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  1. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that might be used to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and

  2. Increase of Escherichia coli inoculum doses induces faster innate immune response in primiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Vangroenweghe, F; Rainard, P; Paape, M; Duchateau, L; Burvenich, C

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the dynamics of infection and the immunological response to varying numbers of Escherichia coli injected into the mammary glands of primiparous cows during the periparturient period. Primiparous cows have been shown to be more resistant to intramammary E. coli challenge, and an increase of the inoculum dose by 2 log10 units induced a more rapid clinical response and clearance of the organisms. Recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key event in the innate immunity response to gram-negative infection and is mediated by the accessory molecules CD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP). Primiparous cows were inoculated with 1 x 10(4) (Group A; n=8) or 1 x 10(6) (Group B; n=8) cfu E. coli P4:O32 in their 2 left quarters during the periparturient period. Clinical examination and analysis of blood and milk parameters, including IL-8, complement fragment 5a (C5a), LBP, and soluble CD14 (sCD14), were performed from d -4 to d +3 relative to infection. Primiparous cows in Group B initiated a more rapid clinical response following intramammary infection (IMI), resulting in typical clinical signs and changes in blood and milk parameters approximately 3 h earlier compared with primiparous cows in Group A. Based on average milk production in the noninfected quarters on d +2 postinoculation, all heifers reacted as moderate responders. Distinct differences in the kinetic patterns of rectal temperature, somatic cell count (SCC), IL-8, C5a, LBP, and sCD14 were observed between both groups during the early phase of inflammation. Both C5a and IL-8 increased before cellular influx into the infected glands, followed by increases in sCD14 and LBP. In conclusion, primiparous cows are able to clear an intramammary E. coli infection efficiently. Moreover, increasing the inoculum dose induces a more rapid inflammatory reaction, mainly because of early activation of the innate host immune response.

  3. Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus.

    PubMed

    Binelli, M; Hampton, J; Buhi, W C; Thatcher, W W

    1999-07-01

    The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF.

  4. Nutrient sufficiency in beef cows grazing on a dwarf bamboo-dominated forestland pasture in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Miwa; Yayota, Masato; Ohtani, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional status of cows grazing on a 120-ha public alpine forestland pasture dominated by the dwarf bamboo Sasa senanensis located in central Japan was evaluated over the course of 2 years. Data were collected during grazing seasons in three periods: early (June), mid- (August) and late (late September-early October) periods. During these periods, the number of experimental Japanese Black cows varied between three and six. With the exception of the dry matter (DM) intake in 2005 and the crude protein (CP) digestibility in 2006, the DM and CP intake and digestibility were lower in the mid- and late periods than in the early period for both years (P < 0.05). Metabolizable energy intake was slightly insufficient for the requirement of the cows in the late period of 2005; in the mid- and late periods of 2006, the metabolizable energy intake was 0.4 to 0.5 times the requirement. These results suggest that the energy intake of cows grazing on forestland pasture dominated by S. senanensis would not satisfy their requirements starting in the mid-period (August) grazing, even though the pasture had abundant herbage resources during these periods.

  5. Effect of exogenous LH pulses on the fate of the first dominant follicle in postpartum beef cows nursing calves.

    PubMed

    Duffy, P; Crowe, M A; Boland, M P; Roche, J F

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum anoestrus in beef cows is due to failure of early dominant follicles to ovulate. It is hypothesized that this failure to ovulate is due to inadequate LH pulse frequency. The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of hourly LH pulses would cause the first dominant follicle to ovulate. In Expt 1, 16 cows received either saline (n = 8) or porcine LH (pLH; 50 micrograms h-1; n = 8) as hourly pulses for 3-5 days from the second day of dominance of the first dominant follicle (day 0). In Expt 2, 21 cows received either saline (n = 7), or 50 micrograms pLH (n = 7) or 100 micrograms pLH (n = 7) as hourly pulses for 3 days. Appropriate ovarian scanning and assays of blood samples were carried out. In Expt 1, the number of dominant follicles that underwent atresia was not affected by increasing the number of LH pulses, but the duration of dominance (days) of the first and second dominant follicles and maximum size (mm) of the second dominant follicle were increased (P < 0.05). Oestradiol concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in cows given hourly pLH pulses (3.1 +/- 1.2 pg ml-1) compared with controls (1.2 +/- 0.2 pg ml-1). Four of eight treated cows had an anovulatory LH surge. The number of follicle waves to first ovulation was not different (P < 0.05) between control (4.6 +/- 0.9) and pLH treated cows (3.9 +/- 0.5). In Expt 2, four of seven cows given pulses of 100 micrograms pLH h-1 ovulated the first dominant follicle, and the interval from calving to first ovulation was decreased (P < 0.05). In the remaining three cows, the duration of dominance of the first dominant follicle was increased (P < 0.005), the maximum size of the first dominant follicle was greater (P < 0.05), and the interval (days) from the start of infusion to new wave emergence was greater (P < 0.05) compared with cows that failed to ovulate in either the 50 micrograms pLH h-1 or control treatments. In conclusion, hourly pulses of pLH from day 1 after

  6. Altered theca and cumulus oocyte complex gene expression, follicular arrest and reduced fertility in cows with dominant follicle follicular fluid androgen excess

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, animal models with naturally occurring androgen excess have not been identified. Serendipitously, we discovered two subpopulations of cows with dramatically different follicular fluid androgen concentrations in dominant follicles within our research herd. In the cow, androstenedione is the...

  7. Comparison of innate immune responses and somatotropic axis components of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, L G D; Litherland, N B; Lucy, M C; Keisler, D H; Ballou, M A; Hansen, L B; Chebel, R C

    2013-06-01

    Objectives were to compare parameters related to innate immune responses and somatotropic axis of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde (MO)-sired crossbred cows during the transition from late gestation to early lactation. Cows (40 HO and 47 MO-sired crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45d before expected calving date (study d 0=calving). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) isolated from blood samples collected weekly from study d -7 to 21 and on study d 42 were used for determination of percentage of PMNL positive for phagocytosis (PA+) and oxidative burst (OB+), intensity of PA and OB, percentage of PMNL expressing CD18 (CD18+) and L-selectin (LS+), and intensity of CD18 and LS expression. Blood was sampled weekly from study d -7 to 14 and on study d 28, 42, and 56 for determination of insulin, growth hormone (GH), leptin, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 concentrations. Blood sampled weekly from study d -14 to 21 and on study d 42 was used to determine cortisol concentration. Liver biopsies were performed on study d -14, 7, 14, and 28 for determination of mRNA expression for insulin receptor B (IRB), total GH receptor (GHRtot), GHR variant 1A (GHR1A), and IGF-1. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures or by ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intensity of CD18 expression was greater in PMNL from crossbred cows compared with PMNL from HO cows [1,482.1 ± 82.3 vs. 1,286.6 ± 69.8 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI)]. Furthermore, among HO cows, the percentage of PA+ PMNL on study d -7 (64.4 ± 5.2%) tended to be greater than on study d 0 (57.1 ± 5.1%), but no differences in percentage of PA+ PMNL between study d -7 and 0 were observed in crossbred cows. Similarly, intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from HO cows decreased from study d -7 to 0 (4,750.6 ± 1,217.0 vs. 1,964.7 ± 1,227.9 GMFI), but no changes in intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from crossbred cows were observed. On study d 0, intensity of PA tended to be

  8. Pleiotropic effects of negative energy balance in the postpartum dairy cow on splenic gene expression: repercussions for innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Morris, D G; Waters, S M; McCarthy, S D; Patton, J; Earley, B; Fitzpatrick, R; Murphy, J J; Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A; Brass, A; Wathes, D C

    2009-09-09

    Increased energy demands to support lactation, coupled with lowered feed intake capacity results in negative energy balance (NEB) and is typically characterized by extensive mobilization of body energy reserves in the early postpartum dairy cow. The catabolism of stored lipid leads to an increase in the systemic concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHB). Oxidation of NEFA in the liver result in the increased production of reactive oxygen species and the onset of oxidative stress and can lead to disruption of normal metabolism and physiology. The immune system is depressed in the peripartum period and early lactation and dairy cows are therefore more vulnerable to bacterial infections causing mastitis and or endometritis at this time. A bovine Affymetrix oligonucleotide array was used to determine global gene expression in the spleen of dairy cows in the early postpartum period. Spleen tissue was removed post mortem from five severe NEB (SNEB) and five medium NEB (MNEB) cows 15 days postpartum. SNEB increased systemic concentrations of NEFA and BHB, and white blood cell and lymphocyte numbers were decreased in SNEB animals. A total of 545 genes were altered by SNEB. Network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that SNEB was associated with NRF2-mediated oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, natural killer cell signaling, p53 signaling, downregulation of IL-15, BCL-2, and IFN-gamma; upregulation of BAX and CHOP and increased apoptosis with a potential negative impact on innate and adaptive immunity.

  9. Dietary-induced negative energy balance has minimal effects on innate immunity during a Streptococcus uberis mastitis challenge in dairy cows during midlactation.

    PubMed

    Moyes, K M; Drackley, J K; Salak-Johnson, J L; Morin, D E; Hope, J C; Loor, J J

    2009-09-01

    Ten multiparous Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of negative energy balance (NEB) on the immune response to a Streptococcus uberis (strain O140J) mastitis challenge during midlactation. Before the study, milk from all quarters of each cow was bacteriologically negative, with a composite somatic cell count of <200,000 cells/mL. Cows were paired based on parity, days in milk, and milk yield. At approximately 77 d in milk, half the cows (n = 5) were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation requirements to induce NEB. Feed restriction lasted 7 d. Control cows (n = 5) were fed the same diet ad libitum (i.e., positive energy balance; PEB). After 5 d, one rear quarter in all cows was inoculated with 5,000 cfu of Strep. uberis. Jugular blood and aseptic quarter milk samples were collected daily until inoculation and every 6 h postinoculation for 36 h. Blood was analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, cortisol, albumin, serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin (Hp). Periodically throughout the trial period, blood neutrophils were isolated for determination of cell morphology, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis capability in vitro. Quarter milk samples were analyzed for concentrations of SAA, Hp, cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-10 and IL-1beta), and activity of respiratory burst enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). All cows developed local and systemic signs of mastitis and calculated NEB was similar to that of cows experiencing postpartal NEB. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations increased in both groups after challenge, most likely because of enhanced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis; results indicate that immune cell function may be glucose dependent. Serum cortisol concentration was higher in NEB than PEB cows during feed restriction only (before inoculation), and serum albumin concentration was higher in NEB than PEB cows during the infection period. Compared with PEB

  10. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  11. Nutritional factors that regulate ovulation of the dominant follicle during the first follicular wave postpartum in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Matsui, Motozumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, milk production per cow has increased drastically due to improved management, nutrition, and genetic selection; however, the reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows has been declining. One of the factors responsible for this low reproductive performance is negative energy balance (NEB). NEB affects the onset of first ovulation in early postpartum cows. It is generally accepted that early first ovulation positively relates to the resumption of normal ovarian function, first service, and conception rate in dairy cows. Hence, delayed first ovulation has a negative impact on subsequent fertility. The metabolic condition of cows in NEB shifts to catabolic metabolism, which in turn causes increased plasma growth hormone and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and glucose concentrations. On the other hand, plasma β-carotene concentrations decrease throughout the dry period and reach their nadir in about the first week postpartum, and this change reflects energy balance during the peripartum period. β-Carotene plays a role independently of vitamin A in the reproductive performance of dairy cows, and the positive relationship between supplemental β-carotene and reproductive function has been demonstrated in many studies during the past decades. However, β-carotene content in corn silage, which is a popular main feed in high-producing dairy cows, is very low. This review describes nutritional factors related to ovulation during the first follicular wave postpartum in dairy cows.

  12. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    PubMed

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Mor, Sunil K; Sobhy, Nader M; Xing, Zheng; Reed, Kent M; Goyal, Sagar M; Porter, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV) were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain). Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi). Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ) at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  13. Dominance and parent-of-origin effects of coding and non-coding alleles at the acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene on milk production traits in German Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Christa; Edel, Christian; Weikard, Rosemarie; Thaller, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substantial gene substitution effects on milk production traits have formerly been reported for alleles at the K232A and the promoter VNTR loci in the bovine acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene by using data sets including sires with accumulated phenotypic observations of daughters (breeding values, daughter yield deviations). However, these data sets prevented analyses with respect to dominance or parent-of-origin effects, although an increasing number of reports in the literature outlined the relevance of non-additive gene effects on quantitative traits. Results Based on a data set comprising German Holstein cows with direct trait measurements, we first confirmed the previously reported association of DGAT1 promoter VNTR alleles with milk production traits. We detected a dominant mode of effects for the DGAT1 K232A and promoter VNTR alleles. Namely, the contrasts between the effects of heterozygous individuals at the DGAT1 loci differed significantly from the midpoint between the effects for the two homozygous genotypes for several milk production traits, thus indicating the presence of dominance. Furthermore, we identified differences in the magnitude of effects between paternally and maternally inherited DGAT1 promoter VNTR – K232A haplotypes indicating parent-of-origin effects on milk production traits. Conclusion Non-additive effects like those identified at the bovine DGAT1 locus have to be accounted for in more specific QTL detection models as well as in marker assisted selection schemes. The DGAT1 alleles in cattle will be a useful model for further investigations on the biological background of non-additive effects in mammals due to the magnitude and consistency of their effects on milk production traits. PMID:17892573

  14. Innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Revillard, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    For more than half a century immunological research has been almost exclusively orientated towards the acquired immune response and the mechanisms of immune tolerance. Major discoveries have enabled us to better understand the functioning of the specific immune system: the structure of antibody molecules, the genetic mechanisms leading to the molecular diversity of B (BCR) and T (TCR) lymphocyte antigen receptors, the biological function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the presentation of peptides to alpha/beta receptor bearing T lymphocytes, the processes of positive and negative selection of lymphocytes during the course of their differentiation. The major role of specific or acquired immunity has been shown by the rapidly lethal character of severe combined immune deficiency diseases and various alterations in the mechanisms of tolerance have been proposed to explain the chronic inflammatory illnesses which are considered to be auto-immune. Natural or innate immunity has been known since the first description of an inflammatory reaction attributed to Cornelius Celsus. It entered into the scientific era at the end of the 19th century with the discovery of phagocytes by Metchnikoff and of the properties of the complement system by Bordet [1] but due to the vastness of the field and its lack of clear definition, it failed to excite the interest of researchers. The discovery of cytokines and progress in knowledge of the mechanisms of the inflammatory reaction have certainly helped to banish preconceived ideas about natural immunity, which was wrongly labelled as non-specific. This has led to the proposition of a wider role for immune functions beyond the level of the cell or the organism [2] and to a better understanding of the importance of the immediate defence mechanisms and their role in the later orientation of the acquired response.

  15. Innate and adaptive immune responses to in utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent ...

  16. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad Cow Disease? A A A You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? ...

  17. Chapter 2: Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, Stuart E.; Broide, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the innate immune system. Questions about how the innate immune system senses infection and empowers a protective immune response are being answered at the molecular level. These basic science discoveries are being translated into a more complete understanding of the central role innate immunity plays in the pathogenesis of many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. It is particularly exciting that we are already seeing a return on these scientific investments with the emergence of novel therapies to harness the power of the innate immune system. In this review we explore the defining characteristics of the innate immune system, and through more detailed examples, we highlight recent breakthroughs that have advanced our understanding of the role of innate immunity in human health and disease. PMID:19932920

  18. Innate Immunity in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David E.; Siddique, Sana S.; Weinstock, Joel V.

    2014-01-01

    Cells can innately recognize generic products of viruses, bacteria, fungi, or injured tissue by engagement of pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune cells rapidly respond to this engagement in order to control commensals, thwart pathogens and/or prompt repair. Insufficient or excessive activation of the innate immune response results in disease. This review focuses on pattern recognition receptors and cells of the innate immune system important for intestinal function. Our improving knowledge pertaining to this important aspect of our immune response is opening potential important new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of disease. PMID:24632348

  19. Kidney and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed.

  20. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Th2 cells produce IL-13 when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response of cells of the adaptive immune system is dependent on IL-33-, not T cell receptor-, based stimulation. While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant ...

  1. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans.

  2. Approaching archetypes: reconsidering innateness.

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The question of innateness has hounded Jungian psychology since Jung originally postulated the archetype as an a priori structure within the psyche. During his life and after his death he was continually accused of Lamarckianism and criticized for his theory that the archetypes existed as prior structures. More recently, with the advent of genetic research and the human genome project, the idea that psychological structures can be innate has come under even harsher criticism even within Jungian thought. There appears to be a growing consensus that Jung's idea of innate psychological structures was misguided, and that perhaps the archetype-as-such should be abandoned for more developmental and 'emergent' theories of the psyche. The purpose of this essay is to question this conclusion, and introduce some literature on psychological innateness that appears relevant to this discussion.

  3. Arguing about innateness.

    PubMed

    Valian, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    This paper lays out the components of a language acquisition model, the interconnections among the components, and the differing stances of nativism and empiricism about syntax. After demonstrating that parsimony cannot decide between the two stances, the paper analyzes nine examples of evidence that have been used to argue for or against nativism, concluding that most pieces of evidence are either irrelevant or suggest that language is special but need not invoke innate ideas. Two pieces of evidence - the development of home sign languages and the acquisition of Determiners - do show not just that language is special but that the child has innate syntactic content. The existential claim that nativism makes - there is at least one innate syntactic idea - is an easier claim to verify than the universal claim that empiricism makes - there are no innate syntactic ideas.

  4. Comparison of Holstein and Jersey innate immune responses to Escherichia coli intramammary infection.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, D D; Kauf, A C W; Paape, M J; Springer, H R; Goff, J P

    2008-06-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a greater prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense mechanisms that respond to infection, and differences in the magnitude and rapidity of this response are known to influence susceptibility to and clearance of infectious pathogens. The reported differences in the prevalence of mastitis between Holstein and Jersey cows may suggest the occurrence of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune response to intramammary infection. The objective of the current study was to compare the acute phase and cytokine responses of Holstein and Jersey cows following intramammary infection by the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli, a leading cause of clinical mastitis. All cows in the study were in similar stages of lactation, of the same parity, subjected to the same housing and management conditions, and experimentally infected on the same day with the same inoculum preparation. Before and after infection, the following innate immune parameters were monitored: bacterial clearance; febrile response; induction of the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; alterations in total and differential white blood cell counts; changes in milk somatic cell counts and mammary vascular permeability; and induction of the cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Overall innate immune responses were similar between the 2 breeds; however, temporal differences in the onset, cessation, and duration of several responses were detected. Despite these differences, intramammary clearance of E. coli was comparable between the breeds. Together, these data demonstrate a highly conserved innate immune response of Holstein and Jersey cows to E. coli intramammary infection.

  5. Innate Immunity to Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150

  6. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  7. Innate Immunity and BK Virus: Prospective Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kariminik, Ashraf; Yaghobi, Ramin; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2016-03-01

    Recent information demonstrated that BK virus reactivation is a dominant complication after kidney transplantation, which occurs because of immunosuppression. BK virus reactivation is the main reason of transplanted kidney losing. Immune response against BK virus is the major inhibitor of the virus reactivation. Therefore, improving our knowledge regarding the main parameters that fight against BK viruses can shed light on to direct new treatment strategies to suppress BK infection. Innate immunity consists of numerous cell systems and also soluble molecules, which not only suppress virus replication, but also activate adaptive immunity to eradicate the infection. Additionally, it appears that immune responses against reactivated BK virus are the main reasons for induction of BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKAN). Thus, improving our knowledge regarding the parameters and detailed mechanisms of innate immunity and also the status of innate immunity of the patients with BK virus reactivation and its complications can introduce new prospective strategies to either prevent or as therapy of the complication. Therefore, this review was aimed to collate the most recent data regarding the roles played by innate immunity against BK virus and also the status of innate immunity in the patients with reactivation BK virus and BKAN.

  8. Factors affecting pre-ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation rate to GnRH in postpartum beef cows Part I: Cycling cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows induced to ovulate small dominant follicles were reported to have reduced pregnancy rates compared to cows that ovulated large follicles. The reason for the presence of small dominant follicles at the time of GnRH-induced ovulation in timed AI protocols is unknown. Objectives of this experime...

  9. Innate Memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Stephen C.; Lee, You Jeong; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells. In this review, we describe how innate memory subsets were identified, the signals that induce their generation and their functional properties and potential role in the normal immune response. The existence of innate memory T cells in mice raises questions about whether parallel populations exist in humans, and we discuss the evidence for such populations during human T cell development and differentiation. PMID:25727290

  10. Innate Immune Function of TH2 Cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liying; Huang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Urban, Joseph F.; Paul, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 helper T (TH) cells produce interleukin 13 (IL-13) when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response is dependent on IL-33 but not T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant innate producers of IL-13 in naïve animals, we show here that in helminth-infected mice, TH2 cell numbers increased and became major mediators of innate type II responses. TH2 cells made important contributions to HDM-induced antigen–non-specific eosinophilic inflammation and protected mice recovering from Ascaris suum infection against subsequent infection with the phylogenetically distant nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of effector TH2 cells during TCR-independent innate-like immune responses. PMID:26322482

  11. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liying; Huang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Urban, Joseph F; Paul, William E

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells) produce interleukin 13 (IL-13) when stimulated by papain or house dust mite extract (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response is dependent on IL-33 but not T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) are the dominant innate producers of IL-13 in naive mice, we found here that helminth-infected mice had more TH2 cells compared to uninfected mice, and thes e cells became major mediators of innate type 2 responses. TH2 cells made important contributions to HDM-induced antigen-nonspecific eosinophilic inflammation and protected mice recovering from infection with Ascaris suum against subsequent infection with the phylogenetically distant nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for effector TH2 cells during TCR-independent innate-like immune responses.

  12. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  13. Autosomal dominant

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether the trait is dominant or recessive. A single abnormal gene on one of the first 22 nonsex ( autosomal ) chromosomes from either parent can cause an autosomal disorder. Dominant inheritance means ...

  14. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting.

  15. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-10-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touchpanel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  16. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  17. Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    Information dominance may be defined as superiority in the generation, manipulation, and use of information sufficient to afford its possessors... information dominance at the strategic level: knowing oneself and one’s enemy; and, at best, inducing them to see things as one does.

  18. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  19. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  20. Fitting Cows to Your Operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in cattle can be used to improve efficiency of the cow herd. A cow that is optimum in one production system may not be the best cow for another production system. To improve cow efficiency, we need to optimize the ratio of output to inputs. The optimum ratio on biological bases ...

  1. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  2. Innate cellular immunity and xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review This review assesses the recent progress in xenograft rejection by innate immune responses, with a focus on innate cellular xenoreactivity. Recent findings Current literature was reviewed for new insights into the role of innate cellular immunity in xenograft rejection. Increasing evidence confirms that vigorous innate immune cell activation is accounted for by a combination of xenoantigen recognition by activating receptors, and incompatibility in inhibitory receptor-ligand interactions. Although both innate humoral and cellular xenoimmune responses are predominantly elicited by preformed and induced xenoreactive antibodies in nonhuman primates following porcine xenotransplantation, innate immune cells can also be activated by xenografts in the absence of antibodies. The latter antibody-independent response will likely persist in recipients even when adaptive xenoimmune responses are suppressed. In addition to xenograft rejection by recipient innate immune cells, phagocytic cells within liver xenografts are also deleterious to recipients by causing thrombocytopenia. Summary Strategies of overcoming innate immune responses are required for successful clinical xenotransplantation. In addition to developing better immunosuppressive and tolerance induction protocols, endeavors towards further genetic modifications of porcine source animals are ultimately important for successful clinical xenotransplantation. PMID:22262106

  3. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  4. Innate Immune Evasion by Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Basler, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viruses and Marburg viruses, members of the filovirus family, cause severe hemorrhagic fever. The ability of these viruses to potently counteract host innate immune responses is thought to be an important component of viral pathogenesis. Several mechanisms of filoviral innate immune evasion have been defined and are reviewed here. These mechanisms inclue suppression of type I interferon (IFN) production; inhibition of IFN-signaling and mechanisms that either prevent cell stress responses or allow the virus to replication in the face of such responses. A greater understanding these innate immune evasion mechanisms may suggest novel therapeutic approaches for these deadly pathogens. PMID:25843618

  5. Innate and Adaptive Immunity Synergize to Trigger Inflammation in the Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Rainard, Pascal; Cunha, Patricia; Gilbert, Florence B.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is able to detect and react to bacterial intrusion through innate immunity mechanisms, but mammary inflammation can also result from antigen-specific adaptive immunity. We postulated that innate and adaptive immune responses could synergize to trigger inflammation in the mammary gland. To test this hypothesis, we immunized cows with the model antigen ovalbumin and challenged the sensitized animals with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as innate immunity agonist, ovalbumin as adaptive immunity agonist, or both agonists in three different udder quarters of lactating cows. There was a significant amplification of the initial milk leukocytosis in the quarters challenged with the two agonists compared to leukocytosis in quarters challenged with LPS or ovalbumin alone. This synergistic response occurred only with the cows that developed the ovalbumin-specific inflammatory response, and there were significant correlations between milk leukocytosis and production of IL-17A and IFN-γ in a whole-blood ovalbumin stimulation assay. The antigen-specific response induced substantial concentrations of IL-17A and IFN-γ in milk contrary to the response to LPS. Such a synergy at the onset of the reaction of the mammary gland suggests that induction of antigen-specific immune response with bacterial antigens could improve the initial immune response to infection, hence reducing the bacterial load and contributing to protection. PMID:27100324

  6. Is matching innate?

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S

    2007-03-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling. Matching was observed from the outset; it did not improve with training. When the numbers of pellets received were proportional to time invested, investment was unstable, swinging abruptly from sustained, almost complete investment in one hopper, to sustained, almost complete investment in the other-in the absence of appropriate local fluctuations in returns (pellets obtained per time invested). The abruptness of the swings strongly constrains possible models. We suggest that matching reflects an innate (unconditioned) program that matches the ratio of expected visit durations to the ratio between the current estimates of expected incomes. A model that processes the income stream looking for changes in the income and generates discontinuous income estimates when a change is detected is shown to account for salient features of the data.

  7. Parturition to resumption of ovarian cyclicity: comparative aspects of beef and dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Williams, E J

    2014-05-01

    There is a variable anoestrous period following parturition in the cow. Follicular growth generally resumes within 7 to 10 days in the majority of cows associated with a transient FSH rise that occurs within 3 to 5 days of parturition. Dairy cows that are not nutritionally stressed generally ovulate their first postpartum dominant follicle (~15 days), whereas beef suckler cows in good body condition normally have a mean of 3.2±0.2 dominant follicles (~30 days) to first ovulation; moreover, beef cows in poor body condition have a mean of 10.6±1.2 dominant follicles (~70 to 100 days) to first ovulation. The lack of ovulation of dominant follicles during the postpartum period is associated with infrequent LH pulses, with both maternal-offspring bonding and low body condition score (BCS) at calving being implicated as the predominant causes of delayed resumption of cyclicity in nursed beef cows. In dairy cows, the normal pattern of early resumption of ovulation may be delayed in high-yielding Holstein type cows generally owing to the effects of severe negative energy balance, dystocia, retained placental membranes and uterine infections. First ovulation, in both dairy and beef cows, is generally silent (i.e., no behavioural oestrus) and followed by a short inter-ovulatory interval (>70%). The key to optimizing the resumption of ovulation in both beef and dairy cows is appropriate pre-calving nutrition and management so that cows calve down in optimal body condition (BCS; 2.75 to 3.0) with postpartum body condition loss restricted to <0.5 BCS units.

  8. Innate immune memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates.

  9. Bridging innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Paul, William E

    2011-12-09

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2011 to Jules Hoffmann, Bruce Beutler, and the late Ralph Steinman recognizes accomplishments in understanding and unifying the two strands of immunology, the evolutionarily ancient innate immune response and modern adaptive immunity.

  10. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  11. Effect of the Ketone Body Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on the Innate Defense Capability of Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flinspach, Claudia; Pfaffl, Michael W.; Kliem, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Negative energy balance and ketosis are thought to cause impaired immune function and to increase the risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of elevated levels of the predominant ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate on the innate defense capability of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) challenged with the mastitis pathogen Escherichia coli (E. coli). Therefore, pbMEC of healthy dairy cows in mid- lactation were isolated from milk and challenged in culture with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli. pbMEC stimulated with E. coli for 6 h or 30 h showed an up-regulation of several innate immune genes, whereas co-stimulation of pbMEC with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli resulted in the down-regulation of CCL2, SAA3, LF and C3 gene expression compared to the challenge with solely the bacterial stimulus. These results indicated that increased BHBA concentrations may be partially responsible for the higher mastitis susceptibility of dairy cows in early lactation. Elevated levels of BHBA in blood and milk during negative energy balance and ketosis are likely to impair innate immune function in the bovine mammary gland by attenuating the expression of a broad range of innate immune genes. PMID:27310007

  12. Innate immunity in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Minnicozzi, Michael; Sawyer, Richard T; Fenton, Matthew J

    2011-07-01

    The innate immune system consists of multiple cell types that express germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Allergens are frequently found in forms and mixtures that contain PAMPs and DAMPs. The innate immune system is interposed between the external environment and the internal acquired immune system. It is also an integral part of the airways, gut, and skin. These tissues face continuous exposure to allergens, PAMPs, and DAMPs. Interaction of allergens with the innate immune system normally results in immune tolerance but, in the case of allergic disease, this interaction induces recurring and/or chronic inflammation as well as the loss of immunologic tolerance. Upon activation by allergens, the innate immune response commits the acquired immune response to a variety of outcomes mediated by distinct T-cell subsets, such as T-helper 2, regulatory T, or T-helper 17 cells. New studies highlighted in this review underscore the close relationship between allergens, the innate immune system, and the acquired immune system that promotes homeostasis versus allergic disease.

  13. Innate immune recognition of cancer.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seng-Ryong; Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    The observation that a subset of cancer patients show evidence for spontaneous CD8+ T cell priming against tumor-associated antigens has generated renewed interest in the innate immune pathways that might serve as a bridge to an adaptive immune response to tumors. Manipulation of this endogenous T cell response with therapeutic intent-for example, using blocking antibodies inhibiting PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1) interactions-is showing impressive clinical results. As such, understanding the innate immune mechanisms that enable this T cell response has important clinical relevance. Defined innate immune interactions in the cancer context include recognition by innate cell populations (NK cells, NKT cells, and γδ T cells) and also by dendritic cells and macrophages in response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Recent evidence has indicated that the major DAMP driving host antitumor immune responses is tumor-derived DNA, sensed by the stimulator of interferon gene (STING) pathway and driving type I IFN production. A deeper knowledge of the clinically relevant innate immune pathways involved in the recognition of tumors is leading toward new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.

  14. GPCRs in invertebrate innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Jerome; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-08-15

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a privileged point of contact between cells and their surrounding environment. They have been widely adopted in vertebrates as mediators of signals involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Invertebrates rely on innate immune defences to resist infection. We review here evidence from a number of different species, principally the genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster that points to an important role for GPCRs in modulating innate immunity in invertebrates too. In addition to examples of GPCRs involved in regulating the expression of defence genes, we discuss studies in C. elegans addressing the role of GPCR signalling in pathogen aversive behaviour. Despite the many lacunae in our current knowledge, it is clear that GPCR signalling contributes to host defence across the animal kingdom.

  15. Tuning innate immunity by translation.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Robert; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-12-01

    In multicellular organisms, the epithelia is a contact surface with the surrounding environment and is exposed to a variety of adverse biotic (pathogenic) and abiotic (chemical) factors. Multi-layered pathways that operate on different time scales have evolved to preserve cellular integrity and elicit stress-specific response. Several stress-response programs are activated until a complete elimination of the stress is achieved. The innate immune response, which is triggered by pathogenic invasion, is rather harmful when active over a prolonged time, thus the response follows characteristic oscillatory trajectories. Here, we review different translation programs that function to precisely fine-tune the time at which various components of the innate immune response dwell between active and inactive. We discuss how different pro-inflammatory pathways are co-ordinated to temporally offset single reactions and to achieve an optimal balance between fighting pathogens and being less harmful for healthy cells.

  16. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  17. Effectiveness of a recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone on the ovarian follicles, peripheral progesterone, estradiol-17β, and pregnancy rate of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed; Moustafa M., Zeitoun

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed at elucidating the effects of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) on the ovarian follicular dynamics, progesterone, estradiol-17β profiles, and pregnancy of dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Three groups (G, n=5 cows) of multiparous dairy cows were used. G1 (C) control cows were given controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandin F2α; G2 (L) cows were given low dose (525 IU and G3 (H) cows were given high dose (1800 IU) of r-hFSH on twice daily basis at the last 3 days before CIDR removal. All cows were ultrasonically scanned for follicular growth and dynamics, and blood samples were collected every other day for two consecutive estrus cycles for the determination of estradiol-17β and progesterone. Results: Estrus was observed in all C and L but not in H cows. Dominant follicle was bigger in L compared to C and H cows. Dominant follicle in C (16.00±2.5 mm) and L cows (17.40±2.3 mm) disappeared at 72 h after CIDR removal. However, in H cows, no ovulation has occurred during 7 days post-CIDR removal. Progesterone was not different (p>0.10) among groups, whereas estradiol-17β revealed significant (p<0.01) reduction in H (15.96±2.5 pg/ml) cows compared to C (112.26±26.1 pg/ml) and L (97.49±15.9 pg/ml) cows. Pregnancy rate was higher in L cows (60%) compared with C cows (20%). However, H cows were not artificially inseminated due to non-ovulation. Only a cow of C group has calved one calf, however, 2 of the L cows gave birth of twins and a cow gave single calf. Conclusion: Administration of a low dose (525 IU) of r-hFSH resulted in an optimal size of dominant follicle, normal values of progesterone and estradiol-17β, and 40% twinning rate, howeverusing 1800 IU of r-hFSH, have adverse effects on ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal profiles with non-pregnancy of dairy cows raised under hot climate. PMID:27536029

  18. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  19. Effect of ovulatory follicle size and expression of estrus on progesterone secretion in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced ovulation of small dominant follicles (sdf, <12 mm; CO-Synch protocol) in postpartum beef cows resulted in formation of CL that exhibited a delayed rise in progesterone (P4; P < 0.05) compared to CL that formed from large dominant follicles (ldf, >12 mm). The objective was to characterize P4...

  20. Space allowance and barriers influence cow competition for mixed rations fed on a feed-pad between bouts of grazing.

    PubMed

    Hetti Arachchige, A D; Fisher, A D; Wales, W J; Auldist, M J; Hannah, M C; Jongman, E C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate how feeding space allowance and provision of feed barriers interact to affect feeding and social behavior of dairy cows fed a partial mixed ration on a feed-pad. The treatments were factorial with 3 feeding space allowances (0.6, 0.75, or 1.0m of trough space per cow) and feed troughs that were either open or had head barriers that physically separated adjacent cows to reduce interactions during feeding. One hundred and forty-four Holstein-Friesian cows in mid lactation were allocated into 12 groups of 12 cows, with 1 of 6 treatments (3 × 2) randomly assigned to 2 groups out of 12. Treatments were changed weekly over 3 wk according to a row-column, crossover design, with week corresponding to rows and group corresponding to columns. Thus, the design included 2 replicated groups per treatment in each week. Grazed pasture intake was approximately 6.1 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day, supplemented with 3.5 kg of DM/cow per day of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain fed during milking and 10.7 kg of DM/cow per day of a mixed ration offered on the feed-pad after each milking. The experiment comprised a 7-d pre-experimental period followed by a 21-d experimental period. The social hierarchy within each group was determined before the experiment commenced. Feeding and social behaviors of cows were analyzed using video recordings and the changes in heart rate and heart rate variability were determined using heart rate monitors. Data were analyzed using mixed effect models by REML. When feeding space allowance was increased, we observed an increase in the time a cow spent feeding and a decrease in the number of feeding bouts in relation to the total time feed was available, particularly in subordinate cows. The number of aggressive behaviors and displacements decreased when space allowance increased. In addition, HR was reduced and the reduction was more pronounced in subordinate cows compared with dominant cows. Use of feed

  1. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  2. The birth of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Richard L

    2013-08-01

    Modern immunology has seen an apparent revolution with the recognition that human immune defense is not only the responsibility of bone marrow-derived leucocytes, but also dependent on a coordinated network of many cell types including epithelial cells, fibroblasts and neural elements. This classic paper by Alexander Fleming and V.D. Allison (British J of Exp Path, 111, 1922, 252) was largely forgotten for 75 years and describes the discovery that epithelia produce a protein with direct antimicrobial activity. Thus, this paper represents the birth of the field now referred to as innate immunity and first describes an antimicrobial protein (AMP).

  3. Innate Immunity Dysregulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    proteins linking innate and acquired 22 immunity. Nature immunology 2001; 2(8): 675-680. 23 24 57. Li J, Wang X, Zhang F, Yin H. Toll-like receptors...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0221 TITLE: Innate Immunity Dysregulation in...30 Sept 2013 – 29 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “ Innate Immunity Dysregulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  5. The biology of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Artis, David; Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-15

    The innate immune system is composed of a diverse array of evolutionarily ancient haematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. These cell populations collaborate with each other, with the adaptive immune system and with non-haematopoietic cells to promote immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. Innate lymphoid cells are the most recently identified constituents of the innate immune system and have been the focus of intense investigation over the past five years. We summarize the studies that formally identified innate lymphoid cells and highlight their emerging roles in controlling tissue homeostasis in the context of infection, chronic inflammation, metabolic disease and cancer.

  6. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    of the total variation between primiparous cows, whereas variables related to milk yield, fertility, and days in milk at peak yield were the most dominating for multiparous cows. Our study indicated that milk yields in previous lactation and at second and third milk recording correlate well with milk production potential, and therefore, may be promising indicators when selecting the most suitable cows for extended lactation.

  7. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease can affect certain other animals, like goats and sheep. BSE is an incurable fatal brain ... to ruminant animals (such as cows, sheep, and goats), which was what was thought to have begun ...

  8. Chondrosarcoma in a cow.

    PubMed

    Acland, H M

    1983-10-01

    Chondrosarcomas are rare in cattle and none has been described in detail. A 30 cm diameter chondrosarcoma centred upon the costochondral junctions of the left 9th to 12th ribs of a 5-year-old Aberdeen Angus cow is described. In areas with a cartilaginous matrix the chondrocytes were plump, sometimes binucleate, sometimes bizarre, with occasionally 2 or more cells per lacuna. The other major matrix was loose and fibrillar, and the cells were spindle-shaped or stellate, with a moderate mitotic rate. Small areas appeared fibrosarcomatous. Both major types of matrix were present in the metastases, which extensively involved the pleura, intrathoracic lymph nodes and lungs. Less numerous and smaller metastases were present on the peritoneal surfaces and within several abdominal and pelvic organs. It is postulated that local extension of the tumour from the primary mass was followed by lymphatic spread to the lungs.

  9. Beef cow-calf production.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  10. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production.

  11. Meeting the demand for innate and adaptive immunities during evolution.

    PubMed

    Du Pasquier, L

    2005-07-01

    An ideal immune system should provide each individual with rapid and efficient responses, a diverse repertoire of recognition and effector molecules and a certain flexibility to match the changing internal and external environment. It should be economic in cells and genes. Specific memory would be useful. It should not be autoreactive. These requirements, a mixture of innate and adaptive immunity features, are modulated in function of the dominant mode of selection for each species of metazoa during evolution (K or r). From sponges to man, a great diversity of receptors and effector mechanisms, some of them shared with plants, are articulated around conserved signalling cascades. Multiple attempts at combining innate and adaptive immunity somatic features can be observed as new somatic mechanisms provide individualized repertoires of receptors throughout metazoa, in agnathans, prochordates, echinoderms and mollusks. The adaptive immunity of vertebrates with lymphocytes and their specific receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily, the major histocompatibility complex, developed from innate immunity evolutionary lines that can be traced back in earlier deuterostomes.

  12. [Innate immunity, Toll receptor and sepsis].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl

    2003-01-01

    The innate immune response is the first line of defense against infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide and other pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Intracellular signals initiated by interaction between Toll receptors and specific PAMPs results in inflammatory response. Sepsis and septic shock are the result of an exaggerated inflammatory systemic response induced by innate immune dysregulation.

  13. Genomic analysis of between-cow variation in dermal fibroblast response to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, S.; Kerr, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune response plays a major role in defense against mastitis causing pathogens. Identification of existing variation in innate immune signaling among cows and the underlying molecular causes for the variation may help in design of new mastitis control strategies. The dermal fibroblast has been used as a model cell type to explore between-cow variation in the ability of cells to produce IL-8 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and this response appears related to an animal’s ability to respond to in vivo challenge with LPS or Escherichia coli mastitis. In this study, primary dermal fibroblast cultures of cows and microarray-based genomic analysis were used to investigate the cause(s) for the variable response to LPS. Fibroblast cultures from two cows, one with a low response phenotype (LRarray) and another with a high response phenotype (HRarray) were selected from our collection of fibroblast cultures established from 88 cows. The LR array fibroblast culture produces approximately five-fold less IL-8 as well as IL-6 proteins in response to 24 h LPS treatment than the HRarray fibroblast culture. Genomic analysis of RNA obtained from three replicates of the two cultures before and after 8 h LPS treatment revealed a combined LPS-induced differential expression of 321 transcripts indicating the robust response capability of the fibroblast cell. Under basal conditions, the microarray analysis revealed two-fold less TLR4 expression in the LR array fibroblasts as compared to the HRarray fibroblasts and this was associated with a marked reduction in expression of genes regulated by the TLR4-MyD88-dependent and TLR4-TRIF-dependent pathways (IL-8, IL-6, SAA3, CCL20, MX1, IRF1 and ISG20). The between-culture differential expression of TLR4 was confirmed and extended by quantitative PCR analysis (QPCR) that revealed a 33-fold lower expression of TLR4 in the LRarray fibroblast culture. After LPS treatment the difference in TLR4 expression increased

  14. Adaptive and innate transforming growth factor beta signaling impact herpes simplex virus 1 latency and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sariah J; Mott, Kevin R; Wechsler, Steven L; Flavell, Richard A; Town, Terrence; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-11-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play important protective roles by combating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key negative cytokine regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Yet, it is unknown whether TGF-β signaling in either immune compartment impacts HSV-1 replication and latency. We undertook genetic approaches to address these issues by infecting two different dominant negative TGF-β receptor type II transgenic mouse lines. These mice have specific TGF-β signaling blockades in either T cells or innate cells. Mice were ocularly infected with HSV-1 to evaluate the effects of restricted innate or adaptive TGF-β signaling during acute and latent infections. Limiting innate cell but not T cell TGF-β signaling reduced virus replication in the eyes of infected mice. On the other hand, blocking TGF-β signaling in either innate cells or T cells resulted in decreased latency in the trigeminal ganglia of infected mice. Furthermore, inhibiting TGF-β signaling in T cells reduced cell lysis and leukocyte infiltration in corneas and trigeminal ganglia during primary HSV-1 infection of mice. These findings strongly suggest that TGF-β signaling, which generally functions to dampen immune responses, results in increased HSV-1 latency.

  15. Relationship with BSE (Mad Cow Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links Prion Diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Chronic Wasting Disease ( ... Related Links Prion Diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Chronic Wasting Disease ( ...

  16. Innate and adaptive immune responses to in utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thomas R; Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Sacco, Randy E; Van Campen, Hana

    2015-06-01

    Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent infection with ncpBVDV in the fetus has been attributed to the inability to mount an immune response before 90-150 days of gestational age. The result is 'immune tolerance', persistent viral replication and shedding of ncpBVDV. In contrast, we describe the chronic upregulation of fetal Type I interferon (IFN) pathway genes and the induction of IFN-γ pathways in fetuses of cows infected on day 75 of gestation. Persistently infected (PI) fetal IFN-γ concentrations also increased at day 97 at the peak of fetal viremia and IFN-γ mRNA was significantly elevated in fetal thymus, liver and spleen 14-22 days post maternal inoculation. PI fetuses respond to ncpBVDV infection through induction of Type I IFN and IFN-γ activated genes leading to a reduction in ncpBVDV titer. We hypothesize that fetal infection with BVDV persists because of impaired induction of IFN-γ in the face of activated Type I IFN responses. Clarification of the mechanisms involved in the IFN-associated pathways during BVDV fetal infection may lead to better detection methods, antiviral compounds and selection of genetically resistant breeding animals.

  17. Consider a spherical cow

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, J.

    1985-01-01

    Consider a Spherical Cow describes relatively simple mathematical methods for developing quantitative answers to often complex environmental problems. Early chapters provide systematic insights into problem solving and identifying mathematical tools and models that lead to back of the envelope answers. Subsequent chapters treat increasingly complex problems. Solutions are sought at different levels, e.g., informed guesses, quantitative solutions based on detailed analytical models, and ultimately, critical evaluation of the consequences of removing simplifying assumptions from the models. The vehicle employed is a collection of 44 challenging problems, with clearly worked out solutions, plus ample exercises. The book, though directed at environmentalists, should appeal to chemists. Many of the problems are rooted in chemistry, including acid rain, the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect, chemical contamination, and the disturbing of cyclical chemical balances. Readers feeling a civic responsibility to think and speak more clearly on environmental issues will find the essential modeling and quantitative approaches valuable assets beyond the help provided by the usual courses in science and mathematics. In fact, the techniques of problem solving have broad applicability beyond the specific environmental examples covered in this text.

  18. Amyloidosis in six dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R; Jamison, K

    1984-12-15

    Amyloidosis was diagnosed in 6 Holstein cows that were examined because of chronic intractable diarrhea. Besides diarrhea, the chief finding was a nephrotic-like syndrome, in that there was edema, hypoproteinemia, and proteinuria. Other consistent clinicopathologic abnormalities were hyperfibrinogenemia, low-normal serum calcium content or hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged bromosulphalein half time, high serum urea nitrogen concentration, high serum creatinine concentration, and low urine specific gravity. Foci of inflammation including traumatic reticuloperitonitis, traumatic pericarditis, salpingitis, mastitis, and metritis were found. There was histologic evidence of amyloid in the kidneys, liver, adrenal glands, and spleen. The iodine-sulfuric acid test for amyloid was positive in 2 cows. The Congo red dye test for amyloid was positive in 2 other cows. In spite of supportive care, all the cows either died naturally or were euthanatized. Because foci of inflammation were found in each cow, it was concluded that the most likely classification of amyloidosis in these cases would be reactive systemic amyloidosis and that the major amyloid fibril protein would be type AA.

  19. Modulation of dendritic cell innate and adaptive immune functions by oral and sublingual immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Pamela A; Keet, Corinne A; Guerrerio, Anthony L; Chichester, Kristin L; Bieneman, Anja P; Hamilton, Robert G; Wood, Robert A; Schroeder, John T

    2014-11-01

    Sublingual (SLIT) and oral immunotherapy (OIT) are promising treatments for food allergy, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) induce and maintain Th2-type allergen-specific T cells, and also regulate innate immunity through their expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We examined how SLIT and OIT influenced DC innate and adaptive immune responses in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk (CM) allergy. SLIT, but not OIT, decreased TLR-induced IL-6 secretion by myeloid DCs (mDCs). SLIT and OIT altered mDC IL-10 secretion, a potent inhibitor of FcεRI-dependent pro-inflammatory responses. OIT uniquely augmented IFN-α and decreased IL-6 secretion by plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), which was associated with reduced TLR-induced IL-13 release in pDC-T cell co-cultures. Both SLIT and OIT decreased Th2 cytokine secretion to CM in pDC-T, but not mDC-T, co-cultures. Therefore, SLIT and OIT exert unique effects on DC-driven innate and adaptive immune responses, which may inhibit allergic inflammation and promote tolerance.

  20. Structural similarities of human and mammalian lipocalins, and their function in innate immunity and allergy.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Pacios, L F; Bianchini, R; Hofstetter, G; Roth-Walter, F

    2016-03-01

    Owners and their domestic animals via skin shedding and secretions, mutually exchange microbiomes, potential pathogens and innate immune molecules. Among the latter especially lipocalins are multifaceted: they may have an immunomodulatory function and, furthermore, they represent one of the most important animal allergen families. The amino acid identities, as well as their structures by superposition modeling were compared among human lipocalins, hLCN1 and hLCN2, and most important animal lipocalin allergens, such as Can f 1, Can f 2 and Can f 4 from dog, Fel d 4 from cats, Bos d 5 from cow's milk, Equ c 1 from horses, and Mus m 1 from mice, all of them representing major allergens. The β-barrel fold with a central molecular pocket is similar among human and animal lipocalins. Thereby, lipocalins are able to transport a variety of biological ligands in their highly conserved calyx-like cavity, among them siderophores with the strongest known capability to complex iron (Fe(3+) ). Levels of human lipocalins are elevated in nonallergic inflammation and cancer, associated with innate immunoregulatory functions that critically depend on ligand load. Accordingly, deficient loading of lipocalin allergens establishes their capacity to induce Th2 hypersensitivity. Our similarity analysis of human and mammalian lipocalins highlights their function in innate immunity and allergy.

  1. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  2. Innate immunesenescence: underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hazeldine, Jon; Lord, Janet M

    2015-04-01

    A well-established feature of physiological ageing is altered immune function, a phenomenon termed immunesenescence. Thought to be responsible in part for the increased incidence and severity of infection reported by older adults, as well as the age-related decline in vaccine efficacy and autoimmunity, immunesenescence affects both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Whilst much is known regarding the impact of age on adaptive immunity, innate immunity has received far less attention from immune gerontologists. However, over the last decade it has become increasingly apparent that this non-specific arm of the immune response undergoes considerable functional and phenotypical alterations with age. Here, we provide a detailed overview of innate immunesenescence and its underlying molecular mechanisms, and highlight those studies whose results indicate that changes in innate immunity with age have a significant impact upon the health and well-being of older adults.

  3. New thinking, innateness and inherited representation.

    PubMed

    Shea, Nicholas

    2012-08-05

    The New Thinking contained in this volume rejects an Evolutionary Psychology that is committed to innate domain-specific psychological mechanisms: gene-based adaptations that are unlearnt, developmentally fixed and culturally universal. But the New Thinking does not simply deny the importance of innate psychological traits. The problem runs deeper: the concept of innateness is not suited to distinguishing between the New Thinking and Evolutionary Psychology. That points to a more serious problem with the concept of innateness as it is applied to human psychological phenotypes. This paper argues that the features of recent human evolution highlighted by the New Thinking imply that the concept of inherited representation, set out here, is a better tool for theorizing about human cognitive evolution.

  4. Innate Immune Sensing and Response to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Pulendran, Bali; Maddur, Mohan S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Recent studies in mouse models have revealed an indispensable role for the innate immune system in defense against influenza virus. Recognition of the virus by innate immune receptors in a multitude of cell types activates intricate signaling networks, functioning to restrict viral replication. Downstream effector mechanisms include activation of innate immune cells and, induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. However, uncontrolled innate responses are associated with exaggerated disease, especially in pandemic influenza virus infection. Despite advances in the understanding of innate response to influenza in the mouse model, there is a large knowledge gap in humans, particularly in immunocom-promised groups such as infants and the elderly. We propose here, the need for further studies in humans to decipher the role of innate immunity to influenza virus, particularly at the site of infection. These studies will complement the existing work in mice and facilitate the quest to design improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies against influenza. PMID:25078919

  5. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells1–4. Lymphocytedeficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1–deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25−Foxp3− or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses. PMID:17891146

  6. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2007-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells. Lymphocyte-deficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1-deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25-Foxp3- or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses.

  7. Genetic evaluation for cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When genetic evaluations for Productive Life were introduced by USDA in 1994, U.S. dairy producers had an opportunity to produce healthier cows, and it happened. The genetic evaluations were incorporated into selection programs and the deterioration occurring in pregnancy rate and somatic cell score...

  8. Preovulatory estradiol and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in suckled beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality. In Exp. 1, single ovulation reciprocal embryo transfer (ET) was utilized to examine the relationship between preovulatory serum concentrations of estrad...

  9. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  10. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  11. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  12. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  13. Gaining Cyber Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Gaining Cyber Dominance Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University NETCOM G3/5/7 TREX January 2015...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gaining Cyber Dominance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...2014) 4 GCD Overview January 2015 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University FY15 Initiatives Gaining Cyber Dominance Program • Army topology development

  14. Innateness and the instinct to learn.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Concepts of innateness were at the heart of Darwin's approach to behavior and central to the ethological theorizing of Lorenz and, at least to start with, of Tinbergen. Then Tinbergen did an about face, and for some twenty years the term 'innate' became highly suspect. He attributed the change to Lehrman's famous 1953 critique in which he asserted that classifying behaviors as innate tells us nothing about how they develop. Although Lehrman made many valid points, I will argue that this exchange also led to profound misunderstandings that were ultimately damaging to progress in research on the development of behavior. The concept of 'instincts to learn', receiving renewed support from current theorizing among geneticists about phenotypic plasticity, provides a potential resolution of some of the controversies that Lehrman created. Bioacoustical studies, particularly on song learning in birds, serve both to confirm some of Lehrman's anxieties about the term 'innate', but also to make a case that he threw out the genetic baby with the bathwater. The breathtaking progress in molecular and developmental genetics has prepared the way for a fuller understanding of the complexities underlying even the simplest notions of innate behavior, necessary before we can begin to comprehend the ontogeny of behavior.

  15. Corruption of Innate Immunity by Bacterial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host’s innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections. PMID:19756242

  16. Corruption of innate immunity by bacterial proteases.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host's innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections.

  17. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  18. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  19. Innate immune system cells in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Espinosa-Luna, Jose E; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María V; Montoya-Díaz, Eduardo; Blanco-Favela, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall characterized by innate and adaptive immune system involvement. A key component of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation is the persistence of different innate immune cell types including mast cells, neutrophils, natural killer cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Several endogenous signals such as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and exogenous signals such as lipopolysaccharides, trigger the activation of these cells. In particular, these signals orchestrate the early and late inflammatory responses through the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and contribute to plaque evolution through the formation of foam cells, among other events. In this review we discuss how innate immune system cells affect atherosclerosis pathogenesis.

  20. The innate immune system in demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Lior; Quintana, Francisco J; Weiner, Howard L

    2012-07-01

    Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis are chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases with a heterogeneous clinical presentation and course. Both the adaptive and the innate immune systems have been suggested to contribute to their pathogenesis and recovery. In this review, we discuss the role of the innate immune system in mediating demyelinating diseases. In particular, we provide an overview of the anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory functions of dendritic cells, mast cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NK-T cells, γδ T cells, microglial cells, and astrocytes. We emphasize the interaction of astroctyes with the immune system and how this interaction relates to the demyelinating pathologies. Given the pivotal role of the innate immune system, it is possible that targeting these cells may provide an effective therapeutic approach for demyelinating diseases.

  1. Ion Channels in Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Stefan; Wulff, Heike; Skolnik, Edward Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters mediate the transport of charged ions across hydrophobic lipid membranes. In immune cells, divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc have important roles as second messengers to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. By contrast, monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium mainly regulate the membrane potential, which indirectly controls the influx of calcium and immune cell signaling. Studies investigating human patients with mutations in ion channels and transporters, analysis of gene-targeted mice, or pharmacological experiments with ion channel inhibitors have revealed important roles of ionic signals in lymphocyte development and in innate and adaptive immune responses. We here review the mechanisms underlying the function of ion channels and transporters in lymphocytes and innate immune cells and discuss their roles in lymphocyte development, adaptive and innate immune responses, and autoimmunity, as well as recent efforts to develop pharmacological inhibitors of ion channels for immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25861976

  2. Innate immunity in lophotrochozoans: the annelids.

    PubMed

    Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Cooper, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Innate immunity plays a major role as a first defense against microbes. Effectors of the innate response include pattern recognition receptors (PRR), phagocytic cells, proteolytic cascades and peptides/proteins with antimicrobial properties. Each element of these events has been well studied in vertebrates and in some invertebrates such as annelids. From these different researches, it appears that mammalian innate immunity could be considered as a mosaic of invertebrate immune responses. Annelids belonging to the lophotrochozoans' group are primitive coelomates that possess specially developed cellular immunity against pathogens including phagocytosis, encapsulation and spontaneous cytotoxicity of coelomocytes against allogenic or xenogenic cells. They have also developed an important humoral immunity that is based on antimicrobial, hemolytic and clotting properties of their body fluid. In the present review, we will emphasize the different immunodefense strategies that adaptation has taken during the course of evolution of two classes of annelids i.e. oligochaetes and achaetes.

  3. Humoral innate immune response and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Varahan, Sriram; Yuan, Kai; Li, Xiangdong; Fleming, Sherry D.

    2012-01-01

    The humoral innate immune response consists of multiple components, including the naturally occurring antibodies (NAb), pentraxins and the complement and contact cascades. As soluble, plasma components, these innate proteins provide key elements in the prevention and control of disease. However, pathogens and cells with altered self proteins utilize multiple humoral components to evade destruction and promote pathogy. Many studies have examined the relationship between humoral immunity and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the interactions between the humoral components and their role in promoting the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Understanding the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the individual components and the interactions between proteins which regulate the innate and adaptive response will provide therapeutic targets for subsequent studies. PMID:22771788

  4. Innate Immune sensing of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rathinam, Vijay A. K.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    DNA viruses are a significant contributor to human morbidity and mortality. The immune system protects against viral infections through coordinated innate and adaptive immune responses. While the antigen-specific adaptive mechanisms have been extensively studied, the critical contributions of innate immunity to anti-viral defenses have only been revealed in the very recent past. Central to these anti-viral defenses is the recognition of viral pathogens by a diverse set of germ-line encoded receptors that survey nearly all cellular compartments for the presence of pathogens. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the innate immune sensing of DNA viruses and focus on the recognition mechanisms involved. PMID:21334037

  5. [Regulation of allergy by innate immune system].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yutaro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-11-01

    Allergy is an immune disease including asthma. Activation of Th2 response, such as production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 from CD4+ T cells and IgG1 or IgE from B cells is responsible for allergy. Activation of acquired immune system requires preceding activation of innate immunity, therefore innate immunity may control Th2 response and allergy. Recent studies revealed that dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and basophils play central roles in the initiation of Th2 response. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding on the control of Th2 and allergic responses by innate immune system, and discuss recent findings on house dust mite-induced allergic response based on these understandings.

  6. Vaccine adjuvants: putting innate immunity to work.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Robert L; Sher, Alan; Seder, Robert A

    2010-10-29

    Adjuvants enhance immunity to vaccines and experimental antigens by a variety of mechanisms. In the past decade, many receptors and signaling pathways in the innate immune system have been defined and these innate responses strongly influence the adaptive immune response. The focus of this review is to delineate the innate mechanisms by which adjuvants mediate their effects. We highlight how adjuvants can be used to influence the magnitude and alter the quality of the adaptive response in order to provide maximum protection against specific pathogens. Despite the impressive success of currently approved adjuvants for generating immunity to viral and bacterial infections, there remains a need for improved adjuvants that enhance protective antibody responses, especially in populations that respond poorly to current vaccines. However, the larger challenge is to develop vaccines that generate strong T cell immunity with purified or recombinant vaccine antigens.

  7. Ion channels in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Feske, Stefan; Wulff, Heike; Skolnik, Edward Y

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters mediate the transport of charged ions across hydrophobic lipid membranes. In immune cells, divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc have important roles as second messengers to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. By contrast, monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium mainly regulate the membrane potential, which indirectly controls the influx of calcium and immune cell signaling. Studies investigating human patients with mutations in ion channels and transporters, analysis of gene-targeted mice, or pharmacological experiments with ion channel inhibitors have revealed important roles of ionic signals in lymphocyte development and in innate and adaptive immune responses. We here review the mechanisms underlying the function of ion channels and transporters in lymphocytes and innate immune cells and discuss their roles in lymphocyte development, adaptive and innate immune responses, and autoimmunity, as well as recent efforts to develop pharmacological inhibitors of ion channels for immunomodulatory therapy.

  8. Innate cellular responses to rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S

    2013-06-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhoea in infants and young children. Following rotavirus infection in the intestine an innate immune response is rapidly triggered. This response leads to the induction of type I and type III interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines, resulting in a reduction in viral replication. Here we review the current literature describing the detection of rotavirus infection by pattern recognition receptors within host cells, the subsequent molecular mechanisms leading to IFN and cytokine production, and the processes leading to reduced rotavirus replication and the development of protective immunity. Rotavirus countermeasures against innate responses, and their roles in modulating rotavirus replication in mice, also are discussed. By linking these different aspects of innate immunity, we provide a comprehensive overview of the host's first line of defence against rotavirus infection. Understanding these processes is expected to be of benefit in improving strategies to combat rotavirus disease.

  9. Innate Immune Activity in Glomerular Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hong; Bao, Wenduona; Shi, Shaolin

    2017-01-01

    Glomerular podocytes are specialized in structure and play an essential role in glomerular filtration. In addition, podocyte stress can initiate glomerular damage by inducing the injury of other glomerular cell types. Studies have shown that podocytes possess the property of immune cells and may be involved in adaptive immunity. Emerging studies have also shown that podocytes possess signaling pathways of innate immune responses and that innate immune responses often result in podocyte injury. More recently, mitochondrial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs) have been shown to play a critical role in a variety of pathological processes in cells. In the present mini-review, we summarize the recent advances in the studies of innate immunity and its pathogenic role in podocytes, particularly, from the perspective of mtDAMPs. PMID:28228761

  10. New insights into upper airway innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Protecting the upper airway from microbial infection is an important function of the immune system. Proper detection of these pathogens is paramount for sinonasal epithelial cells to be able to prepare a defensive response. Toll-like receptors and, more recently, bitter taste receptors and sweet taste receptors have been implicated as sensors able to detect the presence of these pathogens and certain compounds that they secrete. Activation of these receptors also triggers innate immune responses to prevent or counteract infection, including mucociliary clearance and the production and secretion of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., defensins). Objective: To provide an overview of the current knowledge of the role of innate immunity in the upper airway, the mechanisms by which it is carried out, and its clinical relevance. Methods: A literature review of the existing knowledge of the role of innate immunity in the human sinonasal cavity was performed. Results: Clinical and basic science studies have shown that the physical epithelial cell barrier, mucociliary clearance, and antimicrobial compound secretion play pivotal innate immune roles in defending the sinonasal cavity from infection. Clinical findings have also linked dysfunction of these defense mechanisms with diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis. Recent discoveries have elucidated the significance of bitter and sweet taste receptors in modulating immune responses in the upper airway. Conclusion: Numerous innate immune mechanisms seem to work in a concerted fashion to keep the sinonasal cavity free of infection. Understanding sinonasal innate immune function and dysfunction in health and disease has important implications for patients with respiratory ailments, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis. PMID:27657896

  11. Immunological memory within the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Joseph C; Ugolini, Sophie; Vivier, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Immune memory has traditionally been the domain of the adaptive immune system, present only in antigen-specific T and B cells. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for immunological memory in lower organisms (which are not thought to possess adaptive immunity) and within specific cell subsets of the innate immune system. A special focus will be given to recent findings in both mouse and humans for specificity and memory in natural killer (NK) cells, which have resided under the umbrella of innate immunity for decades. The surprising longevity and enhanced responses of previously primed NK cells will be discussed in the context of several immunization settings. PMID:24674969

  12. Innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Thomas F; Schreiber, Hans; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Most tumor cells express antigens that can mediate recognition by host CD8+ T cells. Cancers that are detected clinically must have evaded antitumor immune responses to grow progressively. Recent work has suggested two broad categories of tumor escape based on cellular and molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. One major subset shows a T cell–inflamed phenotype consisting of infiltrating T cells, a broad chemokine profile and a type I interferon signature indicative of innate immune activation. These tumors appear to resist immune attack through the dominant inhibitory effects of immune system–suppressive pathways. The other major phenotype lacks this T cell–inflamed phenotype and appears to resist immune attack through immune system exclusion or ignorance. These two major phenotypes of tumor microenvironment may require distinct immunotherapeutic interventions for maximal therapeutic effect. PMID:24048123

  13. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues.

  14. Ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Bottini-Luzardo, Maria; Aguilar-Perez, Carlos; Centurion-Castro, Fernando; Solorio-Sanchez, Francisco; Ayala-Burgos, Armin; Montes-Perez, Ruben; Muñoz-Rodriguez, David; Ku-Vera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The legume Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is widely used to supplement forage in silvopastoral livestock systems in Latin America. Little is known about its possible effects on the cow reproductive dynamic. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Leucaena foliage intake on re-establishment of ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum (7-90 days) cows. Twenty-four multiparous Bos taurus × Bos indicus cows were divided into two homogenous groups and assigned to one of two treatments: a silvopastoral system (SS, n = 12), consisting of an association of Cynodon nlemfuensis grass and L. leucocephala; and a control system (CS, n = 12), consisting of C. nlemfuensis alone. Intake of Leucaena in the SS ranged from 3.80 to 6.43 kg DM/cow/day. Plasma mimosine concentrations ranged from 1270 to 1530 μg/mL, and those for 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) from 147 to 729 μg/mL. No 3,4-DHP was detected in plasma. No difference (P > 0.05) between treatments was observed for the number of cows exhibiting small, medium, or dominant follicles, or estrus behavior. The number of cows which re-established ovarian cyclicity (n = 6) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS (n = 9). Corpus luteum lifespan was longer (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS. Intake of Leucaena affected the number of cows exhibiting ovarian cyclicity and extended corpus luteum life, but did not affect follicular development and estrus behavior.

  15. Adrenergic regulation of innate immunity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Scanzano, Angela; Cosentino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has a major role in the brain-immune cross-talk, but few information exist on the sympathoadrenergic regulation of innate immune system. The aim of this review is to summarize available knowledge regarding the sympathetic modulation of the innate immune response, providing a rational background for the possible repurposing of adrenergic drugs as immunomodulating agents. The cells of immune system express adrenoceptors (AR), which represent the target for noradrenaline and adrenaline. In human neutrophils, adrenaline and noradrenaline inhibit migration, CD11b/CD18 expression, and oxidative metabolism, possibly through β-AR, although the role of α1- and α2-AR requires further investigation. Natural Killer express β-AR, which are usually inhibitory. Monocytes express β-AR and their activation is usually antiinflammatory. On murine Dentritic cells (DC), β-AR mediate sympathetic influence on DC-T cells interactions. In human DC β2-AR may affect Th1/2 differentiation of CD4+ T cells. In microglia and in astrocytes, β2-AR dysregulation may contribute to neuroinflammation in autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease. In conclusion, extensive evidence supports a critical role for adrenergic mechanisms in the regulation of innate immunity, in peripheral tissues as well as in the CNS. Sympathoadrenergic pathways in the innate immune system may represent novel antiinflammatory and immunomodulating targets with significant therapeutic potential. PMID:26321956

  16. Rainbow Trout Innate Immunity against Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection is associated with significant loss of rainbow trout production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. In 2005, a selective breeding program was initiated at the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture to improve rainbow trout innate resistance ...

  17. Chemokines in Innate and Adaptive Granuloma Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chensue, Stephen W.

    2012-01-01

    Granulomas are cellular inflammations that vary widely in histologic appearance depending upon the inciting agent and immunologic status of the responding host. Despite their heterogeneity, granulomas are at their core an ancient innate sequestration response characterized by the accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes. In fact, this innate cellular response was first observed by Metchnikov in simple invertebrates. Among higher vertebrates, environmental pressures have resulted in the evolution of more sophisticated adaptive immune responses which can be superimposed upon and modify the character of granulomatous inflammation. Compared to immune responses that rapidly neutralize and eliminate infectious agents, the granuloma represents a less desirable “fall back” response which still has value to the host but can be co-opted by certain infectious agents and contribute to bystander organ damage. Understanding granulomas requires an analysis of the complex interplay of innate and adaptive molecular signals that govern the focal accumulation and activity of their cellular components. Among these signals, small molecular weight chemoattractant proteins known as chemokines are potentially important contributors as they participate in both directing leukocyte migration and function. This tract will discuss the contribution of chemokines to the development of innate and adaptive granuloma formation, as well as describe their relationship to more recently evolved cytokines generated during adaptive immune responses. PMID:23444049

  18. The evolution of innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Vivier, Eric; van de Pavert, Serge A; Cooper, Max D; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2017-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered group of immune cells. Understanding their biology poses many challenges. We discuss here the current knowledge on the appearance of ILC subsets during evolution and propose how the connection between ILCs and T cells contributes to the robustness of immunity and hence to the fitness of the hosts. PMID:27328009

  19. Fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. by dairy cows on farm and at cull cow markets.

    PubMed

    Wells, S J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Dargatz, D A; Ferris, K; Green, A

    2001-01-01

    As part of a national study of the U.S. dairy cow population, fecal samples were collected from representative cows on 91 dairies and 97 cull dairy cow markets in 19 states. Salmonella spp. were recovered from 5.4% of milk cows, 18.1% of milk cows expected to be culled within 7 days, and 14.9% of culled dairy cows at markets. On a premise basis, Salmonella shedding in milk cows was detected on 21.1% of dairies and 66% of cull dairy cow markets. The percentage of herds with at least one cow with detectable Salmonella fecal shedding was higher during the sampling period from May through July, in herds with at least 100 milk cows, and in herds in the South region. The most common Salmonella serogroups isolated were E (30.8% of isolates) and C1 (28.6%); the most common serotypes isolated were Salmonella Montevideo (21.5% of isolates), Salmonella Cerro (13.3%), and Salmonella Kentucky (8.5%). Fecal shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Typhimurium var. copenhagen was infrequent (2.8% of isolates). Most isolates (88.9%) were susceptible to all 17 antimicrobials evaluated; multiple resistance was an infrequent occurrence. This study provides information describing the distribution of Salmonella fecal shedding from dairy cows on farm and at markets and will serve as a baseline for future studies.

  20. Dominance of Human Innate Immune Responses in Primary Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain Vaccination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-31

    Diseases, Bacteriology Division, 425 Porter St, Frederick , MD 21702-5011. Dr Brittingham is the recipient of the National Research Council Fellowship...tularemia vaccine strain) infection by the sera of human recipients of the live tula- remia vaccine. Am J Med Sci 1994;308:83-7. 10. Herzberg VL

  1. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  2. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  3. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  4. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  5. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  6. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  7. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  8. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  9. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  10. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  11. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  12. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  13. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  14. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  15. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  16. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  17. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  18. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  19. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  20. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  1. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  2. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  3. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  4. Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N P; Goldberg, M F; Fishman, G A; Salzano, T

    1984-01-01

    We report the second family recognised to have autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. The clinical features were (1) autosomal dominant inheritance; (2) peripheral, coarse pigmentary degeneration of the fundus for 360 degrees, with a relatively discrete posterior border in the equatorial region (this finding may be pathognomonic); (3) superficial punctate yellowish-white opacities in the retina; (4) various vascular abnormalities; (5) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier; (6) retinal neovascularisation; (7) vitreous abnormalities; and (8) choroidal atrophy. Visual reduction was mainly due to macular oedema or vitreous haemorrhage. Images PMID:6689931

  5. Genetic and functional analysis of the bovine uterine microbiota. Part II: Purulent vaginal discharge versus healthy cows.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, M L S; Lima, S; Higgins, C H; Machado, V S; Lima, F S; Bicalho, R C

    2017-03-02

    were exclusively found in the healthy uterine microbiota and dominated by tolerance to colicin E2. No difference was observed in total bacterial load between the 2 microbiotas. This study provides deep insight into the uterine microbial community in health and disease. The observations that the healthy microbiota is tolerant to colicin E2, whereas the uterine microbiota of PVD cows produces cytolethal distending toxins and modifies its lipopolysaccharides suggest that species-intrinsic factors may be more relevant than bacterial abundance to the development of disease or maintenance of health in the dairy cow postpartum uterus.

  6. Treatment of clinical endometritis in dairy cows by previously used controlled internal drug release devices.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohsen; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Hesam A; Asadi, Farzad; Akbari, Rahmat

    2015-08-01

    than in CIDR-14 (87.07%) and PG-2 (87.85%) cows (P = 0.02). In conclusion, reused CIDR would be contributed to the treatment of CE by promotion of follicle growth and induction of sustainable sources of endogenic estrogen secreted by the dominant follicle.

  7. Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

    PubMed Central

    Safa, S.; Soleimani, A.; Heravi Moussavi, A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 (p≤0.05). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25049832

  8. Effect of ovulatory follicle size on steroidogenic capacity and molecular markers of oocyte competence prior to GnRH-induced ovulation in non-lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality in beef cows. Inadequate oocyte competence, as affected by the physiological status of the dominant follicle, is a potential explanation for the...

  9. Autosomal dominant genes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease. One of the parents will have the disease (since it is dominant) in this mode of inheritance and that person is called the CARRIER. Only one parent must be a carrier in order for the child to inherit the disease.

  10. Iron dominated magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  11. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  12. Neutrophils: Cinderella of innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Sharma, A

    2010-11-01

    Neutrophils are the first line of innate immune defense against infectious diseases. However, since their discovery by Elie Metchnikoff, they have always been considered tissue-destructive cells responsible for inflammatory tissue damage occurring during acute infections. Now, extensive research in the field of neutrophil cell biology and their role skewing the immune response in various infections or inflammatory disorders revealed their importance in the regulation of immune response. Along with releasing various antimicrobial molecules, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) for the containment of infection and inflammation. Activated neutrophils provide signals for the activation and maturation of macrophages as well as dendritic cells. Neutrophils are also involved in the regulation of T-cell immune response against various pathogens and tumor antigens. Thus, the present review is intended to highlight the emerging role of neutrophils in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity during acute infectious or inflammatory conditions.

  13. The innate immune system and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Conrad A; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Sacks, Steven H

    2013-10-01

    The sensitive and broadly reactive character of the innate immune system makes it liable to activation by stress factors other than infection. Thermal and metabolic stresses experienced during the transplantation procedure are sufficient to trigger the innate immune response and also augment adaptive immunity in the presence of foreign antigen on the donor organ. The resulting inflammatory and immune reactions combine to form a potent effector response that can lead to graft rejection. Here we examine the evidence that the complement and toll-like receptor systems are central to these pathways of injury and present a formidable barrier to transplantation. We review extensive information about the effector mechanisms that are mediated by these pathways, and bring together what is known about the damage-associated molecular patterns that initiate this sequence of events. Finally, we refer to two ongoing therapeutic trials that are evaluating the validity of these concepts in man.

  14. CNS Remyelination and the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    McMurran, Christopher E.; Jones, Clare A.; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A misguided inflammatory response is frequently implicated in myelin damage. Particularly prominent among myelin diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition, with immune–mediated damage central to its etiology. Nevertheless, a robust inflammatory response is also essential for the efficient regeneration of myelin sheaths after such injury. Here, we discuss the functions of inflammation that promote remyelination, and how these have been experimentally disentangled from the pathological facets of the immune response. We focus on the contributions that resident microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages make to remyelination and compare the roles of these two populations of innate immune cells. Finally, the current literature is framed in the context of developing therapies that manipulate the innate immune response to promote remyelination in clinical myelin disease. PMID:27200350

  15. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  16. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Andrew N J; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-09-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles throughout the duration of immune responses, participating in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity and contributing to chronic inflammation. The proximity of ILCs to epithelial surfaces and their constitutive strategic positioning in other tissues throughout the body ensures that, in spite of their rarity, ILCs are able to regulate immune homeostasis effectively. Dysregulation of ILC function might result in chronic pathologies such as allergies, autoimmunity, and inflammation. A new role for ILCs in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis has started to emerge, underlining their importance in fundamental physiological processes beyond infection and immunity.

  17. Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Packard, René R. S.; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Libby, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder, involves both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response that mediate the initiation, progression, and ultimate thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Most fatal thromboses, which may manifest as acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke, result from frank rupture or superficial erosion of the fibrous cap overlying the atheroma, processes that occur in inflammatorily active, rupture-prone plaques. Appreciation of the inflammatory character of atherosclerosis has led to the application of C-reactive protein as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk, and the characterization of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions of the statin class of drugs. An improved understanding of the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and further studies of its immune mechanisms provide avenues for the development of future strategies directed toward better risk stratification of patients as well as the identification of novel anti-inflammatory therapies. This review retraces leukocyte subsets involved in innate and adaptive immunity and their contributions to atherogenesis. PMID:19449008

  18. In this issue: autoimmunity and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Bot, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of the journal, we host a range of topics relevant to innate immunity as well as certain inflammatory diseases. More specifically, Sanz et al. cover a tantalizing form of death called pyroptosis that leads to inflammation. Samasca et al. provide a brief perspective on celiac disease. Singh and collaborators discuss in detail a newly designed leptin antagonist that could be applicable to colitis treatment. Through a meta-analysis, Wen et al. show that IL-18 gene polymorphism is associated with RA and SLE. Adenovirus-triggered innate immunity is discussed by Chen and Lee. Further, Zheng et al. provide a review of lectin receptors and their importance to anti-microbial immunity. Finally, Rojas et al. discuss tantalizing evidence supporting the fact that endogenous danger motifs such as advanced glycation end products are recognized via a TLR-like molecule and signaling pathway.

  19. Oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era.

    PubMed

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Tao, Renchuan; Jiang, Lanlan; Peng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Oral innate immunity, an important component in host defense and immune surveillance in the oral cavity, plays a crucial role in the regulation of oral health. As part of the innate immune system, epithelial cells lining oral mucosal surfaces not only provide a physical barrier but also produce different antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensins (hBDs), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and various cytokines. These innate immune mediators help in maintaining oral homeostasis. When they are impaired either by local or systemic causes, various oral infections and malignancies may be developed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other co-infections appear to have both direct and indirect effects on systemic and local innate immunity leading to the development of oral opportunistic infections and malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard treatment of HIV infection, contributed to a global reduction of HIV-associated oral lesions. However, prolonged use of HAART may lead to adverse effects on the oral innate immunity resulting in the relapse of oral lesions. This review article focused on the roles of oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era. The following five key questions were addressed: (i) What are the roles of oral innate immunity in health and disease?, (ii) What are the effects of HIV infection on oral innate immunity?, (iii) What are the roles of oral innate immunity against other co-infections?, (iv) What are the effects of HAART on oral innate immunity?, and (v) Is oral innate immunity enhanced by HAART?

  20. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  1. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  2. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  3. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  4. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  5. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant

  6. Rosetta Stone of NLR Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Lechtenberg, Bernhard C; Riedl, Stefan J

    2016-01-01

    The formation of NLR inflammasomes is a central step in the initiation of the innate immune response. Two recent publications describe the structure of the NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome and derive an elegant model of NLR inflammasome formation, whereby binding of the pathogen-molecule-bound NLR NAIP2 to NLRC4 leads to the activation of NLRC4 and initiation of self-propagating NLRC4 inflammasome formation.

  7. Forage systems for cow-calf production in the Appalachian region.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, G; Swecker, W S; Fontenot, J P; Fiske, D; Fike, J H; Abaye, A O; Peterson, P R; Clapham, W; Hall, J B

    2008-08-01

    Small cow-calf operations are common in the Appalachian region. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire] is the dominant forage in these systems for direct grazing as well as for stockpiling. The present study was conducted from 2001 to 2005. A total of 108 Angus and Angus crossbred cows were allotted randomly to 6 forage systems and then to 3 replicates within each system. In brief, system 1 had a stocking rate of 0.91 ha/cow in a Middleburg 3-paddock (A, B, and C) system. System 2 was similar to system 1 except for a stocking rate of 0.71 ha/cow. A stocking rate of 0.71 ha/cow also was used in systems 3 through 6. All A paddocks had tall fescue, whereas B paddocks had tall fescue/white clover (Trifolium repens L.) except in system 6, which had tall fescue/lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don]. System 3 evaluated a 2-paddock (A and B) rotational grazing system, and system 4 evaluated a 3-paddock (A, B, and C) rotational grazing system, with paddock C containing orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Systems 5 and 6 differed from system 2 in the areas of paddocks B and C as well as in the forage mixtures used. In paddock C, system 5 had switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and system 6 had tall fescue and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). System 1 had the greatest average herbage availability from weaning until breeding (P < 0.05) with the least amount of hay fed (P = 0.03) when compared with the remainder of the systems. Differences (P > 0.05) in percentage of ground cover were not detected among systems. There was no year x system interaction effect on the cow or calf performance variables evaluated and no treatment effect on cow performance variables. There was a treatment effect on calf performance variables. System 2 produced the greatest adjusted weaning weight, kilograms of calf weaned per hectare, and kilograms of calf per kilograms of cow at weaning (P < 0.05). Numerical ranking for

  8. Innate immunity and primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Lleo, Ana; Pasini, Simone; Zuin, Massimo; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-02-01

    There has been a rapid growth in our understanding of the molecular bases of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). These efforts were initiated when the immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen was cloned and sequenced. Using the recombinant cloned antigen as a tool, research has focused on the effector mechanisms of disease and the uniqueness of the primary target tissue, the intrahepatic bile ducts. Most recently, there have been experimental data suggesting that innate immunity changes may be critical to the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune injury, as in the case of the enhanced response of monocytes and memory B cells to infectious stimulation and environmental mimics. These observations are important as they help fill in the many gaps which remain on the most difficult subject of autoimmunity, etiology. Indeed, based on the available data, several experimental models of PBC have been developed. These models illustrate and suggest that PBC can be initiated by several mechanisms, all of which lead to loss of tolerance to the mitochondrial antigens. However, once this adaptive response develops, it appears that much of the subsequent pathology is exacerbated by innate responses. We suggest that future therapeutic efforts in PBC will depend heavily on understanding the nature of this innate immune responses and methodology to blunt their cytotoxicity.

  9. The Innate Immune Response Against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Stein, Christoph; Uebele, Julia

    2015-12-15

    The innate immune system harbors a multitude of different receptor systems and cells that are constantly prepared to sense and eliminate invading microbial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus enters the body on its exposed epithelial surfaces, e.g., on skin and mucosa. The initial interaction with epithelial cells is governed by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2-mediated local production of soluble mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. The overall goal is to achieve a steady state of immune mediators and colonizing bacteria. Following cell and tissue invasion clearance of bacteria depends on intracellular microbial sensors and subsequent activation of the inflammasomes. Tissue-resident mast cells and macrophages recruit neutrophils, macrophages, and NK cells. This inflammatory response supports the generation of IL-17 producing NKT, γδ T cells, and T helper cells. Local dendritic cells migrate to the lymph nodes and fine-tune the adaptive immune response. The scope of this chapter is to provide an overview on the major cell types and receptors involved in innate immune defense against S. aureus. By segregating the different stages of infection from epithelial barrier to intracellular and systemic infection, this chapter highlights the different qualities of the innate immune response to S. aureus at different stages of invasiveness.

  10. Innate immune dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Gersemann, M; Wehkamp, J; Stange, E F

    2012-05-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms that cause the two types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are still under investigation. Nevertheless, there is broad agreement that luminal microbes are of particular relevance in the development of these conditions. In recent years, increasing evidence has shown that defects in the innate immunity are at the centre of both types of IBD. The innate intestinal barrier is provided by the epithelium which secretes antimicrobial peptides (so-called defensins) that are retained in the mucus layer. In ileal CD, the alpha-defensins are lacking owing to several Paneth cell defects. In colonic CD, the expression of beta-defensins is inadequate. This may be related to downregulation of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and in some cohorts is associated with a reduced HBD2 gene copy number. In UC, the mucus layer, which protects the host from the enormous amounts of luminal microbes, is defective. This is accompanied by an insufficient differentiation from intestinal stem cells towards goblet cells. All these disturbances in the gut barrier shift the balance from epithelial defence towards bacterial offence. The current treatment for CD and UC is based on suppression of this secondary inflammatory process. In future, patients may benefit from new therapeutic approaches stimulating the protective innate immune system.

  11. Prion Disease and the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Barry M.; Mabbott, Neil A.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a unique category of infectious protein-misfolding neurodegenerative disorders. Hypothesized to be caused by misfolding of the cellular prion protein these disorders possess an infectious quality that thrives in immune-competent hosts. While much has been discovered about the routing and critical components involved in the peripheral pathogenesis of these agents there are still many aspects to be discovered. Research into this area has been extensive as it represents a major target for therapeutic intervention within this group of diseases. The main focus of pathological damage in these diseases occurs within the central nervous system. Cells of the innate immune system have been proven to be critical players in the initial pathogenesis of prion disease, and may have a role in the pathological progression of disease. Understanding how prions interact with the host innate immune system may provide us with natural pathways and mechanisms to combat these diseases prior to their neuroinvasive stage. We present here a review of the current knowledge regarding the role of the innate immune system in prion pathogenesis. PMID:23342365

  12. Heme on innate immunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Fabianno F.; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an essential molecule expressed ubiquitously all through our tissues. Heme plays major functions in cellular physiology and metabolism as the prosthetic group of diverse proteins. Once released from cells and from hemeproteins free heme causes oxidative damage and inflammation, thus acting as a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern. In this context, free heme is a critical component of the pathological process of sterile and infectious hemolytic conditions including malaria, hemolytic anemias, ischemia-reperfusion, and hemorrhage. The plasma scavenger proteins hemopexin and albumin reduce heme toxicity and are responsible for transporting free heme to intracellular compartments where it is catabolized by heme-oxygenase enzymes. Upon hemolysis or severe cellular damage the serum capacity to scavenge heme may saturate and increase free heme to sufficient amounts to cause tissue damage in various organs. The mechanism by which heme causes reactive oxygen generation, activation of cells of the innate immune system and cell death are not fully understood. Although heme can directly promote lipid peroxidation by its iron atom, heme can also induce reactive oxygen species generation and production of inflammatory mediators through the activation of selective signaling pathways. Heme activates innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils through activation of innate immune receptors. The importance of these events has been demonstrated in infectious and non-infectious diseases models. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms behind heme-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation and the consequences of these events on different tissues and diseases. PMID:24904418

  13. Innate immune responses to hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Schoggins, John W; Rice, Charles M

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against invading viral pathogens. Incoming viruses are sensed by dedicated host factors that, when triggered, initiate multiple signal transduction pathways. Activation of these pathways leads to the induction of highly orchestrated transcriptional programs designed to limit virus replication and spread. In recent years, our understanding of innate immune responses targeting hepatitis C virus (HCV) has increased substantially, largely due to the development of new systems and methodologies to study HCV-host interactions in vitro and in vivo. However, significant gaps still remain. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive view of the innate immune response to HCV, focusing primarily on knowledge gained from cell culture models of HCV infection, as well as data from human patients infected with HCV. While some paradigms of the host response to HCV revealed in cell culture translate to human infection in vivo, others are less clear. Further insight into the similarities and differences in these systems will not only reveal directions for future studies on HCV immunity, but may also guide the development of novel strategies to control HCV and other viral infections.

  14. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  15. Effect of ovulatory follicle size and estradiol supplementation during the preovulatory period on pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously. Further...

  16. Perspective on physiological/endocrine and nutritional factors influencing fertility in post-partum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Silvestre, F T; Kim, I H; Staples, C R

    2010-09-01

    Increasing reproductive performance of post-partum lactating dairy cows is a multi-factorial challenge involving disciplines of production medicine, nutrition, physiology and herd management. Systems of programmed timed insemination have been fine-tuned to achieve pregnancy per artificial inseminations (AI) approximating 45%. Systems have optimized follicle development, integrated follicle development with timing of induced corpus luteum regression and fine-tuned sequential timing of induced ovulation and AI. Use of programmes for insemination have identified occurrence of anovulatory ovarian status, body condition, uterine health and seasonal summer stress as factors contributing to reduced herd fertility. Furthermore, programmes of timed insemination provide a platform to evaluate efficacy of nutritional and herd health systems targeted to the transition and post-partum periods. The homeorhetic periparturient period, as cows deal with decreases in dry matter intake, results in a negative energy balance and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. Cows that transition well will cycle earlier and have a greater risk of becoming pregnant earlier post-partum. The innate arms of the immune system (acute and adaptive) are suppressed during the periparturient period. Cows experiencing the sequential complex of disorders such as dystocia, puerperal metritis, metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis are subsequently less fertile. Targeted strategies of providing specific nutraceuticals that provide pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic, eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic, conjugated linoleic acid), sequential glycogenic and lipogenic enrichment of diets, and organic selenium appear to differentially regulate and improve the immune and reproductive systems to benefit an earlier restoration of ovarian activity and increased fertility.

  17. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions.

  18. Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota of Ewes and Cows Reveals a Unique Microbiota with Low Levels of Lactobacilli and Near-Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Jeffrey D.; Lachman, Medora; Westveer, Kelsey; O’Neill, Thomas; Geary, Thomas; Kott, Rodney W.; Berardinelli, James G.; Hatfield, Patrick G.; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Roberts, Andy; Yeoman, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of common reproductive disorders in livestock involve bacterial infection, very little is known about their normal vaginal microbiota. Therefore, we sought to determine the species composition of sheep and cattle vaginal microbiota. Twenty Rambouillet ewes and twenty crossbred cows varying in age and reproductive status were sampled by ectocervicovaginal lavage. We amplified and sequenced the V3–V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) contents yielding a total of 907,667 high-quality reads. Good’s Coverage estimates indicated that we obtained data on 98 ± 0.01% of the total microbial genera present in each sample. Cow and ewe vaginal microbiota displayed few differences. Cow microbiota exhibited greater (P ≤ 0.05) α-diversity compared to the ewe microbiota. Both livestock species differed (P ≤ 0.05) from all previously reported vaginal communities. While bacteria were numerically dominant, Archaea were detected in 95% of cow and ewe samples, mainly of the order Desulfurococcales. Both ewes and cows were predominately colonized by the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The most abundant genera were Aggregatibacter spp., and Streptobacillus spp. Lactobacillus spp. were detected in 80% of ewe and 90% of cow samples, but only at very low abundances. Bacteria previously described from culture-based studies as common to the cow and ewe vaginal tract, except for Escherichia, were variably present, and only in low abundance. Ewe and cow pH differed (P ≤ 0.05), with means (±SD) of 6.7 ± 0.38 and 7.3 ± 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, 16S rRNA sequencing of cow and ewe vaginal ectocervicovaginal lavages showed that cow and ewe vaginal microbiota differ from culture-led results, revealing a microbiota distinct from previously described vaginal ecosystems. PMID:26664918

  19. INNATE IMMUNITY. Cytosolic detection of the bacterial metabolite HBP activates TIFA-dependent innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Ryan G; Sintsova, Anna; Buckwalter, Carolyn M; Leung, Nelly; Cochrane, Alan; Li, Jianjun; Cox, Andrew D; Moffat, Jason; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2015-06-12

    Host recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) initiates an innate immune response that is critical for pathogen elimination and engagement of adaptive immunity. Here we show that mammalian cells can detect and respond to the bacterial-derived monosaccharide heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP). A metabolic intermediate in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, HBP is highly conserved in Gram-negative bacteria, yet absent from eukaryotic cells. Detection of HBP within the host cytosol activated the nuclear facto κB pathway in vitro and induced innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo. Moreover, we used a genome-wide RNA interference screen to uncover an innate immune signaling axis, mediated by phosphorylation-dependent oligomerization of the TRAF-interacting protein with forkhead-associated domain (TIFA) that is triggered by HBP. Thus, HBP is a PAMP that activates TIFA-dependent immunity to Gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Effects of excess metabolizable protein on ovarian function and circulating amino acids of beef cows: 1. Excessive supply from corn gluten meal or soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Geppert, T C; Meyer, A M; Perry, G A; Gunn, P J

    2017-04-01

    In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, the source from which excess CP is derived and how it affects reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding excess metabolizable protein (MP) from feedstuffs differing in rumen degradability on ovulatory follicular dynamics, subsequent corpus luteum (CL) development, steroid hormone production and circulating amino acids (AA) in beef cows. Non-pregnant, non-lactating mature beef cows (n=18) were assigned to 1 of 2 isonitrogenous diets (150% of MP requirements) designed to maintain similar BW and body condition score (BCS) between treatments. Diets consisted of ad libitum corn stalks supplemented with corn gluten meal (moderate rumen undegradable protein (RUP); CGM) or soybean meal (low RUP; SBM). After a 20-day supplement adaptation period, cows were synchronized for ovulation. After 10 days of synchronization, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) was administered to reset ovarian follicular growth. Starting at GnRH administration and daily thereafter until spontaneous ovulation, transrectal ultrasonography was used to diagram ovarian follicular growth, and blood samples were collected for hormone, metabolite and AA analyses. After 7 days of visual detection of estrus, CL size was determined via ultrasound. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS. As designed, cow BW and BCS were not different (P⩾0.33). Ovulatory follicular wavelength, antral follicle count, ovulatory follicle size at dominance and duration of dominance were not different (P>0.13) between treatments. Cows supplemented with CGM had greater post-dominance ovulatory follicle growth, larger dominant follicles at spontaneous luteolysis, shorter proestrus, and larger ovulatory follicles (P⩽0.03) than SBM cows. No differences (P⩾0.44) in peak estradiol, ratio of estradiol to ovulatory follicle

  1. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  2. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  3. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established.

  4. Linking Transcriptional Changes over Time in Stimulated Dendritic Cells to Identify Gene Networks Activated during the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Ashwini; Kumagai, Yutaro; Liang, Kuo-ching; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response is primarily mediated by the Toll-like receptors functioning through the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways. Despite being widely studied, it is not yet completely understood and systems-level analyses have been lacking. In this study, we identified a high-probability network of genes activated during the innate immune response using a novel approach to analyze time-course gene expression profiles of activated immune cells in combination with a large gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction network. We classified the immune response into three consecutive time-dependent stages and identified the most probable paths between genes showing a significant change in expression at each stage. The resultant network contained several novel and known regulators of the innate immune response, many of which did not show any observable change in expression at the sampled time points. The response network shows the dominance of genes from specific functional classes during different stages of the immune response. It also suggests a role for the protein phosphatase 2a catalytic subunit α in the regulation of the immunoproteasome during the late phase of the response. In order to clarify the differences between the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways in the innate immune response, time-course gene expression profiles from MyD88-knockout and TRIF-knockout dendritic cells were analyzed. Their response networks suggest the dominance of the MyD88-dependent pathway in the innate immune response, and an association of the circadian regulators and immunoproteasomal degradation with the TRIF-dependent pathway. The response network presented here provides the most probable associations between genes expressed in the early and the late phases of the innate immune response, while taking into account the intermediate regulators. We propose that the method described here can also be used in the identification of time-dependent gene sub

  5. Linking transcriptional changes over time in stimulated dendritic cells to identify gene networks activated during the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ashwini; Kumagai, Yutaro; Liang, Kuo-Ching; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response is primarily mediated by the Toll-like receptors functioning through the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways. Despite being widely studied, it is not yet completely understood and systems-level analyses have been lacking. In this study, we identified a high-probability network of genes activated during the innate immune response using a novel approach to analyze time-course gene expression profiles of activated immune cells in combination with a large gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction network. We classified the immune response into three consecutive time-dependent stages and identified the most probable paths between genes showing a significant change in expression at each stage. The resultant network contained several novel and known regulators of the innate immune response, many of which did not show any observable change in expression at the sampled time points. The response network shows the dominance of genes from specific functional classes during different stages of the immune response. It also suggests a role for the protein phosphatase 2a catalytic subunit α in the regulation of the immunoproteasome during the late phase of the response. In order to clarify the differences between the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways in the innate immune response, time-course gene expression profiles from MyD88-knockout and TRIF-knockout dendritic cells were analyzed. Their response networks suggest the dominance of the MyD88-dependent pathway in the innate immune response, and an association of the circadian regulators and immunoproteasomal degradation with the TRIF-dependent pathway. The response network presented here provides the most probable associations between genes expressed in the early and the late phases of the innate immune response, while taking into account the intermediate regulators. We propose that the method described here can also be used in the identification of time-dependent gene sub

  6. Relationships between Circulating Urea Concentrations and Endometrial Function in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhangrui; Oguejiofor, Chike F.; Swangchan-Uthai, Theerawat; Carr, Susan; Wathes, D. Claire

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Dairy cows fed high levels of protein to increase milk yield tend to have reduced fertility but the reasons behind this are unclear. Differing dietary protein levels are reflected in altered urea concentrations in both blood and other tissues including the uterus. We showed that the circulating urea concentration was highly correlated to changed expression levels of many genes in the endometrium shortly after calving. These were predominantly associated with tissue repair, innate immunity and lipid metabolism. A subsequent study found no effect of altered urea concentration on endometrial gene expression in vitro implying that the dietary influence is indirect. Abstract Both high and low circulating urea concentrations, a product of protein metabolism, are associated with decreased fertility in dairy cows through poorly defined mechanisms. The rate of involution and the endometrial ability to mount an adequate innate immune response after calving are both critical for subsequent fertility. Study 1 used microarray analysis to identify genes whose endometrial expression 2 weeks postpartum correlated significantly with the mean plasma urea per cow, ranging from 3.2 to 6.6 mmol/L. The biological functions of 781 mapped genes were analysed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. These were predominantly associated with tissue turnover (e.g., BRINP1, FOXG1), immune function (e.g., IL17RB, CRISPLD2), inflammation (e.g., C3, SERPINF1, SERPINF2) and lipid metabolism (e.g., SCAP, ACBD5, SLC10A). Study 2 investigated the relationship between urea concentration and expression of 6 candidate genes (S100A8, HSP5A, IGF1R, IL17RB, BRINP1, CRISPLD2) in bovine endometrial cell culture. These were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/L urea, equivalent to low, medium and high circulating values with or without challenge by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS increased S100A8 expression as expected but urea treatment had no effect on expression of any tested gene

  7. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    PubMed

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  8. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: I. Effects on pre- and postpartum cow performance.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Day, M L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2010-08-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 144) were used to determine effects of late gestation dietary energy source on pre- and postpartum cow performance in a complete randomized block design experiment. Cows were adapted to diets starting at 167 +/- 9 d of gestation and fed until 1 wk before expected calving date. Cows were fed 1 of 3 dietary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried distillers grains (DDGS). Cows allotted to HY were allowed ad libitum access to round-bale grass hay, and average hay disappearance was 12.4 kg/d. Limit-fed corn and DDGS diets contained 5.3 kg of whole-shelled corn or 4.1 kg of DDGS, respectively, plus 2.1 kg of hay, and 1.0 kg of supplement to meet cow nutritional needs during late gestation and to allow for an energy intake similar to HY. Every 21 d, BW, BCS, and ultrasound measurement of backfat between the 12th and 13th ribs were collected. At 210 d in gestation, jugular blood samples were collected from cows at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea N (BUN) concentrations. After parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed similarly. Milk production was determined by weigh-suckle-weigh procedure on d 31, 100, and 176 postpartum. Cows fed DDGS during late gestation gained more (P = 0.04) BW than cows fed HY or CN; however, no difference in BCS change was detected (P = 0.28) among treatments. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar among treatments (P = 0.64), whereas insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding were greater (P = 0.002) for cows fed DDGS than those fed HY or CN. Plasma BUN concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.02) for cows fed DDGS vs. CN or HY up to 6 h postfeeding. Birth weight was greater (P < 0.001) for calves from cows fed CN and DDGS than for those fed HY, but this did not result in any differences in frequency of dystocia (P = 0.21). Prepartum energy source did not affect conception rates (P = 0.79), milk production (P > or = 0.51), or milk

  9. Alternative approaches to setting up donor cows for superstimulation.

    PubMed

    Bó, G A; Guerrero, D C; Adams, G P

    2008-01-01

    Protocols that controlled follicular wave emergence and ovulation have had a great impact on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, as they permitted the initiation of superstimulatory treatments at a self-appointed time. However, the most commonly used approach for synchronization of follicular wave emergence involved estradiol, which cannot be used in many countries. Therefore, alternative treatments are required. Mechanical removal of the dominant follicle by ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration was effective, but required the use of specialized equipment and trained technical staff, which made it difficult to utilize in the field. Exogenous GnRH or pLH have also been used to induce ovulation of a dominant follicle, synchronizing follicular wave emergence, but their efficacy was dependent on the stage of the dominant follicle at treatment; thus, the emergence of the ensuing follicular wave may be too variable for superstimulation. An alternative approach could be initiating treatments at the time of emergence of the first follicular wave, but the need to synchronize ovulation may be a disadvantage in groups of donors at random stages of the estrous cycle. The final alternative may be to use FSH or eCG to initiate a new wave, without regard to the presence of a dominant follicle, followed by superstimulatory treatment at a predetermined time. All alternatives need to be thoroughly investigated in order to confirm their utility in the superstimulation of donor cows, regardless of the stage of the estrous cycle and without compromising ova/embryo production.

  10. Fate of higher brominated PBDEs in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Asplund, Lillemor; de Wit, Cynthia A; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2007-01-15

    Dietary intake studies of lower brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) have shown that fish and animal products are important vectors of human exposure, but almost no data exist for higher brominated BDEs. Therefore, the fate of hepta- to decaBDEs was studied in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a previous mass balance study of PCB. Tissue distribution was studied in one cow slaughtered after the experiment. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in feed, organs, adipose tissues, and feces, but not in milk. In contrast to PCBs and lower brominated BDEs, concentrations of hepta- to decaBDEs in adipose tissue were 9-80 times higher than in milk fat and the difference increased with degree of bromination/log K(OW). The congener profiles in adipose tissue and feed differed; BDE-207, BDE-196, BDE-197, and BDE-182 accumulated to a surprisingly greater extent in the fat compared to their isomers, suggesting metabolic debromination of BDE-209 to these BDEs. The results indicate that meat rather than dairy product consumption may be an important human exposure route to higher brominated BDEs.

  11. How the Innate Immune System Senses Trouble and Causes Trouble.

    PubMed

    Hato, Takashi; Dagher, Pierre C

    2015-08-07

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense in response to nonself and danger signals from microbial invasion or tissue injury. It is increasingly recognized that each organ uses unique sets of cells and molecules that orchestrate regional innate immunity. The cells that execute the task of innate immunity are many and consist of not only "professional" immune cells but also nonimmune cells, such as renal epithelial cells. Despite a high level of sophistication, deregulated innate immunity is common and contributes to a wide range of renal diseases, such as sepsis-induced kidney injury, GN, and allograft dysfunction. This review discusses how the innate immune system recognizes and responds to nonself and danger signals. In particular, the roles of renal epithelial cells that make them an integral part of the innate immune apparatus of the kidney are highlighted.

  12. [The role of the innate immune system in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Volz, T; Kaesler, S; Skabytska, Y; Biedermann, T

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms how the innate immune system detects microbes and mounts a rapid immune response have been more and more elucidated in the past years. Subsequently it has been shown that innate immunity also shapes adaptive immune responses and determines their quality that can be either inflammatory or tolerogenic. As atopic dermatitis is characterized by disturbances of innate and adaptive immune responses, colonization with pathogens and defects in skin barrier function, insight into mechanisms of innate immunity has helped to understand the vicious circle of ongoing skin inflammation seen in atopic dermatitis patients. Elucidating general mechanisms of the innate immune system and its functions in atopic dermatitis paves the way for developing new therapies. Especially the novel insights into the human microbiome and potential functional consequences make the innate immune system a very fundamental and promising target. As a result atopic dermatitis manifestations can be attenuated or even resolved. These currently developed strategies will be introduced in the current review.

  13. Cellular and molecular regulation of innate inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-01-01

    Innate sensing of pathogens by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) plays essential roles in the innate discrimination between self and non-self components, leading to the generation of innate immune defense and inflammatory responses. The initiation, activation and resolution of innate inflammatory response are mediated by a complex network of interactions among the numerous cellular and molecular components of immune and non-immune system. While a controlled and beneficial innate inflammatory response is critical for the elimination of pathogens and maintenance of tissue homeostasis, dysregulated or sustained inflammation leads to pathological conditions such as chronic infection, inflammatory autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss some of the recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the establishment and regulation of innate immunity and inflammatory responses. PMID:27818489

  14. Evolutionary genetics of insect innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of evolution in immune defense genes help to understand the evolutionary dynamics between hosts and pathogens. Multiple insect genomes have been sequenced, with many of them having annotated immune genes, which paves the way for a comparative genomic analysis of insect immunity. In this review, I summarize the current state of comparative and evolutionary genomics of insect innate immune defense. The focus is on the conserved and divergent components of immunity with an emphasis on gene family evolution and evolution at the sequence level; both population genetics and molecular evolution frameworks are considered. PMID:25750410

  15. Innate immune modulation in EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) belongs to the gammaherpesvirus family, members of which are oncogenic. Compared with other closely related herpesviruses, EBV has developed much more elaborate and sophisticated strategies for subverting host immune system, which may account for its high prevalence in immune competent hosts. Thus, study of EBV-specific immune dysregulation is important for understanding EBV latency and oncogenesis, and will identify potential molecular targets for immunotherapeutic interventions. Here I summarize the recent findings of individual EBV products in regulating host immune responses, with emphasis on the innate immune modulation. PMID:21429244

  16. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response using the avian innate immunity microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The avian innate immunity microarray (AIIM) is a genomics tool designed to study the transcriptional activity of the avian immune response (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 117:139-145, 2007). It is an avian cDNA microarray representing 4,959 avian genes spotted in triplicate. The AIIM contains 25 avian int...

  17. Counterspace Operations for Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    INTERNET DOCUMENT INFORMATION FORM A. Report Title: Counterspace perations for Information Dominance B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet 3/10...Representative for resolution. Counterspace perations for Information Dominance by James G. Lee INTRODUCTION The Problem The launch of the Soviet...information gap between friendly and enemy forces. This positive information gap has been referred to as information dominance . Information Dominance The

  18. OASL – a new player in controlling antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianzhong; Ghosh, Arundhati; Sarkar, Saumendra N.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular innate immune system plays a critical role in mounting the initial resistance to virus infection. It is comprised of various pattern-recognition receptors that induce type I interferon production, which further shapes the adaptive immunity. However, to overcome this resistance and promote replication, viruses have evolved mechanisms to evade this host innate immune response. Here we discuss a recently described mechanism of boosting the innate immunity by oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL) protein, which can potentially be used to overcome viral evasion and enhance innate immunity. PMID:25676874

  19. Molecular-based environmental risk assessment of three varieties of genetically engineered cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianxiang; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Zhao, Yaofeng; Zhang, Lei; Chu, Mingxing; Li, Ning

    2011-10-01

    The development of animal biotechnology has led to an increase in attention to biosafety issues. Here we evaluated the impact of genetically engineered cows on the environment. The probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial communities in cow gut and soil were tested using three varieties of genetically engineered cows that were previously transformed with a human gene encoding lysozyme, lactoferrin, or human alpha lactalbumin. The results showed that the transgenes were not detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or quantitative real-time PCR in gut microbial DNA extracts of manure or microbial DNA extracts of topsoil. In addition, the transgenes had no impact on the microbial communities in cow gut or soil as assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis or 16S rDNA sequencing. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses showed that the manure bacteria sampled during each of the four seasons belonged primarily to two groups, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and the soil bacteria belonged to four groups, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and α-proteobacteria. Other groups, such as β-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, ε-proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Nitrospira, were not dominant in the manure or soil.

  20. Uterine Microbiota Progression from Calving until Establishment of Metritis in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; Gobikrushanth, Mohanathas; Daetz, Rodolfo; Mingoti, Rodolfo D.; Parize, Ana Carolina Brigolin; de Freitas, Sabrina Lucas; da Costa, Antonio Nelson Lima; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Lima, Svetlana; Jeong, K. Casey

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the progression of the uterine microbiota from calving until establishment of metritis. Uterine swabs (n = 72) collected at 0, 2, and 6 ± 2 days postpartum (dpp) from 12 metritic and 12 healthy cows were used for metagenomic sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A heat map showed that uterine microbiota was established at calving. The microbiota changed rapidly from 0 to 6 ± 2 dpp, with a decrease in the abundance of Proteobacteria and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria, which were dominant in metritic cows. Uterine microbiota composition was shared; however, metritic and healthy cows could be discriminated using relative abundance of bacterial genera at 0, 2, and 6 ± 2 dpp. Bacteroides was the main genus associated with metritis because it was the only genus that showed significantly greater abundance in cows with metritis. As the abundance of Bacteroides organisms increased, the uterine discharge score, a measure of uterine health, worsened. Fusobacterium was also an important genus associated with metritis because Fusobacterium abundance increased as Bacteroides abundance increased and the uterine discharge score worsened as the abundance increased. The correlation with uterine discharge score and the correlation with Bacteroides or Fusobacterium showed that other bacteria, such as Helcoccocus, Filifactor, and Porphyromonas, were also associated with metritis. There were also bacteria associated with uterine health, such as “Candidatus Blochmannia,” Escherichia, Sneathia, and Pedobacter. PMID:26150453

  1. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  2. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  3. Dominant modal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  4. Innate immunosenescence: effect of aging on cells and receptors of the innate immune system in humans.

    PubMed

    Solana, Rafael; Tarazona, Raquel; Gayoso, Inmaculada; Lesur, Olivier; Dupuis, Gilles; Fulop, Tamas

    2012-10-01

    Components of the innate immune response, including neutrophils and macrophages, are the first line of defense against infections. Their role is to initiate an inflammatory response, phagocyte and kill pathogens, recruit natural killer cells (NK), and facilitate the maturation and migration of dendritic cells that will initiate the adaptive immune response. Extraordinary advances have been made in the last decade on the knowledge of the receptors and mechanisms used by cells of the innate immunity not only to sense and eliminate the pathogen but also to communicate each other and collaborate with cells of adaptive immunity to mount an effective immune response. The analysis of innate immunity in elderly humans has evidenced that aging has a profound impact on the phenotype and functions of these cells. Thus altered expression and/or function of innate immunity receptors and signal transduction leading to defective activation and decreased chemotaxis, phagocytosis and intracellular killing of pathogens have been described. The phenotype and function of NK cells from elderly individuals show significant changes that are compatible with remodeling of the different NK subsets, with a decrease in the CD56bright subpopulation and accumulation of the CD56dim cells, in particular those differentiated NK cells that co-express CD57, as well as a decreased expression of activating natural cytotoxicity receptors. These alterations can be responsible of the decreased production of cytokines and the lower per-cell cytotoxicity observed in the elderly. Considering the relevance of these cells in the initiation of the immune response, the possibility to reactivate the function of innate immune cells should be considered in order to improve the response to pathogens and to vaccination in the elderly.

  5. Tweaking Innate Immunity: the Promise of Innate Immunologicals As Anti-infectives

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2006-01-01

    New and exciting insights into the importance of the innate immune system are revolutionizing our understanding of immune defense against infections, pathogenesis, and the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. The innate immune system uses multiple families of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect infection and trigger a variety of antimicrobial defense mechanisms. PRRs are evolutionarily highly conserved and serve to detect infection by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are unique to microorganisms and essential for their survival. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane signalling receptors that activate gene expression programs that result in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, type I interferons and antimicrobial factors. Furthermore, TLR activation facilitates and guides activation of adaptive immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells. TLRs are localized on the cell surface and in endosomal/lysosomal compartments, where they detect bacterial and viral infections. In contrast, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins and RNA helicases are located in the cell cytoplasm, where they serve as intracellular PRRs to detect cytoplasmic infections, particularly viruses. Due to their ability to enhance innate immune responses, novel strategies to use ligands, synthetic agonists or antagonists of PRRs (also known as ‘innate immunologicals’) can be used as stand-alone agents to provide immediate protection or treatment against bacterial, viral or parasitic infections. Furthermore, the newly appreciated importance of innate immunity in initiating and shaping adaptive immune responses is contributing to our understanding of vaccine adjuvants and promises to lead to improved next-generation vaccines. PMID:18382644

  6. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  7. Fish innate immunity against intestinal helminths.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Bosi, G; DePasquale, J A; Manera, M; Giari, L

    2016-03-01

    Most individual fish in farmed and wild populations are infected with parasites. Upon dissection of fish, helminths from gut are often easily visible. Enteric helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, acanthocephalans and nematodes. Some insights into biology, morphology and histopathological effects of the main fish enteric helminths taxa will be described here. The immune system of fish, as that of other vertebrates, can be subdivided into specific and aspecific types, which in vivo act in concert with each other and indeed are interdependent in many ways. Beyond the small number of well-described models that exist, research focusing on innate immunity in fish against parasitic infections is lacking. Enteric helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract, resulting in a series of chemical and morphological changes in the affected tissues and inducing leukocyte migration to the site of infection. This review provides an overview on the aspecific defence mechanisms of fish intestine against helminths. Emphasis will be placed on the immune cellular response involving mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, rodlet cells and mucous cells against enteric helminths. Given the relative importance of innate immunity in fish, and the magnitude of economic loss in aquaculture as a consequence of disease, this area deserves considerable attention and support.

  8. Domestication changes innate constraints for birdsong learning.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Hiroko; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahasi, Miki; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Birdsongs are acquired by imitating the sounds produced by conspecifics. Within a species, songs diverge by cultural transmission, but the range of species-specific features is restricted by innate constraints. Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica) are a domesticated strain of the wild White-rumped munia (Lonchura striata). The songs of the domesticated strain have more tonal sounds and more variable sequences than those of the wild strain. We compared the features of songs that were produced by normal birds, isolation-reared birds, and cross-fostered birds in both White-rumped munias and Bengalese finches to identify differences in the genetic and environmental factors of their songs. Factor analyses were conducted based on 17 song measurements. We found that isolated songs differed from normal and cross-fostered songs, especially in unstable prosodic features. In addition, there were significant differences in sound property of mean frequency between the two strains regardless of the rearing conditions. Thus, innate constraints that partially determine birdsong phenotypes may be altered through domestication.

  9. Immunotherapy for cancer: promoting innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ramin; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Lotze, Michael Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Development of tumor over many years leads to reciprocal alterations in the host immune response and the tumor, enabling tumor growth seemingly paradoxically in the setting of necrosis and inflammation. Innate immune cells, granulocytes - neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils - and mast cells belong to the first line of defense sensing pathogen and damage associated molecular pattern (PAMPs, DAMPs) signals, initiating and modulating the subsequent inflammatory response. Nontheless, the prevailing contemporary strategies of immunotherapy for cancer have focused on the second line of the immune response, the adaptive immune response. We have determined that most highly evolved tumors in adults undergo necrosis, releasing DAMPs, promoting reactive angiogenesis, stromagenesis and reparative epithelial proliferation of the tumor cell. Means to aerobically eliminate such DAMPs by peroxidases released by innate immune effectors allows us to consider novel strategies for limiting tumor progression. Summarized here is our current understanding of acute and chronic inflammation and its impact on tumor development, the pathophysiology of immunity in cancer, and the influence of granulocytes and mast cells in this setting.

  10. [Perinatal innate immune activation and neuropsychological development].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Taku

    2013-08-01

    Development of animal models is a crucial issue in biological psychiatry for the search of novel drug targets as well as the screening of candidate compounds. Epidemiologic studies suggest that environmental insults, such as prenatal infection and perinatal complication, are involved in the development of schizophrenia. Recently, we have developed a novel mouse model of viral infection during the perinatal stage by injecting polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (polyI:C) into neonatal mice. Neonatal treatment of mice with polyI:C, an inducer of innate immune responses via toll-like receptor 3, caused a significant increase in interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) levels in the astrocytes of the hippocampus, which resulted in long-lasting brain dysfunction, including cognitive and emotional impairments as well as a deficit in depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the hippocampus in adulthood. Neonatal polyI:C-induced neuronal impairments have not been observed in IFITM3-KO mice. These findings suggest that the induction of IFITM3 expression in astrocytes by the activation of the innate immune system during the early stages of neurodevelopment has non-cell autonomous effects that affect subsequent neurodevelopment, leading to neuropathological impairments and brain dysfunction, by impairing endocytosis in astrocytes.

  11. Innate Immune Responses to AAV Vectors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geoffrey L; Martino, Ashley T; Aslanidi, George V; Jayandharan, Giridhara R; Srivastava, Arun; Herzog, Roland W

    2011-01-01

    Gene replacement therapy by in vivo delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) is attractive as a potential treatment for a variety of genetic disorders. However, while AAV has been used successfully in many models, other experiments in clinical trials and in animal models have been hampered by undesired responses from the immune system. Recent studies of AAV immunology have focused on the elimination of transgene-expressing cells by the adaptive immune system, yet the innate immune system also has a critical role, both in the initial response to the vector and in prompting a deleterious adaptive immune response. Responses to AAV vectors are primarily mediated by the TLR9-MyD88 pathway, which induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by activating the NF-κB pathways and inducing type I IFN production; self-complementary AAV vectors enhance these inflammatory processes. Additionally, the alternative NF-κB pathway influences transgene expression in cells transduced by AAV. This review highlights these recent discoveries regarding innate immune responses to AAV and discusses strategies to ablate these potentially detrimental signaling pathways.

  12. A Role for PML in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Andrea; Gaboli, Mirella; Giorgio, Marco; Rivi, Roberta; Bygrave, Anne; Antoniou, Michael; Drabek, Dubravka; Dzierzak, Elaine; Fagioli, Marta; Salmena, Leonardo; Botto, Marina; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Luzzatto, Lucio; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Grosveld, Frank; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) of acute promyelocytic leukemia is an established tumor suppressor gene with critical functions in growth suppression, induction of apoptosis, and cellular senescence. Interestingly, although less studied, PML seems to play a key role also in immune response to viral infection. Herein, we report that Pml −/− mice spontaneously develop an atypical invasive and lethal granulomatous lesion known as botryomycosis (BTM). In Pml −/− mice, BTM is the result of impaired function of macrophages, whereby they fail to become activated and are thus unable to clear pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, Pml −/− mice are resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced septic shock as a result of an ineffective production of cytokines and chemokines, suggesting a role for PML in the innate immune Toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB prosurvival pathway. These results not only shed light on a new fundamental function of PML in innate immunity, but they also point to a proto-oncogenic role for PML in certain cellular and pathological contexts. PMID:21779477

  13. Oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Tao, Renchuan; Jiang, Lanlan; Peng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuxiao

    2015-01-01

    Oral innate immunity, an important component in host defense and immune surveillance in the oral cavity, plays a crucial role in the regulation of oral health. As part of the innate immune system, epithelial cells lining oral mucosal surfaces provide not only a physical barrier but also produce different antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensins (hBDs), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and various cytokines. These innate immune mediators help in maintaining oral homeostasis. When they are impaired either by local or systemic causes, various oral infections and malignancies may be developed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other co-infections appear to have both direct and indirect effects on systemic and local innate immunity leading to the development of oral opportunistic infections and malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard treatment of HIV infection contributed to a global reduction of HIV-associated oral lesions. However, prolonged treatment by HAART may lead to adverse effects on the oral innate immunity resulting in the relapse of oral lesions. This review article focused on the roles of oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era. The following five key questions were addressed: 1) What are the roles of oral innate immunity in health and disease?, 2) What are the effects of HIV infection on oral innate immunity?, 3) What are the roles of oral innate immunity against other co-infections?, 4) What are the effects of HAART on oral innate immunity?, and 5) Is oral innate immunity enhanced by HAART? PMID:25639844

  14. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  15. The relationship of cow size and calf birth weight to calf weaning weight in a commercial Brangus cow/calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitability and sustainability of cow/calf operations are dependent on cow efficiency. Annual forage consumption is a logical input component included in cow efficiency models and large cows generally consume more forage annually than small cows. The ratio of additional kg of calf weaning BW to ea...

  16. Genomic analysis of dominance effects on milk production and conformation traits in Fleckvieh cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of dominance variance in dairy cattle based on pedigree data vary considerably across traits and amount to up to 50% of the total genetic variance for conformation traits and up to 43% for milk production traits. Using bovine SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes, dominance variance can be estimated both at the marker level and at the animal level using genomic dominance effect relationship matrices. Yield deviations of high-density genotyped Fleckvieh cows were used to assess cross-validation accuracy of genomic predictions with additive and dominance models. The potential use of dominance variance in planned matings was also investigated. Results Variance components of nine milk production and conformation traits were estimated with additive and dominance models using yield deviations of 1996 Fleckvieh cows and ranged from 3.3% to 50.5% of the total genetic variance. REML and Gibbs sampling estimates showed good concordance. Although standard errors of estimates of dominance variance were rather large, estimates of dominance variance for milk, fat and protein yields, somatic cell score and milkability were significantly different from 0. Cross-validation accuracy of predicted breeding values was higher with genomic models than with the pedigree model. Inclusion of dominance effects did not increase the accuracy of the predicted breeding and total genetic values. Additive and dominance SNP effects for milk yield and protein yield were estimated with a BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) model and used to calculate expectations of breeding values and total genetic values for putative offspring. Selection on total genetic value instead of breeding value would result in a larger expected total genetic superiority in progeny, i.e. 14.8% for milk yield and 27.8% for protein yield and reduce the expected additive genetic gain only by 4.5% for milk yield and 2.6% for protein yield. Conclusions Estimated dominance variance was substantial

  17. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    PubMed

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  18. Patterns of pathogenesis: discrimination of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes by the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Russell E.; Isberg, Ralph R.; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding innate immunity has been that host cells respond to evolutionarily conserved molecular features of pathogens called ‘pathogen-associated molecular patterns’ (PAMPs). PAMPs should be understood in the context of how they are naturally presented by pathogens. This can be experimentally challenging since pathogens, almost by definition, bypass host defense. Nevertheless, in this review, we explore the idea that the immune system responds to PAMPs in the context of additional signals that derive from common ‘patterns of pathogenesis’ employed by pathogens to infect, multiply within, and spread among their hosts. PMID:19616762

  19. Role of α-synuclein in inducing innate and adaptive immunity in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Allen Reish, Heather E; Standaert, David G

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Gene duplications, triplications and point mutations in SNCA1, the gene encoding α-syn, cause autosomal dominant forms of PD. Aggregated and post-translationally modified forms of α-syn are present in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in both sporadic and familial PD, and recent work has emphasized the prion-like ability of aggregated α-syn to produce spreading pathology. Accumulation of abnormal forms of α-syn is a trigger for PD, but recent evidence suggests that much of the downstream neurodegeneration may result from inflammatory responses. Components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems are activated in PD, and influencing interactions between innate and adaptive immune components has been shown to modify the pathological process in animal models of PD. Understanding the relationship between α-syn and subsequent inflammation may reveal novel targets for neuroprotective interventions. In this review, we examine the role of α-syn and modified forms of this protein in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  20. The innate and adaptive infiltrating immune systems as targets for breast cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Law, Andrew M K; Lim, Elgene; Ormandy, Christopher J; Gallego-Ortega, David

    2017-04-01

    A cancer cell-centric view has long dominated the field of cancer biology. Research efforts have focussed on aberrant cancer cell signalling pathways and on changes to cancer cell DNA. Mounting evidence demonstrates that many cancer-associated cell types within the tumour stroma co-evolve and support tumour growth and development, greatly modifying cancer cell behaviour, facilitating invasion and metastasis and controlling dormancy and sensitivity to drug therapy. Thus, these stromal cells represent potential targets for cancer therapy. Among these cell types, immune cells have emerged as a promising target for therapy. The adaptive and the innate immune system play an important role in normal mammary development and breast cancer. The number of infiltrating adaptive immune system cells with tumour-rejecting capacity, primarily, T lymphocytes, is lower in breast cancer compared with other cancer types, but infiltration occurs in a large proportion of cases. There is strong evidence demonstrating the importance of the immunosuppressive role of the innate immune system during breast cancer progression. A consideration of components of both the innate and the adaptive immune system is essential for the design and development of immunotherapies in breast cancer. In this review, we focus on the importance of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) as potential targets for breast cancer therapy.

  1. Editorial--in this issue: innate immunity in normal and pathologic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Bot, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of the International Reviews of Immunology, we host several reviews dedicated to the innate immunity in normal and diseased states. Tan et al. discuss the molecular nature of the innate immune response as a consequence of co-engagement of distinct Toll-like receptors. Schwarz et al. present a regulatory loop leading to increased myelopoiesis through the engagement of CD137L by CD137+ T cells. Kolandaswamy et al. present transcriptomic evidence that distinguishes between two major subsets of monocytes. In a different review, Minasyan presents an interesting hypothesis that erythrocytes have a dominant role in clearing bacteria within the blood stream while leukocytes' role is mostly extra-vascular. Yan et al. discuss the pivotal role of the liver, its pre-existing and associated pathology, in sepsis. Zhang outlines the implications of declining neutrophils and impact to long-term management of HIV-associated disease. Finally, Lal et al. discuss the multiple roles of γδT cells in innate and adaptive immunity.

  2. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, S.T; Risley, C.L

    2005-01-01

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by ‘blitzkrieg’-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as ‘infinite’. PMID:17148336

  3. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  4. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'.

  5. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present.

  6. Evolutionary responses of innate Immunity to adaptive immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate immunity is present in all metazoans, whereas the evolutionarily more novel adaptive immunity is limited to jawed fishes and their descendants (gnathostomes). We observe that the organisms that possess adaptive immunity lack diversity in their innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), rais...

  7. Pathogen recognition by innate immunity and its signaling

    PubMed Central

    Akira, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian immune response can be divided into innate and acquired immunity. Furthermore, much evidence has demonstrated that activation of innate immunity is a prerequisite to induction of acquired immunity. This paradigm shift has changed our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infections, immune diseases, allergy, and cancers. PMID:19367086

  8. Cell-autonomous stress responses in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Julien; Blander, J Magarian

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response of phagocytes to microbes has long been known to depend on the core signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to expression and production of inflammatory cytokines that counteract infection and induce adaptive immunity. Cell-autonomous responses have recently emerged as important mechanisms of innate immunity. Either IFN-inducible or constitutive, these processes aim to guarantee cell homeostasis but have also been shown to modulate innate immune response to microbes and production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these constitutive cell-autonomous responses, autophagy is prominent and its role in innate immunity has been well characterized. Other stress responses, such as metabolic stress, the ER stress/unfolded protein response, mitochondrial stress, or the DNA damage response, seem to also be involved in innate immunity, although the precise mechanisms by which they regulate the innate immune response are not yet defined. Of importance, these distinct constitutive cell-autonomous responses appear to be interconnected and can also be modulated by microbes and PRRs, which add further complexity to the interplay between innate immune signaling and cell-autonomous responses in the mediation of an efficient innate immune response.

  9. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  10. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  11. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  12. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  13. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  14. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  15. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  16. Effect of rubber flooring on cow locomotion and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed-f...

  17. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  18. 2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical cow house opposite from the one pictured. In the background are: Robinson-Aiken Slave Building and Kitchens (SC-276) on left, and Robinson-Aiken Service Building and Stable (SC-275) on right. - Robinson-Aiken Cow House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  19. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  20. Transition cow nutrition and feeding management for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J; Sniffen, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    In this article, an overview is presented of nutrient modeling to define energy and protein requirements of the late pregnant cow, and metabolic relationships between fetus and cow as they relate to nutrient utilization and risk for postparturient disease are discussed. Recommendations for formulating dry cow diets are provided, with emphasis on opportunities to minimize variation and risk for postparturient disease events.

  1. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  2. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  3. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  4. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2011-01-01

    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  5. Innate and acquired bacteriophage-mediated immunity

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jeremy J.; Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest

    2013-01-01

    We recently described a novel, non-host-derived, phage-mediated immunity active at mucosal surfaces, the main site of pathogen entry in metazoans. In that work, we showed that phage T4 adheres to mucus glycoproteins via immunoglobulin-like domains displayed on its capsid. This adherence positions the phage in mucus surfaces where they are more likely to encounter and kill bacteria, thereby benefiting both the phage and its metazoan host. We presented this phage-metazoan symbiosis based on an exclusively lytic model of phage infection. Here we extend our bacteriophage adherence to mucus (BAM) model to consider the undoubtedly more complex dynamics in vivo. We hypothesize how mucus-adherent phages, both lytic and temperate, might impact the commensal microbiota as well as protect the metazoan epithelium from bacterial invasion. We suggest that BAM may provide both an innate and an acquired antimicrobial immunity. PMID:24228227

  6. Ocular Surface as Barrier of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Navas, Alejandro; López-Lizárraga, Erika Paulina; de Ribot, Francesc March; Peña, Alexandra; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O; Garfias, Yonathan

    2015-01-01

    Sight is one of the most important senses that human beings possess. The ocular system is a complex structure equipped with mechanisms that prevent or limit damage caused by physical, chemical, infectious and environmental factors. These mechanisms include a series of anatomical, cellular and humoral factors that have been a matter of study. The cornea is not only the most powerful and important lens of the optical system, but also, it has been involved in many other physiological and pathological processes apart from its refractive nature; the morphological and histological properties of the cornea have been thoroughly studied for the last fifty years; drawing attention in its molecular characteristics of immune response. This paper will review the anatomical and physiological aspects of the cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal apparatus, as well as the innate immunity at the ocular surface. PMID:26161163

  7. Endocannabinoid signalling in innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chiurchiù, Valerio; Battistini, Luca; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The immune system can be modulated and regulated not only by foreign antigens but also by other humoral factors and metabolic products, which are able to affect several quantitative and qualitative aspects of immunity. Among these, endocannabinoids are a group of bioactive lipids that might serve as secondary modulators, which when mobilized coincident with or shortly after first-line immune modulators, increase or decrease many immune functions. Most immune cells express these bioactive lipids, together with their set of receptors and of enzymes regulating their synthesis and degradation. In this review, a synopsis of the manifold immunomodulatory effects of endocannabinoids and their signalling in the different cell populations of innate and adaptive immunity is appointed, with a particular distinction between mice and human immune system compartments. PMID:25585882

  8. Innateness, evolution, and genetics of language.

    PubMed

    Ganger, J; Stromswold, K

    1998-04-01

    Our goal in this article is to review a debate over the evolution of language and to suggest some keys to its resolution. We begin with a review of some of the theoretical and empirical evidence for the innateness of language that has caused renewed interest in the evolution of language. In a second section we review some prominent theories of the evolution of language, focusing on the controversy over whether language could have been adapted for some purpose. We argue that for evolutionary studies of language to advance, theorists must make more persuasive arguments for the purpose of language, and, furthermore, linguists must continue to develop a detailed theory of syntax. Finally, we suggest ways that behavioral and population genetics could help to inform studies of the evolution of language.

  9. Interactions between Innate Immunity, Microbiota, and Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, GianMarco; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Fabiocchi, Federica; Ricci, Salvatore; Flamini, Paolo; Sandri, Giancarlo; Trotta, Maria Cristina; Elisei, Walter; Penna, Antonio; Lecca, Piera Giuseppina; Picchio, Marcello; Tursi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The term "microbiota" means genetic inheritance associated with microbiota, which is about 100 times larger than the guest. The tolerance of the resident bacterial flora is an important key element of immune cell function. A key role in the interaction between the host and the microbiota is played by Paneth cell, which is able to synthesize and secrete proteins and antimicrobial peptides, such as α/β defensins, cathelicidin, 14 β-glycosidases, C-type lectins, and ribonuclease, in response to various stimuli. Recent studies found probiotics able to preserve intestinal homeostasis by downmodulating the immune response and inducing the development of T regulatory cells. Specific probiotic strain, as well as probiotic-driven metabolic products called "postbiotics," has been recently recognized and it is able to influence innate immunity. New therapeutic approaches based on probiotics are now available, and further treatments based on postbiotics will come in the future.

  10. Respiratory syncytial virus infection: an innate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract infection in children and adults. However, infection with this virus sometimes leads to severe lower respiratory disease and is the major cause of infant hospitalisations in the developed world. Several risk factors such as baby prematurity and congenital heart disease are known to predispose towards severe disease but previously healthy, full-term infants can also develop bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia during RSV infection. The causes of severe disease are not fully understood but may include dysregulation of the immune response to the virus, resulting in excessive recruitment and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells that can cause damage. This review highlights recent discoveries on the balancing act of immune-mediated virus clearance versus immunopathology during RSV infection. PMID:28105323

  11. Natural innate and adaptive immunity to cancer.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Matthew D; Kershaw, Michael H; Schreiber, Robert D; Smyth, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The immune system can identify and destroy nascent tumor cells in a process termed cancer immunosurveillance, which functions as an important defense against cancer. Recently, data obtained from numerous investigations in mouse models of cancer and in humans with cancer offer compelling evidence that particular innate and adaptive immune cell types, effector molecules, and pathways can sometimes collectively function as extrinsic tumor-suppressor mechanisms. However, the immune system can also promote tumor progression. Together, the dual host-protective and tumor-promoting actions of immunity are referred to as cancer immunoediting. In this review, we discuss the current experimental and human clinical data supporting a cancer immunoediting process that provide the fundamental basis for further study of immunity to cancer and for the rational design of immunotherapies against cancer.

  12. Innate immunity in resistance to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Biasin, Mara; Clerici, Mario; Piacentini, Luca

    2010-11-01

    Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in subjects who do not seroconvert despite multiple exposures to the virus and to the progression to AIDS in HIV‐infected individuals depends on multiple factors involving both the innate and the adaptive immune system. The contribution of natural immunity in preventing HIV infection has so far received little attention, but many recently published articles suggest a key role for Toll‐like receptors, natural killer cells, interleukin‐22, acute‐phase amyloid A protein, and APOBEC3G in conferring resistance to HIV infection. The study of these factors will shed light on HIV pathogenesis and contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to this elusive disease.

  13. Alzheimer's disease: Innate immunity gone awry?

    PubMed

    VanItallie, Theodore B

    2017-01-11

    Inflammation is an immune activity designed to protect the host from pathogens and noxious agents. In its low-intensity form, presence of an inflammatory process must be inferred from appropriate biomarkers. Occult neuroinflammation is not just secondary to Alzheimer's disease (AD) but may contribute to its pathogenesis and promote its progression. A leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been observed in early AD and may play a role in its initiation and development. Studies of the temporal evolution of AD's biomarkers have shown that, in AD, the brain's amyloid burden correlates poorly with cognitive decline. In contrast, cognitive deficits in AD correlate well with synapse loss. Oligomeric forms of amyloid-beta (oAβs) can be synaptotoxic and evidence of their deposition inside synaptic terminals of cognition-associated neurons explains early memory loss in AD better than formation of extracellular Aβ plaques. Among innate immune cells that reside in the brain, microglia sense danger signals represented by proteins like oAβ and become activated by neuronal damage such as that caused by bacterial endotoxins. The resulting reactive microgliosis has been implicated in generating the chronic form of microglial activation believed to promote AD's development. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have yielded data from patients with sporadic AD indicating that its causes include genetic variation in the innate immune system. Recent preclinical studies have reported that β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) may protect the brain from the adverse effects of both the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and the deacetylation of histone. Consequently, there is an urgent need for clinical investigations designed to test whether an orally administered βOHB preparation, such as a ketone ester, can have a similar beneficial effect in human subjects.

  14. Innate sexuality determines the mechanisms of telomere maintenance.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Kenta; Yokoyama, Naoki; Nodono, Hanae; Hoshi, Motonori; Matsumoto, Midori

    2013-01-01

    Recently, telomere length has been shown to be differentially regulated in asexually and sexually reproducing planarians. In addition, it was found that asexual worms maintain telomere length somatically during reproduction by fission or when regeneration is induced by amputation, whereas sexual worms only achieve telomere elongation through sexual reproduction. We have established an experimental bioassay system to induce switching from asexual to sexual reproduction in planarians, that is, sexualization. In this study, the relationship between the reproductive mode and telomere maintenance was investigated using innate asexually reproducing worms, innate sexually reproducing worms, and experimentally sexualized worms. Here, we show that innate asexual planarians maintain telomere length during cell division and that innate sexual planarians exhibit telomere shortening. However, experimental sexualized worms maintain telomere length during cell division. These results indicate that innate sexuality is linked to the mechanism of telomere maintenance.

  15. Toll-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Sandra N.; Li, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental sensor molecules of the host innate immune system, which detect conserved molecular signatures of a wide range of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses via distinct signaling pathways. Various TLRs are implicated in the early interplay of host cells with invading viruses, which regulates viral replication and/or host responses, ultimately impacting on viral pathogenesis. To survive the host innate defense mechanisms, many viruses have developed strategies to evade or counteract signaling through the TLR pathways, creating an advantageous environment for their propagation. Here we review the current knowledge of the roles TLRs play in antiviral innate immune responses, discuss examples of TLR-mediated viral recognition, and describe strategies used by viruses to antagonize the host antiviral innate immune responses. PMID:24316048

  16. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  17. Innate Immune Pattern Recognition: A Cell Biological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Sky W.; Bonham, Kevin S.; Zanoni, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Receptors of the innate immune system detect conserved determinants of microbial and viral origin. Activation of these receptors initiates signaling events that culminate in an effective immune response. Recently, the view that innate immune signaling events rely on and operate within a complex cellular infrastructure has become an important framework for understanding the regulation of innate immunity. Compartmentalization within this infrastructure provides the cell with the ability to assign spatial information to microbial detection and regulate immune responses. Several cell biological processes play a role in the regulation of innate signaling responses; at the same time, innate signaling can engage cellular processes as a form of defense or to promote immunological memory. In this review, we highlight these aspects of cell biology in pattern-recognition receptor signaling by focusing on signals that originate from the cell surface, from endosomal compartments, and from within the cytosol. PMID:25581309

  18. Cow effects and estimation of success of first and following inseminations in Dutch dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Inchaisri, C; Jorritsma, R; Vernooij, J C M; Vos, P L A M; van der Weijden, G C; Hogeveen, H

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101,297 insemination records in 51,525 lactations of different cows from 1368 herds obtained from the Dutch milk production recording database. Cows that had a first insemination (AI) between 40 and 150 days post-partum with one or more inseminations (≤6 inseminations) were selected. An insemination was defined successful when not followed by another insemination and when the cow calved between 267 and 295 days after insemination, or when the cow was culled between 135 and 295 days after the last insemination. Breed, parity, days in milk, lactation curve characteristics, milk production traits, moment of AI related to peak milk yield time (before or after peak milk yield), the last calf (female, male, twin or stillbirth) and season of insemination were selected as independent parameters for a model with successful rate of insemination as dependent parameter. A multivariable logistic regression model was used within cow and farm as a random effect. The probability of successful insemination was the highest in the first insemination and decreased in the following inseminations. However, the success rate of all inseminations increased in a later stage of lactation. The improvement in the successful inseminations in a later stage of lactation was better in multiparous cows than in first parity cows. Insemination in summer and before peak milk yield time reduced the success of insemination. The success rate was the lowest in 100% Holstein Friesian cows compared with other breeds and was the highest when the last calf was a female calf compared to a male calf, twin or stillbirth. In conclusion, the success of first and following inseminations depended on parity, breed, season of insemination, last calf status, daily milk yield at insemination date

  19. Novel Use of Derived Genotype Probabilities to Discover Significant Dominance Effects for Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Teide-Jens; Heuer, Claas; Tetens, Jens; Reinhardt, Fritz; Thaller, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of dominance effects requires the availability of direct phenotypes, i.e., genotypes and phenotypes in the same individuals. In dairy cattle, classical QTL mapping approaches are, however, relying on genotyped sires and daughter-based phenotypes like breeding values. Thus, dominance effects cannot be estimated. The number of dairy bulls genotyped for dense genome-wide marker panels is steadily increasing in the context of genomic selection schemes. The availability of genotyped cows is, however, limited. Within the current study, the genotypes of male ancestors were applied to the calculation of genotype probabilities in cows. Together with the cows’ phenotypes, these probabilities were used to estimate dominance effects on a genome-wide scale. The impact of sample size, the depth of pedigree used in deriving genotype probabilities, the linkage disequilibrium between QTL and marker, the fraction of variance explained by the QTL, and the degree of dominance on the power to detect dominance were analyzed in simulation studies. The effect of relatedness among animals on the specificity of detection was addressed. Furthermore, the approach was applied to a real data set comprising 470,000 Holstein cows. To account for relatedness between animals a mixed-model two-step approach was used to adjust phenotypes based on an additive genetic relationship matrix. Thereby, considerable dominance effects were identified for important milk production traits. The approach might serve as a powerful tool to dissect the genetic architecture of performance and functional traits in dairy cattle. PMID:23222654

  20. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  1. Cow-level prevalence of paratuberculosis in culled dairy cows in Atlantic Canada and Maine.

    PubMed

    McKenna, S L B; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W; McClure, J; Vanleeuwen, J A; Hanna, P; Sockett, D C

    2004-11-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Mptb) in culled dairy cattle in Eastern Canada and Maine was determined to be 16.1% (95% confidence interval 13.8 to 18.3%) based on a systematic random sample of abattoir cattle. Mesenteric lymph nodes and ileum from 984 cows were examined by histologic and bacteriologic methods. Histological testing was far less sensitive than bacteriologic methods for detecting infected cattle. A seasonal pattern of positive cows was also detected, with the highest proportion of cows being Mptb-positive in June (42.5%). Overall, body condition score was not associated with prevalence of Mptb isolation.

  2. The pathology of orthopedic implant failure is mediated by innate immune system cytokines.

    PubMed

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Jäger, Marcus; Jacobs, Joshua J; Hallab, Nadim James

    2014-01-01

    All of the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after 15-25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation at the bone implant interface. This inflammatory disease state is caused by implant debris acting, primarily, on innate immune cells, that is, macrophages. This slow progressive pathological bone loss or "aseptic loosening" is a potentially life-threatening condition due to the serious complications in older people (>75 yrs) of total joint replacement revision surgery. In some people implant debris (particles and ions from metals) can influence the adaptive immune system as well, giving rise to the concept of metal sensitivity. However, a consensus of studies agrees that the dominant form of this response is due to innate reactivity by macrophages to implant debris where both danger (DAMP) and pathogen (PAMP) signalling elicit cytokine-based inflammatory responses. This paper discusses implant debris induced release of the cytokines and chemokines due to activation of the innate (and the adaptive) immune system and the subsequent formation of osteolysis. Different mechanisms of implant-debris reactivity related to the innate immune system are detailed, for example, danger signalling (e.g., IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, etc.), toll-like receptor activation (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, etc.), apoptosis (e.g., caspases 3-9), bone catabolism (e.g., TRAP5b), and hypoxia responses (Hif1-α). Cytokine-based clinical and basic science studies are in progress to provide diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies.

  3. Comparison of endotoxin levels in cow's milk samples derived from farms and shops.

    PubMed

    Sipka, Sándor; Béres, Andrea; Bertók, Lóránd; Varga, Tamara; Bruckner, Geza

    2015-07-01

    The observations on the protective effect of bacterial endotoxin in farm-derived cow's milk on childhood asthma and allergy are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the endotoxin levels in 'farm-derived whole raw' and 'processed shop' sources of cow's milk, and to test how the temperature and storing conditions might alter their endotoxin concentrations. Milk was collected from farms and shops. The level of endotoxin was measured by micro (gel-clot) Limulus amebocyte lysate test expressed as EU/ml. The concentration ranges of endotoxin were much higher and more widely scattered in the samples of whole raw farm milk than in the processed shop milk. Cold storage or heating increased the endotoxin concentrations in all samples of farm milk, but not in the processed shop milk. These results show that elevated levels of endotoxin in raw farm milk samples can occur from the cowshed or be formed during storage. In processed shop milk, storage does not cause any changes in the amount of endotoxin. Therefore, it is consistent that the handling and storage of raw milk alters the endotoxin concentrations, which may explain previous contradictory findings regarding the beneficial modulating effects on innate immunity toward allergy prevention in early childhood.

  4. Cancer Immunosurveillance by Tissue-resident Innate Lymphoid Cells and Innate-like T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dadi, Saïda; Chhangawala, Sagar; Whitlock, Benjamin M.; Franklin, Ruth A.; Luo, Chong T.; Oh, Soyoung A.; Toure, Ahmed; Pritykin, Yuri; Huse, Morgan; Leslie, Christina S.; Li, Ming O.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Malignancy can be suppressed by the immune system in a process termed immunosurveillance. However, to what extent immunosurveillance occurs in spontaneous cancers and the composition of participating cell types remain obscure. Here we show that cell transformation triggers a tissue-resident lymphocyte response in oncogene-induced murine cancer models. Non-circulating cytotoxic lymphocytes, derived from innate, TCRαβ and TCRγδ lineages, expand in early tumors. Characterized by high expression of NK1.1, CD49a and CD103, these cells share a gene expression signature distinct from those of conventional NK cells, T cells and invariant NKT cells. Generation of these lymphocytes is dependent on the cytokine IL-15, but not the transcription factor Nfil3 that is required for the differentiation of tumor-infiltrating NK cells, and IL-15, but not Nfil3, deficiency results in accelerated tumor growth. These findings reveal a tumor-elicited immunosurveillance mechanism that engages unconventional type 1-like innate lymphoid cells and type 1 innate-like T cells. PMID:26806130

  5. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  6. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  7. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  8. Recombinant oncolytic poliovirus, PVSRIPO, has potent cytotoxic and innate inflammatory effects, mediating therapy in human breast and prostate cancer xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Eda K.; Brown, Michael C.; Boczkowski, David; McNamara, Megan A.; George, Daniel J.; Bigner, Darell D.; Gromeier, Matthias; Nair, Smita K.

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral inoculation of viruses with tumor-selective cytotoxicity may induce cancer cell death and, thereby, shrink neoplastic lesions. It is unlikely, however, that viral tumor cell killing alone could produce meaningful, durable clinical responses, as clinically suitable ‘oncolytic’ viruses are severely attenuated and their spread and propagation are opposed by host immunity. Thus, a more propitious event in this context is the innate antiviral response to intratumoral virus administration, in particular for recruiting durable adaptive immune effector responses. It may represent a double-edged sword, as innate immune activation may eliminate infected tumor cells early, intercept viral spread and block any meaningful therapeutic response. The innate response to viral infection of tumors may be very different from that in non-malignant target tissues, owing to the unusual composition/tissue properties of tumor stroma. In this work, we report investigations of the innate immune response to the oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVSRIPO, in two mouse xenotransplantation models for breast and prostate cancer. Our observations indicate short-term virus persistence in infected tumors and virus recovery indicative of modest intratumoral propagation and persistence. Yet, a powerful innate inflammatory response coincided with chemokine induction and myeloid cell infiltration into tumors that was, interestingly, dominated by neutrophils. The combined effect of PVSRIPO tumor infection and the innate response it elicits was significant tumor regression in both models. PMID:27806313

  9. The effect of nutritional management of the dairy cow on reproductive efficiency.

    PubMed

    Roche, James F

    2006-12-01

    The cause of low fertility in dairy cows is multifactorial. Poor nutrition during the dry and early postpartum periods results in reduced glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and low LH pulse frequency with concomitant increases in beta-hydroxy butyrate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triacylglycerol. Cows must mobilize large lipid, but also some protein reserves, with a consequent increased incidence of such metabolic disorders as hypocalcaemia, acidosis, ketosis, fatty liver and displaced abomasums. The occurrence of milk fever and ketosis affects uterine contractions, delays calving and increases the risk of retained foetal membranes (RFM) and endometritis. The nutritional risk factors that cause RFM are hypocalcaemia, high body condition score (BCS) at calving and deficiencies in Vitamin E and selenium. The risk factors for endometritis are hypocalcaemia, RFM, high triacylglycerol and NEFA. Thus, metabolic disorders predispose cows to gynaecological disorders, thereby reducing reproductive efficiency. Cows that are overconditioned at calving or those that lose excess body weight are more likely to have a prolonged interval to first oestrus, thereby prolonging days open. Nutritionally induced postpartum anoestrus is characterized by turnover of dominant follicles incapable of producing sufficient oestradiol to induce ovulation due to reduced LH pulse frequency. High nutrition can also increase metabolic clearance rate of steroid hormones such as progesterone or oestradiol. Lower concentrations of oestradiol on the day of oestrus are highly correlated with the occurrence of suboestrus, thereby making the detection of oestrus in high yielding cows even more difficult. Nutrition also affects conception rate (CR) to AI. Cows that develop hypocalcaemia, ketosis, acidosis or displaced abomasums have lower CRs and take longer to become pregnant. Excessive loss of BCS and excess protein content of the ration can reduce CR while supplemental fats

  10. Dominant optic atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3) encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8) are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7) are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of bilateral, mild

  11. Direct benefits of social dominance in juvenile crayfish.

    PubMed

    Herberholz, Jens; McCurdy, Catherine; Edwards, Donald H

    2007-08-01

    Crayfish are known for their innate aggressiveness and willingness to quickly establish dominance relationships among group members. Consequently, the formation of dominance hierarchies and the analysis of behavioral patterns displayed during agonistic encounters have mostly been tested in environments that provide no immediate resources besides space. We tested the hypothesis that social hierarchy formation in crayfish serves to determine access to future resources. Individuals within groups of three juvenile crayfish were allowed to form a social hierarchy in a featureless environment before a single food resource was presented. Higher dominance indices were significantly correlated with increased access to the food. The highest ranked crayfish spent more time in contact with the food than did medium-ranked and lowest ranked crayfish, and crayfish of medium rank spent more time in contact with the resource than did lowest ranked animals. The highest ranked crayfish consolidated their dominant status in the presence of food, indicated by a complete absence of any submissive behaviors during that period. The results of these experiments show that the disposition of crayfish to engage in fighting and formation of a dominance hierarchy in a featureless environment serves to determine future access to an emerging resource, thereby entailing greater benefits for animals of higher social rank.

  12. Is downer cow syndrome related to chronic botulism?

    PubMed

    Rulff, R; Schrödl, W; Basiouni, S; Neuhaus, J; Krüger, M

    2015-01-01

    The present work was directed to investigate the relationship between Downer cow syndrome (DCS) and chronic botulism in dairy cattle. For this purpose, a total of 52 fresh calving downer cows and 206 apparently healthy cows at 14 dairy farms were investigated for Clostridium botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels, C. botulinum and botulinum neurotoxin in rumen fluids as well as in faeces. Results indicated that the downer cows had higher IgG titers for C. botulinum ABE and CD than the healthy cows. All tested rumen fluids were negative for BoNT and C. botulinum. BoNT/D, however, and C. botulinum type D spores were detected in faecal samples of healthy and downer cows in the selected farms. In conclusion, the presence of a significantly higher C. botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels in DCS cows than in the healthy animals suggests that chronic C. botulinum toxico-infection could be a predisposing factor for DCS.

  13. The innate immune system in human systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Weidenbusch, Marc; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-04-25

    Although the role of adaptive immune mechanisms, e.g. autoantibody formation and abnormal T-cell activation, has been long noted in the pathogenesis of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the role of innate immunity has been less well characterized. An intricate interplay between both innate and adaptive immune elements exists in protective anti-infective immunity as well as in detrimental autoimmunity. More recently, it has become clear that the innate immune system in this regard not only starts inflammation cascades in SLE leading to disease flares, but also continues to fuel adaptive immune responses throughout the course of the disease. This is why targeting the innate immune system offers an additional means of treating SLE. First trials assessing the efficacy of anti-type I interferon (IFN) therapy or modulators of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signalling have been attempted. In this review, we summarize the available evidence on the role of several distinct innate immune elements, especially neutrophils and dendritic cells as well as the IFN system, as well as specific innate PRRs along with their signalling pathways. Finally, we highlight recent clinical trials in SLE addressing one or more of the aforementioned components of the innate immune system.

  14. Enhancing Cancer Immunotherapy Via Activation of Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jacob L; Sondel, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    Given recent technological advances and advances in our understanding of cancer, immunotherapy of cancer is being used with clear clinical benefit. The immunosuppression accompanying cancer itself, as well as with current cancer treatment with radiation or chemotherapy, impairs adaptive immune effectors to a greater extent than innate effector cells. In addition to being less suppressed, innate immune cells are capable of being enhanced via immune-stimulatory regimens. Most strategies being investigated to promote innate immune responses against cancer do not require complex, patient-specific, ex vivo cellular or molecular creation of therapeutic agents; thus they can, generally, be used as "off the shelf" therapeutics that could be administered by most cancer clinics. Successful applications of innate immunotherapy in the clinic have effectively targeted components of the innate immune response. Preclinical data demonstrate how initiation of innate immune responses can lead to subsequent adaptive long-term cancer immunity. We hypothesize that integration of innate immune activation strategies into combination therapies for cancer treatment will lead to more effective and long-term clinical benefit.

  15. Form of supplemental selenium fed to cycling cows affects systemic concentrations of progesterone but not those of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Katheryn L; Anderson, Les; Burris, Walter R; Rhoads, Michelle; Matthews, James C; Bridges, Phillip J

    2016-03-15

    In areas where soils are deficient in selenium (Se), dietary supplementation of this trace mineral directly to cattle is recommended. Selenium status affects fertility, and the form of Se supplemented to cows affects tissue-specific gene expression profiles. The objective of this study was to determine whether the form of Se consumed by cows would affect follicular growth and the production of steroids. Thirty-three Angus-cross cows that had ad libitum access of a mineral mix containing 35 ppm of Se in free-choice vitamin-mineral mixes as either inorganic (ISe), organic (OSe), or a 50/50 mix of ISe and OSe (MIX) for 180 days were used. After 170 days of supplementation, all cows were injected with 25-mg PGF2α to induce regression of the CL and then monitored for behavioral estrus (Day 0). From Day 4 to Day 8 after estrus, follicular growth was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. On Day 6, cows were injected with PGF2α (20 then 15 mg, 8-12 hours apart) to induce regression of the developing CL and differentiation of the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave into a preovulatory follicle. On Day 8, 36 hours after PGF2α (20 mg), the contents of the preovulatory follicle were aspirated by ultrasound-guided follicular puncture. Blood collected on Days 6 and 8 and follicular fluid collected on Day 8 was analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol. Form of Se supplemented to cows affected (P = 0.04) the systemic concentration of progesterone on Day 6, but not on Day 8. Form of Se did not affect the systemic concentration of estradiol on Day 6 or Day 8. Form of Se tended to affect (P = 0.07) the concentration of progesterone, but not that of estradiol, in the follicular fluid. Form of Se did not affect diameter of the dominant ovarian follicle on Days 4 to 6, but tended to affect (P = 0.08) the diameter of the preovulatory follicle on Day 8. Our results suggest that form of Se fed to cows affects the production of progesterone but not that

  16. Finger enslaving in the dominant and non-dominant hand.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Luke A; Martin, Joel R; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2014-02-01

    During single-finger force production, the non-instructed fingers unintentionally produce force (finger enslaving). In this study, enslaving effects were compared between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The test consisted of a series of maximum voluntary contractions with different finger combinations. Enslaving matrices were calculated by means of training an artificial neural network. The dominant hand was found to be stronger, but there was found to be no difference between the overall enslaving effects in the dominant and non-dominant hands. There was no correlation between the magnitude of finger enslaving and the performance in such tests as the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Grooved Pegboard test, and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. Each one of those three tests showed a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hand performances. Eleven subjects were retested after two months, and it was found that enslaving effects did not fluctuate significantly between the two testing sessions. While the dominant and non-dominant hands are involved differently in everyday tasks, e.g. in writing or eating, this practice does not cause significant differences in enslaving between the hands.

  17. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  18. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  19. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  20. Factors affecting preovulatory concentrations of estradiol and its role in establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in suckled beef cows using reciprocal embryo transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously (Perry et...

  1. Innate immune receptors in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Georgel, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) followed by that of their role in the early detection of pathogens and the ignition of the innate immune response has been a formidable progress for immunological research in the past 15years. This has massively fueled investigations aiming at developing better strategies to fight off infectious diseases and/or to prevent their occurrence. However, infected individuals are for most part outliers in a given population and therefore, the primary function of these receptors should be considered in pathogen-free conditions. Our current understanding indicates that an important physiological function of PRRs resides in their capacity to maintain epithelial homeostasis in response to colonizing commensals. In addition, endogenous host-derived ligands, expressed under stressed, albeit sterile, conditions (called DAMPs for Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns) are also able to trigger PRR signaling. Solid organ transplantation represents a unique situation where both contributions of PRRs signaling can be studied. Indeed, dysbiosis (either caused by antibiotherapy preceding organ transplantation or simply due to the microbiota differences between the transplanted organ and the recipient host) is a characteristic feature of this situation, which is also marked by a massive synthesis and liberation of DAMPs as a result of hypoxia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, in the transplanted organ, at least two compartments (epithelial and that composed of immune cells) participate in graft rejection/acceptance depending on the activation status of expressed PRRs.

  2. Innate antioxidant activity of some traditional formulations

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gunpreet; Gupta, Vikas; Bansal, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Herbal medicine is the oldest form of healthcare known to humanity. Recently, much attention is being directed toward the use of antioxidants. There are some very commonly used Ayurvedic preparations that might have inbuilt antioxidant activity, and their therapeutic potential can be partially attributable to its antioxidant activity. Hence, it was proposed to find out antioxidant activity of such common formulations. Estimation of innate antioxidant activity of some commonly used traditional formulations. In this study, five formulations were evaluated for antioxidant activity in comparison to gallic acid (standard) using the in vitro reducing power method and superoxide radical scavenging activity by dimethyl sulfoxide method followed by calculation of scavenging activity and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The result shows that Ayurvedic drug extracts possess good reducing power and antioxidant activity. Laxmivilas Ras shows higher reducing power ranging from 117 ± 0.021 to 0.176 ± 0.012 as compared to other extracts. The drug extracts were also found to be an efficient scavenger of superoxide radical. The IC50 values for Laxmivilas Ras, Agnitundi Vati, Ajmodadi Churna, Tribhuvankirti Rasa, gallic acid (standard) and Sitopladi Churna, were found to be 50.07, 98.41, 105.13, 116.39, 176.80, and 200.17, respectively. From this study, it can be concluded that the above Ayurvedic formulations possess antioxidant property. However, work could be initiated on the isolation and identification of these antioxidant components. PMID:28217554

  3. Innate olfactory preferences in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Dormont, Laurent; Jay-Robert, Pierre; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Rapior, Sylvie; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2010-09-15

    The effects of insect larval diet on adult olfactory responses to host-plant or food volatiles are still debated. The induction of adult host preferences has been studied in insects with diverse ecologies, including parasitoids, flower-visitors and phytophagous species. We investigated this question for the first time in a coprophagous insect species. Larvae of the French scarab dung beetle Agrilinus constans were reared on four different artificial substrates containing dung from cattle, horse, sheep or wild boar, and responses of imagos to dung volatiles were then behaviourally tested in an olfactometer. We also reported the first analysis of the composition of different mammal dung volatiles. We showed that adult beetles were more attracted to cattle and sheep dung odours, and that larval feeding experience had no effect on the adult olfactory responses to dung volatiles. A second experiment showed that the presence of other insects inside the dung resource affects the process of dung selection by adults. We identified 64 chemical compounds from dung emissions, and showed that dung volatiles clearly differed among different mammal species, allowing olfactory discrimination by dung beetles. Our results suggest that resource selection in coprophagous insects may be based on innate olfactory preferences. Further experiments should examine whether Agrilinus adults can learn new dung odours, and whether larval diet may influence the behaviour of adults in other coprophagous species.

  4. Innate immunity and inflammation: a transcriptional paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hawiger, J

    2001-01-01

    The innate immune response and the process of inflammation are interwoven. Excessive and continuing cytokine production in response to bacterial lipopolysacharides (LPS) or superantigens is a hallmark of the systemic inflammatory response (IR), which can be life-threatening. Dissemination of these bacterial products induces waves of proinflammatory cytokines that cause vascular injury and multiple organ dysfunction. Both LPS and superantigens induce signaling to the nucleus in mononuclear phagocytes and T cells, respectively. These signaling pathways are mediated by NF-kappaB and other stress-responsive transcription factors (SRTFs), which play a critical role in reprogramming gene expression. The nuclear import of NF-kappaB allows transcriptional activation of over 100 genes that encode mediators of inflammatory and immune responses. We have developed a novel method to block nuclear import of NF-kappaB through cell-permeable peptide transduction in monocytes, macrophages, T lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. Strikingly, a cell-permeable peptide that antagonizes nuclear import of NF-kappaB and other SRTFs, suppressed the systemic production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha and interferon gamma) in mice challenged with a lethal dose of LPS, and increased their survival by at least 90%. Thus, systemic inflammatory responses are critically dependent on the transcriptional activation ofcytokine genes that are controlled by NF-kappaB and other SRTFs.

  5. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  6. Similarity of the ruminal bacteria across individual lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Jami, Elie; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-06-01

    Dairy cattle hold enormous significance for man as a source of milk and meat. Their remarkable ability to convert indigestible plant mass into these digestible food products resides in the rumen - an anaerobic chambered compartment - in the bovine digestive system. The rumen houses a complex microbiota which is responsible for the degradation of plant material, consequently enabling the conversion of plant fibers into milk and meat and determining their quality and quantity. Hence, an understanding of this complex ecosystem has major economic implications. One important question that is yet to be addressed is the degree of conservation of rumen microbial composition across individual animals. Here we quantified the degree of similarity between rumen bacterial populations of 16 individual cows. We used real-time PCR to determine the variance of specific ruminal bacterial species with different metabolic functions, revealing that while some bacterial strains vary greatly across animals, others show only very low variability. This variance could not be linked to the metabolic traits of these bacteria. We examined the degree of similarity in the dominant bacterial populations across all animals using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), and identified a bacterial community consisting of 32% operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared by at least 90% of the animals and 19% OTUs shared by 100% of the animals. Looking only at the presence or absence of each OTU gave an average similarity of 75% between each cow pair. When abundance of each OTU was added to the analysis, this similarity decreased to an average of less than 60%. Thus, as suggested in similar recent studies of the human gut, a bovine rumen core microbiome does exist, but taxa abundance may vary greatly across animals.

  7. Modulation of post-partum reproductive performance in dairy cows through supplementation of long- or short-chain fatty acids during transition period.

    PubMed

    Ulfina, G G; Kimothi, S P; Oberoi, P S; Baithalu, R K; Kumaresan, A; Mohanty, T K; Imtiwati, P; Dang, A K

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-six cross-bred cows were used to study the effect of long-chain (flaxseed) or short-chain (butyric acid) fatty acid supplementation on metabolic status, ovarian function and reproduction performance during transition period. Control cows received a routine feed of transition diet, while the cows in two treatment groups were supplemented with either 750-g crushed flaxseed or 250 g butyric acid per cow per day. Ovarian activity was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography on 10th, 20th and 30th days post-partum. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture into heparinized polystyrene tubes; plasma was prepared and stored under -20 °C until analysis. Results indicated that cows in flaxseed group were in positive energy balance as indicated by lower NEFA and Beta hydroxy Butyrate and higher glucose concentrations. Uterine involution was completed well within 30 days post-partum in all the cows in flaxseed fed group compared to 76.9% in butyric acid supplemented and 61.5% in control groups. The size of dominant follicle and corpus luteum was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for flaxseed group compared to control group, which in turn resulted in higher concentrations of plasma progesterone. Cows fed on diets supplemented with flaxseed exhibited post-partum heat earlier and bred sooner (p < 0.05) than control cows. It has been noticed that supplementation of flaxseed and butyric acid enhanced involution of uterus, early resumption of cyclicity and thereby early breeding. However, in view of the encouraging results obtained for flaxseed supplemented group, its organic nature and easier availability at farmer's gate, we concluded that flaxseed can be safely included in transition diet to modulate reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

  8. Developing and Fielding Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Developing and Fielding Information Dominance Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command’s IT-21 Blocks 1 and 2 2002 Command and Control Research and...00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing and Fielding Information Dominance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...force levels were uncertain, the necessary role of information dominance to maintaining strategic superiority was not. Platform Centric Warfare, with its

  9. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility.

  10. Economic feasibility of cooling dry cows across the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F C; Gennari, R S; Dahl, G E; De Vries, A

    2016-12-01

    Heat stress during the dry period reduces milk yield in the subsequent lactation of dairy cows. Our objectives were to quantify the economic losses due to heat stress if dry cows are not cooled and to evaluate the economic feasibility of dry cow cooling. We used weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to calculate the number of heat stress days for each of the 50 US states. A heat stress day was declared when the daily average temperature-humidity index was ≥68. The number of dairy cows in each state in 2015 was obtained from the USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service. We assumed that 15% of the cows were dry at any time, a 60-d dry period, and a calving interval of 400d. Only cows in their second or greater parity (65%) benefitted from cooling during the dry period of the previous parity. Milk yield decreased by 5kg in the subsequent lactation (340d) if the cow experienced heat stress during the dry period based on a review of the literature. The default marginal value of milk minus feed cost was $0.33/kg of milk. The investment analysis included purchases of fans and soakers and use of water and electricity. Investment in a dry cow barn was considered separately. The average US dairy cow would experience 96 (26%) heat stress days during the year if not cooled and loses 447kg of milk in the subsequent lactation if not cooled when dry. Annual losses would be $810 million if dry cows were not cooled ($87/cow per yr). For the top 3 milk-producing states (California, Wisconsin, New York), and Florida and Texas, the average milk losses in the subsequent lactation were 522, 349, 387, 1,197, and 904kg, and reduced profit per cow per year would be $101, $68, $75, $233, and $176, respectively. The average benefit-cost ratio and payback periods of cooling dry cows in the United States were 3.15 and 0.27 yr (dry cow barn already present) and 1.45 and 5.68 yr (if investing in a dry cow barn) in the default scenario. To reach positive net

  11. Immune response of pregnant cows to bovine rotavirus immunization.

    PubMed

    Saif, L J; Smith, K L; Landmeier, B J; Bohl, E H; Theil, K W; Todhunter, D A

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen pregnant Holstein cows were freely assigned to 3 experimental groups (5 cows in each group). Cows in group I were inoculated IM and intramammarily (IMm) with Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) tissue culture-propagated modified-live Nebraska calf diarrhea bovine rotavirus with added adjuvant (OARDC vaccine-immunized cows). Group II cows were given IM injections of a commercial modified-live rotavirus-coronavirus vaccine (commercial vaccine-immunized cows), and the remaining 5 cows were noninoculated controls (group III). Rotavirus antibody in colostrum and milk was mainly associated with immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, and less so with IgG2, IgA, and IgM, as analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using monospecific anti-bovine IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA sera. In serum, the rotavirus antibody was distributed almost equally between IgG1 and IgG2. The same relationships appeared in both immunized and nonvaccinated cows. All OARDC vaccine-injected cows had virus-neutralization (VN) and ELISA IgG1 rotavirus antibody titers in serum and mammary secretions at significantly increased levels (at least 100-fold; P less than 0.05) compared with the titers in groups II (commercial vaccine-immunized cows) and III (controls). Serum, colostrum, and milk antibody titers from these latter 2 groups did not differ statistically. The ELISA IgG2, IgA, and IgM rotavirus antibody titers also were significantly greater in mammary secretions from OARDC vaccine-immunized cows than in groups II and III cows. There was a high correlation between ELISA IgG1 and VN rotavirus antibody titers for all samples tested (r = 0.97, P less than 0.001), but ELISA IgG1 antibody titers were consistently higher than VN titers. The ELISA IgG1 and VN antibody titers of milk samples collected from cows 30 days after parturition were higher from the OARDC vaccine-immunized cows (ELISA IgG1, geometric mean titer (GMT) = 3,511; VN GMT = 1,689) than were titers from the

  12. Control of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Akiko; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system both to elicit immediate defense and to generate long-lasting adaptive immunity. To detect and respond to vastly different groups of pathogens, the innate immune system uses several recognition systems that rely on sensing common structural and functional features associated with different classes of microorganisms. These recognition systems determine microbial location, viability, replication and pathogenicity. Detection of these features by recognition pathways of the innate immune system is translated into different classes of effector responses though specialized populations of dendritic cells. Multiple mechanisms for the induction of immune responses are variations on a common design principle wherein the cells that sense infections produce one set of cytokines to induce lymphocytes to produce another set of cytokines, which in turn activate effector responses. Here we discuss these emerging principles of innate control of adaptive immunity. PMID:25789684

  13. [Bacterial proteases and bacterial resistance against human innate immunity factors].

    PubMed

    Tiurin, Iu A; Mustafin, I G; Fassakhov, R S

    2011-01-01

    The molecular and cell-mediated mechanisms that are developed by certain opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and were obtained over the course of evolution to preserve resistance against principal components of human body innate immunity are summarized.

  14. Manipulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity through Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Duane A.

    2017-01-01

    Although cancer immunotherapy has shown significant promise in mediating efficacious responses, it remains encumbered by tumor heterogeneity, loss of tumor-specific antigen targets, and the regulatory milieu both regionally and systemically. Cross talk between the innate and adaptive immune response may be requisite to polarize sustained antigen specific immunity. Cancer vaccines can serve as an essential fulcrum in initiating innate immunity while molding and sustaining adaptive immunity. Although peptide vaccines have shown tepid responses in a therapeutic setting with poor correlates for immune activity, RNA vaccines activate innate immune responses and have shown promising effects in preclinical and clinical studies based on enhanced DC migration. While the mechanistic insights behind the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity may be unique to the immunotherapeutic being investigated, understanding this dynamic is important to coordinate the different arms of the immune response in a focused response against cancer antigens. PMID:28265580

  15. The Innate Immune-Related Genes in Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; He, Chongbo; Liu, Xueguang; Su, Hao; Gao, Xianggang; Li, Yunfeng; Liu, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa). In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, complements, lectins, cytokines, transferrin and gene expression profiling using microarrays and next generation sequencing technologies. This review will benefit the understanding of innate immune system in catfish and further efforts in studying the innate immune-related genes in fish. PMID:23203058

  16. Innate microbial sensors and their relevance to allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Andrew H

    2008-11-01

    The innate immune system oversees the gateway to immunity with its microbial sensors. Innate microbial sensors are germ line-encoded receptors with genetically predetermined specificities for microbes. The readiness and effectiveness of the innate immune system to provide immediate and appropriate responses at the host-environment interface is dependent on its sensitive and comprehensive microbial detection systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of innate microbial sensors, our growing understanding of their diverse repertoire, and their elegant structural and functional approaches to microbial recognition. Their relevance to allergic disease is also discussed: the potential recognition and uptake of allergens by some of these receptors, inhibited expression of other microbial sensors by allergic immune responses and inflammation, and their upregulation by microbial exposures in early life that may help to protect against the development of allergic immune responses and disease.

  17. Mast cells in allergy: innate instructors of adaptive responses.

    PubMed

    Stelekati, Erietta; Orinska, Zane; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The function of mast cells as effector cells in allergy has been extensively studied. However, increasing insight into mast cell physiology has revealed new mast cell functions and has introduced mast cells as key players in the regulation of innate as well as adaptive immunity. For example, mast cells have recently been found to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which enable them to participate in the innate immune response against pathogens. Furthermore, mast cells have been reported to interact with B cells, dendritic cells and T cells and thereby modulate the direction of an adaptive immune response. Finally, recent documentation that mast cells express functional MHC class II and costimulatory molecules and release immunologically active exosomes, has raised the possibility that mast cells also engage in (as yet) poorly understood antigen presentation functions. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that mast cells serve as central mediators between innate and adaptive immunity, rather as pure effector cells, during allergic innate responses.

  18. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P<0.01). Post-calving, ketotic cows had increased serum amyloid A (4.2 and 1.8 fold in studies A and B, respectively; P=0.03 and P=0.04), haptoglobin (>6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; P<0.01 and P=0.02) compared with their healthy counterparts. Antepartum circulating LPS in ketotic cows was increased (2.3 fold; P=0.01) compared to healthy cows in Study B. In summary, increased biomarkers of inflammation appear to be closely associated with ketosis in transition dairy cows.

  19. Fungal Surface and Innate Immune Recognition of Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Carneiro, Leticia A. M.; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system performs specific detection of molecules from infectious agents through pattern recognition receptors. This recognition triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. Infections caused by filamentous fungi have increased in incidence and represent an important cause of mortality and morbidity especially in individuals with immunosuppression. This review will discuss the innate immune recognition of filamentous fungi molecules and its importance to infection control and disease. PMID:22194732

  20. Innate immunity's path to the Nobel Prize 2011 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hermann

    2012-05-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine to Ralph Steinmann, Jules Hoffmann, and Bruce Beutler recognized a paradigm shift in our understanding of innate immunity, and its impact on adaptive immunity. The Prize highlighted the initial discoveries of Toll's role in immunity in flies, Toll-like receptors in mammals, and the establishment of dendritic cells as the initiators of adaptive immunity. This historical Commentary focuses on the developments in our understanding of innate immunity.

  1. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  2. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  3. Brain Dominance & Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhoft, Franklin O.

    Numerous areas associated with brain dominance have been researched since Bogen and Sperry's work with split-brain patients in the 1960s, but only slight attention has been given to the connection between brain dominance and personality. No study appears in the literature seeking to understand optimal mental health as defined by Maslow's…

  4. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  5. Stress hyperglycemia, insulin treatment, and innate immune cells.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fangming; Stanojcic, Mile; Diao, Li; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia (HG) and insulin resistance are the hallmarks of a profoundly altered metabolism in critical illness resulting from the release of cortisol, catecholamines, and cytokines, as well as glucagon and growth hormone. Recent studies have proposed a fundamental role of the immune system towards the development of insulin resistance in traumatic patients. A comprehensive review of published literatures on the effects of hyperglycemia and insulin on innate immunity in critical illness was conducted. This review explored the interaction between the innate immune system and trauma-induced hypermetabolism, while providing greater insight into unraveling the relationship between innate immune cells and hyperglycemia. Critical illness substantially disturbs glucose metabolism resulting in a state of hyperglycemia. Alterations in glucose and insulin regulation affect the immune function of cellular components comprising the innate immunity system. Innate immune system dysfunction via hyperglycemia is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality in critical illness. Along with others, we hypothesize that reduction in morbidity and mortality observed in patients receiving insulin treatment is partially due to its effect on the attenuation of the immune response. However, there still remains substantial controversy regarding moderate versus intensive insulin treatment. Future studies need to determine the integrated effects of HG and insulin on the regulation of innate immunity in order to provide more effective insulin treatment regimen for these patients.

  6. Habitat odor can alleviate innate stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mutsumi; Imada, Masato; Aizawa, Shin; Sato, Takaaki

    2016-01-15

    Predatory odors, which can induce innate fear and stress responses in prey species, are frequently used in the development of animal models for several psychiatric diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a life-threatening event. We have previously shown that odors can be divided into at least three types; odors that act as (1) innate stressors, (2) as innate relaxants, or (3) have no innate effects on stress responses. Here, we attempted to verify whether an artificial odor, which had no innate effect on predatory odor-induced stress, could alleviate stress if experienced in early life as a habitat odor. In the current study, we demonstrated that the innate responses were changed to counteract stress following a postnatal experience. Moreover, we suggest that inhibitory circuits involved in stress-related neuronal networks and the concentrations of norepinephrine in the hippocampus may be crucial in alleviating stress induced by the predatory odor. Overall, these findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms involved in differential odor responses and also for the development of pharmacotherapeutic interventions that can alleviate stress in illnesses like PTSD.

  7. Estrogen receptors regulate innate immune cells and signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kovats, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Humans show strong sex differences in immunity to infection and autoimmunity, suggesting sex hormones modulate immune responses. Indeed, receptors for estrogens (ERs) regulate cells and pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, as well as immune cell development. ERs are ligand-dependent transcription factors that mediate long-range chromatin interactions and form complexes at gene regulatory elements, thus promoting epigenetic changes and transcription. ERs also participate in membrane-initiated steroid signaling to generate rapid responses. Estradiol and ER activity show profound dose- and context-dependent effects on innate immune signaling pathways and myeloid cell development. While estradiol most often promotes the production of type I interferon, innate pathways leading to pro-inflammatory cytokine production may be enhanced or dampened by ER activity. Regulation of innate immune cells and signaling by ERs may contribute to the reported sex differences in innate immune pathways. Here we review the recent literature and highlight several molecular mechanisms by which ERs regulate the development or functional responses of innate immune cells.

  8. Innate immune targets of hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Li; Wang, Kai; Yu, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) globally despite the widespread immunization of HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies. The immunopathogenesis of HBV infection is initiated and driven by complexed interactions between the host immune system and the virus. Host immune responses to viral particles and proteins are regarded as the main determinants of viral clearance or persistent infection and hepatocyte injury. Innate immune system is the first defending line of host preventing from virus invasion. It is acknowledged that HBV has developed active tactics to escape innate immune recognition or actively interfere with innate immune signaling pathways and induce immunosuppression, which favor their replication. HBV reduces the expression of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune cells in humans. Also, HBV may interrupt different parts of antiviral signaling pathways, leading to the reduced production of antiviral cytokines such as interferons that contribute to HBV immunopathogenesis. A full comprehension of the mechanisms as to how HBV inactivates various elements of the innate immune response to initiate and maintain a persistent infection can be helpful in designing new immunotherapeutic methods for preventing and eradicating the virus. In this review, we aimed to summarize different branches the innate immune targeted by HBV infection. The review paper provides evidence that multiple components of immune responses should be activated in combination with antiviral therapy to disrupt the tolerance to HBV for eliminating HBV infection. PMID:27330680

  9. Innate immune targets of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Li; Wang, Kai; Yu, Ji-Guang

    2016-06-18

    Approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) globally despite the widespread immunization of HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies. The immunopathogenesis of HBV infection is initiated and driven by complexed interactions between the host immune system and the virus. Host immune responses to viral particles and proteins are regarded as the main determinants of viral clearance or persistent infection and hepatocyte injury. Innate immune system is the first defending line of host preventing from virus invasion. It is acknowledged that HBV has developed active tactics to escape innate immune recognition or actively interfere with innate immune signaling pathways and induce immunosuppression, which favor their replication. HBV reduces the expression of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune cells in humans. Also, HBV may interrupt different parts of antiviral signaling pathways, leading to the reduced production of antiviral cytokines such as interferons that contribute to HBV immunopathogenesis. A full comprehension of the mechanisms as to how HBV inactivates various elements of the innate immune response to initiate and maintain a persistent infection can be helpful in designing new immunotherapeutic methods for preventing and eradicating the virus. In this review, we aimed to summarize different branches the innate immune targeted by HBV infection. The review paper provides evidence that multiple components of immune responses should be activated in combination with antiviral therapy to disrupt the tolerance to HBV for eliminating HBV infection.

  10. Hepatocytes: a key cell type for innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Gao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes, the major parenchymal cells in the liver, play pivotal roles in metabolism, detoxification, and protein synthesis. Hepatocytes also activate innate immunity against invading microorganisms by secreting innate immunity proteins. These proteins include bactericidal proteins that directly kill bacteria, opsonins that assist in the phagocytosis of foreign bacteria, iron-sequestering proteins that block iron uptake by bacteria, several soluble factors that regulate lipopolysaccharide signaling, and the coagulation factor fibrinogen that activates innate immunity. In this review, we summarize the wide variety of innate immunity proteins produced by hepatocytes and discuss liver-enriched transcription factors (e.g. hepatocyte nuclear factors and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins), pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. interleukin (IL)-6, IL-22, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α), and downstream signaling pathways (e.g. signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 and nuclear factor-κB) that regulate the expression of these innate immunity proteins. We also briefly discuss the dysregulation of these innate immunity proteins in chronic liver disease, which may contribute to an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26685902

  11. Innate immune reconstitution with suppression of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Eileen P.; Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo; Palmer, Christine D.; Musante, Chelsey; Rosenberg, Eric; Allen, Todd M.; Bosch, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Progressive HIV-1 infection leads to both profound immune suppression and pathologic inflammation in the majority of infected individuals. While adaptive immune dysfunction, as evidenced by CD4+ T cell depletion and exhaustion, has been extensively studied, less is known about the functional capacity of innate immune cell populations in the context of HIV-1 infection. Given the broad susceptibility to opportunistic infections and the dysregulated inflammation observed in progressive disease, we hypothesized that there would be significant changes in the innate cellular responses. Using a cohort of patients with multiple samplings before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, we demonstrated increased responses to innate immune stimuli following viral suppression, as measured by the production of inflammatory cytokines. Plasma viral load itself had the strongest association with this change in innate functional capacity. We further identified epigenetic modifications in the TNFA promoter locus in monocytes that are associated with viremia, suggesting a molecular mechanism for the observed changes in innate immune function following initiation of ART. These data indicate that suppression of HIV-1 viremia is associated with changes in innate cellular function that may in part determine the restoration of protective immune responses. PMID:27158667

  12. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Yusuf, Nabiha Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-11-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8{sup +} T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4{sup +} T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents.

  13. Innate Visual Learning through Spontaneous Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark V.; Schnabel, Adam; Field, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of spontaneous activity in the developing retina, LGN, and cortex are necessary for the proper development of visual cortex. With these patterns intact, the primary visual cortices of many newborn animals develop properties similar to those of the adult cortex but without the training benefit of visual experience. Previous models have demonstrated how V1 responses can be initialized through mechanisms specific to development and prior to visual experience, such as using axonal guidance cues or relying on simple, pairwise correlations on spontaneous activity with additional developmental constraints. We argue that these spontaneous patterns may be better understood as part of an “innate learning” strategy, which learns similarly on activity both before and during visual experience. With an abstraction of spontaneous activity models, we show how the visual system may be able to bootstrap an efficient code for its natural environment prior to external visual experience, and we continue the same refinement strategy upon natural experience. The patterns are generated through simple, local interactions and contain the same relevant statistical properties of retinal waves and hypothesized waves in the LGN and V1. An efficient encoding of these patterns resembles a sparse coding of natural images by producing neurons with localized, oriented, bandpass structure—the same code found in early visual cortical cells. We address the relevance of higher-order statistical properties of spontaneous activity, how this relates to a system that may adapt similarly on activity prior to and during natural experience, and how these concepts ultimately relate to an efficient coding of our natural world. PMID:18670593

  14. Post-treatment sequential ultrasound imaging of follicular cyst in a crossbred dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Khan, Muqtaza Manzoor; Prasad, Shiv

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in dairy cattle have investigated the final outcome of different treatment regimens in follicular cyst condition. However, sequential monitoring of the response of follicular cysts to these treatments is rather scanty. In this paper, we present the response of a large follicular cyst in a pluriparous crossbred dairy cow with prolonged conception failure to human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG (3,000 IU; day 0) and cloprostenol (500 μg; day 9) treatment. Using transrectal ultrasonography (USG), reproductive tract was imaged daily beginning day 0 until day 11. The follicular cyst showed a consistent regression to a very small anechoic area on day 7 and was undetectable thereafter. Concurrently, there was development of a new dominant follicle that was first detected on day 4 and showed progressive growth to preovulatory stage. The cow was inseminated and ovulation occurred, as diagnosed by the presence of a corpus luteum (CL) 7 days later, but conception did not occur. The animal was re-inseminated after estrus detection in the estrous cycle that immediately followed. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on 30 and 60 days post-insemination (DPI) and the cow was confirmed to be pregnant. This paper underscores the importance of diagnostic ultrasound in veterinary medicine, especially in the management of reproductive problems.

  15. Methane Production in Dairy Cows Correlates with Rumen Methanogenic and Bacterial Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Dicksved, Johan; Sun, Li; Gonda, Horacio; Müller, Bettina; Schnürer, Anna; Bertilsson, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is produced as an end product from feed fermentation in the rumen. Yield of CH4 varies between individuals despite identical feeding conditions. To get a better understanding of factors behind the individual variation, 73 dairy cows given the same feed but differing in CH4 emissions were investigated with focus on fiber digestion, fermentation end products and bacterial and archaeal composition. In total 21 cows (12 Holstein, 9 Swedish Red) identified as persistent low, medium or high CH4 emitters over a 3 month period were furthermore chosen for analysis of microbial community structure in rumen fluid. This was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene and by quantitative qPCR of targeted Methanobrevibacter groups. The results showed a positive correlation between low CH4 emitters and higher abundance of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level of bacteria showed two distinct clusters (P < 0.01) that were related to CH4 production. One cluster was associated with low CH4 production (referred to as cluster L) whereas the other cluster was associated with high CH4 production (cluster H) and the medium emitters occurred in both clusters. The differences between clusters were primarily linked to differential abundances of certain OTUs belonging to Prevotella. Moreover, several OTUs belonging to the family Succinivibrionaceae were dominant in samples belonging to cluster L. Fermentation pattern of volatile fatty acids showed that proportion of propionate was higher in cluster L, while proportion of butyrate was higher in cluster H. No difference was found in milk production or organic matter digestibility between cows. Cows in cluster L had lower CH4/kg energy corrected milk (ECM) compared to cows in cluster H, 8.3 compared to 9.7 g CH4/kg ECM, showing that low CH4 cows utilized the feed more efficient for milk production which might indicate a more efficient microbial

  16. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  17. Fatal winter dysentery with severe anemia in an adult cow.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Sumiko; Goto, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Ueo, Hiroshi; Komori, Toshihiro; Shirakawa, Hitomi; Uchinuno, Yukinori

    2007-09-01

    An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in necrotic crypt epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virus particles were found in the necrotic epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virologically, BCV was isolated from the feces of the dead cow. The dead cow had no serum antibody against BCV although the co-habitants did. These suggest that severe infection of BCV in the cow without the BCV antibody accompanied by severe hemorrhagic anemia resulted in the cow's death.

  18. [Radiotelemetric studies of uterine motility in cows with acute endometritis].

    PubMed

    Kostov, I

    1980-01-01

    Thirty two cows with postpartum complication were radiotelemetrically studied to register uterine motility. The results were compared with those of the control group of 42 cows with normal calving and no complications. Enhanced uterine reactivity to oxytocin and other agents was established in all cows with complications in the postpartum period. It is manifested in the spring also by intensified motor activity of the uterus. Motor activity of the uterus is hardly registered during to summer months in cows with normal peurperium and complications following day 2 of calving. No essential difference was found in estradiol-17 beta content in the blood plasma of both groups of cows. Body temperature rises in cows with postpartum complications.

  19. Innate Immune Defenses in Human Tuberculosis: An Overview of the Interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sia, Jonathan Kevin; Georgieva, Maria; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global public health problem that results in up to 2 million deaths each year. TB is caused by the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which infects primarily innate immune cells patrolling the lung. Innate immune cells serve as barometers of the immune response against Mtb infection by determining the inflammatory milieu in the lungs and promoting the generation of adaptive immune responses. However, innate immune cells are also potential niches for bacterial replication and are readily manipulated by Mtb. Our understanding of the early interactions between Mtb and innate immune cells is limited, especially in the context of human infection. This review will focus on Mtb interactions with human macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and NK cells and detail evidence that Mtb modulation of these cells negatively impacts Mtb-specific immune responses. Furthermore, this review will emphasize important innate immune pathways uncovered through human immunogenetic studies. Insights into the human innate immune response to Mtb infection are necessary for providing a rational basis for the augmentation of immune responses against Mtb infection, especially with respect to the generation of effective anti-TB immunotherapeutics and vaccines. PMID:26258152

  20. Innate Immune Defenses in Human Tuberculosis: An Overview of the Interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Innate Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Sia, Jonathan Kevin; Georgieva, Maria; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global public health problem that results in up to 2 million deaths each year. TB is caused by the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which infects primarily innate immune cells patrolling the lung. Innate immune cells serve as barometers of the immune response against Mtb infection by determining the inflammatory milieu in the lungs and promoting the generation of adaptive immune responses. However, innate immune cells are also potential niches for bacterial replication and are readily manipulated by Mtb. Our understanding of the early interactions between Mtb and innate immune cells is limited, especially in the context of human infection. This review will focus on Mtb interactions with human macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and NK cells and detail evidence that Mtb modulation of these cells negatively impacts Mtb-specific immune responses. Furthermore, this review will emphasize important innate immune pathways uncovered through human immunogenetic studies. Insights into the human innate immune response to Mtb infection are necessary for providing a rational basis for the augmentation of immune responses against Mtb infection, especially with respect to the generation of effective anti-TB immunotherapeutics and vaccines.

  1. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (<200 d) and SCC (<100,000 cells/mL). Farms were followed for 4, 5-week periods. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC <100,000 cells/mL but whose next SCC exceeded 200,000 cells/mL. Lying behavior was recorded 5d after each milk sampling using data loggers. For these 5d, individual milking times and feeding times were also recorded. On d1 of each recording period 2 trained observers scored focal cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate

  2. Cow Castle Creek, Orangeburg County, South Carolina. Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    woodlands, and drainage features. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Cow Castle Creek Basin is located within the larger Edisto River Basin in Orangeburg...about 47 inches of precipitation per year. Water Quality. Cow Castle Creek lies within the Edisto River drainage basin . The Edisto Basin is located... Edisto River . Several small tributaries enter Cow Castle Creek, adding to its flow during storms and hurricanes. Siltation and extensive litter and log

  3. Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-06

    foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease) in...1 For additional details and background see CRS Report RS22345, BSE (“Mad Cow Disease:): A Brief Overview, and CRS Report RL32199, Bovine Spongiform ...rejection of three shipments of U.S. beef because of the presence of bone fragments. CRS-4 8 See also CRS Report RL32932, Bovine Spongiform

  4. Late gestation supplementation of beef cows differing in body condition score: effects on cow and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, D W; Stalker, L A; Mills, R R; Nyman, A; Falck, S J; Cooke, R F

    2013-11-01

    A 2-yr study utilizing 120 mature, crossbred (Angus × Herford) cows/year, evaluated the influence of cow BCS and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplementation during late gestation on cow performance and productivity of subsequent offspring. Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 2 BCS and with or without DDGS supplementation. Cows were nutritionally managed to enter the last trimester of gestation with a BCS of approximately 4 (LBCS) or 6 (HBCS) and were thereafter managed in a single herd (initial BCS were 4.4 and 5.7 for LBCS and HBCS treatments, respectively). During the last trimester, 12.7 kg/cow of low quality meadow hay (6.4% CP; DM basis) was provided each day. Supplemented cows were gathered and sorted into pens (12 pens; 5 cows/pen; 6 pens/BCS) every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and received the equivalent of 0.9 kg/cow daily of DDGS (31% CP; DM basis; supplement was consumed within 30 min on each supplementation day). Calf birth weight was greater for HBCS compared to LBCS (P=0.001) and for supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.04). Cow weight at weaning was greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P<0.001); however, no differences were noted because of supplementation (P=0.16). Weaning weight was greater for the offspring of supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.02). There were no differences in postweaning calf performance (growing lot and feedlot) or carcass characteristics (P>0.05) due to treatments. Nevertheless, HBCS cows had approximately 10% more live calves at birth and at weaning (P≤0.01) compared to LBCS cows. Consequently, the total weaned calf weight per cow was 26 kg greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P=0.004). Pregnancy rate was greater (P=0.05) for HBCS than LBCS cows (92% vs. 79%, respectively) but not affected by supplementation (P=0.94). This research demonstrates the potential consequences of not maintaining cows in adequate BCS at calving

  5. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ≥12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation

  6. A role for innate immunity in type 1 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Beyan, H; Buckley, L R; Yousaf, N; Londei, M; Leslie, R D G

    2003-01-01

    Two arms of the immune system, innate and adaptive immunity, differ in their mode of immune recognition. The innate immune system recognizes a few highly conserved structures on a broad range of microorganisms. On the other hand, recognition of self or autoreactivity is generally confined to the adaptive immune response. Whilst autoimmune features are relatively common, they should be distinguished from autoimmune disease that is infrequent. Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease due to the destruction of insulin secreting cells mediated by aggressive immune responses, including activation of the adaptive immune system following genetic and environmental interaction. Hypotheses for the cause of the immune dysfunction leading to type 1 diabetes include self-reactive T-cell clones that (1) escape deletion in the thymus, (2) escape from peripheral tolerance or (3) escape from homeostatic control with an alteration in the immune balance leading to autoimmunity. Evidence, outlined in this review, raises the possibility that changes in the innate immune system could lead to autoimmunity, by either priming or promoting aggressive adaptive immune responses. Hostile microorganisms are identified by genetically determined surface receptors on innate effector cells, thereby promoting clearance of these invaders. These innate effectors include a few relatively inflexible cell populations such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells (DC), natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells and gammadelta T cells. Recent studies have identified abnormalities in some of these cells both in patients with type 1 diabetes and in those at risk of the disease. However, it remains unclear whether these abnormalities in innate effector cells predispose to autoimmune disease. If they were to do so, then modulation of the innate immune system could be of therapeutic value in preventing immune-mediated diseases such as type 1 diabetes.

  7. HIV-1 evades innate immune recognition through specific cofactor recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasaiyaah, Jane; Tan, Choon Ping; Fletcher, Adam J.; Price, Amanda J.; Blondeau, Caroline; Hilditch, Laura; Jacques, David A.; Selwood, David L.; James, Leo C.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Towers, Greg J.

    2013-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is able to replicate in primary human macrophages without stimulating innate immunity despite reverse transcription of genomic RNA into double-stranded DNA, an activity that might be expected to trigger innate pattern recognition receptors. We reasoned that if correctly orchestrated HIV-1 uncoating and nuclear entry is important for evasion of innate sensors then manipulation of specific interactions between HIV-1 capsid and host factors that putatively regulate these processes should trigger pattern recognition receptors and stimulate type 1 interferon (IFN) secretion. Here we show that HIV-1 capsid mutants N74D and P90A, which are impaired for interaction with cofactors cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 6 (CPSF6) and cyclophilins (Nup358 and CypA), respectively, cannot replicate in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages because they trigger innate sensors leading to nuclear translocation of NF-κB and IRF3, the production of soluble type 1 IFN and induction of an antiviral state. Depletion of CPSF6 with short hairpin RNA expression allows wild-type virus to trigger innate sensors and IFN production. In each case, suppressed replication is rescued by IFN-receptor blockade, demonstrating a role for IFN in restriction. IFN production is dependent on viral reverse transcription but not integration, indicating that a viral reverse transcription product comprises the HIV-1 pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Finally, we show that we can pharmacologically induce wild-type HIV-1 infection to stimulate IFN secretion and an antiviral state using a non-immunosuppressive cyclosporine analogue. We conclude that HIV-1 has evolved to use CPSF6 and cyclophilins to cloak its replication, allowing evasion of innate immune sensors and induction of a cell-autonomous innate immune response in primary human macrophages.

  8. Abnormal regurgitation in three cows caused by intrathoracic perioesophageal lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Three Brown Swiss cows with abnormal regurgitation because of a perioesophageal disorder are described. Case presentation The cows were ill and had poor appetite, salivation and regurgitation of poorly-chewed feed. Collection of rumen juice was successful in one cow, and in another, the tube could be advanced to the level of the 7th intercostal space, and in the third, only saliva could be collected. In one cow, oesophagoscopy revealed a discoloured 10-cm mucosal area with fibrin deposits. Thoracic radiographs were normal. The cows were euthanased and examined postmortem. Cow 1 had a large perioesophageal abscess containing feed material at the level of the thoracic inlet, believed to be the result of a healed oesophageal injury. Cow 2 had an abscess between the oesophagus and trachea 25 cm caudal to the epiglottis with the same presumed aetiology as in cow 1. Cow 3 had a mediastinal carcinoma that enclosed and constricted the oesophagus. Conclusions Abnormal regurgitation in cattle is usually the result of an oesophageal disorder. Causes of oesophageal disorders vary widely and their identification can be difficult. PMID:24629042

  9. Involvement of the plasminogen activation system in cow endometritis.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, S; Taitzoglou, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Boscos, C M; Kaldrimidou, E; Saratsis, Ph

    2004-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the: (a) presence and activity of components of the "plasminogen activators/plasmin" system in dairy cows with or without endometritis; (b) variations in enzyme activity according to the degree of endometritis; and (c) associations between these enzymes and changes in endometrial histology after intrauterine antibiotic treatment. Endometrial biopsies were collected from anestrus (no palpable ovarian structures and milk progesterone <1 ng/ml) Holstein cows, 30-40 days postpartum. On the basis of a vaginoscopic examination, rectal palpation of the cervix and uterus, and endometrial histology, there were 92 cows with endometritis and 20 cows without endometritis. After biopsy collection, each cow was given an intrauterine infusion of 1.5x10(6) IU of procaine penicillin G. In cows with endometritis, genital tract examinations and biopsies were repeated 2 weeks later. Both plasminogen activators (PAs), tissue type (t-PA) and urokinase (u-PA), were immunologically identified in all uterine biopsies. Plasminogen activator activity (PAA) increased, whereas plasminogen activator inhibition (PAI) and plasmin inhibition (PI) decreased in proportion to the degree of inflammation. Two weeks after intrauterine treatment, PAA had decreased significantly in all cows that had reduced severity of endometrial inflammation and had increased significantly in all cows with increased severity of inflammation. The change in the degree of inflammation depended upon plasminogen activator activity; cows with higher PAA were more likely to improve. In conclusion, there was evidence for a role of the plasminogen activation proteolytic system in bovine endometritis.

  10. Electrostatic Radionuclide Separation: A New Version of Rutherford's "Thorium Cow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiswirth, Marcus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes three experiments (also useful as demonstrations) using a "thorium cow," a device which concentrates the daughter products from thorium compounds by precipitation on a charged electrode. (JN)

  11. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    PubMed

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  12. Volatile organic compound emissions from dairy cows and their waste as measured by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Stephanie L; Mitloehner, Frank M; Jackson, Wendi; Depeters, Edward J; Fadel, James G; Robinson, Peter H; Holzinger, Rupert; Goldstein, Allen H

    2007-02-15

    California dairies house approximately 1.8 million lactating and 1.5 million dry cows and heifers. State air regulatory agencies view these dairies as a major air pollutant source, but emissions data are sparse, particularly for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The objective of this work was to determine VOC emissions from lactating and dry dairy cows and their waste using an environmental chamber. Carbon dioxide and methane were measured to provide context for the VOCs. VOCs were measured by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The compounds with highest fluxes when cows plus waste were present were methanol, acetone + propanal, dimethylsulfide, and m/z 109 (likely 4-methyl-phenol). The compounds with highest fluxes from fresh waste (urine and feces) were methanol, m/z 109, and m/z 60 (likely trimethylamine). Ethanol fluxes are reported qualitatively, and several VOCs that were likely emitted (formaldehyde, methylamine, dimethylamine) were not detectable by PTR-MS. The sum of reactive VOC fluxes measured when cows were present was a factor of 6-10 less than estimates historically used for regulatory purposes. In addition, ozone formation potentials of the dominant VOCs were -10% those of typical combustion or biogenic VOCs. Thus dairy cattle have a comparatively small impact on ozone formation per VOC mass emitted.

  13. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  14. Imitating a stress response: a new hypothesis about the innate immune system's role in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schminkey, Donna L; Groer, Maureen

    2014-06-01

    Recent research challenges long-held hypotheses about mechanisms through which pregnancy induces maternal immune suppression or tolerance of the embryo/fetus. It is now understood that normal pregnancy engages the immune system and that the immune milieu changes with advancing gestation. We suggest that pregnancy mimics the innate immune system's response to stress, causing a sterile inflammatory response that is necessary for successful reproduction. The relationship between external stressors and immunomodulation in pregnancy has been acknowledged, but the specific mechanisms are still being explicated. Implantation and the first trimester are times of immune activation and intensive inflammation in the uterine environment. A period of immune quiescence during the second trimester allows for the growth and development of the maturing fetus. Labor is also an inflammatory event. The length of gestation and timing of parturition can be influenced by environmental stressors. These stressors affect pregnancy through neuroendocrine interaction with the immune system, specifically through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Trophoblastic cells that constitute the maternal-fetal interface appear to harness the maternal immune system to promote and maximize the reproductive success of the mother and fetus. Pregnancy is a time of upregulated innate immune responses and decreased adaptive, cell-mediated responses. The inflammatory processes of pregnancy resemble an immune response to brief naturalistic stressors: there is a shift from T helper (Th) 1 to T helper (Th) 2 dominant adaptive immunity with a concomitant shift in cytokine production, decreased proliferation of T cells, and decreased cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells. Inclusion of both murine and human studies, allows an exploration of insights into how trophoblasts influence the activity of the maternal innate immune system during gestation.

  15. Neural mechanisms of social dominance

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Noriya; Yamamoto, Miyuki

    2015-01-01

    In a group setting, individuals' perceptions of their own level of dominance or of the dominance level of others, and the ability to adequately control their behavior based on these perceptions are crucial for living within a social environment. Recent advances in neural imaging and molecular technology have enabled researchers to investigate the neural substrates that support the perception of social dominance and the formation of a social hierarchy in humans. At the systems' level, recent studies showed that dominance perception is represented in broad brain regions which include the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and various cortical networks such as the prefrontal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, neurotransmitter systems such as the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, modulate and are modulated by the formation of the social hierarchy in a group. While these monoamine systems have a wide distribution and multiple functions, it was recently found that the Neuropeptide B/W contributes to the perception of dominance and is present in neurons that have a limited projection primarily to the amygdala. The present review discusses the specific roles of these neural regions and neurotransmitter systems in the perception of dominance and in hierarchy formation. PMID:26136644

  16. Collectins and collectin receptors in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Holmskov, U L

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is based on nine papers and a review on the collectins and collectin receptors in innate immunity. The collectins are a family of proteins in which the individual chains consist of a C-type lectin domain attached to a collagen domain via an alpha-coiled neck region. The chains are organized into a triple collagen helix and oligomerized through N-terminally located cysteines. The collectins have a dual function: one is to bind specifically to carbohydrate structures on the surface of a pathogen; the other is subsequently to recruit other cells and molecules to destroy the pathogen. The C-type lectin domains contain 110-130 amino-acid residues arranged in a conserved sequence pattern which allows the domain to fold into a well-defined tertiary structure. Five collectins have been described. Lung surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) are mainly found in the surfactant coating the luminal surface of the pulmonary epithelial cells, but are also produced by cells lining the gastrointestinal tract. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), conglutinin and collectin-43 (CL-43) are serum proteins produced by the liver. Conglutinin and CL-43 have so far only been found in Bovidae. The collectins are involved in innate, nonadaptive immune defense. They bind to microbial surface carbohydrates, inducing aggregation and thereby impeding infectivity or mediating phagocytosis through specific receptors on the phagocytes. After binding microbial carbohydrate, MBL can activate the complement system through a newly discovered pathway which makes use of two serine proteases (MASP-1 and MASP-2) to activate the complement factors C4 and C2. In man, low serum MBL concentrations resulting from mutations in the collagen region are associated with a common opsonic defect. CL-43 was identified as a new collectin by its calcium-dependent binding to mannan and by its M(r) of 43 kDa in the reduced state on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The lectin was

  17. Diversity of Staphylococcus species and prevalence of enterotoxin genes isolated from milk of healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rall, V L M; Miranda, E S; Castilho, I G; Camargo, C H; Langoni, H; Guimarães, F F; Araújo Júnior, J P; Fernandes Júnior, A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus spp. in milk from healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis in Brazil and to examine the profile of enterotoxin genes and some enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus spp. A total of 280 individual mammary quarter milk samples from 70 healthy cows and 292 samples from 73 cows with subclinical mastitis were collected from 11 farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from 63 (22.5%) samples from healthy cows and from 80 samples (27.4%) from cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly different between these 2 groups and was more prevalent in the cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus was also significantly different between these 2 groups, but this organism was more prevalent in healthy cows. No statistically significant differences were observed in the numbers of other staphylococci in milk samples from the 2 groups. The sea gene was the most prevalent enterotoxin gene in both groups. Eight of 15 (53.3%) Staph. aureus carried this gene and all produced the SEA toxin. In the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) group, 61 of 128 (47.5%) had the same gene and just 1 (1.6%) Staphylococcus epidermidis strain produced the enterotoxin in vitro. Because CNS were isolated from both groups of cows and most CNS contained enterotoxin genes but did not produce toxins, the role of CNS in mastitis should be carefully defined.

  18. Sunitinib treatment enhances metastasis of innately drug resistant breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wragg, Joseph W; Heath, Victoria L; Bicknell, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapies have failed to confer survival benefits in patients with metastatic breast cancer (mBC). However, to date there has not been an inquiry into roles for acquired versus innate drug resistance in this setting. In this study, we report roles for these distinct phenotypes in determining therapeutic response in a murine model of mBC resistance to the anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. Using tumor measurement and vascular patterning approaches, we differentiated tumors displaying innate versus acquired resistance. Bioluminescent imaging of tumor metastases to the liver, lungs and spleen revealed that sunitinib administration enhances metastasis, but only in tumors displaying innate resistance to therapy. Transcriptomic analysis of tumors displaying acquired versus innate resistance allowed the identification of specific biomarkers, many of which have a role in angiogenesis. In particular, aquaporin-1 upregulation occurred in acquired resistance, mTOR in innate resistance, and pleiotrophin in both settings, suggesting their utility as candidate diagnostics to predict drug response or to design tactics to circumvent resistance. Our results unravel specific features of antiangiogenic resistance, with potential therapeutic implications. PMID:28011623

  19. Local Innate Responses to TLR Ligands in the Chicken Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Barjesteh, Neda; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C.; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    The chicken upper respiratory tract is the portal of entry for respiratory pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). The presence of microorganisms is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors (such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)) of the innate immune defenses. Innate responses are essential for subsequent induction of potent adaptive immune responses, but little information is available about innate antiviral responses of the chicken trachea. We hypothesized that TLR ligands induce innate antiviral responses in the chicken trachea. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) were used to investigate localized innate responses to TLR ligands. Expression of candidate genes, which play a role in antiviral responses, was quantified. To confirm the antiviral responses of stimulated TOC, chicken macrophages were treated with supernatants from stimulated TOC, prior to infection with AIV. The results demonstrated that TLR ligands induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons and interferon stimulated genes in the chicken trachea. In conclusion, TLR ligands induce functional antiviral responses in the chicken trachea, which may act against some pathogens, such as AIV. PMID:27455308

  20. The role of innate immunity in donor organ procurement.

    PubMed

    McKay, Dianne B

    2011-03-01

    Solid organ transplantation is a life saving procedure for patients with end-stage organ disease, and great care is taken to ensure that healthy organs are procured from deceased or live donors. Despite rigorous efforts to avoid injury, all organs experience some degree of damage from a process called ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). The first part of the injury (ischemia) occurs when the donor organ's blood supply is compromised, and the second part (reperfusion) occurs when the blood supply is reestablished. The pathophysiology of the IRI is complex, but data from many laboratories have demonstrated that the inciting events of ischemia/reperfusion injury are triggered through a phylogenetically conserved system called the innate immune system. The innate immune system is a complex array of molecules, receptors and cellular elements present in species as diverse as plants to humans. This review discusses the role of the innate immune system in renal IRI and focuses on mechanisms of injury during organ procurement and transplantation. Although there are overlapping complex mechanisms, blockade of the innate immune system will likely provide a novel approach to preventing the earliest events associated with renal ischemia. Potentially, blockade of innate immune activation will provide the opportunity to increase the use marginal donors, especially those from patients deceased after cardiac death.

  1. Viral degradasome hijacks mitochondria to suppress innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Ramansu; Majumdar, Tanmay; Dhar, Jayeeta; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Bandyopadhyay, Sudip K; Verbovetskaya, Valentina; Sen, Ganes C; Barik, Sailen

    2013-01-01

    The balance between the innate immunity of the host and the ability of a pathogen to evade it strongly influences pathogenesis and virulence. The two nonstructural (NS) proteins, NS1 and NS2, of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are critically required for RSV virulence. Together, they strongly suppress the type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity of the host cells by degrading or inhibiting multiple cellular factors required for either IFN induction or response pathways, including RIG-I, IRF3, IRF7, TBK1 and STAT2. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a large and heterogeneous degradative complex assembled by the NS proteins, which we named “NS-degradasome” (NSD). The NSD is roughly ∼300-750 kD in size, and its degradative activity was enhanced by the addition of purified mitochondria in vitro. Inside the cell, the majority of the NS proteins and the substrates of the NSD translocated to the mitochondria upon RSV infection. Genetic and pharmacological evidence shows that optimal suppression of innate immunity requires mitochondrial MAVS and mitochondrial motility. Together, we propose a novel paradigm in which the mitochondria, known to be important for the innate immune activation of the host, are also important for viral suppression of the innate immunity. PMID:23877405

  2. Alemtuzumab treatment alters circulating innate immune cells in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmetspahic, Diana; Ruck, Tobias; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Schwarte, Kathrin; Jörgens, Silke; Scheu, Stefanie; Windhagen, Susanne; Graefe, Bettina; Melzer, Nico; Klotz, Luisa; Arolt, Volker; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To characterize changes in myeloid and lymphoid innate immune cells in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) during a 6-month follow-up after alemtuzumab treatment. Methods: Circulating innate immune cells including myeloid cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were analyzed before and 6 and 12 months after onset of alemtuzumab treatment. Furthermore, a potential effect on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)–23 production by myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity was determined. Results: In comparison to CD4+ T lymphocytes, myeloid and lymphoid innate cell subsets of patients with MS expressed significantly lower amounts of CD52 on their cell surface. Six months after CD52 depletion, numbers of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) and conventional DCs were reduced compared to baseline. GM-CSF and IL-23 production in DCs remained unchanged. Within the ILC compartment, the subset of CD56bright NK cells specifically expanded under alemtuzumab treatment, but their cytolytic activity did not change. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that 6 months after alemtuzumab treatment, specific DC subsets are reduced, while CD56bright NK cells expanded in patients with MS. Thus, alemtuzumab specifically restricts the DC compartment and expands the CD56bright NK cell subset with potential immunoregulatory properties in MS. We suggest that remodeling of the innate immune compartment may promote long-term efficacy of alemtuzumab and preserve immunocompetence in patients with MS. PMID:27766281

  3. Role of the innate immune system in acute viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Vallejo, Jesus G; Kollias, George; Mann, Douglas L

    2009-05-01

    Although the adaptive immune system is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis, the role of the innate immune system has not been well defined. To address this deficiency, we employed a unique line of mice that harbor a genomic "knock in" of a mutated TNF gene lacking the AU rich element (TNF(ARE/ARE)) that is critical for TNF mRNA stability and translation, in order to examine the contribution of the innate immune system in encephalomyocarditis-induced myocarditis (EMCV). Heterozygous mice (TNF(ARE/+)) were infected with 500 plaque-forming units of EMCV. TNF(ARE/+)mice had a significantly higher 14-day mortality and myocardial inflammation when compared to littermate control mice. Virologic studies showed that the viral load at 14 days was significantly lower in the hearts of TNF(ARE/+) mice. TNF(ARE/+) mice had an exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine response in the heart following EMCV infection. Modulation of the innate immune response in TNF(ARE/+) mice by the late administration of prednisolone resulted in a significant improvement in survival and decreased cardiac inflammation, whereas early administration of prednisolone resulted in a blunted innate response and increased mortality in littermate control mice. Viewed together, these data suggest that the duration and degree of activation of the innate immune system plays a critical role in determining host outcomes in experimental viral myocarditis.

  4. The Critical Role of Innate Immunity in Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cucchiari, David; Podestà, Manuel Alfredo; Ponticelli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    For a long time now, kidney transplant rejection has been considered the consequence of either cellular or antibody-mediated reaction as a part of adaptive immunity response. The role of innate immunity, on the other hand, had been unclear for many years and was thought to be only ancillary. There is now consistent evidence that innate immune response is a condition necessary to activate the machinery of rejection. In this setting, the communication between antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes is of major importance. Indeed, T cells are unable to cause rejection if innate immunity is not activated. This field is currently being explored and several experiments in animal models have proved that blocking innate immunity activation can promote tolerance of the graft instead of rejection. The aim of this review is to systematically describe all the steps of innate immunity response in kidney transplant rejection, from antigen recognition to T-cells activation, with a focus on clinical consequences and possible future perspectives.

  5. Trained immunity: A smart way to enhance innate immune defence.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Jos W M; Joosten, Leo A B; Riksen, Niels; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-11-01

    The innate arm of the immune system is generally viewed as primitive and non-specific and - in contrast to the adaptive immune arm - not to possess memory. However in plants and invertebrate animals that lack adaptive immunity, innate immunity will exhibit a prolonged enhanced functional state after adequate priming. A similar enhancement of function of the innate immunity has occasionally been described in vertebrates, including humans. Over the past few years we have studied this phenomenon in greater detail and we have coined the term 'Trained (innate) immunity' (TI). TI can be induced by a variety of stimuli, of which we have studied BCG and β-glucan in greater detail. The non-specific protective effects of BCG that have been observed in vaccination studies in the literature are probably due to TI. Monocytes and macrophages are among the main cells of the innate immune arm that can be trained. We have discovered that both BCG (via NOD2 signalling) and β-glucan (via dectin-1) induce epigenetic reprogramming, in particular stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4. These epigenetic changes lead to cellular activation, enhanced cytokine production and a change in the metabolic state of the cell with a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. TI is not only important for host defence and vaccine responses, but most probably also for diseases like atherosclerosis. Modulation of TI is a promising area for new treatments.

  6. Epithelial NEMO links innate immunity to chronic intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nenci, Arianna; Becker, Christoph; Wullaert, Andy; Gareus, Ralph; van Loo, Geert; Danese, Silvio; Huth, Marion; Nikolaev, Alexei; Neufert, Clemens; Madison, Blair; Gumucio, Deborah; Neurath, Markus F; Pasparakis, Manolis

    2007-03-29

    Deregulation of intestinal immune responses seems to have a principal function in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The gut epithelium is critically involved in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis-acting as a physical barrier separating luminal bacteria and immune cells, and also expressing antimicrobial peptides. However, the molecular mechanisms that control this function of gut epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcription factor NF-kappaB, a master regulator of pro-inflammatory responses, functions in gut epithelial cells to control epithelial integrity and the interaction between the mucosal immune system and gut microflora. Intestinal epithelial-cell-specific inhibition of NF-kappaB through conditional ablation of NEMO (also called IkappaB kinase-gamma (IKKgamma)) or both IKK1 (IKKalpha) and IKK2 (IKKbeta)-IKK subunits essential for NF-kappaB activation-spontaneously caused severe chronic intestinal inflammation in mice. NF-kappaB deficiency led to apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells, impaired expression of antimicrobial peptides and translocation of bacteria into the mucosa. Concurrently, this epithelial defect triggered a chronic inflammatory response in the colon, initially dominated by innate immune cells but later also involving T lymphocytes. Deficiency of the gene encoding the adaptor protein MyD88 prevented the development of intestinal inflammation, demonstrating that Toll-like receptor activation by intestinal bacteria is essential for disease pathogenesis in this mouse model. Furthermore, NEMO deficiency sensitized epithelial cells to tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis, whereas TNF receptor-1 inactivation inhibited intestinal inflammation, demonstrating that TNF receptor-1 signalling is crucial for disease induction. These findings demonstrate that a primary NF-kappaB signalling defect in intestinal epithelial cells disrupts immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract

  7. Characteristics of patients suffering from cow milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Li; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Chao, Peng-Li; Tong, Man-Li; Liu, Gui-Li; Lin, Li-Rong; Fan-Liu; Zhang, Zhong-Ying; Yang, Tian-Ci

    2012-09-01

    The most frequent symptoms among the manifestations of cow milk allergy (CMA) are gastrointestinal. CMA pathogenesis involves immunological mechanisms with participation of immunocompetent cells, production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). We aim to determine whether cow milk-specific IgE antibodies coexist with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies in CMA patients with diarrhea symptom, and if there is any relationship between both antibody types. 65 CMA patients (average age of 17 years, ranging from 2 to 74 years), all of who had diarrhea symptom of CMA, were enrolled in this study. The total cow IgE and IgG subclass in serum were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and rate immune scatter turbidimetry, respectively. And also the cow milk-specific IgE was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The number of eosinophils in serum was calculated by Sysmex XE-2100 Hematology Analyzer. Our data showed that both cow milk-specific IgG and IgE levels were significantly elevated in CMA patients compared to those of age-matched control subjects. Out of the 65 CMA patients, 40 showed elevated cow milk-specific IgE antibody level, among which, 28 cases presented highly sensitive reaction to cow milk-specific IgG, along with each six of moderate and mild sensitive reaction to cow milk-specific IgG; while 20 showed elevated total IgG levels. The IgG3 positive rate was 16.9%, which was the highest. A moderate correlation between cow milk-specific IgE and cow milk-specific IgG was found in the CMA patients (r=0.415, P=0.001). The results indicated that cow milk-specific IgE antibodies could coexist with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies in patients suffering from CMA. The aberrant changes in the concentration of cow milk-specific IgE antibodies were associated with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies.

  8. Associative patterns among anaerobic fungi, methanogenic archaea, and bacterial communities in response to changes in diet and age in the rumen of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Indugu, Nagaraju; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Pitta, Dipti W.

    2015-01-01

    The rumen microbiome represents a complex microbial genetic web where bacteria, anaerobic rumen fungi (ARF), protozoa and archaea work in harmony contributing to the health and productivity of ruminants. We hypothesized that the rumen microbiome shifts as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these microbial changes may contribute to differences in productivity between primiparous (first lactation) and multiparous (≥second lactation) cows. To this end, we investigated shifts in the ruminal ARF and methanogenic communities in both primiparous (n = 5) and multiparous (n = 5) cows as they transitioned from a high forage to a high grain diet upon initiation of lactation. A total of 20 rumen samples were extracted for genomic DNA, amplified using archaeal and fungal specific primers, sequenced on a 454 platform and analyzed using QIIME. Community comparisons (Bray–Curtis index) revealed the effect of diet (P < 0.01) on ARF composition, while archaeal communities differed between primiparous and multiparous cows (P < 0.05). Among ARF, several lineages were unclassified, however, phylum Neocallimastigomycota showed the presence of three known genera. Abundance of Cyllamyces and Caecomyces shifted with diet, whereas Orpinomyces was influenced by both diet and age. Methanobrevibacter constituted the most dominant archaeal genus across all samples. Co-occurrence analysis incorporating taxa from bacteria, ARF and archaea revealed syntrophic interactions both within and between microbial domains in response to change in diet as well as age of dairy cows. Notably, these interactions were numerous and complex in multiparous cows, supporting our hypothesis that the rumen microbiome also matures with age to sustain the growing metabolic needs of the host. This study provides a broader picture of the ARF and methanogenic populations in the rumen of dairy cows and their co-occurrence implicates specific relationships between different microbial domains in response to diet and

  9. Sighting versus sensory ocular dominance

    PubMed Central

    Pointer, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose An indication of the laterality of ocular dominance (OD) informs the clinical decision making process when considering certain ophthalmic refractive and surgical interventions. Can predictive reliance be assured regardless of OD technique or is the indication of a dominant eye method-dependent? Methods Two alternative OD test formats were administered to a group of 72 emmetropic healthy young adult subjects: the ‘hole-in-card’ test for sighting dominance and the ‘+1.50D blur’ test for sensory dominance. Both techniques were chosen as being likely familiar to the majority of ophthalmic clinicians; to promote and expedite application during the examination routine neither test required specialist training nor equipment. Results Right eye dominance was indicated in 71% of cases by the sighting test but in only 54% of subjects using the sensory test. The laterality of OD indicated for the individual subject by each technique was in agreement on only 50% of occasions. Conclusions Reasons are considered for the poor intra-individual agreement between OD tests, along with an item of procedural advice for the clinician.

  10. Innate Immune Signaling Activated by MDR Bacteria in the Airway.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dane; Ahn, Danielle; Cohen, Taylor; Prince, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Health care-associated bacterial pneumonias due to multiple-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are an important public health problem and are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have adapted to the milieu of the human airway and have acquired resistance to the innate immune clearance mechanisms that normally prevent pneumonia. Given the limited efficacy of antibiotics, bacterial clearance from the airway requires an effective immune response. Understanding how specific airway pathogens initiate and regulate innate immune signaling, and whether this response is excessive, leading to host-induced pathology may guide future immunomodulatory therapy. We will focus on three of the most important causes of health care-associated pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and review the mechanisms through which an inappropriate or damaging innate immune response is stimulated, as well as describe how airway pathogens cause persistent infection by evading immune activation.

  11. Innate Immune Signaling Activated by MDR Bacteria in the Airway

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dane; Ahn, Danielle; Cohen, Taylor; Prince, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Health care-associated bacterial pneumonias due to multiple-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are an important public health problem and are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have adapted to the milieu of the human airway and have acquired resistance to the innate immune clearance mechanisms that normally prevent pneumonia. Given the limited efficacy of antibiotics, bacterial clearance from the airway requires an effective immune response. Understanding how specific airway pathogens initiate and regulate innate immune signaling, and whether this response is excessive, leading to host-induced pathology may guide future immunomodulatory therapy. We will focus on three of the most important causes of health care-associated pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and review the mechanisms through which an inappropriate or damaging innate immune response is stimulated, as well as describe how airway pathogens cause persistent infection by evading immune activation. PMID:26582515

  12. The respiratory microbiome and innate immunity in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yvonne J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this study is to summarize recent studies of the lower respiratory microbiome in asthma, the role of innate immunity in asthma and strategies to understand complex microbiome–immune interactions in asthma. Recent findings Recent evidence indicates that the composition of lower respiratory microbiota in asthmatic individuals, across a spectrum of disease severity, is altered compared with healthy individuals. Attributes of this altered airway microbiome have been linked to clinical and inflammatory features of asthma. The importance of innate immune cells and mucosal defense systems in asthma is increasingly appreciated and may be dysregulated in the disease. Summary Interactions between the respiratory microbiome and innate mucosal immunity in asthma are complex and a challenge to dissect. Multiple avenues of investigation, leveraging a variety of methodologies, will need to be pursued to understand functional relationships to clinical and inflammatory phenotypes seen in asthma. PMID:25405668

  13. Cheetahs have a stronger constitutive innate immunity than leopards

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Sonja K.; Hofer, Heribert; Courtiol, Alexandre; Melzheimer, Jörg; Dehnhard, Martin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Wachter, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    As a textbook case for the importance of genetics in conservation, absence of genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is thought to endanger species viability, since it is considered crucial for pathogen resistance. An alternative view of the immune system inspired by life history theory posits that a strong response should evolve in other components of the immune system if there is little variation in the MHC. In contrast to the leopard (Panthera pardus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has a relatively low genetic variability at the MHC, yet free-ranging cheetahs are healthy. By comparing the functional competence of the humoral immune system of both species in sympatric populations in Namibia, we demonstrate that cheetahs have a higher constitutive innate but lower induced innate and adaptive immunity than leopards. We conclude (1) immunocompetence of cheetahs is higher than previously thought; (2) studying both innate and adaptive components of immune systems will enrich conservation science. PMID:28333126

  14. Innate immune mechanisms in vitiligo: danger from within.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Jillian M; Frisoli, Michael L; Harris, John E

    2013-12-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin in which melanocytes are destroyed by antigen-specific T cells, resulting in patchy depigmentation. Although adaptive immunity plays a clear role in disease progression, initiating factors are largely unknown. Many studies report that cellular stress pathways are dysregulated in melanocytes from vitiligo patients, suggesting that melanocyte-intrinsic defects participate in disease pathogenesis. Recent studies reveal that melanocyte stress generates damage-associated molecular patterns that activate innate immunity, thus connecting stress to organ-specific inflammation. Genetic studies in vitiligo support a role for stress, innate immunity, and adaptive mechanisms. Here, we discuss advances in the field that highlight how cellular stress, endogenous danger signals, and innate immune activation promote the onset of vitiligo.

  15. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells in the lung.

    PubMed

    Drake, Li Yin; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    As the first line of defense, innate immunity plays an important role in protecting the host against pathogens. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are emerging as important effector cells in the innate immune system and the cell type that regulate immune and tissue homeostases. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) are a subset of ILCs and are characterized by their capacity to produce large quantities of type 2 cytokines and certain tissue growth factors. In animal models, lung ILC2s are involved in allergic airway inflammation induced by exposure to allergens even in the absence of CD4(+) T cells and are likely responsible for tissue repair and recovery after respiratory virus infection. ILC2s are also identified in various organs in humans, and the numbers are increased in mucosal tissues from patients with allergic disorders. Further investigations of this novel cell type will provide major conceptual advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of asthma and allergic diseases.

  16. Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Czarnewski, Paulo; Das, Srustidhar; Parigi, Sara M.; Villablanca, Eduardo J.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Here, we focus on the role of retinoic acid in differentiation, trafficking and the functions of innate immune cells in health and inflammation associated disorders. Lastly, we discuss the potential involvement of atRA during the plausible crosstalk between DCs and ILCs. PMID:28098786

  17. Probiotics promote gut health through stimulation of epithelial innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Pagnini, Cristiano; Saeed, Rubina; Bamias, Giorgos; Arseneau, Kristen O; Pizarro, Theresa T; Cominelli, Fabio

    2010-01-05

    Probiotic formulations are widely available and have a variety of proposed beneficial effects, including promotion of gut health. The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria in the intestine are still unclear but are generally attributed to an antiinflammatory effect. Here, we demonstrate that the multiple probiotic formulation VSL#3 prevents the onset of intestinal inflammation by local stimulation of epithelial innate immune responses (i.e., increased production of epithelial-derived TNF-alpha and restoration of epithelial barrier function in vivo). We also demonstrate that probiotic bacteria stimulate epithelial production of TNF-alpha and activate NF-kappaB in vitro. Our results support the hypothesis that probiotics promote gut health through stimulation, rather than suppression, of the innate immune system. Furthermore, our findings provide the perspective that defects in innate immunity may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Innate immunity to mycobacteria: vitamin D and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2010-08-01

    Autophagy is an ancient mechanism of protein degradation and a novel antimicrobial strategy. With respect to host defences against mycobacteria, autophagy plays a crucial role in antimycobacterial resistance, and contributes to immune surveillance of intracellular pathogens and vaccine efficacy. Vitamin D3 contributes to host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis through LL-37/hCAP-18, which is the only cathelicidin identified to date in humans. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of host immune strategies against mycobacteria, including vitamin D-mediated innate immunity and autophagy activation. This review also addresses our current understanding regarding the autophagy connection to principal innate machinery, such as ubiquitin- or inflammasome-involved pathways. Integrated dialog between autophagy and innate immunity may contribute to adequate host immune defences against mycobacterial infection.

  19. Carryover Effects of Acute DEHP Exposure on Ovarian Function and Oocyte Developmental Competence in Lactating Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kalo, Dorit; Hadas, Ron; Furman, Ori; Ben-Ari, Julius; Maor, Yehoshua; Patterson, Donald G.; Tomey, Cynthia; Roth, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    We examined acute exposure of Holstein cows to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its carryover effects on ovarian function and oocyte developmental competence. Synchronized cows were tube-fed with water or 100 mg/kg DEHP per day for 3 days. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected before, during and after DEHP exposure to examine its clearance pattern. Ovarian follicular dynamics was monitored through an entire estrous cycle by ultrasonographic scanning. Follicular fluids were aspirated from the preovulatory follicles on days 0 and 29 of the experiment and analyzed for phthalate metabolites and estradiol concentration. The aspirated follicular fluid was used as maturation medium for in-vitro embryo production. Findings revealed that DEHP impairs the pattern of follicular development, with a prominent effect on dominant follicles. The diameter and growth rate of the first- and second-wave dominant follicles were lower (P < 0.05) in the DEHP-treated group. Estradiol concentration in the follicular fluid was lower in the DEHP-treated group than in controls, and associated with a higher number of follicular pathologies (follicle diameter >25 mm). The pattern of growth and regression of the corpus luteum differed between groups, with a lower volume in the DEHP-treated group (P < 0.05). The follicular fluid aspirated from the DEHP-treated group, but not the controls, contained 23 nM mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Culturing of cumulus oocyte complexes in the follicular fluid aspirated from DEHP-treated cows reduced the proportion of oocytes progressing to the MII stage, and the proportions of 2- to 4-cell-stage embryos (P < 0.04) and 7-day blastocysts (P < 0.06). The results describe the risk associated with acute exposure to DEHP and its deleterious carryover effects on ovarian function, nuclear maturation and oocyte developmental competence. PMID:26154164

  20. Dengue and soluble mediators of the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Espada-Murao, Lyre Anni; Morita, Kouichi

    2011-12-01

    Huge emphasis has been placed on the role of the adaptive immune system in dengue pathogenesis. Yet there is increasing evidence for the importance of the innate immune system in regulating dengue infection and possibly influencing the disease. This review focuses on the interplay between the innate immune system and dengue and highlights the role of soluble immunological mediators. Type I and type II interferons of the innate immune system demonstrate non-overlapping roles in dengue infection. Furthermore, while some IFN responses to dengue are protective, others may exert disease-related effects on the host. But aside from interferons, a number of cytokines have also been implicated in dengue pathogenesis. Our expanding knowledge of cytokines indicates that these soluble mediators act upon a complicated network of events to provoke the disease. This cytokine storm is generally attributed to massive T cell activation as an outcome of secondary infection. However, there is reason to believe that innate immune response-derived cytokines also have contributory effects, especially in the context of severe cases of primary dengue infection. Another less popular but interesting perspective on dengue pathogenesis is the effect of mosquito feeding on host immune responses and viral infection. Various studies have shown that soluble factors from vector saliva have the capacity to alter immune reactions and thereby influence pathogen transmission and establishment. Hence, modulation of the innate immune system at various levels of infection is a critical component of dengue disease. In the absence of an approved drug or vaccine for dengue, soluble mediators of the innate immune system could be a strategic foothold for developing anti-viral therapeutics and improving clinical management.

  1. Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  2. Gravity-induced vacuum dominance.

    PubMed

    Lima, William C C; Vanzella, Daniel A T

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  3. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  4. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-02-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized.

  5. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  6. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  7. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  8. Short communication: Diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) describe the diurnal variation in feed alley attendance patterns of lactating dairy cows, 2) describe the sources of variation in these patterns, and 3) determine the effects of altering the feed push-up schedule on these patterns. An electronic monitoring system was used to record individual cow presence (6-s resolution) at the feed alley for 24 cows housed in a free-stall barn. Cows were subjected to 2 feeding schedules: 1) baseline schedule, where cows were fed at 0600 and 1515 h and feed was pushed closer to the cows at 1100 and 2130 h; and 2) experimental schedule, where 2 additional feed push-ups at 0030 and 0330 h were added to the baseline schedule. With the data collected from the monitoring system, description of the feed alley attendance patterns on a per minute basis of the group of cows was undertaken. Feed alley attendance was consistently higher during the day and early evening compared with the late night and early morning hours. The greatest percentage of cows attending the feed alley was seen after the delivery of fresh feed and the return from milking. The addition of extra feed push-ups in the early morning hours did little to increase feeding activity. It can be concluded that milking and delivery of fresh feed had a much greater affect on the diurnal pattern of feed alley attendance than did the feed push-ups.

  9. Endocrine patterns of the post-partum cow.

    PubMed

    Lamming, G E; Wathes, D C; Peters, A R

    1981-01-01

    Milked dairy cows generally have a shorter post-partum interval to ovarian cyclicity than suckling dairy or beef cows. In milked and suckling cows, there is a strong seasonal influence with spring-calving cows remaining anoestrous longer. Increasing the suckling intensity further delays the onset of ovarian cyclicity, probably by increasing the frequency or strength of its inhibitory influence on hypothalamic activity. Plasma FSH levels rise in most cows 5-10 days after calving and thereafter the random changes observed have little relationship to the onset of cycles. Recovery of FSH release therefore occurs earlier post partum than recovery of LH release. Hyperprolactinaemia is not a cause of reproductive failure in milked or suckling cows because there is no correlation between plasma prolactin levels and the onset of ovarian cycles. Plasma LH concentrations undergo significant changes directly related to the initiation of ovarian cycles, with low plasma levels immediately post partum, followed by an increase in basal secretion and the development of clear LH episodes. This pulsatile pattern appears earlier in dairy than in beef cows and is further delayed by suckling compared to milking. Before the first ovulation there is an increased frequency and peak height of LH episodes leading to a rise in plasma LH levels and eventually to a preovulatory-type LH surge which results in the first ovulation. These changes in the pattern of LH release appear definitive in the initiation of ovarian activity in post-partum cows.

  10. A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

  11. Innate immune control and regulation of influenza virus infections

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Jodi; Heusel, Jonathan W.; Legge, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses are critical for the control and clearance of influenza A virus (IAV) infection. However, in recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that innate immune cells, including natural killer cells, alveolar macrophages (aMφ), and dendritic cells (DC) are essential following IAV infection in the direct control of viral replication or in the induction and regulation of virus-specific adaptive immune responses. This review will discuss the role of these innate immune cells following IAV infection, with a particular focus on DC and their ability to induce and regulate the adaptive IAV-specific immune response. PMID:19643736

  12. Knowing your friends: invertebrate innate immunity fosters beneficial bacterial symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Nyholm, Spencer V.; Graf, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system is present in all animals and is a crucial first line of defence against pathogens. However, animals also harbour large numbers of beneficial microorganisms that can be housed in the digestive tract, in specialized organs or on tissue surfaces. Although invertebrates lack conventional antibody-based immunity, they are capable of eliminating pathogens and, perhaps more importantly, discriminating them from other microorganisms. This Review examines the interactions between the innate immune systems of several model invertebrates and the symbionts of these organisms, and addresses the central question of how these long-lived and specific associations are established and maintained. PMID:23147708

  13. Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 Modulates the Host Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Turroni, Francesca; Taverniti, Valentina; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Duranti, Sabrina; Guglielmetti, Simone; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Gioiosa, Laura; Palanza, Paola; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe data obtained from transcriptome profiling of human cell lines and intestinal cells of a murine model upon exposure and colonization, respectively, with Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. Significant changes were detected in the transcription of genes that are known to be involved in innate immunity. Furthermore, results from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that exposure to B. bifidum PRL2010 causes enhanced production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 cytokines, presumably through NF-κB activation. The obtained global transcription profiles strongly suggest that Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 modulates the innate immune response of the host. PMID:24242237

  14. Emerging Roles of Protein Deamidation in Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Junhua; Xu, Simin

    2016-01-01

    Protein deamidation has been considered a nonenzymatic process associated with protein functional decay or “aging.” Recent studies implicate protein deamidation in regulating signal transduction in fundamental biological processes, such as innate immune responses. Work investigating gammaherpesviruses and bacterial pathogens indicates that microbial pathogens deploy deamidases or enzyme-deficient homologues (pseudoenzymes) to induce deamidation of key signaling components and evade host immune responses. Here, we review studies on protein deamidation in innate immune signaling and present several imminent questions concerning the roles of protein deamidation in infection and immunity. PMID:26889032

  15. Inflammatory bowel disease related innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Zhonge

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Its pathogenesis remains not yet clear. Current researchers believe that after environmental factors act on individuals with genetic susceptibility, an abnormal intestinal immune response is launched under stimulation of intestinal flora. However, previous studies only focused on adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of IBD. Currently, roles of innate immune response in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation have also drawn much attention. In this study, IBD related innate immunity and adaptive immunity were explained, especially the immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of IBD.

  16. The Influence of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses on Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Witztum, Joseph L.; Lichtman, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Both the chronic development of atherosclerotic lesions and the acute changes in lesion phenotype that lead to clinical cardiovascular events are significantly influenced by the innate and adaptive immune responses to lipoprotein deposition and oxidation in the arterial wall. The rapid pace of discovery of mechanisms of immunologic recognition, effector functions, and regulation has significantly influenced the study of atherosclerosis, and our new knowledge is beginning to affect how we treat this ubiquitous disease. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how innate and adaptive immunity contribute to atherosclerosis, as well as therapeutic opportunities that arise from this knowledge. PMID:23937439

  17. Beyond empiricism: informing vaccine development through innate immunity research.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Stuart M; Golenbock, Douglas T

    2012-03-16

    Although a great public heath success, vaccines provide suboptimal protection in some patient populations and are not available to protect against many infectious diseases. Insights from innate immunity research have led to a better understanding of how existing vaccines work and have informed vaccine development. New adjuvants and delivery systems are being designed based upon their capacity to stimulate innate immune sensors and target antigens to dendritic cells, the cells responsible for initiating adaptive immune responses. Incorporating these adjuvants and delivery systems in vaccines can beneficially alter the quantitative and qualitative nature of the adaptive immune response, resulting in enhanced protection.

  18. Effect of uterine size on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baez, Giovanni M; Barletta, Rafael V; Guenther, Jerry N; Gaska, Jerry M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-05-01

    There are multiple reasons for reduced fertility in lactating dairy cows. We hypothesized that one cause of reduced fertility could be the overall size of the reproductive tract, particularly the uterus, given well-established uterine functions in many aspects of the reproductive process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability in uterine size in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to analyze whether there was an association between uterine size and fertility, particularly within a given parity. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 704) were synchronized to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 81 ± 3 of lactation by using the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF-3d-GnRH-7d-GnRH-7d-PGF-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI). At the time of the last injection of PGF, uterine diameter was determined at the greater curvature using ultrasound, uterine length was determined by rectal palpation, and uterine volume was calculated from these two measurements. Blood samples were also taken to measure progesterone to assure synchronization of all cows used in the final analysis (n = 616; primiparous, n = 289; multiparous, n = 327). Primiparous cows had greater percentage pregnant/AI (P/AI) compared to multiparous cows (49.8% vs. 39.1% at 67 days of pregnancy diagnosis, P = 0.009). Diameter, length, and volume of the uterus were larger in multiparous than in primiparous cows (P < 0.001). For multiparous cows, uterine diameter and volume were smaller in cows that became pregnant compared to cows that were not pregnant to the TAI with a similar tendency observed in primiparous cows. Logistic regression and quartile analysis also showed that as uterine volume increased, there was decreased P/AI in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Thus, there is a negative association between uterine size and fertility in lactating dairy cows with a larger uterus associated with reduced fertility, particularly for multiparous cows.

  19. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  20. Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Feces following Therapeutic Administration of Third Generation Cephalosporin.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lindsey; Yang, Ying; Littier, Heather; Ray, Partha; Zhang, Tong; Pruden, Amy; Strickland, Michael; Knowlton, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Although dairy manure is widely applied to land, it is relatively understudied compared to other livestock as a potential source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the environment and ultimately to human pathogens. Ceftiofur, the most widely used antibiotic used in U.S. dairy cows, is a 3rd generation cephalosporin, a critically important class of antibiotics to human health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of typical ceftiofur antibiotic treatment on the prevalence of ARGs in the fecal microbiome of dairy cows using a metagenomics approach. β-lactam ARGs were found to be elevated in feces from Holstein cows administered ceftiofur (n = 3) relative to control cows (n = 3). However, total numbers of ARGs across all classes were not measurably affected by ceftiofur treatment, likely because of dominance of unaffected tetracycline ARGs in the metagenomics libraries. Functional analysis via MG-RAST further revealed that ceftiofur treatment resulted in increases in gene sequences associated with "phages, prophages, transposable elements, and plasmids", suggesting that this treatment also enriched the ability to horizontally transfer ARGs. Additional functional shifts were noted with ceftiofur treatment (e.g., increase in genes associated with stress, chemotaxis, and resistance to toxic compounds; decrease in genes associated with metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell division and cell cycle), along with measureable taxonomic shifts (increase in Bacterioidia and decrease in Actinobacteria). This study demonstrates that ceftiofur has a broad, measureable and immediate effect on the cow fecal metagenome. Given the importance of 3rd generation cephalospirins to human medicine, their continued use in dairy cattle should be carefully considered and waste treatment strategies to slow ARG dissemination from dairy cattle manure should be explored.

  1. Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.

    PubMed

    Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (<51d), and for cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We

  2. Lead absorption in cows: biological indicators of ambient lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Karacic, V.; Prpic-Majic, D.; Skender, L.

    1984-03-01

    In order to determine actual lead exposure from residual amounts of lead in the environmental soil following the introduction of effective engineering emission controls in a lead smeltery, the absorption of lead in cows grazing in the vicinity was investigated. Four groups of cows were examined: two groups of cows exposed to different ambient lead concentration, compared with two normal groups of cows. In each cow aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (Pb-B) were determined, two years prior to and four years after the technical sanitation of the lead emission source. The results demonstrated normalization of ALAD, EP and Pb-B after the technical sanitation. In spite of normalization, biological indicators ALAD and Pb-B determined four years after the technical sanitation showed increased lead absorption in comparison with the results of the control group. This indirectly indicates lead contamination of the environment from residual amounts of lead in the soil.

  3. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    PubMed

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP.

  4. Dominance and Age in Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

  5. Global transcriptomic profiling of bovine endometrial immune response in vitro. I. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Oguejiofor, Chike F; Cheng, Zhangrui; Abudureyimu, Ayimuguli; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Wathes, D Claire

    2015-10-01

    The dysregulation of endometrial immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been implicated in uterine disease and infertility in the postpartum dairy cow, although the mechanisms are not clear. Here, we investigated whole-transcriptomic gene expression in primary cultures of mixed bovine epithelial and stromal endometrial cells. Cultures were exposed to LPS for 6 h, and cellular response was measured by bovine microarray. Approximately 30% of the 1006 genes altered by LPS were classified as being involved in immune response. Cytokines and chemokines (IL1A, CX3CL1, CXCL2, and CCL5), interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (RSAD2, MX2, OAS1, ISG15, and BST2), and the acute phase molecule SAA3 were the most up-regulated genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified up-regulation of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which function to attract immune cells to the endometrium, together with vascular adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases, which can facilitate immune cell migration from the tissue toward the uterine lumen. Increased expression of many IFN-signaling genes, immunoproteasomes, guanylate-binding proteins, and genes involved in the intracellular recognition of pathogens suggests important roles for these molecules in the innate defense against bacterial infections. Our findings confirmed the important role of endometrial cells in uterine innate immunity, whereas the global approach used identified several novel immune response pathways triggered by LPS in the endometrium. Additionally, many genes involved in endometrial response to the conceptus in early pregnancy were also altered by LPS, suggesting one mechanism whereby an ongoing response to infection may interfere with the establishment of pregnancy.

  6. Intrauterine ozone treatment of retained fetal membrane in Simmental cows.

    PubMed

    Djuricic, D; Vince, S; Ablondi, M; Dobranic, T; Samardzija, M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of research was to determine influence of intrauterine application of two different ozone preparations on reproductive performance in Simmental cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM). The study was performed on 143 Simmental cows aged 2-8 years and divided in three groups. Group A (n=46) consisted of cows treated with foam spray ozone applied into the body of the uterus for 5s using a sterile catheter. Group B (n=50) consisted of cows treated using six ozone pearls intrauterinely at once, as deeply and hygienically possible. Cows were observed and treated during early puerperium, 24-36h after parturition. The third group (n=47) consisted of cows without RFM (control group). To assess the reproductive performance of cows, the interval from calving to first insemination (days not pregnant to first service, DOFS), interval from calving to pregnancy (days not pregnant to pregnancy, DOP), relative pregnancy rate (%), first service conception rate (FSCR, %) and all service conception rate (ASCR, %) were measured. The estimate of hazard ratio for the Groups A and B relative to control group with DOFS were 0.423 (P=0.0006) and 0.434 (P=0.0005), and with DOP were 0.701 (P=0.003) and 0.411 (P=0.0003), respectively, implying that cows in the control group were not pregnant longer until first insemination and pregnancy. Variables that had an influence on DOFS were postpartum fever (PPF) (HR=0.458; P=0.003) and milk yield (HR=0.999; P<0.0001) and an influence on DOP were PPF (HR=0.314; P=0.001) and milk yield (HR=0.999; P<0.0001). Cows with RFM treated with intrauterine Riger spray or Ripromed ovuli O(3) have similar or enhanced reproductive performance results compared to the control group of cows demonstrating the effectiveness of therapy with intrauterine ozone products.

  7. Analysis of feeding and drinking patterns of dairy cows in two cow traffic situations in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Melin, M; Wiktorsson, H; Norell, L

    2005-01-01

    With increasing possibilities for obtaining online information for individual cows, systems for individual management can be developed. Feeding and drinking patterns from automatically obtained records may be valuable input information in these systems. With the aim of evaluating appropriate mixed-distribution models for feeding and drinking events, records of 30 fresh cows from visits at feeding stations (n = 83,249) and water bowls (n = 67,525) were analyzed. Cows were either allowed a high-milking (HF) or a low-milking (LF) frequency by being subjected to controlled cow traffic with minimum milking intervals of 4 and 8 h, respectively. Milking frequency had significant effects on feeding patterns. The major part (84 to 98%) of the random variation in feeding patterns of the cows was due to individual differences between cows. It can be concluded that cows develop consistent feeding and drinking patterns over time that are characteristic for each individual cow. Based on this consistency, patterns of feeding and drinking activities have valuable potential for purposes of monitoring and decision making in individual control management systems. Use of a Weibull distribution to describe the population of intervals between meals increased the statistical fit, predicted biologically relevant starting probabilities, and estimated meal criteria that were closer to what has been published by others.

  8. Measures of daily distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using global positioning systems on both cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GPS collars were used to describe the daily distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...

  9. Oral supplementation of medium-chain fatty acids during the dry period supports the neutrophil viability of peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2013-08-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted to explore the effect of orally supplemented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to heifers and cows starting 6-8 weeks prior to expected calving date on blood and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocyte (PMNL) apoptosis between 1 and 3 d in milk (DIM). The effects of MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactation, and test-day somatic cell count (SCC) and average daily milk yield (MY) during the first 4 months of lactation were evaluated as well. Twenty-two animals were included of which half were orally supplemented with MCFA starting 6-8 weeks prior to calving and half served as non-supplemented controls. The PMNL viability in both blood and milk was quantified using dual-colour flow cytometry with fluorescein-labelled annexin and propidium iodide. In non-supplemented animals, % blood PMNL apoptosis significantly increased between start of supplementation and early lactation, reflecting a potential reduction in innate immune capacity, whereas this was not true in the MCFA-supplemented animals. Similar results were seen in milk PMNL apoptosis. Overall, the % apoptotic milk PMNL between 1 and 3 DIM was significantly lower in the MCFA-supplemented group compared with the non-supplemented group. There was no substantial effect of oral MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of quarter IMI nor on the composite test-day milk SCC or average daily MY. In conclusion, oral MCFA-supplementation starting 6-8 weeks before expected calving date supported the blood and milk neutrophil viability in early lactating dairy cows. Still, this was not reflected in an improvement of udder health nor MY in early and later lactation. The results should trigger research to further unravel the mechanisms behind the observed immunomodulating effect, and the potential relevance for the cows' performances throughout lactation.

  10. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  11. 33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Person in charge of COW... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  12. 33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Person in charge of COW... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  13. 33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Person in charge of COW... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  14. 33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Person in charge of COW... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  15. Effect on Production of Replacing Dietary Starch With Sucrose in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacing dietary starch with sugar has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. Two sets of 24 Holstein cows averaging 41 kg/d of milk were fed a covariate diet and then blocked by DIM and randomly assigned in two phases to four groups of 6 cows each. Cows were fed experimental diets cont...

  16. Diminished Innate Antiviral Response to Adenovirus Vectors in cGAS/STING-Deficient Mice Minimally Impacts Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Anghelina, Daniela; Lam, Eric

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection by adenovirus, a nonenveloped DNA virus, induces antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses. Studies of transformed human and murine cell lines using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown strategies identified cyclic guanine adenine synthase (cGAS) as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that contributes to the antiadenovirus response. Here we demonstrate how the cGAS/STING cascade influences the antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses in a murine knockout model. Using knockout bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMOs), we determined that cGAS and STING are essential to the induction of the antiadenovirus response in these antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in vitro. We next determined how the cGAS/STING cascade impacts the antiviral response following systemic administration of a recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector (rAd5V). Infection of cGAS−/− and STING−/− mice results in a compromised early antiviral innate response compared to that in wild-type (WT) controls: significantly lower levels of beta interferon (IFN-β) secretion, low levels of proinflammatory chemokine induction, and reduced levels of antiviral transcript induction in hepatic tissue. At 24 h postinfection, levels of viral DNA and reporter gene expression in the liver were similar in all strains. At 28 days postinfection, clearance of infected hepatocytes in cGAS or STING knockout mice was comparable to that in WT C57BL/6 mice. Levels of neutralizing anti-Ad5V antibody were modestly reduced in infected cGAS mice. These data support a dominant role for the cGAS/STING cascade in the early innate antiviral inflammatory response to adenovirus vectors. However, loss of the cGAS/STING pathway did not affect viral clearance, and cGAS deficiency had a modest influence on the magnitude of the antiviral humoral immune response to adenovirus infections. IMPORTANCE The detection of viral infection by host sentinel immune cells

  17. Environmental and cow-related factors affect cow locomotion and can cause misclassification in lameness detection systems.

    PubMed

    Van Nuffel, A; Van De Gucht, T; Saeys, W; Sonck, B; Opsomer, G; Vangeyte, J; Mertens, K C; De Ketelaere, B; Van Weyenberg, S

    2016-09-01

    To tackle the high prevalence of lameness, techniques to monitor cow locomotion are being developed in order to detect changes in cows' locomotion due to lameness. Obviously, in such lameness detection systems, alerts should only respond to locomotion changes that are related to lameness. However, other environmental or cow factors can contribute to locomotion changes not related to lameness and hence, might cause false alerts. In this study the effects of wet surfaces, dark environment, age, production level, lactation and gestation stage on cow locomotion were investigated. Data was collected at Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research research farm (Melle, Belgium) during a 5-month period. The gait variables of 30 non-lame and healthy Holstein cows were automatically measured every day. In dark environments and on wet walking surfaces cows took shorter, more asymmetrical strides with less step overlap. In general, older cows had a more asymmetrical gait and they walked slower with more abduction. Lactation stage or gestation stage also showed significant association with asymmetrical and shorter gait and less step overlap probably due to the heavy calf in the uterus. Next, two lameness detection algorithms were developed to investigate the added value of environmental and cow data into detection models. One algorithm solely used locomotion variables and a second algorithm used the same locomotion variables and additional environmental and cow data. In the latter algorithm only age and lactation stage together with the locomotion variables were withheld during model building. When comparing the sensitivity for the detection of non-lame cows, sensitivity increased by 10% when the cow data was added in the algorithm (sensitivity was 70% and 80% for the first and second algorithm, respectively). Hence, the number of false alerts for lame cows that were actually non-lame, decreased. This pilot study shows that using knowledge on influencing factors on cow

  18. Pattern Recognition Receptors in Innate Immunity, Host Defense, and Immunopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suresh, Rahul; Mosser, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Infection by pathogenic microbes initiates a set of complex interactions between the pathogen and the host mediated by pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune responses play direct roles in host defense during the early stages of infection, and they also exert a profound influence on the generation of the adaptive immune responses that ensue.…

  19. Innate immune responses of temperamental and calm cattle after transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate measures of cellular innate immune responses among calm and temperamental Brahman bulls in response to handling and transportation. Sixteen Brahman bulls (344 ± 37 days of age; 271.6 ± 45.5 kg BW) classified as either calm (n = 8) or temperamental (n = 8) were loaded...

  20. Innate Immune Responses and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schleimer, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    Innate immune responses appear to be partially responsible for maintaining inflammation and tissue destruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the early stages of the disease in smokers, the airways are bombarded with large quantities of particulate material, and activation of phagocytic cells results in the release of many of the mediators believed to remodel the airways. Ironically, failure of the innate immune defense system, either by inherited deficiency or as a result of chronic smoke inhalation, is likely to result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is well known that deficiencies in the production of collectins, pentraxins, and complement can lead to increased infections, and several studies indicate that deficiency in one or another innate defense component is associated with increased exacerbations. Corticosteroids reduce exacerbations in part because of their ability to boost the production of innate host-defense molecules. Therapeutic approaches that stimulate the generation of antimicrobial molecules in the lungs might be able to reduce disease exacerbations. PMID:16267360

  1. Developmental acquisition of regulomes underlies innate lymphoid cell functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis, and they mirror adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usages of effector molecules and ·transcription factors. To better understand ILC subsets and their relationship with Th cells, we measur...

  2. Immune tolerance induction by integrating innate and adaptive immune regulators

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jun; Ricordi, Camillo; Chen, Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    A diversity of immune tolerance mechanisms have evolved to protect normal tissues from immune damage. Immune regulatory cells are critical contributors to peripheral tolerance. These regulatory cells, exemplified by the CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and a recently identified population named myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), regulate immune responses and limiting immune-mediated pathology. In a chronic inflammatory setting, such as allograft-directed immunity, there may be a dynamic “crosstalk” between the innate and adaptive immunomodulatory mechanisms for an integrated control of immune damage. CTLA4-B7-based interaction between the two branches may function as a molecular “bridge” to facilitate such “crosstalk”. Understanding the interplays among Treg cells, innate suppressors and pathogenic effector T (Teff) cells will be critical in the future to assist in the development of therapeutic strategies to enhance and synergize physiological immunosuppressive elements in the innate and adaptive immune system. Successful development of localized strategies of regulatory cell therapies could circumvent the requirement for very high number of cells and decrease the risks associated with systemic immunosuppression. To realize the potential of innate and adaptive immune regulators for the still-elusive goal of immune tolerance induction, adoptive cell therapies may also need to be coupled with agents enhancing endogenous tolerance mechanisms. PMID:19919733

  3. RNA Editing, ADAR1, and the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingde; Li, Xiaoni; Qi, Ruofan; Billiar, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    RNA editing, particularly A-to-I RNA editing, has been shown to play an essential role in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including skin pigmentation disorder, autoimmune and inflammatory tissue injury, neuron degeneration, and various malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing is carried out by a small group of enzymes, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNAs (ADARs). Only three members of this protein family, ADAR1–3, exist in mammalian cells. ADAR3 is a catalytically null enzyme and the most significant function of ADAR2 was found to be in editing on the neuron receptor GluR-B mRNA. ADAR1, however, has been shown to play more significant roles in biological and pathological conditions. Although there remains much that is not known about how ADAR1 regulates cellular function, recent findings point to regulation of the innate immune response as an important function of ADAR1. Without appropriate RNA editing by ADAR1, endogenous RNA transcripts stimulate cytosolic RNA sensing receptors and therefore activate the IFN-inducing signaling pathways. Overactivation of innate immune pathways can lead to tissue injury and dysfunction. However, obvious gaps in our knowledge persist as to how ADAR1 regulates innate immune responses through RNA editing. Here, we review critical findings from ADAR1 mechanistic studies focusing on its regulatory function in innate immune responses and identify some of the important unanswered questions in the field. PMID:28106799

  4. The Innate Immune System in Acute and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Amanda S.; Mansbridge, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: This review article provides an overview of the critical roles of the innate immune system to wound healing. It explores aspects of dysregulation of individual innate immune elements known to compromise wound repair and promote nonhealing wounds. Understanding the key mechanisms whereby wound healing fails will provide seed concepts for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Recent Advances: Our understanding of the complex interactions of the innate immune system in wound healing has significantly improved, particularly in our understanding of the role of antimicrobials and peptides and the nature of the switch from inflammatory to reparative processes. This takes place against an emerging understanding of the relationship between human cells and commensal bacteria in the skin. Critical Issues: It is well established and accepted that early local inflammatory mediators in the wound bed function as an immunological vehicle to facilitate immune cell infiltration and microbial clearance upon injury to the skin barrier. Both impaired and excessive innate immune responses can promote nonhealing wounds. It appears that the switch from the inflammatory to the proliferative phase is tightly regulated and mediated, at least in part, by a change in macrophages. Defining the factors that initiate the switch in such macrophage phenotypes and functions is the subject of multiple investigations. Future Directions: The review highlights processes that may be useful targets for further investigation, particularly the switch from M1 to M2 macrophages that appears to be critical as dysregulation of this switch occurs during defective wound healing. PMID:26862464

  5. Endogenous opioid peptides in regulation of innate immunity cell functions.

    PubMed

    Gein, S V; Baeva, T A

    2011-03-01

    Endogenous opioid peptides comprise a group of bioregulatory factors involved in regulation of functional activity of various physiological systems of an organism. One of most important functions of endogenous opioids is their involvement in the interaction between cells of the nervous and immune systems. Summary data on the effects of opioid peptides on regulation of functions of innate immunity cells are presented.

  6. Thinking like a Scientist: Innateness as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobe, Joshua; Samuels, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of innateness appears in systematic research within cognitive science, but it also appears in less systematic modes of thought that long predate the scientific study of the mind. The present studies therefore explore the relationship between the properly scientific uses of this concept and its role in ordinary folk understanding.…

  7. The immunobiology of Campylobacter jejuni: Innate immunity and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh

    2016-04-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Recent advances in the immunobiology of C. jejuni have been made. This review summarizes C. jejuni-binding innate receptors and highlights the role of innate immunity in autoimmune diseases. This human pathogen produces a variety of glycoconjugates, including human ganglioside-like determinants and multiple activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Furthermore, C. jejuni targets MyD88, NLRP3 inflammasome, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs), macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL), and immunoglobulin-like receptors (TREM2, LMIR5/CD300b). The roles of these innate receptors and signaling molecules have been extensively studied. MyD88-mediated TLR activation or inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion is essential for autoimmune induction. TRIF mediates the production of type I interferons that promote humoral immune responses and immunoglobulin class-switching. Siglec-1 and Siglec-7 interact directly with gangliosides. Siglec-1 activation enhances phagocytosis and inflammatory responses. MGL internalizes GalNAc-containing glycoconjugates. TREM2 is well-known for its role in phagocytosis. LMIR5 recognizes C. jejuni components and endogenous sulfoglycolipids. Several lines of evidence from animal models of autoimmune diseases suggest that simultaneous activation of innate immunity in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes or antigen mimicry may link C. jejuni to immunopathology.

  8. Targeting Innate-Like T Cells in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shouxiong

    2016-01-01

    Peptide-specific conventional T cells have been major targets for designing most antimycobacterial vaccines. Immune responses mediated by conventional T cells exhibit a delayed onset upon primary infection and are highly variable in different human populations. In contrast, innate-like T cells quickly respond to pathogens and display effector functions without undergoing extensive clonal expansion. Specifically, the activation of innate-like T cells depends on the promiscuous interaction of highly conserved antigen-presenting molecules, non-peptidic antigens, and likely semi-invariant T cell receptors. In antimicrobial immune responses, mucosal-associated invariant T cells are activated by riboflavin precursor metabolites presented by major histocompatibility complex-related protein I, while lipid-specific T cells including natural killer T cells are activated by lipid metabolites presented by CD1 proteins. Multiple innate-like T cell subsets have been shown to be protective or responsive in mycobacterial infections. Through rapid cytokine secretion, innate-like T cells function in early defense and memory response, offering novel advantages over conventional T cells in the design of anti-tuberculosis strategies. PMID:28066410

  9. Evolution of innate and adaptive immune systems in jawless vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Because jawless vertebrates are the most primitive vertebrates, they have been studied to gain understanding of the evolutionary processes that gave rise to the innate and adaptive immune systems in vertebrates. Jawless vertebrates have developed lymphocyte-like cells that morphologically resemble the T and B cells of jawed vertebrates, but they express variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) instead of the T and B cell receptors that specifically recognize antigens in jawed vertebrates. These VLRs act as antigen receptors, diversity being generated in their antigen-binding sites by assembly of highly diverse leucine-rich repeat modules. Therefore, jawless vertebrates have developed adaptive immune systems based on the VLRs. Although pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Rig-like receptors (RLRs), and their adaptor genes are conserved in jawless vertebrates, some transcription factor and inflammatory cytokine genes in the TLR and RLR pathways are not present. However, like jawed vertebrates, the initiation of adaptive immune responses in jawless vertebrates appears to require prior activation of the innate immune system. These observations imply that the innate immune systems of jawless vertebrates have a unique molecular basis that is distinct from that of jawed vertebrates. Altogether, although the molecular details of the innate and adaptive immune systems differ between jawless and jawed vertebrates, jawless vertebrates have developed versions of these immune systems that are similar to those of jawed vertebrates.

  10. Innate immunity in the lung regulates the development of asthma.

    PubMed

    DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-07-01

    The lung, while functioning as a gas exchange organ, encounters a large array of environmental factors, including particulate matter, toxins, reactive oxygen species, chemicals, allergens, and infectious microbes. To rapidly respond to and counteract these elements, a number of innate immune mechanisms have evolved that can lead to lung inflammation and asthma, which is the focus of this review. These innate mechanisms include a role for two incompletely understood cell types, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which together produce a wide range of cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, interferon-γ, IL-17, and IL-22, independently of adaptive immunity and conventional antigens. The specific roles of iNKT cells and ILCs in immunity are still being defined, but both cell types appear to play important roles in the lungs, particularly in asthma. As we gain a better understanding of these innate cell types, we will acquire great insight into the mechanisms by which allergic and non-allergic asthma phenotypes develop.

  11. Health Realization: An Innate Resiliency Paradigm for School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Roger C.; Shuford, Rita

    This paper presents findings regarding the role of youth's moment to moment thinking and state of mind in determining perception. These findings, along with discoveries about innate resiliency and an understanding of the underlying principles that describe how thoughts become perception, have demonstrated efficacy in empowering youth to regain…

  12. Role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of otitis media.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rahul; Kodiyan, Joyson; Gerring, Robert; Mathee, Kalai; Li, Jian-Dong; Grati, M'hamed; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a public health problem in both developed and developing countries. It is the leading cause of hearing loss and represents a significant healthcare burden. In some cases, acute OM progresses to chronic suppurative OM (CSOM), characterized by effusion and discharge, despite antimicrobial therapy. The emergence of antibiotic resistance and potential ototoxicity of antibiotics has created an urgent need to design non-conventional therapeutic strategies against OM based on modern insights into its pathophysiology. In this article, we review the role of innate immunity as it pertains to OM and discuss recent advances in understanding the role of innate immune cells in protecting the middle ear. We also discuss the mechanisms utilized by pathogens to subvert innate immunity and thereby overcome defensive responses. A better knowledge about bacterial virulence and host resistance promises to reveal novel targets to design effective treatment strategies against OM. The identification and characterization of small natural compounds that can boost innate immunity may provide new avenues for the treatment of OM. There is also a need to design novel methods for targeted delivery of these compounds into the middle ear, allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects.

  13. Innate immune responses in hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Lemon, Stanley M

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide and thus poses a significant public health threat. A hallmark of HCV infection is the extraordinary ability of the virus to persist in a majority of infected people. Innate immune responses represent the front line of defense of the human body against HCV immediately after infection. They also play a crucial role in orchestrating subsequent HCV-specific adaptive immunity that is pivotal for viral clearance. Accumulating evidence suggests that the host has evolved multifaceted innate immune mechanisms to sense HCV infection and elicit defense responses, while HCV has developed elaborate strategies to circumvent many of these. Defining the interplay of HCV with host innate immunity reveals mechanistic insights into hepatitis C pathogenesis and informs approaches to therapy. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding innate immune responses to HCV infection, focusing on induction and effector mechanisms of the interferon antiviral response as well as the evasion strategies of HCV.

  14. Risk factors for dirty dairy cows in Norwegian freestall systems.

    PubMed

    Ruud, L E; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2010-11-01

    Cow cleanliness is important for ensuring hygienic milk production and the well-being of dairy cows. The aim of this cross-sectional field study was to describe cow cleanliness in freestall-housed dairy herds and to examine risk factors related to thigh cleanliness. Cow cleanliness (n=2,335), management-related variables (e.g., ventilation and use of sawdust-bedded stalls), and housing-related variables (e.g., freestall design and number of cows per stall) were recorded in 232 Norwegian freestall-housed dairy herds. Cleanliness was scored on a 4-point scale ranging from clean (1) to very dirty (4). The cows were relatively clean on the udder and belly, dirtier on thigh and the rear part of the body, and dirtiest on the legs, with cleanliness scores (mean ± SD) of 1.64±0.62, 1.62±0.65, 2.02±0.75, 1.77±0.58, and 2.30±0.59, respectively. With dirty thighs as the response variable, several variables were tested in a logistic regression mixed model and with repeated measurements within herd and cow. A high number of cows per freestall [odds ratio (OR)=3.45], no use of sawdust as bedding (OR=3.24) versus use of sawdust, and a low-positioned (<0.85 m above stall floor) upper head rail "enclosing" the front of the stall (OR=1.42 to 2.13) versus a position >0.85 m were all risk factors for dirty thighs on the cows. Furthermore, liquid manure (score 2) versus more consistent manure (score 1; OR=1.66) and less tame cows (score 2) versus tame cows (score 1) were associated with an increased risk of dirty thighs (OR=1.24). The cleanest cows were associated with indoor temperatures in the range from 10 to 15°C. For each 10-percentage-unit increase in relative air humidity, the risk of dirty thighs increased (OR=1.32). Freestalls with a construction hindering normal lying, rising, and standing movements should be avoided. Furthermore, focus is needed on indoor climate and manure consistency to obtain cows with clean thighs.

  15. Innate and guided C–H functionalization logic

    PubMed Central

    Brückl, Tobias; Baxter, Ryan D.; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

    2011-01-01

    Conspectus The combustion of organic matter is perhaps the oldest and most common chemical transformation utilized by mankind. The generation of a C–O bond at the expense of a C–H bond during this process may be considered the most basic form of C–H functionalization. This illustrates the extreme generality of the term ‘C–H functionalization,’ as it can describe the conversion of literally any C–H bond into a C–X bond (X being anything except H). Therefore, it may be of use to distinguish between what, in our view, are two distinct categories of C–H functionalization logic: ‘guided’ and ‘innate.’ Guided C–H functionalizations, as the name implies, are guided by external reagents or directing groups (covalently or fleetingly bound) to install new functional groups at the expense of specifically targeted C–H bonds. Conversely, innate C–H functionalizations may be broadly defined as reactions that exchange C–H bonds for new functional groups based solely on natural reactivity patterns in the absence of other directing forces. Two substrates that illustrate this distinction are dihydrojunenol and isonicotinic acid. The C–H functionalization processes of hydroxylation or arylation, respectively, can take place at multiple locations on each molecule. Innate functionalizations lead to substitution patterns that are dictated by the inherent bias (steric or electronic) of the substrate undergoing C–H cleavage, whereas guided functionalizations lead to substitution patterns that are controlled by external directing forces such as metal complexation or steric bias of the reagent. Although the distinction between guided and innate C–H functionalizations may not always be clear in cases that do not fit neatly into a single category, it is a useful convention to consider when analyzing reactivity patterns and strategies for synthesis. We must emphasize that although a completely rigorous distinction between guided and innate C

  16. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels.

  17. Criteria for Matrix Dominated Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    8217 L . .... ... .... . !A,! A ,- -I 1. INTRODUCTION When designing adhesively bonded fibre composite repairs for metallic or comn- pwsite structutes, two...behaviour of fibre composite lauiinates [20.21,22]. * 4 2i 4| It haas aso been used to design 6dhMavely bonded repairs for cracked metallic com- ponents...several methodsearvently used for analysis of the ltnt rix dominated failure In composite nmaterial an adhesivty hankdedl joints . Particular attention has

  18. Dominant modes via model error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yousuff, A.; Breida, M.

    1992-01-01

    Obtaining a reduced model of a stable mechanical system with proportional damping is considered. Such systems can be conveniently represented in modal coordinates. Two popular schemes, the modal cost analysis and the balancing method, offer simple means of identifying dominant modes for retention in the reduced model. The dominance is measured via the modal costs in the case of modal cost analysis and via the singular values of the Gramian-product in the case of balancing. Though these measures do not exactly reflect the more appropriate model error, which is the H2 norm of the output-error between the full and the reduced models, they do lead to simple computations. Normally, the model error is computed after the reduced model is obtained, since it is believed that, in general, the model error cannot be easily computed a priori. The authors point out that the model error can also be calculated a priori, just as easily as the above measures. Hence, the model error itself can be used to determine the dominant modes. Moreover, the simplicity of the computations does not presume any special properties of the system, such as small damping, orthogonal symmetry, etc.

  19. Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows.

    PubMed

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; den Uijl, I E M; van Schaik, G; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Keurentjes, J M; Lam, T J G M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This study evaluated selective DCT in 1,657 cows with low somatic cell count (SCC) at the last milk recording before drying off in 97 Dutch dairy herds. Low SCC was defined as <150,000 cells/mL for primiparous and <250,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows. A split-udder design was used in which 2 quarters of each cow were treated with dry cow antibiotics and the other 2 quarters remained as untreated controls. The effect of DCT on clinical mastitis (CM), bacteriological status, SCC, and antibiotic use were determined at the quarter level using logistic regression and chi-squared tests. The incidence rate of CM was found to be 1.7 times (95% confidence interval = 1.4-2.1) higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics as compared with quarters dried off with antibiotics. Streptococcus uberis was the predominant organism causing CM in both groups. Somatic cell count at calving and 14 d in milk was significantly higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics (772,000 and 46,000 cells/mL, respectively) as compared with the quarters dried off with antibiotics (578,000 and 30,000 cells/mL, respectively). Quarters with an elevated SCC at drying off and quarters with a positive culture for major pathogens at drying off had a higher risk for an SCC above 200,000 cells/mL at 14 d in milk as compared with quarters with a low SCC at drying off and quarters with a negative culture for major pathogens at drying off. For quarters that were culture-positive for major pathogens at drying off, a trend for a higher risk on CM was also found. Selective DCT, not using DCT in cows that had a low SCC at the last milk recording before drying off, significantly increased the incidence rate of CM and

  20. [Children who are allergic to cow's milk. Nutritional treatment].

    PubMed

    Casado Dones, M José; Cruz Martín, Rosa M; Moreno González, Cristina; Oya Luis, Isabel; Martin Rodríguez, María

    2008-09-01

    An allergy or intolerance to cow's milk protein (APLV-IPLV) is the most frequent food allergy among early childhood in our environment, related to genetic and environmental factors. This allergy tends to appear during the first few months of life, after the introduction of cow's milk protein in a child's diet and it manifests itself with symptoms which depend on foreign matter being introduced (immunological or otherwise). A diagnosis is made by means of the patient's case history and is completed by laboratory tests. Treatment consists of excluding cow's milk protein from the child's diet. Formulas derived from cow's milk are substituted by a hydrolyzed formula or one based on soybean. The prognosis is good: patients respond to this diet which does not include cow's milk protein and the majority of patients succeed in forming tolerance for cow's milk protein. A nurse's role is fundamental in educating parents and later on the child in order to achieve following a diet which completely eliminates cow's milk protein (PLV).

  1. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration.

  2. Induction of parturition in dairy cows with dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Peters, A R; Poole, D A

    Sixty Holstein cows were paired by parity and sire, and one of each pair was allocated at random to treatment or control; 17 cows were injected with 7.5 mg/100 kg dexamethasone trioxa undecanoate 14 days before the predicted date of calving, 13 cows received the same dose five days before term and 30 cows were left untreated. The treatment significantly advanced parturition and 29 of the 30 induced cows calved within 72 hours of the injection. Induction at day 14 before term was safe for calf and dam, the calves were 3.2 kg lighter than control calves and there was a high incidence of retained placenta. Treatment for this condition resulted in increased veterinary costs of 14.50 pounds per cow exclusive of dexamethasone treatment. Treatment at this stage was also associated with low pregnancy rates in the next breeding season. Calves born after induction at five days before term were not significantly lighter than calves from control cows, the problem of retained placenta was less marked and there were no subsequent effects on fertility. There were no significant effects of induction on milk yield or milk quality up to 200 days of lactation.

  3. Effect of relocation on locomotion and cleanliness in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Crafton O; Pence, Kristen J; Hurt, Amanda M; Becvar, Ondrej; Knowlton, Katharine F; McGilliard, Michael L; Gwazdauskas, Francis C

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect that relocation to a new free stall barn had on locomotion and cleanliness of two breeds of dairy cows. The original facility before relocation had cows housed in an 8-row free stall barn. Cows were allocated in a new 4-row free stall facility: cows of two breeds (n=22 Holsteins and 22 Jerseys) were intermixed in the northwest section. Locomotion (scale 1-5) and cleanliness were scored (scale 1-4). Holsteins and Jerseys had no difference in locomotion score throughout 12 weeks following relocation. A lactation number by date interaction showed cows in third and greater lactations had significantly higher locomotion scores (more lameness) by day 86. Locomotion scores increased across breeds during the 86-d observation period, suggesting cows became lamer. Jerseys had cleaner lower legs than Holsteins (2.9+/-0.1 v. 3.5+/-0.1, respectively). Lactation number affected lower leg cleanliness, with scores decreasing as lactation number increased (3.4 v. 3.3 v. 2.9+/-0.10 for first, second and third and greater lactations, respectively; P<0.01). All cows were cleaner (lower scores) after relocation, suggesting that the new facility improved hygiene.

  4. Associations between individual cow factors and milk-protein production.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Martin, S W; Lissemore, K D; Leslie, K E; Gibson, J P; Scott, H M; Kelton, D F

    1998-02-06

    Associations between stage of lactation, cow characteristics, and protein production were evaluated using data from a 2-year period on 75 Ontario, 5 Alberta, and 3 Nova Scotia dairy farms. Individual-cow protein production was defined by 305-day protein yield and by the estimated breeding value for protein yield. Lactation curves for average daily protein yield were computed by parity, breed, and season of calving. Mean protein yield was highest in early lactation. However, there was no pronounced peak in daily protein yield. Parity was positively associated with 305-day protein yield and negatively associated with the estimated breeding values for protein yield. First-calf heifers had lower protein yields in early lactation and a slower rate of decline in protein yield in late lactation, as compared to later parity cows. Holstein cows had higher unadjusted protein yields and lower protein yields after adjusting for milk yield than other breeds. Holstein cows had significantly higher protein yields early in lactation compared to other breeds, but the rate of decline in protein production in late lactation was also greater. Season was associated with 305-day protein yield; the highest protein yields occurred in cows calving in the fall and winter months, but these cows had the greatest rate of decline in protein production in late lactation.

  5. Differences in CLA isomer distribution of cow's milk lipids.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Jana; Collomb, Marius; Möckel, Peter; Sieber, Robert; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2003-06-01

    The uniqueness of ruminant milk lipids is based on their high concentration of CLA. Maximal CLA concentrations in milk lipids require optimal conditions of ruminal fermentation and substrate availability, conditions like those present in pasture-fed cows. Our previous work showed that farm management (indoor feeding vs. pasture feeding) markedly influenced the CLA concentration. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the farm management system as dependent on different locations. Milk samples from different locations (Thuringia and the Alps, representing diverse altitudes) were collected during the summer months and analyzed for FA profile and CLA isomer distribution. The proportion of PUFA and total CLA in milk fat was significantly lower in milk from indoor cows compared with the pasture cows in the Alps. The trans-11 18:1 in milk fat of Alpine cows was elevated, in contrast to lower values for trans-10 18:1. Milk from cows grazing pasture in the Alps was higher in EPA and lower in arachidonic acid than milk from indoor-fed cows. The proportion of cis,trans/trans,cis isomers of CLA was 10 times higher from the indoor cows than from the Alpine cows. In addition to the major isomer cis-9,trans-11, this difference also occurred for the trans-11,cis-13 isomer, which represented more than a fourth of the total CLA present in milk fat. This is the first report showing a special isomer distribution in the milk fat of cows living under very natural conditions. We hypothesize that the CLA isomer trans-11,cis-13 is formed in large quantity as a result of grazing mountain pasture, which is rich in alpha-linolenic acid.

  6. Transcriptome difference and potential crosstalk between liver and mammary tissue in mid-lactation primiparous dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Dengpan; Bionaz, Massimo; Wang, Mengzhi; Nan, Xuemei; Ma, Lu; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-01-01

    Liver and mammary gland are among the most important organs during lactation in dairy cows. With the purpose of understanding both the different and the complementary roles and the crosstalk of those two organs during lactation, a transcriptome analysis was performed on liver and mammary tissues of 10 primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation. The analysis was performed using a 4×44K Bovine Agilent microarray chip. The transcriptome difference between the two tissues was analyzed using SAS JMP Genomics using ANOVA with a false discovery rate correction (FDR). The analysis uncovered >9,000 genes differentially expressed (DEG) between the two tissues with a FDR<0.001. The functional analysis of the DEG uncovered a larger metabolic (especially related to lipid) and inflammatory response capacity in liver compared with mammary tissue while the mammary tissue had a larger protein synthesis and secretion, proliferation/differentiation, signaling, and innate immune system capacity compared with the liver. A plethora of endogenous compounds, cytokines, and transcription factors were estimated to control the DEG between the two tissues. Compared with mammary tissue, the liver transcriptome appeared to be under control of a large array of ligand-dependent nuclear receptors and, among endogenous chemical, fatty acids and bacteria-derived compounds. Compared with liver, the transcriptome of the mammary tissue was potentially under control of a large number of growth factors and miRNA. The in silico crosstalk analysis between the two tissues revealed an overall large communication with a reciprocal control of lipid metabolism, innate immune system adaptation, and proliferation/differentiation. In summary the transcriptome analysis confirmed prior known differences between liver and mammary tissue, especially considering the indication of a larger metabolic activity in liver compared with the mammary tissue and the larger protein synthesis, communication, and proliferative

  7. The effects of body posture and temperament on heart rate variability in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Frondelius, Lilli; Järvenranta, Kirsi; Koponen, Taija; Mononen, Jaakko

    2015-02-01

    HRV measurements. AS correlated positively with SDNN (r=0.43, p<0.1) and HF (r=0.53, p<0.05) during HT. Some HRV parameters (HR, LF, %REC, %DET) indicated that the handling test may have caused stress to the experimental cows, although some HRV results (SDNN, RMSSD, HF, entropy) were controversial. The correlations between HRV variables and AS suggest that the emotional reactivity of the cow can be assessed from the baseline values of the HRV. It is debatable, however, whether the handling test used in the present study was a good method of causing mild stress in dairy cattle, since it may have even induced a positive emotional state. The posture of the cow affected HRV values as expected (based on results from other species), so that while standing a shift towards more sympathetic dominance was evident. Our results support the idea that linear (time and frequency domain) and non-linear (RQA) methods measuring HRV complement each other, but further research is needed for better understanding of the connection between temperament and HRV.

  8. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  9. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9 20 h) or the night (21 8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5±2.9 during the day and 70.1±4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal changes

  10. [Ultrasonographic finding and treatment of a cow with pyelonephrosis].

    PubMed

    Lesser, M; Krüger, S; Nuss, K; Sydler, T; Braun, U

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonography of a six-year-old Simmental cow revealed an abscess like structure, approximately 15 cm in diameter, in place of the right kidney. The cow had a history of colic for 4 days and was referred to our clinic with a tentative diagnosis of caecal dilatation. The cow voided dark opaque urine with white floccules. Laboratory examination yielded increased haematocrit, leukocytosis with left shift, hyperbilirubinaemia and azotaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed, the caecum emptied surgically and the pus-filled structure at the site of the right kidney removed. A diagnosis of pyonephrosis was made after pathological examination of the pus-filled structure.

  11. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lynn K; Saffran, Jenny R

    2016-04-05

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e.g., pink cow and Holstein-patterned pig). On each trial, toddlers were directed to find a target object. Overall, recognition was disrupted when colors were switched, as measured by eye movements. Moreover, individual differences in vocabularies predicted recognition differences: Toddlers who say fewer shape-based words were more disrupted by color switches. "Knowing" a word may not mean the same thing for all toddlers; different toddlers prioritize different facets of familiar objects in their lexical representations.

  12. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  13. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (P<0.001), timing of calving (P<0.001) relative to start of breeding, history of abnormal repeat intervals (P<0.001) and length of post partum interval (P<0.001) were each associated with lower six-week pregnancy rates. Timing of calving (P<0.001) and history of abnormal repeat intervals (P<0.001) were associated with higher not-in-calf rates. Herd size and cow parity were not associated (P>0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds.

  14. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    PubMed

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  15. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  16. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  17. Culling of dairy cows. Part I. Effects of diseases on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    PubMed

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T

    1999-07-20

    The effects of 15 diseases on time until culling were studied in 39,727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved during 1993 and were followed until the next calving or culling. The diseases studied were: dystocia, milk fever, retained placenta, displacement of the abomasum, metritis, non-parturient paresis, ketosis, rumen disorders, acute mastitis, hypomagnesemia, lameness, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, anestrus, ovarian cysts, and teat injuries. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed and diseases were modeled as time-dependent covariates. Different stages of lactation when culling can occur were also considered. Parity, calving season and herd were included as covariates in every model. Parity had a significant effect on culling, the risk of culling being four times higher for a cow in her sixth or higher parity than for a first parity cow. The effects of diseases varied according to when the diseases occurred and when culling occurred. Mastitis, teat injuries and lameness had a significant effect on culling throughout the whole lactation. Anestrus and ovarian cysts had a protective effect against culling at the time when they were diagnosed. In general, diseases affected culling decisions mostly at the time of their occurrence. The effect seemed to decrease with time from the diagnosis of the disease. However, milk fever, dystocia and metritis also had a significant effect on culling at the end of the lactation.

  18. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    PubMed

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte.

  19. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    PubMed

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA.

  20. Bilingualism changes children's beliefs about what is innate.

    PubMed

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Garcia, Bianca

    2015-03-01

    Young children engage in essentialist reasoning about natural kinds, believing that many traits are innately determined. This study investigated whether personal experience with second language acquisition could alter children's essentialist biases. In a switched-at-birth paradigm, 5- and 6-year-old monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children expected that a baby's native language, an animal's vocalizations, and an animal's physical traits would match those of a birth rather than of an adoptive parent. We predicted that sequential bilingual children, who had been exposed to a new language after age 3, would show greater understanding that languages are learned. Surprisingly, sequential bilinguals showed reduced essentialist beliefs about all traits: they were significantly more likely than other children to believe that human language, animal vocalizations, and animal physical traits would be learned through experience rather than innately endowed. These findings suggest that bilingualism in the preschool years can profoundly change children's essentialist biases.

  1. Crosstalk between microbiota, pathogens and the innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Günther, Claudia; Josenhans, Christine; Wehkamp, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Research in the last decade has convincingly demonstrated that the microbiota is crucial in order to prime and orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses of their host and influence barrier function as well as multiple developmental and metabolic parameters of the host. Reciprocally, host reactions and immune responses instruct the composition of the microbiota. This review summarizes recent evidence from experimental and human studies which supports these arms of mutual relationship and crosstalk between host and resident microbiota, with a focus on innate immune responses in the gut, the role of cell death pathways and antimicrobial peptides. We also provide some recent examples on how dysbiosis and pathogens can act in concert to promote intestinal infection, inflammatory pathologies and cancer. The future perspectives of these combined research efforts include the discovery of protective species within the microbiota and specific traits and factors of microbes that weaken or enforce host intestinal homeostasis.

  2. Automated analyses of innate olfactory behaviors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qiang; Scott, Aaron; Scheerer, Hayley; Sapkota, Nirjal; Lee, Daniel K; Ma, Limei; Yu, C Ron

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction based behavioral experiments are important for the investigation of sensory coding, perception, decision making and memory formation. The predominant experimental paradigms employ forced choice operant assays, which require associative learning and reinforced training. Animal performance in these assays not only reflects odor perception but also the confidence in decision making and memory. In this study, we describe a versatile and automated setup, "Poking-Registered Olfactory Behavior Evaluation System" (PROBES), which can be adapted to perform multiple olfactory assays. In addition to forced choice assays, we employ this system to examine animal's innate ability for odor detection, discrimination and preference without elaborate training procedures. These assays provide quantitative measurements of odor discrimination and robust readouts of odor preference. Using PROBES, we find odor detection thresholds are at lower concentrations in naïve animals than those determined by forced choice assays. PROBES-based automated assays provide an efficient way of analyzing innate odor-triggered behaviors.

  3. Regulation of the adaptive immune system by innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, Matthew R.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that promote rapid cytokine-dependent innate immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. In addition, a growing body of evidence suggests ILCs can influence adaptive immune cell responses. During fetal development a subset of ILCs orchestrate the generation and maturation of secondary lymphoid tissues. Following birth, ILCs continue to modulate adaptive immune cell responses indirectly through interactions with stromal cells in lymphoid tissues and epithelial cells at barrier surfaces. In this review we summarize the current understanding of how ILCs modulate the magnitude and quality of adaptive immune cell responses, and in particular focus on recent evidence suggesting that ILCs can also directly regulate CD4+ T cells. Further, we discuss the implications that these pathways may have on human health and disease. PMID:24594491

  4. Innate immune recognition of DNA: A recent history.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Alan; Bowie, Andrew G

    2015-05-01

    Innate immune DNA sensing underpins many physiological and pathological responses to DNA, including anti-viral immunity to DNA viruses. Although it has been appreciated for many years that cytosolic DNA can evoke a type I interferon response, it is only within the past decade that the cellular mechanisms responsible for such a response have been defined. Here we review the discoveries that led to an appreciation of the existence of cytosolic DNA sensor proteins, and discuss two key such sensors, cGAS and IFI16, in detail. DNA sensors operate via STING, a protein shown to have a central role in controlling altered gene induction in response to DNA in vivo, and as such to be central to a rapidly expanding list of both protective and harmful responses to DNA. We also discuss recent insights into how and when DNA stimulates innate immunity, and highlight current outstanding questions in the DNA sensing field.

  5. Developmental programming of natural killer and innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Di Santo, James P

    2013-04-01

    In recent years we have witnessed a blooming interest in innate lymphoid cell (ILC) biology thanks to the discovery of novel lineages of ILC that are phenotypically and functionally distinct from NK cells. While the importance of these novel ILC subsets as essential functional components of the early immune responses are now clearly established, many questions remain as to how early ILC developmental fates are determined and how specific effector functions associated with individual ILC subsets are achieved. As the founding member of the ILC family, properties of NK cells have defining attributes that characterize this group of innate effectors. Analysing their developmental rules may provide clues to principles that guide ILC development in general.

  6. Recognition of Streptococcus pneumoniae by the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Koppe, Uwe; Suttorp, Norbert; Opitz, Bastian

    2012-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is both a frequent colonizer of the upper respiratory tract and a leading cause of life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. The innate immune system is critical for the control of colonization and for defence during invasive disease. Initially, pneumococci are recognized by different sensors of the innate immune system called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which control most subsequent host defence pathways. These PRRs include the transmembrane Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and DNA sensors. Recognition of S. pneumoniae by members of these PRR families regulates the production of inflammatory mediators that orchestrate the following immune response of infected as well as neighbouring non-infected cells, stimulates the recruitment of immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, and shapes the adaptive immunity. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the function of different PRRs in S. pneumoniae infection.

  7. Select Drosophila glomeruli mediate innate olfactory attraction and aversion.

    PubMed

    Semmelhack, Julia L; Wang, Jing W

    2009-05-14

    Fruitflies show robust attraction to food odours, which usually excite several glomeruli. To understand how the representation of such odours leads to behaviour, we used genetic tools to dissect the contribution of each activated glomerulus. Apple cider vinegar triggers robust innate attraction at a relatively low concentration, which activates six glomeruli. By silencing individual glomeruli, here we show that the absence of activity in two glomeruli, DM1 and VA2, markedly reduces attraction. Conversely, when each of these two glomeruli was selectively activated, flies showed as robust an attraction to vinegar as wild-type flies. Notably, a higher concentration of vinegar excites an additional glomerulus and is less attractive to flies. We show that activation of the extra glomerulus is necessary and sufficient to mediate the behavioural switch. Together, these results indicate that individual glomeruli, rather than the entire pattern of active glomeruli, mediate innate behavioural output.

  8. Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed.

  9. Innate immunity prevents tissue invasion by Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Mineko; Rivera-Aguilar, Víctor; Barbosa-Cabrera, Elizabeth; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Pacheco-Yepez, Judith; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2008-12-01

    Although innate and adaptive immunity both play a role in amoebiasis, the mechanisms involved in the elimination of Entamoeba histolytica are poorly understood. To provide more information about the innate immune mechanisms that may confer protection against invasive amoebiasis, we administered inflammatory substances (bacillus Calmette-Guérin, lipopolysaccharide, complete Freund's adjuvant, or mineral oil) into the peritoneum of hamsters. The animals were then challenged with pathogenic trophozoites of E. histolytica and, after 7 days, the protective host response was analysed. We found that the nonspecific inflammatory response induced in the peritoneum was sufficient to prevent liver invasion by E. histolytica. In vitro experiments showed that the killing of trophozoites was mediated by peritoneal macrophages and a protein of 68 kDa with peroxidase activity.

  10. Beyond NK cells: the expanding universe of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.

  11. Innate immunity: actuating the gears of celiac disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangman Michael; Mayassi, Toufic; Jabri, Bana

    2015-06-01

    Celiac disease is a T cell mediated immune disorder characterized by the loss of oral tolerance to dietary gluten and the licensing of intraepithelial lymphocytes to kill intestinal epithelial cells, leading to villous atrophy. Innate immunity plays a critical role in both of these processes and cytokines such as interleukin-15 and interferon-α can modulate innate processes such as polarization of dendritic cells as well as intraepithelial lymphocyte function. These cytokines can be modulated by host microbiota, which can also influence dendritic cell function and intraepithelial lymphocyte homeostasis. We will elaborate on the role of interleukin-15, interferon-α, and the microbiota in modulating the processes that lead to loss of tolerance to gluten and tissue destruction in celiac disease.

  12. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells in asthma and allergy.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Andrew N J

    2014-12-01

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) belong to an expanding family of innate lymphocytes that provide a potent source of immune effector cytokines at the initiation of immune responses. ILC2 arise, under the control of the transcription factors RORα and GATA3, from lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow, to secrete type-2 cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13. Using experimental models, ILC2 have been implicated in allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, but also in metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, recent reports have indicated that ILC2 not only play roles at the initiation of type-2 immunity but can also contribute to chronic pathology, such as fibrosis, and can impact on the priming of the adaptive T-cell response. The identification of ILC2 in patients with allergic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis indicates that these cells may represent new therapeutic targets.

  13. Commensal bacteria calibrate the activation threshold of innate antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Abt, Michael C; Osborne, Lisa C; Monticelli, Laurel A; Doering, Travis A; Alenghat, Theresa; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Paley, Michael A; Antenus, Marcelo; Williams, Katie L; Erikson, Jan; Wherry, E John; Artis, David

    2012-07-27

    Signals from commensal bacteria can influence immune cell development and susceptibility to infectious or inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria regulate protective immunity after exposure to systemic pathogens remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic-treated (ABX) mice exhibit impaired innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses and substantially delayed viral clearance after exposure to systemic LCMV or mucosal influenza virus. Furthermore, ABX mice exhibited severe bronchiole epithelial degeneration and increased host mortality after influenza virus infection. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of macrophages isolated from ABX mice revealed decreased expression of genes associated with antiviral immunity. Moreover, macrophages from ABX mice exhibited defective responses to type I and type II IFNs and impaired capacity to limit viral replication. Collectively, these data indicate that commensal-derived signals provide tonic immune stimulation that establishes the activation threshold of the innate immune system required for optimal antiviral immunity.

  14. Mechanisms of innate immunity in C. elegans epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Taffoni, Clara; Pujol, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The roundworm C. elegans has been successfully used for more than 50 y as a genetically tractable invertebrate model in diverse biological fields such as neurobiology, development and interactions. C. elegans feeds on bacteria and can be naturally infected by a wide range of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria and fungi. Most of these pathogens infect C. elegans through its gut, but some have developed ways to infect the epidermis. In this review, we will mainly focus on epidermal innate immunity, in particular the signaling pathways and effectors activated upon wounding and fungal infection that serve to protect the host. We will discuss the parallels that exist between epidermal innate immune responses in nematodes and mammals. PMID:26716073

  15. Osteopontin Bridging Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raineri, Davide; Boggio, Elena; Favero, Francesco; Soluri, Maria Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) regulates the immune response at multiple levels. Physiologically, it regulates the host response to infections by driving T helper (Th) polarization and acting on both innate and adaptive immunity; pathologically, it contributes to the development of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. In some cases, the mechanisms of these effects have been described, but many aspects of the OPN function remain elusive. This is in part ascribable to the fact that OPN is a complex molecule with several posttranslational modifications and it may act as either an immobilized protein of the extracellular matrix or a soluble cytokine or an intracytoplasmic molecule by binding to a wide variety of molecules including crystals of calcium phosphate, several cell surface receptors, and intracytoplasmic molecules. This review describes the OPN structure, isoforms, and functions and its role in regulating the crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity in autoimmune diseases. PMID:28097158

  16. Migration and Tissue Tropism of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang H.; Hashimoto-Hill, Seika; Kim, Myunghoo

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cell (ILCs) subsets differentially populate various barrier and non-barrier tissues, where they play important roles in tissue homeostasis and tissue-specific responses to pathogen attack. Recent findings have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms that guide ILC migration into peripheral tissues, revealing common features among different ILC subsets as well as important distinctions. Recent studies have also highlighted the impact of tissue-specific cues on ILC migration, and the importance of the local immunological milieu. We review these findings here and discuss how the migratory patterns and tissue tropism of different ILC subsets relate to the development and differentiation of these cells, and to ILC-mediated tissue-specific regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this context we outline open questions and important areas of future research. PMID:26708278

  17. Strength in numbers: "Omics" studies of C. elegans innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Karina T; Gallego, Sandra F; Færgeman, Nils J; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H

    2012-10-01

    For more than ten years the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be a valuable model for studies of the host response to various bacterial and fungal pathogens. When exposed to a pathogenic organism, a clear response is elicited in the nematode, which is characterized by specific alterations on the transcriptional and translational levels. Early on, researchers took advantage of the possibility to conduct large-scale investigations of the C. elegans immune response. Multiple studies demonstrated that C. elegans does indeed mount a protective response against invading pathogens, thus rendering this small nematode a very useful and simple host model for the study of innate immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we provide an overview of key aspects of innate immunity in C. elegans revealed by recent whole-genome transcriptomics and proteomics studies of the global response of C. elegans to various bacterial and fungal pathogens.

  18. Innate spatial-temporal reasoning and the identification of genius.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew R; Balzarini, Doreen; Bodner, Mark; Jones, Edward G; Phillips, Tiffany; Richardson, Debra; Shaw, Gordon L

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics is invariably language-based, but spatial-temporal (ST) reasoning (making a mental image and thinking ahead in space and time) is crucial to the understanding of math. Here we report that Big Seed, a demanding ST video game, based upon the mathematics of knot theory and previously applied to understanding DNA structure and function, can be used to reveal innate ST reasoning. Big Seed studies with middle and elementary school children provide strong evidence that ST reasoning ability is not only innate but far exceeds optimistic expectations based on age, the percentage of children achieving exceptional ST performance in less than 7 h of training, and retention of ability. A third grader has been identified as a genius (functionally defined) in ST performance. Big Seed may be used for training and assessing 'creativity' (functionally defined) and ST reasoning as well as discovering genius.

  19. TLR signaling: an emerging bridge from innate immunity to atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Kathrin S; Doherty, Terence M; Shah, Prediman K; Arditi, Moshe

    2004-11-15

    Chronic inflammation and disordered lipid metabolism represent hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Considerable evidence suggests that innate immune defense mechanisms might interact with proinflammatory pathways and contribute to development of arterial plaques. The preponderance of such evidence has been indirect clinical and epidemiologic studies, with some support from experimental animal models of atherosclerosis. However, recent data now directly implicate signaling by TLR4 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, establishing a key link between atherosclerosis and defense against both foreign pathogens and endogenously generated inflammatory ligands. In this study, we briefly review these and closely related studies, highlighting areas that should provide fertile ground for future studies aimed at a more comprehensive understanding of the interplay between innate immune defense mechanisms, atherosclerosis, and related vascular disorders.

  20. Commensal Bacteria Calibrate the Activation Threshold of Innate Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Abt, Michael C.; Osborne, Lisa C.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Doering, Travis A.; Alenghat, Theresa; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Paley, Michael A.; Antenus, Marcelo; Williams, Katie L.; Erikson, Jan; Wherry, E. John; Artis, David

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Signals from commensal bacteria can influence immune cell development and susceptibility to infectious or inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria regulate protective immunity after exposure to systemic pathogens remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic-treated (ABX) mice exhibit impaired innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses and substantially delayed viral clearance after exposure to systemic LCMV or mucosal influenza virus. Furthermore, ABX mice exhibited severe bronchiole epithelial degeneration and increased host mortality after influenza virus infection. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of macrophages isolated from ABX mice revealed decreased expression of genes associated with antiviral immunity. Moreover, macrophages from ABX mice exhibited defective responses to type I and type II IFNs and impaired capacity to limit viral replication. Collectively, these data indicate that commensal-derived signals provide tonic immune stimulation that establishes the activation threshold of the innate immune system required for optimal antiviral immunity. PMID:22705104

  1. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.

    PubMed

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  2. 141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows on an agricultural lease in the foreground. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  4. Hypomagnesemia among cows in a confinement-housed dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Donovan, G Arthur; Steenholdt, Christian; McGehee, Kerry; Lundquist, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Between January and March 2002, 55 cows in a 1,200-cow commercial dairy herd in south Florida died. Most of the cows that were found dead did not have any clinical signs of disease prior to death. Because of a history of a feed change, a bloom of blue-green algae in cow cooling ponds, and initial necropsy findings of moderate enteritis, the preliminary differential diagnosis included clostridial enteritis, blue-green algae toxicosis, and mycotoxicosis. Rumen acidosis, hypomagnesemia, and heavy metal toxicosis were included as secondary considerations. On the basis of physical examination and gross necropsy findings, results of clinicopathol ogic testing, and results of feed and water analyses, a diagnosis of hypomagnesemia was made. Control procedures that were implemented included changing the forage source and increasing the magnesium concentration in the diet.

  5. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that ...

  6. Immobilization of phosphorus in cow manure during hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lichun; Tan, Furong; Wu, Bo; He, Mingxiong; Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Qichun; Zhang, Min

    2015-07-01

    The surplus of manure phosphorus (P) with increasing livestock production might pose a risk of P loss to the environment due to the high mobility of P in manure. Thus, there is an increasing need to mitigate P loss from manure. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) on the immobilization of P in cow manure. The results demonstrated that the P content in cow manure was increased substantially by ∼20% after HTC, while the water-extractable P (WEP) and Mehlich-3-extractable P (MEP) in manure was reduced significantly by >80% and 50%, respectively. The decrease in P solubility might result from the increased apatite P (increased by >85%) and decreased soluble Ca (decreased by ∼50%) after HTC. These results suggested that HTC could be an efficient strategy to immobilize P in cow manure, thereby potentially mitigating the P loss problem from cow manure.

  7. Sacred Cows That Should Be Put to Pasture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artley, A. Sterl

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with unquestioned teaching practices and theories ("sacred cows") in the field of reading. Topics discussed include phonics, pronunciation, oral reading, teacher accountability and behavioral objectives, individualized reading, and the open classroom. (KS)

  8. Chryseobacterium bovis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Hantsis-Zacharov, Elionora; Senderovich, Yigal; Halpern, Malka

    2008-04-01

    Three Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-positive, aerobic, non-motile bacterial strains, designated H9T, H10 and H15, were isolated during a study on the diversity of culturable psychrotolerant bacteria in raw cow's milk. Comparisons of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the three strains were very closely related to each other (sequence similarities of 99.6-99.8 %). A polyphasic taxonomic study of the isolates resulted in their identification as members of the genus Chryseobacterium (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes). The three strains showed < or =96.9 % sequence similarity with respect to the type strains of described Chryseobacterium species, indicating that H9T, H10 and H15 represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium. The three strains grew at 7-37 degrees C (strain H10 grew at up to 41 degrees C), with 0-2.5 % NaCl and at pH 5.0-9.8. The dominant cellular fatty acids of strain H9T were 15 : 0 iso (38.9 %), 15 : 0 anteiso (15.6 %) and 17 : 0 iso 3-OH (12.7 %). Strain H10 also possessed 17 : 1 iso omega 9c (14.8 %) as a major fatty acid. On the basis of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the three milk isolates represent a novel species in the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium bovis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H9T (=LMG 24227T =DSM 19482T).

  9. The metabolism of four sulphonamides in cows

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Poul

    1973-01-01

    1. The metabolism of sulphanilamide, sulphadimidine (4,6-dimethyl-2-sulphanilamidopyrimidine), sulphamethoxazole (5-methyl-3-sulphanilamidoisoxazole) and sulphadoxine (5,6-dimethoxy-4-sulphanilamidopyrimidine) given by intravenous injection has been examined in cows. 2. The sulphonamides were present mainly as unchanged drugs in blood samples collected 2h after administration. 3. The sulphonamides were excreted in the milk partly as unchanged drugs and partly as conjugated metabolites whereas only small amounts were excreted as the N4-acetyl derivatives. 4. The unchanged drug and the N4-acetyl derivative were the major constituents in urine samples after administration of sulphanilamide, sulphamethoxazole and sulphadoxine. 5. Besides the unchanged drug, the N4-acetyl derivative and the conjugated metabolites, three further metabolites of sulphadimidine were isolated from urine samples and identified. They were 5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2-sulphanilamidopyrimidine, 4-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-2-sulphanilamidopyrimidine and sulphaguanidine. PMID:4786525

  10. Molecular insights on the cerebral innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Rivest, Serge

    2003-02-01

    All species need an immediate reply to the microbial pathogens that is part of an effective immune response and is essential for the survival of most organisms. This reply is known as the innate immune response and is characterized by the de novo production of mediators that either kill the microbes directly or activate phagocytic cells to ingest and kill them. The innate immune response can be driven through specific recognition systems, the best example being an interaction between the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its receptors CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). For a long time, the brain was considered to be a privileged organ from an immunological point of view, owing to its inability to mount an immune response and process antigens. Although this is partly true, the CNS shows a well-organized innate immune reaction in response to systemic bacterial infection and cerebral injury. The CD14 and TLR4 receptors are constitutively expressed in the circumventricular organs (CVOs), choroid plexus and leptomeninges. Circulating LPS is able to cause a rapid transcriptional activation of genes encoding CD14 and TLR2, as well as a wide variety of pro-inflammatory molecules in CVOs. A delayed response to LPS takes place in cells located at boundaries of the CVOs and in microglia across the CNS. Therefore, without having direct access to the brain parenchyma, pathogens have the ability to trigger an innate immune reaction throughout cerebral tissue. This review presents evidence supporting the existence of such a system in the brain, which is finely regulated at the transcription level. Transient activation of this system is not harmful toward neuronal elements.

  11. Pathogen recognition or homeostasis? APC receptor functions in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Siamon

    2004-06-01

    Myeloid cells (macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells) express a repertoire of plasma membrane receptors able to recognize all classes of macromolecules. The concept of pattern recognition has emphasized microbial ligands and host defence. However, these receptors play a broader role in tissue homeostasis within multicellular hosts, clearing the extracellular environment of potential undesirable ligands arising endogenously as well as from without. This article will evaluate one of the paradigms that underlie innate immunity.

  12. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p < 0.01) and handling facility (p < 0.0001) and handling facility by temperament score interaction (p < 0.001), breeding season pregnancy rate was lower in excited versus calm cows [88.6% (798/901) vs 94.1% (607/645); p < 0.001]. Cows with an excitable temperament took 24 more days to become pregnant compared to calm cows (median days to pregnancy, 35 vs 59 days; p < 0.0001). In Experiment 2, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p < 0.05), pregnancy loss was higher in excited versus calm cows [5.5% (36/651) vs 3.2% (20/623), p < 0.0001]. In conclusion, beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring

  13. Weekly bull exchange shortens postpartum anestrus in suckled beef cows.

    PubMed

    Miller, V; Ungerfeld, R

    2008-05-01

    The duration of anestrus in cattle was usually shortened when cows were exposed to bulls. The objective of the present experiment was to determine if weekly bull exchange accelerated the resumption of cyclicity in postpartum suckled beef cows. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of postpartum, anestrous, suckled beef cows (extensively managed) to weekly exchange of bulls, accelerates the resumption of cyclicity, compared to continuous exposure to the same bulls. Ninety-one multiparous suckled Hereford and Hereford x Angus cows, <60d postpartum, were assigned to two homogeneous groups. Beginning on December 1st (late spring), the control group (C, n=45) remained with one pair of bulls throughout the breeding period (7 weeks), whereas in the "exchanged" (E, n=46) group two pairs of bulls were exchanged weekly. Based on weekly ultrasonographic examinations of all cows, none had a CL at the start of the experiment and for 2 weeks after the start of bull exposure. However, the accumulated frequency of cows with a CL was greater in group E than in group C cows on week 4 (P=0.024), as well as on weeks 5-7 (P<0.001) after the start of bull exposure. Furthermore, in group E versus group C, there was a higher pregnancy rate 30d after the end of bull exposure (26 of 46, 56.2% vs. 16 of 45, 35.6%; P=0.045). In conclusion, weekly exchange of two pairs of bulls shortened postpartum anestrus in suckled multiparous cows, compared to continuous exposure to a single pair of bulls.

  14. An outbreak of sand impaction in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; Benzaquen, Mauricio; Risco, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of indigestion occurred in a 650-cow herd. Five cows had severe sand abomasal impaction, diagnosed by laparotomy. The pH of prepartum cows’ urine was < 6.0 and of sand 8.0. Feed showed a dietary cation-anion difference ≤ −110 mEq/kg. After feeding management corrections, no more cases were diagnosed. PMID:17987969

  15. Plant scents modify innate colour preference in foraging swallowtail butterflies.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mina; Itoh, Yuki; Ômura, Hisashi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Michiyo

    2015-07-01

    Flower-visiting insects exhibit innate preferences for particular colours. A previous study demonstrated that naive Papilio xuthus females prefer yellow and red, whereas males are more attracted to blue. Here, we demonstrate that the innate colour preference can be modified by olfactory stimuli in a sexually dimorphic manner. Naive P. xuthus were presented with four coloured discs: blue, green, yellow and red. The innate colour preference (i.e. the colour first landed on) of the majority of individuals was blue. When scent from essential oils of either orange flower or lily was introduced to the room, females' tendency to select the red disc increased. Scents of lavender and flowering potted Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, however, were less effective. Interestingly, the odour of the non-flowering larval host plant, Citrus unshiu, shifted the preference to green in females. In males, however, all plant scents were less effective than in females, such that blue was always the most favoured colour. These observations indicate that interactions between visual and olfactory cues play a more prominent role in females.

  16. Acute stress elicited by bungee jumping suppresses human innate immunity.

    PubMed

    van Westerloo, David J; Choi, Goda; Löwenberg, Ester C; Truijen, Jasper; de Vos, Alex F; Endert, Erik; Meijers, Joost C M; Zhou, Lu; Pereira, Manuel P F L; Queiroz, Karla C S; Diks, Sander H; Levi, Marcel; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Poll, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Although a relation between diminished human immunity and stress is well recognized both within the general public and the scientific literature, the molecular mechanisms by which stress alters immunity remain poorly understood. We explored a novel model for acute human stress involving volunteers performing a first-time bungee jump from an altitude of 60 m and exploited this model to characterize the effects of acute stress in the peripheral blood compartment. Twenty volunteers were included in the study; half of this group was pretreated for 3 d with the β-receptor blocking agent propranolol. Blood was drawn 2 h before, right before, immediately after and 2 h after the jump. Plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly during jumping, which was accompanied by significantly reduced ex vivo inducibility of proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of coagulation and vascular endothelium. Kinome profiles obtained from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction contained a strong noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction signature after jumping. In apparent agreement, jumping down-regulated Lck/Fyn and cellular innate immune effector function (phagocytosis). Pretreatment of volunteers with propranolol abolished the effects of jumping on coagulation and endothelial activation but left the inhibitory effects on innate immune function intact. Taken together, these results indicate that bungee jumping leads to a catecholamine-independent immune suppressive phenotype and implicate noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction as a major pathway linking human stress to impaired functioning of the human innate immune system.

  17. Acute Stress Elicited by Bungee Jumping Suppresses Human Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    van Westerloo, David J; Choi, Goda; Löwenberg, Ester C; Truijen, Jasper; de Vos, Alex F; Endert, Erik; Meijers, Joost C M; Zhou, Lu; Pereira, Manuel PFL; Queiroz, Karla CS; Diks, Sander H; Levi, Marcel; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Poll, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Although a relation between diminished human immunity and stress is well recognized both within the general public and the scientific literature, the molecular mechanisms by which stress alters immunity remain poorly understood. We explored a novel model for acute human stress involving volunteers performing a first-time bungee jump from an altitude of 60 m and exploited this model to characterize the effects of acute stress in the peripheral blood compartment. Twenty volunteers were included in the study; half of this group was pretreated for 3 d with the β-receptor blocking agent propranolol. Blood was drawn 2 h before, right before, immediately after and 2 h after the jump. Plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly during jumping, which was accompanied by significantly reduced ex vivo inducibility of proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of coagulation and vascular endothelium. Kinome profiles obtained from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction contained a strong noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction signature after jumping. In apparent agreement, jumping down-regulated Lck/Fyn and cellular innate immune effector function (phagocytosis). Pretreatment of volunteers with propranolol abolished the effects of jumping on coagulation and endothelial activation but left the inhibitory effects on innate immune function intact. Taken together, these results indicate that bungee jumping leads to a catecholamine-independent immune suppressive phenotype and implicate noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction as a major pathway linking human stress to impaired functioning of the human innate immune system. PMID:21203694

  18. The genetics of innate immunity sensors and human disease.

    PubMed

    Pothlichet, Julien; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2013-04-01

    Since their discovery, innate immunity microbial sensors have been increasingly studied and shown to play a critical role in innate responses to microbes in several experimental in vitro, ex vivo, and animal models. However, their role in the human response to infection in natural conditions has just started to be deciphered, by means of clinical studies of primary immunodeficiencies and epidemiological genetic studies. Here, we summarize the major findings concerning the genetic diversity of the various families of microbial sensors in humans, and of other molecules involved in the signaling pathways they trigger. Specifically, we review the genetic associations, revealed by both clinical and epidemiological genetics studies, of microbial sensors from five different families: Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, and cytosolic DNA sensors. In particular, we consider the relationships between variation at the genes encoding these molecules and susceptibility to and the severity of infectious diseases and other clinical conditions associated with immune dysfunction, including autoimmunity, inflammation, allergy, and cancer. Despite the fact that the genetic links between innate immunity sensors and human disorders remain still limited, human genetics studies are increasingly improving our understanding of the genuine functions of microbial sensors and downstream signaling molecules in the natural setting.

  19. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kronfeldner, Maria E

    2009-06-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate-acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate-acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate-acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature-nurture debates.

  20. Innate and virtual memory T cells in man.

    PubMed

    Van Kaer, Luc

    2015-07-01

    A hallmark of the antigen-specific B and T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system is their capacity to "remember" pathogens long after they are first encountered, a property that forms the basis for effective vaccine development. However, studies in mice have provided strong evidence that some naive T cells can develop characteristics of memory T cells in the absence of foreign antigen encounters. Such innate memory T cells may develop in response to lymphopenia or the presence of high levels of the cytokine IL-4, and have also been identified in unmanipulated animals, a phenomenal referred to as "virtual memory." While the presence of innate memory T cells in mice is now widely accepted, their presence in humans has not yet been fully validated. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Jacomet et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45:1926-1933] provide the best evidence to date for innate memory T cells in humans. These findings may contribute significantly to our understanding of human immunity to microbial pathogens and tumors.

  1. Origin of Toll-like receptor-mediated innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Kanzok, Stefan M; Hoa, Ngo T; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Luna, Coralia; Huang, Yaming; Malacrida, Anna R; Zheng, Liangbiao

    2004-04-01

    Toll-related receptors (TLR) have been found in four animal phyla: Nematoda, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata. No TLR has been identified thus far in acoelomates. TLR genes play a pivotal role in the innate immunity in both fruit fly and mammals. The prevailing view is that TLR-mediated immunity is ancient. The two pseudocoelomate TLRs, one each from Caenorhabditis elegans and Strongyloides stercoralis, were distinct from the coelomate ones. Further, the only TLR gene (Tol-1) in Ca. elegans did not appear to play a role in innate immunity. We argue that TLR-mediated innate immunity developed only in the coelomates, after they split from pseudocoelomates and acoelomates. We hypothesize that the function of TLR-mediated immunity is to prevent microbial infection in the body cavity present only in the coelomates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that almost all arthropod TLRs form a separate cluster from the mammalian counterparts. We further hypothesize that TLR-mediated immunity developed independently in the protostomia and deuterostomia coelomates.

  2. B cells enhance early innate immune responses during bacterial sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M.; Scumpia, Philip O.; Weinstein, Jason S.; Delano, Matthew J.; Cuenca, Alex G.; Nacionales, Dina C.; Wynn, James L.; Lee, Pui Y.; Kumagai, Yutaro; Efron, Philip A.; Akira, Shizuo; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Microbes activate pattern recognition receptors to initiate adaptive immunity. T cells affect early innate inflammatory responses to viral infection, but both activation and suppression have been demonstrated. We identify a novel role for B cells in the early innate immune response during bacterial sepsis. We demonstrate that Rag1−/− mice display deficient early inflammatory responses and reduced survival during sepsis. Interestingly, B cell–deficient or anti-CD20 B cell–depleted mice, but not α/β T cell–deficient mice, display decreased inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production and reduced survival after sepsis. Both treatment of B cell–deficient mice with serum from wild-type (WT) mice and repletion of Rag1−/− mice with B cells improves sepsis survival, suggesting antibody-independent and antibody-dependent roles for B cells in the outcome to sepsis. During sepsis, marginal zone and follicular B cells are activated through type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor (IFN-α/β receptor [IFNAR]), and repleting Rag1−/− mice with WT, but not IFNAR−/−, B cells improves IFN-I–dependent and –independent early cytokine responses. Repleting B cell–deficient mice with the IFN-I–dependent chemokine, CXCL10 was also sufficient to improve sepsis survival. This study identifies a novel role for IFN-I–activated B cells in protective early innate immune responses during bacterial sepsis. PMID:21746813

  3. Toward understanding of rice innate immunity against Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Azizi, P; Rafii, M Y; Abdullah, S N A; Nejat, N; Maziah, M; Hanafi, M M; Latif, M A; Sahebi, M

    2016-01-01

    The blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, causes serious disease on a wide variety of grasses including rice, wheat and barley. The recognition of pathogens is an amazing ability of plants including strategies for displacing virulence effectors through the adaption of both conserved and variable pathogen elicitors. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) were reported as two main innate immune responses in plants, where PTI gives basal resistance and ETI confers durable resistance. The PTI consists of extracellular surface receptors that are able to recognize PAMPs. PAMPs detect microbial features such as fungal chitin that complete a vital function during the organism's life. In contrast, ETI is mediated by intracellular receptor molecules containing nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains that specifically recognize effector proteins produced by the pathogen. To enhance crop resistance, understanding the host resistance mechanisms against pathogen infection strategies and having a deeper knowledge of innate immunity system are essential. This review summarizes the recent advances on the molecular mechanism of innate immunity systems of rice against M. oryzae. The discussion will be centered on the latest success reported in plant-pathogen interactions and integrated defense responses in rice.

  4. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Fungal Products and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Brock; Barnes, Charles S; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fungi and their products is practically ubiquitous, yet most of this is of little consequence to most healthy individuals. This is because there are a number of elaborate mechanisms to deal with these exposures. Most of these mechanisms are designed to recognize and neutralize such exposures. However, in understanding these mechanisms it has become clear that many of them overlap with our ability to respond to disruptions in tissue function caused by trauma or deterioration. These responses involve the innate and adaptive immune systems usually through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and the production of cytokines that are considered inflammatory accompanied by other factors that can moderate these reactivities. Depending on different genetic backgrounds and the extent of activation of these mechanisms, various pathologies with resulting symptoms can ensue. Complicating this is the fact that these mechanisms can bias toward type 2 innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, to understand what we refer to as allergens from fungal sources, we must first understand how they influence these innate mechanisms. In doing so it has become clear that many of the proteins that are described as fungal allergens are essentially homologues of our own proteins that signal or cause tissue disruptions.

  5. Gut vagal afferents differentially modulate innate anxiety and learned fear.

    PubMed

    Klarer, Melanie; Arnold, Myrtha; Günther, Lydia; Winter, Christine; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2014-05-21

    Vagal afferents are an important neuronal component of the gut-brain axis allowing bottom-up information flow from the viscera to the CNS. In addition to its role in ingestive behavior, vagal afferent signaling has been implicated modulating mood and affect, including distinct forms of anxiety and fear. Here, we used a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective vagal deafferentation method existing to date, to study the consequences of complete disconnection of abdominal vagal afferents on innate anxiety, conditioned fear, and neurochemical parameters in the limbic system. We found that compared with Sham controls, SDA rats consistently displayed reduced innate anxiety-like behavior in three procedures commonly used in preclinical rodent models of anxiety, namely the elevated plus maze test, open field test, and food neophobia test. On the other hand, SDA rats exhibited increased expression of auditory-cued fear conditioning, which specifically emerged as attenuated extinction of conditioned fear during the tone re-exposure test. The behavioral manifestations in SDA rats were associated with region-dependent changes in noradrenaline and GABA levels in key areas of the limbic system, but not with functional alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal grand stress. Our study demonstrates that innate anxiety and learned fear are both subjected to visceral modulation through abdominal vagal afferents, possibly via changing limbic neurotransmitter systems. These data add further weight to theories emphasizing an important role of afferent visceral signals in the regulation of emotional behavior.

  6. Innate immune responses in raccoons after raccoon rabies virus infection.

    PubMed

    Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Sribalachandran, Hariharan; Rosatte, Rick; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Kyle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic wildlife diseases pose significant health risks not only to their primary vectors but also to humans and domestic animals. Rabies is a lethal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RV). This RNA virus can infect a range of terrestrial mammals but each viral variant persists in a particular reservoir host. Active management of these host vectors is needed to minimize the negative impacts of this disease, and an understanding of the immune response to RV infection aids strategies for host vaccination. Current knowledge of immune responses to RV infection comes primarily from rodent models in which an innate immune response triggers activation of several genes and signalling pathways. It is unclear, however, how well rodent models represent the immune response of natural hosts. This study investigates the innate immune response of a primary host, the raccoon, to a peripheral challenge using the raccoon rabies virus (RRV). The extent and temporal course of this response during RRV infection was analysed using genes predicted to be upregulated during infection (IFNs; IFN regulatory factors; IL-6; Toll like receptor-3; TNF receptor). We found that RRV activated components of the innate immune system, with changes in levels of transcripts correlated with presence of viral RNA. Our results suggest that natural reservoirs of rabies may not mimic the immune response triggered in rodent models, highlighting the need for further studies of infection in primary hosts.

  7. Thinking like a scientist: innateness as a case study.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Samuels, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of innateness appears in systematic research within cognitive science, but it also appears in less systematic modes of thought that long predate the scientific study of the mind. The present studies therefore explore the relationship between the properly scientific uses of this concept and its role in ordinary folk understanding. Studies 1-4 examined the judgments of people with no specific training in cognitive science. Results showed (a) that judgments about whether a trait was innate were not affected by whether or not the trait was learned, but (b) such judgments were impacted by moral considerations. Study 5 looked at the judgments of both non-scientists and scientists, in conditions that encouraged either thinking about individual cases or thinking about certain general principles. In the case-based condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of moral considerations but little impact of learning. In the principled condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of learning but little impact of moral considerations. These results suggest that both non-scientists and scientists are drawn to a conception of innateness that differs from the one at work in contemporary scientific research but that they are also both capable of 'filtering out' their initial intuitions and using a more scientific approach.

  8. Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Miller, Andrew D.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2–33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations. PMID:20444716

  9. Plant scents modify innate colour preference in foraging swallowtail butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Mina; Itoh, Yuki; Ômura, Hisashi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Michiyo

    2015-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects exhibit innate preferences for particular colours. A previous study demonstrated that naive Papilio xuthus females prefer yellow and red, whereas males are more attracted to blue. Here, we demonstrate that the innate colour preference can be modified by olfactory stimuli in a sexually dimorphic manner. Naive P. xuthus were presented with four coloured discs: blue, green, yellow and red. The innate colour preference (i.e. the colour first landed on) of the majority of individuals was blue. When scent from essential oils of either orange flower or lily was introduced to the room, females’ tendency to select the red disc increased. Scents of lavender and flowering potted Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, however, were less effective. Interestingly, the odour of the non-flowering larval host plant, Citrus unshiu, shifted the preference to green in females. In males, however, all plant scents were less effective than in females, such that blue was always the most favoured colour. These observations indicate that interactions between visual and olfactory cues play a more prominent role in females. PMID:26179802

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides as Mediators of Innate Immunity in Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Katzenback, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified throughout the metazoa suggesting their evolutionarily conserved nature and their presence in teleosts is no exception. AMPs are short (18–46 amino acids), usually cationic, amphipathic peptides. While AMPs are diverse in amino acid sequence, with no two AMPs being identical, they collectively appear to have conserved functions in the innate immunity of animals towards the pathogens they encounter in their environment. Fish AMPs are upregulated in response to pathogens and appear to have direct broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity towards both human and fish pathogens. However, an emerging role for AMPs as immunomodulatory molecules has become apparent—the ability of AMPs to activate the innate immune system sheds light onto the multifaceted capacity of these small peptides to combat pathogens through direct and indirect means. Herein, this review focuses on the role of teleost AMPs as modulators of the innate immune system and their regulation in response to pathogens or other exogenous molecules. The capacity to regulate AMP expression by exogenous factors may prove useful in modulating AMP expression in fish to prevent disease, particularly in aquaculture settings where crowded conditions and environmental stress pre-dispose these fish to infection. PMID:26426065

  11. Recognition Strategies of Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Killig, Monica; Glatzer, Timor; Romagnani, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    During the early phase of an inflammatory response, innate cells can use different strategies to sense environmental danger. These include the direct interaction of specific activating receptors with pathogen-encoded/danger molecules or the engagement of cytokine receptors by pro-inflammatory mediators produced by antigen presenting cells in the course of the infection. These general recognition strategies, which have been extensively described for innate myeloid cells, are shared by innate lymphoid cells (ILC), such as Natural Killer (NK) cells. The family of ILC has recently expanded with the discovery of group 2 (ILC2) and group 3 ILC (ILC3), which play an important role in the defense against extracellular pathogens. Although ILC3 and NK cells share some phenotypic characteristics, the recognition strategies employed by the various ILC3 subsets have been only partially characterized. In this review, we will describe and comparatively discuss how ILC3 sense environmental cues and how the triggering of different receptors may regulate their functional behavior during an immune response. PMID:24744763

  12. Innate immunity, coagulation and placenta-related adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Huang, S Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Maternal immunity undergoes subtle adjustment in order to tolerate the semi-allogeneic embryo and maintain the host defense against potential pathogens. Concomitantly, coagulation systems change from an anti-coagulant state to a pro-coagulant state to meet the hemostatic challenge of placentation and delivery. Innate immunity and blood coagulation systems are the first line of defense to protect a host against exogenous challenges, including alloantigens and mechanical insults, and preserve the integrity of an organism. The interactions between coagulation and immune systems have been extensively studied. Immune cells play a pivotal role in the initiation of the coagulation cascade, whereas coagulation proteases display substantial immuno-modulatory effects. Upon exogenous challenges, the immune and coagulation systems are capable of potentiating each other leading to a vicious cycle. Natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages (Mphis) and dendritic cells (DCs) are three major innate immune cells that have been demonstrated to play essential roles in early pregnancy. However, immune maladaptation and hemostatic imbalance have been suggested to be responsible for adverse pregnant outcomes, such as preeclampsia (PE), miscarriage, recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this review, we will summarize the mutual regulation between blood coagulation and innate immune systems as well as their roles in the maintenance of normal pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Requirements for innate immune pathways in environmentally induced autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that environmental triggers in combination with genetic and stochastic factors play an important role in spontaneous autoimmune disease. Although the specific environmental agents and how they promote autoimmunity remain largely unknown, in part because of diverse etiologies, environmentally induced autoimmune models can provide insights into potential mechanisms. Studies of idiopathic and environmentally induced systemic autoimmunity show that they are mediated by common adaptive immune response genes. By contrast, although the innate immune system is indispensable for autoimmunity, there are clear differences in the molecular and cellular innate components that mediate specific systemic autoimmune diseases, suggesting distinct autoimmune-promoting pathways. Some of these differences may be related to the bifurcation of toll-like receptor signaling that distinguishes interferon regulatory factor 7-mediated type I interferon production from nuclear factor-κB-driven proinflammatory cytokine expression. Accordingly, idiopathic and pristane-induced systemic autoimmunity require both type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines whereas the less aggressive mercury-induced autoimmunity, although dependent on nucleic acid-binding toll-like receptors, does not require type I interferon but needs proinflammatory cytokines. Scavenger receptors and the inflammasome may contribute to silica-induced autoimmunity. Greater understanding of the innate mechanisms responsible for idiopathic and environmentally induced autoimmunity should yield new information into the processes that instigate and drive systemic autoimmunity. PMID:23557436

  14. Innate immune recognition of flagellin limits systemic persistence of Brucella.

    PubMed

    Terwagne, Matthieu; Ferooz, Jonathan; Rolán, Hortensia G; Sun, Yao-Hui; Atluri, Vidya; Xavier, Mariana N; Franchi, Luigi; Núñez, Gabriel; Legrand, Thomas; Flavell, Richard A; De Bolle, Xavier; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Tsolis, Renée M

    2013-06-01

    Brucella are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause chronic infections by limiting innate immune recognition. It is currently unknown whether Brucella FliC flagellin, the monomeric subunit of flagellar filament, is sensed by the host during infection. Here, we used two mutants of Brucella melitensis, either lacking or overexpressing flagellin, to show that FliC hinders bacterial replication in vivo. The use of cells and mice genetically deficient for different components of inflammasomes suggested that FliC was a target of the cytosolic innate immune receptor NLRC4 in vivo but not in macrophages in vitro where the response to FliC was nevertheless dependent on the cytosolic adaptor ASC, therefore suggesting a new pathway of cytosolic flagellin sensing. However, our work also suggested that the lack of TLR5 activity of Brucella flagellin and the regulation of its synthesis and/or delivery into host cells are both part of the stealthy strategy of Brucella towards the innate immune system. Nevertheless, as a flagellin-deficient mutant of B. melitensis wasfound to cause histologically demonstrable injuries in the spleen of infected mice, we suggested that recognition of FliC plays a role in the immunological stand-off between Brucella and its host, which is characterized by a persistent infection with limited inflammatory pathology.

  15. Information Dominance in Military Decision Making.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This study considers how ABCS (Army Battle Command System) capabilities achieve information dominance and how they influence the military decision...making process. The work examines how ABCS enables commanders and staffs to achieve information dominance at the brigade and battalion levels. Further...future digitized systems that will gain information dominance for the future commander. It promotes the continued development information dominance technologies

  16. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  17. Brown midrib sorghum silage for midlactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Grant, R J; Haddad, S G; Moore, K J; Pedersen, J F

    1995-09-01

    Brown midrib sorghum silage was compared with alfalfa, corn, and normal sorghum silages for its effect on performance, ruminal metabolism, and digestive kinetics of Holstein dairy cows in midlactation. Twelve cows averaging 90 +/- 5 DIM were assigned to one of four diets in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods. Additionally, 3 ruminally fistulated cows (95 +/- 20 DIM) were assigned to the same diets in a 3 x 4 Youden square for measurement of ruminal characteristics. Diets were fed as isonitrogenous TMR that contained 65% silage (DM basis). The DMI was greater for the corn and brown midrib sorghum (4% of BW/d) than for the alfalfa and normal sorghum diets (3.4% of BW/d). The brown midrib sorghum supported FCM production that was similar to that of cows on corn and alfalfa diets (25.8 kg/d), but cows fed normal sorghum produced less milk and fewer milk components. Source of silage had no effect on eating time, but rumination was least for the alfalfa diet. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations were similar for all diets. Total VFA concentrations were greatest for the corn and brown midrib sorghum diets. The brown midrib sorghum had greater in situ extent of ruminal NDF digestion than did the normal sorghum, which agreed with in vitro data. The brown midrib sorghum used in this experiment supported FCM production similar to the corn and alfalfa silages commonly fed to dairy cows in midlactation.

  18. Characterization of faecal microbial communities of dairy cows fed diets containing ensiled Moringa oleifera fodder

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiajie; Zeng, Bin; Chen, Zujing; Yan, Shijuan; Huang, Wenjie; Sun, Baoli; He, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Qingyan; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M. oleifera silage had lower dry matter digestibility, as well as the propionate and isovalerate concentrations in M. oleifera treated group. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, 1,299,556 paired-end reads were obtained. Clustering analysis revealed 13 phyla and 93 genera across all samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the co-dominant phyla. Ten taxa displayed a significant difference in response to the high M. oleifera diet. In addition, strong correlations between Akkermansia and Prevotella with milk yield and protein indicated that some bacterial groups could be used to improve milk traits. Our results provided an insight into the microbiome-associated responses to M. oleifera in livestock diets, and could aid the development of novel applications of M. oleifera. PMID:28134261

  19. Characterization of faecal microbial communities of dairy cows fed diets containing ensiled Moringa oleifera fodder.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiajie; Zeng, Bin; Chen, Zujing; Yan, Shijuan; Huang, Wenjie; Sun, Baoli; He, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Qingyan; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang

    2017-01-30

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M. oleifera silage had lower dry matter digestibility, as well as the propionate and isovalerate concentrations in M. oleifera treated group. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, 1,299,556 paired-end reads were obtained. Clustering analysis revealed 13 phyla and 93 genera across all samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the co-dominant phyla. Ten taxa displayed a significant difference in response to the high M. oleifera diet. In addition, strong correlations between Akkermansia and Prevotella with milk yield and protein indicated that some bacterial groups could be used to improve milk traits. Our results provided an insight into the microbiome-associated responses to M. oleifera in livestock diets, and could aid the development of novel applications of M. oleifera.

  20. The effect of sire selection on cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse and favorable cow survival environments.

    PubMed

    Dechow, C D; Goodling, R C; Rhode, S P

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent that genetic selection can help reduce dairy cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse cow survival environments. Two datasets were constructed. The first contained 100,911 mortality records and 171,178 sixty-day culling records from 1467 herds. Cows that left the herd (culled or died) from 21 days prior to a due date through 60 days in milk were considered a 60-day cull. Cows were classified as belonging to herds with adverse cow survival environments (≥ 4.4% mortality rate and ≥ 7.1% 60-day cull rate) or favorable cow survival environments (<4.4% mortality rate and <7.1% 60-day cull rate). The second dataset included 20,438 mortality records and 34,942 sixty-day culling records from 314 herds with a known herd management system. Cows from both datasets were stratified into quartiles based on their sire's predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for productive life and other traits. Cows in the first dataset were also stratified into high (>50th percentile) and low (≤ 50th percentile) groups based on their sire's PTA for daughter calving ease and daughter stillbirth rates. Mortality and 60-day culling in the first dataset were evaluated with logistic regression models with the independent effects of sire PTA quartile, cow survival environment (adverse or favorable), the interaction of sire PTA quartile with cow survival environment, lactation number, age within lactation number, and herd-calving-cluster. The second dataset was analyzed in the same manner, but with cow survival environment replaced by herd management system. The estimated proportion of lactations that ended in death declined from 9.0% to 6.8% and 60-day culling incidence from 7.6% to 4.9% as sire productive life PTA went from the lowest to highest quartile in adverse cow survival environments. The corresponding reduction in mortality (0.7%) and 60-day culling (0.9%) were also significant in favorable cow survival environments