atom is smaller than that of a substitutional He atom in all hcp rare-earth metals considered. Furthermore, the tetrahedral interstitial position is more favorable than an octahedral position for He defects. The results are compared with those from bcc and fcc metals.
First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs : numerical supplement.
Schultz, Peter Andrew
2012-04-01
This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz, 'First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in Aluminum Arsenide, AlAs', Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 1370 (2011; SAND2011-2436C), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in Co2FeGa: First-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukusta, D. A.; Antonov, V. N.; Yaresko, A. N.
2011-08-01
The electronic structure and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra of the Heusler alloy Co2FeGa were investigated theoretically from first principles, using the fully relativistic Dirac linear MT-orbital (LMTO) band structure method. Densities of valence states, orbital and spin magnetic moments are analyzed and discussed. The origin of the XMCD spectra in the Co2FeGa compound is examined. The calculated results are compared with available experimental data.
First Principles Simulations of THz Spectra of Acephate: Insight Into the Phonon Signatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yiming; Peng, Xihong; Chen, Yunqing; Nayak, Saroj; Zhang, X.-C.
2007-03-01
Acephate is an insecticide that kills insects by disrupting nervous system functions. THz spectroscopy offers a unique tool for detecting trace amount of these materials. Using a combination of solid state first principles simulations and gas phase quantum mechanical modeling we have studied phonon spectra of acephate compound. This talk will present a detailed vibrational spectra analysis over a wide range of frequency and our computational data will be compared with available experimental results.
Vanadium doping of LiMnPO4: Vibrational spectroscopy and first-principle studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kellerman, D.; Medvedeva, N.; Mukhina, N.; Semenova, A.; Baklanova, I.; Perelyaeva, L.; Gorshkov, V.
2014-01-01
The samples of pure and 10% vanadium-doped LiMnPO4 have been synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique. The results of Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopy show that the vanadium atoms replace phosphorus giving rise to LiMn(PO4)1-x(VO4)x solid solutions. This conclusion is confirmed by the first-principle studies.
Stability, electronic and thermodynamic properties of aluminene from first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Junhui; Yu, Niannian; Xue, Kanhao; Miao, Xiangshui
2017-07-01
Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the structure stability and electronic properties of both buckled and 8-Pmmn phase aluminene. Phonon dispersion analysis reveals that the buckled and 8-Pmmn aluminene are dynamically stable. The band structure shows that both the buckled and 8-Pmmn aluminene exhibit metallic behavior. Finally, the thermodynamic properties are investigated based on phonon properties.
Declerck, R; Pauwels, E; Speybroeck, V Van; Waroquier, M
2008-02-07
The effect of the molecular environment and the temperature dependence of hyperfine parameters in first principles calculations in alpha-d-glucose and beta-d-fructose crystal radicals have been investigated. More specifically, we show how static (0 K) cluster in vacuo hyperfine calculations, commonly used today, deviate from more advanced molecular dynamics calculations at the experimental temperature using periodic boundary conditions. From the latter approach, more useful information can be extracted, allowing us to ascertain the validity of proposed molecular models.
Dynamic first principles model of a complete reversible fuel cell system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Tim M.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott; Holcomb, Franklin H.; King, Joel
A dynamic model of a discrete reversible fuel cell (RFC) system has been developed in a Matlab Simulink ® environment. The model incorporates first principles dynamic component models of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, a PEM electrolyzer, a metal hydride hydrogen storage tank, and a cooling system radiator, as well as empirical models of balance of plant components. Dynamic simulations show unique charging and discharging control issues and highlight factors contributing to overall system efficiency.
Multiscale modeling approach for calculating grain-boundary energies from first principles
Shenderova, O.A.; Brenner, D.W.; Nazarov, A.A.; Romanov, A.E.; Yang, L.H.
1998-02-01
A multiscale modeling approach is proposed for calculating energies of tilt-grain boundaries in covalent materials from first principles over an entire misorientation range for given tilt axes. The method uses energies from density-functional calculations for a few key structures as input into a disclination structural-units model. This approach is demonstrated by calculating energies of {l_angle}001{r_angle}-symmetrical tilt-grain boundaries in diamond. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Solubility of sodium tungstate in nitrate-nitrite melts
Yurkinskii, V.P.; Firsova, E.G.; Morachevskii, A.G.; Sazanova, O.B.
1988-10-10
Nitrate melts are employed as electrolytes for the electrochemical oxidation of tungsten. The authors studied the solubility of sodium tungstate in a number of nitrate-nitrite melts. The investigations were carried out in individual melts of NaNO/sub 3/ and NaNO/sub 2/ and in LiNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ and NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ eutectic mixtures in the 440-690 K temperature range in an atmosphere of argon. The solubility of sodium tungstate increases slightly upon the transition from an LiNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ melt to an NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ melt. The solubility of Na/sub 2/WO/sub 4/ in sodium nitrite is considerably higher than that in sodium nitrate.
Synthesis of europium- or terbium-activated calcium tungstate phosphors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forgaciu, Flavia; Popovici, Elisabeth-Jeanne; Ungur, Laura; Vadan, Maria; Vasilescu, Marilena; Nazarov, Mihail
2001-06-01
Utilization of luminescent substances in various optoelectronic devices depends on their luminescent properties and sensitivity to various excitation radiation as well as on particle size distribution and crystalline structure of luminous powders. Calcium tungstate phosphors are well excited with roentgen radiation, so that they are largely used for manufacture of x-ray intensifying screens. Being sensitive to short UV-radiation as well, they could be utilized in Plasma Display Panels or in advertising signs fluorescent tubes. In order to diversify the utilization possibilities of this tungstate class, luminescent powders based on CaWO4:Eu3+ and CaWO4:Tb3+ were synthesized and characterized. As compared with the starting self-activated phosphor, larger excitation wavelength domain and emission colors from blue-to-green-to- yellow-to-red were obtained. The good UV excitability and variable luminescence color recommend these phosphors for optoelectronic device manufacture.
Yang, J. Y.; Liu, L. H.
2016-07-21
The dielectric functions of few-layer graphene and the related temperature dependence are investigated from the atomic scale using first-principles calculations. Compared with ellipsometry experiments in the spectral range of 190–2500 nm, the normalized optical constants of mono-layer graphene demonstrate good agreement and further validate first-principles calculations. To interpret dielectric function of mono-layer graphene, the electronic band structure and density of states are analyzed. By comparing dielectric functions of mono-, bi-, and tri-layer graphene, it shows that interlayer screening strengthens intraband transition and greatly enhances the absorption peak located around 1 eV. The strengthened optical absorption is intrinsically caused by the increasing electron states near the Fermi level. To investigate temperature effect, the first-principles calculations and lattice dynamics are combined. The lattice vibration enhances parallel optical absorption peak around 1 eV and induces redshift. Moreover, it is observed that the van der Waals force plays a key role in keeping the interlayer distance stable during dynamics simulations.
(Un)folding of a high-temperature stable polyalanine helix from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Volker; Rossi, Mariana; Tkatchenko, Alex; Scheffler, Matthias
2010-03-01
Peptides in vacuo offer a unique, well-defined testbed to match experiments directly against first-principles approaches that predict the intramolecular interactions that govern peptide and protein folding. In this respect, the polyalanine-based peptide Ac-Ala15-LysH^+ is particularly interesting, as it is experimentally known to form helices in vacuo, with stable secondary structure up to 750 K [1]. Room-temperature folding and unfolding timescales are usually not accessible by direct first-principles simulations, but this high T scale allows a rare direct first-principles view. We here use van der Waals corrected [2] density functional theory in the PBE generalized gradient approximation as implemented in the all-electron code FHI-aims [3] to show by Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics that Ac-Ala15-LysH^+ indeed unfolds rapidly (within a few ps) at T=800 K and 1000 K, but not at 500 K. We show that the structural stability of the α helix at 500 K is critically linked to a correct van der Waals treatment, and that the designed LysH^+ ionic termination is essential for the observed helical secondary structure. [1] M. Kohtani et al., JACS 126, 7420 (2004). [2] A. Tkatchenko, M. Scheffler, PRL 102, 073005 (2009). [3] V. Blum et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 180, 2175 (2009).
Coarse graining approach to First principles modeling of radiation cascade in large Fe super-cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don; Rusanu, Aurelian; Wang, Yang; Stoller, Roger; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Stocks, George
2012-02-01
First principles techniques employed to understand systems at an atomistic level are not practical for large systems consisting of millions of atoms. We present an efficient coarse graining approach to bridge the first principles calculations of local electronic properties to classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of large structures. Local atomic magnetic moments in crystalline Fe are perturbed by radiation generated defects. The effects are most pronounced near the defect core and decay with distance. We develop a coarse grained technique based on the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method that exploits the near-sightedness of the electron Green function. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force field. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with first-principles based on full local structure information. Atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. This work was supported by the Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.
Accelerated materials design of fast oxygen ionic conductors based on first principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xingfeng; Mo, Yifei
Over the past decades, significant research efforts have been dedicated to seeking fast oxygen ion conductor materials, which have important technological applications in electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen separation membranes, and sensors. Recently, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) was reported as a new family of fast oxygen ionic conductor. We will present our first principles computation study aims to understand the O diffusion mechanisms in the NBT material and to design this material with enhanced oxygen ionic conductivity. Using the NBT materials as an example, we demonstrate the computation capability to evaluate the phase stability, chemical stability, and ionic diffusion of the ionic conductor materials. We reveal the effects of local atomistic configurations and dopants on oxygen diffusion and identify the intrinsic limiting factors in increasing the ionic conductivity of the NBT materials. Novel doping strategies were predicted and demonstrated by the first principles calculations. In particular, the K doped NBT compound achieved good phase stability and an order of magnitude increase in oxygen ionic conductivity of up to 0.1 S cm-1 at 900 K compared to the experimental Mg doped compositions. Our results provide new avenues for the future design of the NBT materials and demonstrate the accelerated design of new ionic conductor materials based on first principles techniques. This computation methodology and workflow can be applied to the materials design of any (e.g. Li +, Na +) fast ion-conducting materials.
Polyimide nanocomposites based on cubic zirconium tungstate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramasubramanian Sharma, Gayathri
2009-12-01
In this research, cubic zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) was used as a filler to reduce the CTE of polyimides (PI), and the effect of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles on the bulk polymer properties was studied. Polyimides are high performance polymers with exceptional thermal stability, and there is a need for PIs with low CTEs for high temperature applications. The nanofiller, cubic ZrW2O8, is well known for its isotropic negative thermal expansion (NTE) over a wide temperature range from -272.7 to 777°C. The preparation of nanocomposites involved the synthesis of ZrW 2O8 nanofiller, engineering the polymer-filler interface using linker groups and optimization of processing strategies to prepare free-standing PI nanocomposite films. A hydrothermal method was used to synthesize ZrW 2O8 nanoparticles. Polyimide-ZrW2O8 interface interaction was enhanced by covalently bonding linker moieties to the surface of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles. Specifically, ZrW 2O8 nanoparticles were functionalized with two different linker groups: (1) a short aliphatic silane, and (2) low molecular weight PI. The surface functionalization was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Reprecipitation blending was used to prepare the freestanding PI-ZrW2O8 nanocomposite films with up to 15 volume% filler loading. SEM images showed the improvements in polymer-filler wetting behavior achieved using interface engineering. SEM images indicated that there was better filler dispersion in the PI matrix using reprecipitation blending, compared to the filler dispersion achieved in the nanocomposites prepared using conventional blending technique. The structure-property relationships in PI-ZrW2O8 nanocomposites were investigated by studying the thermal degradation, glass transition, tensile and thermal expansion properties of the nanocomposites. The properties were studied as a function of filler loading and interface linker groups. Addition of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles did not
Rodriguez-Hernandez, C J; Guinovart, J J; Murguia, J R
2012-02-03
Tungstate counteracts diabetes and obesity in animal models, but its molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Our Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based approach has found that tungstate alleviated the growth defect induced by nutrient stress and enhanced the activation of the GCN pathway. Tungstate relieved the sensitivity to starvation of a gcn2-507 yeast hypomorphic mutant, indicating that tungstate modulated the GCN pathway downstream of Gcn2p. Interestingly, tungstate inhibited Glc7p and PP1 phosphatase activity, both negative regulators of the GCN pathway in yeast and humans, respectively. Accordingly, overexpression of a dominant-negative Glc7p mutant in yeast mimicked tungstate effects. Therefore tungstate alleviates nutrient stress in yeast by in vivo inhibition of Glc7p. These data uncover a potential role for tungstate in the treatment of PP1 and GCN related diseases.
A first-principles methodology for diffusion coefficients in metals and dilute alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantina, Manjeera
This work is a study exploring the extent of suitability of static first-principles calculations for studying diffusion in metallic systems. Specifically, vacancy-mediated volume diffusion in pure elements and alloys with dilute concentration of impurities is studied. A novel procedure is discovered for predicting diffusion coefficients that overcomes the shortcomings of the well-known transition state theory, by Vineyard. The procedure that evolves from Eyring's reaction rate theory yields accurate diffusivity results that include anharmonic effects within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Alongside, the procedure is straightforward in its application within the conventional harmonic approximation, from the results of static first-principles calculations. To prove the extensibility of the procedure, diffusivities have been computed for a variety of systems. Over a wide temperature range, the calculated self-diffusion and impurity diffusion coefficients using local density approximation (LDA) of density functional theory (DFT) are seen to be in excellent match with experimental data. Self-diffusion coefficients have been calculated for: (i) fcc Al, Cu, Ni and Ag (ii) bcc W and Mo (v) hcp Mg, Ti and Zn. Impurity diffusion coefficients have been computed for: (i) Mg, Si, Cu, Li, Ag, Mo and 3d transition elements in fcc Al (ii) Mo, Ta in bcc W and Nb, Ta and W in bcc Mo (iii) Sn and Cd in hcp Mg and Al in hcp Ti. It is also an observation from this work, that LDA does not require surface correction for yielding energetics of vacancy-containing system in good comparison with experiments, unlike generalized gradient approximation (GGA). It is known that first-principles' energy minimization procedures based on electronic interactions are suited for metallic systems wherein the valence electrons are freely moving. In this thesis, research has been extended to study suitability of first-principles calculations within LDA/GGA including the localization parameter U, for Al
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zi; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang
2011-12-01
A Fortran program is developed to calculate charge carrier (electron or hole) mobility in disordered semiconductors from first-principles. The method is based on non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics and static master equation, treating dynamic and static disorder on the same footing. We have applied the method to calculate the hole mobility in disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) conjugated polymers as a function of temperature and electric field and obtained excellent agreements with experimental results. The program could be used to explore structure-mobility relation in disordered semiconducting polymers/organic semiconductors and aid rational design of these materials. Program summaryProgram title: FPMu Catalogue identifier: AEJV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 788 580 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8 433 024 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Linux, Windows RAM: Proportional to the system size, in our example, 1.2 GB Classification: 7.9 Nature of problem: Determine carrier mobility from first-principles in disordered semiconductors as a function of temperature, electric field and carrier concentration. Solution method: Iteratively solve master equation with carrier state energy and transition rates determined from first-principles. Restrictions: Mobility for disordered semiconductors where the carrier wave-functions are localized and the carrier transport is due to phonon-assisted hopping mechanism. Running time: Depending on the system size (about an hour for the example here).
First-principles simulation of Raman spectra and structural properties of quartz up to 5 GPa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lei; Lv, Chao-Jia; Zhuang, Chun-Qiang; Yi, Li; Liu, Hong; Du, Jian-Guo
2015-12-01
The crystal structure and Raman spectra of quartz are calculated by using first-principles method in a pressure range from 0 to 5 GPa. The results show that the lattice constants (a, c, and V) decrease with increasing pressure and the a-axis is more compressible than the c axis. The Si-O bond distance decreases with increasing pressure, which is in contrast to experimental results reported by Hazen et al. [Hazen R M, Finger L W, Hemley R J and Mao H K 1989 Solid State Communications 725 507-511], and Glinnemann et al. [Glinnemann J, King H E Jr, Schulz H, Hahn T, La Placa S J and Dacol F 1992 Z. Kristallogr. 198 177-212]. The most striking changes are of inter-tetrahedral O-O distances and Si-O-Si angles. The volume of the tetrahedron decreased by 0.9% (from 0 to 5 GPa), which suggests that it is relatively rigid. Vibrational models of the quartz modes are identified by visualizing the associated atomic motions. Raman vibrations are mainly controlled by the deformation of the tetrahedron and the changes in the Si-O-Si bonds. Vibrational directions and intensities of atoms in all Raman modes just show little deviations when pressure increases from 0 to 5 GPa. The pressure derivatives (dνi/dP) of the 12 Raman frequencies are obtained at 0 GPa-5 GPa. The calculated results show that first-principles methods can well describe the high-pressure structural properties and Raman spectra of quartz. The combination of first-principles simulations of the Raman frequencies of minerals and Raman spectroscopy experiments is a useful tool for exploring the stress conditions within the Earth. Project supported by the Key Laboratory of Earthquake Prediction, Institute of Earthquake Science, China Earthquake Administration (CEA) (Grant No. 2012IES010201) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41174071 and 41373060).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Amartya S.; Suryanarayana, Phanish
2016-11-01
We formulate and implement Cyclic Density Functional Theory (Cyclic DFT) - a self-consistent first principles simulation method for nanostructures with cyclic symmetries. Using arguments based on Group Representation Theory, we rigorously demonstrate that the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue problem for such systems can be reduced to a fundamental domain (or cyclic unit cell) augmented with cyclic-Bloch boundary conditions. Analogously, the equations of electrostatics appearing in Kohn-Sham theory can be reduced to the fundamental domain augmented with cyclic boundary conditions. By making use of this symmetry cell reduction, we show that the electronic ground-state energy and the Hellmann-Feynman forces on the atoms can be calculated using quantities defined over the fundamental domain. We develop a symmetry-adapted finite-difference discretization scheme to obtain a fully functional numerical realization of the proposed approach. We verify that our formulation and implementation of Cyclic DFT is both accurate and efficient through selected examples. The connection of cyclic symmetries with uniform bending deformations provides an elegant route to the ab-initio study of bending in nanostructures using Cyclic DFT. As a demonstration of this capability, we simulate the uniform bending of a silicene nanoribbon and obtain its energy-curvature relationship from first principles. A self-consistent ab-initio simulation of this nature is unprecedented and well outside the scope of any other systematic first principles method in existence. Our simulations reveal that the bending stiffness of the silicene nanoribbon is intermediate between that of graphene and molybdenum disulphide - a trend which can be ascribed to the variation in effective thickness of these materials. We describe several future avenues and applications of Cyclic DFT, including its extension to the study of non-uniform bending deformations and its possible use in the study of the nanoscale flexoelectric effect.
A functional leptin system is essential for sodium tungstate antiobesity action.
Canals, Ignasi; Carmona, María C; Amigó, Marta; Barbera, Albert; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc; Gomis, Ramon
2009-02-01
Sodium tungstate is a novel agent in the treatment of obesity. In diet-induced obese rats, it is able to reduce body weight gain by increasing energy expenditure. This study evaluated the role of leptin, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, in the tungstate antiobesity effect. Leptin receptor-deficient Zucker fa/fa rats and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were treated with tungstate. In lean animals, tungstate administration reduced body weight gain and food intake and increased energy expenditure. However, in animals with deficiencies in the leptin system, treatment did not modify these parameters. In ob/ob mice in which leptin deficiency was restored through adipose tissue transplantation, treatment restored the tungstate-induced body weight gain and food intake reduction as well as energy expenditure increase. Furthermore, in animals in which tungstate administration increased energy expenditure, changes in the expression of key genes involved in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis were detected. Finally, the gene expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Npy, Agrp, and Cart, involved in the leptin regulation of energy homeostasis, was also modified by tungstate in a leptin-dependent manner. In summary, the results indicate that the effectiveness of tungstate in reducing body weight gain is completely dependent on a functional leptin system.
Donmez, Baris O; Ozturk, Nihal; Sarikanat, Mehmet; Oguz, Nurettin; Sari, Ramazan; Ozdemir, Semir
2014-01-01
Diabetes mellitus leads to bone disorders such as osteopenia and osteoporosis that can increase fracture risk. On the other hand, sodium tungstate is an inorganic compound which exerts anti-diabetic activity in experimental studies due to its suggested insulin-mimetic or antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was designed to investigate the effect of tungstate on bone quality in diabetic rat femurs. The rats were divided into four groups: Control (C), tungstate-treated control (C+Tung), diabetes (STZ-D) and tungstate-treated diabetes (STZ-D+Tung). Diabetes mellitus was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). The treated rats received 150 mg/kg/day of sodium tungstate for 12 weeks. Sodium tungstate achieved a little (17%) but significant reduction on blood glucose levels, while it didn't recover the reduced body weights of diabetic rats. In addition, impaired bone mechanical quality was reversed, despite the unchanged mineral density. Sodium tungstate administration significantly lowered the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and restored the activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in diabetic rats. On the other hand, glutathione levels didn't change in either case. These findings indicate that tungstate can improve the reduced mechanical quality of diabetic rat femurs due probably to reduction of reactive oxygen species and modulation of antioxidant enzymes as well as reduction in blood glucose levels.
Hu, S. X. Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.; Militzer, B.
2015-05-15
A comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state, thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydro-codes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximately taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state table, thermal conductivities (κ{sub QMD}), and first principles opacity table of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of ∼2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro-simulations. The FP
Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; ...
2015-04-20
In this study, a comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state, thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydro-codes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximatelymore » taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state table, thermal conductivities (KQMD), and first principles opacity table of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of –2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro
First-principles study of the infrared spectra of the ice Ih (0001) surface
Pham, T. Anh; Huang, P.; Schwegler, E.; Galli, G.
2012-08-22
Here, we present a study of the infrared (IR) spectra of the (0001) deuterated ice surface based on first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. The computed spectra show a good agreement with available experimental IR measurements. We identified the bonding configurations associated with specific features in the spectra, allowing us to provide a detailed interpretation of IR signals. We computed the spectra of several proton ordered and disordered models of the (0001) surface of ice, and we found that IR spectra do not appear to be a sensitive probe of the microscopic arrangement of protons at ice surfaces.
First-principles calculations reveal controlling principles for carrier mobilities in semiconductors
Wu, Yu -Ning; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; ...
2016-10-11
It has long been believed that carrier mobilities in semiconductors can be calculated by Fermi s golden rule (Born approximation). Phenomenological models for scattering amplitudes are typically used for engineering- level device modeling. Here we introduce a parameter-free, first-principles approach based on complex- wavevector energy bands that does not invoke the Born approximation. We show that phonon-limited mobility is controlled by low-resistivity percolation paths and that in ionized-impurity scattering one must account for the effect of the screening charge, which cancels most of the Coulomb tail.Finally, calculated electron mobilities in silicon are in agreement with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyung-June; Kim, Gunn; Kwon, Young-Kyun
2013-08-01
Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic structures and binding properties of nicotine and caffeine adsorbed on single-walled carbon nanotubes to determine whether CNTs are appropriate for filtering or sensing nicotine and caffeine molecules. We find that caffeine adsorbs more strongly than nicotine. The different binding characteristics are discussed by analyzing the modification of the electronic structure of the molecule-adsorbed CNTs. We also calculate the quantum conductance of the CNTs in the presence of nicotine or caffeine adsorbates and demonstrate that the influence of caffeine is stronger than nicotine on the conductance of the host CNT.
Tuning the band-gap of zinc oxide by first principle studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghavender, Anupati Telugu; Varma, Mudunuri Chaitanya; Deb, Subimal; Hong, Nguyen Hoa
2017-05-01
Electronic and optical properties of wurtzite ZnO structure have been studied using first-principle density functional theory calculations by ELK package. We performed DFT+U calculations by selecting different Hubbard potentials U and J for Zn-3d and O-2p in order to tune the band gap to the desired value as of 3.3 eV that is comparable to experiments. The band gap value for ZnO has shown to be sensitive to the chosen Hubbard U and J potentials. In our DFT+U calculations, the original structure of w-ZnO was remained to be unaffected.
Freitag, Mark A.
2001-12-31
The major title of this dissertation, 'From first principles,' is a phase often heard in the study of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. These words embody a powerful idea in the physical sciences; namely, that it is possible to distill the complexities of nature into a set of simple, well defined mathematical laws from which specific relations can then be derived . In thermodynamics, these fundamental laws are immediately familiar to the physical scientist by their numerical order: the First, Second and Third Laws. However, the subject of the present volume is quantum mechanics-specifically, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, which is appropriate for most systems of chemical interest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazic, Predrag; Sipahi, Guilherme; Kawakami, Roland; Zutic, Igor
2013-03-01
Recent experimental advances in graphene suggest intriguing opportunities for novel spintronic applications which could significantly exceed the state-of-the art performance of their conventional charge-based counterparts. However, for reliable operation of such spintronic devices it is important to achieve an efficient spin injection and large magnetoresistive effects. We use the first principles calculations to guide the choice of a ferromagnetic region and its relative orientation to optimize the desired effects. We propose structures which could enable uniform spin injection, one of the key factors in implementing scalable spintronic circuits. Supported by NSF-NRI, SRC, ONR, Croatian Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports, and CCR at SUNY UB.
Efficient first-principles simulation of noncontact atomic force microscopy for structural analysis.
Chan, T-L; Wang, C Z; Ho, K M; Chelikowsky, James R
2009-05-01
We propose an efficient scheme to simulate noncontact atomic force microscopy images by using first-principles self-consistent potential from the sample as input without explicit modeling of the atomic force microscopy tip. Our method is applied to various types of semiconductor surfaces including Si(111)-(7x7), TiO2(110)-(1x1), Ag/Si(111)-(sqrt[3]xsqrt[3])R30 degrees, and Ge/Si(105)-(1x2) surfaces. We obtain good agreement with experimental results and previous theoretical studies, and our method can aid in identifying different structural models for surface reconstruction.
First principles study of structural, electronic and mechanical properties of alkali nitride-KN
Murugan, A.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R. Santhosh, M.; Iyakutti, K.
2015-06-24
The structural, electronic and elastic properties of alkali- metal nitride (KN) is investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory as implemented in Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure KN is stable in the ferromagnetic state with NaCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that the KN is half metallic ferromagnet at normal pressure. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from NaCl to ZB phase is observed in KN. Half metallicity and ferromagnetism is maintained at all pressures.
First-principles investigations of the physical properties of RCd (R=Ce, La, Pr, Nd)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Jianping
2012-12-01
The crystal structural, electronic, elastic and the thermodynamic properties of RCd are investigated by using the first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential density function theory within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters for RCd are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Furthermore, the optical properties, namely the dielectric function, refractive index and electron energy loss are reported for radiation up to 30 eV. Finally, the elastic properties, the bulk modulus and the Debye temperature of RCd are given for reference.
Band gaps and dielectric constants of amorphous hafnium silicates: A first-principles investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broqvist, Peter; Pasquarello, Alfredo
2007-02-01
Electronic band gaps and dielectric constants are obtained for amorphous hafnium silicates using first-principles methods. Models of amorphous (HfO2)x(SiO2)1-x for varying x are generated by ab initio molecular dynamics. The calculations show that the presence of Hf gives rise to low-lying conduction states which explain the experimentally observed nonlinear dependence of the band gap on hafnium content. Static dielectric constants are found to depend linearly on x, supporting recent experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Bingcheng; Wang, Xiaohui; Tian, Enke; Wu, Longwen; Li, Longtu
2016-08-01
Dielectric materials with high power density and energy density are eagerly desired for the potential application in advanced pulsed capacitors. Here, we present the first-principles effective Hamiltonian simulation of perovskite ferroelectrics BaTiO3, PbTiO3, and KNbO3 in order to better predict and design materials for energy storage application. The lattice constant, dielectric constant and ferroelectric hysteresis, and energy-storage density of BaTiO3, PbTiO3, and KNbO3 were calculated with the consideration of the effects of temperature and external electric field.
First principle study of band structure of SrMO3 perovskites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daga, Avinash; Sharma, Smita
2016-05-01
First principle study of band structure calculations in the local density approximations (LDA) as well as in the generalized gradient approximations (GGA) have been used to determine the electronic structure of SrMO3 where M stands for Ti, Zr and Mo. Occurrence of band gap proves SrTiO3 and SrZrO3 to be insulating. A small band gap is observed in SrMoO3 perovskite signifies it to be metallic. Band structures are found to compare well with the available data in the literature showing the relevance of this approach. ABINIT computer code has been used to carry out all the calculations.
First-principles calculations of the OH- adsorption energy on perovskite oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohzuku, Hideo; Ikeno, Hidekazu; Yamada, Ikuya; Yagi, Shunsuke
2016-08-01
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) that occurs during water oxidation is of considerable importance as an essential energy conversion reaction for rechargeable metal-air batteries and direct solar water splitting. ABO3 perovskite oxides have been extensively studied because of their high catalytic OER activity. In the present study, the OH- adsorption process on the perovskite surface about different B site cations was investigated by the first-principles calculations. We concluded that the adsorption energy of SrFeO3 surface is larger than that of SrTiO3.
First-principles study of exchange interactions of yttrium iron garnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Li-Shan; Jin, Guang-Xi; He, Lixin; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Barker, Joseph; Xia, Ke
2017-01-01
Yttrium iron garnet is the ubiquitous magnetic insulator used for studying pure spin currents. The exchange constants reported in the literature vary considerably between different experiments and fitting procedures. Here we calculate them from first principles. The local Coulomb correction (U -J ) of density-functional theory is chosen such that the parametrized spin model reproduces the experimental Curie temperature and a large electronic band gap, ensuring an insulating phase. The magnon spectrum calculated with our parameters agrees reasonably well with that measured by neutron scattering. A residual disagreement about the frequencies of optical modes indicates the limits of the present methodology.
First-principles study of electronic states in LiBe{sub 2}
Galav, K. L.; Joshi, K. B.
2016-05-23
By coupling structure prediction methods with first-principles total energy calculations we find lattice constant and bulk modulus of hcp LiBe{sub 2}. Structural and electronic properties are investigated using Linear Combination of Atomic Orbital’s method. The generalized gradient approximation based density functional calculations are attempted to look for the ground state. Thereafter ground state electronic band structure, total density of states and anisotropies in directional Compton profiles are computed. Step like behavior seen broadly in density of states (DOS) is appreciated by band structure suggesting 2D features. Anisotropic behavior of electronic states around Fermi level is also reflected in anisotropies of directional Compton profiles.
Magnetic Self-Organized Atomic Laminate from First Principles and Thin Film Synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingason, A. S.; Mockute, A.; Dahlqvist, M.; Magnus, F.; Olafsson, S.; Arnalds, U. B.; Alling, B.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Persson, P. O. Å.; Rosen, J.
2013-05-01
The first experimental realization of a magnetic Mn+1AXn (MAX) phase, (Cr0.75Mn0.25)2GeC, is presented, synthesized as a heteroepitaxial single crystal thin film, exhibiting excellent structural quality. This self-organized atomic laminate is based on the well-known Cr2GeC, with Mn, a new element in MAX phase research, substituting Cr. The compound was predicted using first-principles calculations, from which a variety of magnetic behavior is envisaged, depending on the Mn concentration and Cr/Mn atomic configuration within the sublattice. The analyzed thin films display a magnetic signal at room temperature.
First-principles phase stability at high temperatures and pressure in Nb90Zr10 alloy
Landa, A.; Soderlind, P.
2016-08-18
The phase stability of Nb90Zr10 alloy at high temperatures and compression is explored by means of first-principles electronic-structure calculations. Utilizing the self-consistent ab initio lattice dynamics (SCAILD) approach in conjunction with density-functional theory, we show that pressure-induced mechanical instability of the body-centered cubic phase, which results in formation of a rhombohedral phase at around 50 GPa, will prevail significant heating. As a result, the body-centered cubic structure will recover before melting at ~1800 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bautista-Hernández, A.; Rangel, T.; Romero, A. H.; Rignanese, G.-M.; Salazar-Villanueva, M.; Chigo-Anota, E.
2013-05-01
First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the structural feasibility of M and Z phases (novel monoclinic and orthorhombic structures recently reported for carbon) for silicon and germanium. The lattice parameters, bulk modulus, vibrational properties, and elastic constants are calculated using the local density approximation to describe the exchange-correlation energy, while the optical properties are calculated by using Many-Body Perturbation Theory in the G0W0 approximation. Our results indicate that silicon and germanium with the proposed crystal symmetries are elastically and vibrationally stable and are small band-gap semiconductors. We discuss the possible synthesis of such materials.
First-principles study of water adsorption on α-SiO{sub 2} [110] surface
Mankad, Venu; Jha, Prafulla K.
2016-08-15
We have investigated the structural and electronic properties of water molecule adsorbed silicon dioxide (α-SiO{sub 2}) [110] surface and analyzed the influence of water molecule on its energetics, structure and electronic properties using density functional theory based first principles calculations. The inhomogeneous topology of the α-SiO{sub 2} clean surface promotes a total charge density displacement on the adsorbed water molecule and giving rise to electron-rich as well as hole-rich region. The electronic charge transfer from a α-SiO{sub 2} to the water molecule occurs upon the formation of a partially occupied level laying above conduction band level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Eun-Cheol
2012-04-01
The effects of DNA nucleotide adsorption on the conductance of graphene nanoribbons are investigated through first-principles calculations. We find that, for the adsorption of a single nucleotide, the negatively charged phosphate produces conductance dips associated with quasibound states, reducing the hole conductance. The conductance of conduction electrons is also reduced by electron scattering at the Coulomb potential barriers produced by the phosphate, with no noticeable conductance dips near the Fermi level. Our results indicate that graphene nanoribbon is promising for the application to DNA sensor utilizing quantum carrier conductance.
Structural study of Co doped MnV2O4 from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishna, Jyoti; Maitra, Tulika
2017-05-01
Inspired by the recent experiments, we have theoretically investigated the compound Mn1-xCoxV2O4 using first-principles density functional theory for x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75. On increasing Co doping on Mn site, chemical pressure on V-V bonds increases which make the system more itinerant as indicated by decrease in the calculated RV-V values with increasing x. The calculated band gap is also seen to decrease with increasing x. This Co-doping induced itinerancy facilitates superexchange interaction among Co and V ions leading to an increase in the magnetic transition temperature.
Ingber, M. S.; Mondy, L. A.; Graham, A.; Brenner, H.
2001-03-31
The objective of this research is to combine recent advances in high performance computing (HPC), theoretical mechanics, and parallel nonlinear algorithms to make fundamental advances in the ability to predict transport phenomena in concentrated, multiphase, dispersed systems from first principles. The. ability to accurately model multiphase flow is central to the development of many energy-related technologies such as transport of muds, cements, proppants, and produced solids in petroleum production; transport of coal slurry feedstocks and design of fluidized bed reactors in synfuel production; and the manufacture of semiconductors, turbine blades, and advanced composite materials for energy conservation.
Quantum confinement effect in Si/Ge core-shell nanowires: First-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Li; Musin, Ryza N.; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chou, M. Y.
2008-05-01
The electronic structure of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires along the [110] and [111] directions are studied with first-principles calculations. We identify the near-gap electronic states that are spatially separated within the core or the shell region, making it possible for a dopant to generate carriers in a different region. The confinement energies of these core and shell states provide an operational definition of the “band offset,” which is not only size dependent but also component dependent. The optimal doping strategy in Si/Ge core-shell nanowires is proposed based on these energy results.
Structure of YSi2 nanowires from scanning tunneling spectroscopy and first principles
Iancu, V.; Kent, P. R. C.; Zeng, C. G.; Weitering, H. H.
2009-01-01
Exceptionally long and uniform YSi2 nanowires are formed via self-assembly on Si(001). The in-plane width of the thinnest wires is known to be quantized in odd multiples of the silicon lattice constant. Here, we identify a class of nanowires that violates the “odd multiple” rule. The structure of the thinnest wire in this category is determined by comparing scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements with the calculated surface density of states of candidate models by means of the Pendry R-factor analysis. The relative stability of the odd and even wire systems is analyzed via first-principles calculations. PMID:19859579
First-Principles Vibrational Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of β -Guanine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, G.; Taverna, D.; Lazzeri, M.; Balan, E.
2017-07-01
A general approach to model vibrational electron energy loss spectra obtained using an electron beam positioned away from the specimen is presented. The energy-loss probability of the fast electron is evaluated using first-principles quantum mechanical calculations (density functional theory) of the dielectric response of the specimen. The validity of the method is assessed using recently measured anhydrous β -guanine, an important molecular solid used by animals to produce structural colors. The good agreement between theory and experiments lays the basis for a quantitative interpretation of this spectroscopy in complex systems.
Study of mercury thiogallate in defect stannite structure: A first-principle approach
Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.
2016-05-06
Quantum mechanical based first principle calculations have been employed to obtain the unit cell lattice parameters of mercury thiogallate (HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}) in defect stannite structure for the first time. For this, we treated HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} in two different types of site symmetries in the same space group. In both the cases obtained unit cell parameters are same, which shows the accuracy of present approach. The electronic band structures show the semiconducting behavior in both the cases. The density of states plot are also studied and discussed.
Half metallic ferromagnetism in alkali metal nitrides MN (M = Rb, Cs): A first principles study
Murugan, A. Rajeswarapalanichamy, R. Santhosh, M. Sudhapriyanga, G.; Kanagaprabha, S.
2014-04-24
The structural, electronic and elastic properties of two alkali metal nitrides (MN: M= Rb, Cs) are investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure the two nitrides are stable in ferromagnetic state with CsCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are half metallic in nature. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from CsCl to ZB phase is observed in RbN and CsN.
Electronic and magnetic properties of CdSe nanoribbon: First-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Guolong; Chen, Li; Ye, Xiang
2015-01-01
First-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were carried out on electronic and magnetic properties of cadmium selenide nanoribbons (CdSeNRs) with both zigzag and armchair edges. All armchair nanoribbons exhibit nonmagnetic and semiconducting behavior, regardless of ribbon widths and their edge passivation status. Bare zigzag nanoribbons are found to be metallic and have non-zero net magnetic moments. The net magnetic moment of these ribbons increases as ribbon width increases. However, when zigzag edges are passivated with hydrogen, a degeneracy between the up and down spin was found, which turns ribbons into nonmagnetic ones.
First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron transfer protein
Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A.; Chobot, Sarah E.; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C.; Dutton, P. Leslie; Discher, Bohdana M.
2016-01-01
Here we describe the design, E. coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. PMID:26672896
Gradual changes in electronic properties from graphene to graphite: first-principles calculations.
Alzahrani, A Z; Srivastava, G P
2009-12-02
Calculations based on the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave method and density functional theory are performed to investigate the electronic properties of graphene, bilayer graphene, multilayer graphene, and graphite. From an analysis of the electronic band structure close to the Fermi level, we have quantified the gradual change in the Fermi surface topology from the point-like structure for graphene to a warped triangular shape for graphite. We have also discussed the gradual change in the electron and hole effective masses and velocities as the system evolves from graphene to graphite.
Oba, Fumiyasu
2016-08-26
The energetics, structures, and properties of lattice defects in semiconductors are discussed on the basis of predictions using first-principles calculations. New insights into the atomistic and electronic structure of point defects are obtained, including significant off-centering of Ti antisite defects and local octahedral rotation around O vacancies in SrTiO{sub 3}, both of which are accompanied by electron localization. Another example is the formation of a luminous dopant-vacancy complex in cubic BN. Band alignment at semiconductor surfaces and heterointerfaces is also discussed, with a focus on approximation dependence.
First-principles molecular dynamics calculations of the equation of state for tantalum.
Ono, Shigeaki
2009-11-20
The equation of state of tantalum (Ta) has been investigated to 100 GPa and 3,000 K using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. A large volume dependence of the thermal pressure of Ta was revealed from the analysis of our data. A significant temperature dependence of the calculated effective Grüneisen parameters was confirmed at high pressures. This indicates that the conventional approach to analyze thermal properties using the Mie-Grüneisen approximation is likely to have a significant uncertainty in determining the equation of state for Ta, and that an intrinsic anharmonicity should be considered to analyze the equation of state.
First-Principles Electronic Structure Calculations of Zinc-Blende Chromium Monopnictides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirai, M.; Taguchi, H.; Akinaga, H.
2003-03-01
Electronic band-structure of zinc-blende (zb) chromium monopnictides, CrP, CrAs, and CrSb, is studied comparatively by using first-principles density-functional calculations. Effect of spin-orbit interaction on the spin-polarization near the Fermi-level is also investigated. It is found that zb-CrAs and CrSb are predicted to be the ferromagnets exhibiting highly spin-polarized electronic band-structure, even if the effect of the spin-orbit interaction is taken into account.
Formation and Annealing Behaviors of Qubit Centers in 4H-SiC from First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Mingwen; Wang, Xiaopeng; Bu, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongyu; He, Xiujie; Wang, Aizhu; Mingwen Zhao's Lab in Shandong University Team
Inspired by finding that the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond is a qubit candidate, similar defects in silicon carbide have drawn considerable interest. However, the generation and annealing behaviors of these defects remain unclear. Using first-principles calculations, we describe the equilibrium concentrations and annealing mechanisms based on the diffusion of silicon vacancies. The formation energies and energy barriers along different migration paths, which are responsible for the formation rates, stability, and concentrations of these defects, are investigated. The effects on these processes of charge states, annealing temperature, and crystal orientation are also discussed. These theoretical results are expected to be useful in achieving controllable generation of these defects in experiments.
Carrier compensation in semi-insulating CdTe: First-principles calculations
Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J
2008-01-01
Carrier compensation in semi-insulating CdTe has been attributed to the compensation of surplus shallow acceptors by deep donors, usually assumed to be Te antisites. However, our first-principles calculations show that intrinsic defects should not have a significant effect on the carrier compensation due either to lack of deep levels near midgap or to low defect concentration. We demonstrate that an extrinsic defect, OTe-H complex, may play an important role in the carrier compensation in CdTe because of its amphoteric character and reasonably high concentration. Our findings have important consequences for improving device performance in CdTe-based radiation detectors and solar cells.
First-principles study on bottom-up fabrication process of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaneko, Tomoaki; Tajima, Nobuo; Ohno, Takahisa
2016-06-01
We investigate the energetics of a polyanthracene formation in the bottom-up fabrication of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons on Au(111) using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. We show that the structure of precursor molecules plays a decisive role in the C-C coupling reaction. The reaction energy of the dimerization of anthracene dimers is a larger negative value than that of the dimerization of anthracene monomers, suggesting that the precursor molecule used in experiments has a favorable structure for graphene nanoribbon fabrication.
Arsenene as a promising candidate for NO and NO2 sensor: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Can; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Xiaohong
2017-03-01
Based on first-principles calculations, we have studied the adsorption of CO, CO2, N2, NH3, NO and NO2 molecules on the pristine arsenene monolayer. These gas molecules are held by an interaction that is intermediate between the physisorbed and chemisorbed states. Furthermore, the adsorption of NO and NO2 can produce a noticeable modifications of the density of states near the Fermi level. Interestingly, only the adsorption of NO and NO2 can lead to a magnetic moment of 1 μB. Therefore, our results can provide a theoretical basis for the potential applications of arsenene monolayer in gas sensing with electrical and magnetic methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramprasad, R.; Tang, C.
2006-08-01
A first principles electronic structure based method is presented to determine the equivalent circuit representations of nanostructured physical systems at optical frequencies, via a mapping of the effective permittivity calculated for a lattice of physical nano-elements using density functional theory to that calculated for a lattice of impedances using circuit theory. Specifically, it is shown that silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes can be represented as series combinations of inductance, capacitance and resistance. It is anticipated that the generality of this approach will allow for an alternate description of physical systems at optical frequencies, and in the realization of novel opto- and nanoelectronic devices, including negative refractive index materials.
First principle calculation in FeCo overlayer on GaAs substrate
Jain, Vishal Lakshmi, N.; Jain, Vivek Kumar; K, Sijo A.; Venugopalan, K.
2015-06-24
In this work the first principle electronic structure calculation is reported for FeCo/GaAs thin film system to investigate the effect of orientation on the electronic structural properties. A unit cell describing FeCo layers and GaAs layers is constructed for (100), (110), (111) orientation with vacuum of 30Å to reduce dimensions. It is found that although the (110) orientation is energetically more favorable than others, the magnetic moment is quite large in (100) and (111) system compared to the (110) and is due to the total DOS variation with orientation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Quan; Galli, Giulia
2015-12-01
We present a first-principles framework to compute sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectra of semiconductors and insulators. The method is based on density functional theory and the use of maximally localized Wannier functions to compute the response to electric fields, and it includes the effect of electric field gradients at surfaces. In addition, it includes quadrupole contributions to SFG spectra, thus enabling the verification of the dipole approximation, whose validity determines the surface specificity of SFG spectroscopy. We compute the SFG spectra of ice Ih basal surfaces and identify which spectra components are affected by bulk contributions. Our results are in good agreement with experiments at low temperature.
Spin filtering in transition-metal phthalocyanine molecules from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Li; Wang, Huan; Bai, Lina; Rong, Ximing; Liu, Xiaojie; Li, Hua; Yin, Haitao
2017-08-01
Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, we studied the spin transport through metal-phthalocyanine (MPc, M=Ni, Fe, Co, Mn, Cr) molecules connected to aurum nanowire electrodes. We found that the MnPc, FePc, and CrPc molecular devices exhibit a perfect spin filtering effect compared to CoPc and NiPc. Moreover, negative differential resistance appears in FePc molecular devices. The transmission coefficients at different bias voltages were further presented to understand this phenomenon. These results would be useful in designing devices for future nanotechnology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.
2007-11-01
We report results of first principles molecular dynamics simulations that confirm early speculations on the presence of liquid-liquid phase transition in undercooled silicon. However, we find that structural and electronic properties of both low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL) phases are quite different from those obtained by empirical calculations, the difference being more pronounced for the HDL phase. The discrepancy between quantum and classical simulations is attributed to the inability of empirical potentials to describe changes in chemical bonds induced by density and temperature variations.
First-principles theory of quantum well resonance in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions.
Wang, Yan; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, X-G; Han, X F
2006-08-25
Quantum well (QW) resonances in Fe(001)/MgO/Fe/MgO/Fe double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions are calculated from first principles. By including the Coulomb blockade energy due to the finite size islands of the middle Fe film, we confirm that the oscillatory differential resistance observed in a recent experiment [T. Nozaki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 027208 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.027208] originates from the QW resonances from the Delta1 band of the Fe majority-spin channel. The primary source of smearing at low temperatures is shown to be the variation of the Coulomb blockade energy.
Dynamic stability of fcc crystals under isotropic loading from first principles.
Rehák, Petr; Cerný, Miroslav; Pokluda, Jaroslav
2012-05-30
Lattice dynamics and stability of four fcc crystals (Al, Ir, Pt and Au) under isotropic (hydrostatic) tensile loading are studied from first principles using the linear response method and the harmonic approximation. The results reveal that, contrary to former expectations, strengths of all the studied crystals are limited by instabilities related to soft phonons with finite or vanishing wavevectors. The critical strains associated with such instabilities are remarkably lower than those related to the volumetric instability. On the other hand, the corresponding reduction of the tensile strength is by 20% at the most. An analysis of elastic stability conditions is also performed and the results obtained by means of both approaches are compared.
Energy versus free-energy conservation in first-principles molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wentzcovitch, Renata M.; Martins, José Luís; Allen, Philip B.
1992-05-01
In applying first-principles molecular dynamics to metals, a fictitious temperature is usefully assigned to the electronic (Fermi-Dirac) occupation functions. This avoids instabilities associated with fluctuations in these occupations during the minimization of the energy density functional. Because these occupations vary with the ionic motion, they give rise to an extra contribution in addition to the usual Hellmann-Feynman forces. If this extra force is omitted, energy is not conserved. We point out, however, that ionic kinetic energy plus electronic free energy is conserved, and argue that this yields a sensible and realistic conservative dynamics.
Understanding ferromagnetism in Co-doped Ti O2 anatase from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janisch, Rebecca; Spaldin, Nicola A.
2006-01-01
We present a first-principles computational study of the nature and origin of ferromagnetism in Co-doped TiO2 . We calculate the magnetic ordering and electronic properties as a function of the concentration and distribution of Co dopants and oxygen vacancies. We find that Co atoms prefer to substitute on neighboring sites of the Ti lattice, and show, using the well-established Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rules, that this leads to a ferromagnetic superexchange. We propose other semiconductor hosts in which the superexchange mechanism should lead to ferromagnetic coupling between the magnetic moments of neighboring transition metal dopants.
Van An Dinh; Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi
2010-01-04
A first principle study of half-metallicity and ferromagnetism in half-heusler alloys NiMnZ (Z = Si, P, Ge, As, and Sb) is given. The half-metallicity and ferromagnetism are predicted via the calculation of electronic structure, and Curie temperature. The stability of the orthorhombic and tetragonal structures and C1{sub b} at various values of lattice parameters is also studied by means of the pseudo-potential method. All alloys exhibit the half-metallicity and ferromagnetism above room temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiyohara, Shin; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu
2016-08-01
Segregation of silver at copper grain boundaries was investigated using theoretical calculations. Empirical potentials for copper-silver alloys were generated to systematically investigate the segregation. The segregation energies of the [001]-axis symmetric tilt Σ5 (210) and Σ25 (430) grain boundaries were calculated, and the most stable segregation sites for silver at these copper grain boundaries were determined. The generated empirical potential was validated by comparing it with that obtained from the first principles calculation. The segregation of silver at copper grain boundaries strongly depends on the open space at the segregation site.
Simulation of inelastic electronic tunneling spectra of adsorbates from first principles.
Ren, Hao; Yang, Jinlong; Luo, Yi
2009-04-07
We present first-principles simulations for inelastic electron tunneling spectra of molecules adsorbed on metal surface as measured in scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. Both elastic and inelastic tunneling processes are modeled in terms of Tersoff-Hamann approximation with a full vibration analysis at density functional theory levels. The calculated spectra of carbon oxide and acetylene molecules adsorbed on Cu(100) surface have well reproduced their experimental counterparts. The inelastic electron tunneling images of the observable vibration modes have been provided. The performance of gradient-corrected density functional is compared with that of local density functional.
The electronic and magnetic properties of functionalized silicene: a first-principles study
2012-01-01
Based on first-principles calculations, we study the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of two-dimensional silicene saturated with hydrogen and bromine atoms. It is found that the fully saturated silicene exhibits nonmagnetic semiconducting behavior, while half-saturation on only one side with hydrogen or bromine results in the localized and unpaired electrons of the unsaturated Si atoms, showing ferromagnetic semiconducting or half-metallic properties, respectively. Total energy calculations show that the half-hydrogenated silicene exhibits a ferromagnetic order, while the half-brominated one exhibits an antiferromagnetic behavior. PMID:22839704
Exploiting periodic first-principles calculations in NMR spectroscopy of disordered solids.
Ashbrook, Sharon E; Dawson, Daniel M
2013-09-17
Much of the information contained within solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra remains unexploited because of the challenges in obtaining high-resolution spectra and the difficulty in assigning those spectra. Recent advances that enable researchers to accurately and efficiently determine NMR parameters in periodic systems have revolutionized the application of density functional theory (DFT) calculations in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. These advances are particularly useful for experimentalists. The use of first-principles calculations aids in both the interpretation and assignment of the complex spectral line shapes observed for solids. Furthermore, calculations provide a method for evaluating potential structural models against experimental data for materials with poorly characterized structures. Determining the structure of well-ordered, periodic crystalline solids can be straightforward using methods that exploit Bragg diffraction. However, the deviations from periodicity, such as compositional, positional, or temporal disorder, often produce the physical properties (such as ferroelectricity or ionic conductivity) that may be of commercial interest. With its sensitivity to the atomic-scale environment, NMR provides a potentially useful tool for studying disordered materials, and the combination of experiment with first-principles calculations offers a particularly attractive approach. In this Account, we discuss some of the issues associated with the practical implementation of first-principles calculations of NMR parameters in solids. We then use two key examples to illustrate the structural insights that researchers can obtain when applying such calculations to disordered inorganic materials. First, we describe an investigation of cation disorder in Y2Ti(2-x)Sn(x)O7 pyrochlore ceramics using (89)Y and (119)Sn NMR. Researchers have proposed that these materials could serve as host phases for the encapsulation of lanthanide- and actinide
A novel first-principles approach to effective Hamiltonians for high Tc superconducting cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, W.-G.; Ku, W.
2008-03-01
We report our recent progress of deriving the low-energy effective one-band Hamiltonians for the prototypical cuprate superconductor Ca2CuO2Cl2, based on a newly developed first-principles Wannier-states approach that takes into account large on-site Coulomb repulsion. The apical atom pz state is found to affect the general properties of the low-energy hole state, namely the Zhang-Rice singlet, via additional intra-sublattice hoppings, nearest-neighbor 'super-repulsion,' and other microscopic many-body processes.
Optical characteristic study of monolayer VS2 based on first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Zhiyuan; Peng, Junhao; Xie, Xing; Hu, Jianwei; Yang, Hanqi; Wu, Fugen; Dong, Huafeng
2017-10-01
Monolayer VS2 has two common stable phases, 2H-phase and 1T-phase. Based on first-principles calculations, we studied the optical properties of 2D-VS2, including their dielectric functions, absorption coefficients, refraction indexes and energy loss functions. Also, we fully analyzed the relationship between the electronic structure and the optical characteristics of 2D-VS2. We found that the differences of density of states are the fundamental reasons for the differences of the two phase optical absorption behavior.
First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Calculations of the Equation of State for Tantalum
Ono, Shigeaki
2009-01-01
The equation of state of tantalum (Ta) has been investigated to 100 GPa and 3,000 K using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. A large volume dependence of the thermal pressure of Ta was revealed from the analysis of our data. A significant temperature dependence of the calculated effective Grüneisen parameters was confirmed at high pressures. This indicates that the conventional approach to analyze thermal properties using the Mie-Grüneisen approximation is likely to have a significant uncertainty in determining the equation of state for Ta, and that an intrinsic anharmonicity should be considered to analyze the equation of state. PMID:20057949
Configurations of nuclei in Au-catalyzed Si nanowire growth: a first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Luchi; Zhou, Xiaohao; Chen, Xiaoshuang
2016-10-01
The configurations of nuclei in Au catalyzed Si nanowire growth were investigated through an ab-initio thermodynamic-combined approach. We discussed the relation between the configurations and formation energies of the lateral walls of the nucleus in nanowire growth numerically by the classical nucleation theory. The nucleation model was parameterized by the formation energies of surfaces, interfaces and steps calculated in first-principles methods. The configurations of the nuclei were determined by the Wulff theorem. Moreover, we found configurations of the nuclei are different in two different Si-Au contact structures. This study provides an important basis to understand the step-flow process in nanowire growth.
First-principles prediction of a ground state crystal structure of magnesium borohydride.
Ozolins, V; Majzoub, E H; Wolverton, C
2008-04-04
Mg(BH(4))(2) contains a large amount of hydrogen by weight and by volume, but its promise as a candidate for hydrogen storage is dependent on the currently unknown thermodynamics of H2 release. Using first-principles density-functional theory calculations and a newly developed prototype electrostatic ground state search strategy, we predict a new T=0 K ground state of Mg(BH(4))(2) with I4[over ]m2 symmetry, which is 5 kJ/mol lower in energy than the recently proposed P6(1) structure. The calculated thermodynamics of H(2) release are within the range required for reversible storage.
First-principles prediction of doped graphane as a high-temperature electron-phonon superconductor.
Savini, G; Ferrari, A C; Giustino, Feliciano
2010-07-16
We predict by first-principles calculations that p-doped graphane is an electron-phonon superconductor with a critical temperature above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen. The unique strength of the chemical bonds between carbon atoms and the large density of electronic states at the Fermi energy arising from the reduced dimensionality give rise to a giant Kohn anomaly in the optical phonon dispersions and push the superconducting critical temperature above 90 K. As evidence of graphane was recently reported, and doping of related materials such as graphene, diamond, and carbon nanostructures is well established, superconducting graphane may be feasible.
First-principles investigation of B- and N-doped fluorographene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leenaerts, O.; Sahin, H.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.
2013-07-01
The effect of substitutional doping of fluorographene with boron and nitrogen atoms on its electronic and magnetic properties is investigated using first-principles calculations. It is found that boron dopants can be readily incorporated in the fluorographene crystal where they act as shallow acceptors and cause hole doping, but no changes in the magnetic properties are observed. Nitrogen dopants act as deep donors and give rise to a magnetic moment, but the resulting system becomes chemically unstable. These results are opposite to what was found for substitutional doping of graphane, i.e., hydrogenated graphene, in which case B substituents induce magnetism and N dopants do not.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Renhui; Zhao, Juan
2017-07-01
Generally, the role of carbon defects in the corrosion of graphene is investigated by the experimental methods. Defects and cracks are considered to be the major cause of corrosion. Thus far, the intrinsic corrosion mechanism at the nanoscale is still not understood. In this work, using a first principles method, the energy barriers and average potentials of Cl anion diffusion cross the defective graphene are calculated in order to better understand the role of carbon defects in the corrosion of graphene at the nanoscale. The calculated results show that the reconstructed nanopores have a significant effect on retaining the anticorrosion of graphene.
First-principles calculations on the structural evolution of solid fullerene-like CP x
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gueorguiev, G. K.; Furlan, A.; Högberg, H.; Stafström, S.; Hultman, L.
2006-08-01
The formation and structural evolution of fullerene-like (FL) carbon phosphide (CP x) during synthetic growth were studied by first-principles calculations. Geometry optimizations and comparison between the cohesive energies suggest stability for solid FL-CP x compounds. In comparison with fullerene-like carbon nitride, higher curvature of the graphene sheets and higher density of cross-linkages between them is predicted and explained by the different electronic properties of P and N. Cage-like and onion-like structures, both containing tetragons, are found to be typical for fullerene-like CP x. Segregation of P is predicted at fractions exceeding ˜20 at.%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Middleton, Kirsten; Zhang, G. P.; Nichols, Michael R.; George, Thomas F.
2012-05-01
Memantine, amantadine and rimantadine are structurally derived from the same diamondoid, adamantane. These derivatives demonstrate therapeutic efficacy in human diseases: memantine for Alzheimer's disease and amantadine and rimantadine for influenza. In order to better understand some of the properties that distinguish these three compounds, we conduct first-principles calculations on their structure and electronic properties. Our results indicate that protonation has a significant effect on the dipole moment, where the dipole moment in protonated memantine is over eight times larger than in the deprotonated form.
Crystal Structure Prediction from First Principles: The Crystal Structures of Glycine
Lund, Albert M.; Pagola, Gabriel I.; Orendt, Anita M.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Facelli, Julio C.
2015-01-01
Here we present the results of our unbiased searches of glycine polymorphs obtained using the Genetic Algorithms search implemented in Modified Genetic Algorithm for Crystals coupled with the local optimization and energy evaluation provided by Quantum Espresso. We demonstrate that it is possible to predict the crystal structures of a biomedical molecule using solely first principles calculations. We were able to find all the ambient pressure stable glycine polymorphs, which are found in the same energetic ordering as observed experimentally and the agreement between the experimental and predicted structures is of such accuracy that the two are visually almost indistinguishable. PMID:25843964
Hydrogen effect on shearing and cleavage of Al: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apostol, F.; Mishin, Y.
2011-09-01
We report on first-principles calculations of the effect of a (111) hydrogen layer embedded in Al on generalized stacking fault energies and cleavage energy for different choices of the slip and cleavage planes. It is shown that the H layer softens Al against shear by reducing the stable and unstable stacking fault energies relative to pure Al. This finding points to a possible enhancement of plasticity of Al by H. The H layer also reduces the cleavage energy on the (111) plane. The reductions in the cleavage energy and unstable stacking fault energy compensate each other and produce only a moderate change in the Rice criterion of ductile versus brittle fracture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ying; Mahadevan, Jagan; Wang, Sanwu
2010-03-01
The catalytic reactions of dissociation and oxidation of methane on the copper surfaces play a key role in, for example, the development of high-performance solid oxide fuel cells. We used first-principles quantum theory and large-scale parallel calculations to investigate the atomic-scale mechanism of the catalytic chemical reactions. We report the calculated results, which provide fundamental information and understanding about the atomic-scale dynamics and electronic structures pertinent to the reactions and specifically the catalytic role of the Cu(100) and Cu(111) surfaces. We also report comparison of our results with available experimental data and previous theoretical investigations.
Substitution effects on the hydrogen storage behavior of AB2 alloys by first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fen; Zhao, Ji-jun; Sun, Li-xian
2011-06-01
The hydrogen storage behavior of the TiCr2 and ZrCr2 alloys substituted with the third components (Zr, V, Fe, Ni) have been studied using first-principles calculations. The change of the hydrogen absorption energies caused by metal doping is arising from the charge transfer among the doped alloys interior. Zr and V atoms devoted abundant electrons, leading to a great enhancement of the H absorption energy, while Fe and Ni atoms always accepted electrons, yielding a remarkable decrease of the H absorption energy. The hydrogen diffusion energy barrier is closely correlated with the geometry effect rather than the electronic structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Shigeki; Inerbaev, Talgat M.; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Nobuaki; Note, Ryunosuke; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki
2006-11-01
First-principles calculations of the crystalline vibrations of a lactose monohydrate crystal in the terahertz (THz) region were performed using periodic density functional theory calculations. The calculated vibrational modes in the THz region were derived from group motions with different sizes: molecules of lactose and crystal water, pyranose rings, and intramolecular frames. The intermolecular modes with large vibrational amplitude of lactose of 17.5-100.6 cm-1 and of crystal-water of 136.1-237.7 cm-1 were clearly separated. This article especially refers to the intermolecular vibrational modes of crystal water with the THz absorption, which provide detectable spectral features of hydrated crystals.
First principles prediction of the metastability of the Ge2Mn phase and its synthesis pathways
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arras, E.; Slipukhina, I.; Torrent, M.; Caliste, D.; Deutsch, T.; Pochet, P.
2010-06-01
In this letter, we performed first principles calculations to investigate the stability of a [100]-compatible Ge2Mn compound. Based on a thermodynamical approach, we propose and assess the C16 structure (Al2Cu prototype) to be only slightly metastable as compared to the other Ge-Mn compounds. The reported structural and magnetic properties of this Ge2Mn compound make it a potentially interesting compound for spintronic applications, all the more since a simple way to stabilize it as a bulk film is proposed.
New class of planar ferroelectric Mott insulators via first-principles design
Kim, Chanul; Park, Hyowon; Marianetti, Chris A.
2015-12-11
which is not common in known materials. Here we use first-principles calculations to design layered double perovskite oxides AABBO6 which achieve the aforementioned properties in the context of Mott insulators. In our design rules, the gap is dictated by B/B electronegativity difference in a Mott state, while the polarization is obtained via nominal d0 filling on the B-site, A-type cations bearing lone-pair electrons, and A = A size mismatch. Successful execution is demonstrated in BaBiCuVO6, BaBiNiVO6, BaLaCuVO6, and PbLaCuVO6.
First-principles calculation of the structural stability of 6d transition metals
Oestlin, A.; Vitos, L.
2011-09-15
The phase stability of the 6d transition metals (elements 103-111) is investigated using first-principles electronic-structure calculations. Comparison with the lighter transition metals reveals that the structural sequence trend is broken at the end of the 6d series. To account for this anomalous behavior, the effect of relativity on the lattice stability is scrutinized, taking different approximations into consideration. It is found that the mass-velocity and Darwin terms give important contributions to the electronic structure, leading to changes in the interstitial charge density and, thus, in the structural energy difference.
First-principles investigation of high pressure Pbca phase of carbon mononitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Qun; Zhang, Meiguang; Yan, Haiyan
2016-09-01
A theoretical investigations on the stability, mechanical and electronic properties of Pbca-CN was performed by using first principle calculations. According to our calculations, Pbca-CN exhibits a large elastic anisotropy. The further mechanical calculations demonstrated that Pbca-CN shows high elastic moduli. Young's modulus of Pbca-CN is found to reach a maximum along [001] direction and a minimum along [100] direction. The ideal tensile and shear strength at large strains of Pbca-CN are also examined. The ideal shear strength along the weakest (100)[010] slip system is about 20 GPa, which shows Pbca-CN is not an intrinsic superhard material.
Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.; Militizer, B.
2015-04-20
In this study, a comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state, thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydro-codes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximately taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state table, thermal conductivities (K_{QMD}), and first principles opacity table of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of –2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro
Metallization of aluminum hydride at high pressures: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, R. J.
2007-10-01
We have used first-principles density-functional-theory electronic structure methods and a random searching technique to identify stable high pressure phases of aluminum hydride (AlH3) . We find a transition from the insulating low-pressure α phase to an insulating layered structure of space group Pnma at 34GPa , and a transition to a semimetallic Pm3¯n phase at 73GPa . These phases are predicted to be stable against dehydridation (the evolution of H2 molecules), and they could be formed at pressures easily attainable within diamond-anvil-cell experiments.
Crystal structure prediction from first principles: The crystal structures of glycine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lund, Albert M.; Pagola, Gabriel I.; Orendt, Anita M.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Facelli, Julio C.
2015-04-01
Here we present the results of our unbiased searches of glycine polymorphs obtained using the genetic algorithms search implemented in MGAC, modified genetic algorithm for crystals, coupled with the local optimization and energy evaluation provided by Quantum Espresso. We demonstrate that it is possible to predict the crystal structures of a biomedical molecule using solely first principles calculations. We were able to find all the ambient pressure stable glycine polymorphs, which are found in the same energetic ordering as observed experimentally and the agreement between the experimental and predicted structures is of such accuracy that the two are visually almost indistinguishable.
Interactions of gas molecules with monolayer MoSe2: A first principle study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Munish; Jamdagni, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2016-05-01
We present a first principle study of interaction of toxic gas molecules (NO, NO2 and SO2) with monolayer MoSe2. The predicted order of sensitivity of gas molecule is NO2 > SO2 > NO. Adsorbed molecules strongly influence the electronic behaviour of monolayer MoSe2 by inducing impurity levels in the vicinity of Fermi energy. NO and SO2 is found to induce p-type doping effect while semiconductor to metallic transitions occur on NO2 adsorption. Our findings may guide the experimentalist for fabricating sensor devices based on MoSe2 monolayer.
First-principles study of hydrogen storage on Li12F12 nano-cage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yafei; Cheng, Xinlu
2017-03-01
We use the first-principles calculation based on density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the hydrogen storage on Li12F12 nano-cage. Our result indicates the largest hydrogen gravimetric density is 7.14 wt% and this is higher than the 2017 target from the US department of energy (DOE). Meanwhile, the average adsorption energy is -0.161 eV/H2, which is desirable for absorbing and desorbing H2 molecules at near ambient conditions. These findings will have important implications on designing hydrogen storage materials in the future.
Superlubricity of two-dimensional fluorographene/MoS2 heterostructure: a first-principles study.
Wang, Lin-Feng; Ma, Tian-Bao; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Zheng, Quanshui; Wang, Hui; Luo, Jianbin
2014-09-26
The atomic-scale friction of the fluorographene (FG)/MoS2 heterostructure is investigated using first-principles calculations. Due to the intrinsic lattice mismatch and formation of periodic Moiré patterns, the potential energy surface of the FG/MoS2 heterostructure is ultrasmooth and the interlayer shear strength is reduced by nearly two orders of magnitude, compared with both FG/FG and MoS2/MoS2 bilayers, entering the superlubricity regime. The size dependency of superlubricity is revealed as being based on the relationship between the emergence of Moiré patterns and the lattice mismatch ratio for heterostructures.
Superlubricity of two-dimensional fluorographene/MoS2 heterostructure: a first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin-Feng; Ma, Tian-Bao; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Zheng, Quanshui; Wang, Hui; Luo, Jianbin
2014-09-01
The atomic-scale friction of the fluorographene (FG)/MoS2 heterostructure is investigated using first-principles calculations. Due to the intrinsic lattice mismatch and formation of periodic Moiré patterns, the potential energy surface of the FG/MoS2 heterostructure is ultrasmooth and the interlayer shear strength is reduced by nearly two orders of magnitude, compared with both FG/FG and MoS2/MoS2 bilayers, entering the superlubricity regime. The size dependency of superlubricity is revealed as being based on the relationship between the emergence of Moiré patterns and the lattice mismatch ratio for heterostructures.
Substitutional Co dopant on the GaAs(110) surface: A first principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Zhou; Yi, Zhijun
2016-12-01
Using the first principles ground state method, the electronic properties of single Co dopant replacing one Ga atom on the GaAs(110) surface are studied. Our calculated local density of states (LDOS) at Co site presents several distinct peaks above the valence band maximum (VBM), and this agrees with recent experiments. Moreover, the calculated STM images at bias voltages of 2 eV and -2 eV also agree with experiments. We discussed the origin of Co impurity induced distinct peaks, which can be characterized with the hybridization between Co d orbitals and p-like orbitals of surface As and Ga atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da Silveira, P.; Holiday, A.; Kelly, N.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.
2012-12-01
We will describe Internet applications for first principles calculations of elastic coefficients (Cij) and thermodynamics properties of crystalline materials, implemented in the VLab Cyberinfrastructure (CI). The Cij application has recently been upgraded to treat crystals of all symmetries. First we review the theory behind these calculations and address the different requirements for each Bravais lattice. We also describe the scientific workflow and its general method for handling actions in the VLab CI, job scheduling on XSEDE and Minnesota Supercomputing Institute High Performance Computing resources, and integration with Apache Airavata API. We illustrate the Cij application with a calculation of diamond's elastic coefficients at high pressures, and a database of results from successful calculations.
First principles centroid molecular dynamics simulation of hydride in nanoporous C12A7:H-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Takashi
2017-05-01
Hydrides in nanoporous [Ca24Al28O64]4+(H-)4 (C12A7:H-) were investigated via first principles centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). The quality of our CMD simulations was assessed by examining the temperature dependence of the distribution of hydrides in the cages constituting the C12A7 framework. The vibrational states of C12A7:H- were analyzed by using the trajectories of the centroids generated in our CMD simulations. We find that the rattling motions of H- and D- behave qualitatively differently, resulting in non-trivial isotope effects, which are suggested to be detectable by using infrared and Raman spectroscopy.
Wan, Quan; Galli, Giulia
2015-12-11
We present a first-principles framework to compute sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectra of semiconductors and insulators. The method is based on density functional theory and the use of maximally localized Wannier functions to compute the response to electric fields, and it includes the effect of electric field gradients at surfaces. In addition, it includes quadrupole contributions to SFG spectra, thus enabling the verification of the dipole approximation, whose validity determines the surface specificity of SFG spectroscopy. We compute the SFG spectra of ice Ih basal surfaces and identify which spectra components are affected by bulk contributions. Our results are in good agreement with experiments at low temperature.
Molecular mechanisms of tungstate-induced pancreatic plasticity: a transcriptomics approach
Altirriba, Jordi; Barbera, Albert; Del Zotto, Héctor; Nadal, Belen; Piquer, Sandra; Sánchez-Pla, Alex; Gagliardino, Juan J; Gomis, Ramon
2009-01-01
Background Sodium tungstate is known to be an effective anti-diabetic agent, able to increase beta cell mass in animal models of diabetes, although the molecular mechanisms of this treatment and the genes that control pancreas plasticity are yet to be identified. Using a transcriptomics approach, the aim of the study is to unravel the molecular mechanisms which participate in the recovery of exocrine and endocrine function of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats treated with tungstate, determining the hyperglycemia contribution and the direct effect of tungstate. Results Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats were treated orally with tungstate for five weeks. Treated (STZ)-diabetic rats showed a partial recovery of exocrine and endocrine function, with lower glycemia, increased insulinemia and amylasemia, and increased beta cell mass achieved by reducing beta cell apoptosis and raising beta cell proliferation. The microarray analysis of the pancreases led to the identification of three groups of differentially expressed genes: genes altered due to diabetes, genes restored by the treatment, and genes specifically induced by tungstate in the diabetic animals. The results were corroborated by quantitative PCR. A detailed description of the pathways involved in the pancreatic effects of tungstate is provided in this paper. Hyperglycemia contribution was studied in STZ-diabetic rats treated with phloridzin, and the direct effect of tungstate was determined in INS-1E cells treated with tungstate or serum from untreated or treated STZ-rats, observing that tungstate action in the pancreas takes places via hyperglycemia-independent pathways and via a combination of tungstate direct and indirect (through the serum profile modification) effects. Finally, the MAPK pathway was evaluated, observing that it has a key role in the tungstate-induced increase of beta cell proliferation as tungstate activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway directly by increasing p42/p44
Sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) exposure increases apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.
Osterburg, Andrew R; Robinson, Chad T; Schwemberger, Sandy; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Stockelman, Michael; Babcock, George F
2010-01-01
The potential for adverse health effects of using tungsten and its alloys in military munitions are an important concern to both civilians and the US military. The toxicological implications of exposure to tungsten, its alloys, and the soluble tungstate (Na(2)WO(4)) are currently under investigation. To examine tungstate toxicity, a series of experiments to determine its in vitro effects on cells of the immune system were performed. We identified alterations in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) treated in vitro with sodium tungstate (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mM). Analyses of apoptosis with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed a dose- and time-dependent increase in the quantity of cells in early apoptosis after tungstate exposure. Reductions in the number of cells entering into the cell cycle were also noted. Exposure of PBL to tungstate (1 mM) and Concanavalin A (ConA) for 72 h reduced the number of cells in S and G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle. There were alterations in the numbers of cells in G(0)/G(1), S, and G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle in long-term THP-1 (acute leukemic monocytes) cultures treated with tungstate (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mM). Gel electrophoresis, silver staining, and LC-MS/MS showed the cytoplasmic presence of histone H1b and H1d after 72 h of tungstate exposure. The addition of tungstate to cultures resulted in significant reductions in the quantity of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-6 produced by stimulated [CD3/CD28, ConA, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] and tungstate-treated lymphocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that tungstate increases apoptosis of PBL, alters cell cycle progression, reduces cytokine production, and therefore warrants further investigation.
Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro
2015-01-01
Alkali-doped fullerides A3C60 (A = K, Rb, Cs) are surprising materials where conventional phonon-mediated superconductivity and unconventional Mott physics meet, leading to a remarkable phase diagram as a function of volume per C60 molecule. We address these materials with a state-of-the-art calculation, where we construct a realistic low-energy model from first principles without using a priori information other than the crystal structure and solve it with an accurate many-body theory. Remarkably, our scheme comprehensively reproduces the experimental phase diagram including the low-spin Mott-insulating phase next to the superconducting phase. More remarkably, the critical temperatures Tc’s calculated from first principles quantitatively reproduce the experimental values. The driving force behind the surprising phase diagram of A3C60 is a subtle competition between Hund’s coupling and Jahn-Teller phonons, which leads to an effectively inverted Hund’s coupling. Our results establish that the fullerides are the first members of a novel class of molecular superconductors in which the multiorbital electronic correlations and phonons cooperate to reach high Tc s-wave superconductivity. PMID:26601242
Lee, B; Rudd, R E
2006-10-19
We report the results of first-principles density functional theory calculations of the Young's modulus and other mechanical properties of hydrogen-passivated Si {l_angle}001{r_angle} nanowires. The nanowires are taken to have predominantly {l_brace}100{r_brace}surfaces, with small {l_brace}110{r_brace} facets according to the Wulff shape. The Young's modulus, the equilibrium length and the constrained residual stress of a series of prismatic beams of differing sizes are found to have size dependences that scale like the surface area to volume ratio for all but the smallest beam. The results are compared with a continuum model and the results of classical atomistic calculations based on an empirical potential. We attribute the size dependence to specific physical structures and interactions. In particular, the hydrogen interactions on the surface and the charge density variations within the beam are quantified and used both to parameterize the continuum model and to account for the discrepancies between the two models and the first-principles results.
First Principles Study of Electronic Structure of BF3-NH3 Complex and Associated Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, Archana; Mahanti, Mahendra K.; Pink, Roger
2005-03-01
BF3 is a planar molecule with three-fold symmetry which is widely used to promote various organic reactions such as Friedel-Crafts acylations and alkylations. To obtain a thorough understanding of the mechanisms for this role of BF3, we are studying from first-principles the electronic structures of BF3 and its complexes with NH3. The procedure used is the first principles Hartree-Fock-Roothaan procedure combined with many body perturbation theory. The results for BF3-NH3 system will be reported, such as the binding energy and equilibrium geometry of the complex, the nature of the B-N bond and the changes in the B-F and N-H bond strengths on complex formation. The Nuclear Quadrupole Interactions of the ^19F* (spin 5/2), ^14N, ^11B, and ^2H will be presented and compared with available experimental data. (*) Present Address: Dept. of Physics, Uppsala University, Sweden (**) Also: Dept of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida
Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations
Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; ...
2015-06-23
The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co5Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co11Zr2” polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that themore » magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co5Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co5.25Zr phase. As a result, our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.« less
First-principles analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism for transition metal complex oxides
Ikeno, Hidekazu
2016-10-14
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is widely used for the characterization of magnetism of materials. However, information from XMCD related to the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures is not fully utilized due to the lack of reliable theoretical tools for spectral analysis. In this work, the first-principles configuration interaction (CI) calculations for X-ray absorption spectra developed by the author were extended for the calculation of XMCD, where the Zeeman energy was taken into the Hamiltonian of the CI to mimic magnetic polarization in the solid state. This technique was applied to interpret the L{sub 2,3} XMCD from 3d transition metal complex oxides, such as NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and FeTiO{sub 3}. The experimental XMCD spectra were quantitatively reproduced using this method. The oxidation states as well as the magnetic ordering between transition metal ions on crystallographically different sites in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be unambiguously determined. A first-principles analysis of XMCD in FeTiO{sub 3} revealed the presence of Fe{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 3+} ions, which indicates that the charge transfer from Fe to Ti ions occurs. The origin of magnetic polarization of Ti ions in FeTiO{sub 3} was also discussed.
Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; ...
2015-10-14
Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosionsmore » on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pozhar, Liudmila A.
2010-05-01
An equilibrium two-time temperature Green's function (TTGF)-based, quantum statistical mechanical approach has been used to derive from the first principles an explicit expression for the tensor of "local" refraction indices of spatially nonuniform systems in weak external electromagnetic (EM) fields in the linear approximation with regard to the field magnitudes. Written in terms of the TTGF-based, first-principle tensorial dielectric and magnetic susceptibilities, the obtained formula for the local tensor of refraction indices (TRI) is applicable to any system, including individual nanoscale objects, such as quantum dots and wires, magnetic nanostructures, composite materials, or spatially nonuniform, bulk magnetic materials. An explicit expression for the space-time Fourier transform (STFT) of the dielectric susceptibility tensor used in TRI is derived in terms of STFTs of the charge density—charge density TTGFs, while the corresponding STFT of the magnetic susceptibility tensor also includes STFTs of the microcurrent—microcurrent TTGFs. The STFTs of the equilibrium TTGFs featuring in the susceptibilities, and thus necessary to calculate TRI, can be obtained by equilibrium quantum statistical mechanical means, modeling and simulations, or from experimental data. Two TRI regimes of significant interest for applications that can be realized in spatially inhomogeneous magnetic systems have been identified.
First principles molecular dynamics of metal/water interfaces under bias potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedroza, Luana; Brandimarte, Pedro; Rocha, Alexandre; Fernandez-Serra, Marivi
2014-03-01
Understanding the interaction of the water-metal system at an atomic level is extremely important in electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysis among other systems. The question of the interface energetics involves a detailed study of the nature of the interactions between water-water and water-substrate. A first principles description of all components of the system is the most appropriate methodology in order to advance understanding of electrochemically processes. In this work we describe, using first principles molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of a combined surface(Au and Pd)/water system both in the presence and absence of an external bias potential applied to the electrodes, as one would come across in electrochemistry. This is accomplished using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green's functions methods (NEGF), thus accounting for the fact that one is dealing with an out-of-equilibrium open system, with and without van der Waals interactions. DOE Early Career Award No. DE-SC0003871.
Quantum Mechanics and First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Selection of Polymer Sensing Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanco, Mario; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Ryan, Margaret A.
We present two first-principles methods, density functional theory (DFT) and a molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation protocol, as computational means for the selection of polymer sensing materials. The DFT methods can yield binding energies of polymer moieties to specific vapor bound compounds, quantities that were found useful in materials selection for sensing of organic and inorganic compounds for designing sensors for the electronic nose (ENose) that flew on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2008-2009. Similarly, we present an MD protocol that offers high consistency in the estimation of Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) for vapor bound compounds and amorphous polymers. HSP are useful for fitting measured polymer sensor responses with physically rooted analytical models. We apply the method to the JPL electronic nose (ENose), an array of sensors with conducting leads connected through thin film polymers loaded with carbon black. Detection relies on a change in electric resistivity of the polymer film as function of the amount of swelling caused by the presence of the analyte chemical compound. The amount of swelling depends upon the chemical composition of the polymer and the analyte molecule. The pattern is unique and it unambiguously identifies the compound. Experimentally determined changes in relative resistivity of fifteen polymer sensor materials upon exposure to ten vapors were modeled with the first-principles HSP model.
Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations
Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming
2015-06-23
The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co_{5}Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co_{11}Zr_{2}” polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co_{5}Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co_{5.25}Zr phase. As a result, our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.
Astrophysical reaction rates from a symmetry-informed first-principles perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreyfuss, Alison; Launey, Kristina; Baker, Robert; Draayer, Jerry; Dytrych, Tomas
2017-01-01
With a view toward a new unified formalism for studying bound and continuum states in nuclei, to understand stellar nucleosynthesis from a fully ab initio perspective, we studied the nature of surface α-clustering in 20Ne by considering the overlap of symplectic states with cluster-like states. We compute the spectroscopic amplitudes and factors, α-decay width, and absolute resonance strength - characterizing major contributions to the astrophysical reaction rate through a low-lying 1- resonant state in 20Ne. As a next step, we consider a fully microscopic treatment for the n+4 He system, based on the successful first-principles No-Core Shell Model/Resonating Group Method (NCSM/RGM) for light nuclei, but with the capability to reach intermediate-mass nuclei. The new model takes advantage of the symmetry-based concept central to the Symmetry-Adapted No-Core Shell Model (SA-NCSM) to reduce computational complexity in physically-informed and methodical way, with sights toward first-principles calculations of rates for important astrophysical reactions, such as the 23 Al(p , γ) 24 Si reaction, believed to have a strong influence on X-ray burst light curves. Supported by the U.S. NSF (OCI-0904874, ACI -1516338) and the U.S. DOE (DE-SC0005248), and benefitted from computing resources provided by Blue Waters and the LSU Center for Computation & Technology.
Superfluid density in He II near the lambda transition: First principles theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, H. W.
2015-03-01
A first principles theory of the λ transition in liquid 4He was introduced in a recent paper [H. W. Jackson, J. Low Temp. Phys. 155, 1 (2009)]. In that theory critical fluctuations consisting of isothermal fourth sound waves are treated with quantum statistical mechanics methods in deriving formulas for constant volume conditions for specific heat, correlation length, equal time pair correlation function, and isothermal compressibility. To leading order terms in (Tλ-T) the theory yields exact results α‧=0 and ν‧=2/3 for critical exponents at constant volume. A follow-up study in the present paper demonstrates by a least squares fit that a logarithmic function accurately describes the specific heat at svp when (Tλ-T) is between 10-9 K and 10-5 K. This logarithmic divergent behavior conflicts with previous analyses of experimental data and predictions of renormalization group theory that constant pressure specific heat is finite at Tλ, but Is thermodynamically consistent with logarithmic asymptotic behavior of specific heat at constant volume predicted in the new theory. The first principles theory is extended in this paper to derive formulas for superfluid density and for a relation between superfluid density and correlation length in He II near Tλ. Numerical results based on these formulas are in good agreement with experimental data produced by second sound measurements.
First-Principles Calculations, Experimental Study, and Thermodynamic Modeling of the Al-Co-Cr System
Liu, Xuan L.; Gheno, Thomas; Lindahl, Bonnie B.; Lindwall, Greta; Gleeson, Brian; Liu, Zi-Kui
2015-01-01
The phase relations and thermodynamic properties of the condensed Al-Co-Cr ternary alloy system are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and phase-equilibria experiments that led to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) measurements. A thermodynamic description is developed by means of the calculations of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method using experimental and computational data from the present work and the literature. Emphasis is placed on modeling the bcc-A2, B2, fcc-γ, and tetragonal-σ phases in the temperature range of 1173 to 1623 K. Liquid, bcc-A2 and fcc-γ phases are modeled using substitutional solution descriptions. First-principles special quasirandom structures (SQS) calculations predict a large bcc-A2 (disordered)/B2 (ordered) miscibility gap, in agreement with experiments. A partitioning model is then used for the A2/B2 phase to effectively describe the order-disorder transitions. The critically assessed thermodynamic description describes all phase equilibria data well. A2/B2 transitions are also shown to agree well with previous experimental findings. PMID:25875037
Auger recombination and free-carrier absorption in nitrides from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kioupakis, Emmanouil
2010-03-01
Solid-state optoelectronic devices in the blue/green part of the visible spectrum, based on group-III-nitride materials and their alloys, have a wide array of applications as well as the potential to replace incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs for general illumination. Progress in nitride light emitters research, however, is hampered by the efficiency droop effect, a severe drop in quantum efficiency at high drive currents that particularly affects devices emitting at longer wavelengths. The efficiency droop has been the subject of extensive research and several mechanisms have been proposed as its origin. One such mechanism is the Auger recombination process, a non-radiative recombination mechanism induced by free carrier scattering via the Coulomb interaction. An additional loss mechanism that affects laser devices in particular is the reabsorption of the generated light by free carriers in the device. We used first-principles calculations to study the direct as well as the indirect Auger recombination and free-carrier absorption processes, mediated by electron-phonon and alloy scattering, and identify their importance in nitride light emitters. Since the various loss processes are hard to decouple experimentally, first-principles calculations are an indispensable tool to investigate the various loss mechanisms in isolation and determine their significance.
Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations
Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai-Zhuang Ho, Kai-Ming
2015-06-28
The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co{sub 5}Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co{sub 11}Zr{sub 2}” polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co{sub 5}Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co{sub 5.25}Zr phase. Our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.
Hao, Shiqiang; Sholl, David S
2009-06-28
Diffusion of interstitial hydrogen plays a key role in potential uses for amorphous metals as membranes for hydrogen purification. We show how first principles-based methods can be used to characterize diffusion of interstitial H in amorphous metals using amorphous Fe(3)B as an example. Net transport of interstitial H is governed by the transport diffusion coefficient that appears in Fick's law. This diffusion coefficient is strongly dependent on the interstitial concentration, and is not equal to the self-diffusion coefficient except at dilute interstitial concentrations. Under conditions of practical interest, the concentrations of interstitial H in amorphous metals are nondilute so methods to determine the transport diffusion coefficient must be used if net mass transport is to be described. We show how kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of interstitial H diffusion that use rates derived from first-principles calculations can be used to assess both self- and transport diffusion coefficients of H in amorphous metals. These methods will be helpful in efforts to screen amorphous metal alloys as potential membranes for hydrogen purification.
Terahertz spectra of biotin based on first principle, molecular mechanical, and hybrid simulations.
Bykhovski, Alexei; Woolard, Dwight
2013-07-01
Terahertz (THz) absorption of biotin was simulated using the first principle and the density functional theory (DFT) both in the harmonic approximation and with corrections for the anharmonicity. Anharmonicity corrections were calculated using two different approaches. First, the perturbation theory-based first principle calculations were performed to include third- and fourth-order anharmonicity corrections in atomic displacements to harmonic vibrational states. Second, the atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics model that provides a good energy conservation was used to calculate the atomic trajectories, velocities, and a dipole moment time history of biotin at low and room temperatures. Predicted low-THz lines agree well with the experimental spectra. The influence of the polyethylene (PE) matrix embedment on the THz spectra of biotin at the nanoscale was studied using the developed hybrid DFT/molecular mechanical approach. While PE is almost transparent at THz frequencies, additional low-THz lines are predicted in the biotin/PE system, which reflects a dynamic interaction between biotin and a surrounding PE cavity.
First principles theory for surface plasmon generation and decay to hot carriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Jermyn, Adam; Atwater, Harry A.; Goddard, William A., III
2014-03-01
Plasmonic resonances provide a promising pathway for efficiently capturing infrared photons from solar radiation and boosting photo-catalytic activity via local temperature enhancements and hot carrier generation. Previous calculations of plasmon decay to excited carriers employing a fully quantized model Hamiltonian [2] indicate strong plasmon polarization dependence and momentum anisotropy of the generated carriers, in contrast with classical theories. An accurate first principles calculation for this process must account for microscopic details at the atomic scale for the electronic states as well as the effect of the 10-100 nm length scale particle and antennae geometries on the plasmon resonances. Here, we present a first-principles multi-scale model of plasmonics combining electronic density-functional theory with electromagnetic models on longer length-scales, and investigate the role of electronic structure and geometry on plasmonic light absorption, decay and hot carrier generation. This material is based upon work performed by the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported through the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Number DE-SC0004993.
Fang, Hanjun; Kamakoti, Preeti; Ravikovitch, Peter I; Aronson, Matthew; Paur, Charanjit; Sholl, David S
2013-08-21
The development of accurate force fields is vital for predicting adsorption in porous materials. Previously, we introduced a first principles-based transferable force field for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites (Fang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 10692). In this study, we extend our approach to CO2 adsorption in cationic zeolites which possess more complex structures. Na-exchanged zeolites are chosen for demonstrating the approach. These methods account for several structural complexities including Al distribution, cation positions and cation mobility, all of which are important for predicting adsorption. The simulation results are validated with high-resolution experimental measurements of isotherms and microcalorimetric heats of adsorption on well-characterized materials. The choice of first-principles method has a significant influence on the ability of force fields to accurately describe CO2-zeolite interactions. The PBE-D2 derived force field, which performed well for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites, does not do so for Na-exchanged zeolites; the PBE-D2 method overestimates CO2 adsorption energies on multi-cation sites that are common in cationic zeolites with low Si/Al ratios. In contrast, a force field derived from the DFT/CC method performed well. Agreement was obtained between simulation and experiment not only for LTA-4A on which the force field fitting is based, but for other two common adsorbents, NaX and NaY.
Phase and structural stability in Ni-Al systems from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goiri, Jon Gabriel; Van der Ven, Anton
2016-09-01
We report on a comprehensive first-principles study of phase stability in the Ni-Al binary, both at zero Kelvin and at finite temperature. First-principles density functional theory calculations of the energies of enumerated orderings on fcc and the sublattices of B2 not only predict the stability of known phases, but also reveal the stability of a family of ordered phases that combine features of L 12 and L 10 in different ratios to adjust their overall composition. The calculations also confirm the stability of vacancy ordered B2 derivatives that are stable in the Al-rich half of the phase diagram. We introduce strain order parameters to systematically analyze instabilities with respect to the Bain path connecting the fcc and bcc lattices. Many unstable orderings on both fcc and bcc are predicted around compositions of xNi=0.625 , where a martensitic phase transformation is known to occur. Cluster expansion techniques together with Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate a finite-temperature-composition phase diagram of the Ni-Al binary. The calculated phase diagram together with an analysis of Bain instabilities reveals the importance of anharmonicity in determining the phase bounds between the B2 based β phase and the L 12 based γ' phase, as well as properties related to martensitic transformations that are observed upon quenching Ni-rich β .
Leng, Xia; Yin, Huabing; Liang, Dongmei; Ma, Yuchen
2015-09-21
Organic semiconductors have promising and broad applications in optoelectronics. Understanding their electronic excited states is important to help us control their spectroscopic properties and performance of devices. There have been a large amount of experimental investigations on spectroscopies of organic semiconductors, but theoretical calculation from first principles on this respect is still limited. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) and many-body Green's function theory, which includes the GW method and Bethe-Salpeter equation, to study the electronic excited-state properties and spectroscopies of one prototypical organic semiconductor, sexithiophene. The exciton energies of sexithiophene in both the gas and bulk crystalline phases are very sensitive to the exchange-correlation functionals used in DFT for ground-state structure relaxation. We investigated the influence of dynamical screening in the electron-hole interaction on exciton energies, which is found to be very pronounced for triplet excitons and has to be taken into account in first principles calculations. In the sexithiophene single crystal, the energy of the lowest triplet exciton is close to half the energy of the lowest singlet one. While lower-energy singlet and triplet excitons are intramolecular Frenkel excitons, higher-energy excitons are of intermolecular charge-transfer type. The calculated optical absorption spectra and Davydov splitting are in good agreement with experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leng, Xia; Yin, Huabing; Liang, Dongmei; Ma, Yuchen
2015-09-01
Organic semiconductors have promising and broad applications in optoelectronics. Understanding their electronic excited states is important to help us control their spectroscopic properties and performance of devices. There have been a large amount of experimental investigations on spectroscopies of organic semiconductors, but theoretical calculation from first principles on this respect is still limited. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) and many-body Green's function theory, which includes the GW method and Bethe-Salpeter equation, to study the electronic excited-state properties and spectroscopies of one prototypical organic semiconductor, sexithiophene. The exciton energies of sexithiophene in both the gas and bulk crystalline phases are very sensitive to the exchange-correlation functionals used in DFT for ground-state structure relaxation. We investigated the influence of dynamical screening in the electron-hole interaction on exciton energies, which is found to be very pronounced for triplet excitons and has to be taken into account in first principles calculations. In the sexithiophene single crystal, the energy of the lowest triplet exciton is close to half the energy of the lowest singlet one. While lower-energy singlet and triplet excitons are intramolecular Frenkel excitons, higher-energy excitons are of intermolecular charge-transfer type. The calculated optical absorption spectra and Davydov splitting are in good agreement with experiments.
First-Principles Investigation of Electronic Excitation Dynamics in Water under Proton Irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reeves, Kyle; Kanai, Yosuke
2015-03-01
A predictive and quantitative understanding of electronic excitation dynamics in water under proton irradiation is of great importance in many technological areas ranging from utilizing proton beam therapy to preventing nuclear reactor damages. Despite its importance, an atomistic description of the excitation mechanism has yet to be fully understood. Identifying how a high-energy proton dissipates its kinetic energy into the electronic excitation is crucial for predicting atomistic damages, later resulting in the formation of different chemical species. In this work, we use our new, large-scale first-principles Ehrenfest dynamics method based on real-time time-dependent density functional theory to simulate the electronic response of bulk water to a fast-moving proton. In particular, we will discuss the topological nature of the electronic excitation as a function of the proton velocity. We will employ maximally-localized functions to bridge our quantitative findings from first-principles simulations to a conceptual understanding in the field of water radiolysis.
First-principles equation of state and electronic properties of warm dense oxygen.
Driver, K P; Soubiran, F; Zhang, Shuai; Militzer, B
2015-10-28
We perform all-electron path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to explore warm dense matter states of oxygen. Our simulations cover a wide density-temperature range of 1-100 g cm(-3) and 10(4)-10(9) K. By combining results from PIMC and DFT-MD, we are able to compute pressures and internal energies from first-principles at all temperatures and provide a coherent equation of state. We compare our first-principles calculations with analytic equations of state, which tend to agree for temperatures above 8 × 10(6) K. Pair-correlation functions and the electronic density of states reveal an evolving plasma structure and ionization process that is driven by temperature and density. As we increase the density at constant temperature, we find that the ionization fraction of the 1s state decreases while the other electronic states move towards the continuum. Finally, the computed shock Hugoniot curves show an increase in compression as the first and second shells are ionized.
Guan, Zhaoyong; Si, Chen; Hu, Shuanglin; Duan, Wenhui
2016-04-28
Based on first-principles calculations, we present the electronic and magnetic properties of a class of line defect-embedded zigzag graphene nanoribbons, with one edge saturated by two hydrogen atoms per carbon atom and the other edge terminated by only one hydrogen atom. Such edge-modified nanoribbons without line defects are found to be typical bipolar magnetic semiconductors (BMS). In contrast, when the line defect is introduced into the ribbons, the ground state is ferromagnetic, and the resulting nanoribbons can be tuned to spin-polarized metal, metal with Dirac point, or half-metal by varying the position of the line defect, owing to the defect-induced self-doping of the BMS. Specifically, when the line defect is far away from the edges of the ribbon, the system shows half-metallicity. We further confirm the structural and magnetic stability at room temperature by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings reveal the possibility of building metal-free electronic/spintronic devices with magnetic/half-metallic graphene nanoribbons.
Crystalline and liquid Si3 N4 characterization by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauri, Aurelio; Celino, Massimo; Castellani, Niccoló; Erbetta, Davide
2011-05-01
Silicon nitride (Si3 N4) has a wide range of engineering applications where its mechanical and electronic properties can be effectively exploited. In particular, in the microelectronics field, the amorphous silicon nitride films are widely used as charge storage layer in metal-alumina-nitrideoxide nonvolatile memory devices. Atomic structure of amorphous silicon nitride is characterized by an high concentration of traps that control the electric behavior of the final device by the trappingde-trapping mechanism of the electrical charge occurring in its traps. In order to have a deep understanding of the material properties and, in particular, the nature of the electrical active traps a detailed numerical characterization of the crystalline and liquid phases is mandatory. For these reasons first-principles molecular dynamics simulations are extensively employed to simulate the crystalline Si3 N4 in its crystalline and liquid phases. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained in terms of density and formation entalpy. Detailed characterization of c-Si3 N4 electronic properties is performed in terms of band structure and band gap. Then constant temperature and constant volume first-principles molecular dynamics is used to disorder a stoichiometric sample of Si3 N4 . Extensive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to obtain a reliable liquid sample whose atomic structure does not depend on the starting atomic configuration. Detailed characterization of the atomic structure is achieved in terms of radial distribution functions and total structure factor.
Implicit solvent model for linear-scaling first-principles electronic structure calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helal, Hatem H.; Payne, Mike; Mostofi, Arash A.
2009-03-01
Density functional theory (DFT) enables first-principles calculations that exhibit cubic scaling of the computational time required with respect to the number of atoms in the system. This presents an unavoidable difficulty when first-principles accuracy is needed for the study of large-scale biological systems. The ONETEP program reformulates DFT so that the required computational effort scales only linearly with system size, recently demonstrated for up to 32,000 atoms on 64 cores.ootnotetextN. D. M. Hine, P. D. Haynes, A. A. Mostofi, C.-K. Skylaris and M. C. Payne, submitted to J. Chem. Phys. (2008). Further complicating DFT based studies of biomolecular systems is the need for an accurate representation of the electrostatic environment. Rather than introducing explicit solvent molecules into the system, which would be computationally prohibitive, we present our recent efforts to integrate an implicit solvent modelootnotetextD. A. Scherlis et al., J. Chem. Phys. 124, 074103 (2006). with ONETEP in order to study systems in solution consisting of many thousands of atoms. We report preliminary results of our methodology with a study of the DNA nucleosome core particle.
First-principles study on dielectric function of isolated and bundled carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J. Y.; Liu, L. H.; Tan, J. Y.
2015-06-01
The dielectric function fundamentally determines the thermal radiative properties of nanomaterials. In this work, the first-principles method is applied to investigate the finite temperature dielectric function of isolated and bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes in the visible-ultraviolet spectral range without empirical models. The effects of diameter, intertube interactions and temperature on dielectric functions are discussed. The calculated extraordinary dielectric functions of four isolated (5,5), (6,6), (7,7) and (8,8) armchair nanotubes with different diameters are compared to study the diameter effect. It shows that the locations of absorption peaks of dielectric functions consistently shift to lower energy with increasing diameter. To analyze the influence of non-local intertube interactions, the dielectric functions of bundled (6,6) armchair nanotubes with varying intertube distance are calculated within the van der Waals theory. As nanotubes bundle together, the intertube interactions become strong and the absorption peaks enhance. The temperature effect is included into computing dielectric function of isolated (5,0) zigzag nanotubes via first-principles molecular dynamics method. It observes that the dominant absorption peak shifts to lower energy as temperature increases from 0 to 600 K. To interpret the temperature influence, the temperature perturbed density of states is presented.
Wang, Xiaoming; Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan
2016-08-21
This work aims at understanding solid-state energy conversion and transport in layered (van der Waals) heterostructures in contact with metallic electrodes via a first-principles approach. As an illustration, a graphene/phosphorene/graphene heterostructure in contact with gold electrodes is studied by using density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism. We show that for a monolayer phosphorene, quantum tunneling dominates the transport. By adding more phosphorene layers, one can switch from tunneling-dominated transport to thermionic-dominated transport, resulting in transporting more heat per charge carrier, thus, enhancing the cooling coefficient of performance. The use of layered van der Waals heterostructures has two advantages: (a) thermionic transport barriers can be tuned by changing the number of layers, and (b) thermal conductance across these non-covalent structures is very weak. The phonon thermal conductance of the present van der Waals heterostructure is found to be 4.1 MW m(-2) K(-1) which is one order of magnitude lower than the lowest value for that of covalently-bonded interfaces. The thermionic coefficient of performance for the proposed device is 18.5 at 600 K corresponding to an equivalent ZT of 0.13, which is significant for nanoscale devices. This study shows that layered van der Waals structures have great potential to be used as solid-state energy-conversion devices.
Huang, Zuocai; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Wei
2013-09-15
Pure zircon and scheelite LuVO{sub 4} were prepared by solid state reaction and high-pressure route, respectively. Structure, elastic constants, lattice dynamics and thermodynamics of LuVO{sub 4} polymorphs were studied by experiments and first principles calculation. Calculations here are in good agreement with the experimental results. The phonon dispersions of LuVO{sub 4} polymorphs were studied by the linear response method. The calculated phonon dispersions show that zircon and scheelite LuVO{sub 4} phases are dynamically stable. Raman-active frequencies were measured and assigned to different modes according to the calculations. The internal frequencies shift downward after phase transition from zircon to scheelite. Born effective charge tensors elements for both phases are analyzed. The finite temperature thermodynamic properties of LuVO{sub 4} polymorphs were calculated from the obtained phonon density of states by quasi-harmonic approach. - Graphical abstract: Lutetium orthovanadate polymorphs were synthesized by SSR and HP methods and their physical and chemical properties, including lattice dynamical properties, were determined by DFT calculations and experiments. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Pure zircon and scheelite LuVO{sub 4} polymorphs were synthesized by solid state reaction and high-pressure route. • Chemical and physical properties of LuVO4 polymorphs were studied by experiments and first principles calculation. • Raman-active frequencies were measured and assigned to different modes according to the calculations. • Lattice dynamics of polymorphs were discussed in details.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chunhua; Broido, David
2017-05-01
The thermal properties of three transition metal and rare-earth nitride compounds, ScN, YN, and LuN, have been studied using a first principles approach, in which a DFT +U treatment is guided by accurate hybrid functional calculations of electronic structure. The phonon dispersions for the three compounds show large longitudinal optic-transverse optic (LO-TO) splitting and soft TO modes. The resulting strong anharmonic scattering between acoustic and TO phonons reduces the lattice thermal conductivities, κL, of these compounds. The room temperature κL values of YN and LuN are more than an order of magnitude smaller than that found for the weakly polar III-V compound boron bismuth (350 W m-1K-1 ), in spite of the latter having much larger average atomic mass and smaller acoustic phonon velocities. This paper demonstrates the utility of first principles calculations in understanding the thermal properties of materials, and it highlights the importance of optic phonons in reducing κL.
Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro
2015-08-01
Alkali-doped fullerides A 3C60 (A = K, Rb, Cs) are surprising materials where conventional phonon-mediated superconductivity and unconventional Mott physics meet, leading to a remarkable phase diagram as a function of volume per C60 molecule. We address these materials with a state-of-the-art calculation, where we construct a realistic low-energy model from first principles without using a priori information other than the crystal structure and solve it with an accurate many-body theory. Remarkably, our scheme comprehensively reproduces the experimental phase diagram including the low-spin Mott-insulating phase next to the superconducting phase. More remarkably, the critical temperatures T c's calculated from first principles quantitatively reproduce the experimental values. The driving force behind the surprising phase diagram of A 3C60 is a subtle competition between Hund's coupling and Jahn-Teller phonons, which leads to an effectively inverted Hund's coupling. Our results establish that the fullerides are the first members of a novel class of molecular superconductors in which the multiorbital electronic correlations and phonons cooperate to reach high T c s-wave superconductivity.
First-principles prediction of the softening of the silicon shock Hugoniot curve
Hu, S. X.; Militzer, B.; Collins, L. A.; Driver, K. P.; Kress, J. D.
2016-09-15
Here, whock compression of silicon (Si) under extremely high pressures (>100 Mbar) was investigated by using two first-principles methods of orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD) and path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC). While pressures from the two methods agree very well, PIMC predicts a second compression maximum because of 1s electron ionization that is absent in OFMD calculations since Thomas–Fermi-based theories lack inner shell structure. The Kohn–Sham density functional theory is used to calculate the equation of state (EOS) of warm dense silicon for low-pressure loadings (P < 100 Mbar). Combining these first-principles EOS results, the principal Hugoniot curve of silicon for pressures varying from 0.80 Mbar to above ~10 Gbar was derived. We find that silicon is ~20% or more softer than what was predicted by EOS models based on the chemical picture of matter. Existing experimental data (P ≈ 1–2 Mbar) seem to indicate this softening behavior of Si, which calls for future strong-shock experiments (P > 10 Mbar) to benchmark our results.
Butler, W.H.; Zhang, X.G.; Nicholson, D.M.C.; MacLaren, J.M.
1995-12-31
We show that the Kubo formula can be used to calculate the nonlocal electrical conductivity of layered systems from first principles. We use the Layer Korringa Kohn Rostoker method to calculate the electronic structure and Green function of Co/Cu/Co trilayers within the local density approximation to density functional theory. This Green function is used to calculate the conductivity through the Kubo formula for both majority and minority spins and for alignment and anti-alignment of the Co moments on either side of the Cu spacer layer. This allows us to determine the giant magnetoresistance from first principles. We investigate three possibilities for the scattering in Co/Cu/Co: (1) equal electron lifetimes for Cu, majority spin Co, and minority spin Co, (2) equal electron lifetimes for majority and minority Co, weaker scattering in Cu and spin dependent interfacial scattering, (3) electron lifetimes for majority and minority spin cobalt proportional to their Fermi energy densities of states and spin dependent interfacial scattering.
First-Principles Study of Nuclear Quadruple Interaction of ^19F* and Binding in Solid Fluorine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, D. R.; Aryal, M. M.; Adhikari, N. P.; Badu, S. R.; Pink, R. H.; Scheicher, R. H.; Chow, Lee; Das, T. P.
2010-03-01
We have studied the binding energy (BE) and nuclear quadrupule interaction (NQI) parameters for the ^19F* excited nuclear state in solid fluorine as part of our investigation [1] of the properties of solid halogens using the first principles Hartree-Fock Cluster procedure combined with many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), implemented by the Gaussian set of programs. Our results show that Van der Waals interaction obtained from intermolecular electron correlation effects has dominant influence on the BE but negligible effect on the NQI parameters. For the latter, ourcalculated e^2qQ is 119.0MHz using for Q(19F*), the value of 0.072 *10-28m2 [2], and η, the asymmetry parameter, is essentially zero. The influence of rotational vibrational effects on e^2qQ is being investigated using a first-principles procedure [3] to bridge the small remaining difference with experiment (127.2 MHz) for e^2qQ [4]. [1] M.M. Aryal et al., Hyperfine Interact, 176, 51 (2007). [2] K.C.Mishra et al.,Phys. Rev.B25, 3389(1982). [3] N. Sahoo et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 913(1983) [4] H. Barfuss et al., Phys. Lett. 90A, 33(1982)
First Principles Modeling of the Growth of Crystalline Oxides on Silicon: The First Two Monolayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stocks, G. Malcolm; Moghadam, Nassrin; McKee, R. E.; Walker, F. J.; Chisholm, M. F.; Hafner, J.; Kresse, G.
2000-03-01
We present the results of first principles modeling of the hetroepitaxy of alkaline earth oxides on Si. Specifically we calculate the atomistic and electronic structure of the first two layers of growth appropriate to the recent experiments of McKee et al.( R.A. McKee et al., Phys. Rev. Letters, 81), 3014 (1998). in which SrTiO3 was successfully grown on the (100) surface of Si (Si-100). The calculations were performed using the first principles pseudo-potential package VASP(G. Kresse and J. Furthmüller, Phys. Rev. 55), 11 169 (1996). and supercell models of the surface structure. Starting atomic configurations were based on the structures proposed by McKee et al.. Optimization of the surface structure together with the four subsurface Si layers was performed. In the first stage, we obtain a stable structure for a SrSi2 monolayer on Si-100 (SrSi_2/Si-100). In the second stage, we obtain a stable structure for a SiO monolayer on SrSi_2/Si-100 (SiO/SrSi_2/Si-100). We comment on the electronic structure of the SrSi_2/Si-100 and SiO/SrSi_2/Si-100 surfaces in the light of recent experimental results.
Gaigeot, M-P
2009-07-30
First principle DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations are performed in order to bring new insights into the conformational dynamics of the alanine dipeptide analogue Ac-Ala-NHMe (with methyl group caps at the extremities) immersed in liquid water at ambient temperature. Two simulations have been run for a total of 100 ps, which allows for a relevant statistical sampling of the phase space, at the ab initio level. PII-beta equilibrium and (PII-beta)-alphaR conformational interconversions are obtained, without a free-energy barrier for the Phi angle and with a rather low barrier of 2-3 kcal/mol for the Psi angle, easily overcome from solute-solvent energy transfers. We furthermore give first insights into the rather strong zwitterionic character of the peptide bonds of the dipeptide when immersed in the liquid. The structural and zwitterionic properties extracted from first-principle dynamics in the liquid phase will be useful as benchmarks for force field developments.
Massively parallel first-principles simulation of electron dynamics in materials
Draeger, Erik W.; Andrade, Xavier; Gunnels, John A.; ...
2017-08-01
Here we present a highly scalable, parallel implementation of first-principles electron dynamics coupled with molecular dynamics (MD). By using optimized kernels, network topology aware communication, and by fully distributing all terms in the time-dependent Kohn–Sham equation, we demonstrate unprecedented time to solution for disordered aluminum systems of 2000 atoms (22,000 electrons) and 5400 atoms (59,400 electrons), with wall clock time as low as 7.5 s per MD time step. Despite a significant amount of non-local communication required in every iteration, we achieved excellent strong scaling and sustained performance on the Sequoia Blue Gene/Q supercomputer at LLNL. We obtained up tomore » 59% of the theoretical sustained peak performance on 16,384 nodes and performance of 8.75 Petaflop/s (43% of theoretical peak) on the full 98,304 node machine (1,572,864 cores). Lastly, scalable explicit electron dynamics allows for the study of phenomena beyond the reach of standard first-principles MD, in particular, materials subject to strong or rapid perturbations, such as pulsed electromagnetic radiation, particle irradiation, or strong electric currents.« less
First-principles approach to excitons in time-resolved and angle-resolved photoemission spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perfetto, E.; Sangalli, D.; Marini, A.; Stefanucci, G.
2016-12-01
In this work we put forward a first-principles approach and propose an accurate diagrammatic approximation to calculate the time-resolved (TR) and angle-resolved photoemission spectrum of systems with excitons. We also derive an alternative formula to the TR photocurrent which involves a single time-integral of the lesser Green's function. The diagrammatic approximation applies to the relaxed regime characterized by the presence of quasistationary excitons and vanishing polarization. The nonequilibrium self-energy diagrams are evaluated using excited Green's functions; since this is not standard, the analytic derivation is presented in detail. The final result is an expression for the lesser Green's function in terms of quantities that can all be calculated in a first-principles manner. The validity of the proposed theory is illustrated in a one-dimensional model system with a direct gap. We discuss possible scenarios and highlight some universal features of the exciton peaks. Our results indicate that the exciton dispersion can be observed in TR and angle-resolved photoemission.
Enzymatic Kinetic Isotope Effects from First-Principles Path Sampling Calculations.
Varga, Matthew J; Schwartz, Steven D
2016-04-12
In this study, we develop and test a method to determine the rate of particle transfer and kinetic isotope effects in enzymatic reactions, specifically yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), from first-principles. Transition path sampling (TPS) and normal mode centroid dynamics (CMD) are used to simulate these enzymatic reactions without knowledge of their reaction coordinates and with the inclusion of quantum effects, such as zero-point energy and tunneling, on the transferring particle. Though previous studies have used TPS to calculate reaction rate constants in various model and real systems, it has not been applied to a system as large as YADH. The calculated primary H/D kinetic isotope effect agrees with previously reported experimental results, within experimental error. The kinetic isotope effects calculated with this method correspond to the kinetic isotope effect of the transfer event itself. The results reported here show that the kinetic isotope effects calculated from first-principles, purely for barrier passage, can be used to predict experimental kinetic isotope effects in enzymatic systems.
First-principles equation of state and electronic properties of warm dense oxygen
Driver, K. P. Soubiran, F.; Zhang, Shuai; Militzer, B.
2015-10-28
We perform all-electron path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to explore warm dense matter states of oxygen. Our simulations cover a wide density-temperature range of 1–100 g cm{sup −3} and 10{sup 4}–10{sup 9} K. By combining results from PIMC and DFT-MD, we are able to compute pressures and internal energies from first-principles at all temperatures and provide a coherent equation of state. We compare our first-principles calculations with analytic equations of state, which tend to agree for temperatures above 8 × 10{sup 6} K. Pair-correlation functions and the electronic density of states reveal an evolving plasma structure and ionization process that is driven by temperature and density. As we increase the density at constant temperature, we find that the ionization fraction of the 1s state decreases while the other electronic states move towards the continuum. Finally, the computed shock Hugoniot curves show an increase in compression as the first and second shells are ionized.
First-principles electrostatic potentials for reliable alignment at interfaces and defects.
Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Ping, Yuan
2017-03-14
The alignment of electrostatic potential between different atomic configurations is necessary for first-principles calculations of band offsets across interfaces and formation energies of charged defects. However, strong oscillations of this potential at the atomic scale make alignment challenging, especially when atomic geometries change considerably from bulk to the vicinity of defects and interfaces. We introduce a method to suppress these strong oscillations by eliminating the deep wells in the potential at each atom. We demonstrate that this method considerably improves the system-size convergence of a wide range of first-principles predictions that depend on the alignment of electrostatic potentials, including band offsets at solid-liquid interfaces, and formation energies of charged vacancies in solids and at solid surfaces in vacuum. Finally, we use this method in conjunction with continuum solvation theories to investigate energetics of charged vacancies at solid-liquid interfaces. We find that for the example of an NaCl (001) surface in water, solvation reduces the formation energy of charged vacancies by 0.5 eV: calculation of this important effect was previously impractical due to the computational cost in molecular-dynamics methods.
First-principles prediction of the softening of the silicon shock Hugoniot curve
Hu, S. X.; Militzer, B.; Collins, L. A.; Driver, K. P.; Kress, J. D.
2016-09-15
Here, whock compression of silicon (Si) under extremely high pressures (>100 Mbar) was investigated by using two first-principles methods of orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD) and path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC). While pressures from the two methods agree very well, PIMC predicts a second compression maximum because of 1s electron ionization that is absent in OFMD calculations since Thomas–Fermi-based theories lack inner shell structure. The Kohn–Sham density functional theory is used to calculate the equation of state (EOS) of warm dense silicon for low-pressure loadings (P < 100 Mbar). Combining these first-principles EOS results, the principal Hugoniot curve of silicon for pressures varying from 0.80 Mbar to above ~10 Gbar was derived. We find that silicon is ~20% or more softer than what was predicted by EOS models based on the chemical picture of matter. Existing experimental data (P ≈ 1–2 Mbar) seem to indicate this softening behavior of Si, which calls for future strong-shock experiments (P > 10 Mbar) to benchmark our results.
Electronic stopping of slow H and He atoms in gold from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahsan Zeb, M.; Kohanoff, Jorge; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Juaristi, J. I.; Artacho, Emilio
2012-02-01
In spite of a long history, the quantitative understanding of non-adiabatic processes in condensed matter and our ability to perform predictive theoretical simulations of processes coupling many adiabatic energy surfaces is very much behind what accomplished for adiabatic situations, for which first-principles calculations provide predictions of varied properties within a few percent accuracy. We will present here high-accuracy results for the electronic stopping power of H and He moving through gold, using time-evolving density-functional theory, thereby conveying usual first-principles accuracies to strongly coupled, continuum non-adiabatic processes in condensed matter. The two key unexplained features of what observed experimentally have been reproduced and understood: (i) The non-linear behavior of stopping power versus velocity is a gradual crossover as excitations tail into the d-electron spectrum; and (ii) the higher stopping for He than for H at low velocities is explained by the substantial involvement of the d electrons in the screening of the projectile even at the lowest velocities where the energy loss is generated by s-like electron-hole pair formation only.
First-Principles Investigations of Oxygen Vacancies on SnO2 Nanofilms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cellucci, Daniel; Lewis, Steven
2012-02-01
In recent years multiple critical advances in nanofabrication have allowed for the well-controlled formation of nanocrystals of the n-type semiconductor tin oxide (SnO2). Because gas sensing in SnO2 involves changes in surface resistivity as a function of gas concentration, the high surface-to volume ratio of SnO2 nanocrystals could be leveraged to produce a gas sensor with significantly enhanced sensitivity. A key feature of the sensing mechanism is the facile formation and destruction of oxygen vacancies at (or near) the surface. In this talk I will discuss our ongoing first-principles investigations of surface oxygen vacancies in SnO2 nanofilms. We have focused on vacancy formation among the so-called bridging oxygen atoms on the (110) surface of rutile SnO2 as a function of vacancy concentration and film thickness and have studied the effect on local atomic and electronic structure. From a set of first-principles Density Functional Theory calculations on ordered vacancy structures, we have parametrized and tested a lattice-gas model describing vacancy-vacancy interactions. Using this model we have conducted extensive Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the oxygen vacancy phases on SnO2 (110) as a function of temperature and oxygen vapor pressure.
Spin-state transition induced half metallicity in a cobaltate from first principles
Ou, Xuedong; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wang, Hongbo; Wu, Hua
2016-02-29
Half metal is a promising spintronic material. Here, we explore, using first principles calculations, a spin-state transition induced half metallicity in a layered cobaltate via a physical or chemical pressure. Our exemplary first principles study shows that the layered cobaltate Sr{sub 2}CoO{sub 3}F would undergo a transition, under a pressure of 5.4 GPa, from a high-spin antiferromagnetic insulator to an intermediate-spin ferromagnetic half-metal. The former phase is associated with a superexchange in a Mott insulator, and the latter one is due to a broad band formation and a kinetic energy gain of the partially occupied e{sub g} orbital. Note that the above transition could also be induced by a chemical pressure via doping in (Sr{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}){sub 2}CoO{sub 3}F (x > 0.3). This work suggests that a cobaltate would be of a particular interest if stabilized into an intermediate-spin state.
Roy, Tapta Kanchan; Sharma, Rahul; Gerber, R Benny
2016-01-21
First-principles quantum calculations for anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy of three protected dipeptides are carried out and compared with experimental data. Using hybrid HF/MP2 potentials, the Vibrational Self-Consistent Field with Second-Order Perturbation Correction (VSCF-PT2) algorithm is used to compute the spectra without any ad hoc scaling or fitting. All of the vibrational modes (135 for the largest system) are treated quantum mechanically and anharmonically using full pair-wise coupling potentials to represent the interaction between different modes. In the hybrid potential scheme the MP2 method is used for the harmonic part of the potential and a modified HF method is used for the anharmonic part. The overall agreement between computed spectra and experiment is very good and reveals different signatures for different conformers. This study shows that first-principles spectroscopic calculations of good accuracy are possible for dipeptides hence it opens possibilities for determination of dipeptide conformer structures by comparison of spectroscopic calculations with experiment.
Design and Properties Prediction of AMCO3F by First-Principles Calculations.
Tian, Meng; Gao, Yurui; Ouyang, Chuying; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan
2017-04-19
Computer simulation accelerates the rate of identification and application of new materials. To search for new materials to meet the increasing demands of secondary batteries with higher energy density, the properties of some transition-metal fluorocarbonates ([CO3F](3-)) were simulated in this work as cathode materials for Li- and Na-ion batteries based on first-principles calculations. These materials were designed by substituting the K(+) ions in KCuCO3F with Li(+) or Na(+) ions and the Cu(2+) ions with transition-metal ions such as Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Mn(2+) ions, respectively. The phase stability, electronic conductivity, ionic diffusion, and electrochemical potential of these materials were calculated by first-principles calculations. After taking comprehensive consideration of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties, LiCoCO3F and LiFeCO3F are believed to be promising novel cathode materials in all of the calculated AMCO3F (A = Li and Na; M = Fe, Mn, Co, and Ni). These results will help the design and discovery of new materials for secondary batteries.
First-Principles Modeling of Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Systems
J. Karl Johnson
2011-05-20
The objective of this project is to complement experimental efforts of MHoCE partners by using state-of-the-art theory and modeling to study the structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics of hydrogen storage materials. Specific goals include prediction of the heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties of alloys from first principles methods, identification of new alloys that can be tested experimentally, calculation of surface and energetic properties of nanoparticles, and calculation of kinetics involved with hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. Discovery of new metal hydrides with enhanced properties compared with existing materials is a critical need for the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. New materials discovery can be aided by the use of first principles (ab initio) computational modeling in two ways: (1) The properties, including mechanisms, of existing materials can be better elucidated through a combined modeling/experimental approach. (2) The thermodynamic properties of novel materials that have not been made can, in many cases, be quickly screened with ab initio methods. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to explore millions of possible reaction conditions consisting of different element spaces, compositions, and temperatures. We have identified potentially promising single- and multi-step reactions that can be explored experimentally.
Anisotropic intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity of borophane from first-principles calculations.
Liu, Gang; Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Yan; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Hui
2017-01-25
Borophene (boron sheet) as a new type of two-dimensional (2D) material was grown successfully recently. Unfortunately, the structural stability of freestanding borophene is still an open issue. Theoretical research has found that full hydrogenation can remove such instability, and the product is called borophane. In this paper, using first-principles calculations we investigate the lattice dynamics and thermal transport properties of borophane. The intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity and the relaxation time of borophane are investigated by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first-principles calculations. We find that the intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity of borophane is anisotropic, as the higher value (along the zigzag direction) is about two times of the lower one (along the armchair direction). The contributions of phonon branches to the lattice thermal conductivities along different directions are evaluated. It is found that both the anisotropy of thermal conductivity and the different phonon branches which dominate the thermal transport along different directions are decided by the group velocity and the relaxation time of phonons with very low frequency. In addition, the size dependence of thermal conductivity is investigated using cumulative thermal conductivity. The underlying physical mechanisms of these unique properties are also discussed in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.
2015-10-01
Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. With first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ =0.1 to 100 g /cm3 and T =1000 to 4 000 000 K ). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ˜30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ˜5% reduction in implosion velocity that is caused by the ˜10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered light from ICF implosions.
First-principles prediction of the softening of the silicon shock Hugoniot curve
Hu, S. X.; Militzer, B.; Collins, L. A.; ...
2016-09-15
Here, whock compression of silicon (Si) under extremely high pressures (>100 Mbar) was investigated by using two first-principles methods of orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD) and path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC). While pressures from the two methods agree very well, PIMC predicts a second compression maximum because of 1s electron ionization that is absent in OFMD calculations since Thomas–Fermi-based theories lack inner shell structure. The Kohn–Sham density functional theory is used to calculate the equation of state (EOS) of warm dense silicon for low-pressure loadings (P < 100 Mbar). Combining these first-principles EOS results, the principal Hugoniot curve of silicon formore » pressures varying from 0.80 Mbar to above ~10 Gbar was derived. We find that silicon is ~20% or more softer than what was predicted by EOS models based on the chemical picture of matter. Existing experimental data (P ≈ 1–2 Mbar) seem to indicate this softening behavior of Si, which calls for future strong-shock experiments (P > 10 Mbar) to benchmark our results.« less
Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.
2015-10-14
Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm^{3} and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.
Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Goncharov, V N; Kress, J D; McCrory, R L; Skupsky, S
2015-10-01
Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. With first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ=0.1to100g/cm(3) and T=1000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ∼30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ∼5% reduction in implosion velocity that is caused by the ∼10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered light from ICF implosions.
Niu, J. G.; Zhan, Q.; Geng, W. T.
2014-06-15
Despite well documented first-principles theoretical determination of the low migration energy (0.06 eV) of a single He in tungsten, fully quantum mechanical calculations on the migration of a He pair still present a challenge due to the complexity of its trajectory. By identifying the six most stable configurations of the He pair in W and decomposing its motion into rotational, translational, and rotational-translational routines, we are able to determine its migration barrier and trajectory. Our density functional theory calculations demonstrate a He pair has three modes of motion: a close or open circular two-dimensional motion in (100) plane with an energy barrier of 0.30 eV, a snaking motion along [001] direction with a barrier of 0.30 eV, and a twisted-ladder motion along [010] direction with the two He swinging in the plane (100) and a barrier of 0.31 eV. The graceful associative movements of a He pair are related to the chemical-bonding-like He-He interaction being much stronger than its migration barrier in W. The excellent agreement with available experimental measurements (0.24–0.32 eV) on He migration makes our first-principles result a solid input to obtain accurate He-W interatomic potentials in molecular dynamics simulations.
An efficient method for computing high PT elascticity by first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Z.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.
2007-12-01
First principles quasiharmonic (QHA) free energy computations play a very important role in mineral physics because they can predict accurately the structure and thermodynamic properties of materials at pressure and temperature conditions that are still challenging for experiments. They also enable calculations of thermoelastic properties by obtaining the second derivatives of the free energies with respect to Lagrangian strains. However, these are demanding computations requiring 100 to 1000 medium size jobs. Here we introduce and test an approximate method that requires only calculations of static elastic constants, phonon VDOS, and mode Gruneisen parameters for unstrained configurations. This approach is computationally efficient and decreases the computational time by more than one order of magnitude. The human workload is also reduced substantially. We test this approach by computing high PT elasticity of MgO and forsterite. We show one can obtain very good agreement with full first principles results and experimental data. Research supported by NSF/EAR, NSF/ITR (VLab), and MSI (U of MN)
Carbon impurity dissolution and migration in bcc Fe-Cr: First-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandberg, Nils; Henriksson, Krister O. E.; Wallenius, Jan
2008-09-01
First-principles density-functional theory calculations for C solution enthalpies, Hsol , and diffusion activation enthalpies, Hdiff , in body-centered-cubic Fe and Cr are presented. The results for C in Fe compare well with experiments, provided that the effect of magnetic disordering is accounted for. Likewise, in Cr, the calculated Hsol and Hdiff agree well with available experiments. In both materials, the deviation between calculated enthalpies and critically assessed experimental enthalpies are less than 0.05 eV. Further, first-principles calculations for the interaction energies between a solute (e.g., a Cr atom in bcc Fe) and an interstitial C atom are presented. The results are in conflict with those inferred from internal friction (IF) experiments in disordered Fe-Cr-C alloys. A simple model of C relaxation in disordered Fe-Cr is used to compare theoretical and experimental IF curves directly. The results suggest that a more extensive study of the energetic, thermodynamic, and kinetic aspects of C migration in Fe-Cr is needed.
Development of metal tungstate alloys for photoelectrochemical water splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasher, D.; Chong, M.; Chang, Y.; Sarker, P.; Huda, M. N.; Gaillard, N.
2013-09-01
In the present paper, we report our efforts on the development of metal tungstate alloys for efficient and economical photoelectrochemical water splitting. As suggested by density functional theory (DFT), the addition of copper to the host tungsten trioxide improves the visible light absorption. Past studies at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute have demonstrated that water splitting with co-sputtered and spray-deposited CuWO4 with 2.2 eV band gap was feasible, although the efficiency of the process was severely limited by charge carrier recombination. Density functional theory calculation showed that CuWO4 contains unfilled mid-gap states and high electron effective mass. To improve transport properties of CuWO4, we hypothesized that copper tungstate (CuWO4) hollow nanospheres could improve holes transfer to the electrolyte and reduce recombination, improving the water splitting efficiency. Nanospheres were synthesized by sonochemical technique in which the precursors used were copper acetate, ammonium meta-tungstate and thiourea (used as a fuel to complete the reaction). All chemicals undergo a high-energy sonication by using ethylene glycol as a solvent. Preliminary linear scan voltammetry (LSV) performed for annealed CuWO4 under front side and back side simulated AM-1.5 illumination demonstrated that the CuWO4 hollow nanospheres were photoactive. Subsequent scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy studies revealed the clear formation of nano sized hollow spherical shaped CuWO4 particles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a clear formation of triclinic CuWO4 structure during the sonochemical process.
First-principles theory, coarse-grained models, and simulations of ferroelectrics.
Waghmare, Umesh V
2014-11-18
CONSPECTUS: A ferroelectric crystal exhibits macroscopic electric dipole or polarization arising from spontaneous ordering of its atomic-scale dipoles that breaks inversion symmetry. Changes in applied pressure or electric field generate changes in electric polarization in a ferroelectric, defining its piezoelectric and dielectric properties, respectively, which make it useful as an electromechanical sensor and actuator in a number of applications. In addition, a characteristic of a ferroelectric is the presence of domains or states with different symmetry equivalent orientations of spontaneous polarization that are switchable with large enough applied electric field, a nonlinear property that makes it useful for applications in nonvolatile memory devices. Central to these properties of a ferroelectric are the phase transitions it undergoes as a function of temperature that involve lowering of the symmetry of its high temperature centrosymmetric paraelectric phase. Ferroelectricity arises from a delicate balance between short and long-range interatomic interactions, and hence the resulting properties are quite sensitive to chemistry, strains, and electric charges associated with its interface with substrate and electrodes. First-principles density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations have been very effective in capturing this and predicting material and environment specific properties of ferroelectrics, leading to fundamental insights into origins of ferroelectricity in oxides and chalcogenides uncovering a precise picture of electronic hybridization, topology, and mechanisms. However, use of DFT in molecular dynamics for detailed prediction of ferroelectric phase transitions and associated temperature dependent properties has been limited due to large length and time scales of the processes involved. To this end, it is quite appealing to start with input from DFT calculations and construct material-specific models that are realistic yet simple for use in
First-principles computation of mantle materials in crystalline and amorphous phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karki, Bijaya B.
2015-03-01
First-principles methods based on density functional theory are used extensively in the investigation of the behavior and properties of mantle materials over broad ranges of pressure, temperature, and composition that are relevant. A review of computational results reported during the last couple of decades shows that essentially all properties including structure, phase transition, equation of state, thermodynamics, elasticity, alloying, conductivity, defects, interfaces, diffusivity, viscosity, and melting have been calculated from first principles. Using MgO, the second most abundant oxide of Earth's mantle, as a primary example and considering many other mantle materials in their crystalline and amorphous phases, we have found that most properties are strongly pressure dependent, sometimes varying non-monotonically and anomalously, with the effects of temperature being systematically suppressed with compression. The overall agreement with the available experimental data is excellent; it is remarkable that the early-calculated results such as shear wave velocities of two key phases, MgO and MgSiO3 perovskite, were subsequently reproduced by experimentation covering almost the entire mantle pressure regime. As covered in some detail, the defect formation and migration enthalpies of key mantle materials increase with pressure. The predicted trend is that partial MgO Schottky defects are energetically most favorable in Mg-silicates but their formation enthalpies are high. So, the diffusion in the mantle is likely to be in the extrinsic regime. Preliminary results on MgO and forsterite hint that the grain boundaries can accommodate point defects (including impurities) and enhance diffusion rates at all pressures. The structures are highly distorted in the close vicinity of the defects and at the interface with excess space. Recent simulations of MgO-SiO2 binary and other silicate melts have found that the melt self-diffusion and viscosity vary by several orders of
Effect of stacking faults on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of hcp Co: a first-principles study.
Aas, C J; Szunyogh, L; Evans, R F L; Chantrell, R W
2013-07-24
In terms of the fully relativistic screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method we investigate the effect of stacking faults on the magnetic properties of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) cobalt. In particular, we consider the formation energy and the effect on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of four different stacking faults in hcp cobalt-an intrinsic growth fault, an intrinsic deformation fault, an extrinsic fault and a twin-like fault. We find that the intrinsic growth fault has the lowest formation energy, in good agreement with previous first-principles calculations. With the exception of the intrinsic deformation fault which has a positive impact on the MAE, we find that the presence of a stacking fault generally reduces the MAE of bulk Co. Finally, we consider a pair of intrinsic growth faults and find that their effect on the MAE is not additive, but synergic.
Real-time capable first principle based modelling of tokamak turbulent transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Citrin, J.; Breton, S.; Felici, F.; Imbeaux, F.; Aniel, T.; Artaud, J. F.; Baiocchi, B.; Bourdelle, C.; Camenen, Y.; Garcia, J.
2015-09-01
A real-time capable core turbulence tokamak transport model is developed. This model is constructed from the regularized nonlinear regression of quasilinear gyrokinetic transport code output. The regression is performed with a multilayer perceptron neural network. The transport code input for the neural network training set consists of five dimensions, and is limited to adiabatic electrons. The neural network model successfully reproduces transport fluxes predicted by the original quasilinear model, while gaining five orders of magnitude in computation time. The model is implemented in a real-time capable tokamak simulator, and simulates a 300 s ITER discharge in 10 s. This proof-of-principle for regression based transport models anticipates a significant widening of input space dimensionality and physics realism for future training sets. This aims to provide unprecedented computational speed coupled with first-principle based physics for real-time control and integrated modelling applications.
First-principles study of the effect of phosphorus on nickel grain boundary
Liu, Wenguan; Ren, Cuilan; Han, Han E-mail: xuhongjie@sinap.ac.cn; Zou, Yang; Zhou, Xingtai; Huai, Ping; Xu, Hongjie E-mail: xuhongjie@sinap.ac.cn; Tan, Jie
2014-01-28
Based on first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations, the impurity-dopant effects of phosphorus on Σ5(012) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in nickel have been studied. The calculated binding energy suggests that phosphorus has a strong tendency to segregate to the grain boundary. Phosphorus forms strong and covalent-like bonding with nickel, which is beneficial to the grain boundary cohesion. However, a too high phosphorus content can result in a thin and fragile zone in the grain boundary, due to the repulsion between phosphorus atoms. As the concentration of phosphorus increases, the strength of the grain boundary increases first and then decreases. Obviously, there exists an optimum concentration for phosphorus segregation, which is consistent with observed segregation behaviors of phosphorus in the grain boundary of nickel. This work is very helpful to understand the comprehensive effects of phosphorus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oses, Corey; Yang, Kesong; Curtarolo, Stefano; Duke Univ Collaboration; UC San Diego Collaboration
Predicting material properties of disordered systems remains a long-standing and formidable challenge in rational materials design. To address this issue, we introduce an automated software framework capable of modeling partial occupation within disordered materials using a high-throughput (HT) first principles approach. At the heart of the approach is the construction of supercells containing a virtually equivalent stoichiometry to the disordered material. All unique supercell permutations are enumerated and material properties of each are determined via HT electronic structure calculations. In accordance with a canonical ensemble of supercell states, the framework evaluates ensemble average properties of the system as a function of temperature. As proof of concept, we examine the framework's final calculated properties of a zinc chalcogenide (ZnS1-xSex), a wide-gap oxide semiconductor (MgxZn1-xO), and an iron alloy (Fe1-xCux) at various stoichiometries.
First-principles study of liquid gallium at ambient and high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jianjun; Tse, John S.; Iitaka, Toshiaki
2011-07-01
The static and dynamic properties of liquid Ga close to the melting line have been studied by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations at ambient and elevated pressure up to 5.8 GPa. Below 2.5 GPa, the nearest neighbor Ga-Ga separation shows little change, while the second and third coordination shells are compressed to shorter distances. This behavior is attributed to the gradual occupation of the interstitial sites. Detail analysis of the local geometry and dynamical behavior refutes the proposed existence of Ga2 dimers in the liquid state. In fact, both the structure and electronic properties of the liquid are found to closely resemble that of the underlying Ga-II and Ga-III crystalline phases.
First-principles study of Co3(Al,W) alloys using special quasirandom structures
Jiang, Chao
2008-01-01
We have developed 32-atom special quasi-random structures (SQSs) to model the substitutionally random pseudo-binary A3(B0.5C0.5) alloys in L12, D019, and D03 crystal structures, respectively. First-principles SQS calculations are performed to examine the phase stability of the recently identified L12-Co3Al0.5W0.5 compound in the Co-Al-W ternary system. By computing total energy as a function of applied strain, the single-crystal elastic constants of L12-Co3Al0.5W0.5 are also predicted and our results show excellent agreement with recent experimental measurements.
Mn monolayer modified Rh for syngas-to-ethanol conversion: a first-principles study.
Li, Fengyu; Jiang, De-en; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Chen, Zhongfang
2012-02-21
Rh is unique in its ability to convert syngas to ethanol with the help of promoters. We performed systematic first-principles computations to examine the catalytic performance of pure and Mn modified Rh(100) surfaces for ethanol formation from syngas. CO dissociation on the surface as well as CO insertion between the chemisorbed CH(3) and the surface are the two key steps. The CO dissociation barrier on the Mn monolayer modified Rh(100) surface is remarkably lowered by ~1.5 eV compared to that on Rh(100). Moreover, the reaction barrier of CO insertion into the chemisorbed CH(3) group on the Mn monolayer modified Rh(100) surface is 0.34 eV lower than that of methane formation. Thus the present work provides new mechanistic insight into the role of Mn promoters in improving Rh's selectivity to convert syngas to ethanol. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012
Unzipping carbon nanotubes into nanoribbons upon oxidation: a first-principles study.
Li, Feng; Kan, Erjun; Lu, Ruifeng; Xiao, Chuanyun; Deng, Kaiming; Su, Haibin
2012-02-21
First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the unzipping mechanism of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into narrow graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) upon oxidation. By treating possible adsorptive structures, we found that, upon further oxidation, epoxy pairs tear the CNT up with an initial energy barrier of 0.59 eV (armchair) and 0.60 eV (zigzag), and the following steps of unzipping CNT become much easier because of the stress induced by the carbonyl pair. However, for zigzag CNTS, the unzipped edge structures of nanoribbons cannot be controlled, because of the similar stability of different oxidation process, which means zigzag CNTs should be avoided in producing high-quality GNRs. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012
First principles study of crystal Si-doped Ge2Sb2Te5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Beibei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Tian; Wang, Minglei; Chang, Hong; Ke, Daoming; Dai, Yuehua
2017-02-01
Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and Si-doped GST with hexagonal structure were investigated by means of First-principles calcucations. We performed many kinds of doping types and studied the electronic properties of Si-doped GST with various Si concentrations. The theoretical calculations show that the lowest formation energy appeared when Si atoms substitute the Sb atoms (SiSb). With the increasing of Si concentrations from 10% to 30%, the impurity states arise around the Fermi level and the band gap of the SiSb structure broadens. Meanwhile, the doping supercell has the most favorable structure when the doping concentration keeps in 20%. The Si-doped GST exhibits p-type metallic characteristics more distinctly owing to the Fermi level moves toward the valence band. The Te p, d-orbitals electrons have greater impact on electronic properties than that of Te s-orbitals.
First-Principles Study for Thermodynamic Properties of Solid {KNO}2 System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Qiang; Ding, Jing; Wei, Xiaolan; Jiang, Gan; Yang, Xiaoxi
2015-11-01
To enable us better understand the performance of molten salt energy storage in a solar thermal power system, thermodynamic properties of the solid {KNO}2 system at ambient pressure and temperatures between 0 K and 711 K are determined by first-principles simulation based on density functional perturbation theory calculations with plane waves and pseudopotentials. Thermodynamic parameters of the Debye temperature, specific heat capacity at constant volume, phonon transfer speed, phonon mean free path, and phonon thermal conductivity as a function of temperature are estimated. The results show that the calculated phonon thermal conductivity is in good agreement with experimental values, but the calculated specific heat capacity at constant volume is lower than measured values. The isometric specific heat capacity of {KNO}2 is 75.03 {J}{\\cdot }{mol}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1}, and the phonon thermal conductivity is 2.37 {W}{\\cdot }{m}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} at ambient temperature.
Corrosion Thermodynamics of Magnesium and Alloys from First Principles as a Function of Solvation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limmer, Krista; Williams, Kristen; Andzelm, Jan
Thermodynamics of corrosion processes occurring on magnesium surfaces, such as hydrogen evolution and water dissociation, have been examined with density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate the effect of impurities and dilute alloying additions. The modeling of corrosion thermodynamics requires examination of species in a variety of chemical and electronic states in order to accurately represent the complex electrochemical corrosion process. In this study, DFT calculations for magnesium corrosion thermodynamics were performed with two DFT codes (VASP and DMol3), with multiple exchange-correlation functionals for chemical accuracy, as well as with various levels of implicit and explicit solvation for surfaces and solvated ions. The accuracy of the first principles calculations has been validated against Pourbaix diagrams constructed from solid, gas and solvated charged ion calculations. For aqueous corrosion, it is shown that a well parameterized implicit solvent is capable of accurately representing all but the first coordinating layer of explicit water for charged ions.
First-principles calculations reveal controlling principles for carrier mobilities in semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yu-Ning; Zhang, X.-G.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.
2016-11-01
Carrier mobilities remain a key qualifying factor for materials competing for next-generation electronics. It has long been believed that carrier mobilities can be calculated using the Born approximation. Here, we introduce a parameter-free, first-principles approach based on complex-wavevector energy bands which does not invoke the Born expansion. We demonstrate that phonon-limited mobility is controlled by low-resistivity percolation paths, which arise from fluctuations that are beyond the Born approximation. We further demonstrate that, in ionized-impurity scattering, one must account for the effect of the screening charge, which cancels most of the Coulomb tail. Calculated electron mobilities in silicon are in agreement with experimental data. The method is easy to use and can provide guidance in the search for high-mobility device designs.
Towards first-principles molecular design of liquid crystal-based chemoresponsive systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roling, Luke T.; Scaranto, Jessica; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Yu, Huaizhe; Choi, Sangwook; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Mavrikakis, Manos
2016-11-01
Nematic liquid crystals make promising chemoresponsive systems, but their development is currently limited by extensive experimental screening. Here we report a computational model to understand and predict orientational changes of surface-anchored nematic liquid crystals in response to chemical stimuli. In particular, we use first-principles calculations to evaluate the binding energies of benzonitrile, a model for 4'-pentyl-4-biphenylcarbonitrile, and dimethyl methylphosphonate to metal cation models representing the substrate chemical sensing surface. We find a correlation between these quantities and the experimental response time useful for predicting the response time of cation-liquid crystal combinations. Consideration of charge donation from chemical species in the surface environment is critical for obtaining agreement between theory and experiment. Our model may be extended to the design of improved chemoresponsive liquid crystals for selectively detecting other chemicals of practical interest by choosing appropriate combinations of metal cations with liquid crystals of suitable molecular structure.
First principles Peierls-Boltzmann phonon thermal transport: A topical review
Lindsay, Lucas
2016-08-05
The advent of coupled thermal transport calculations with interatomic forces derived from density functional theory has ushered in a new era of fundamental microscopic insight into lattice thermal conductivity. Subsequently, significant new understanding of phonon transport behavior has been developed with these methods, and because they are parameter free and successfully benchmarked against a variety of systems, they also provide reliable predictions of thermal transport in systems for which little is known. This topical review will describe the foundation from which first principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport equation methods have been developed, and briefly describe important necessary ingredients for accurate calculations. Sample highlights of reported work will be presented to illustrate the capabilities and challenges of these techniques, and to demonstrate the suite of tools available, with an emphasis on thermal transport in micro- and nano-scale systems. In conclusion, future challenges and opportunities will be discussed, drawing attention to prospects for methods development and applications.
First-principles study of roles of Cu and Cl in polycrystalline CdTe
Yang, Ji -Hui; Yin, Wan -Jian; Park, Ji -Sang; ...
2016-01-25
In this study, Cu and Cl treatments are important processes to achieve high efficiency polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells, thus it will be beneficial to understand the roles they play in both bulk CdTe and CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study Cu and Cl-related defects in bulk CdTe. We find that Cl has only a limited effect on improving p-type doping and too much Cl can induce deep traps in bulk CdTe, whereas Cu can enhance ptype doping of bulk CdTe. In the presence of GBs, we find that, in general, Cl and Cu willmore » prefer to stay at GBs, especially for those with Te-Te wrong bonds, in agreement with experimental observations.« less
First-principles study of roles of Cu and Cl in polycrystalline CdTe
Yang, Ji -Hui; Yin, Wan -Jian; Park, Ji -Sang; Metzger, Wyatt; Wei, Su -Huai
2016-01-25
In this study, Cu and Cl treatments are important processes to achieve high efficiency polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells, thus it will be beneficial to understand the roles they play in both bulk CdTe and CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study Cu and Cl-related defects in bulk CdTe. We find that Cl has only a limited effect on improving p-type doping and too much Cl can induce deep traps in bulk CdTe, whereas Cu can enhance ptype doping of bulk CdTe. In the presence of GBs, we find that, in general, Cl and Cu will prefer to stay at GBs, especially for those with Te-Te wrong bonds, in agreement with experimental observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, X. Y.; Qin, G. W.; Li, S.; Wen, X. H.; Ren, Y. P.; Pei, W. L.; Zuo, L.
2011-03-01
To improve photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity of hematite, the modification of energy band by doping 3d transition metal ions Cu and Ti into α-Fe2O3 were studied via the first-principles calculations with density function theory (DFT)+U method. The results show that the band gap of hematite is ˜2.1 eV and n-type dopant Ti improves the electric conductivity, confirmed by recent experiments. The p-type dopant Cu enhances the utilization ratio of solar energy, shifts both valance, and conduction band edges to a higher energy level, satisfying hydrogen production in the visible light driven PEC water splitting without voltage bias.
Structural and electronic properties of LaPd2As2 superconductor: First-principle calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Birender; Kumar, Pradeep
2017-05-01
In present work we have studied electronic and structural properties of superconducting LaPd2As2 compound having collapsed tetragonal structure using first-principle calculations. The band structure calculations show that the LaPd2As2 is metallic consistent with the reported experimental observation, and the density of states plots clearly shows that at the Fermi level major contribution to density of states arises from Pd 4d and As 4p states, unlike the Fe-based superconductors where major contribution at the Fermi level comes from Fe 3d states. The estimated value of electron-phonon coupling is found to be 0.37, which gives the upper bound of superconducting transition temperature of 5K, suggesting the conventional nature of this superconductor.
First-principles DFT +G W study of oxygen-doped CdTe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flores, Mauricio A.; Orellana, Walter; Menéndez-Proupin, Eduardo
2016-05-01
The role of oxygen doping in CdTe is addressed by first-principles calculations. Formation energies, charge transition levels, and quasiparticle defect states are calculated within the DFT+G W formalism. The formation of a new defect is identified, the (OTe-TeCd) complex.Thiscomplex is energetically favored over both isovalent (OTe) and interstitial oxygen (Oi), in the Te-rich limit. We find that the incorporation of oxygen passivates the harmful deep energy levels associated with (TeCd), suggesting an improvement in the efficiency of CdTe based solar cells. Substitutional (OCd) is only stable in the neutral charge state and undergoes a Jahn-Teller distortion. We also investigate the diffusion profiles of interstitial oxygen and find a low-energy diffusion barrier of only 0.14 eV between two structurally distinct interstitial sites.
Properties of amorphous GaN from first-principles simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, B.; Drabold, D. A.
2011-08-01
Amorphous GaN (a-GaN) models are obtained from first-principles simulations. We compare four a-GaN models generated by “melt-and-quench” and the computer alchemy method. We find that most atoms tend to be fourfold, and a chemically ordered continuous random network is the ideal structure for a-GaN albeit with some coordination defects. Where the electronic structure is concerned, the gap is predicted to be less than 1.0 eV, underestimated as usual by a density functional calculation. We observe a highly localized valence tail and a remarkably delocalized exponential conduction tail in all models generated. Based upon these results, we speculate on potential differences in n- and p-type doping. The structural origin of tail and defect states is discussed. The vibrational density of states and dielectric function are computed and seem consistent with experiment.
The structural and electronic properties of amorphous HgCdTe from first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Huxian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Jianping; Shu, Haibo; Lu, Wei
2014-01-01
Amorphous mercury cadmium telluride (a-MCT) model structures, with x being 0.125 and 0.25, are obtained from first-principles calculations. We generate initial structures by computation alchemy method. It is found that most atoms in the network of amorphous structures tend to be fourfold and form tetrahedral structures, implying that the chemical ordered continuous random network with some coordination defects is the ideal structure for a-MCT. The electronic structure is also concerned. The gap is found to be 0.30 and 0.26 eV for a-Hg0.875Cd0.125Te and a-Hg0.75Cd0.25Te model structures, independent of the composition. By comparing with the properties of crystalline MCT with the same composition, we observe a blue-shift of energy band gap. The localization of tail states and its atomic origin are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Weihua; Xiao, Heming
2007-12-01
A detailed first-principles study of the structural and vibrational properties of crystalline silver azide under hydrostatic pressure of 0-500 GPa has been performed with density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation. The crystal structure is relaxed to allow ionic configurations, cell shape, and volume to change without any symmetry constraints. It is found that the silver azide crystal remains orthorhombic structure with Ibam space group for pressures up to 7 GPa, where there is a transition to an I4 /mcm tetragonal symmetry. The lattice parameter and electronic structure are investigated as functions of pressure. The calculated vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure are in agreement with available experimental data. We also discuss the pressure-induced frequency shifts for the internal and lattice modes of silver azide crystal upon compression.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otsuka, Takao; Taiji, Makoto; Bowler, David R.; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi
2016-11-01
The recent progress of linear-scaling or O(N) methods in density functional theory (DFT) is remarkable. In this paper, we show that all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of complex biological systems based on DFT are now possible using our linear-scaling DFT code Conquest. We first overview the calculation methods used in Conquest and explain the method introduced recently to realise efficient and robust first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) with O(N) DFT. Then, we show that we can perform reliable all-atom FPMD simulations of a hydrated DNA model containing about 3400 atoms. We also report that the velocity scaling method is both reliable and useful for controlling the temperature of the FPMD simulation of this system. From these results, we conclude that reliable FPMD simulations of complex biological systems are now possible with Conquest.
Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E
2012-09-07
Light nuclei at room temperature and below exhibit a kinetic energy which significantly deviates from the predictions of classical statistical mechanics. This quantum kinetic energy is responsible for a wide variety of isotope effects of interest in fields ranging from chemistry to climatology. It also furnishes the second moment of the nuclear momentum distribution, which contains subtle information about the chemical environment and has recently become accessible to deep inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Here, we show how, by combining imaginary time path integral dynamics with a carefully designed generalized Langevin equation, it is possible to dramatically reduce the expense of computing the quantum kinetic energy. We also introduce a transient anisotropic Gaussian approximation to the nuclear momentum distribution which can be calculated with negligible additional effort. As an example, we evaluate the structural properties, the quantum kinetic energy, and the nuclear momentum distribution for a first-principles simulation of liquid water.
First-principles study of Dirac and Dirac-like cones in phononic and photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying; Chan, C. T.; Zhang, Zhao-Qing
2012-07-01
By using the k⇀·p⇀ method, we propose a first-principles theory to study the linear dispersions in phononic and photonic crystals. The theory reveals that only those linear dispersions created by doubly degenerate states can be described by a reduced Hamiltonian that can be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and possess a Berry phase of -π. Linear dispersions created by triply degenerate states cannot be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and carry no Berry phase, and, therefore should be called Dirac-like cones. Our theory is capable of predicting accurately the linear slopes of Dirac and Dirac-like cones at various symmetry points in a Brillouin zone, independent of frequency and lattice structure.
Stability of the hcp Ruthenium at high pressures from first principles
Lugovskoy, A. V. Belov, M. P.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh; Krasilnikov, O. M.
2014-09-14
The method of calculation of the elastic constants up to third order from the energy-strain relation under pressure for the hcp crystals is given and described in details. The method is applied to the hcp phase of Ruthenium. Elastic constants, lattice dynamics, and electronic structure are investigated in the pressure interval of 0–600 GPa by means of first principles calculations. The obtained parameters are in very good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. No preconditions for phase transformation driven by mechanical or dynamical instabilities for hcp Ru were found in the investigated pressure range. The reason of stability at such high pressures is explained in the context of electronic structure peculiarities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Qin; Yao, Sanxi; Widom, Michael
2015-03-01
Density functional theory (DFT) provides an accurate and first-principles description of solid structures and total energies. However, it is highly time-consuming to calculate structures with hundreds of atoms in the unit cell and almost not possible to calculate thousands of atoms. We apply and adapt machine learning algorithms, including compressive sensing, support vector regression and artificial neural networks to fit the DFT total energies of substitutionally disordered boron carbide. The nonparametric kernel method is also included in our models. Our fitted total energy model reproduces the DFT energies with prediction error of around 1 meV/atom. The assumptions of these machine learning models and applications of the fitted total energies will also be discussed. Financial support from McWilliams Fellowship and the ONR-MURI under the Grant No. N00014-11-1-0678 is gratefully acknowledged.
A unified electrostatic and cavitation model for first-principles molecular dynamics in solution
Scherlis, D A; Fattebert, J; Gygi, F; Cococcioni, M; Marzari, N
2005-11-14
The electrostatic continuum solvent model developed by Fattebert and Gygi is combined with a first-principles formulation of the cavitation energy based on a natural quantum-mechanical definition for the surface of a solute. Despite its simplicity, the cavitation contribution calculated by this approach is found to be in remarkable agreement with that obtained by more complex algorithms relying on a large set of parameters. The model allows for very efficient Car-Parrinello simulations of finite or extended systems in solution, and demonstrates a level of accuracy as good as that of established quantum-chemistry continuum solvent methods. They apply this approach to the study of tetracyanoethylene dimers in dichloromethane, providing valuable structural and dynamical insights on the dimerization phenomenon.
Elastic stability and optical property under pressure of TiN phases: by first principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eslam, Farzaneh Ghafari; Boochani, Arash; Babaeipour, Manuchehr; Khodadadi, Jabbar
2017-06-01
The electronic and optical properties of the rock-salt, CsCl-type, zinc-blende and wurtzite phases of TiN have been calculated by First-Principles study for relaxed and under pressure conditions. Calculations are based on the density functional theory and full potential augmented plane waves method by Generalized Gradient Approximation. The optical transitions in zero pressure are derived from the density of states and dielectric function. In addition, various optical characters, such as reflectivity, refraction and extinction indices, under positive and negative pressures are compared and contrasted. It is found that all mentioned phases of TiN are elastically stable and exhibit a rising trend in their plasmonic frequencies by increasing the pressure imposed on.
Intrinsic magnetism in nanosheets of SnO2: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Gul; García-Suárez, Víctor M.; Morbec, J. M.
2013-02-01
We propose intrinsic magnetism in nanosheets of SnO2, based on first-principles calculations. The electronic structure and spin density reveal that p orbitals of the oxygen atoms, surrounding Sn vacancies, have a non-itinerant nature which gives birth to localized magnetism. A giant decrease in defect formation energies of Sn vacancies in nanosheets is observed. We, therefore, believe that native defects can be stabilized without any chemical doping. Nanosheets of different thicknesses are also studied, and it is found that it is easier to create vacancies, which are magnetic, at the surface of the sheets. SnO2 nanosheets can, therefore, open new opportunities in the field of spintronics.
First-Principles Calculation of Phonon and Schottky Heat Capacities of Plutonium Dioxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kato, Masato
2015-05-01
Plutonium dioxide (PuO2) is a key ingredient of mixed oxide (MOX) and advanced nuclear fuels. Its thermophysical data is crucial in understanding the high-temperature behaviors of nuclear fuels. In particular, the high-temperature heat capacity is of great importance for their safety and performance analyses. Here, we evaluate the main contributions to the heat capacity of PuO2 from 0 to 1400 K through suitable first-principles calculations. Consequently, we successfully obtain a temperature dependence in good agreement with experimental measurements. This success mainly results from accurate calculations of the Schottky heat capacity caused by the excited levels of f-electrons of Pu. Our calculations resolve the mystery of why previous works failed to reproduce the measurement data. This study extends the possibility of performing simulation-based nuclear-fuel research instead of difficult measurements.
First-Principles Definition and Measurement of Planetary Electromagnetic-Energy Budget
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Lock, James A.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian
2016-01-01
The imperative to quantify the Earths electromagnetic-energy budget with an extremely high accuracy has been widely recognized but has never been formulated in the framework of fundamental physics. In this paper we give a first-principles definition of the planetary electromagnetic-energy budget using the Poynting- vector formalism and discuss how it can, in principle, be measured. Our derivation is based on an absolute minimum of theoretical assumptions, is free of outdated notions of phenomenological radiometry, and naturally leads to the conceptual formulation of an instrument called the double hemispherical cavity radiometer (DHCR). The practical measurement of the planetary energy budget would require flying a constellation of several dozen planet-orbiting satellites hosting identical well-calibrated DHCRs.
Dielectric tensors of high-k Pbnm perovskites from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coh, Sinisa; Vanderbilt, David
2009-03-01
Among the materials under consideration for future high-k dielectrics in MOSFET and other microelectronic devices are several perovskites having space group Pbnm. Among these are LaLuO3, SrBO3 (B = Zr, Hf), AScO3 (A = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy), and LaB1/2Zr1/2O3 (B = Ca, Mg) (with lower symmetry), which are all compatible with growth on silicon and can have higher dielectric constants than HfO2. Using first-principles DFT methods with ultrasoft pseudopotentials and GGA energy functionals, we compute the dielectric tensors, structural properties, and phonon spectra of these materials. We analyze the dependence of these properties on chemical composition, and compare with experiments where possible. We also focus on correlation between dielectric tensor anisotropy and octahedra rotation angles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cockayne, Eric
2008-04-01
First principles calculations were used to study the effects of Si, Ti, Zr, and Ta (+N) substitutional impurities on the structure and dielectric properties of crystalline HfO2. The dielectric constant of monoclinic HfO2 can be enhanced by substituting more polarizable ions for Hf, but the band gap is decreased. Enhancing the permittivity without decreasing the band gap requires forming the tetragonal or cubic phase of HfO2. Among the ions studied, Si alone is found to stabilize a nonmonoclinic phase of HfO2 relative to the monoclinic phase, but only at an atomic concentration above about 20%. Various experiments have reported the formation of nonmonoclinic phases of HfO2 with increased permittivity when other ions are substituted for Hf. It is concluded that these structures are, in general, either metastable or are stabilized by extrinsic factors or by a layered arrangement of the substitutional cations.
First-principles study of native point defects in hafnia and zirconia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, J. X.; Ceder, G.; Maxisch, T.; Chim, W. K.; Choi, W. K.
2007-03-01
A first-principles study of native point defects in hafnia (HfO2) and zirconia (ZrO2) is carried out to identify dominant defects under different oxygen chemical potentials and Fermi levels. Oxygen vacancies and oxygen interstitials in both HfO2 and ZrO2 show negative- U behavior. It is shown that HfO2 is less prone to the formation of oxygen point defects than ZrO2 under the same oxygen chemical potential. When the Fermi level is constrained to be within the band gap of silicon, the dominant defects are negatively charged hafnium or zirconium vacancies under intermediate to high oxygen chemical potential. We find no evidence for magnetic defects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, Keisuke; Ishii, Fumiyuki; Saito, Mineo
2014-04-01
We studied magnetism in bilayer and multilayer zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) through first-principles density functional theory calculations. We found that the magnetic ground state of bilayer ZGNRs is the C-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, which is the AFM order between intraplane-edge carbon atoms and ferromagnetic (FM) order between interplane edge carbon atoms. In the cases of infinitely stacked multilayer ZGNRs, i.e., zigzag graphite nanoribbons, the C-type AFM state is also the most stable. By carrier doping, we found that the magnetic ground state changed from the C-AFM state to the FM state and, thus, realized two-dimensional FM surface (edge) states of graphite with a metallic conductivity.
The structural, electronic and phonon behavior of CsPbI3: A first principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bano, Amreen; Khare, Preeti; Parey, Vanshree; Shukla, Aarti; Gaur, N. K.
2016-05-01
Metal halide perovskites are optoelectronic materials that have attracted enormous attention as solar cells with power conversion efficiencies reaching 20%. The benefit of using hybrid compounds resides in their ability to combine the advantage of these two classes of compounds: the high mobility of inorganic materials and the ease of processing of organic materials. In spite of the growing attention of this new material, very little is known about the electronic and phonon properties of the inorganic part of this compounds. A theoretical study of structural, electronic and phonon properties of metal-halide cubic perovskite, CsPbI3 is presented, using first-principles calculations with planewave pseudopotential method as personified in PWSCF code. In this approach local density approximation (LDA) is used for exchange-correlation potential.
Nitrogen-induced magnetism in stannates from first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Meng, Bo; Xu, Hai-Qing; Chen, Qiao; Wang, Ling-Ling
2016-09-01
First-principles calculations have been used to comparatively investigate electronic and magnetic properties of nitrogen-doped (N-doped) nonmagnetic semiconductor perovskite-type stannate (MSnO3, M = Ca, Sr, Ba). A total magnetic moment of 1.0 μB induced by N is found in MSnO3 supercell with one N dopant. The spontaneous polarization mainly originates from spin splitting on 2p state of N. The medium-sized formation energy shows that the N-doped MSnO3 can be realized experimentally under the metal-rich environments, but the clustering tendency and short-range coupling imply that the stannate matrices are unsuitable for magnetizing by substituting N for O. Our study offers a fresh sight of spontaneous spin polarization in d0 magnetism. The FM coupling in N-doped MSnO3 should be attributed to the hole-mediated p-p coupling mechanism.
Uratani, Hiroki; Yamashita, Koichi
2017-02-16
The trapping of charge carriers at defects on surfaces or grain boundaries is detrimental for the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). For example, it is the main limiting factor for carrier lifetime. Moreover, it causes hysteresis in the current-voltage curves, which is considered to be a serious issue for PSCs' operation. In this work, types of surface defects responsible for carrier trapping are clarified by a comprehensive first-principles investigation into surface defects of tetragonal CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3). Considering defect formation energetics, it is proposed that a Pb-rich condition is preferred to an I-rich one; however, a moderate condition might possibly be the best choice. Our result paves the way for improving the performance of PSCs through a rational strategy of suppressing carrier trapping at surface defects.
Carrier-induced noncollinear magnetism in perovskite manganites by first-principles calculations.
Sawada, K; Ishii, F
2009-02-11
We have performed noncollinear first-principles density-functional calculations of carrier-doped perovskite manganites La(1-x)Sr(x)MnO(3) (0.0≤x≤1.0). In the calculated magnetic phase diagram (T = 0) within the collinear magnetic configurations, ferromagnetic and several antiferromagnetic configurations successively appeared as a ground state with increasing x. The calculated total energies of the ferromagnetic and A-type antiferromagnetic phases are almost degenerate around the phase boundary, x = 0.5. We found that the noncollinear magnetic configurations are stable in a wide range of carrier concentrations 0.3≤x≤0.6. We discuss the effect of lattice distortions on the stability of the noncollinear magnetic phase.
Electronic structure of cubic ScF3 from first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocharov, D.; Žguns, P.; Piskunov, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Purans, J.
2016-07-01
The ground state properties of cubic scandium trifluoride (ScF3) perovskite were studied using first-principles calculations. The electronic structure of ScF3 was determined by linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) and plane wave projector augmented-wave (PAW) methods using modified hybrid exchange-correlation functionals within the density functional theory (DFT). The comprehensive comparison of the results obtained by two methods is presented. Both methods allowed us to reproduce the lattice constant found experimentally in ScF3 at low temperatures and to predict its electronic structure in good agreement with known experimental valence-band photoelectron and F 1s x-ray absorption spectra.
First-principles calculation for phonon and optoelectronic properties of CsSnI3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bano, Amreen; Khare, Preeti; Gaur, N. K.
2016-05-01
The CsSnI3 crystal belongs to an interesting class of semiconducting perovskite which is currently used in thin-film field-effect transistor made of organics-inorganics hybrid compounds. The benefit of using hybrid compounds resides in their ability to combine the advantage of these two classes of compounds: the high mobility of inorganic materials and the ease of processing of organic materials. In spite of the growing attention of this new material, very little is known about the dielectric and optical properties of the inorganic part of this compounds. A theoretical study of phonon, dielectric and optical properties of metal-halide cubic perovskite, CsSnI3 is presented, using first-principles calculations with planewave pseudopotential method as personified in PWSCF code. In this approach local density approximation (LDA) is used for exchange-correlation potential. The optical properties shows that this compound has applications in optoelectronic devices.
First-principles study on phase transition and ferroelectricity in lithium niobate and tantalate
Toyoura, Kazuaki Ohta, Masataka; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki
2015-08-14
The phase transitions and ferroelectricity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} have been investigated theoretically from first principles. The phonon analyses and the molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the ferroelectric phase transition is not conventional displacive type but order-disorder type with strong correlation between cation displacements. According to the evaluated potential energy surfaces around the paraelectric structures, the large difference in ferroelectricity between the two oxides results from the little difference in short-range interionic interaction between Nb-O and Ta-O. As the results of the crystal orbital overlap population analyses, the different short-range interaction originates from the difference in covalency between Nb4d-O2p and Ta5d-O2p orbitals, particularly d{sub xz}-p{sub x}/d{sub yz}-p{sub y} orbitals (π orbitals), from the electronic point of view.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Z. J.; Xiao, H. Y.; Zu, X. T.; Gao, F.
2008-11-01
The electronic structures and defect formation energies for a series of stannate pyrochlores Ln2Sn2O7 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Lu, and Y) have been investigated using the first-principles total energy calculations. The calculated results show that Ln-site cation ionic radius, x-O48f, lattice constant and the covalency of the ⟨Sn-O48f⟩ bond have a significant affect on the defect formation energies. The cation-antisite defect has the lowest formation energy, as compared with that of other defects, indicating that cation disorder causes local oxygen disordering. The present studies suggest that Lu2Sn2O7 is the most resistant to ion beam-induced amorphization. The electronic structure calculations reveal that Ln2Sn2O7 compounds have direct band gaps of 2.64-2.95 eV at the Γ point in the Brillouin zone.
Exotic Multigap Structure in UPt3 Unveiled by a First-Principles Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomoto, Takuya; Ikeda, Hiroaki
2016-11-01
A heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3 is a unique spin-triplet superconductor with multiple superconducting phases. Here, we provide the first report on a first-principles analysis of the microscopic superconducting gap structure. We find that the promising gap structure is an unprecedented E2 u state, which is completely different from the previous phenomenological E2 u models. Our obtained E2 u state has in-plane twofold vertical line nodes on small Fermi surfaces and point nodes with linear dispersion on a large Fermi surface. These peculiar features cannot be explained in the conventional spin 1 /2 representation, but is described by the group-theoretical representation of the Cooper pairs in the total angular momentum j =5 /2 space. Our findings shed new light on the long-standing problems in the superconductivity of UPt3 .
First principles study of the aggregation of oligo and polythiophene cations in solution
Scherlis, D A; Fattebert, J; Marzari, N
2005-11-14
The stacking of positively charged (or doped) terthiophene oligomers and quaterthiophene polymers in solution is investigated applying a recently developed unified electrostatic and cavitation model for first-principles calculations in a continuum solvent. The thermodynamic and structural patterns of the dimerization are explored in different solvents, and the distinctive roles of polarity and surface tension are characterized and analyzed. Interestingly, we discover a saturation in the stabilization effect of the dielectric screening that takes place at rather small values of {epsilon}{sub 0}. Moreover, we address the interactions in trimers of terthiophene cations, with the aim of generalizing the results obtained for the dimers to the case of higher order stacks and nanoaggregates.
Novel phases of lithium-aluminum binaries from first-principles structural search
Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Cerqueira, Tiago F. T.; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Valencia-Jaime, Irais; Amsler, Maximilian; Goedecker, Stefan; Romero, Aldo H.
2015-01-14
Intermetallic Li–Al compounds are on the one hand key materials for light-weight engineering, and on the other hand, they have been proposed for high-capacity electrodes for Li batteries. We determine from first-principles the phase diagram of Li–Al binary crystals using the minima hopping structural prediction method. Beside reproducing the experimentally reported phases (LiAl, Li{sub 3}Al{sub 2}, Li{sub 9}Al{sub 4}, LiAl{sub 3}, and Li{sub 2}Al), we unveil a structural variety larger than expected by discovering six unreported binary phases likely to be thermodynamically stable. Finally, we discuss the behavior of the elastic constants and of the electric potential profile of all Li–Al stable compounds as a function of their stoichiometry.