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  1. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that might be used to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and

  2. Expression Profiling of Innate Immune Genes in Milk Somatic Cells During Subclinical Mastitis in Crossbred Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, A; Radhika, G; Aravindhakshan, T V; Anilkumar, K

    2016-10-01

    Innate immune mechanism plays a key role in mammary defense, from recognition of pathogens to activation of nonspecific and specific immunity involved in elimination of pathogens. Expression profiles of innate immune response genes namely Toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2), Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP-1), Interleukin 8 receptor (IL-8 R), L-Selectin (SELL), and Osteopontin (OPN) in milk somatic cells of subclinical mastitis (SCM) affected crossbred cows were investigated under this study at transcript level using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Dairy cows in mid lactation were screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and Electrical Conductivity test (EC). Based on results of SCM screening tests, crossbred cows were clustered into two groups with four Staphylococcus aureus infected SCM cows and four apparently healthy cows. The expressions levels of TLR-2, PGLYRP-1, IL-8 R, SELL, and OPN in milk somatic cells of SCM affected cows were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than healthy cows. These genes could be considered as candidate genes for innate immune response against S. aureus SCM infection.

  3. Increase of Escherichia coli inoculum doses induces faster innate immune response in primiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Vangroenweghe, F; Rainard, P; Paape, M; Duchateau, L; Burvenich, C

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the dynamics of infection and the immunological response to varying numbers of Escherichia coli injected into the mammary glands of primiparous cows during the periparturient period. Primiparous cows have been shown to be more resistant to intramammary E. coli challenge, and an increase of the inoculum dose by 2 log10 units induced a more rapid clinical response and clearance of the organisms. Recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key event in the innate immunity response to gram-negative infection and is mediated by the accessory molecules CD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP). Primiparous cows were inoculated with 1 x 10(4) (Group A; n=8) or 1 x 10(6) (Group B; n=8) cfu E. coli P4:O32 in their 2 left quarters during the periparturient period. Clinical examination and analysis of blood and milk parameters, including IL-8, complement fragment 5a (C5a), LBP, and soluble CD14 (sCD14), were performed from d -4 to d +3 relative to infection. Primiparous cows in Group B initiated a more rapid clinical response following intramammary infection (IMI), resulting in typical clinical signs and changes in blood and milk parameters approximately 3 h earlier compared with primiparous cows in Group A. Based on average milk production in the noninfected quarters on d +2 postinoculation, all heifers reacted as moderate responders. Distinct differences in the kinetic patterns of rectal temperature, somatic cell count (SCC), IL-8, C5a, LBP, and sCD14 were observed between both groups during the early phase of inflammation. Both C5a and IL-8 increased before cellular influx into the infected glands, followed by increases in sCD14 and LBP. In conclusion, primiparous cows are able to clear an intramammary E. coli infection efficiently. Moreover, increasing the inoculum dose induces a more rapid inflammatory reaction, mainly because of early activation of the innate host immune response.

  4. Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus.

    PubMed

    Binelli, M; Hampton, J; Buhi, W C; Thatcher, W W

    1999-07-01

    The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF.

  5. Dairy cows affected by ketosis show alterations in innate immunity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during the dry off period and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to search for alterations in blood variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during the transition period in cows affected by ketosis. One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected at -8, -4, week of disease diagnosis (+1 to +3weeks), and +4weeks relative to parturition from 6 healthy cows (CON) and 6 cows with ketosis and were analyzed for serum variables. Results showed that cows with ketosis had greater concentrations of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate in comparison with the CON animals. Serum concentrations of BHBA, IL-6, TNF, and lactate were greater starting at -8 and -4weeks prior to parturition in cows with ketosis vs those of CON group. Cows with ketosis also had lower DMI and milk production vs CON cows. Milk fat also was lower in ketotic cows at diagnosis of disease. Cows affected by ketosis showed an activated innate immunity and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism several weeks prior to diagnosis of disease. Serum IL-6 and lactate were the strongest discriminators between ketosis cows and CON ones before the occurrence of ketosis, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state.

  6. Accounting for dominance to improve genomic evaluations of dairy cows for fertility and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Aliloo, Hassan; Pryce, Jennie E; González-Recio, Oscar; Cocks, Benjamin G; Hayes, Ben J

    2016-02-01

    Dominance effects may contribute to genetic variation of complex traits in dairy cattle, especially for traits closely related to fitness such as fertility. However, traditional genetic evaluations generally ignore dominance effects and consider additive genetic effects only. Availability of dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) panels provides the opportunity to investigate the role of dominance in quantitative variation of complex traits at both the SNP and animal levels. Including dominance effects in the genomic evaluation of animals could also help to increase the accuracy of prediction of future phenotypes. In this study, we estimated additive and dominance variance components for fertility and milk production traits of genotyped Holstein and Jersey cows in Australia. The predictive abilities of a model that accounts for additive effects only (additive), and a model that accounts for both additive and dominance effects (additive + dominance) were compared in a fivefold cross-validation. Estimates of the proportion of dominance variation relative to phenotypic variation that is captured by SNPs, for production traits, were up to 3.8 and 7.1 % in Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively, whereas, for fertility, they were equal to 1.2 % in Holstein and very close to zero in Jersey cows. We found that including dominance in the model was not consistently advantageous. Based on maximum likelihood ratio tests, the additive + dominance model fitted the data better than the additive model, for milk, fat and protein yields in both breeds. However, regarding the prediction of phenotypes assessed with fivefold cross-validation, including dominance effects in the model improved accuracy only for fat yield in Holstein cows. Regression coefficients of phenotypes on genetic values and mean squared errors of predictions showed that the predictive ability of the additive + dominance model was superior to that of the additive model for some of the traits. In both breeds

  7. Nutrient sufficiency in beef cows grazing on a dwarf bamboo-dominated forestland pasture in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Miwa; Yayota, Masato; Ohtani, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional status of cows grazing on a 120-ha public alpine forestland pasture dominated by the dwarf bamboo Sasa senanensis located in central Japan was evaluated over the course of 2 years. Data were collected during grazing seasons in three periods: early (June), mid- (August) and late (late September-early October) periods. During these periods, the number of experimental Japanese Black cows varied between three and six. With the exception of the dry matter (DM) intake in 2005 and the crude protein (CP) digestibility in 2006, the DM and CP intake and digestibility were lower in the mid- and late periods than in the early period for both years (P < 0.05). Metabolizable energy intake was slightly insufficient for the requirement of the cows in the late period of 2005; in the mid- and late periods of 2006, the metabolizable energy intake was 0.4 to 0.5 times the requirement. These results suggest that the energy intake of cows grazing on forestland pasture dominated by S. senanensis would not satisfy their requirements starting in the mid-period (August) grazing, even though the pasture had abundant herbage resources during these periods.

  8. Effect of exogenous LH pulses on the fate of the first dominant follicle in postpartum beef cows nursing calves.

    PubMed

    Duffy, P; Crowe, M A; Boland, M P; Roche, J F

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum anoestrus in beef cows is due to failure of early dominant follicles to ovulate. It is hypothesized that this failure to ovulate is due to inadequate LH pulse frequency. The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of hourly LH pulses would cause the first dominant follicle to ovulate. In Expt 1, 16 cows received either saline (n = 8) or porcine LH (pLH; 50 micrograms h-1; n = 8) as hourly pulses for 3-5 days from the second day of dominance of the first dominant follicle (day 0). In Expt 2, 21 cows received either saline (n = 7), or 50 micrograms pLH (n = 7) or 100 micrograms pLH (n = 7) as hourly pulses for 3 days. Appropriate ovarian scanning and assays of blood samples were carried out. In Expt 1, the number of dominant follicles that underwent atresia was not affected by increasing the number of LH pulses, but the duration of dominance (days) of the first and second dominant follicles and maximum size (mm) of the second dominant follicle were increased (P < 0.05). Oestradiol concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in cows given hourly pLH pulses (3.1 +/- 1.2 pg ml-1) compared with controls (1.2 +/- 0.2 pg ml-1). Four of eight treated cows had an anovulatory LH surge. The number of follicle waves to first ovulation was not different (P < 0.05) between control (4.6 +/- 0.9) and pLH treated cows (3.9 +/- 0.5). In Expt 2, four of seven cows given pulses of 100 micrograms pLH h-1 ovulated the first dominant follicle, and the interval from calving to first ovulation was decreased (P < 0.05). In the remaining three cows, the duration of dominance of the first dominant follicle was increased (P < 0.005), the maximum size of the first dominant follicle was greater (P < 0.05), and the interval (days) from the start of infusion to new wave emergence was greater (P < 0.05) compared with cows that failed to ovulate in either the 50 micrograms pLH h-1 or control treatments. In conclusion, hourly pulses of pLH from day 1 after

  9. Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, Douglas D; Springer, Hayley R; Paape, Max J; Kauf, Adam Cw; Goff, Jesse P

    2008-08-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established that the nature of the initial innate immune response to infection influences the ability of the host to clear harmful bacterial pathogens. Whether differences in the innate immune response to intramammary infections explain, in part, the differential prevalence of mastitis in Holstein and Jersey cows remains unknown. The objective of the current study was to evaluate several parameters of the innate immune response of Holstein and Jersey cows to intramammary infection with Staphylococcus aureus, a common mastitis-inducing pathogen. To control for non-breed related factors that could influence these parameters, all cows were of the same parity, in similar stages of milk production, housed and managed under identical conditions, and experimentally infected and sampled in parallel. The following parameters of the innate immune response were evaluated: acute phase protein synthesis of serum amyloid A and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; total and differential circulating white blood cell counts; milk somatic cell counts; mammary vascular permeability; milk N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity; and production of the cytokines, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-12, tumour growth factor(TGF)-alpha, and TGF-beta1. The temporal response of all of these parameters following infection was similar between Holstein and Jersey cows. Further, with the exception of changes in circulating neutrophils and NAGase activity, the overall magnitude of these parameters were also comparable. Together, these data demonstrate that the innate immune response of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staph. aureus intramammary infection remains highly conserved despite previously reported

  10. Altered theca and cumulus oocyte complex gene expression, follicular arrest and reduced fertility in cows with dominant follicle follicular fluid androgen excess

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To date, animal models with naturally occurring androgen excess have not been identified. Serendipitously, we discovered two subpopulations of cows with dramatically different follicular fluid androgen concentrations in dominant follicles within our research herd. In the cow, androstenedione is the...

  11. Oxidation-specific epitopes are dominant targets of innate natural antibodies in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Meng-Yun; Fogelstrand, Linda; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Hansen, Lotte F.; Woelkers, Douglas; Shaw, Peter X.; Choi, Jeomil; Perkmann, Thomas; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Miller, Yury I.; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Corr, Maripat; Witztum, Joseph L.; Binder, Christoph J.

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins and apoptotic cells. Adaptive immune responses to various oxidation-specific epitopes play an important role in atherogenesis. However, accumulating evidence suggests that these epitopes are also recognized by innate receptors, such as scavenger receptors on macrophages, and plasma proteins, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Here, we provide multiple lines of evidence that oxidation-specific epitopes constitute a dominant, previously unrecognized target of natural Abs (NAbs) in both mice and humans. Using reconstituted mice expressing solely IgM NAbs, we have shown that approximately 30% of all NAbs bound to model oxidation-specific epitopes, as well as to atherosclerotic lesions and apoptotic cells. Because oxidative processes are ubiquitous, we hypothesized that these epitopes exert selective pressure to expand NAbs, which in turn play an important role in mediating homeostatic functions consequent to inflammation and cell death, as demonstrated by their ability to facilitate apoptotic cell clearance. These findings provide novel insights into the functions of NAbs in mediating host homeostasis and into their roles in health and diseases, such as chronic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis. PMID:19363291

  12. Comparison of innate immune responses and somatotropic axis components of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, L G D; Litherland, N B; Lucy, M C; Keisler, D H; Ballou, M A; Hansen, L B; Chebel, R C

    2013-06-01

    Objectives were to compare parameters related to innate immune responses and somatotropic axis of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde (MO)-sired crossbred cows during the transition from late gestation to early lactation. Cows (40 HO and 47 MO-sired crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45d before expected calving date (study d 0=calving). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) isolated from blood samples collected weekly from study d -7 to 21 and on study d 42 were used for determination of percentage of PMNL positive for phagocytosis (PA+) and oxidative burst (OB+), intensity of PA and OB, percentage of PMNL expressing CD18 (CD18+) and L-selectin (LS+), and intensity of CD18 and LS expression. Blood was sampled weekly from study d -7 to 14 and on study d 28, 42, and 56 for determination of insulin, growth hormone (GH), leptin, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 concentrations. Blood sampled weekly from study d -14 to 21 and on study d 42 was used to determine cortisol concentration. Liver biopsies were performed on study d -14, 7, 14, and 28 for determination of mRNA expression for insulin receptor B (IRB), total GH receptor (GHRtot), GHR variant 1A (GHR1A), and IGF-1. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures or by ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intensity of CD18 expression was greater in PMNL from crossbred cows compared with PMNL from HO cows [1,482.1 ± 82.3 vs. 1,286.6 ± 69.8 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI)]. Furthermore, among HO cows, the percentage of PA+ PMNL on study d -7 (64.4 ± 5.2%) tended to be greater than on study d 0 (57.1 ± 5.1%), but no differences in percentage of PA+ PMNL between study d -7 and 0 were observed in crossbred cows. Similarly, intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from HO cows decreased from study d -7 to 0 (4,750.6 ± 1,217.0 vs. 1,964.7 ± 1,227.9 GMFI), but no changes in intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from crossbred cows were observed. On study d 0, intensity of PA tended to be

  13. Pleiotropic effects of negative energy balance in the postpartum dairy cow on splenic gene expression: repercussions for innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, D. G.; Waters, S. M.; McCarthy, S. D.; Patton, J.; Earley, B.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Murphy, J. J.; Diskin, M. G.; Kenny, D. A.; Brass, A.; Wathes, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Increased energy demands to support lactation, coupled with lowered feed intake capacity results in negative energy balance (NEB) and is typically characterized by extensive mobilization of body energy reserves in the early postpartum dairy cow. The catabolism of stored lipid leads to an increase in the systemic concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxy butyrate (BHB). Oxidation of NEFA in the liver result in the increased production of reactive oxygen species and the onset of oxidative stress and can lead to disruption of normal metabolism and physiology. The immune system is depressed in the peripartum period and early lactation and dairy cows are therefore more vulnerable to bacterial infections causing mastitis and or endometritis at this time. A bovine Affymetrix oligonucleotide array was used to determine global gene expression in the spleen of dairy cows in the early postpartum period. Spleen tissue was removed post mortem from five severe NEB (SNEB) and five medium NEB (MNEB) cows 15 days postpartum. SNEB increased systemic concentrations of NEFA and BHB, and white blood cell and lymphocyte numbers were decreased in SNEB animals. A total of 545 genes were altered by SNEB. Network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that SNEB was associated with NRF2-mediated oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, natural killer cell signaling, p53 signaling, downregulation of IL-15, BCL-2, and IFN-γ; upregulation of BAX and CHOP and increased apoptosis with a potential negative impact on innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:19567785

  14. Pleiotropic effects of negative energy balance in the postpartum dairy cow on splenic gene expression: repercussions for innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Morris, D G; Waters, S M; McCarthy, S D; Patton, J; Earley, B; Fitzpatrick, R; Murphy, J J; Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A; Brass, A; Wathes, D C

    2009-09-09

    Increased energy demands to support lactation, coupled with lowered feed intake capacity results in negative energy balance (NEB) and is typically characterized by extensive mobilization of body energy reserves in the early postpartum dairy cow. The catabolism of stored lipid leads to an increase in the systemic concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHB). Oxidation of NEFA in the liver result in the increased production of reactive oxygen species and the onset of oxidative stress and can lead to disruption of normal metabolism and physiology. The immune system is depressed in the peripartum period and early lactation and dairy cows are therefore more vulnerable to bacterial infections causing mastitis and or endometritis at this time. A bovine Affymetrix oligonucleotide array was used to determine global gene expression in the spleen of dairy cows in the early postpartum period. Spleen tissue was removed post mortem from five severe NEB (SNEB) and five medium NEB (MNEB) cows 15 days postpartum. SNEB increased systemic concentrations of NEFA and BHB, and white blood cell and lymphocyte numbers were decreased in SNEB animals. A total of 545 genes were altered by SNEB. Network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that SNEB was associated with NRF2-mediated oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, natural killer cell signaling, p53 signaling, downregulation of IL-15, BCL-2, and IFN-gamma; upregulation of BAX and CHOP and increased apoptosis with a potential negative impact on innate and adaptive immunity.

  15. Altered Theca and Cumulus Oocyte Complex Gene Expression, Follicular Arrest and Reduced Fertility in Cows with Dominant Follicle Follicular Fluid Androgen Excess

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Adam F.; Pohlmeier, William E.; Sargent, Kevin M.; Cole, Brizett D.; Vinton, Rebecca J.; Kurz, Scott G.; McFee, Renee M.; Cushman, Robert A.; Cupp, Andrea S.; Wood, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Aspiration of bovine follicles 12–36 hours after induced corpus luteum lysis serendipitously identified two populations of cows, one with High androstenedione (A4; >40 ng/ml; mean = 102) and another with Low A4 (<20 ng/ml; mean = 9) in follicular fluid. We hypothesized that the steroid excess in follicular fluid of dominant follicles in High A4 cows would result in reduced fertility through altered follicle development and oocyte maternal RNA abundance. To test this hypothesis, estrous cycles of cows were synchronized and ovariectomy was performed 36 hours later. HPLC MS/MS analysis of follicular fluid showed increased dehydroepiandrosterone (6-fold), A4 (158-fold) and testosterone (31-fold) in the dominant follicle of High A4 cows. However, estrone (3-fold) and estradiol (2-fold) concentrations were only slightly elevated, suggesting a possible inefficiency in androgen to estrogen conversion in High A4 cows. Theca cell mRNA expression of LHCGR, GATA6, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1 was greater in High A4 cows. Furthermore, abundance of ZAR1 was decreased 10-fold in cumulus oocyte complexes from High A4 cows, whereas NLRP5 abundance tended to be 19.8-fold greater (P = 0.07). There was a tendency for reduction in stage 4 follicles in ovarian cortex samples from High A4 cows suggesting that progression to antral stages were impaired. High A4 cows tended (P<0.07) to have a 17% reduction in calving rate compared with Low A4 cows suggesting reduced fertility in the High A4 population. These data suggest that the dominant follicle environment of High A4 cows including reduced estrogen conversion and androgen excess contributes to infertility in part through altered follicular and oocyte development. PMID:25330369

  16. Alterations in innate immunity reactants and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism precede occurrence of metritis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dervishi, Elda; Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-02-01

    The overall purpose of the present study was to search for early screening biomarkers of disease state. Therefore the objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolites related to carbohydrate metabolism, acute phase proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines in the blood of transition dairy cows starting at -8 weeks before calving. Blood samples were collected from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during -8, -4, disease diagnosis, +4 and +8 weeks relative to parturition. Six healthy cows and 6 cows that showed clinical signs of metritis were selected for serum analysis. Overall the results showed that cows with metritis had greater concentration of lactate, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and serum amyloid A (SAA) versus healthy cows throughout the experiment. The disease was associated with decrease in milk production and fat: protein ratio. Cows with metritis showed alteration in metabolites related to carbohydrate metabolism, acute phase proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines starting at -8 weeks prior to parturition and appearance of clinical signs of the disease. This study suggests a possible use of cytokines as early markers of disease in dairy cows.

  17. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin during the periparturient period on innate and adaptive immune responses, systemic inflammation, and metabolism of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Silva, P R B; Machado, K S; Da Silva, D N Lobão; Moraes, J G N; Keisler, D H; Chebel, R C

    2015-07-01

    , rbST87.5=11,238±761, rbST125=12,724±781 GMFI) were higher for rbST125 cows than for control cows during the prepartum period. Concentrations of serum IgG anti-ovalbumin tended to be higher for rbST125 cows than for control cows (control=0.75±0.11, rbST87.5=0.94±0.10, rbST125=1.11±0.11 optical density) in the prepartum period. Haptoglobin concentration was significantly reduced 7d postpartum for rbST125 treatment compared with control and rbST87.5 treatments (control=2.74±0.28, rbST87.5=2.81±0.28, rbST125=1.87±0.28 optical density). Although treatment tended to affect postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate (control=747.5±40.2, rbST87.5=753.2±40.1, rbST125=648.8±39.7 µmol/L), it did not affect liver contents of total lipids, triglycerides, or glycogen. Incidence of metritis among rbST125 cows was reduced compared with that in control cows (control=23.1, rbST87.5=18.0, rbST125=7.8%). Treatment of dairy cows with 125mg of rbST improved innate immune responses and IgG concentration, with limited effects on metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary-induced negative energy balance has minimal effects on innate immunity during a Streptococcus uberis mastitis challenge in dairy cows during midlactation.

    PubMed

    Moyes, K M; Drackley, J K; Salak-Johnson, J L; Morin, D E; Hope, J C; Loor, J J

    2009-09-01

    Ten multiparous Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of negative energy balance (NEB) on the immune response to a Streptococcus uberis (strain O140J) mastitis challenge during midlactation. Before the study, milk from all quarters of each cow was bacteriologically negative, with a composite somatic cell count of <200,000 cells/mL. Cows were paired based on parity, days in milk, and milk yield. At approximately 77 d in milk, half the cows (n = 5) were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation requirements to induce NEB. Feed restriction lasted 7 d. Control cows (n = 5) were fed the same diet ad libitum (i.e., positive energy balance; PEB). After 5 d, one rear quarter in all cows was inoculated with 5,000 cfu of Strep. uberis. Jugular blood and aseptic quarter milk samples were collected daily until inoculation and every 6 h postinoculation for 36 h. Blood was analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, cortisol, albumin, serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin (Hp). Periodically throughout the trial period, blood neutrophils were isolated for determination of cell morphology, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis capability in vitro. Quarter milk samples were analyzed for concentrations of SAA, Hp, cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-10 and IL-1beta), and activity of respiratory burst enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). All cows developed local and systemic signs of mastitis and calculated NEB was similar to that of cows experiencing postpartal NEB. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations increased in both groups after challenge, most likely because of enhanced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis; results indicate that immune cell function may be glucose dependent. Serum cortisol concentration was higher in NEB than PEB cows during feed restriction only (before inoculation), and serum albumin concentration was higher in NEB than PEB cows during the infection period. Compared with PEB

  19. Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...

  20. Shared hemocyte- and intestine-dominant expression profiles of intelectin genes in ascidian Ciona intestinalis: insight into the evolution of the innate immune system in chordates.

    PubMed

    Hayashibe, Minoru; Nakayama, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Michio

    2017-06-27

    Intelectin is a soluble lectin known as a pattern-recognition receptor for the innate immune system or as an intestinal lactoferrin receptor. Intelectin genes have been identified in a wide range of chordates and the shared expression pattern in their absorptive intestinal regions has been widely recognized. The chordate intelectins have a shared domain structure with a fibrinogen-related domain and an intelectin domain and an additional sequence has been reported only in ascidian Ciona intestinalis intelectins. However, little is known about the molecular features of the ascidian intelectins, including the distribution of the additional sequence in ascidians. Therefore, we focus on the ascidian species that are available for genome DNA sequence searches and survey intelectin genes with special reference to the additional sequence. We also assess the distribution of Ciona intelectin gene transcripts in transparent juveniles and adult specimens by means of in situ hybridization and reveal hemocyte-dominant expressions as well as stomach-exclusive expression. Comparative gene expression analysis with secretory digestive enzymes and absorption-related proteins in Ciona revealed that intelectin and secretory digestive enzymes were expressed in the same region of the stomach epithelium. Since the domain structure of intelectins and the hemocyte-dominant gene expression of intelectins seem relevant to ficolin, intelectin genes may have evolved from a ficolin-like ancestral gene with hemocytic expression in early chordate evolution.

  1. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  2. Nutritional factors that regulate ovulation of the dominant follicle during the first follicular wave postpartum in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Matsui, Motozumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, milk production per cow has increased drastically due to improved management, nutrition, and genetic selection; however, the reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows has been declining. One of the factors responsible for this low reproductive performance is negative energy balance (NEB). NEB affects the onset of first ovulation in early postpartum cows. It is generally accepted that early first ovulation positively relates to the resumption of normal ovarian function, first service, and conception rate in dairy cows. Hence, delayed first ovulation has a negative impact on subsequent fertility. The metabolic condition of cows in NEB shifts to catabolic metabolism, which in turn causes increased plasma growth hormone and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and glucose concentrations. On the other hand, plasma β-carotene concentrations decrease throughout the dry period and reach their nadir in about the first week postpartum, and this change reflects energy balance during the peripartum period. β-Carotene plays a role independently of vitamin A in the reproductive performance of dairy cows, and the positive relationship between supplemental β-carotene and reproductive function has been demonstrated in many studies during the past decades. However, β-carotene content in corn silage, which is a popular main feed in high-producing dairy cows, is very low. This review describes nutritional factors related to ovulation during the first follicular wave postpartum in dairy cows.

  3. Effect of long-term infusion with recombinant growth hormone-releasing factor and recombinant bovine somatotropin on development and function of dominant follicles and corpora lutea in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Krassel, F; Binelli, M; Tucker, H A; Ireland, J J

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of recombinant bovine growth hormone-releasing factor (rGRF) or recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on growth and function of the first-wave dominant follicle and corpus luteum. Primiparous Holstein cows (117 d postpartum) were infused with 12 mg/d of rGRF (n = 10) or 29 mg/d of rbST (n = 10) for 63 d, and non-infused cows (n = 10) were controls. At slaughter on d 5 of an estrous cycle, blood and ovaries were collected and data from cows with a corpus luteum were analyzed (control, n = 8; rGRF, n = 5; rbST, n = 6). Treatment with rGRF or rbST increased somatotropin (ST) and IGF-I in serum similarly compared with controls. In contrast, rbST-treated cows had higher concentrations of ST in follicular fluid (FF) compared with rGRF-treated and control cows. In addition, rbST, but not rGRF, increased the number and decreased the size of estrogen-active follicles (EA; estradiol > progesterone concentrations in FF), increased the abundance of IGF binding proteins-2, -3, and -4 in FF from EA follicles, and increased the number but decreased the size of corpora lutea and decreased concentration of progesterone in serum compared with controls. Based on these results, we concluded that long-term infusion of rbST alters growth and function of the first-wave dominant follicle and the corpus luteum in cattle.

  4. Mushroom plant workers experience a shift towards a T helper type 2 dominant state: contribution of innate immunity to spore antigen

    PubMed Central

    SAIKAI, T; TANAKA, H; SATO, N; ABE, S; MATSUURA, A

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary mushroom factories are places where there is a substantial risk of the occurrence of respiratory allergy. The aims of this investigation were to estimate its causative agents and to evaluate the contribution of innate immune response in mushroom workers who cultivate Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji). Cross-sectional and follow-up studies were performed in the factory. We investigated CD1b, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD45RO, CD62L and CD161 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by flow cytometry, and serum levels of interleukin (IL-2), IL-4, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-γ by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Co-culture experiments of PBMC with spore extracts were also performed. Percentages of CD1b+ monocytes, natural killer (NK), NK T and CD4+ T cells were increased in the workers compared with controls. Increases in Th2 type cells, Th2/Th1 ratio and serum IL-13 and decreased IFN-γ were detected, indicating a Th2-biased status of the workers. The follow-up study showed that monocytes and NK cells increased soon after employment while CD4+ T, Th2 and NK T cells increased gradually as employment time lengthened. Serum precipitating antibody to the mushroom antigen could be detected at a later stage. Co-cultivation of PBMC with the spore extracts induced much higher CD1b expression, and suppressed secretion of Th1 cytokine in culture supernatants. These results indicate that the mushroom antigen contains highly immunogenic substances which stimulate PBMC into a Th2-biased in vivo status, and innate immune cells might also play a critical role in developing respiratory allergy in mushroom workers. PMID:14678272

  5. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    PubMed

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Mor, Sunil K; Sobhy, Nader M; Xing, Zheng; Reed, Kent M; Goyal, Sagar M; Porter, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV) were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain). Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi). Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ) at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  6. Dominance and parent-of-origin effects of coding and non-coding alleles at the acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene on milk production traits in German Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Christa; Edel, Christian; Weikard, Rosemarie; Thaller, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substantial gene substitution effects on milk production traits have formerly been reported for alleles at the K232A and the promoter VNTR loci in the bovine acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene by using data sets including sires with accumulated phenotypic observations of daughters (breeding values, daughter yield deviations). However, these data sets prevented analyses with respect to dominance or parent-of-origin effects, although an increasing number of reports in the literature outlined the relevance of non-additive gene effects on quantitative traits. Results Based on a data set comprising German Holstein cows with direct trait measurements, we first confirmed the previously reported association of DGAT1 promoter VNTR alleles with milk production traits. We detected a dominant mode of effects for the DGAT1 K232A and promoter VNTR alleles. Namely, the contrasts between the effects of heterozygous individuals at the DGAT1 loci differed significantly from the midpoint between the effects for the two homozygous genotypes for several milk production traits, thus indicating the presence of dominance. Furthermore, we identified differences in the magnitude of effects between paternally and maternally inherited DGAT1 promoter VNTR – K232A haplotypes indicating parent-of-origin effects on milk production traits. Conclusion Non-additive effects like those identified at the bovine DGAT1 locus have to be accounted for in more specific QTL detection models as well as in marker assisted selection schemes. The DGAT1 alleles in cattle will be a useful model for further investigations on the biological background of non-additive effects in mammals due to the magnitude and consistency of their effects on milk production traits. PMID:17892573

  7. Innate and adaptive immune responses to in utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent ...

  8. Comparison of Holstein and Jersey Innate Immune Responses to Escherichia coli Intramammary Infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a higher prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense...

  9. Innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Revillard, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    For more than half a century immunological research has been almost exclusively orientated towards the acquired immune response and the mechanisms of immune tolerance. Major discoveries have enabled us to better understand the functioning of the specific immune system: the structure of antibody molecules, the genetic mechanisms leading to the molecular diversity of B (BCR) and T (TCR) lymphocyte antigen receptors, the biological function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the presentation of peptides to alpha/beta receptor bearing T lymphocytes, the processes of positive and negative selection of lymphocytes during the course of their differentiation. The major role of specific or acquired immunity has been shown by the rapidly lethal character of severe combined immune deficiency diseases and various alterations in the mechanisms of tolerance have been proposed to explain the chronic inflammatory illnesses which are considered to be auto-immune. Natural or innate immunity has been known since the first description of an inflammatory reaction attributed to Cornelius Celsus. It entered into the scientific era at the end of the 19th century with the discovery of phagocytes by Metchnikoff and of the properties of the complement system by Bordet [1] but due to the vastness of the field and its lack of clear definition, it failed to excite the interest of researchers. The discovery of cytokines and progress in knowledge of the mechanisms of the inflammatory reaction have certainly helped to banish preconceived ideas about natural immunity, which was wrongly labelled as non-specific. This has led to the proposition of a wider role for immune functions beyond the level of the cell or the organism [2] and to a better understanding of the importance of the immediate defence mechanisms and their role in the later orientation of the acquired response.

  10. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad Cow Disease? A A A You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? ...

  11. Effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine on innate immune function of bovine mammary gland infused with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, K; Kanda, N; Shinde, S; Isobe, N

    2012-09-01

    The effects of using an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine on innate immune responses following intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated in midlactation Holstein-Friesian cows. Seven out of 14 cows were inoculated with E. coli vaccine. Three weeks later, 100 μg of LPS dissolved in 10 mL of saline was infused into 1 quarter of all cows. Milk was collected every hour from infusion to 12 h after infusion, and twice daily (at 0900 and 1600 h) for 4 d. Blood samples were collected 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after infusion. Rectal temperatures and milk yields were measured. The somatic cell count (SCC), lingual antimicrobial peptide concentration, lactoperoxidase (LPO) activity, and lactoferrin (LF) concentration in milk, and haptoglobin concentration in serum were determined. The mean rectal temperature in vaccinated cows was higher than in control cows at 10 h. The mean milk yield was decreased significantly in the infused quarter of control cows at 24 h compared with pretreatment, but not in vaccinated cows. The mean SCC in milk from vaccinated cows at 12 and 55 h was significantly lower than that of control cows. The lingual antimicrobial peptide and LF concentrations were significantly lower at 8 h and 55 h, respectively, in vaccinated cows than in control cows. The mean antibody titer in the serum against the vaccine at the time of LPS infusion into vaccinated cows was significantly higher than in control cows. These antibody titers were positively correlated with the peak concentrations of LPO and LF in milk following challenge; therefore, cows with a high antibody titer were accompanied by high LPO activity and LF concentration in milk. These results suggest that vaccination suppresses the innate immune reaction after intramammary LPS infusion; however, the elevated antibody titer was unlikely to be responsible for the modification of the innate immune reaction. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  12. Chapter 2: Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, Stuart E.; Broide, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the innate immune system. Questions about how the innate immune system senses infection and empowers a protective immune response are being answered at the molecular level. These basic science discoveries are being translated into a more complete understanding of the central role innate immunity plays in the pathogenesis of many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. It is particularly exciting that we are already seeing a return on these scientific investments with the emergence of novel therapies to harness the power of the innate immune system. In this review we explore the defining characteristics of the innate immune system, and through more detailed examples, we highlight recent breakthroughs that have advanced our understanding of the role of innate immunity in human health and disease. PMID:19932920

  13. Innate Immunity in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David E.; Siddique, Sana S.; Weinstock, Joel V.

    2014-01-01

    Cells can innately recognize generic products of viruses, bacteria, fungi, or injured tissue by engagement of pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune cells rapidly respond to this engagement in order to control commensals, thwart pathogens and/or prompt repair. Insufficient or excessive activation of the innate immune response results in disease. This review focuses on pattern recognition receptors and cells of the innate immune system important for intestinal function. Our improving knowledge pertaining to this important aspect of our immune response is opening potential important new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of disease. PMID:24632348

  14. Kidney and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed.

  15. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Th2 cells produce IL-13 when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response of cells of the adaptive immune system is dependent on IL-33-, not T cell receptor-, based stimulation. While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant ...

  16. Arguing about innateness.

    PubMed

    Valian, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    This paper lays out the components of a language acquisition model, the interconnections among the components, and the differing stances of nativism and empiricism about syntax. After demonstrating that parsimony cannot decide between the two stances, the paper analyzes nine examples of evidence that have been used to argue for or against nativism, concluding that most pieces of evidence are either irrelevant or suggest that language is special but need not invoke innate ideas. Two pieces of evidence - the development of home sign languages and the acquisition of Determiners - do show not just that language is special but that the child has innate syntactic content. The existential claim that nativism makes - there is at least one innate syntactic idea - is an easier claim to verify than the universal claim that empiricism makes - there are no innate syntactic ideas.

  17. Approaching archetypes: reconsidering innateness.

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The question of innateness has hounded Jungian psychology since Jung originally postulated the archetype as an a priori structure within the psyche. During his life and after his death he was continually accused of Lamarckianism and criticized for his theory that the archetypes existed as prior structures. More recently, with the advent of genetic research and the human genome project, the idea that psychological structures can be innate has come under even harsher criticism even within Jungian thought. There appears to be a growing consensus that Jung's idea of innate psychological structures was misguided, and that perhaps the archetype-as-such should be abandoned for more developmental and 'emergent' theories of the psyche. The purpose of this essay is to question this conclusion, and introduce some literature on psychological innateness that appears relevant to this discussion.

  18. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  19. Innate immunity interactome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Elzawahry, Asmaa; Patil, Ashwini; Kumagai, Yutaro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Kenta

    2014-01-06

    Innate immune response involves protein-protein interactions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-protein interactions and signaling cascades. So far, thousands of protein-protein interactions have been curated as a static interaction map. However, protein-protein interactions involved in innate immune response are dynamic. We recorded the dynamics in the interactome during innate immune response by combining gene expression data of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated dendritic cells with protein-protein interactions data. We identified the differences in interactome during innate immune response by constructing differential networks and identifying protein modules, which were up-/down-regulated at each stage during the innate immune response. For each protein complex, we identified enriched biological processes and pathways. In addition, we identified core interactions that are conserved throughout the innate immune response and their enriched gene ontology terms and pathways. We defined two novel measures to assess the differences between network maps at different time points. We found that the protein interaction network at 1 hour after LPS stimulation has the highest interactions protein ratio, which indicates a role for proteins with large number of interactions in innate immune response. A pairwise differential matrix allows for the global visualization of the differences between different networks. We investigated the toll-like receptor subnetwork and found that S100A8 is down-regulated in dendritic cells after LPS stimulation. Identified protein complexes have a crucial role not only in innate immunity, but also in circadian rhythms, pathways involved in cancer, and p53 pathways. The study confirmed previous work that reported a strong correlation between cancer and immunity.

  20. Comparison of Holstein and Jersey innate immune responses to Escherichia coli intramammary infection.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, D D; Kauf, A C W; Paape, M J; Springer, H R; Goff, J P

    2008-06-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a greater prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense mechanisms that respond to infection, and differences in the magnitude and rapidity of this response are known to influence susceptibility to and clearance of infectious pathogens. The reported differences in the prevalence of mastitis between Holstein and Jersey cows may suggest the occurrence of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune response to intramammary infection. The objective of the current study was to compare the acute phase and cytokine responses of Holstein and Jersey cows following intramammary infection by the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli, a leading cause of clinical mastitis. All cows in the study were in similar stages of lactation, of the same parity, subjected to the same housing and management conditions, and experimentally infected on the same day with the same inoculum preparation. Before and after infection, the following innate immune parameters were monitored: bacterial clearance; febrile response; induction of the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; alterations in total and differential white blood cell counts; changes in milk somatic cell counts and mammary vascular permeability; and induction of the cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Overall innate immune responses were similar between the 2 breeds; however, temporal differences in the onset, cessation, and duration of several responses were detected. Despite these differences, intramammary clearance of E. coli was comparable between the breeds. Together, these data demonstrate a highly conserved innate immune response of Holstein and Jersey cows to E. coli intramammary infection.

  1. Factors affecting pre-ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation rate to GnRH in postpartum beef cows Part I: Cycling cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cows induced to ovulate small dominant follicles were reported to have reduced pregnancy rates compared to cows that ovulated large follicles. The reason for the presence of small dominant follicles at the time of GnRH-induced ovulation in timed AI protocols is unknown. Objectives of this experime...

  2. Innate Immunity and BK Virus: Prospective Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kariminik, Ashraf; Yaghobi, Ramin; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2016-03-01

    Recent information demonstrated that BK virus reactivation is a dominant complication after kidney transplantation, which occurs because of immunosuppression. BK virus reactivation is the main reason of transplanted kidney losing. Immune response against BK virus is the major inhibitor of the virus reactivation. Therefore, improving our knowledge regarding the main parameters that fight against BK viruses can shed light on to direct new treatment strategies to suppress BK infection. Innate immunity consists of numerous cell systems and also soluble molecules, which not only suppress virus replication, but also activate adaptive immunity to eradicate the infection. Additionally, it appears that immune responses against reactivated BK virus are the main reasons for induction of BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKAN). Thus, improving our knowledge regarding the parameters and detailed mechanisms of innate immunity and also the status of innate immunity of the patients with BK virus reactivation and its complications can introduce new prospective strategies to either prevent or as therapy of the complication. Therefore, this review was aimed to collate the most recent data regarding the roles played by innate immunity against BK virus and also the status of innate immunity in the patients with reactivation BK virus and BKAN.

  3. Innate Immunity to Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150

  4. Innate immunity to adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Greber, Urs F

    2014-04-01

    Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features.

  5. Innate Memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Stephen C.; Lee, You Jeong; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells. In this review, we describe how innate memory subsets were identified, the signals that induce their generation and their functional properties and potential role in the normal immune response. The existence of innate memory T cells in mice raises questions about whether parallel populations exist in humans, and we discuss the evidence for such populations during human T cell development and differentiation. PMID:25727290

  6. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liying; Huang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Urban, Joseph F; Paul, William E

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells) produce interleukin 13 (IL-13) when stimulated by papain or house dust mite extract (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response is dependent on IL-33 but not T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) are the dominant innate producers of IL-13 in naive mice, we found here that helminth-infected mice had more TH2 cells compared to uninfected mice, and thes e cells became major mediators of innate type 2 responses. TH2 cells made important contributions to HDM-induced antigen-nonspecific eosinophilic inflammation and protected mice recovering from infection with Ascaris suum against subsequent infection with the phylogenetically distant nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for effector TH2 cells during TCR-independent innate-like immune responses.

  7. Innate Immune Function of TH2 Cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liying; Huang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Urban, Joseph F.; Paul, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 helper T (TH) cells produce interleukin 13 (IL-13) when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response is dependent on IL-33 but not T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant innate producers of IL-13 in naïve animals, we show here that in helminth-infected mice, TH2 cell numbers increased and became major mediators of innate type II responses. TH2 cells made important contributions to HDM-induced antigen–non-specific eosinophilic inflammation and protected mice recovering from Ascaris suum infection against subsequent infection with the phylogenetically distant nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of effector TH2 cells during TCR-independent innate-like immune responses. PMID:26322482

  8. Autosomal dominant

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether the trait is dominant or recessive. A single abnormal gene on one of the first 22 nonsex ( autosomal ) chromosomes from either parent can cause an autosomal disorder. Dominant inheritance means ...

  9. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  11. Innate immunity and adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-10-12

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection.

  12. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting.

  13. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-10-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touchpanel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  14. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  15. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  16. Innate immunity in rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuewei; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in studies of rice innate immunity have led to the identification and characterization of host sensors encoding receptor kinases that perceive conserved microbial signatures. The non-RD domain, a newly recognized hallmark of these receptor kinases is highly expanded in rice (Oryza sativa) compared with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Researchers have also identified a diverse array of microbial effectors from bacterial and fungal pathogens that triggers immune responses upon perception. These include both, effectors that indirectly target host Nucleotide binding site/Leucine rice repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors that directly bind promoters of host genes. Here we review the recognition and signaling events that govern rice innate immunity. PMID:21602092

  17. Curating the innate immunity interactome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The innate immune response is the first line of defence against invading pathogens and is regulated by complex signalling and transcriptional networks. Systems biology approaches promise to shed new light on the regulation of innate immunity through the analysis and modelling of these networks. A key initial step in this process is the contextual cataloguing of the components of this system and the molecular interactions that comprise these networks. InnateDB (http://www.innatedb.com) is a molecular interaction and pathway database developed to facilitate systems-level analyses of innate immunity. Results Here, we describe the InnateDB curation project, which is manually annotating the human and mouse innate immunity interactome in rich contextual detail, and present our novel curation software system, which has been developed to ensure interactions are curated in a highly accurate and data-standards compliant manner. To date, over 13,000 interactions (protein, DNA and RNA) have been curated from the biomedical literature. Here, we present data, illustrating how InnateDB curation of the innate immunity interactome has greatly enhanced network and pathway annotation available for systems-level analysis and discuss the challenges that face such curation efforts. Significantly, we provide several lines of evidence that analysis of the innate immunity interactome has the potential to identify novel signalling, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of innate immunity. Additionally, these analyses also provide insight into the cross-talk between innate immunity pathways and other biological processes, such as adaptive immunity, cancer and diabetes, and intriguingly, suggests links to other pathways, which as yet, have not been implicated in the innate immune response. Conclusions In summary, curation of the InnateDB interactome provides a wealth of information to enable systems-level analysis of innate immunity. PMID:20727158

  18. Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    Information dominance may be defined as superiority in the generation, manipulation, and use of information sufficient to afford its possessors... information dominance at the strategic level: knowing oneself and one’s enemy; and, at best, inducing them to see things as one does.

  19. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  20. Comparison of vaginal microbial community structure in healthy and endometritis dairy cows by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Sun, Chengtao; Liu, Chang; Yang, Yujiang; Lu, Wenfa

    2016-04-01

    The normal vaginal microflora provides protection against infections of the reproductive tract. Previous studies have focused on the isolation and screening of probiotic strains from the vagina of cows; however, the vaginal microflora of postpartum cows is poorly characterized. The present study was conducted to evaluate and characterize the vaginal microflora of healthy postpartum cows in relation to postpartum cows with endometritis by using PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and Real-time PCR. The study population comprised 5 healthy cows and 5 cows with endometritis. The results indicated that the vaginal bacterial microflora of healthy postpartum cows was dominated by Lactobacillus sakei subsp. and Weissella koreensis, while there were no dominant bacterial species in the vaginal microflora of postpartum cows with endometritis. Common microorganisms such as Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., Enterococcus spp., Prevotella spp., Clostridium perfringens strains, and Escherichia coli were detected in both groups of cows by Real-time PCR. The bacterial diversity in the vagina of cows with endometritis was significantly higher than that in healthy cows. The results indicated that the vaginal microflora of cows with endometritis was more diverse and lacked dominant bacterial species as compared to that of the healthy cows, suggesting that disruption of the normal vaginal microflora may contribute to the onset of endometritis. This microbial community analysis provided information that might be used to develop probiotics to treat endometritis in cows; however, further investigation is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fitting Cows to Your Operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic diversity in cattle can be used to improve efficiency of the cow herd. A cow that is optimum in one production system may not be the best cow for another production system. To improve cow efficiency, we need to optimize the ratio of output to inputs. The optimum ratio on biological bases ...

  2. Dairy cow feeding space requirements assessed in a Y-maze choice test.

    PubMed

    Rioja-Lang, F C; Roberts, D J; Healy, S D; Lawrence, A B; Haskell, M J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of proximity to a dominant cow on a low-ranking cow's willingness to feed was assessed using choice tests. The main aim of the experiment was to determine the feeding space allowance at which the majority of subordinate cows would choose to feed on high-palatability food (HPF) next to a dominant cow rather than feeding alone on low-palatability food (LPF). Thirty Holstein-Friesian cows were used in the study. Half of the cows were trained to make an association between a black bin and HPF and a white bin and LPF, and the other half were trained with the opposite combination. Observations of pair-wise aggressive interactions were observed during feeding to determine the relative social status of each cow. From this, dominant and subordinate cows were allocated to experimental pairs. When cows had achieved an HPF preference with an 80% success rate in training, they were presented with choices using a Y-maze test apparatus, in which cows were offered choices between feeding on HPF with a dominant cow and feeding on LPF alone. Four different space allowances were tested at the HPF feeder: 0.3, 0.45, 0.6, and 0.75 m. At the 2 smaller space allowances, cows preferred to feed alone (choices between feeding alone or not for 0.3- and 0.45-m tests were significantly different). For the 2 larger space allowances, cows had no significant preferences (number of choices for feeding alone or with a dominant). Given that low-status cows are willing to sacrifice food quality to avoid close contact with a dominant animal, we suggest that the feeding space allowance should be at least 0.6m per cow whenever possible. However, even when space allowances are large, it is clear that some subordinate cows will still prefer to avoid proximity to dominant individuals. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  4. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  5. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive Control of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Anil

    2010-01-01

    1. Summary The mechanisms by which the immune system responds to an infection or disease depend on a complex interplay between the elements of innate and adaptive immunity. While most of the focus so far has been on the innate instruction of the adaptive immune responses, considerable evidence now suggests an equally important adaptive control of the innate immunity. Several studies yield new insights into how the adaptive immunity by initiating an antigen–specific response can compensate, suppress and activate innate responses at the site of tissue antigen. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the adaptive control of immune effector functions in various pathological and physiological conditions. PMID:20394777

  7. Innate immune memory in mammals.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Melanie A; Quintin, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity have evolved as sophisticated mechanisms of host defence against invading pathogens. Classically the properties attributed to innate immunity are its rapid pleiotropic response, and to adaptive immunity its specificity and ability to retain a long-term memory of past infections. It is now clear that innate immunity also contributes to raising a memory response upon pathogenic assault. In this review we will discuss the interaction between bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic molecular patterns and innate immune cells in which a memory response is imposed, or has the potential to be imposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  9. Innate cellular immunity and xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review This review assesses the recent progress in xenograft rejection by innate immune responses, with a focus on innate cellular xenoreactivity. Recent findings Current literature was reviewed for new insights into the role of innate cellular immunity in xenograft rejection. Increasing evidence confirms that vigorous innate immune cell activation is accounted for by a combination of xenoantigen recognition by activating receptors, and incompatibility in inhibitory receptor-ligand interactions. Although both innate humoral and cellular xenoimmune responses are predominantly elicited by preformed and induced xenoreactive antibodies in nonhuman primates following porcine xenotransplantation, innate immune cells can also be activated by xenografts in the absence of antibodies. The latter antibody-independent response will likely persist in recipients even when adaptive xenoimmune responses are suppressed. In addition to xenograft rejection by recipient innate immune cells, phagocytic cells within liver xenografts are also deleterious to recipients by causing thrombocytopenia. Summary Strategies of overcoming innate immune responses are required for successful clinical xenotransplantation. In addition to developing better immunosuppressive and tolerance induction protocols, endeavors towards further genetic modifications of porcine source animals are ultimately important for successful clinical xenotransplantation. PMID:22262106

  10. Sleep and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2011-01-01

    Many pro-inflammatory molecules, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are somnogenic, while many anti-inflammatory molecules inhibit sleep. Sleep loss increases the production/release of these sleep regulatory pro-inflammatory molecules. Further, sleep changes occurring during various pathologies are mediated by these inflammatory substances in response to pathogen recognition and subsequent inflammatory cellular pathways. This review summarizes information and concepts regarding inflammatory mechanisms of the innate immune system that mediate sleep. Further, we discuss sleep-immune interactions in regards to sleep in general, pathologies, and sleep as a local phenomenon including the central role that extracellular ATP plays in the initiation of sleep.

  11. ID'ing innate and innate-like lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2014-09-01

    The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B- and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ID’ing Innate and Innate-like Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C.; Kee, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. PMID:25123285

  13. Parturition to resumption of ovarian cyclicity: comparative aspects of beef and dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Williams, E J

    2014-05-01

    There is a variable anoestrous period following parturition in the cow. Follicular growth generally resumes within 7 to 10 days in the majority of cows associated with a transient FSH rise that occurs within 3 to 5 days of parturition. Dairy cows that are not nutritionally stressed generally ovulate their first postpartum dominant follicle (~15 days), whereas beef suckler cows in good body condition normally have a mean of 3.2±0.2 dominant follicles (~30 days) to first ovulation; moreover, beef cows in poor body condition have a mean of 10.6±1.2 dominant follicles (~70 to 100 days) to first ovulation. The lack of ovulation of dominant follicles during the postpartum period is associated with infrequent LH pulses, with both maternal-offspring bonding and low body condition score (BCS) at calving being implicated as the predominant causes of delayed resumption of cyclicity in nursed beef cows. In dairy cows, the normal pattern of early resumption of ovulation may be delayed in high-yielding Holstein type cows generally owing to the effects of severe negative energy balance, dystocia, retained placental membranes and uterine infections. First ovulation, in both dairy and beef cows, is generally silent (i.e., no behavioural oestrus) and followed by a short inter-ovulatory interval (>70%). The key to optimizing the resumption of ovulation in both beef and dairy cows is appropriate pre-calving nutrition and management so that cows calve down in optimal body condition (BCS; 2.75 to 3.0) with postpartum body condition loss restricted to <0.5 BCS units.

  14. Innate and Adaptive Immunity Synergize to Trigger Inflammation in the Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Rainard, Pascal; Cunha, Patricia; Gilbert, Florence B.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is able to detect and react to bacterial intrusion through innate immunity mechanisms, but mammary inflammation can also result from antigen-specific adaptive immunity. We postulated that innate and adaptive immune responses could synergize to trigger inflammation in the mammary gland. To test this hypothesis, we immunized cows with the model antigen ovalbumin and challenged the sensitized animals with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as innate immunity agonist, ovalbumin as adaptive immunity agonist, or both agonists in three different udder quarters of lactating cows. There was a significant amplification of the initial milk leukocytosis in the quarters challenged with the two agonists compared to leukocytosis in quarters challenged with LPS or ovalbumin alone. This synergistic response occurred only with the cows that developed the ovalbumin-specific inflammatory response, and there were significant correlations between milk leukocytosis and production of IL-17A and IFN-γ in a whole-blood ovalbumin stimulation assay. The antigen-specific response induced substantial concentrations of IL-17A and IFN-γ in milk contrary to the response to LPS. Such a synergy at the onset of the reaction of the mammary gland suggests that induction of antigen-specific immune response with bacterial antigens could improve the initial immune response to infection, hence reducing the bacterial load and contributing to protection. PMID:27100324

  15. Innate Immune Evasion by Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Basler, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viruses and Marburg viruses, members of the filovirus family, cause severe hemorrhagic fever. The ability of these viruses to potently counteract host innate immune responses is thought to be an important component of viral pathogenesis. Several mechanisms of filoviral innate immune evasion have been defined and are reviewed here. These mechanisms inclue suppression of type I interferon (IFN) production; inhibition of IFN-signaling and mechanisms that either prevent cell stress responses or allow the virus to replication in the face of such responses. A greater understanding these innate immune evasion mechanisms may suggest novel therapeutic approaches for these deadly pathogens. PMID:25843618

  16. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  17. Is matching innate?

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S

    2007-03-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling. Matching was observed from the outset; it did not improve with training. When the numbers of pellets received were proportional to time invested, investment was unstable, swinging abruptly from sustained, almost complete investment in one hopper, to sustained, almost complete investment in the other-in the absence of appropriate local fluctuations in returns (pellets obtained per time invested). The abruptness of the swings strongly constrains possible models. We suggest that matching reflects an innate (unconditioned) program that matches the ratio of expected visit durations to the ratio between the current estimates of expected incomes. A model that processes the income stream looking for changes in the income and generates discontinuous income estimates when a change is detected is shown to account for salient features of the data.

  18. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bridging innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Paul, William E

    2011-12-09

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2011 to Jules Hoffmann, Bruce Beutler, and the late Ralph Steinman recognizes accomplishments in understanding and unifying the two strands of immunology, the evolutionarily ancient innate immune response and modern adaptive immunity.

  20. Innate immune memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Innate and adaptive genetic pathways in HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, R; Hydes, T; Khakoo, S I

    2015-04-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. This heterogeneity is underpinned by the host immune response and the genetic factors that govern it. Polymorphisms affecting both the innate and adaptive immunity determine the outcome of exposure. However the innate immune system appears to play a greater role in determining treatment-associated responses. Overall the effects of IFNL3/4 appear dominant over other polymorphic genes. Understanding how host genetics determines the disease phenotype has not been as intensively studied. This review summarizes our current understanding of innate and adaptive immunogenetic factors in the outcome of HCV infection. It focuses on how they relate to resolution and the progression of HCV-related liver disease, in the context of current and future treatment regimes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of the Ketone Body Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on the Innate Defense Capability of Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flinspach, Claudia; Pfaffl, Michael W.; Kliem, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Negative energy balance and ketosis are thought to cause impaired immune function and to increase the risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of elevated levels of the predominant ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate on the innate defense capability of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) challenged with the mastitis pathogen Escherichia coli (E. coli). Therefore, pbMEC of healthy dairy cows in mid- lactation were isolated from milk and challenged in culture with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli. pbMEC stimulated with E. coli for 6 h or 30 h showed an up-regulation of several innate immune genes, whereas co-stimulation of pbMEC with 3 mM BHBA and E. coli resulted in the down-regulation of CCL2, SAA3, LF and C3 gene expression compared to the challenge with solely the bacterial stimulus. These results indicated that increased BHBA concentrations may be partially responsible for the higher mastitis susceptibility of dairy cows in early lactation. Elevated levels of BHBA in blood and milk during negative energy balance and ketosis are likely to impair innate immune function in the bovine mammary gland by attenuating the expression of a broad range of innate immune genes. PMID:27310007

  3. Cool Cow Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides a game to help develop the skill of estimating and making educated guesses. Uses facts about cows to explain some problems associated with the dairy industry. Includes cards and rules for playing, class adaptation procedures, follow-up activities, and availability of background information on humane concerns. (RT)

  4. Innate immunity in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Minnicozzi, Michael; Sawyer, Richard T; Fenton, Matthew J

    2011-07-01

    The innate immune system consists of multiple cell types that express germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Allergens are frequently found in forms and mixtures that contain PAMPs and DAMPs. The innate immune system is interposed between the external environment and the internal acquired immune system. It is also an integral part of the airways, gut, and skin. These tissues face continuous exposure to allergens, PAMPs, and DAMPs. Interaction of allergens with the innate immune system normally results in immune tolerance but, in the case of allergic disease, this interaction induces recurring and/or chronic inflammation as well as the loss of immunologic tolerance. Upon activation by allergens, the innate immune response commits the acquired immune response to a variety of outcomes mediated by distinct T-cell subsets, such as T-helper 2, regulatory T, or T-helper 17 cells. New studies highlighted in this review underscore the close relationship between allergens, the innate immune system, and the acquired immune system that promotes homeostasis versus allergic disease.

  5. Innate immune recognition of cancer.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seng-Ryong; Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    The observation that a subset of cancer patients show evidence for spontaneous CD8+ T cell priming against tumor-associated antigens has generated renewed interest in the innate immune pathways that might serve as a bridge to an adaptive immune response to tumors. Manipulation of this endogenous T cell response with therapeutic intent-for example, using blocking antibodies inhibiting PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1) interactions-is showing impressive clinical results. As such, understanding the innate immune mechanisms that enable this T cell response has important clinical relevance. Defined innate immune interactions in the cancer context include recognition by innate cell populations (NK cells, NKT cells, and γδ T cells) and also by dendritic cells and macrophages in response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Recent evidence has indicated that the major DAMP driving host antitumor immune responses is tumor-derived DNA, sensed by the stimulator of interferon gene (STING) pathway and driving type I IFN production. A deeper knowledge of the clinically relevant innate immune pathways involved in the recognition of tumors is leading toward new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.

  6. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  7. Innate Immune Activation in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system is a prewired set of cellular and humoral components that has developed to sense perturbations in normal physiology and trigger responses to restore the system back to baseline. It is now understood that many of these components can also sense the physiologic changes that occur with obesity and be activated. While the exact reasons for this chronic immune response to obesity are unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest that innate inflammatory systems link obesity and disease. Based on this, anti-inflammatory therapies for diseases like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome may form the core of future treatment plans. This review will highlight the components involved in the innate immune response and discuss the evidence that they contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases. PMID:23068074

  8. GPCRs in invertebrate innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Jerome; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-08-15

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a privileged point of contact between cells and their surrounding environment. They have been widely adopted in vertebrates as mediators of signals involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Invertebrates rely on innate immune defences to resist infection. We review here evidence from a number of different species, principally the genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster that points to an important role for GPCRs in modulating innate immunity in invertebrates too. In addition to examples of GPCRs involved in regulating the expression of defence genes, we discuss studies in C. elegans addressing the role of GPCR signalling in pathogen aversive behaviour. Despite the many lacunae in our current knowledge, it is clear that GPCR signalling contributes to host defence across the animal kingdom.

  9. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  10. Ambient ozone and pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hegelan, Mashael; Tighe, Robert M.; Castillo, Christian; Hollingsworth, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient ozone is a criteria air pollutant that impacts both human morbidity and mortality. The effect of ozone inhalation includes both toxicity to lung tissue and alteration of the host immunologic response. The innate immune system facilitates immediate recognition of both foreign pathogens and tissue damage. Emerging evidence supports that ozone can modify the host innate immune response and that this response to inhaled ozone is dependent on genes of innate immunity. Improved understanding of the complex interaction between environmental ozone and host innate immunity will provide fundamental insight into the pathogenesis of inflammatory airways disease. We review the current evidence supporting that environmental ozone inhalation: (1) modifies cell types required for intact innate immunity, (2) is partially dependent on genes of innate immunity, (3) primes pulmonary innate immune responses to LPS, and (4) contributes to innate-adaptive immune system cross-talk. PMID:21132467

  11. Interactions between innate and adaptive lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2014-09-01

    Innate lymphocytes - including natural killer cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells - have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. The contribution of the adaptive immune system to the coordination of innate lymphocyte responses is less well understood. In this Opinion article, we review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which T cells of the adaptive immune system function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential roles of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes, and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes.

  12. Effectiveness of a recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone on the ovarian follicles, peripheral progesterone, estradiol-17β, and pregnancy rate of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed; Moustafa M., Zeitoun

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed at elucidating the effects of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) on the ovarian follicular dynamics, progesterone, estradiol-17β profiles, and pregnancy of dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Three groups (G, n=5 cows) of multiparous dairy cows were used. G1 (C) control cows were given controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandin F2α; G2 (L) cows were given low dose (525 IU and G3 (H) cows were given high dose (1800 IU) of r-hFSH on twice daily basis at the last 3 days before CIDR removal. All cows were ultrasonically scanned for follicular growth and dynamics, and blood samples were collected every other day for two consecutive estrus cycles for the determination of estradiol-17β and progesterone. Results: Estrus was observed in all C and L but not in H cows. Dominant follicle was bigger in L compared to C and H cows. Dominant follicle in C (16.00±2.5 mm) and L cows (17.40±2.3 mm) disappeared at 72 h after CIDR removal. However, in H cows, no ovulation has occurred during 7 days post-CIDR removal. Progesterone was not different (p>0.10) among groups, whereas estradiol-17β revealed significant (p<0.01) reduction in H (15.96±2.5 pg/ml) cows compared to C (112.26±26.1 pg/ml) and L (97.49±15.9 pg/ml) cows. Pregnancy rate was higher in L cows (60%) compared with C cows (20%). However, H cows were not artificially inseminated due to non-ovulation. Only a cow of C group has calved one calf, however, 2 of the L cows gave birth of twins and a cow gave single calf. Conclusion: Administration of a low dose (525 IU) of r-hFSH resulted in an optimal size of dominant follicle, normal values of progesterone and estradiol-17β, and 40% twinning rate, howeverusing 1800 IU of r-hFSH, have adverse effects on ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal profiles with non-pregnancy of dairy cows raised under hot climate. PMID:27536029

  13. Whole cow's milk in infancy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander Kc; Sauve, Reginald S

    2003-09-01

    Early introduction of whole cow's milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia. From a nutritional point of view, it is best to delay the introduction of whole cow's milk until the infant is one year old. While there is no evidence to suggest adverse clinical sequelae associated with the increased renal solute load in healthy infants, feeding with whole cow's milk would narrow the margin of safety in situations that may lead to dehydration. Early exposure to cow's milk proteins increases the risk of developing allergy to milk proteins. Because of the possible association between early exposure to cow's milk proteins and risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus, breast-feeding and avoidance of commercially available cow's milk and products containing intact cow's milk protein during the first year of life are strongly encouraged in families with a strong history of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The authors suggest that the optimal food in infancy is human breast milk. If human milk is not available, it is preferred that iron-fortified formulas rather than whole cow's milk be used during the first year of life.

  14. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  15. How the COW happened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, R.; Overhauser, A. W.

    2006-11-01

    In the course of a casual conversation during a social gathering, in the spring of 1974, we were discussing some recent developments in the area of diffraction from perfect crystals, namely, interferometry in the Angstrom region. I (R.C.) was asked by Al Overhauser whether or not I knew anything about the subject. “Not much” was my answer, “but I can read some papers”. Al then proceeded to describe a possible experiment, namely, the effect of gravity on the quantum mechanical phase of the neutron, in essence, what later was called the COW experiment (Colella, Overhauser, Werner).

  16. Tuning innate immunity by translation.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Robert; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-12-01

    In multicellular organisms, the epithelia is a contact surface with the surrounding environment and is exposed to a variety of adverse biotic (pathogenic) and abiotic (chemical) factors. Multi-layered pathways that operate on different time scales have evolved to preserve cellular integrity and elicit stress-specific response. Several stress-response programs are activated until a complete elimination of the stress is achieved. The innate immune response, which is triggered by pathogenic invasion, is rather harmful when active over a prolonged time, thus the response follows characteristic oscillatory trajectories. Here, we review different translation programs that function to precisely fine-tune the time at which various components of the innate immune response dwell between active and inactive. We discuss how different pro-inflammatory pathways are co-ordinated to temporally offset single reactions and to achieve an optimal balance between fighting pathogens and being less harmful for healthy cells.

  17. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  18. Effect of ovulatory follicle size and expression of estrus on progesterone secretion in beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Induced ovulation of small dominant follicles (sdf, <12 mm; CO-Synch protocol) in postpartum beef cows resulted in formation of CL that exhibited a delayed rise in progesterone (P4; P < 0.05) compared to CL that formed from large dominant follicles (ldf, >12 mm). The objective was to characterize P4...

  19. Systems biology of innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Daniel E.; Aderem, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Summary Systems biology is the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the interactions between all of the components of biological systems over time. Systems biology involves an iterative cycle, in which emerging biological problems drive the development of new technologies and computational tools. These technologies and tools then open new frontiers that revolutionize biology. Innate immunity is well suited for systems analysis, because the relevant cells can be isolated in various functional states and their interactions can be reconstituted in a biologically meaningful manner. Application of the tools of systems biology to the innate immune system will enable comprehensive analysis of the complex interactions that maintain the difficult balance between host defense and inflammatory disease. In this review, we discuss innate immunity in the context of the systems biology concepts, emergence, robustness, and modularity, and we describe emerging technologies we are applying in our systems-level analyses. These technologies include genomics, proteomics, computational analysis, forward genetics screens, and analyses that link human genetic polymorphisms to disease resistance. PMID:19120490

  20. Space allowance and barriers influence cow competition for mixed rations fed on a feed-pad between bouts of grazing.

    PubMed

    Hetti Arachchige, A D; Fisher, A D; Wales, W J; Auldist, M J; Hannah, M C; Jongman, E C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate how feeding space allowance and provision of feed barriers interact to affect feeding and social behavior of dairy cows fed a partial mixed ration on a feed-pad. The treatments were factorial with 3 feeding space allowances (0.6, 0.75, or 1.0m of trough space per cow) and feed troughs that were either open or had head barriers that physically separated adjacent cows to reduce interactions during feeding. One hundred and forty-four Holstein-Friesian cows in mid lactation were allocated into 12 groups of 12 cows, with 1 of 6 treatments (3 × 2) randomly assigned to 2 groups out of 12. Treatments were changed weekly over 3 wk according to a row-column, crossover design, with week corresponding to rows and group corresponding to columns. Thus, the design included 2 replicated groups per treatment in each week. Grazed pasture intake was approximately 6.1 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day, supplemented with 3.5 kg of DM/cow per day of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain fed during milking and 10.7 kg of DM/cow per day of a mixed ration offered on the feed-pad after each milking. The experiment comprised a 7-d pre-experimental period followed by a 21-d experimental period. The social hierarchy within each group was determined before the experiment commenced. Feeding and social behaviors of cows were analyzed using video recordings and the changes in heart rate and heart rate variability were determined using heart rate monitors. Data were analyzed using mixed effect models by REML. When feeding space allowance was increased, we observed an increase in the time a cow spent feeding and a decrease in the number of feeding bouts in relation to the total time feed was available, particularly in subordinate cows. The number of aggressive behaviors and displacements decreased when space allowance increased. In addition, HR was reduced and the reduction was more pronounced in subordinate cows compared with dominant cows. Use of feed

  1. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  2. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  3. Timed artificial insemination in blocks: A new alternative to improve fertility in lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, L F M; Castro, N A; Melo, V T O; Neves, P M A; Cestaro, J P; Schneider, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changing the interval from CIDR removal to timed artificial insemination (TAI) according to the diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) would improve pregnancy per AI in cows. In Study 1, a retrospective analysis of TAI experiments (n=96 cows) was performed to characterize the time of ovulation according to the diameter of the dominant follicle. It was observed that cows with a larger POF had ovulations earlier than cows with smaller POF, according to the equation: y=0.72x(2)-26.74x+264.54 (R(2)=0.63; P<0.001). In Study 2, lactating Nelore cows (n=412) were subjected to an EB-CIDR based TAI protocol. On the morning of Day 10 (time of TAI), cows were randomized into Control (n=209) and Block (n=203) groups; (1) Cows in the Control Group were TAI 48 h after CIDR removal (08:00 am on Day 10), and; (2) Cows in the block group were inseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the POF on Day 10: B0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0 h after convetional TAI), B1 (POF 13-14.9 mm, TAI 6h later), B2 (POF 10.1-12.9 mm, TAI 24h later) and B3 (POF≤10mm, TAI 30 h later). The cows of the Block Group had greater pregnancy rates per AI than the Control Group (129/203, 63.5% when compared with 102/209, 48.8%, respectively; P<0.01). In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrate that adjusting the timing of TAI according to the diameter of the POF can be an effective practice for improving fertility of cows in TAI protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    of the total variation between primiparous cows, whereas variables related to milk yield, fertility, and days in milk at peak yield were the most dominating for multiparous cows. Our study indicated that milk yields in previous lactation and at second and third milk recording correlate well with milk production potential, and therefore, may be promising indicators when selecting the most suitable cows for extended lactation.

  5. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... there is a system in which samples of animals are tested. This is one way to help prevent contaminated meat from reaching the shelves. The testing system helped officials identify a contaminated cow in ...

  6. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing

  7. Chondrosarcoma in a cow.

    PubMed

    Acland, H M

    1983-10-01

    Chondrosarcomas are rare in cattle and none has been described in detail. A 30 cm diameter chondrosarcoma centred upon the costochondral junctions of the left 9th to 12th ribs of a 5-year-old Aberdeen Angus cow is described. In areas with a cartilaginous matrix the chondrocytes were plump, sometimes binucleate, sometimes bizarre, with occasionally 2 or more cells per lacuna. The other major matrix was loose and fibrillar, and the cells were spindle-shaped or stellate, with a moderate mitotic rate. Small areas appeared fibrosarcomatous. Both major types of matrix were present in the metastases, which extensively involved the pleura, intrathoracic lymph nodes and lungs. Less numerous and smaller metastases were present on the peritoneal surfaces and within several abdominal and pelvic organs. It is postulated that local extension of the tumour from the primary mass was followed by lymphatic spread to the lungs.

  8. The birth of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Richard L

    2013-08-01

    Modern immunology has seen an apparent revolution with the recognition that human immune defense is not only the responsibility of bone marrow-derived leucocytes, but also dependent on a coordinated network of many cell types including epithelial cells, fibroblasts and neural elements. This classic paper by Alexander Fleming and V.D. Allison (British J of Exp Path, 111, 1922, 252) was largely forgotten for 75 years and describes the discovery that epithelia produce a protein with direct antimicrobial activity. Thus, this paper represents the birth of the field now referred to as innate immunity and first describes an antimicrobial protein (AMP).

  9. Innate Immunity against Leishmania Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects more than 300 million people throughout the world. The morbidity associated with the disease causes serious economic burden in Leishmania endemic regions. Despite the morbidity and economic burden associated with Leishmaniasis, this disease rarely gets noticed and is still categorized under neglected tropical diseases. The lack of research combined with the ability of Leishmania to evade immune recognition has rendered our efforts to design therapeutic treatments or vaccines challenging. Herein, we review the literature on Leishmania from innate immune perspective and discuss potential problems as well as solutions and future directions that could aid in identifying novel therapeutic targets to eliminate this parasite. PMID:26249747

  10. Beef cow-calf production.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  11. The biology of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Artis, David; Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-15

    The innate immune system is composed of a diverse array of evolutionarily ancient haematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. These cell populations collaborate with each other, with the adaptive immune system and with non-haematopoietic cells to promote immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. Innate lymphoid cells are the most recently identified constituents of the innate immune system and have been the focus of intense investigation over the past five years. We summarize the studies that formally identified innate lymphoid cells and highlight their emerging roles in controlling tissue homeostasis in the context of infection, chronic inflammation, metabolic disease and cancer.

  12. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production.

  13. Mast cells in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jean S; Jawdat, Dunia M

    2004-07-01

    Mast cells have been most extensively studied in their traditional role as an early effector cell of allergic disease. However, in the majority of individuals, it might be the role of this cell as a sentinel in host defense that is most important. Mast cells have been repeatedly demonstrated to play a critical role in defense against bacterial infections, and evidence for their involvement in early responses to viral and fungal pathogens is growing. Mast cells are activated during innate immune responses by multiple mechanisms, including well-established responses to complement components. In addition, novel mechanisms have emerged as a result of the explosion of knowledge in our understanding of pattern-recognition receptors. The mast cell shares many features with other innate immune effector cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages. However, a unique role for mast cells is defined not only by their extensive mediator profile but also by their ability to interact with the vasculature, to expedite selective cell recruitment, and to set the stage for an appropriate acquired response. Copyright 2004 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology

  14. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, David C.; Murrell, Joanna C.; Whay, Helen R.

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  15. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from dairy cows and humans on a farm differ in coagulase genotype.

    PubMed

    Schlegelová, J; Dendis, M; Benedík, J; Babák, V; Rysánek, D

    2003-04-29

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of animal and human infections. The aim of the present study was to test diversity of the populations of S. aureus colonising cattle and humans sharing an infected environment. Eighty-six S. aureus isolates obtained from dairy cows, from people coming into contact with dairy cows on the farm and the other farm personnel were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the coagulase gene. Molecular analyses identified ten polymorphism types with prevalent presentation of type II in isolates from cow's milk and type IV in isolates from people coming into contact with dairy cows on the farm (the cattlemen) and the other farm personnel. Seven further genotypes were identified among the isolates from the cattlemen. The results indicate that the strains dominating in human population did not equate to the causative agents of bovine mastitis.

  16. Meeting the demand for innate and adaptive immunities during evolution.

    PubMed

    Du Pasquier, L

    2005-07-01

    An ideal immune system should provide each individual with rapid and efficient responses, a diverse repertoire of recognition and effector molecules and a certain flexibility to match the changing internal and external environment. It should be economic in cells and genes. Specific memory would be useful. It should not be autoreactive. These requirements, a mixture of innate and adaptive immunity features, are modulated in function of the dominant mode of selection for each species of metazoa during evolution (K or r). From sponges to man, a great diversity of receptors and effector mechanisms, some of them shared with plants, are articulated around conserved signalling cascades. Multiple attempts at combining innate and adaptive immunity somatic features can be observed as new somatic mechanisms provide individualized repertoires of receptors throughout metazoa, in agnathans, prochordates, echinoderms and mollusks. The adaptive immunity of vertebrates with lymphocytes and their specific receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily, the major histocompatibility complex, developed from innate immunity evolutionary lines that can be traced back in earlier deuterostomes.

  17. Dairy cow disability weights.

    PubMed

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  18. Genomic analysis of between-cow variation in dermal fibroblast response to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, S.; Kerr, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune response plays a major role in defense against mastitis causing pathogens. Identification of existing variation in innate immune signaling among cows and the underlying molecular causes for the variation may help in design of new mastitis control strategies. The dermal fibroblast has been used as a model cell type to explore between-cow variation in the ability of cells to produce IL-8 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and this response appears related to an animal’s ability to respond to in vivo challenge with LPS or Escherichia coli mastitis. In this study, primary dermal fibroblast cultures of cows and microarray-based genomic analysis were used to investigate the cause(s) for the variable response to LPS. Fibroblast cultures from two cows, one with a low response phenotype (LRarray) and another with a high response phenotype (HRarray) were selected from our collection of fibroblast cultures established from 88 cows. The LR array fibroblast culture produces approximately five-fold less IL-8 as well as IL-6 proteins in response to 24 h LPS treatment than the HRarray fibroblast culture. Genomic analysis of RNA obtained from three replicates of the two cultures before and after 8 h LPS treatment revealed a combined LPS-induced differential expression of 321 transcripts indicating the robust response capability of the fibroblast cell. Under basal conditions, the microarray analysis revealed two-fold less TLR4 expression in the LR array fibroblasts as compared to the HRarray fibroblasts and this was associated with a marked reduction in expression of genes regulated by the TLR4-MyD88-dependent and TLR4-TRIF-dependent pathways (IL-8, IL-6, SAA3, CCL20, MX1, IRF1 and ISG20). The between-culture differential expression of TLR4 was confirmed and extended by quantitative PCR analysis (QPCR) that revealed a 33-fold lower expression of TLR4 in the LRarray fibroblast culture. After LPS treatment the difference in TLR4 expression increased

  19. [Innate immunity, Toll receptor and sepsis].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl

    2003-01-01

    The innate immune response is the first line of defense against infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide and other pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Intracellular signals initiated by interaction between Toll receptors and specific PAMPs results in inflammatory response. Sepsis and septic shock are the result of an exaggerated inflammatory systemic response induced by innate immune dysregulation.

  20. Innate immune responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Elise G.; Wangdi, Tamding; Kazmierczak, Barbara I.

    2011-01-01

    Innate immune responses play a critical role in controlling acute infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both mice and in humans. In this review we focus on innate immune recognition and clearance mechanisms that are important for controlling P. aeruginosa in the mammalian lung, with particular attention to those that influence the outcome of in vivo infection in murine models. PMID:21839853

  1. Innate lymphoid cells in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Engelbertsen, Daniel; Lichtman, Andrew H

    2017-04-25

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consisting of NK cells, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and the 'helper'-like ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 have been shown to have important roles in protection against microbes, regulation of inflammatory diseases and involved in allergic reactions. ILC1s produce IFN-γ upon stimulation with IL-12 and IL-18, ILC2s produce IL-5 and IL-13 responding to IL-33 and IL-25 while ILC3s produce IL-17 and IL-22 after stimulation with IL-23 or IL-1. Although few studies have directly investigated the role for ILCs in atherosclerosis, several studies have investigated transcription factors and cytokines shared by ILCs and T helper cells. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the role of ILC in atherosclerosis and discuss future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Blurring Borders: Innate Immunity with Adaptive Features

    PubMed Central

    Kvell, K.; Cooper, EL.; Engelmann, P.; Bovari, J.; Nemeth, P.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive immunity has often been considered the penultimate of immune capacities. That system is now being deconstructed to encompass less stringent rules that govern its initiation, actual effector activity, and ambivalent results. Expanding the repertoire of innate immunity found in all invertebrates has greatly facilitated the relaxation of convictions concerning what actually constitutes innate and adaptive immunity. Two animal models, incidentally not on the line of chordate evolution (C. elegans and Drosophila), have contributed enormously to defining homology. The characteristics of specificity and memory and whether the antigen is pathogenic or nonpathogenic reveal considerable information on homology, thus deconstructing the more fundamentalist view. Senescence, cancer, and immunosuppression often associated with mammals that possess both innate and adaptive immunity also exist in invertebrates that only possess innate immunity. Strict definitions become blurred casting skepticism on the utility of creating rigid definitions of what innate and adaptive immunity are without considering overlaps. PMID:18317532

  3. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    PubMed

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Consider a spherical cow

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, J.

    1985-01-01

    Consider a Spherical Cow describes relatively simple mathematical methods for developing quantitative answers to often complex environmental problems. Early chapters provide systematic insights into problem solving and identifying mathematical tools and models that lead to back of the envelope answers. Subsequent chapters treat increasingly complex problems. Solutions are sought at different levels, e.g., informed guesses, quantitative solutions based on detailed analytical models, and ultimately, critical evaluation of the consequences of removing simplifying assumptions from the models. The vehicle employed is a collection of 44 challenging problems, with clearly worked out solutions, plus ample exercises. The book, though directed at environmentalists, should appeal to chemists. Many of the problems are rooted in chemistry, including acid rain, the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect, chemical contamination, and the disturbing of cyclical chemical balances. Readers feeling a civic responsibility to think and speak more clearly on environmental issues will find the essential modeling and quantitative approaches valuable assets beyond the help provided by the usual courses in science and mathematics. In fact, the techniques of problem solving have broad applicability beyond the specific environmental examples covered in this text.

  5. Amyloidosis in six dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R; Jamison, K

    1984-12-15

    Amyloidosis was diagnosed in 6 Holstein cows that were examined because of chronic intractable diarrhea. Besides diarrhea, the chief finding was a nephrotic-like syndrome, in that there was edema, hypoproteinemia, and proteinuria. Other consistent clinicopathologic abnormalities were hyperfibrinogenemia, low-normal serum calcium content or hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged bromosulphalein half time, high serum urea nitrogen concentration, high serum creatinine concentration, and low urine specific gravity. Foci of inflammation including traumatic reticuloperitonitis, traumatic pericarditis, salpingitis, mastitis, and metritis were found. There was histologic evidence of amyloid in the kidneys, liver, adrenal glands, and spleen. The iodine-sulfuric acid test for amyloid was positive in 2 cows. The Congo red dye test for amyloid was positive in 2 other cows. In spite of supportive care, all the cows either died naturally or were euthanatized. Because foci of inflammation were found in each cow, it was concluded that the most likely classification of amyloidosis in these cases would be reactive systemic amyloidosis and that the major amyloid fibril protein would be type AA.

  6. Adaptive and Innate Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Impact Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency and Reactivation▿

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Sariah J.; Mott, Kevin R.; Wechsler, Steven L.; Flavell, Richard A.; Town, Terrence; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play important protective roles by combating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key negative cytokine regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Yet, it is unknown whether TGF-β signaling in either immune compartment impacts HSV-1 replication and latency. We undertook genetic approaches to address these issues by infecting two different dominant negative TGF-β receptor type II transgenic mouse lines. These mice have specific TGF-β signaling blockades in either T cells or innate cells. Mice were ocularly infected with HSV-1 to evaluate the effects of restricted innate or adaptive TGF-β signaling during acute and latent infections. Limiting innate cell but not T cell TGF-β signaling reduced virus replication in the eyes of infected mice. On the other hand, blocking TGF-β signaling in either innate cells or T cells resulted in decreased latency in the trigeminal ganglia of infected mice. Furthermore, inhibiting TGF-β signaling in T cells reduced cell lysis and leukocyte infiltration in corneas and trigeminal ganglia during primary HSV-1 infection of mice. These findings strongly suggest that TGF-β signaling, which generally functions to dampen immune responses, results in increased HSV-1 latency. PMID:21880769

  7. Adaptive and innate transforming growth factor beta signaling impact herpes simplex virus 1 latency and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sariah J; Mott, Kevin R; Wechsler, Steven L; Flavell, Richard A; Town, Terrence; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-11-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play important protective roles by combating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key negative cytokine regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Yet, it is unknown whether TGF-β signaling in either immune compartment impacts HSV-1 replication and latency. We undertook genetic approaches to address these issues by infecting two different dominant negative TGF-β receptor type II transgenic mouse lines. These mice have specific TGF-β signaling blockades in either T cells or innate cells. Mice were ocularly infected with HSV-1 to evaluate the effects of restricted innate or adaptive TGF-β signaling during acute and latent infections. Limiting innate cell but not T cell TGF-β signaling reduced virus replication in the eyes of infected mice. On the other hand, blocking TGF-β signaling in either innate cells or T cells resulted in decreased latency in the trigeminal ganglia of infected mice. Furthermore, inhibiting TGF-β signaling in T cells reduced cell lysis and leukocyte infiltration in corneas and trigeminal ganglia during primary HSV-1 infection of mice. These findings strongly suggest that TGF-β signaling, which generally functions to dampen immune responses, results in increased HSV-1 latency.

  8. Innate and adaptive immune responses to in utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thomas R; Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Sacco, Randy E; Van Campen, Hana

    2015-06-01

    Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent infection with ncpBVDV in the fetus has been attributed to the inability to mount an immune response before 90-150 days of gestational age. The result is 'immune tolerance', persistent viral replication and shedding of ncpBVDV. In contrast, we describe the chronic upregulation of fetal Type I interferon (IFN) pathway genes and the induction of IFN-γ pathways in fetuses of cows infected on day 75 of gestation. Persistently infected (PI) fetal IFN-γ concentrations also increased at day 97 at the peak of fetal viremia and IFN-γ mRNA was significantly elevated in fetal thymus, liver and spleen 14-22 days post maternal inoculation. PI fetuses respond to ncpBVDV infection through induction of Type I IFN and IFN-γ activated genes leading to a reduction in ncpBVDV titer. We hypothesize that fetal infection with BVDV persists because of impaired induction of IFN-γ in the face of activated Type I IFN responses. Clarification of the mechanisms involved in the IFN-associated pathways during BVDV fetal infection may lead to better detection methods, antiviral compounds and selection of genetically resistant breeding animals.

  9. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  10. Evolution of a cytoplasmic tripartite motif (TRIM) protein in cows that restricts retroviral infection.

    PubMed

    Si, Zhihai; Vandegraaff, Nick; O'huigin, Colm; Song, Byeongwoon; Yuan, Wen; Xu, Chen; Perron, Michel; Li, Xing; Marasco, Wayne A; Engelman, Alan; Dean, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph

    2006-05-09

    Primate tripartite motif 5alpha (TRIM5alpha) proteins mediate innate intracellular resistance to retroviruses. In humans, TRIM5 is located in a paralogous cluster that includes TRIM6, TRIM34, and TRIM22. Although TRIM6 and TRIM34 orthologs are found in other mammals, TRIM5 has to date been identified only in primates. Cow cells exhibit early blocks to infection by several retroviruses. We identify a cytoplasmic TRIM protein encoded by LOC505265 that is responsible for the restriction of infection by several lentiviruses and N-tropic murine leukemia virus in cow cells. Susceptibility of N-tropic murine leukemia virus to 505265-mediated restriction is determined primarily by residue 110 of the viral capsid protein. Phylogenetically, cow LOC505265 segregates with the TRIM5/TRIM6/TRIM34 group, but is not an ortholog of known TRIM genes. The B30.2/SPRY domain of 505265 exhibits long variable regions, a characteristic of the proteins encoded by this paralogous group, and shows evidence of positive selection. Apparently, cows have independently evolved a retroviral restriction factor from the same TRIM family that spawned TRIM5 in primates. Particular features of this subset of cytoplasmic TRIM proteins may be conducive to the convergent evolution of virus-restricting factors.

  11. Evolution of a cytoplasmic tripartite motif (TRIM) protein in cows that restricts retroviral infection

    PubMed Central

    Si, Zhihai; Vandegraaff, Nick; O’hUigin, Colm; Song, Byeongwoon; Yuan, Wen; Xu, Chen; Perron, Michel; Li, Xing; Marasco, Wayne A.; Engelman, Alan; Dean, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Primate tripartite motif 5α (TRIM5α) proteins mediate innate intracellular resistance to retroviruses. In humans, TRIM5 is located in a paralogous cluster that includes TRIM6, TRIM34, and TRIM22. Although TRIM6 and TRIM34 orthologs are found in other mammals, TRIM5 has to date been identified only in primates. Cow cells exhibit early blocks to infection by several retroviruses. We identify a cytoplasmic TRIM protein encoded by LOC505265 that is responsible for the restriction of infection by several lentiviruses and N-tropic murine leukemia virus in cow cells. Susceptibility of N-tropic murine leukemia virus to 505265-mediated restriction is determined primarily by residue 110 of the viral capsid protein. Phylogenetically, cow LOC505265 segregates with the TRIM5/TRIM6/TRIM34 group, but is not an ortholog of known TRIM genes. The B30.2/SPRY domain of 505265 exhibits long variable regions, a characteristic of the proteins encoded by this paralogous group, and shows evidence of positive selection. Apparently, cows have independently evolved a retroviral restriction factor from the same TRIM family that spawned TRIM5 in primates. Particular features of this subset of cytoplasmic TRIM proteins may be conducive to the convergent evolution of virus-restricting factors. PMID:16648259

  12. [Innate immunity primary immunodeficiencies and infections].

    PubMed

    Duchamp, M; Miot, C; Bustamante, J C; Picard, C

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) is important for the early and adaptive care of patients and their families. Among the various known PIDs, a number of them concern the innate immune system, which involve a set of cells and mechanisms involved in the host defense by a nonspecific and fast response. The majority of patients with innate immunity defects have a predisposition to one isolated type of infection (bacterial, viral, or fungal), dependent on the genetic defect involved. This article describes the different PIDs involving innate immunity and the immunological investigations allowing for their diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of the biofilm component polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in Staphylococcus aureus infected cow udders.

    PubMed

    Schönborn, Sarah; Krömker, Volker

    2016-11-30

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix made up of polymeric substances. They reduce the effects of antibiotics and allow the microorganisms to evade the innate immune system. This can lead to persistent or recurrent infections. In dairy cow herds, mastitis is a serious problem. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of biofilms in the udders of dairy cows infected with Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, because biofilms may affect the response to treatment of bovine mastitis. Immunofluorescence staining of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a component of S. aureus biofilms, was carried out based on swabs taken from different areas of S. aureus infected udders. We were able to demonstrate the presence of PIA in S. aureus infected bovine udders. However, the applied method is invasive and therefore only really suitable for scientific research and not for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of dendritic cell innate and adaptive immune functions by oral and sublingual immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Pamela A; Keet, Corinne A; Guerrerio, Anthony L; Chichester, Kristin L; Bieneman, Anja P; Hamilton, Robert G; Wood, Robert A; Schroeder, John T

    2014-11-01

    Sublingual (SLIT) and oral immunotherapy (OIT) are promising treatments for food allergy, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) induce and maintain Th2-type allergen-specific T cells, and also regulate innate immunity through their expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We examined how SLIT and OIT influenced DC innate and adaptive immune responses in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk (CM) allergy. SLIT, but not OIT, decreased TLR-induced IL-6 secretion by myeloid DCs (mDCs). SLIT and OIT altered mDC IL-10 secretion, a potent inhibitor of FcεRI-dependent pro-inflammatory responses. OIT uniquely augmented IFN-α and decreased IL-6 secretion by plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), which was associated with reduced TLR-induced IL-13 release in pDC-T cell co-cultures. Both SLIT and OIT decreased Th2 cytokine secretion to CM in pDC-T, but not mDC-T, co-cultures. Therefore, SLIT and OIT exert unique effects on DC-driven innate and adaptive immune responses, which may inhibit allergic inflammation and promote tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of Dendritic Cell Innate and Adaptive Immune Functions by Oral and Sublingual Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Pamela A.; Keet, Corinne A.; Guerrerio, Anthony L.; Chichester, Kristin L.; Bieneman, Anja P.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Wood, Robert A.; Schroeder, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Sublingual (SLIT) and oral immunotherapy (OIT) are promising treatments for food allergy, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic cells (DC) induce and maintain Th2-type allergen-specific T cells, and also regulate innate immunity through their expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We examined how SLIT and OIT influenced DC innate and adaptive immune responses in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk (CM) allergy. SLIT, but not OIT, decreased TLR-induced IL-6 secretion by myeloid DCs (mDCs). SLIT and OIT altered mDC IL-10 secretion, a potent inhibitor of FcεRI-dependent pro-inflammatory responses. OIT uniquely augmented IFN-α and decreased IL-6 secretion by plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), which was associated with reduced TLR-induced IL-13 release in pDC-T cell co-cultures. Both SLIT and OIT decreased Th2 cytokine secretion to CM in pDC-T, but not mDC-T, co-cultures. Therefore, SLIT and OIT exert unique effects on DC-driven innate and adaptive immune responses, which may inhibit allergic inflammation and promote tolerance. PMID:25173802

  16. Structural similarities of human and mammalian lipocalins, and their function in innate immunity and allergy.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Pacios, L F; Bianchini, R; Hofstetter, G; Roth-Walter, F

    2016-03-01

    Owners and their domestic animals via skin shedding and secretions, mutually exchange microbiomes, potential pathogens and innate immune molecules. Among the latter especially lipocalins are multifaceted: they may have an immunomodulatory function and, furthermore, they represent one of the most important animal allergen families. The amino acid identities, as well as their structures by superposition modeling were compared among human lipocalins, hLCN1 and hLCN2, and most important animal lipocalin allergens, such as Can f 1, Can f 2 and Can f 4 from dog, Fel d 4 from cats, Bos d 5 from cow's milk, Equ c 1 from horses, and Mus m 1 from mice, all of them representing major allergens. The β-barrel fold with a central molecular pocket is similar among human and animal lipocalins. Thereby, lipocalins are able to transport a variety of biological ligands in their highly conserved calyx-like cavity, among them siderophores with the strongest known capability to complex iron (Fe(3+) ). Levels of human lipocalins are elevated in nonallergic inflammation and cancer, associated with innate immunoregulatory functions that critically depend on ligand load. Accordingly, deficient loading of lipocalin allergens establishes their capacity to induce Th2 hypersensitivity. Our similarity analysis of human and mammalian lipocalins highlights their function in innate immunity and allergy.

  17. Genetic evaluation for cow livability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When genetic evaluations for Productive Life were introduced by USDA in 1994, U.S. dairy producers had an opportunity to produce healthier cows, and it happened. The genetic evaluations were incorporated into selection programs and the deterioration occurring in pregnancy rate and somatic cell score...

  18. How to reintroduce cow's milk?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    In a child that is allergic to milk, the natural next step, following the elimination diet, is the reintroduction of cow's milk. Several questions may arise. When feasible, this reintroduction has many benefits for the child and his family. However, the disease needs to be well defined by physicians and explained to parents. They need to understand that there are different types of allergy to cow's milk, specifically IgE- and non-IgE-mediated, and each of these may exhibit both a variable duration and frequently an incomplete recovery. Deciding where to first reintroduce cow's milk to a child who has previously followed a milk-free diet, whether it be at home or in a hospital, also frequently presents an issue. Following this first reintroduction, the progressive increase of milk into the diet needs to be managed properly, as not all children will go back to a normal dairy products intake. Recent studies show that most children with milk allergy tolerate products containing baked milk and that their consumption might speed up recovery. Hence, the purpose of the milk challenge in a child on a milk-free diet is becoming, even in a child still reactive to milk, the first step of gradual and individually adapted reintroduction of milk or dairy products. When reintroduction of cow's milk does not work, immunotherapy becomes an option, and this is carried out in specialized centers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Preovulatory estradiol and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in suckled beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality. In Exp. 1, single ovulation reciprocal embryo transfer (ET) was utilized to examine the relationship between preovulatory serum concentrations of estrad...

  20. New thinking, innateness and inherited representation.

    PubMed

    Shea, Nicholas

    2012-08-05

    The New Thinking contained in this volume rejects an Evolutionary Psychology that is committed to innate domain-specific psychological mechanisms: gene-based adaptations that are unlearnt, developmentally fixed and culturally universal. But the New Thinking does not simply deny the importance of innate psychological traits. The problem runs deeper: the concept of innateness is not suited to distinguishing between the New Thinking and Evolutionary Psychology. That points to a more serious problem with the concept of innateness as it is applied to human psychological phenotypes. This paper argues that the features of recent human evolution highlighted by the New Thinking imply that the concept of inherited representation, set out here, is a better tool for theorizing about human cognitive evolution.

  1. Innate intelligence: its origins and problems

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lon

    1998-01-01

    Animal Magnetism and Radionics were among several occult practices used during the 19th century for the treatment of disease. D.D. Palmer was exposed to these teachings and derived many of his ideas about health from the folk medicine practices of his time. As a ‘magnetic healer’ Palmer believed he was correcting an undefined fifth force in the body that is otherwise unknown to science. Palmer believed he could influence this fifth force, termed Innate Intelligence, and that it was the explanation for the presence or absence of health. Today, Innate Intelligence remains an untestable enigma that isolates chiropractic and impedes its acceptance as a legitimate health science. The concept of Innate is derived directly from the occult practices of another era. It carries a high penalty in divisiveness and lack of logical coherence. The chiropractic profession must decide whether the concept of Innate should be retained.

  2. Innate immunesenescence: underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hazeldine, Jon; Lord, Janet M

    2015-04-01

    A well-established feature of physiological ageing is altered immune function, a phenomenon termed immunesenescence. Thought to be responsible in part for the increased incidence and severity of infection reported by older adults, as well as the age-related decline in vaccine efficacy and autoimmunity, immunesenescence affects both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Whilst much is known regarding the impact of age on adaptive immunity, innate immunity has received far less attention from immune gerontologists. However, over the last decade it has become increasingly apparent that this non-specific arm of the immune response undergoes considerable functional and phenotypical alterations with age. Here, we provide a detailed overview of innate immunesenescence and its underlying molecular mechanisms, and highlight those studies whose results indicate that changes in innate immunity with age have a significant impact upon the health and well-being of older adults.

  3. Bone and the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Julia F.; Nakamura, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    The immune system and bone are intimately linked with significant physical and functionally related interactions. The innate immune system functions as an immediate response system to initiate protections against local challenges such as pathogens and cellular damage. Bone is a very specific microenvironment in which infectious attack is less common but repair and regeneration are ongoing and important functions. Thus in the bone the primary goal of innate immune and bone interactions is to maintain tissue integrity. Innate immune signals are critical for removal of damaged and apoptotic cells and to stimulate normal tissue repair and regeneration. In this review we focus on these innate immune mechanisms that function to regulate bone homeostasis. PMID:24500569

  4. Innate Immune Sensing and Response to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Pulendran, Bali; Maddur, Mohan S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Recent studies in mouse models have revealed an indispensable role for the innate immune system in defense against influenza virus. Recognition of the virus by innate immune receptors in a multitude of cell types activates intricate signaling networks, functioning to restrict viral replication. Downstream effector mechanisms include activation of innate immune cells and, induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. However, uncontrolled innate responses are associated with exaggerated disease, especially in pandemic influenza virus infection. Despite advances in the understanding of innate response to influenza in the mouse model, there is a large knowledge gap in humans, particularly in immunocom-promised groups such as infants and the elderly. We propose here, the need for further studies in humans to decipher the role of innate immunity to influenza virus, particularly at the site of infection. These studies will complement the existing work in mice and facilitate the quest to design improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies against influenza. PMID:25078919

  5. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2007-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells. Lymphocyte-deficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1-deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25-Foxp3- or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses.

  6. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells1–4. Lymphocytedeficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1–deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25−Foxp3− or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses. PMID:17891146

  7. Operation DOMINIC. Project Stemwinder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Sampling was accomplished by the RB - 57 aircraft. The detonations Investigated were all air bursts over water during Operation Dominic I at Christmas...limits. III. Stem Cloud Penetration» An RB - 57 aircraft was available for stem penetration missions Irae- dlately following seven of the Dominic ...OPERATION DOMINIC Project Stemwinder (WT-2060)(EX) EXTRACTED VERSION I in 0) o < i D < G. J. Ferber Atmospheric Radioactivity Research

  8. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  9. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  10. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  11. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  12. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  13. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Innate inflammation in Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Susanne M.; Henschel, Angela M.; Hessner, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease often diagnosed in childhood that results in pancreatic β-cell destruction and life-long insulin dependence. T1D susceptibility involves a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors and has historically been attributed to adaptive immunity, though there is now increasing evidence for a role of innate inflammation. Here, we review studies that define a heightened age-dependent innate inflammatory state in T1D families that is paralleled with high fidelity by the T1D-susceptible BioBreeding rat. Innate inflammation may be driven by changes in interactions between the host and environment, such as through an altered microbiome, intestinal hyper-permeability, or viral exposures. Special focus is placed on the temporal measurement of plasma induced transcriptional signatures of recent onset T1D patients and their siblings as well as in the Biobreeding rat as it defines the natural history of innate inflammation. These sensitive and comprehensive analyses have also revealed that those who successfully managed T1D risk develop an age-dependent immunoregulatory state, providing a possible mechanism for the juvenile nature of T1D. Therapeutic targeting of innate inflammation has been proven effective in preventing and delaying T1D in rat models. Clinical trials of agents that suppress innate inflammation have had more modest success, but efficacy is improved by the addition of combinatorial approaches that target other aspects of T1D pathogenesis. An understanding of innate inflammation and mechanisms by which this susceptibility is both potentiated and mitigated offers important insight into T1D progression and avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25980926

  15. Physiologic, health, and production responses of dairy cows supplemented with an immunomodulatory feed ingredient during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Brandão, A P; Cooke, R F; Corrá, F N; Piccolo, M B; Gennari, R; Leiva, T; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-07-01

    insulin-like growth factor-I. Cows receiving OMN had greater milk yield (30.3 vs. 27.1kg/d) and percentage of PMN cells in endometrial cell population (12.2 vs. 3.9%) compared with CON cows. After LPS administration, cows receiving OMN had greater mean serum haptoglobin (212 vs. 94 µg/mL), as well as greater serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor α at 1, 2, and 3 h relative to LPS injection compared with CON cows. In conclusion, OMN supplementation during the transition period enhanced innate immunity parameters and increased milk production in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  17. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  18. PAL Measures Language Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Sylvia

    The Primary Acquisition of Languages Oral Language Dominance Measure (PAL) developed by the El Paso Independent School District determines a child's structural proficiency in English and Spanish and measures language dominance to aid in placing pupils in bilingual programs. PAL consists of four components, including an examiner's manual containing…

  19. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a cow.

    PubMed

    Rissi, D R; Barros, C S L

    2013-09-01

    An 18-month-old Charolais cow developed depression and drooling and was submitted for necropsy after euthanasia. The cow was 1 of 50 moved between 2 farms approximately 5 days before the onset of clinical disease. Gross findings included swollen and hemorrhagic areas of malacia in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Microscopically there was a necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intranuclear astrocytic and neuronal eosinophilic viral inclusions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cerebral cortex as well as in the basal nuclei and thalamus. The gross and microscopic findings were consistent with necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1 or BHV-5), and the diagnosis was confirmed by detection of bovine herpesviral antigen on fresh samples of brain via fluorescent antibody test using a monoclonal antibody against BHV-1 glycoprotein C.

  20. Corruption of innate immunity by bacterial proteases.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host's innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections.

  1. Corruption of Innate Immunity by Bacterial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host’s innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections. PMID:19756242

  2. Innateness and the instinct to learn.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Concepts of innateness were at the heart of Darwin's approach to behavior and central to the ethological theorizing of Lorenz and, at least to start with, of Tinbergen. Then Tinbergen did an about face, and for some twenty years the term 'innate' became highly suspect. He attributed the change to Lehrman's famous 1953 critique in which he asserted that classifying behaviors as innate tells us nothing about how they develop. Although Lehrman made many valid points, I will argue that this exchange also led to profound misunderstandings that were ultimately damaging to progress in research on the development of behavior. The concept of 'instincts to learn', receiving renewed support from current theorizing among geneticists about phenotypic plasticity, provides a potential resolution of some of the controversies that Lehrman created. Bioacoustical studies, particularly on song learning in birds, serve both to confirm some of Lehrman's anxieties about the term 'innate', but also to make a case that he threw out the genetic baby with the bathwater. The breathtaking progress in molecular and developmental genetics has prepared the way for a fuller understanding of the complexities underlying even the simplest notions of innate behavior, necessary before we can begin to comprehend the ontogeny of behavior.

  3. Mating programs including genomic relationships and dominance effects.

    PubMed

    Sun, C; VanRaden, P M; O'Connell, J R; Weigel, K A; Gianola, D

    2013-01-01

    Computerized mating programs using genomic information are needed by breed associations, artificial-insemination organizations, and on-farm software providers, but such software is already challenged by the size of the relationship matrix. As of October 2012, over 230,000 Holsteins obtained genomic predictions in North America. Efficient methods of storing, computing, and transferring genomic relationships from a central database to customers via a web query were developed for approximately 165,000 genotyped cows and the subset of 1,518 bulls whose semen was available for purchase at that time. This study, utilizing 3 breeds, investigated differences in sire selection, methods of assigning mates, the use of genomic or pedigree relationships, and the effect of including dominance effects in a mating program. For both Jerseys and Holsteins, selection and mating programs were tested using the top 50 marketed bulls for genomic and traditional lifetime net merit as well as 50 randomly selected bulls. The 500 youngest genotyped cows in the largest herd in each breed were assigned mates of the same breed with limits of 10 cows per bull and 1 bull per cow (only 79 cows and 8 bulls for Brown Swiss). A dominance variance of 4.1 and 3.7% was estimated for Holsteins and Jerseys using 45,187 markers and management group deviation for milk yield. Sire selection was identified as the most important component of improving expected progeny value, followed by managing inbreeding and then inclusion of dominance. The respective percentage gains for milk yield in this study were 64, 27, and 9, for Holsteins and 73, 20, and 7 for Jerseys. The linear programming method of assigning a mate outperformed sequential selection by reducing genomic or pedigree inbreeding by 0.86 to 1.06 and 0.93 to 1.41, respectively. Use of genomic over pedigree relationship information provided a larger decrease in expected progeny inbreeding and thus greater expected progeny value. Based on lifetime net

  4. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues.

  5. [Regulation of allergy by innate immune system].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yutaro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-11-01

    Allergy is an immune disease including asthma. Activation of Th2 response, such as production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 from CD4+ T cells and IgG1 or IgE from B cells is responsible for allergy. Activation of acquired immune system requires preceding activation of innate immunity, therefore innate immunity may control Th2 response and allergy. Recent studies revealed that dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and basophils play central roles in the initiation of Th2 response. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding on the control of Th2 and allergic responses by innate immune system, and discuss recent findings on house dust mite-induced allergic response based on these understandings.

  6. Innate Immune sensing of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rathinam, Vijay A. K.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    DNA viruses are a significant contributor to human morbidity and mortality. The immune system protects against viral infections through coordinated innate and adaptive immune responses. While the antigen-specific adaptive mechanisms have been extensively studied, the critical contributions of innate immunity to anti-viral defenses have only been revealed in the very recent past. Central to these anti-viral defenses is the recognition of viral pathogens by a diverse set of germ-line encoded receptors that survey nearly all cellular compartments for the presence of pathogens. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the innate immune sensing of DNA viruses and focus on the recognition mechanisms involved. PMID:21334037

  7. Humoral innate immune response and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Varahan, Sriram; Yuan, Kai; Li, Xiangdong; Fleming, Sherry D.

    2012-01-01

    The humoral innate immune response consists of multiple components, including the naturally occurring antibodies (NAb), pentraxins and the complement and contact cascades. As soluble, plasma components, these innate proteins provide key elements in the prevention and control of disease. However, pathogens and cells with altered self proteins utilize multiple humoral components to evade destruction and promote pathogy. Many studies have examined the relationship between humoral immunity and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the interactions between the humoral components and their role in promoting the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Understanding the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the individual components and the interactions between proteins which regulate the innate and adaptive response will provide therapeutic targets for subsequent studies. PMID:22771788

  8. Innate immunity in lophotrochozoans: the annelids.

    PubMed

    Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Cooper, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Innate immunity plays a major role as a first defense against microbes. Effectors of the innate response include pattern recognition receptors (PRR), phagocytic cells, proteolytic cascades and peptides/proteins with antimicrobial properties. Each element of these events has been well studied in vertebrates and in some invertebrates such as annelids. From these different researches, it appears that mammalian innate immunity could be considered as a mosaic of invertebrate immune responses. Annelids belonging to the lophotrochozoans' group are primitive coelomates that possess specially developed cellular immunity against pathogens including phagocytosis, encapsulation and spontaneous cytotoxicity of coelomocytes against allogenic or xenogenic cells. They have also developed an important humoral immunity that is based on antimicrobial, hemolytic and clotting properties of their body fluid. In the present review, we will emphasize the different immunodefense strategies that adaptation has taken during the course of evolution of two classes of annelids i.e. oligochaetes and achaetes.

  9. Vaccine adjuvants: putting innate immunity to work.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Robert L; Sher, Alan; Seder, Robert A

    2010-10-29

    Adjuvants enhance immunity to vaccines and experimental antigens by a variety of mechanisms. In the past decade, many receptors and signaling pathways in the innate immune system have been defined and these innate responses strongly influence the adaptive immune response. The focus of this review is to delineate the innate mechanisms by which adjuvants mediate their effects. We highlight how adjuvants can be used to influence the magnitude and alter the quality of the adaptive response in order to provide maximum protection against specific pathogens. Despite the impressive success of currently approved adjuvants for generating immunity to viral and bacterial infections, there remains a need for improved adjuvants that enhance protective antibody responses, especially in populations that respond poorly to current vaccines. However, the larger challenge is to develop vaccines that generate strong T cell immunity with purified or recombinant vaccine antigens.

  10. The innate immune system in demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Lior; Quintana, Francisco J; Weiner, Howard L

    2012-07-01

    Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis are chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases with a heterogeneous clinical presentation and course. Both the adaptive and the innate immune systems have been suggested to contribute to their pathogenesis and recovery. In this review, we discuss the role of the innate immune system in mediating demyelinating diseases. In particular, we provide an overview of the anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory functions of dendritic cells, mast cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NK-T cells, γδ T cells, microglial cells, and astrocytes. We emphasize the interaction of astroctyes with the immune system and how this interaction relates to the demyelinating pathologies. Given the pivotal role of the innate immune system, it is possible that targeting these cells may provide an effective therapeutic approach for demyelinating diseases.

  11. Innate immune system cells in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Espinosa-Luna, Jose E; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María V; Montoya-Díaz, Eduardo; Blanco-Favela, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall characterized by innate and adaptive immune system involvement. A key component of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation is the persistence of different innate immune cell types including mast cells, neutrophils, natural killer cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Several endogenous signals such as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and exogenous signals such as lipopolysaccharides, trigger the activation of these cells. In particular, these signals orchestrate the early and late inflammatory responses through the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and contribute to plaque evolution through the formation of foam cells, among other events. In this review we discuss how innate immune system cells affect atherosclerosis pathogenesis.

  12. Innate predator recognition in giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Du, Yiping; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Yang, Bo; Wei, Ming; Zhou, Yingmin; Liu, Yang

    2012-02-01

    Innate predator recognition confers a survival advantage to prey animals. We investigate whether giant pandas exhibit innate predator recognition. We analyzed behavioral responses of 56 naive adult captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), to urine from predators and non-predators and water control. Giant pandas performed more chemosensory investigation and displayed flehmen behaviors more frequently in response to predator urine compared to both non-predator urine and water control. Subjects also displayed certain defensive behaviors, as indicated by vigilance, and in certain cases, fleeing behaviors. Our results suggest that there is an innate component to predator recognition in captive giant pandas, although such recognition was only slight to moderate. These results have implications that may be applicable to the conservation and reintroduction of this endangered species.

  13. Vaccine Adjuvants: Putting Innate Immunity to Work

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Robert L.; Sher, Alan; Seder, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvants enhance immunity to vaccines and experimental antigens by a variety of mechanisms. In the past decade, many receptors and signaling pathways in the innate immune system have been defined and these innate responses strongly influence the adaptive immune response. The focus of this review is to delineate the innate mechanisms by which adjuvants mediate their effects. We highlight how adjuvants can be used to influence the magnitude and alter the quality of the adaptive response in order to provide maximum protection against specific pathogens. Despite the impressive success of currently approved adjuvants for generating immunity to viral and bacterial infections, there remains a need for improved adjuvants that enhance protective antibody responses, especially in populations that respond poorly to current vaccines. However, the larger challenge is to develop vaccines that generate strong T cell immunity with purified or recombinant vaccine antigens. PMID:21029960

  14. Ion Channels in Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Stefan; Wulff, Heike; Skolnik, Edward Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters mediate the transport of charged ions across hydrophobic lipid membranes. In immune cells, divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc have important roles as second messengers to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. By contrast, monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium mainly regulate the membrane potential, which indirectly controls the influx of calcium and immune cell signaling. Studies investigating human patients with mutations in ion channels and transporters, analysis of gene-targeted mice, or pharmacological experiments with ion channel inhibitors have revealed important roles of ionic signals in lymphocyte development and in innate and adaptive immune responses. We here review the mechanisms underlying the function of ion channels and transporters in lymphocytes and innate immune cells and discuss their roles in lymphocyte development, adaptive and innate immune responses, and autoimmunity, as well as recent efforts to develop pharmacological inhibitors of ion channels for immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25861976

  15. Innate control of B cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Andrea; Puga, Irene; Cols, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Mature B cells generate protective immunity by undergoing immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching and somatic hypermutation, two Ig gene-diversifying processes that usually require cognate interactions with T cells that express CD40 ligand. This T cell-dependent pathway provides immunological memory but is relatively slow to occur. Thus it must be integrated with a faster, T cell-independent pathway for B cell activation through CD40 ligand-like molecules that are released by innate immune cells in response to microbial products. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between the innate immune system and B cells, particularly at the mucosal interface. We also review the role of innate signals in the regulation of Ig diversification and production PMID:21419699

  16. Innate cellular responses to rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S

    2013-06-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhoea in infants and young children. Following rotavirus infection in the intestine an innate immune response is rapidly triggered. This response leads to the induction of type I and type III interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines, resulting in a reduction in viral replication. Here we review the current literature describing the detection of rotavirus infection by pattern recognition receptors within host cells, the subsequent molecular mechanisms leading to IFN and cytokine production, and the processes leading to reduced rotavirus replication and the development of protective immunity. Rotavirus countermeasures against innate responses, and their roles in modulating rotavirus replication in mice, also are discussed. By linking these different aspects of innate immunity, we provide a comprehensive overview of the host's first line of defence against rotavirus infection. Understanding these processes is expected to be of benefit in improving strategies to combat rotavirus disease.

  17. Innate Immune Activity in Glomerular Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hong; Bao, Wenduona; Shi, Shaolin

    2017-01-01

    Glomerular podocytes are specialized in structure and play an essential role in glomerular filtration. In addition, podocyte stress can initiate glomerular damage by inducing the injury of other glomerular cell types. Studies have shown that podocytes possess the property of immune cells and may be involved in adaptive immunity. Emerging studies have also shown that podocytes possess signaling pathways of innate immune responses and that innate immune responses often result in podocyte injury. More recently, mitochondrial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs) have been shown to play a critical role in a variety of pathological processes in cells. In the present mini-review, we summarize the recent advances in the studies of innate immunity and its pathogenic role in podocytes, particularly, from the perspective of mtDAMPs. PMID:28228761

  18. New insights into upper airway innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Protecting the upper airway from microbial infection is an important function of the immune system. Proper detection of these pathogens is paramount for sinonasal epithelial cells to be able to prepare a defensive response. Toll-like receptors and, more recently, bitter taste receptors and sweet taste receptors have been implicated as sensors able to detect the presence of these pathogens and certain compounds that they secrete. Activation of these receptors also triggers innate immune responses to prevent or counteract infection, including mucociliary clearance and the production and secretion of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., defensins). Objective: To provide an overview of the current knowledge of the role of innate immunity in the upper airway, the mechanisms by which it is carried out, and its clinical relevance. Methods: A literature review of the existing knowledge of the role of innate immunity in the human sinonasal cavity was performed. Results: Clinical and basic science studies have shown that the physical epithelial cell barrier, mucociliary clearance, and antimicrobial compound secretion play pivotal innate immune roles in defending the sinonasal cavity from infection. Clinical findings have also linked dysfunction of these defense mechanisms with diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis. Recent discoveries have elucidated the significance of bitter and sweet taste receptors in modulating immune responses in the upper airway. Conclusion: Numerous innate immune mechanisms seem to work in a concerted fashion to keep the sinonasal cavity free of infection. Understanding sinonasal innate immune function and dysfunction in health and disease has important implications for patients with respiratory ailments, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis. PMID:27657896

  19. Innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Thomas F; Schreiber, Hans; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Most tumor cells express antigens that can mediate recognition by host CD8+ T cells. Cancers that are detected clinically must have evaded antitumor immune responses to grow progressively. Recent work has suggested two broad categories of tumor escape based on cellular and molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. One major subset shows a T cell–inflamed phenotype consisting of infiltrating T cells, a broad chemokine profile and a type I interferon signature indicative of innate immune activation. These tumors appear to resist immune attack through the dominant inhibitory effects of immune system–suppressive pathways. The other major phenotype lacks this T cell–inflamed phenotype and appears to resist immune attack through immune system exclusion or ignorance. These two major phenotypes of tumor microenvironment may require distinct immunotherapeutic interventions for maximal therapeutic effect. PMID:24048123

  20. Ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Bottini-Luzardo, Maria; Aguilar-Perez, Carlos; Centurion-Castro, Fernando; Solorio-Sanchez, Francisco; Ayala-Burgos, Armin; Montes-Perez, Ruben; Muñoz-Rodriguez, David; Ku-Vera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The legume Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is widely used to supplement forage in silvopastoral livestock systems in Latin America. Little is known about its possible effects on the cow reproductive dynamic. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Leucaena foliage intake on re-establishment of ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum (7-90 days) cows. Twenty-four multiparous Bos taurus × Bos indicus cows were divided into two homogenous groups and assigned to one of two treatments: a silvopastoral system (SS, n = 12), consisting of an association of Cynodon nlemfuensis grass and L. leucocephala; and a control system (CS, n = 12), consisting of C. nlemfuensis alone. Intake of Leucaena in the SS ranged from 3.80 to 6.43 kg DM/cow/day. Plasma mimosine concentrations ranged from 1270 to 1530 μg/mL, and those for 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) from 147 to 729 μg/mL. No 3,4-DHP was detected in plasma. No difference (P > 0.05) between treatments was observed for the number of cows exhibiting small, medium, or dominant follicles, or estrus behavior. The number of cows which re-established ovarian cyclicity (n = 6) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS (n = 9). Corpus luteum lifespan was longer (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS. Intake of Leucaena affected the number of cows exhibiting ovarian cyclicity and extended corpus luteum life, but did not affect follicular development and estrus behavior.

  1. Mechanisms linking metabolic stress with innate immunity in the endometrium.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, I Martin; Cronin, James G; Pospiech, Mateusz; Turner, Matthew L

    2017-09-06

    Bacterial infections of the uterus after parturition are ubiquitous in dairy cattle and often cause uterine disease, such as metritis or endometritis. However, the metabolic stress associated with milk production increases the risk of developing disease. Resolution of bacterial infections requires rapid and robust innate immune responses, which depend on host cell receptors recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria. Here, we argue that metabolic stress impairs the inflammatory response to pathogens. Glucose and glutamine are the major energy sources for cells, but their abundance is reduced in postpartum dairy cows. Furthermore, inflammatory responses exacerbate metabolic stress, with animals and tissues consuming more glucose when challenged with LPS. However, depriving endometrial tissue of glucose or glutamine impairs the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Glycolysis and the intracellular sensor of energy, AMP-activated protein kinase, are important for the response to LPS because perturbing glycolysis or AMP-activated protein kinase activity reduces the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in the endometrium. The mevalonate pathway for cellular cholesterol synthesis may also be linked to immunity, as inhibition of the terminal enzyme in the pathway, squalene synthase, reduces inflammatory responses to pathogenic bacteria and LPS. In contrast, only modest effects on inflammation are found when modulating the sensor of cellular nutrient satiety, mammalian target of rapamycin, or the endocrine regulator of metabolism, insulin-like growth factor-1. We suggest that stressing cellular metabolism increases the risk of uterine disease by impairing endometrial defenses. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. by dairy cows on farm and at cull cow markets.

    PubMed

    Wells, S J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Dargatz, D A; Ferris, K; Green, A

    2001-01-01

    As part of a national study of the U.S. dairy cow population, fecal samples were collected from representative cows on 91 dairies and 97 cull dairy cow markets in 19 states. Salmonella spp. were recovered from 5.4% of milk cows, 18.1% of milk cows expected to be culled within 7 days, and 14.9% of culled dairy cows at markets. On a premise basis, Salmonella shedding in milk cows was detected on 21.1% of dairies and 66% of cull dairy cow markets. The percentage of herds with at least one cow with detectable Salmonella fecal shedding was higher during the sampling period from May through July, in herds with at least 100 milk cows, and in herds in the South region. The most common Salmonella serogroups isolated were E (30.8% of isolates) and C1 (28.6%); the most common serotypes isolated were Salmonella Montevideo (21.5% of isolates), Salmonella Cerro (13.3%), and Salmonella Kentucky (8.5%). Fecal shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Typhimurium var. copenhagen was infrequent (2.8% of isolates). Most isolates (88.9%) were susceptible to all 17 antimicrobials evaluated; multiple resistance was an infrequent occurrence. This study provides information describing the distribution of Salmonella fecal shedding from dairy cows on farm and at markets and will serve as a baseline for future studies.

  3. Innate immunity modulation in virus entry.

    PubMed

    Faure, Mathias; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal

    2011-07-01

    Entry into a cell submits viruses to detection by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to an early innate anti-viral response. Several viruses evolved strategies to avoid or subvert PRR recognition at the step of virus entry to promote infection. Whereas viruses mostly escape from soluble PRR detection, endocytic/phagocytic PRRs, such as the mannose receptor or DC-SIGN, are commonly used for virus entry. Moreover, virion-incorporated proteins may also offer viruses a way to dampen anti-viral innate immunity upon virus entry, and entering viruses might usurp autophagy to improve their own infectivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunological memory within the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Joseph C; Ugolini, Sophie; Vivier, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Immune memory has traditionally been the domain of the adaptive immune system, present only in antigen-specific T and B cells. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for immunological memory in lower organisms (which are not thought to possess adaptive immunity) and within specific cell subsets of the innate immune system. A special focus will be given to recent findings in both mouse and humans for specificity and memory in natural killer (NK) cells, which have resided under the umbrella of innate immunity for decades. The surprising longevity and enhanced responses of previously primed NK cells will be discussed in the context of several immunization settings. PMID:24674969

  5. Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: definition, prevalence and consequences.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans

    2007-05-16

    During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice.

  6. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  7. Mycoplasma wenyonii infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2016-12-17

    Mycoplasma wenyonii infection in two dairy herdsHypomagnesaemia in suckler cowsLeptospiral milk drop in dairy cowsNon-resolving orf in six-month-old lambsHepatosis dietetica in a five-month-old giltThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for September 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  8. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  9. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  10. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  11. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  12. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  13. Dominance of Human Innate Immune Responses in Primary Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain Vaccination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-31

    Diseases, Bacteriology Division, 425 Porter St, Frederick , MD 21702-5011. Dr Brittingham is the recipient of the National Research Council Fellowship...tularemia vaccine strain) infection by the sera of human recipients of the live tula- remia vaccine. Am J Med Sci 1994;308:83-7. 10. Herzberg VL

  14. The evolution of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Vivier, Eric; van de Pavert, Serge A; Cooper, Max D; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered group of immune cells. Understanding their biology poses many challenges. We discuss here the current knowledge on the appearance of ILC subsets during evolution and propose how the connection between ILCs and T cells contributes to the robustness of immunity and hence to the fitness of the hosts.

  15. The evolution of innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Vivier, Eric; van de Pavert, Serge A; Cooper, Max D; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2017-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered group of immune cells. Understanding their biology poses many challenges. We discuss here the current knowledge on the appearance of ILC subsets during evolution and propose how the connection between ILCs and T cells contributes to the robustness of immunity and hence to the fitness of the hosts. PMID:27328009

  16. Chemokines in Innate and Adaptive Granuloma Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chensue, Stephen W.

    2012-01-01

    Granulomas are cellular inflammations that vary widely in histologic appearance depending upon the inciting agent and immunologic status of the responding host. Despite their heterogeneity, granulomas are at their core an ancient innate sequestration response characterized by the accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes. In fact, this innate cellular response was first observed by Metchnikov in simple invertebrates. Among higher vertebrates, environmental pressures have resulted in the evolution of more sophisticated adaptive immune responses which can be superimposed upon and modify the character of granulomatous inflammation. Compared to immune responses that rapidly neutralize and eliminate infectious agents, the granuloma represents a less desirable “fall back” response which still has value to the host but can be co-opted by certain infectious agents and contribute to bystander organ damage. Understanding granulomas requires an analysis of the complex interplay of innate and adaptive molecular signals that govern the focal accumulation and activity of their cellular components. Among these signals, small molecular weight chemoattractant proteins known as chemokines are potentially important contributors as they participate in both directing leukocyte migration and function. This tract will discuss the contribution of chemokines to the development of innate and adaptive granuloma formation, as well as describe their relationship to more recently evolved cytokines generated during adaptive immune responses. PMID:23444049

  17. Adrenergic regulation of innate immunity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Scanzano, Angela; Cosentino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has a major role in the brain-immune cross-talk, but few information exist on the sympathoadrenergic regulation of innate immune system. The aim of this review is to summarize available knowledge regarding the sympathetic modulation of the innate immune response, providing a rational background for the possible repurposing of adrenergic drugs as immunomodulating agents. The cells of immune system express adrenoceptors (AR), which represent the target for noradrenaline and adrenaline. In human neutrophils, adrenaline and noradrenaline inhibit migration, CD11b/CD18 expression, and oxidative metabolism, possibly through β-AR, although the role of α1- and α2-AR requires further investigation. Natural Killer express β-AR, which are usually inhibitory. Monocytes express β-AR and their activation is usually antiinflammatory. On murine Dentritic cells (DC), β-AR mediate sympathetic influence on DC-T cells interactions. In human DC β2-AR may affect Th1/2 differentiation of CD4+ T cells. In microglia and in astrocytes, β2-AR dysregulation may contribute to neuroinflammation in autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease. In conclusion, extensive evidence supports a critical role for adrenergic mechanisms in the regulation of innate immunity, in peripheral tissues as well as in the CNS. Sympathoadrenergic pathways in the innate immune system may represent novel antiinflammatory and immunomodulating targets with significant therapeutic potential. PMID:26321956

  18. Rainbow Trout Innate Immunity against Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection is associated with significant loss of rainbow trout production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. In 2005, a selective breeding program was initiated at the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture to improve rainbow trout innate resistance ...

  19. Transflammation: Innate Immune Signaling in Nuclear Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shu; Chanda, Palas; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Cooke, John P

    2017-09-12

    Induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by retroviral overexpression of four transcription factors has revolutionized the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The efficient induction of pluripotency requires the activation of innate immune signaling in a process termed "transflammation" [1]. Specifically, the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) causes global alterations in the expression and activity of epigenetic modifiers to favor an open chromatin configuration. Activation of toll-like receptors (TLR) or RIG-1-like receptors (RLR) [2] trigger signaling cascades that result in NFκB or IRF-3 mediated changes in epigenetic plasticity that facilitate reprogramming. Another form of nuclear reprogramming is so-called direct reprogramming or transdifferentiation of one somatic cell to another lineage. We have shown that transdifferentiation of human fibroblasts to endothelial cells also involves transflammation [3]. Recently, we also identified reactive oxygen species (ROS) [4] and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) [5] as mediators of innate immune signaling in nuclear reprogramming. Innate immune signaling plays a key role in nuclear reprogramming by regulating DNA accessibility (Figure 1). Here, we review recent progress of innate immunity signaling in nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic plasticity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working pressure...

  1. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  2. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  3. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  4. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  5. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  6. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  7. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  8. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  9. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  10. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  11. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  12. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  13. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  14. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  15. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  16. Genetic and functional analysis of the bovine uterine microbiota. Part II: Purulent vaginal discharge versus healthy cows.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, M L S; Lima, S; Higgins, C H; Machado, V S; Lima, F S; Bicalho, R C

    2017-03-02

    were exclusively found in the healthy uterine microbiota and dominated by tolerance to colicin E2. No difference was observed in total bacterial load between the 2 microbiotas. This study provides deep insight into the uterine microbial community in health and disease. The observations that the healthy microbiota is tolerant to colicin E2, whereas the uterine microbiota of PVD cows produces cytolethal distending toxins and modifies its lipopolysaccharides suggest that species-intrinsic factors may be more relevant than bacterial abundance to the development of disease or maintenance of health in the dairy cow postpartum uterus.

  17. Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

    PubMed Central

    Safa, S.; Soleimani, A.; Heravi Moussavi, A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 (p≤0.05). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25049832

  18. Comparing strategies to synchronize estrus before fixed-time artificial insemination in primiparous 2-year-old beef cows.

    PubMed

    Abel, J M; Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Ellersieck, M R; Poock, S E; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocols to synchronize estrus in primiparous 2-year-old beef cows. In each experiment, treatments were balanced according to body condition score and days postpartum. Experiment 1 compared the 14-day CIDR-PG (14-d) and 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR (7-d) protocols on the basis of estrous response, pregnancy rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI), and final pregnancy rate. Cows assigned to 14-d (n = 355) received a CIDR insert on Day 0 with removal on Day 14. Cows assigned to 7-d (n = 349) received gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and a CIDR insert on Day 23. On Day 30, CIDRs were removed from 7-d cows, and PGF2α was administered to all cows in each treatment. On Day 33, GnRH was administered concurrent with FTAI at 66 and 72 hours after PGF2α for 7-d and 14-d treated cows, respectively. Estrous response before FTAI was higher for 7-d compared with 14-d cows (74% vs. 43%, respectively; P < 0.0001); however, pregnancy rates resulting from FTAI were similar (14-d 63%; 7-d 64%; P = 0.52). Ovarian follicular dynamics and serum estradiol-17β concentrations were evaluated among a subset of cows assigned to each protocol. Dominant follicle diameter was smaller at PGF2α (P = 0.04) and FTAI (P = 0.002) among 14-d cows compared with 7-d cows; however, estradiol-17β at PGF2α (P = 0.06) and FTAI (P = 0.001) was greater for 14-d versus 7-d treated cows. Experiment 2 compared estrous response and pregnancy rates in 2-year-old beef cows after FTAI- or split-time artificial insemination (STAI) following synchronization of estrus with the 14-day protocol. Cows assigned to FTAI (n = 266) were inseminated at a fixed time concurrent with GnRH at 72 hours after PGF2α regardless of estrus expression, whereas cows assigned to STAI (n = 257) were inseminated based on estrus expression as determined by activation of an estrus detection aid. Cows assigned to STAI that

  19. Treatment of clinical endometritis in dairy cows by previously used controlled internal drug release devices.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohsen; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Hesam A; Asadi, Farzad; Akbari, Rahmat

    2015-08-01

    than in CIDR-14 (87.07%) and PG-2 (87.85%) cows (P = 0.02). In conclusion, reused CIDR would be contributed to the treatment of CE by promotion of follicle growth and induction of sustainable sources of endogenic estrogen secreted by the dominant follicle.

  20. Effect of ovulatory follicle size on steroidogenic capacity and molecular markers of oocyte competence prior to GnRH-induced ovulation in non-lactating beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality in beef cows. Inadequate oocyte competence, as affected by the physiological status of the dominant follicle, is a potential explanation for the...

  1. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  2. Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N P; Goldberg, M F; Fishman, G A; Salzano, T

    1984-01-01

    We report the second family recognised to have autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. The clinical features were (1) autosomal dominant inheritance; (2) peripheral, coarse pigmentary degeneration of the fundus for 360 degrees, with a relatively discrete posterior border in the equatorial region (this finding may be pathognomonic); (3) superficial punctate yellowish-white opacities in the retina; (4) various vascular abnormalities; (5) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier; (6) retinal neovascularisation; (7) vitreous abnormalities; and (8) choroidal atrophy. Visual reduction was mainly due to macular oedema or vitreous haemorrhage. Images PMID:6689931

  3. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant

  4. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  5. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  6. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  7. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  8. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  9. Forage systems for cow-calf production in the Appalachian region.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, G; Swecker, W S; Fontenot, J P; Fiske, D; Fike, J H; Abaye, A O; Peterson, P R; Clapham, W; Hall, J B

    2008-08-01

    Small cow-calf operations are common in the Appalachian region. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire] is the dominant forage in these systems for direct grazing as well as for stockpiling. The present study was conducted from 2001 to 2005. A total of 108 Angus and Angus crossbred cows were allotted randomly to 6 forage systems and then to 3 replicates within each system. In brief, system 1 had a stocking rate of 0.91 ha/cow in a Middleburg 3-paddock (A, B, and C) system. System 2 was similar to system 1 except for a stocking rate of 0.71 ha/cow. A stocking rate of 0.71 ha/cow also was used in systems 3 through 6. All A paddocks had tall fescue, whereas B paddocks had tall fescue/white clover (Trifolium repens L.) except in system 6, which had tall fescue/lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don]. System 3 evaluated a 2-paddock (A and B) rotational grazing system, and system 4 evaluated a 3-paddock (A, B, and C) rotational grazing system, with paddock C containing orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Systems 5 and 6 differed from system 2 in the areas of paddocks B and C as well as in the forage mixtures used. In paddock C, system 5 had switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and system 6 had tall fescue and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). System 1 had the greatest average herbage availability from weaning until breeding (P < 0.05) with the least amount of hay fed (P = 0.03) when compared with the remainder of the systems. Differences (P > 0.05) in percentage of ground cover were not detected among systems. There was no year x system interaction effect on the cow or calf performance variables evaluated and no treatment effect on cow performance variables. There was a treatment effect on calf performance variables. System 2 produced the greatest adjusted weaning weight, kilograms of calf weaned per hectare, and kilograms of calf per kilograms of cow at weaning (P < 0.05). Numerical ranking for

  10. Apical Dominance in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a tentative hypothesis for the control of plant branching (apical dominance). Explores the mechanism by which apical buds inhibit the growth of axillary buds on the same shoot. Presents an up-to-date picture of the problem and gives economic implications of the study. (BR)

  11. Convection dominated problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peraire, J.; Morgan, K.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper surveys the last ten years of activity of the INME Swansea, dealing with problems of convection dominated flow. The basic explicit/implicit characteristic Galerkin process and its application to adaptive mesh refinement used in the solution of realistic problems is focused on.

  12. Communication and Cultural Domination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Herbert I.

    Communications and the flow of messages and imagery within and between nations--especially between developed and dominated states--have assumed a special significance in the years since the second World War. During this period, although more than 90 countries have achieved political independence, at least two-thirds of the world's nations have…

  13. Autosomal dominant genes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease. One of the parents will have the disease (since it is dominant) in this mode of inheritance and that person is called the CARRIER. Only one parent must be a carrier in order for the child to inherit the disease.

  14. Iron dominated magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  15. Whole cow's milk in early life.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorisdottir, Asa V

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk is a major food for young children. Whole cow's milk is known to be detrimental to infants, mainly due to its low iron content. The negative association with iron status led to recommending the introduction of formula feeding in infancy during the weaning period or when breastfeeding ceased. More recently, the literature suggests that consuming whole cow's milk in infancy has unfortunate effects on growth, especially weight acceleration and development of overweight in childhood. These issues are discussed in the following chapter. Other suggested reasons for the avoidance of whole cow's milk in infancy are touched upon, such as milk protein allergy and high renal solute load. The hypothesis about early cow's milk introduction in the pathology of certain diseases, mainly through the peptide β-casomorphin-7, is briefly reviewed, showing that there is no clear evidence for the suggested associations. The chapter gives a recent example of introducing formula at 6 months of age instead of whole cow's milk in infants' diet in Iceland. Several aspects of consuming whole cow's milk in infancy can be found in recent reviews. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Staring us in the face? An embodied theory of innate face preference.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Nick; Paikan, Ali; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Rea, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    Human expertise in face perception grows over development, but even within minutes of birth, infants exhibit an extraordinary sensitivity to face-like stimuli. The dominant theory accounts for innate face detection by proposing that the neonate brain contains an innate face detection device, dubbed 'Conspec'. Newborn face preference has been promoted as some of the strongest evidence for innate knowledge, and forms a canonical stage for the modern form of the nature-nurture debate in psychology. Interpretation of newborn face preference results has concentrated on monocular stimulus properties, with little mention or focused investigation of potential binocular involvement. However, the question of whether and how newborns integrate the binocular visual streams bears directly on the generation of observable visual preferences. In this theoretical paper, we employ a synthetic approach utilizing robotic and computational models to draw together the threads of binocular integration and face preference in newborns, and demonstrate cases where the former may explain the latter. We suggest that a system-level view considering the binocular embodiment of newborn vision may offer a mutually satisfying resolution to some long-running arguments in the polarizing debate surrounding the existence and causal structure of newborns' 'innate knowledge' of faces. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The role of innate immune signaling in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and consequences for treatments.

    PubMed

    Skabytska, Yuliya; Kaesler, Susanne; Volz, Thomas; Biedermann, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ at the interface between the environment and the host. Consequently, the skin plays a central role in mounting effective host defense. In addition to pathogens, the microbiota and the host immune system are in permanent contact and communication via the skin. Consequences of this permanent interaction are a unique and partly symbiotic relationship, a tight interdependence between these partners, and also a functional "setting the clock," in which, in the healthy steady state, an induction of protective responses to pathogens is guaranteed. At the same time, commensal microbes contribute to the alertness of the immune system and to the maintenance of immune tolerance. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease based on a complex genetic trait with defects in cutaneous barrier, in stabilizing skin integrity. Most of AD patients develop deviated innate and adaptive immune responses. As a result, increased susceptibility to cutaneous infection is found in AD patients, and the interactions between these microbes and the skin participate in the development of chronic cutaneous inflammation. The role of the adaptive immune system was characterized in much detail, less though the contribution of innate immunity to AD pathogenesis. It is rather recent evidence that demonstrates a dominant role of components of the innate immune system not only for protecting from microbial invasion but also by orchestrating chronic skin inflammation. In this review we discuss the role of innate immune signaling and consecutive immune networks important for the pathogenesis and management of AD.

  18. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  19. Epidemiology of reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gröhn, Y T; Rajala-Schultz, P J

    2000-07-02

    The objectives of this presentation are to review results of our previous and on-going research with respect to the risk factors and consequences of poor reproductive performance in dairy cows, and to develop an economic framework to optimize decisions related to dairy cow reproductive performance. To make profitable breeding and replacement decisions, the farmer must account for factors including age, production level, lactation stage, pregnancy status, and disease history of the cows in the herd. Establishing the interrelationships among disease, milk yield, reproduction, and herd management is necessary for developing a decision model for disease treatment, insemination, and replacement. The data for the studies reviewed in this presentation incorporate health, production, and management components from Holsteins in the Northeast USA and Ayrshires from Finland. Data were analyzed using the Cornell Theory Center Supercomputer. The effect of risk factors on reproductive disorders was modeled with logistic regression, and on conception, insemination, and culling with survival analysis. The effect of reproductive disorders on milk yield was analyzed with mixed models. Economic optimization of reproductive performance was done with dynamic programming (DP). High milk yield, high parity, and calving in winter were risk factors for several reproductive disorders. These disorders, in turn, delayed insemination and conception in dairy cows, and some of them increased the risk of culling. Dystocia, retained placenta, and early metritis led to a short-term drop in milk production. High milk yield was not a major factor in delaying conception, except in first parity cows. However, higher yielders were more likely to be inseminated, and less likely to be culled. Non-pregnant cows had a higher risk of being culled. Reproductive performance of dairy cows influenced a herd's profitability, and good heat detection and conception rates provided opportunities for management

  20. Effect of ovulatory follicle size and estradiol supplementation during the preovulatory period on pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously. Further...

  1. Perspective on physiological/endocrine and nutritional factors influencing fertility in post-partum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Silvestre, F T; Kim, I H; Staples, C R

    2010-09-01

    Increasing reproductive performance of post-partum lactating dairy cows is a multi-factorial challenge involving disciplines of production medicine, nutrition, physiology and herd management. Systems of programmed timed insemination have been fine-tuned to achieve pregnancy per artificial inseminations (AI) approximating 45%. Systems have optimized follicle development, integrated follicle development with timing of induced corpus luteum regression and fine-tuned sequential timing of induced ovulation and AI. Use of programmes for insemination have identified occurrence of anovulatory ovarian status, body condition, uterine health and seasonal summer stress as factors contributing to reduced herd fertility. Furthermore, programmes of timed insemination provide a platform to evaluate efficacy of nutritional and herd health systems targeted to the transition and post-partum periods. The homeorhetic periparturient period, as cows deal with decreases in dry matter intake, results in a negative energy balance and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. Cows that transition well will cycle earlier and have a greater risk of becoming pregnant earlier post-partum. The innate arms of the immune system (acute and adaptive) are suppressed during the periparturient period. Cows experiencing the sequential complex of disorders such as dystocia, puerperal metritis, metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis are subsequently less fertile. Targeted strategies of providing specific nutraceuticals that provide pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic, eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic, conjugated linoleic acid), sequential glycogenic and lipogenic enrichment of diets, and organic selenium appear to differentially regulate and improve the immune and reproductive systems to benefit an earlier restoration of ovarian activity and increased fertility.

  2. Roles of Toll-like receptors in innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Takeda, K; Akira, S

    2001-09-01

    Innate immunity recognizes invading micro-organisms and triggers a host defence response. However, the molecular mechanism for innate immune recognition was unclear. Recently, a family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was identified, and crucial roles for these receptors in the recognition of microbial components have been elucidated. The TLR family consists of 10 members and will be expanding. Each TLR distinguishes between specific patterns of microbial components to provoke innate immune responses. The activation of innate immunity then leads to the development of antigen-specific adaptive immunity. Thus, TLRs control both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  3. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

    PubMed

    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. CNS Remyelination and the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    McMurran, Christopher E.; Jones, Clare A.; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A misguided inflammatory response is frequently implicated in myelin damage. Particularly prominent among myelin diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition, with immune–mediated damage central to its etiology. Nevertheless, a robust inflammatory response is also essential for the efficient regeneration of myelin sheaths after such injury. Here, we discuss the functions of inflammation that promote remyelination, and how these have been experimentally disentangled from the pathological facets of the immune response. We focus on the contributions that resident microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages make to remyelination and compare the roles of these two populations of innate immune cells. Finally, the current literature is framed in the context of developing therapies that manipulate the innate immune response to promote remyelination in clinical myelin disease. PMID:27200350

  5. Immunological memory within the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Joseph C; Ugolini, Sophie; Vivier, Eric

    2014-06-17

    Immune memory has traditionally been the domain of the adaptive immune system, present only in antigen-specific T and B cells. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for immunological memory in lower organisms (which are not thought to possess adaptive immunity) and within specific cell subsets of the innate immune system. A special focus will be given to recent findings in both mouse and humans for specificity and memory in natural killer (NK) cells, which have resided under the umbrella of innate immunity for decades. The surprising longevity and enhanced responses of previously primed NK cells will be discussed in the context of several immunization settings. © 2014 The Authors.

  6. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Andrew N J; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-09-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles throughout the duration of immune responses, participating in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity and contributing to chronic inflammation. The proximity of ILCs to epithelial surfaces and their constitutive strategic positioning in other tissues throughout the body ensures that, in spite of their rarity, ILCs are able to regulate immune homeostasis effectively. Dysregulation of ILC function might result in chronic pathologies such as allergies, autoimmunity, and inflammation. A new role for ILCs in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis has started to emerge, underlining their importance in fundamental physiological processes beyond infection and immunity.

  7. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  8. Neutrophils: Cinderella of innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Sharma, A

    2010-11-01

    Neutrophils are the first line of innate immune defense against infectious diseases. However, since their discovery by Elie Metchnikoff, they have always been considered tissue-destructive cells responsible for inflammatory tissue damage occurring during acute infections. Now, extensive research in the field of neutrophil cell biology and their role skewing the immune response in various infections or inflammatory disorders revealed their importance in the regulation of immune response. Along with releasing various antimicrobial molecules, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) for the containment of infection and inflammation. Activated neutrophils provide signals for the activation and maturation of macrophages as well as dendritic cells. Neutrophils are also involved in the regulation of T-cell immune response against various pathogens and tumor antigens. Thus, the present review is intended to highlight the emerging role of neutrophils in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity during acute infectious or inflammatory conditions.

  9. The innate immune system and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Conrad A; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Sacks, Steven H

    2013-10-01

    The sensitive and broadly reactive character of the innate immune system makes it liable to activation by stress factors other than infection. Thermal and metabolic stresses experienced during the transplantation procedure are sufficient to trigger the innate immune response and also augment adaptive immunity in the presence of foreign antigen on the donor organ. The resulting inflammatory and immune reactions combine to form a potent effector response that can lead to graft rejection. Here we examine the evidence that the complement and toll-like receptor systems are central to these pathways of injury and present a formidable barrier to transplantation. We review extensive information about the effector mechanisms that are mediated by these pathways, and bring together what is known about the damage-associated molecular patterns that initiate this sequence of events. Finally, we refer to two ongoing therapeutic trials that are evaluating the validity of these concepts in man.

  10. Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Packard, René R. S.; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Libby, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder, involves both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response that mediate the initiation, progression, and ultimate thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Most fatal thromboses, which may manifest as acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke, result from frank rupture or superficial erosion of the fibrous cap overlying the atheroma, processes that occur in inflammatorily active, rupture-prone plaques. Appreciation of the inflammatory character of atherosclerosis has led to the application of C-reactive protein as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk, and the characterization of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions of the statin class of drugs. An improved understanding of the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and further studies of its immune mechanisms provide avenues for the development of future strategies directed toward better risk stratification of patients as well as the identification of novel anti-inflammatory therapies. This review retraces leukocyte subsets involved in innate and adaptive immunity and their contributions to atherogenesis. PMID:19449008

  11. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  12. In this issue: autoimmunity and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Bot, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of the journal, we host a range of topics relevant to innate immunity as well as certain inflammatory diseases. More specifically, Sanz et al. cover a tantalizing form of death called pyroptosis that leads to inflammation. Samasca et al. provide a brief perspective on celiac disease. Singh and collaborators discuss in detail a newly designed leptin antagonist that could be applicable to colitis treatment. Through a meta-analysis, Wen et al. show that IL-18 gene polymorphism is associated with RA and SLE. Adenovirus-triggered innate immunity is discussed by Chen and Lee. Further, Zheng et al. provide a review of lectin receptors and their importance to anti-microbial immunity. Finally, Rojas et al. discuss tantalizing evidence supporting the fact that endogenous danger motifs such as advanced glycation end products are recognized via a TLR-like molecule and signaling pathway.

  13. Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota of Ewes and Cows Reveals a Unique Microbiota with Low Levels of Lactobacilli and Near-Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Jeffrey D.; Lachman, Medora; Westveer, Kelsey; O’Neill, Thomas; Geary, Thomas; Kott, Rodney W.; Berardinelli, James G.; Hatfield, Patrick G.; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Roberts, Andy; Yeoman, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of common reproductive disorders in livestock involve bacterial infection, very little is known about their normal vaginal microbiota. Therefore, we sought to determine the species composition of sheep and cattle vaginal microbiota. Twenty Rambouillet ewes and twenty crossbred cows varying in age and reproductive status were sampled by ectocervicovaginal lavage. We amplified and sequenced the V3–V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) contents yielding a total of 907,667 high-quality reads. Good’s Coverage estimates indicated that we obtained data on 98 ± 0.01% of the total microbial genera present in each sample. Cow and ewe vaginal microbiota displayed few differences. Cow microbiota exhibited greater (P ≤ 0.05) α-diversity compared to the ewe microbiota. Both livestock species differed (P ≤ 0.05) from all previously reported vaginal communities. While bacteria were numerically dominant, Archaea were detected in 95% of cow and ewe samples, mainly of the order Desulfurococcales. Both ewes and cows were predominately colonized by the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The most abundant genera were Aggregatibacter spp., and Streptobacillus spp. Lactobacillus spp. were detected in 80% of ewe and 90% of cow samples, but only at very low abundances. Bacteria previously described from culture-based studies as common to the cow and ewe vaginal tract, except for Escherichia, were variably present, and only in low abundance. Ewe and cow pH differed (P ≤ 0.05), with means (±SD) of 6.7 ± 0.38 and 7.3 ± 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, 16S rRNA sequencing of cow and ewe vaginal ectocervicovaginal lavages showed that cow and ewe vaginal microbiota differ from culture-led results, revealing a microbiota distinct from previously described vaginal ecosystems. PMID:26664918

  14. Oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era.

    PubMed

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Tao, Renchuan; Jiang, Lanlan; Peng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Oral innate immunity, an important component in host defense and immune surveillance in the oral cavity, plays a crucial role in the regulation of oral health. As part of the innate immune system, epithelial cells lining oral mucosal surfaces not only provide a physical barrier but also produce different antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensins (hBDs), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and various cytokines. These innate immune mediators help in maintaining oral homeostasis. When they are impaired either by local or systemic causes, various oral infections and malignancies may be developed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other co-infections appear to have both direct and indirect effects on systemic and local innate immunity leading to the development of oral opportunistic infections and malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard treatment of HIV infection, contributed to a global reduction of HIV-associated oral lesions. However, prolonged use of HAART may lead to adverse effects on the oral innate immunity resulting in the relapse of oral lesions. This review article focused on the roles of oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era. The following five key questions were addressed: (i) What are the roles of oral innate immunity in health and disease?, (ii) What are the effects of HIV infection on oral innate immunity?, (iii) What are the roles of oral innate immunity against other co-infections?, (iv) What are the effects of HAART on oral innate immunity?, and (v) Is oral innate immunity enhanced by HAART?

  15. Prepartum and Postpartum Rumen Fluid Microbiomes: Characterization and Correlation with Production Traits in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Fabio S.; Oikonomou, Georgios; Lima, Svetlana F.; Bicalho, Marcela L. S.; Ganda, Erika K.; de Oliveira Filho, Jose C.; Lorenzo, Gustavo; Trojacanec, Plamen

    2014-01-01

    Microbes present in the rumen of dairy cows are essential for degradation of cellulosic and nonstructural carbohydrates of plant origin. The prepartum and postpartum diets of high-producing dairy cows are substantially different, but in what ways the rumen microbiome changes in response and how those changes may influence production traits are not well elucidated. Here, we sequenced the 16S and 18S rRNA genes using the MiSeq platform to characterize the prepartum and postpartum rumen fluid microbiomes in 115 high-producing dairy cows, including both primiparous and multiparous animals. Discriminant analysis identified differences between the microbiomes of prepartum and postpartum samples and between primiparous and multiparous cows. 18S rRNA sequencing revealed an overwhelming dominance of the protozoan class Litostomatea, with over 90% of the eukaryotic microbial population belonging to that group. Additionally, fungi were relatively more prevalent and Litostomatea relatively less prevalent in prepartum samples than in postpartum ones. The core rumen microbiome (common to all samples) consisted of 64 bacterial taxa, of which members of the genus Prevotella were the most prevalent. The Chao1 richness index was greater for prepartum multiparous cows than for postpartum multiparous cows. Multivariable models identified bacterial taxa associated with increased or reduced milk production, and general linear models revealed that a metagenomically based prediction of productivity is highly associated with production of actual milk and milk components. In conclusion, the structure of the rumen fluid microbiome shifts between the prepartum and first-week postpartum periods, and its profile within the context of this study could be used to accurately predict production traits. PMID:25501481

  16. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions.

  17. Innate Immunity Dysregulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Fernandez, Hagop M. Kantarjian, and Guillermo Garcia-Manero. American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, Nov 2012, Atlanta 2. Targeting...Garcia- Manero. 2012 National conference of Hematologic Malignancies, Oct 2012, Houston Poster Presentations: 1. Serum Amyloid Protein A 1 (hSAA1) Is...Guillermo Garcia-Manero. American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, Nov 2012, Atlanta 2. Deregulation of TLR2-JMJD3 Innate Immunity Signaling

  18. Innate Immunity Dysregulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Expression of Toll-40 like receptor 9 in bone marrow cells of myelodysplastic syndromes is down -regulated during 41 transformation to overt...Myelodysplastic Syndromes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yue Wei CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston TX...30 Sept 2013 – 29 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Innate Immunity Dysregulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes ” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  19. Rosetta Stone of NLR Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Lechtenberg, Bernhard C; Riedl, Stefan J

    2016-01-01

    The formation of NLR inflammasomes is a central step in the initiation of the innate immune response. Two recent publications describe the structure of the NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome and derive an elegant model of NLR inflammasome formation, whereby binding of the pathogen-molecule-bound NLR NAIP2 to NLRC4 leads to the activation of NLRC4 and initiation of self-propagating NLRC4 inflammasome formation.

  20. Innate immunity of the ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Mayumi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2010-02-15

    The ocular surface epithelium serves a critical function as the defensive front line of the innate immune system. While the detection of microbes is arguably its most important task, an exaggerated host defense reaction to endogenous bacterial flora may initiate and perpetuate inflammatory mucosal responses. The ability of cells to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) mainly depends on the expression of a family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). A healthy ocular surface is not inflammatory, even though ocular surface epithelium is in constant contact with bacteria and bacterial products. In this study, we show that human ocular surface epithelial cells, both corneal and conjuctival epithelial cells, respond to viral double-stranded RNA mimic polyI:C to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines through TLR3, while they fail to respond functionally to lipopolysaccharide, a TLR4 ligand. Moreover, human ocular surface epithelium responds to flagellins from ocular pathogenic, but not ocular non-pathogenic bacteria, to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines through TLR5. Thus, ocular surface epithelial cells selectively respond to microbial components and induce limited inflammation; immune-competent cells can recognize microbial components through TLRs and induce the inflammation. The unique innate immune response of the ocular surface epithelium may contribute to its coexistence with commensal bacteria. Inflammatory bowel disease is thought to result from an abnormal response to the gut microbiota. Thus, we also considered the possibility of an association between ocular surface inflammation and a disordered innate immune response. IkappaBzeta is important for TLR signaling, in mice, its knock-out produced severe, spontaneous ocular surface inflammation, the eventual loss of goblet cells, and spontaneous perioral inflammation, suggesting that dysfunction/abnormality of innate immunity can lead to ocular surface inflammation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Innate Immune Response to Burkholderia mallei

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-16

    infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane of gram- negative bacteria , and a potent stimulator of host innate...relapse or reinfection. Bacteria can become quiescent and subclinical to avoid host immune mechanisms of clearance. An earlier report indicated that non...autophagy correlate with intracellular persistence of bacteria with aerosol exposure not only of B. pseudomallei but also B. mallei in spleens of TR-17-034

  2. Effect of prepartum energy balance on neutrophil function following pegbovigrastim treatment in periparturient cows.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; LeBlanc, S J; Heiser, A

    2017-09-01

    Treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases polymorphonuclear cell (neutrophil) count and enhances neutrophil function in the periparturient cow. Prepartum undernutrition was hypothesized to reduce the effect of a commercially available recombinant bovine G-CSF product (pegbovigrastim) on neutrophil count and function. Hence this study was undertaken to test the effect of undernutrition for approximately 1 mo before calving on the innate immune response to pegbovigrastim. Cows (n = 99) on pasture were blocked by expected calving date and body condition score and randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The first factor was that cows were fed to exceed energy requirements prepartum (full feeding) or restricted to approximately 85% of prepartum energy requirements (restricted feeding). The second factor was that at approximately 7 d before expected calving date, half the cows in each feed group were injected with pegbovigrastim and the remaining half were injected with saline. Treatments were repeated on the day of calving. Blood samples were collected pre- and postcalving for complete blood count, biochemistry, and in vitro assessment of neutrophil function including phagocytosis, myeloperoxidase release, and oxidative burst. Prepartum energy restriction resulted in lower body weight, a higher proportion of cows with elevated concentrations (i.e., >0.4 mmol/L) of fatty acids, and higher average β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations before calving relative to fully fed cows. Treatment with pegbovigrastim increased the total white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. Pegbovigrastim treatment resulted in increased release of myeloperoxidase by neutrophils. Prepartum feeding group did not have an effect, and no feeding group × treatment interaction was observed for any of the white cell counts or functional tests. We concluded that pegbovigrastim treatment results in significant increases in neutrophil count and enhances

  3. Effects of excess metabolizable protein on ovarian function and circulating amino acids of beef cows: 1. Excessive supply from corn gluten meal or soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Geppert, T C; Meyer, A M; Perry, G A; Gunn, P J

    2017-04-01

    In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, the source from which excess CP is derived and how it affects reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding excess metabolizable protein (MP) from feedstuffs differing in rumen degradability on ovulatory follicular dynamics, subsequent corpus luteum (CL) development, steroid hormone production and circulating amino acids (AA) in beef cows. Non-pregnant, non-lactating mature beef cows (n=18) were assigned to 1 of 2 isonitrogenous diets (150% of MP requirements) designed to maintain similar BW and body condition score (BCS) between treatments. Diets consisted of ad libitum corn stalks supplemented with corn gluten meal (moderate rumen undegradable protein (RUP); CGM) or soybean meal (low RUP; SBM). After a 20-day supplement adaptation period, cows were synchronized for ovulation. After 10 days of synchronization, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) was administered to reset ovarian follicular growth. Starting at GnRH administration and daily thereafter until spontaneous ovulation, transrectal ultrasonography was used to diagram ovarian follicular growth, and blood samples were collected for hormone, metabolite and AA analyses. After 7 days of visual detection of estrus, CL size was determined via ultrasound. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS. As designed, cow BW and BCS were not different (P⩾0.33). Ovulatory follicular wavelength, antral follicle count, ovulatory follicle size at dominance and duration of dominance were not different (P>0.13) between treatments. Cows supplemented with CGM had greater post-dominance ovulatory follicle growth, larger dominant follicles at spontaneous luteolysis, shorter proestrus, and larger ovulatory follicles (P⩽0.03) than SBM cows. No differences (P⩾0.44) in peak estradiol, ratio of estradiol to ovulatory follicle

  4. Innate lymphoid cells and their stromal microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Kellermayer, Zoltán; Vojkovics, Dóra; Balogh, Péter

    2017-09-01

    In addition to the interaction between antigen presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes, recent studies have revealed important roles for a diverse set of auxiliary cells that profoundly influence the induction and regulation of immune responses against pathogens. Of these the stromal cells composed of various non-hematopoietic constituents are crucial for the creation and maintenance of specialized semi-static three-dimensional lymphoid tissue microenvironment, whereas the more recently described innate lymphoid cells are generated by the diversification of committed lymphoid precursor cells independently from clonally rearranged antigen receptor genes. Recent findings have revealed important contributions by innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and protection against pathogens in a tissue-specific manner. Importantly, lymphoid stromal cells also influence the onset of immune responses in tissue-specific fashion, raising the possibility of tissue-specific stromal - innate lymphoid cell collaboration. In this review we summarize the main features and interactions between these two cells types, with particular emphasis on ILC type 3 cells and their microenvironmental partners. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Innate immune dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Gersemann, M; Wehkamp, J; Stange, E F

    2012-05-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms that cause the two types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are still under investigation. Nevertheless, there is broad agreement that luminal microbes are of particular relevance in the development of these conditions. In recent years, increasing evidence has shown that defects in the innate immunity are at the centre of both types of IBD. The innate intestinal barrier is provided by the epithelium which secretes antimicrobial peptides (so-called defensins) that are retained in the mucus layer. In ileal CD, the alpha-defensins are lacking owing to several Paneth cell defects. In colonic CD, the expression of beta-defensins is inadequate. This may be related to downregulation of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and in some cohorts is associated with a reduced HBD2 gene copy number. In UC, the mucus layer, which protects the host from the enormous amounts of luminal microbes, is defective. This is accompanied by an insufficient differentiation from intestinal stem cells towards goblet cells. All these disturbances in the gut barrier shift the balance from epithelial defence towards bacterial offence. The current treatment for CD and UC is based on suppression of this secondary inflammatory process. In future, patients may benefit from new therapeutic approaches stimulating the protective innate immune system.

  6. Diabetic complications and dysregulated innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Dana T; Kayal, Rayyan A

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that leads to the development of a number of complications. The etiology of each diabetic complication is undoubtedly multifactorial. We will focus on one potential component that may be common in many diabetic complications, dysregulation of innate immunity associated with an increased inflammatory response. High glucose levels lead to shunting through the polyol pathway, an increase in diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C, an increase in the release of electrons that react with oxygen molecules to form superoxides, and the non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins that result in greater formation of advanced glycation end products. Each of these can lead to aberrant cell signalling that affects innate immunity for example, by activating the MAP kinase pathway or inducing activation of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB. This may be a common feature of several complications including periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, nephropathy, impaired healing and retinopathy. These complications are frequently associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species. Cause and effect relationship between dysregulation of key components of innate immunity and diabetic complications in many instances have been demonstrated with the use of cytokine blockers and antioxidants. PMID:17981625

  7. Innate immunity and primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Lleo, Ana; Pasini, Simone; Zuin, Massimo; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-02-01

    There has been a rapid growth in our understanding of the molecular bases of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). These efforts were initiated when the immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen was cloned and sequenced. Using the recombinant cloned antigen as a tool, research has focused on the effector mechanisms of disease and the uniqueness of the primary target tissue, the intrahepatic bile ducts. Most recently, there have been experimental data suggesting that innate immunity changes may be critical to the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune injury, as in the case of the enhanced response of monocytes and memory B cells to infectious stimulation and environmental mimics. These observations are important as they help fill in the many gaps which remain on the most difficult subject of autoimmunity, etiology. Indeed, based on the available data, several experimental models of PBC have been developed. These models illustrate and suggest that PBC can be initiated by several mechanisms, all of which lead to loss of tolerance to the mitochondrial antigens. However, once this adaptive response develops, it appears that much of the subsequent pathology is exacerbated by innate responses. We suggest that future therapeutic efforts in PBC will depend heavily on understanding the nature of this innate immune responses and methodology to blunt their cytotoxicity.

  8. Heme on innate immunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Fabianno F.; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an essential molecule expressed ubiquitously all through our tissues. Heme plays major functions in cellular physiology and metabolism as the prosthetic group of diverse proteins. Once released from cells and from hemeproteins free heme causes oxidative damage and inflammation, thus acting as a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern. In this context, free heme is a critical component of the pathological process of sterile and infectious hemolytic conditions including malaria, hemolytic anemias, ischemia-reperfusion, and hemorrhage. The plasma scavenger proteins hemopexin and albumin reduce heme toxicity and are responsible for transporting free heme to intracellular compartments where it is catabolized by heme-oxygenase enzymes. Upon hemolysis or severe cellular damage the serum capacity to scavenge heme may saturate and increase free heme to sufficient amounts to cause tissue damage in various organs. The mechanism by which heme causes reactive oxygen generation, activation of cells of the innate immune system and cell death are not fully understood. Although heme can directly promote lipid peroxidation by its iron atom, heme can also induce reactive oxygen species generation and production of inflammatory mediators through the activation of selective signaling pathways. Heme activates innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils through activation of innate immune receptors. The importance of these events has been demonstrated in infectious and non-infectious diseases models. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms behind heme-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation and the consequences of these events on different tissues and diseases. PMID:24904418

  9. Prion Disease and the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Barry M.; Mabbott, Neil A.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a unique category of infectious protein-misfolding neurodegenerative disorders. Hypothesized to be caused by misfolding of the cellular prion protein these disorders possess an infectious quality that thrives in immune-competent hosts. While much has been discovered about the routing and critical components involved in the peripheral pathogenesis of these agents there are still many aspects to be discovered. Research into this area has been extensive as it represents a major target for therapeutic intervention within this group of diseases. The main focus of pathological damage in these diseases occurs within the central nervous system. Cells of the innate immune system have been proven to be critical players in the initial pathogenesis of prion disease, and may have a role in the pathological progression of disease. Understanding how prions interact with the host innate immune system may provide us with natural pathways and mechanisms to combat these diseases prior to their neuroinvasive stage. We present here a review of the current knowledge regarding the role of the innate immune system in prion pathogenesis. PMID:23342365

  10. Innate immunity in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Ekihiro; Brenner, David A.; Friedman, Scott; Cohen, Jessica I.; Nagy, Laura; Szabo, Gyongyi; Zakhari, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. Alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress are important mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. However, emerging evidence suggests that activation of innate immunity involving TLR4 and complement also plays an important role in initiating alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis, but the role of adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease remains obscure. Activation of a TLR4-mediated MyD88-independent (TRIF/IRF-3) signaling pathway in Kupffer cells contributes to alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas activation of TLR4 signaling in hepatic stellate cells promotes liver fibrosis. Alcohol consumption activates the complement system in the liver by yet unidentified mechanisms, leading to alcoholic steatohepatitis. In contrast to activation of TLR4 and complement, alcohol consumption can inhibit natural killer cells, another important innate immunity component, contributing to alcohol-mediated acceleration of viral infection and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Understanding of the role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease may help us identify novel therapeutic targets to treat this disease. PMID:21252049

  11. The Innate Immune Response Against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Stein, Christoph; Uebele, Julia

    2015-12-15

    The innate immune system harbors a multitude of different receptor systems and cells that are constantly prepared to sense and eliminate invading microbial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus enters the body on its exposed epithelial surfaces, e.g., on skin and mucosa. The initial interaction with epithelial cells is governed by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2-mediated local production of soluble mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. The overall goal is to achieve a steady state of immune mediators and colonizing bacteria. Following cell and tissue invasion clearance of bacteria depends on intracellular microbial sensors and subsequent activation of the inflammasomes. Tissue-resident mast cells and macrophages recruit neutrophils, macrophages, and NK cells. This inflammatory response supports the generation of IL-17 producing NKT, γδ T cells, and T helper cells. Local dendritic cells migrate to the lymph nodes and fine-tune the adaptive immune response. The scope of this chapter is to provide an overview on the major cell types and receptors involved in innate immune defense against S. aureus. By segregating the different stages of infection from epithelial barrier to intracellular and systemic infection, this chapter highlights the different qualities of the innate immune response to S. aureus at different stages of invasiveness.

  12. Innate immune responses to hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Schoggins, John W; Rice, Charles M

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against invading viral pathogens. Incoming viruses are sensed by dedicated host factors that, when triggered, initiate multiple signal transduction pathways. Activation of these pathways leads to the induction of highly orchestrated transcriptional programs designed to limit virus replication and spread. In recent years, our understanding of innate immune responses targeting hepatitis C virus (HCV) has increased substantially, largely due to the development of new systems and methodologies to study HCV-host interactions in vitro and in vivo. However, significant gaps still remain. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive view of the innate immune response to HCV, focusing primarily on knowledge gained from cell culture models of HCV infection, as well as data from human patients infected with HCV. While some paradigms of the host response to HCV revealed in cell culture translate to human infection in vivo, others are less clear. Further insight into the similarities and differences in these systems will not only reveal directions for future studies on HCV immunity, but may also guide the development of novel strategies to control HCV and other viral infections.

  13. Comparison of long-term controlled internal drug release-based protocols to synchronize estrus and ovulation in postpartum beef cows.

    PubMed

    Nash, J M; Mallory, D A; Ellersieck, M R; Poock, S E; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the necessity of adding a GnRH injection to a 14-d controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol for synchronization of estrus and ovulation in postpartum beef cows. The experiments were designed to characterize long-term CIDR-based protocols in cyclic and noncyclic postpartum beef cows on the basis of estrous response, follicular dynamics, and serum steroid hormone concentrations. In Exp. 1 and 2, crossbred lactating beef cows (n = 40 and 38, respectively) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments by age, days postpartum (DPP), BCS, and estrous cyclicity status: 1) cows received a CIDR from d 0 to 14 followed by GnRH 9 d after CIDR removal (d 23) and PGF2α on d 30 (CIDR Select) or 2) CIDR administration from d 0 to 14 followed by PGF2α 16 d later (d 30; Show-Me-Synch). Estrus detection was performed using HeatWatch transmitters applied from CIDR removal to AI. Cows in Exp. 1 were artificially inseminated based on detected estrus whereas cows in Exp. 2 were inseminated at a fixed time. In both experiments, follicle turnover on d 25 of treatment was greater among CIDR Select-treated cows (P < 0.001) compared with Show-Me-Synch-treated cows. In Exp. 1, CIDR Select-treated cows tended to have a reduced (P = 0.06) variance for the interval to estrus after PGF2α than Show-Me-Synch-treated cows. Also, cows assigned to the CIDR Select protocol had greater concentrations of progesterone (P < 0.05) on the day before PGF2α administration as well as greater concentrations of estradiol-17β (P < 0.01) 48 h after PGF2α administration. In Exp. 2, mean dominant follicle diameter on d 23 and at fixed-time AI (FTAI) did not differ between treatments (P > 0.10), but Show-Me-Synch-treated cows had larger follicles at d 28 (P < 0.001) and tended to have larger follicles at PGF2α (d 30; P = 0.06) compared with cows assigned to CIDR Select. In summary, the administration of GnRH on d 23 of a long-term CIDR-based estrus

  14. Short-term energy restriction during late gestation of beef cows decreases postweaning calf humoral immune response to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the pre- and postweaning growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune response of beef calves born to cows fed 70 or 100% of NEm requirements during the last 40 d of gestation. On d 0 (approximately 40 d before calving), 30 multiparous Angus cows pregnant to embryo transfer (BW = 631 ± 15 kg; age = 5.2 ± 0.98 yr; BCS = 6.3 ± 0.12) were randomly allocated into 1 of 10 drylot pens (3 cows/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (5 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows limit-fed (d 0 to calving) isonitrogenous, total-mixed diets formulated to provide 100 (CTRL) or 70% (REST) of daily NEm requirements of a 630-kg beef cow at 8 mo of gestation. Immediately after calving, all cow-calf pairs were combined into a single management group and rotationally grazed on tall fescue pastures (6 pastures; 22 ha/pasture) until weaning (d 266). All calves were assigned to a 40-d preconditioning period in a drylot from d 266 to 306 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), , and spp. on d 273 and 287. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from cows on d 0, 17, and 35 and from calves within 12 h of birth and on d 266, 273, 274, 276, 279, and 287. By design, REST cows consumed less ( ≤ 0.002) total DMI, TDN, and NEm but had similar CP intake ( = 0.67), which tended ( = 0.06) to increase BW loss from d 0 to calving, than CTRL cows (-1.09 vs. -0.70 ± 0.14 kg/d, respectively). However, gestational NEm intake did not affect ( ≥ 0.30) plasma concentrations of cortisol, insulin, and glucose during gestation and BCS at calving as well as postcalving pregnancy rate, BW, and BCS change of cows. Calf serum IgG concentrations and plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth as well as calf pre- and postweaning BW and ADG did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between calves born to REST and CTRL cows. However, calf postweaning overall plasma concentrations of cortisol; plasma

  15. Comparison of estrus synchronization by controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) and adhesive transdermal progestin patch in postpartum beef cows.

    PubMed

    Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Chumchoung, Chaiwat; Wutthiwitthayaphong, Supphathat; Suthikrai, Wanvipa; Sangkamanee, Praphai

    2017-09-15

    Estrous synchronization with progesterone based protocols has been essentially used in cattle industry. Although intravaginal devices have been commonly used, this technique may induce vaginitis. This study aimed at examining the efficiency of novel transdermal progestin patch on follicle development and comparing the progestin patch versus CIDR device on estrous synchronization, complication at treated site and pregnancy in beef cattle. In experiment 1, seven beef cows were treated with an adhesive transdermal progestin patch on the ventral surface of the proximal part of the tail for 7 days. The cows were daily examined the follicular development using ultrasonography starting on Day 0 till 3 days after hormone removal. Experiment 2, forty beef cows were divided into two equal groups (20 cows per group). The cows randomly allocated to received either vaginal insertion of CIDR (n = 20) or treated with an adhesive transdermal progestin patch (n = 20). The levels of plasma progesterone during the experiment and the numbers of standing estrous cows were recorded. Timed artificial inseminated (TAI) was performed at 60 h after CIDR or patch termination. Pregnancy rates were determined at 60 days after TAI. Experiment 1 revealed that the novel transdermal progestin patch could efficiently control follicular growth. All the seven treated cows had dominant follicle upon dermal patch removal indicating the effectiveness of the progestin patch. In experiment 2, the percentages of cows exhibited standing estrus were similar between transdermal patch (72.22%) and CIDR (70.00%). The levels of plasma progesterone during CIDR treatment were significantly higher (4.06 ± 1.65 ng/mL on Day 1 and 3.62 ± 1.60 ng/mL on Day 7) compared with transdermal patch (2.60 ± 1.43 ng/mL on Day 1 and 1.81 ± 1.57 ng/mL on Day 7). Three cows treated with CIDR (15%) developed vaginitis while none of cows had physically dermal reaction at adhesive site. Cows synchronized with

  16. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  17. Cow's milk allergy in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dahdah, Lamia; Albarini, Marco; Martelli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy is among the more frequent food allergies in infants and children. Because its suspicion stems from a plethora of symptoms, it is frequently reported. However, the development of a rigorous diagnostic pathway will reduce the diagnosed children to less than 50% of those reported. Cow's milk allergy is the only specific food allergy for which an EBM guideline exists. According to the guidelines (Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow's Milk Allergy), a diagnostic process based on the pre-test probability of this condition is available. Treatments include avoidance, the substitution of cow's milk with an appropriate formula, and in some cases, oral immunotherapy. Treatment choice is also guided by these guidelines. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  19. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  20. Cow's Milk Allergy with Severe Eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneko, Mariko; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2016-02-01

    Because the role of eosinophils in neonates is not well understood, the clinical significance of eosinophilia in neonates is unclear. We encountered a rare case of cow's milk allergy in a premature male infant with severe eosinophilia in the neonatal period. The peripheral blood eosinophil count in this infant was 7,404/μL at birth, and he produced stools with fresh blood immediately after birth and prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk. Although the patient's eosinophil count normalized without specific treatment within 6 weeks after birth, it is possible that the causes of the eosinophilia in this infant prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk were different from those after the first feedings. Cow's milk allergy was diagnosed on the basis of the patient's positivity for this allergy in the challenge test and subsequent allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test performed at 6 months of age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Immunotherapy for cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Masaya; Soejima, Kazukiko; Hatano, Yasuko; Minami, Hirotaka

    2017-08-21

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is used regularly for young children with cow's milk (CM) allergy and has been shown to be effective in several studies. However, adverse events occur frequently during OIT. Furthermore, there are only five randomized controlled trial studies of CM-OIT and these are low-powered single center trials. Therefore, evidence levels are also low and sometimes frequent and severe allergic events occur during the OIT. Furthermore, there are no standardized protocols in pediatric allergy guidelines from several countries and studies with long-term follow-up observations and clinical tolerance defined as sustained unresponsiveness are rare. Additionally, clinical tolerance by OIT is generally not well defined and obscure. Thus, several problems remain to be resolved, however we hope OIT in combination with omalizumab and less allergenic heated CM products will resolve these problems in the future.

  2. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established.

  3. Alternative approaches to setting up donor cows for superstimulation.

    PubMed

    Bó, G A; Guerrero, D C; Adams, G P

    2008-01-01

    Protocols that controlled follicular wave emergence and ovulation have had a great impact on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, as they permitted the initiation of superstimulatory treatments at a self-appointed time. However, the most commonly used approach for synchronization of follicular wave emergence involved estradiol, which cannot be used in many countries. Therefore, alternative treatments are required. Mechanical removal of the dominant follicle by ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration was effective, but required the use of specialized equipment and trained technical staff, which made it difficult to utilize in the field. Exogenous GnRH or pLH have also been used to induce ovulation of a dominant follicle, synchronizing follicular wave emergence, but their efficacy was dependent on the stage of the dominant follicle at treatment; thus, the emergence of the ensuing follicular wave may be too variable for superstimulation. An alternative approach could be initiating treatments at the time of emergence of the first follicular wave, but the need to synchronize ovulation may be a disadvantage in groups of donors at random stages of the estrous cycle. The final alternative may be to use FSH or eCG to initiate a new wave, without regard to the presence of a dominant follicle, followed by superstimulatory treatment at a predetermined time. All alternatives need to be thoroughly investigated in order to confirm their utility in the superstimulation of donor cows, regardless of the stage of the estrous cycle and without compromising ova/embryo production.

  4. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: I. Effects on pre- and postpartum cow performance.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Day, M L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2010-08-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 144) were used to determine effects of late gestation dietary energy source on pre- and postpartum cow performance in a complete randomized block design experiment. Cows were adapted to diets starting at 167 +/- 9 d of gestation and fed until 1 wk before expected calving date. Cows were fed 1 of 3 dietary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried distillers grains (DDGS). Cows allotted to HY were allowed ad libitum access to round-bale grass hay, and average hay disappearance was 12.4 kg/d. Limit-fed corn and DDGS diets contained 5.3 kg of whole-shelled corn or 4.1 kg of DDGS, respectively, plus 2.1 kg of hay, and 1.0 kg of supplement to meet cow nutritional needs during late gestation and to allow for an energy intake similar to HY. Every 21 d, BW, BCS, and ultrasound measurement of backfat between the 12th and 13th ribs were collected. At 210 d in gestation, jugular blood samples were collected from cows at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea N (BUN) concentrations. After parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed similarly. Milk production was determined by weigh-suckle-weigh procedure on d 31, 100, and 176 postpartum. Cows fed DDGS during late gestation gained more (P = 0.04) BW than cows fed HY or CN; however, no difference in BCS change was detected (P = 0.28) among treatments. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar among treatments (P = 0.64), whereas insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding were greater (P = 0.002) for cows fed DDGS than those fed HY or CN. Plasma BUN concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.02) for cows fed DDGS vs. CN or HY up to 6 h postfeeding. Birth weight was greater (P < 0.001) for calves from cows fed CN and DDGS than for those fed HY, but this did not result in any differences in frequency of dystocia (P = 0.21). Prepartum energy source did not affect conception rates (P = 0.79), milk production (P > or = 0.51), or milk

  5. Cow's milk and immune-mediated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, H E; Kolb, H

    2000-11-01

    Cow's milk-based infant formulas and cow's milk consumption in childhood have been suggested to promote the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus and other immune-mediated or neurological diseases. Epidemiological studies in man have led to the hypothesis that introduction of cow's milk-based infant formula within the first 3 months of life is associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, in animal models of type 1 diabetes mellitus, cow's milk proteins have been proven to be 'diabetogenic'. However, the issue seems far from being resolved. Several epidemiological studies and, more importantly, the first prospective trials did not show an association between early exposure to cow's milk and type 1 diabetes mellitus. In animal models, cow's milk proteins are modestly and variably diabetogenic, wheat or soybean proteins in the diet cause higher rates of autoimmune diabetes. In both man and rodents there is increasing evidence that the gut-associated immune system plays a major role in disease development, probably because of disturbed oral tolerance mechanisms. Oral tolerance depends on immunological homeostasis and normal maturation of the gut. These factors are influenced by growth factors and cytokines from breast milk, normal bacterial colonization, infections and diet. All these factors have been proposed as risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Hence, cow's milk proteins may provide mimicry epitopes relevant in autoimmunity, as well as destabilizing oral tolerance mechanisms by biologically active peptides. The concept of dietary regulation of autoimmunity does not apply only to cow's milk protein, but also to other dietary proteins.

  6. Oral calcium supplementation in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, Garrett R

    2013-07-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cattle around parturition can be manifest as clinical milk fever or subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia has the greatest economic effect because it affects a much higher proportion of cows. Oral calcium supplements are used to mitigate the effects of both forms of hypocalcemia. Oral calcium supplements are appropriate for cows displaying early clinical signs of hypocalcemia and prophylactically to lessen the negative impacts of hypocalcemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between Circulating Urea Concentrations and Endometrial Function in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhangrui; Oguejiofor, Chike F.; Swangchan-Uthai, Theerawat; Carr, Susan; Wathes, D. Claire

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Dairy cows fed high levels of protein to increase milk yield tend to have reduced fertility but the reasons behind this are unclear. Differing dietary protein levels are reflected in altered urea concentrations in both blood and other tissues including the uterus. We showed that the circulating urea concentration was highly correlated to changed expression levels of many genes in the endometrium shortly after calving. These were predominantly associated with tissue repair, innate immunity and lipid metabolism. A subsequent study found no effect of altered urea concentration on endometrial gene expression in vitro implying that the dietary influence is indirect. Abstract Both high and low circulating urea concentrations, a product of protein metabolism, are associated with decreased fertility in dairy cows through poorly defined mechanisms. The rate of involution and the endometrial ability to mount an adequate innate immune response after calving are both critical for subsequent fertility. Study 1 used microarray analysis to identify genes whose endometrial expression 2 weeks postpartum correlated significantly with the mean plasma urea per cow, ranging from 3.2 to 6.6 mmol/L. The biological functions of 781 mapped genes were analysed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. These were predominantly associated with tissue turnover (e.g., BRINP1, FOXG1), immune function (e.g., IL17RB, CRISPLD2), inflammation (e.g., C3, SERPINF1, SERPINF2) and lipid metabolism (e.g., SCAP, ACBD5, SLC10A). Study 2 investigated the relationship between urea concentration and expression of 6 candidate genes (S100A8, HSP5A, IGF1R, IL17RB, BRINP1, CRISPLD2) in bovine endometrial cell culture. These were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/L urea, equivalent to low, medium and high circulating values with or without challenge by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS increased S100A8 expression as expected but urea treatment had no effect on expression of any tested gene

  8. Mastitis in post-partum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S

    2008-07-01

    Transition from the dry period to lactation is a high risk period for the modern dairy cow. The biggest challenge at that time is mastitis. Environmental bacteria are the most problematic pathogens around parturition. Coliforms are able to cause severe infections in multiparous cows, and heifers are likely to be infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci. During the periparturient period, hormonal and other factors make the dairy cows more or less immunocompromised. A successful mastitis control programme is focused on the management of dry and calving cows and heifers. Clean and comfortable environment, proper feeding and adequate supplementation of the diet with vitamins and trace elements are essential for maintaining good udder health. Strategies which would enhance closure of the teat canal in the beginning of the dry period and would protect teat end from bacteria until the keratin plug has formed decrease the risk for mastitis after calving. Dry cow therapy has been used with considerable success. Yet, a selective approach could be recommended rather than blanket therapy. Non-antibiotic approaches can be useful tools to prevent new infections during the dry period, in herds where the risk for environmental mastitis is high. Vaccination has been suggested as a means to support the immune defence of the dairy cow around parturition. In some countries, implementation of Escherichia coli core antigen vaccine has reduced the incidence of severe coliform mastitis after calving.

  9. Fate of higher brominated PBDEs in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Asplund, Lillemor; de Wit, Cynthia A; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2007-01-15

    Dietary intake studies of lower brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) have shown that fish and animal products are important vectors of human exposure, but almost no data exist for higher brominated BDEs. Therefore, the fate of hepta- to decaBDEs was studied in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a previous mass balance study of PCB. Tissue distribution was studied in one cow slaughtered after the experiment. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in feed, organs, adipose tissues, and feces, but not in milk. In contrast to PCBs and lower brominated BDEs, concentrations of hepta- to decaBDEs in adipose tissue were 9-80 times higher than in milk fat and the difference increased with degree of bromination/log K(OW). The congener profiles in adipose tissue and feed differed; BDE-207, BDE-196, BDE-197, and BDE-182 accumulated to a surprisingly greater extent in the fat compared to their isomers, suggesting metabolic debromination of BDE-209 to these BDEs. The results indicate that meat rather than dairy product consumption may be an important human exposure route to higher brominated BDEs.

  10. INNATE IMMUNITY. Cytosolic detection of the bacterial metabolite HBP activates TIFA-dependent innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Ryan G; Sintsova, Anna; Buckwalter, Carolyn M; Leung, Nelly; Cochrane, Alan; Li, Jianjun; Cox, Andrew D; Moffat, Jason; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2015-06-12

    Host recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) initiates an innate immune response that is critical for pathogen elimination and engagement of adaptive immunity. Here we show that mammalian cells can detect and respond to the bacterial-derived monosaccharide heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP). A metabolic intermediate in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, HBP is highly conserved in Gram-negative bacteria, yet absent from eukaryotic cells. Detection of HBP within the host cytosol activated the nuclear facto κB pathway in vitro and induced innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo. Moreover, we used a genome-wide RNA interference screen to uncover an innate immune signaling axis, mediated by phosphorylation-dependent oligomerization of the TRAF-interacting protein with forkhead-associated domain (TIFA) that is triggered by HBP. Thus, HBP is a PAMP that activates TIFA-dependent immunity to Gram-negative bacteria.

  11. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    PubMed

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  12. Linking Transcriptional Changes over Time in Stimulated Dendritic Cells to Identify Gene Networks Activated during the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Ashwini; Kumagai, Yutaro; Liang, Kuo-ching; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response is primarily mediated by the Toll-like receptors functioning through the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways. Despite being widely studied, it is not yet completely understood and systems-level analyses have been lacking. In this study, we identified a high-probability network of genes activated during the innate immune response using a novel approach to analyze time-course gene expression profiles of activated immune cells in combination with a large gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction network. We classified the immune response into three consecutive time-dependent stages and identified the most probable paths between genes showing a significant change in expression at each stage. The resultant network contained several novel and known regulators of the innate immune response, many of which did not show any observable change in expression at the sampled time points. The response network shows the dominance of genes from specific functional classes during different stages of the immune response. It also suggests a role for the protein phosphatase 2a catalytic subunit α in the regulation of the immunoproteasome during the late phase of the response. In order to clarify the differences between the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways in the innate immune response, time-course gene expression profiles from MyD88-knockout and TRIF-knockout dendritic cells were analyzed. Their response networks suggest the dominance of the MyD88-dependent pathway in the innate immune response, and an association of the circadian regulators and immunoproteasomal degradation with the TRIF-dependent pathway. The response network presented here provides the most probable associations between genes expressed in the early and the late phases of the innate immune response, while taking into account the intermediate regulators. We propose that the method described here can also be used in the identification of time-dependent gene sub

  13. Linking transcriptional changes over time in stimulated dendritic cells to identify gene networks activated during the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ashwini; Kumagai, Yutaro; Liang, Kuo-Ching; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response is primarily mediated by the Toll-like receptors functioning through the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways. Despite being widely studied, it is not yet completely understood and systems-level analyses have been lacking. In this study, we identified a high-probability network of genes activated during the innate immune response using a novel approach to analyze time-course gene expression profiles of activated immune cells in combination with a large gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction network. We classified the immune response into three consecutive time-dependent stages and identified the most probable paths between genes showing a significant change in expression at each stage. The resultant network contained several novel and known regulators of the innate immune response, many of which did not show any observable change in expression at the sampled time points. The response network shows the dominance of genes from specific functional classes during different stages of the immune response. It also suggests a role for the protein phosphatase 2a catalytic subunit α in the regulation of the immunoproteasome during the late phase of the response. In order to clarify the differences between the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways in the innate immune response, time-course gene expression profiles from MyD88-knockout and TRIF-knockout dendritic cells were analyzed. Their response networks suggest the dominance of the MyD88-dependent pathway in the innate immune response, and an association of the circadian regulators and immunoproteasomal degradation with the TRIF-dependent pathway. The response network presented here provides the most probable associations between genes expressed in the early and the late phases of the innate immune response, while taking into account the intermediate regulators. We propose that the method described here can also be used in the identification of time-dependent gene sub

  14. Dynamics of bacterial communities during manufacture and ripening of traditional Caciocavallo of Castelfranco cheese in relation to cows' feeding.

    PubMed

    Giello, Marina; La Storia, Antonietta; Masucci, Felicia; Di Francia, Antonio; Ercolini, Danilo; Villani, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Traditional Caciocavallo of Castelfranco is a semi-hard "pasta-filata" cheese produced from raw cows' milk in Campania region. The aim of the present research is mainly focused on the study, by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and viable counts, of the dynamics of bacterial communities during manufacture and ripening of traditional Caciocavallo cheese. Moreover, the possible correlation between cheese microbiota and cows' feeding based on silage or hay was also evaluated. In general, except for enterococci, the technological process significantly affected all the microbial groups. According to 16S rRNA, raw cows' milk was dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, L. lactis and Pseudomonas sp. in hay cheese production, whereas Lactococcus lactis and Acinetobacter sp. dominated silage production. Differences in the taxonomic structure of the milk's microbiota within diet groups were not related to silage and hay cows' feeding. Moreover, S. thermophilus was the unique species that dominate from raw milks to fermented intermediates and cheese in both hay and silage cheese productions. Feeding and ripening time influenced significantly sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  16. Molecular-based environmental risk assessment of three varieties of genetically engineered cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianxiang; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Zhao, Yaofeng; Zhang, Lei; Chu, Mingxing; Li, Ning

    2011-10-01

    The development of animal biotechnology has led to an increase in attention to biosafety issues. Here we evaluated the impact of genetically engineered cows on the environment. The probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial communities in cow gut and soil were tested using three varieties of genetically engineered cows that were previously transformed with a human gene encoding lysozyme, lactoferrin, or human alpha lactalbumin. The results showed that the transgenes were not detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or quantitative real-time PCR in gut microbial DNA extracts of manure or microbial DNA extracts of topsoil. In addition, the transgenes had no impact on the microbial communities in cow gut or soil as assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis or 16S rDNA sequencing. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses showed that the manure bacteria sampled during each of the four seasons belonged primarily to two groups, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and the soil bacteria belonged to four groups, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and α-proteobacteria. Other groups, such as β-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, ε-proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Nitrospira, were not dominant in the manure or soil.

  17. Uterine Microbiota Progression from Calving until Establishment of Metritis in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; Gobikrushanth, Mohanathas; Daetz, Rodolfo; Mingoti, Rodolfo D.; Parize, Ana Carolina Brigolin; de Freitas, Sabrina Lucas; da Costa, Antonio Nelson Lima; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Lima, Svetlana; Jeong, K. Casey

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the progression of the uterine microbiota from calving until establishment of metritis. Uterine swabs (n = 72) collected at 0, 2, and 6 ± 2 days postpartum (dpp) from 12 metritic and 12 healthy cows were used for metagenomic sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A heat map showed that uterine microbiota was established at calving. The microbiota changed rapidly from 0 to 6 ± 2 dpp, with a decrease in the abundance of Proteobacteria and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria, which were dominant in metritic cows. Uterine microbiota composition was shared; however, metritic and healthy cows could be discriminated using relative abundance of bacterial genera at 0, 2, and 6 ± 2 dpp. Bacteroides was the main genus associated with metritis because it was the only genus that showed significantly greater abundance in cows with metritis. As the abundance of Bacteroides organisms increased, the uterine discharge score, a measure of uterine health, worsened. Fusobacterium was also an important genus associated with metritis because Fusobacterium abundance increased as Bacteroides abundance increased and the uterine discharge score worsened as the abundance increased. The correlation with uterine discharge score and the correlation with Bacteroides or Fusobacterium showed that other bacteria, such as Helcoccocus, Filifactor, and Porphyromonas, were also associated with metritis. There were also bacteria associated with uterine health, such as “Candidatus Blochmannia,” Escherichia, Sneathia, and Pedobacter. PMID:26150453

  18. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  19. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  20. Counterspace Operations for Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    INTERNET DOCUMENT INFORMATION FORM A. Report Title: Counterspace perations for Information Dominance B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet 3/10...Representative for resolution. Counterspace perations for Information Dominance by James G. Lee INTRODUCTION The Problem The launch of the Soviet...information gap between friendly and enemy forces. This positive information gap has been referred to as information dominance . Information Dominance The

  1. Dominant modal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  2. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  3. How the Innate Immune System Senses Trouble and Causes Trouble.

    PubMed

    Hato, Takashi; Dagher, Pierre C

    2015-08-07

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense in response to nonself and danger signals from microbial invasion or tissue injury. It is increasingly recognized that each organ uses unique sets of cells and molecules that orchestrate regional innate immunity. The cells that execute the task of innate immunity are many and consist of not only "professional" immune cells but also nonimmune cells, such as renal epithelial cells. Despite a high level of sophistication, deregulated innate immunity is common and contributes to a wide range of renal diseases, such as sepsis-induced kidney injury, GN, and allograft dysfunction. This review discusses how the innate immune system recognizes and responds to nonself and danger signals. In particular, the roles of renal epithelial cells that make them an integral part of the innate immune apparatus of the kidney are highlighted.

  4. Post-Translational Modification Control of Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Qian, Cheng; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-07-19

    A coordinated balance between the positive and negative regulation of pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-initiated innate inflammatory responses is required to ensure the most favorable outcome for the host. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of innate sensors and downstream signaling molecules influence their activity and function by inducing their covalent linkage to new functional groups. PTMs including phosphorylation and polyubiquitination have been shown to potently regulate innate inflammatory responses through the activation, cellular translocation, and interaction of innate receptors, adaptors, and downstream signaling molecules in response to infectious and dangerous signals. Other PTMs such as methylation, acetylation, SUMOylation, and succinylation are increasingly implicated in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. In this review, we focus on the roles of PTMs in controlling PRR-triggered innate immunity and inflammatory responses. The emerging roles of PTMs in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of infectious and inflammatory immune diseases are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [The role of the innate immune system in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Volz, T; Kaesler, S; Skabytska, Y; Biedermann, T

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms how the innate immune system detects microbes and mounts a rapid immune response have been more and more elucidated in the past years. Subsequently it has been shown that innate immunity also shapes adaptive immune responses and determines their quality that can be either inflammatory or tolerogenic. As atopic dermatitis is characterized by disturbances of innate and adaptive immune responses, colonization with pathogens and defects in skin barrier function, insight into mechanisms of innate immunity has helped to understand the vicious circle of ongoing skin inflammation seen in atopic dermatitis patients. Elucidating general mechanisms of the innate immune system and its functions in atopic dermatitis paves the way for developing new therapies. Especially the novel insights into the human microbiome and potential functional consequences make the innate immune system a very fundamental and promising target. As a result atopic dermatitis manifestations can be attenuated or even resolved. These currently developed strategies will be introduced in the current review.

  6. Hepatitis C and Innate Immunity – Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Gyongyi; Dolganiuc, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Eradication of HCV infection requires a complex and coordinated interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses that, when it fails, leads to chronic infection. Increasing evidence suggest that defects in innate immune recognition and in innate immunity-induced activation of adaptive immune responses play a critical role in failure of HCV clearance. The evolutionarily preserved receptors of viral recognition in immune cells and in hepatocytes sense invading pathogens that results in induction of Type I IFNs, the central players in antiviral immunity. In this review the innate immune mechanisms by which HCV is sensed and by which HCV undermines host defense are discussed. The critical role of dendritic cells in antigen presentation/T cell activation and IFNα-production as well as interference of HCV with innate immune cell functions are reviewed. Finally, current and emerging therapeutic approaches targeting innate immune pathways will be evaluated. PMID:18625434

  7. Cellular and molecular regulation of innate inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-01-01

    Innate sensing of pathogens by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) plays essential roles in the innate discrimination between self and non-self components, leading to the generation of innate immune defense and inflammatory responses. The initiation, activation and resolution of innate inflammatory response are mediated by a complex network of interactions among the numerous cellular and molecular components of immune and non-immune system. While a controlled and beneficial innate inflammatory response is critical for the elimination of pathogens and maintenance of tissue homeostasis, dysregulated or sustained inflammation leads to pathological conditions such as chronic infection, inflammatory autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss some of the recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the establishment and regulation of innate immunity and inflammatory responses. PMID:27818489

  8. The Development of Adult Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a specialized family of effector lymphocytes that transcriptionally and functionally mirror effector subsets of T cells, but differ from T cells in that they lack clonally-distributed adaptive antigen receptors. Our understanding of this family of lymphocytes is still in its infancy. In this review, we summarize current understanding and discuss recent insights into the cellular and molecular events that occur during early ILC development in adult mice. We discuss how these events overlap and diverge with the early development of adaptive T cells, and how they may influence the molecular and functional properties of mature ILC. PMID:26871595

  9. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Jasper J. P.; Martens, Anne W. J.; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring. PMID:28536374

  10. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jasper J P; Martens, Anne W J; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-02-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.

  11. Evolutionary genetics of insect innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of evolution in immune defense genes help to understand the evolutionary dynamics between hosts and pathogens. Multiple insect genomes have been sequenced, with many of them having annotated immune genes, which paves the way for a comparative genomic analysis of insect immunity. In this review, I summarize the current state of comparative and evolutionary genomics of insect innate immune defense. The focus is on the conserved and divergent components of immunity with an emphasis on gene family evolution and evolution at the sequence level; both population genetics and molecular evolution frameworks are considered. PMID:25750410

  12. Evolutionary genetics of insect innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Viljakainen, Lumi

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of evolution in immune defense genes help to understand the evolutionary dynamics between hosts and pathogens. Multiple insect genomes have been sequenced, with many of them having annotated immune genes, which paves the way for a comparative genomic analysis of insect immunity. In this review, I summarize the current state of comparative and evolutionary genomics of insect innate immune defense. The focus is on the conserved and divergent components of immunity with an emphasis on gene family evolution and evolution at the sequence level; both population genetics and molecular evolution frameworks are considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Deconstructing innate immune signaling in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Varney, Melinda E.; Melgar, Katelyn; Starczynowski, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of immune-related genes is widely reported in Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and chronic immune stimulation increases the risk for developing MDS. Aberrant innate immune activation, such as due to increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, in MDS can contribute to systemic effects on hematopoiesis in addition to cell-intrinsic defects on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) function. This review will deconstruct aberrant function of TLR signaling mediators within MDS HSPC that may contribute to cell intrinsic consequences on hematopoiesis and disease pathogenesis. We will discuss the contribution of chronic TLR signaling to the pathogenesis of MDS based on evidence from patients and mouse genetic models. PMID:26143580

  14. Systems-Level Analysis of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Daniel E.; Tam, Vincent C.; Aderem, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Systems-level analysis of biological processes strives to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate the interactions between the relevant molecular components over time, thereby enabling development of models that can be employed to ultimately predict behavior. Rapid development in measurement technologies (omics), when combined with the accessible nature of the cellular constituents themselves, is allowing the field of innate immunity to take significant strides toward this lofty goal. In this review, we survey exciting results derived from systems biology analyses of the immune system, ranging from gene regulatory networks to influenza pathogenesis and systems vaccinology. PMID:24655298

  15. Innate immune modulation in EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) belongs to the gammaherpesvirus family, members of which are oncogenic. Compared with other closely related herpesviruses, EBV has developed much more elaborate and sophisticated strategies for subverting host immune system, which may account for its high prevalence in immune competent hosts. Thus, study of EBV-specific immune dysregulation is important for understanding EBV latency and oncogenesis, and will identify potential molecular targets for immunotherapeutic interventions. Here I summarize the recent findings of individual EBV products in regulating host immune responses, with emphasis on the innate immune modulation. PMID:21429244

  16. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  17. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  18. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response using the avian innate immunity microarray

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The avian innate immunity microarray (AIIM) is a genomics tool designed to study the transcriptional activity of the avian immune response (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 117:139-145, 2007). It is an avian cDNA microarray representing 4,959 avian genes spotted in triplicate. The AIIM contains 25 avian int...

  19. The relationship of cow size and calf birth weight to calf weaning weight in a commercial Brangus cow/calf operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Profitability and sustainability of cow/calf operations are dependent on cow efficiency. Annual forage consumption is a logical input component included in cow efficiency models and large cows generally consume more forage annually than small cows. The ratio of additional kg of calf weaning BW to ea...

  20. Genomic analysis of dominance effects on milk production and conformation traits in Fleckvieh cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of dominance variance in dairy cattle based on pedigree data vary considerably across traits and amount to up to 50% of the total genetic variance for conformation traits and up to 43% for milk production traits. Using bovine SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes, dominance variance can be estimated both at the marker level and at the animal level using genomic dominance effect relationship matrices. Yield deviations of high-density genotyped Fleckvieh cows were used to assess cross-validation accuracy of genomic predictions with additive and dominance models. The potential use of dominance variance in planned matings was also investigated. Results Variance components of nine milk production and conformation traits were estimated with additive and dominance models using yield deviations of 1996 Fleckvieh cows and ranged from 3.3% to 50.5% of the total genetic variance. REML and Gibbs sampling estimates showed good concordance. Although standard errors of estimates of dominance variance were rather large, estimates of dominance variance for milk, fat and protein yields, somatic cell score and milkability were significantly different from 0. Cross-validation accuracy of predicted breeding values was higher with genomic models than with the pedigree model. Inclusion of dominance effects did not increase the accuracy of the predicted breeding and total genetic values. Additive and dominance SNP effects for milk yield and protein yield were estimated with a BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) model and used to calculate expectations of breeding values and total genetic values for putative offspring. Selection on total genetic value instead of breeding value would result in a larger expected total genetic superiority in progeny, i.e. 14.8% for milk yield and 27.8% for protein yield and reduce the expected additive genetic gain only by 4.5% for milk yield and 2.6% for protein yield. Conclusions Estimated dominance variance was substantial

  1. OASL – a new player in controlling antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianzhong; Ghosh, Arundhati; Sarkar, Saumendra N.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular innate immune system plays a critical role in mounting the initial resistance to virus infection. It is comprised of various pattern-recognition receptors that induce type I interferon production, which further shapes the adaptive immunity. However, to overcome this resistance and promote replication, viruses have evolved mechanisms to evade this host innate immune response. Here we discuss a recently described mechanism of boosting the innate immunity by oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL) protein, which can potentially be used to overcome viral evasion and enhance innate immunity. PMID:25676874

  2. Innate immunosenescence: effect of aging on cells and receptors of the innate immune system in humans.

    PubMed

    Solana, Rafael; Tarazona, Raquel; Gayoso, Inmaculada; Lesur, Olivier; Dupuis, Gilles; Fulop, Tamas

    2012-10-01

    Components of the innate immune response, including neutrophils and macrophages, are the first line of defense against infections. Their role is to initiate an inflammatory response, phagocyte and kill pathogens, recruit natural killer cells (NK), and facilitate the maturation and migration of dendritic cells that will initiate the adaptive immune response. Extraordinary advances have been made in the last decade on the knowledge of the receptors and mechanisms used by cells of the innate immunity not only to sense and eliminate the pathogen but also to communicate each other and collaborate with cells of adaptive immunity to mount an effective immune response. The analysis of innate immunity in elderly humans has evidenced that aging has a profound impact on the phenotype and functions of these cells. Thus altered expression and/or function of innate immunity receptors and signal transduction leading to defective activation and decreased chemotaxis, phagocytosis and intracellular killing of pathogens have been described. The phenotype and function of NK cells from elderly individuals show significant changes that are compatible with remodeling of the different NK subsets, with a decrease in the CD56bright subpopulation and accumulation of the CD56dim cells, in particular those differentiated NK cells that co-express CD57, as well as a decreased expression of activating natural cytotoxicity receptors. These alterations can be responsible of the decreased production of cytokines and the lower per-cell cytotoxicity observed in the elderly. Considering the relevance of these cells in the initiation of the immune response, the possibility to reactivate the function of innate immune cells should be considered in order to improve the response to pathogens and to vaccination in the elderly.

  3. Tweaking Innate Immunity: the Promise of Innate Immunologicals As Anti-infectives

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2006-01-01

    New and exciting insights into the importance of the innate immune system are revolutionizing our understanding of immune defense against infections, pathogenesis, and the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. The innate immune system uses multiple families of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect infection and trigger a variety of antimicrobial defense mechanisms. PRRs are evolutionarily highly conserved and serve to detect infection by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are unique to microorganisms and essential for their survival. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane signalling receptors that activate gene expression programs that result in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, type I interferons and antimicrobial factors. Furthermore, TLR activation facilitates and guides activation of adaptive immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells. TLRs are localized on the cell surface and in endosomal/lysosomal compartments, where they detect bacterial and viral infections. In contrast, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins and RNA helicases are located in the cell cytoplasm, where they serve as intracellular PRRs to detect cytoplasmic infections, particularly viruses. Due to their ability to enhance innate immune responses, novel strategies to use ligands, synthetic agonists or antagonists of PRRs (also known as ‘innate immunologicals’) can be used as stand-alone agents to provide immediate protection or treatment against bacterial, viral or parasitic infections. Furthermore, the newly appreciated importance of innate immunity in initiating and shaping adaptive immune responses is contributing to our understanding of vaccine adjuvants and promises to lead to improved next-generation vaccines. PMID:18382644

  4. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of innate immunity in neonatal infection.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Alex G; Wynn, James L; Moldawer, Lyle L; Levy, Ofer

    2013-02-01

    Newborns are at increased risk of infection due to genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Herein we examine the roles of the neonatal innate immune system in host defense against bacterial and viral infections. Full-term newborns express a distinct innate immune system biased toward T(H)2-/T(H)17-polarizing and anti-inflammatory cytokine production with relative impairment in T(H)1-polarizing cytokine production that leaves them particularly vulnerable to infection with intracellular pathogens. In addition to these distinct features, preterm newborns also have fragile skin, impaired T(H)17-polarizing cytokine production, and deficient expression of complement and of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (APPs) that likely contribute to susceptibility to pyogenic bacteria. Ongoing research is identifying APPs, including bacterial/permeability-increasing protein and lactoferrin, as well as pattern recognition receptor agonists that may serve to enhance protective newborn and infant immune responses as stand-alone immune response modifiers or vaccine adjuvants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Fish innate immunity against intestinal helminths.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Bosi, G; DePasquale, J A; Manera, M; Giari, L

    2016-03-01

    Most individual fish in farmed and wild populations are infected with parasites. Upon dissection of fish, helminths from gut are often easily visible. Enteric helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, acanthocephalans and nematodes. Some insights into biology, morphology and histopathological effects of the main fish enteric helminths taxa will be described here. The immune system of fish, as that of other vertebrates, can be subdivided into specific and aspecific types, which in vivo act in concert with each other and indeed are interdependent in many ways. Beyond the small number of well-described models that exist, research focusing on innate immunity in fish against parasitic infections is lacking. Enteric helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract, resulting in a series of chemical and morphological changes in the affected tissues and inducing leukocyte migration to the site of infection. This review provides an overview on the aspecific defence mechanisms of fish intestine against helminths. Emphasis will be placed on the immune cellular response involving mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, rodlet cells and mucous cells against enteric helminths. Given the relative importance of innate immunity in fish, and the magnitude of economic loss in aquaculture as a consequence of disease, this area deserves considerable attention and support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Perinatal innate immune activation and neuropsychological development].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Taku

    2013-08-01

    Development of animal models is a crucial issue in biological psychiatry for the search of novel drug targets as well as the screening of candidate compounds. Epidemiologic studies suggest that environmental insults, such as prenatal infection and perinatal complication, are involved in the development of schizophrenia. Recently, we have developed a novel mouse model of viral infection during the perinatal stage by injecting polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (polyI:C) into neonatal mice. Neonatal treatment of mice with polyI:C, an inducer of innate immune responses via toll-like receptor 3, caused a significant increase in interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) levels in the astrocytes of the hippocampus, which resulted in long-lasting brain dysfunction, including cognitive and emotional impairments as well as a deficit in depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the hippocampus in adulthood. Neonatal polyI:C-induced neuronal impairments have not been observed in IFITM3-KO mice. These findings suggest that the induction of IFITM3 expression in astrocytes by the activation of the innate immune system during the early stages of neurodevelopment has non-cell autonomous effects that affect subsequent neurodevelopment, leading to neuropathological impairments and brain dysfunction, by impairing endocytosis in astrocytes.

  8. Innate Immune Responses to AAV Vectors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geoffrey L; Martino, Ashley T; Aslanidi, George V; Jayandharan, Giridhara R; Srivastava, Arun; Herzog, Roland W

    2011-01-01

    Gene replacement therapy by in vivo delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) is attractive as a potential treatment for a variety of genetic disorders. However, while AAV has been used successfully in many models, other experiments in clinical trials and in animal models have been hampered by undesired responses from the immune system. Recent studies of AAV immunology have focused on the elimination of transgene-expressing cells by the adaptive immune system, yet the innate immune system also has a critical role, both in the initial response to the vector and in prompting a deleterious adaptive immune response. Responses to AAV vectors are primarily mediated by the TLR9-MyD88 pathway, which induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by activating the NF-κB pathways and inducing type I IFN production; self-complementary AAV vectors enhance these inflammatory processes. Additionally, the alternative NF-κB pathway influences transgene expression in cells transduced by AAV. This review highlights these recent discoveries regarding innate immune responses to AAV and discusses strategies to ablate these potentially detrimental signaling pathways.

  9. Immunotherapy for cancer: promoting innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ramin; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Lotze, Michael Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Development of tumor over many years leads to reciprocal alterations in the host immune response and the tumor, enabling tumor growth seemingly paradoxically in the setting of necrosis and inflammation. Innate immune cells, granulocytes - neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils - and mast cells belong to the first line of defense sensing pathogen and damage associated molecular pattern (PAMPs, DAMPs) signals, initiating and modulating the subsequent inflammatory response. Nontheless, the prevailing contemporary strategies of immunotherapy for cancer have focused on the second line of the immune response, the adaptive immune response. We have determined that most highly evolved tumors in adults undergo necrosis, releasing DAMPs, promoting reactive angiogenesis, stromagenesis and reparative epithelial proliferation of the tumor cell. Means to aerobically eliminate such DAMPs by peroxidases released by innate immune effectors allows us to consider novel strategies for limiting tumor progression. Summarized here is our current understanding of acute and chronic inflammation and its impact on tumor development, the pathophysiology of immunity in cancer, and the influence of granulocytes and mast cells in this setting.

  10. Natural antibodies bridge innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saswati; Ding, Jeak L

    2015-01-01

    Natural Abs, belonging to isotypes IgM, IgG3, and IgA, were discovered nearly half a century ago. Despite knowledge about the role of the polyreactive natural IgM in pathogen elimination, B cell survival and homeostasis, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmunity, there is a lack of clarity about the physiological role of natural IgG and natural IgA because they appear incapable of recognizing Ags on their own and are perceived as nonreactive. However, recent research revealed exciting functions of natural IgG in innate immunity. Natural IgG:lectin collaboration swiftly and effectively kills invading pathogens. These advances prompt further examination of natural Abs in immune defense and homeostasis, with the potential for developing novel therapeutics. This review provides new insights into the interaction between natural Abs and lectins, with implications on how interactions between molecules of the innate and adaptive immune systems bridge these two arms of immunity. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Domestication changes innate constraints for birdsong learning.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Hiroko; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahasi, Miki; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Birdsongs are acquired by imitating the sounds produced by conspecifics. Within a species, songs diverge by cultural transmission, but the range of species-specific features is restricted by innate constraints. Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica) are a domesticated strain of the wild White-rumped munia (Lonchura striata). The songs of the domesticated strain have more tonal sounds and more variable sequences than those of the wild strain. We compared the features of songs that were produced by normal birds, isolation-reared birds, and cross-fostered birds in both White-rumped munias and Bengalese finches to identify differences in the genetic and environmental factors of their songs. Factor analyses were conducted based on 17 song measurements. We found that isolated songs differed from normal and cross-fostered songs, especially in unstable prosodic features. In addition, there were significant differences in sound property of mean frequency between the two strains regardless of the rearing conditions. Thus, innate constraints that partially determine birdsong phenotypes may be altered through domestication.

  12. A Role for PML in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Andrea; Gaboli, Mirella; Giorgio, Marco; Rivi, Roberta; Bygrave, Anne; Antoniou, Michael; Drabek, Dubravka; Dzierzak, Elaine; Fagioli, Marta; Salmena, Leonardo; Botto, Marina; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Luzzatto, Lucio; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Grosveld, Frank; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) of acute promyelocytic leukemia is an established tumor suppressor gene with critical functions in growth suppression, induction of apoptosis, and cellular senescence. Interestingly, although less studied, PML seems to play a key role also in immune response to viral infection. Herein, we report that Pml −/− mice spontaneously develop an atypical invasive and lethal granulomatous lesion known as botryomycosis (BTM). In Pml −/− mice, BTM is the result of impaired function of macrophages, whereby they fail to become activated and are thus unable to clear pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, Pml −/− mice are resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced septic shock as a result of an ineffective production of cytokines and chemokines, suggesting a role for PML in the innate immune Toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB prosurvival pathway. These results not only shed light on a new fundamental function of PML in innate immunity, but they also point to a proto-oncogenic role for PML in certain cellular and pathological contexts. PMID:21779477

  13. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    PubMed

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is <30% for BCS decreases over one unit). A serious energy deficit reduces (or suppresses) pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophins (ovarian dysfunction and/or smaller follicles): IGF-I and insulin plasma levels (slower follicle growth and higher embryonic mortality); and progesterone production from the corpus luteum (higher rate of embryonic abortions). The diet influences fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  14. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  15. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, S.T; Risley, C.L

    2005-01-01

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by ‘blitzkrieg’-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as ‘infinite’. PMID:17148336

  16. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'.

  17. Gluon dominance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokoulina, Elena; Kutov, Andrey

    2017-03-01

    Study of multi-particle production has longer than the semi-centennial history. As it is known, with the growth of energy of accelerators, the new channels of reaction are being opened, the average number of secondary particles is increasing. Physicists are able to accelerate stable particles, such as electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons, ions (both light and heavy). Rarely, they accelerate kaons and pions. The obtained experimental material stimulates the development of the different theoretical approaches. Since appearance of the modern theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), our understanding of multi-particle production is advanced significantly. The language of quarks and gluons is basic one at the explanation of observable phenomena. This review is devoted to the history of appearance and the following development of the gluon dominance model. This model is based on the pQCD and the phenomenological description of the hadronization stage. It permits to describe multiplicity distributions both for lepton and hadron interactions, especially in the high multiplicity region.

  18. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    PubMed

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  19. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  20. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2011-01-01

    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  1. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2011-01-01

    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  2. Effect of rubber flooring on cow locomotion and gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed-f...

  3. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  4. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  5. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  6. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  7. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  8. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  9. 2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical cow house opposite from the one pictured. In the background are: Robinson-Aiken Slave Building and Kitchens (SC-276) on left, and Robinson-Aiken Service Building and Stable (SC-275) on right. - Robinson-Aiken Cow House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  10. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  11. Transition cow nutrition and feeding management for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J; Sniffen, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    In this article, an overview is presented of nutrient modeling to define energy and protein requirements of the late pregnant cow, and metabolic relationships between fetus and cow as they relate to nutrient utilization and risk for postparturient disease are discussed. Recommendations for formulating dry cow diets are provided, with emphasis on opportunities to minimize variation and risk for postparturient disease events.

  12. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  13. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  14. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  15. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  16. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation on cow's milk allergy in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most prevalent human food-borne allergies, particularly in infants and young children from developed countries. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) administration on CMA development using whole cow's milk proteins (CMP) sensitized Balb/C mice by two different sensitization methods. Methods LGG supplemented mice were either sensitized orally with CMP and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) as adjuvant, or intraperitoneally (IP) with CMP but without the adjuvant. Mice were then orally challenged with CMP and allergic responses were accessed by monitoring hypersensitivity scores, measuring the levels of CMP-specific immunoglobulins (IgG1, IgG2a and IgG) and total IgE from sera, and cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) from spleen lysates. Results Sensitization to CMP was successful only in IP sensitized mice, but not in orally sensitized mice with CMP and CTB. Interestingly, LGG supplementation appeared to have reduced cow's milk allergy (CMA) in the IP group of mice, as indicated by lowered allergic responses. Conclusions Adjuvant-free IP sensitization with CMP was successful in inducing CMA in the Balb/C mice model. LGG supplementation favourably modulated immune reactions by shifting Th2-dominated trends toward Th1-dominated responses in CMP sensitized mice. Our results also suggest that oral sensitization by the co-administration of CMP and CTB, as adjuvant, might not be appropriate to induce CMA in mice. PMID:22145744

  17. Cow effects and estimation of success of first and following inseminations in Dutch dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Inchaisri, C; Jorritsma, R; Vernooij, J C M; Vos, P L A M; van der Weijden, G C; Hogeveen, H

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101,297 insemination records in 51,525 lactations of different cows from 1368 herds obtained from the Dutch milk production recording database. Cows that had a first insemination (AI) between 40 and 150 days post-partum with one or more inseminations (≤6 inseminations) were selected. An insemination was defined successful when not followed by another insemination and when the cow calved between 267 and 295 days after insemination, or when the cow was culled between 135 and 295 days after the last insemination. Breed, parity, days in milk, lactation curve characteristics, milk production traits, moment of AI related to peak milk yield time (before or after peak milk yield), the last calf (female, male, twin or stillbirth) and season of insemination were selected as independent parameters for a model with successful rate of insemination as dependent parameter. A multivariable logistic regression model was used within cow and farm as a random effect. The probability of successful insemination was the highest in the first insemination and decreased in the following inseminations. However, the success rate of all inseminations increased in a later stage of lactation. The improvement in the successful inseminations in a later stage of lactation was better in multiparous cows than in first parity cows. Insemination in summer and before peak milk yield time reduced the success of insemination. The success rate was the lowest in 100% Holstein Friesian cows compared with other breeds and was the highest when the last calf was a female calf compared to a male calf, twin or stillbirth. In conclusion, the success of first and following inseminations depended on parity, breed, season of insemination, last calf status, daily milk yield at insemination date

  18. Specific antibodies to cow's milk proteins in infants: effect of early feeding and diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Savilahti, Emma Merike; Saarinen, Kristiina Mertta; Savilahti, Erkki

    2010-12-01

    To investigate whether specific IgA, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 responses to cow's milk proteins differ between infants with cow's milk allergy and infants with cow's milk related symptoms (control subjects), and whether early feeding affects these responses as well as specific IgE. A cohort of 6,209 healthy, full-term infants in a double-blind randomized trial received, as supplementary feeding at maternity hospitals (mean duration 4 days), either cow's milk formula, extensively hydrolyzed whey formula or donor breast milk. Infants who developed cow's milk associated symptoms (n = 223) underwent an open oral cow's milk challenge (mean age 7 months), which confirmed cow's milk allergy in 111 and was negative in 112. We measured in sera cow's milk specific IgE levels with UniCAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden), and β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgA, IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy had lower β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels (p < 0.05) than infants with non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy or control subjects. Within the group of infants with cow's milk allergy, exposure to cow's milk during the first few days after birth led to higher β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG4 levels (p < 0.005) compared to infants fed with either breast milk or extensively hydrolyzed formula. Subdued IgG class responses to cow's milk proteins characterized IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. In infants who developed cow's milk allergy early exposure to cow's milk resulted in a heightened specific IgG4 response.

  19. Oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Tao, Renchuan; Jiang, Lanlan; Peng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuxiao

    2015-01-01

    Oral innate immunity, an important component in host defense and immune surveillance in the oral cavity, plays a crucial role in the regulation of oral health. As part of the innate immune system, epithelial cells lining oral mucosal surfaces provide not only a physical barrier but also produce different antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensins (hBDs), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and various cytokines. These innate immune mediators help in maintaining oral homeostasis. When they are impaired either by local or systemic causes, various oral infections and malignancies may be developed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other co-infections appear to have both direct and indirect effects on systemic and local innate immunity leading to the development of oral opportunistic infections and malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard treatment of HIV infection contributed to a global reduction of HIV-associated oral lesions. However, prolonged treatment by HAART may lead to adverse effects on the oral innate immunity resulting in the relapse of oral lesions. This review article focused on the roles of oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era. The following five key questions were addressed: 1) What are the roles of oral innate immunity in health and disease?, 2) What are the effects of HIV infection on oral innate immunity?, 3) What are the roles of oral innate immunity against other co-infections?, 4) What are the effects of HAART on oral innate immunity?, and 5) Is oral innate immunity enhanced by HAART? PMID:25639844

  20. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in dairy cows in a naturally contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Vestergren, Robin; Orata, Francis; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

    2013-11-01

    Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg(-1). Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMF<1) in any of the investigated tissues. Biotransfer factors (BTFs; defined as the concentration in tissue divided by the total daily intake) were calculated for muscle and milk. Log BTFs ranged from -1.95 to -1.15 day kg(-1) with the highest BTF observed for PFOS in muscle. Overall, the results of this study suggest that long-chain PFAAs have a relatively high potential for transfer to milk and beef from the diet of dairy cows. However, a low input of PFAAs to terrestrial systems via atmospheric deposition and low bioavailability of PFAAs in soil limits the amount of PFAAs that enter terrestrial agricultural food chains in background contaminated environments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk

  1. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  2. Cow-level prevalence of paratuberculosis in culled dairy cows in Atlantic Canada and Maine.

    PubMed

    McKenna, S L B; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W; McClure, J; Vanleeuwen, J A; Hanna, P; Sockett, D C

    2004-11-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Mptb) in culled dairy cattle in Eastern Canada and Maine was determined to be 16.1% (95% confidence interval 13.8 to 18.3%) based on a systematic random sample of abattoir cattle. Mesenteric lymph nodes and ileum from 984 cows were examined by histologic and bacteriologic methods. Histological testing was far less sensitive than bacteriologic methods for detecting infected cattle. A seasonal pattern of positive cows was also detected, with the highest proportion of cows being Mptb-positive in June (42.5%). Overall, body condition score was not associated with prevalence of Mptb isolation.

  3. Novel Use of Derived Genotype Probabilities to Discover Significant Dominance Effects for Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Teide-Jens; Heuer, Claas; Tetens, Jens; Reinhardt, Fritz; Thaller, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of dominance effects requires the availability of direct phenotypes, i.e., genotypes and phenotypes in the same individuals. In dairy cattle, classical QTL mapping approaches are, however, relying on genotyped sires and daughter-based phenotypes like breeding values. Thus, dominance effects cannot be estimated. The number of dairy bulls genotyped for dense genome-wide marker panels is steadily increasing in the context of genomic selection schemes. The availability of genotyped cows is, however, limited. Within the current study, the genotypes of male ancestors were applied to the calculation of genotype probabilities in cows. Together with the cows’ phenotypes, these probabilities were used to estimate dominance effects on a genome-wide scale. The impact of sample size, the depth of pedigree used in deriving genotype probabilities, the linkage disequilibrium between QTL and marker, the fraction of variance explained by the QTL, and the degree of dominance on the power to detect dominance were analyzed in simulation studies. The effect of relatedness among animals on the specificity of detection was addressed. Furthermore, the approach was applied to a real data set comprising 470,000 Holstein cows. To account for relatedness between animals a mixed-model two-step approach was used to adjust phenotypes based on an additive genetic relationship matrix. Thereby, considerable dominance effects were identified for important milk production traits. The approach might serve as a powerful tool to dissect the genetic architecture of performance and functional traits in dairy cattle. PMID:23222654

  4. [Haemoplasma infection in a dairy cow].

    PubMed

    Baggenstos, R; Wenzinger, B; Meli, M L; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Knubben-Schweizer, G

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the clinical and laboratory examination as well as the treatment of a 7-year-old local dairy breed cow presented with reduced appetite, decreasing milk yield and striking yellowish discoloured skin and mucosa. The laboratory examination revealed a high degree regenerative anaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. The bovine haemotrophic mycoplasma species Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' were detected in the blood by PCR. Treatment with oxytetracycline rapidly improved the general condition, and milk production was increased. In a follow-up study, blood samples of all 23 animals from the same herd were examined. Fifteen cows were found to be infected with both haemoplasma species, three animals were only infected with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' and one animal only with Mycoplasma wenyonii. Two out of three tested calves were positive for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos'. Except for the above described anaemic cow, all other animals were clinically healthy.

  5. Cow Urine Keratopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, Sumeet; Jain, Prachi; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender

    2017-04-01

    Injury to the ocular surface has been described to occur with a wide variety of chemicals. In most cases the cause is industrial injury with acids or alkalis. We are reporting a case of ocular surface injury due to "Cow urine" which to the best of our knowledge is been reported for the first time. Cow urine is a well-accepted medicinal ingredient in ancient Indian medicine. However, wrong formulation and inadvertent prescriptions by quacks can lead to severe ocular surface injury and morbidity. Here, with this case report we have discussed the possible culprit and possible mechanism of ocular injury due to instillation of a concoction containing cow urine as an active ingredient and also discuss legal aspects of quackery in India.

  6. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  7. Patterns of pathogenesis: discrimination of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes by the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Russell E.; Isberg, Ralph R.; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding innate immunity has been that host cells respond to evolutionarily conserved molecular features of pathogens called ‘pathogen-associated molecular patterns’ (PAMPs). PAMPs should be understood in the context of how they are naturally presented by pathogens. This can be experimentally challenging since pathogens, almost by definition, bypass host defense. Nevertheless, in this review, we explore the idea that the immune system responds to PAMPs in the context of additional signals that derive from common ‘patterns of pathogenesis’ employed by pathogens to infect, multiply within, and spread among their hosts. PMID:19616762

  8. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  9. The innate and adaptive infiltrating immune systems as targets for breast cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Law, Andrew M K; Lim, Elgene; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    A cancer cell-centric view has long dominated the field of cancer biology. Research efforts have focussed on aberrant cancer cell signalling pathways and on changes to cancer cell DNA. Mounting evidence demonstrates that many cancer-associated cell types within the tumour stroma co-evolve and support tumour growth and development, greatly modifying cancer cell behaviour, facilitating invasion and metastasis and controlling dormancy and sensitivity to drug therapy. Thus, these stromal cells represent potential targets for cancer therapy. Among these cell types, immune cells have emerged as a promising target for therapy. The adaptive and the innate immune system play an important role in normal mammary development and breast cancer. The number of infiltrating adaptive immune system cells with tumour-rejecting capacity, primarily, T lymphocytes, is lower in breast cancer compared with other cancer types, but infiltration occurs in a large proportion of cases. There is strong evidence demonstrating the importance of the immunosuppressive role of the innate immune system during breast cancer progression. A consideration of components of both the innate and the adaptive immune system is essential for the design and development of immunotherapies in breast cancer. In this review, we focus on the importance of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) as potential targets for breast cancer therapy. PMID:28193698

  10. Role of α-synuclein in inducing innate and adaptive immunity in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Allen Reish, Heather E; Standaert, David G

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Gene duplications, triplications and point mutations in SNCA1, the gene encoding α-syn, cause autosomal dominant forms of PD. Aggregated and post-translationally modified forms of α-syn are present in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in both sporadic and familial PD, and recent work has emphasized the prion-like ability of aggregated α-syn to produce spreading pathology. Accumulation of abnormal forms of α-syn is a trigger for PD, but recent evidence suggests that much of the downstream neurodegeneration may result from inflammatory responses. Components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems are activated in PD, and influencing interactions between innate and adaptive immune components has been shown to modify the pathological process in animal models of PD. Understanding the relationship between α-syn and subsequent inflammation may reveal novel targets for neuroprotective interventions. In this review, we examine the role of α-syn and modified forms of this protein in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  11. The innate and adaptive infiltrating immune systems as targets for breast cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Law, Andrew M K; Lim, Elgene; Ormandy, Christopher J; Gallego-Ortega, David

    2017-04-01

    A cancer cell-centric view has long dominated the field of cancer biology. Research efforts have focussed on aberrant cancer cell signalling pathways and on changes to cancer cell DNA. Mounting evidence demonstrates that many cancer-associated cell types within the tumour stroma co-evolve and support tumour growth and development, greatly modifying cancer cell behaviour, facilitating invasion and metastasis and controlling dormancy and sensitivity to drug therapy. Thus, these stromal cells represent potential targets for cancer therapy. Among these cell types, immune cells have emerged as a promising target for therapy. The adaptive and the innate immune system play an important role in normal mammary development and breast cancer. The number of infiltrating adaptive immune system cells with tumour-rejecting capacity, primarily, T lymphocytes, is lower in breast cancer compared with other cancer types, but infiltration occurs in a large proportion of cases. There is strong evidence demonstrating the importance of the immunosuppressive role of the innate immune system during breast cancer progression. A consideration of components of both the innate and the adaptive immune system is essential for the design and development of immunotherapies in breast cancer. In this review, we focus on the importance of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) as potential targets for breast cancer therapy.

  12. Role of α-synuclein in inducing innate and adaptive immunity in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Allen Reish, Heather E.; Standaert, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Gene duplications, triplications and point mutations in SNCA1, the gene encoding α-syn, cause autosomal dominant forms of PD. Aggregated and post-translationally modified forms of α-syn are present in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in both sporadic and familial PD, and recent work has emphasized the prion-like ability of aggregated α-syn to produce spreading pathology. Accumulation of abnormal forms of α-syn is a trigger for PD, but recent evidence suggests that much of the downstream neurodegeneration may result from inflammatory responses. Components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems are activated in PD, and influencing interactions between innate and adaptive immune components has been shown to modify the pathological process in animal models of PD. Understanding the relationship between α-syn and subsequent inflammation may reveal novel targets for neuroprotective interventions. In this review, we examine the role of α-syn and modified forms of this protein in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:25588354

  13. CD4+ lymphoid tissue inducer cells promote innate immunity in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Elloso, M. Merle; Fouser, Lynette A.; Artis, David

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Fetal CD4+ lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells play a critical role in the development of lymphoid-tissues. Recent studies identified that LTi cells persist in adults and are related to a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cells that have been implicated in inflammatory responses. However, whether LTi cells contribute to protective immunity remains poorly defined. We demonstrate that following infection with Citrobacter rodentium, CD4+ LTi cells were a dominant source of interleukin-22 (IL-22) early during infection. Infection-induced CD4+ LTi cell responses were IL-23-dependent, and ablation of IL-23 impaired innate immunity. Further, depletion of CD4+ LTi cells abrogated infection-induced expression of IL-22 and anti-microbial peptides, resulting in exacerbated host mortality. LTi cells were also found to be essential for host protective immunity in lymphocyte-replete hosts. Collectively these data demonstrate that adult CD4+ LTi cells are a critical source of IL-22 and identify a previously unrecognized function for CD4+ LTi cells in promoting innate immunity in the intestine. PMID:21194981

  14. Editorial--in this issue: innate immunity in normal and pathologic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Bot, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of the International Reviews of Immunology, we host several reviews dedicated to the innate immunity in normal and diseased states. Tan et al. discuss the molecular nature of the innate immune response as a consequence of co-engagement of distinct Toll-like receptors. Schwarz et al. present a regulatory loop leading to increased myelopoiesis through the engagement of CD137L by CD137+ T cells. Kolandaswamy et al. present transcriptomic evidence that distinguishes between two major subsets of monocytes. In a different review, Minasyan presents an interesting hypothesis that erythrocytes have a dominant role in clearing bacteria within the blood stream while leukocytes' role is mostly extra-vascular. Yan et al. discuss the pivotal role of the liver, its pre-existing and associated pathology, in sepsis. Zhang outlines the implications of declining neutrophils and impact to long-term management of HIV-associated disease. Finally, Lal et al. discuss the multiple roles of γδT cells in innate and adaptive immunity.

  15. Comparison of endotoxin levels in cow's milk samples derived from farms and shops.

    PubMed

    Sipka, Sándor; Béres, Andrea; Bertók, Lóránd; Varga, Tamara; Bruckner, Geza

    2015-07-01

    The observations on the protective effect of bacterial endotoxin in farm-derived cow's milk on childhood asthma and allergy are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the endotoxin levels in 'farm-derived whole raw' and 'processed shop' sources of cow's milk, and to test how the temperature and storing conditions might alter their endotoxin concentrations. Milk was collected from farms and shops. The level of endotoxin was measured by micro (gel-clot) Limulus amebocyte lysate test expressed as EU/ml. The concentration ranges of endotoxin were much higher and more widely scattered in the samples of whole raw farm milk than in the processed shop milk. Cold storage or heating increased the endotoxin concentrations in all samples of farm milk, but not in the processed shop milk. These results show that elevated levels of endotoxin in raw farm milk samples can occur from the cowshed or be formed during storage. In processed shop milk, storage does not cause any changes in the amount of endotoxin. Therefore, it is consistent that the handling and storage of raw milk alters the endotoxin concentrations, which may explain previous contradictory findings regarding the beneficial modulating effects on innate immunity toward allergy prevention in early childhood.

  16. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  17. Influence of the length of progestagen treatment and the time of oestradiol benzoate application on the ovulatory follicle size and ovulation time in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows.

    PubMed

    Manes, J; Aller, J F; Callejas, S S; Hozbor, F; Alberio, R H

    2012-06-01

    Previous research from our laboratory in beef cattle suggests that the pre-ovulatory follicle size, maturity and subsequent susceptibility to gonadotropin are influenced by the length of progestagen treatment in artificial insemination programme in beef cows. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, 35 anoestrous beef cows received an intravaginal sponge containing 200 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate. The treatment lasted for 7 (n = 12), 8 (n = 11) or 9 (n = 12) days. Half of the animals in each group were injected with 0.7 mg of oestradiol benzoate (EB) at device removal (0 h) and the other half 24 h later. In experiment 2, 38 cycling beef cows were treated with the same protocols as in experiment 1. Ultrasound examinations were performed to determine the follicular diameter at device removal (dominant follicle), interval to ovulation and ovulatory follicle diameter. The dominant follicle of anoestrous cows with progestagen for 7 days (8.4 ± 1.6 mm) resulted smaller (p < 0.05) than the cows treated for 8 (10.5 ± 1.6 mm) and 9 days (10.6 ± 1.2 mm). However, regardless of the length of the treatments, ovulation time after device removal was longer (p < 0.05) when EB was injected 24 h after withdrawal than at 0 h in anoestrous cows (EB0 = 52.7 ± 4.0 h; EB24 = 70.8 ± 6.2 h) and in cyclic cows (EB0 = 50.0 ± 21.0 h; EB24 = 73.0 ± 20.0 h). In anoestrous cows, the treatment with progestagen for 9 days and EB at 24 h increased the diameter of the ovarian follicle (p = 0.033) but did not affect the diameter of the ovulatory follicle in cyclic cows. In conclusion, increasing the length of progestagen treatment for 8 or 9 days compared to 7 days increased the diameter of the dominant follicle, in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows. Oestradiol benzoate administered at device removal resulted in a shorter interval from device removal to ovulation compared with EB injection 24 h after the end of a progestagen treatment.

  18. The effect of nutritional management of the dairy cow on reproductive efficiency.

    PubMed

    Roche, James F

    2006-12-01

    The cause of low fertility in dairy cows is multifactorial. Poor nutrition during the dry and early postpartum periods results in reduced glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and low LH pulse frequency with concomitant increases in beta-hydroxy butyrate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triacylglycerol. Cows must mobilize large lipid, but also some protein reserves, with a consequent increased incidence of such metabolic disorders as hypocalcaemia, acidosis, ketosis, fatty liver and displaced abomasums. The occurrence of milk fever and ketosis affects uterine contractions, delays calving and increases the risk of retained foetal membranes (RFM) and endometritis. The nutritional risk factors that cause RFM are hypocalcaemia, high body condition score (BCS) at calving and deficiencies in Vitamin E and selenium. The risk factors for endometritis are hypocalcaemia, RFM, high triacylglycerol and NEFA. Thus, metabolic disorders predispose cows to gynaecological disorders, thereby reducing reproductive efficiency. Cows that are overconditioned at calving or those that lose excess body weight are more likely to have a prolonged interval to first oestrus, thereby prolonging days open. Nutritionally induced postpartum anoestrus is characterized by turnover of dominant follicles incapable of producing sufficient oestradiol to induce ovulation due to reduced LH pulse frequency. High nutrition can also increase metabolic clearance rate of steroid hormones such as progesterone or oestradiol. Lower concentrations of oestradiol on the day of oestrus are highly correlated with the occurrence of suboestrus, thereby making the detection of oestrus in high yielding cows even more difficult. Nutrition also affects conception rate (CR) to AI. Cows that develop hypocalcaemia, ketosis, acidosis or displaced abomasums have lower CRs and take longer to become pregnant. Excessive loss of BCS and excess protein content of the ration can reduce CR while supplemental fats

  19. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  20. Cell-autonomous stress responses in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Julien; Blander, J Magarian

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response of phagocytes to microbes has long been known to depend on the core signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to expression and production of inflammatory cytokines that counteract infection and induce adaptive immunity. Cell-autonomous responses have recently emerged as important mechanisms of innate immunity. Either IFN-inducible or constitutive, these processes aim to guarantee cell homeostasis but have also been shown to modulate innate immune response to microbes and production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these constitutive cell-autonomous responses, autophagy is prominent and its role in innate immunity has been well characterized. Other stress responses, such as metabolic stress, the ER stress/unfolded protein response, mitochondrial stress, or the DNA damage response, seem to also be involved in innate immunity, although the precise mechanisms by which they regulate the innate immune response are not yet defined. Of importance, these distinct constitutive cell-autonomous responses appear to be interconnected and can also be modulated by microbes and PRRs, which add further complexity to the interplay between innate immune signaling and cell-autonomous responses in the mediation of an efficient innate immune response.

  1. Evolutionary responses of innate Immunity to adaptive immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Innate immunity is present in all metazoans, whereas the evolutionarily more novel adaptive immunity is limited to jawed fishes and their descendants (gnathostomes). We observe that the organisms that possess adaptive immunity lack diversity in their innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), rais...

  2. Pathogen recognition by innate immunity and its signaling

    PubMed Central

    Akira, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian immune response can be divided into innate and acquired immunity. Furthermore, much evidence has demonstrated that activation of innate immunity is a prerequisite to induction of acquired immunity. This paradigm shift has changed our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infections, immune diseases, allergy, and cancers. PMID:19367086

  3. What rheumatologists need to know about innate lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Exley, Mark A; Tsokos, George C; Mills, Kingston H G; Elewaut, Dirk; Mulhearn, Ben

    2016-11-01

    Many rheumatic diseases are characterized by having an autoimmune background. Determining the mechanisms underlying autoimmunity is, therefore, important to further understand these diseases and to inform future lines of research aimed at developing new treatments and cures. As fast responders, innate lymphocytes have protective or pathogenic roles in the initiation as well as the maintenance of immune responses in general, and they contribute to tissue homeostasis, among other functions. Innate lymphocytes also seem to be involved in autoimmunity in particular. Since 2010, accumulating evidence clearly shows that different populations of innate lymphocytes have roles in responding to antigen-specific autoantibody and autoreactive T cells, thereby amplifying or attenuating disease processes. Cytotoxicity is a cardinal feature of many innate lymphocytes and can contribute to inflammatory tissue damage. Finally, innate lymphocytes can respond to biologic therapies for autoimmune diseases. Consequently, like TNF and other effector molecules, certain innate lymphocyte subsets might be appropriate therapeutic targets to ameliorate various autoimmune diseases. In this Review, we summarize the main characteristics and functions of innate lymphocyte subsets, and describe their roles in autoimmune disease. We also discuss how biologic therapies influence innate lymphocyte function and consider the potential for these cell subsets to act as future therapeutic targets.

  4. The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are cap...

  5. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  6. Natural innate and adaptive immunity to cancer.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Matthew D; Kershaw, Michael H; Schreiber, Robert D; Smyth, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The immune system can identify and destroy nascent tumor cells in a process termed cancer immunosurveillance, which functions as an important defense against cancer. Recently, data obtained from numerous investigations in mouse models of cancer and in humans with cancer offer compelling evidence that particular innate and adaptive immune cell types, effector molecules, and pathways can sometimes collectively function as extrinsic tumor-suppressor mechanisms. However, the immune system can also promote tumor progression. Together, the dual host-protective and tumor-promoting actions of immunity are referred to as cancer immunoediting. In this review, we discuss the current experimental and human clinical data supporting a cancer immunoediting process that provide the fundamental basis for further study of immunity to cancer and for the rational design of immunotherapies against cancer.

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus infection: an innate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract infection in children and adults. However, infection with this virus sometimes leads to severe lower respiratory disease and is the major cause of infant hospitalisations in the developed world. Several risk factors such as baby prematurity and congenital heart disease are known to predispose towards severe disease but previously healthy, full-term infants can also develop bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia during RSV infection. The causes of severe disease are not fully understood but may include dysregulation of the immune response to the virus, resulting in excessive recruitment and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells that can cause damage. This review highlights recent discoveries on the balancing act of immune-mediated virus clearance versus immunopathology during RSV infection. PMID:28105323

  8. Ocular Surface as Barrier of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Navas, Alejandro; López-Lizárraga, Erika Paulina; de Ribot, Francesc March; Peña, Alexandra; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O; Garfias, Yonathan

    2015-01-01

    Sight is one of the most important senses that human beings possess. The ocular system is a complex structure equipped with mechanisms that prevent or limit damage caused by physical, chemical, infectious and environmental factors. These mechanisms include a series of anatomical, cellular and humoral factors that have been a matter of study. The cornea is not only the most powerful and important lens of the optical system, but also, it has been involved in many other physiological and pathological processes apart from its refractive nature; the morphological and histological properties of the cornea have been thoroughly studied for the last fifty years; drawing attention in its molecular characteristics of immune response. This paper will review the anatomical and physiological aspects of the cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal apparatus, as well as the innate immunity at the ocular surface. PMID:26161163

  9. Interactions between Innate Immunity, Microbiota, and Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, GianMarco; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Fabiocchi, Federica; Ricci, Salvatore; Flamini, Paolo; Sandri, Giancarlo; Trotta, Maria Cristina; Elisei, Walter; Penna, Antonio; Lecca, Piera Giuseppina; Picchio, Marcello; Tursi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The term "microbiota" means genetic inheritance associated with microbiota, which is about 100 times larger than the guest. The tolerance of the resident bacterial flora is an important key element of immune cell function. A key role in the interaction between the host and the microbiota is played by Paneth cell, which is able to synthesize and secrete proteins and antimicrobial peptides, such as α/β defensins, cathelicidin, 14 β-glycosidases, C-type lectins, and ribonuclease, in response to various stimuli. Recent studies found probiotics able to preserve intestinal homeostasis by downmodulating the immune response and inducing the development of T regulatory cells. Specific probiotic strain, as well as probiotic-driven metabolic products called "postbiotics," has been recently recognized and it is able to influence innate immunity. New therapeutic approaches based on probiotics are now available, and further treatments based on postbiotics will come in the future.

  10. Endocannabinoid signalling in innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chiurchiù, Valerio; Battistini, Luca; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The immune system can be modulated and regulated not only by foreign antigens but also by other humoral factors and metabolic products, which are able to affect several quantitative and qualitative aspects of immunity. Among these, endocannabinoids are a group of bioactive lipids that might serve as secondary modulators, which when mobilized coincident with or shortly after first-line immune modulators, increase or decrease many immune functions. Most immune cells express these bioactive lipids, together with their set of receptors and of enzymes regulating their synthesis and degradation. In this review, a synopsis of the manifold immunomodulatory effects of endocannabinoids and their signalling in the different cell populations of innate and adaptive immunity is appointed, with a particular distinction between mice and human immune system compartments. PMID:25585882

  11. Innateness, evolution, and genetics of language.

    PubMed

    Ganger, J; Stromswold, K

    1998-04-01

    Our goal in this article is to review a debate over the evolution of language and to suggest some keys to its resolution. We begin with a review of some of the theoretical and empirical evidence for the innateness of language that has caused renewed interest in the evolution of language. In a second section we review some prominent theories of the evolution of language, focusing on the controversy over whether language could have been adapted for some purpose. We argue that for evolutionary studies of language to advance, theorists must make more persuasive arguments for the purpose of language, and, furthermore, linguists must continue to develop a detailed theory of syntax. Finally, we suggest ways that behavioral and population genetics could help to inform studies of the evolution of language.

  12. Innate immunity in Drosophila: Pathogens and pathways.

    PubMed

    Govind, Shubha

    2008-02-01

    Following in the footsteps of traditional developmental genetics, research over the last 15 years has shown that innate immunity against bacteria and fungi is governed largely by two NF-kappaB signal transduction pathways, Toll and IMD. Antiviral immunity appears to stem from RNA interference, whereas resistance against parasitoids is conferred by Toll signaling. The identification of these post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms and the annotation of most Drosophila immunity genes have derived from functional genomic studies using "model" pathogens, intact animals and cell lines. The D. melanogaster host has thus provided the core information that can be used to study responses to natural microbial and metazoan pathogens as they become identified, as well as to test ideas of selection and evolutionary change. These analyses are of general importance to understanding mechanisms of other insect host-pathogen interactions and determinants of variation in host resistance.

  13. Innate immunity in Drosophila: Pathogens and pathways

    PubMed Central

    Govind, Shubha

    2009-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of traditional developmental genetics, research over the last 15 years has shown that innate immunity against bacteria and fungi is governed largely by two NF-κB signal transduction pathways, Toll and IMD. Antiviral immunity appears to stem from RNA interference, whereas resistance against parasitoids is conferred by Toll signaling. The identification of these post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms and the annotation of most Drosophila immunity genes have derived from functional genomic studies using “model” pathogens, intact animals and cell lines. The D. melanogaster host has thus provided the core information that can be used to study responses to natural microbial and metazoan pathogens as they become identified, as well as to test ideas of selection and evolutionary change. These analyses are of general importance to understanding mechanisms of other insect host–pathogen interactions and determinants of variation in host resistance. PMID:20485470

  14. Ocular Surface as Barrier of Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Navas, Alejandro; López-Lizárraga, Erika Paulina; de Ribot, Francesc March; Peña, Alexandra; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O; Garfias, Yonathan

    2015-01-01

    Sight is one of the most important senses that human beings possess. The ocular system is a complex structure equipped with mechanisms that prevent or limit damage caused by physical, chemical, infectious and environmental factors. These mechanisms include a series of anatomical, cellular and humoral factors that have been a matter of study. The cornea is not only the most powerful and important lens of the optical system, but also, it has been involved in many other physiological and pathological processes apart from its refractive nature; the morphological and histological properties of the cornea have been thoroughly studied for the last fifty years; drawing attention in its molecular characteristics of immune response. This paper will review the anatomical and physiological aspects of the cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal apparatus, as well as the innate immunity at the ocular surface.

  15. Innate and acquired bacteriophage-mediated immunity

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jeremy J.; Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest

    2013-01-01

    We recently described a novel, non-host-derived, phage-mediated immunity active at mucosal surfaces, the main site of pathogen entry in metazoans. In that work, we showed that phage T4 adheres to mucus glycoproteins via immunoglobulin-like domains displayed on its capsid. This adherence positions the phage in mucus surfaces where they are more likely to encounter and kill bacteria, thereby benefiting both the phage and its metazoan host. We presented this phage-metazoan symbiosis based on an exclusively lytic model of phage infection. Here we extend our bacteriophage adherence to mucus (BAM) model to consider the undoubtedly more complex dynamics in vivo. We hypothesize how mucus-adherent phages, both lytic and temperate, might impact the commensal microbiota as well as protect the metazoan epithelium from bacterial invasion. We suggest that BAM may provide both an innate and an acquired antimicrobial immunity. PMID:24228227

  16. Innate immunity in resistance to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Biasin, Mara; Clerici, Mario; Piacentini, Luca

    2010-11-01

    Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in subjects who do not seroconvert despite multiple exposures to the virus and to the progression to AIDS in HIV‐infected individuals depends on multiple factors involving both the innate and the adaptive immune system. The contribution of natural immunity in preventing HIV infection has so far received little attention, but many recently published articles suggest a key role for Toll‐like receptors, natural killer cells, interleukin‐22, acute‐phase amyloid A protein, and APOBEC3G in conferring resistance to HIV infection. The study of these factors will shed light on HIV pathogenesis and contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to this elusive disease.

  17. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  18. Toll-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Sandra N.; Li, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental sensor molecules of the host innate immune system, which detect conserved molecular signatures of a wide range of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses via distinct signaling pathways. Various TLRs are implicated in the early interplay of host cells with invading viruses, which regulates viral replication and/or host responses, ultimately impacting on viral pathogenesis. To survive the host innate defense mechanisms, many viruses have developed strategies to evade or counteract signaling through the TLR pathways, creating an advantageous environment for their propagation. Here we review the current knowledge of the roles TLRs play in antiviral innate immune responses, discuss examples of TLR-mediated viral recognition, and describe strategies used by viruses to antagonize the host antiviral innate immune responses. PMID:24316048

  19. Are innate immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved?

    PubMed

    Ausubel, Frederick M

    2005-10-01

    Although adaptive immunity is unique to vertebrates, the innate immune response seems to have ancient origins. Common features of innate immunity in vertebrates, invertebrate animals and plants include defined receptors for microbe-associated molecules, conserved mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling cascades and the production of antimicrobial peptides. It is commonly reported that these similarities in innate immunity represent a process of divergent evolution from an ancient unicellular eukaryote that pre-dated the divergence of the plant and animal kingdoms. However, at present, data suggest that the seemingly analogous regulatory modules used in plant and animal innate immunity are a consequence of convergent evolution and reflect inherent constraints on how an innate immune system can be constructed.

  20. Innate sexuality determines the mechanisms of telomere maintenance.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Kenta; Yokoyama, Naoki; Nodono, Hanae; Hoshi, Motonori; Matsumoto, Midori

    2013-01-01

    Recently, telomere length has been shown to be differentially regulated in asexually and sexually reproducing planarians. In addition, it was found that asexual worms maintain telomere length somatically during reproduction by fission or when regeneration is induced by amputation, whereas sexual worms only achieve telomere elongation through sexual reproduction. We have established an experimental bioassay system to induce switching from asexual to sexual reproduction in planarians, that is, sexualization. In this study, the relationship between the reproductive mode and telomere maintenance was investigated using innate asexually reproducing worms, innate sexually reproducing worms, and experimentally sexualized worms. Here, we show that innate asexual planarians maintain telomere length during cell division and that innate sexual planarians exhibit telomere shortening. However, experimental sexualized worms maintain telomere length during cell division. These results indicate that innate sexuality is linked to the mechanism of telomere maintenance.

  1. Innate cell communication kick-starts pathogen-specific immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Amariliz; Siracusa, Mark C.; Yap, George S.; Gause, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Innate cells are responsible for the rapid recognition of infection and mediate essential mechanisms of pathogen elimination, and also facilitate adaptive immune responses. We review here the numerous intricate interactions among innate cells that initiate protective immunity. The efficient eradication of pathogens depends on the coordinated actions of multiple cells, including innate cells and epithelial cells. Rather than acting as isolated effector cells, innate cells are in constant communication with other responding cells of the immune system, locally and distally. These interactions are critically important for the efficient control of primary infections as well for the development of ‘trained’ innate cells that facilitate the rapid elimination of homologous or heterologous infections. PMID:27002843

  2. Innate Immune Pattern Recognition: A Cell Biological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Sky W.; Bonham, Kevin S.; Zanoni, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Receptors of the innate immune system detect conserved determinants of microbial and viral origin. Activation of these receptors initiates signaling events that culminate in an effective immune response. Recently, the view that innate immune signaling events rely on and operate within a complex cellular infrastructure has become an important framework for understanding the regulation of innate immunity. Compartmentalization within this infrastructure provides the cell with the ability to assign spatial information to microbial detection and regulate immune responses. Several cell biological processes play a role in the regulation of innate signaling responses; at the same time, innate signaling can engage cellular processes as a form of defense or to promote immunological memory. In this review, we highlight these aspects of cell biology in pattern-recognition receptor signaling by focusing on signals that originate from the cell surface, from endosomal compartments, and from within the cytosol. PMID:25581309

  3. Type 2 innate immunity in helminth infection is induced redundantly and acts autonomously following CD11c(+) cell depletion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine A; Harcus, Yvonne; Garbi, Natalio; Hämmerling, Günter J; MacDonald, Andrew S; Maizels, Rick M

    2012-10-01

    Infection with gastrointestinal helminths generates a dominant type 2 response among both adaptive (Th2) and innate (macrophage, eosinophil, and innate lymphoid) immune cell types. Two additional innate cell types, CD11c(high) dendritic cells (DCs) and basophils, have been implicated in the genesis of type 2 immunity. Investigating the type 2 response to intestinal nematode parasites, including Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, we first confirmed the requirement for DCs in stimulating Th2 adaptive immunity against these helminths through depletion of CD11c(high) cells by administration of diphtheria toxin to CD11c.DOG mice. In contrast, responsiveness was intact in mice depleted of basophils by antibody treatment. Th2 responses can be induced by adoptive transfer of DCs, but not basophils, exposed to soluble excretory-secretory products from these helminths. However, innate type 2 responses arose equally strongly in the presence or absence of CD11c(high) cells or basophils; thus, in CD11c.DOG mice, the alternative activation of macrophages, as measured by expression of arginase-1, RELM-α, and Ym-1 (Chi3L3) in the intestine following H. polygyrus infection or in the lung following N. brasiliensis infection, was unaltered by depletion of CD11c-expressing DCs and alveolar macrophages or by antibody-mediated basophil depletion. Similarly, goblet cell-associated RELM-β in lung and intestinal tissues, lung eosinophilia, and expansion of innate lymphoid ("nuocyte") populations all proceeded irrespective of depletion of CD11c(high) cells or basophils. Thus, while CD11c(high) DCs initiate helminth-specific adaptive immunity, innate type 2 cells are able to mount an autonomous response to the challenge of parasite infection.

  4. Pulmonary contusion primes systemic innate immunity responses.

    PubMed

    Hoth, J Jason; Martin, R S; Yoza, Barbara K; Wells, Jonathan D; Meredith, J W; McCall, Charles E

    2009-07-01

    Traumatic injury may result in an exaggerated response to subsequent immune stimuli such as nosocomial infection. This "second hit" phenomenon and molecular mechanism(s) of immune priming by traumatic lung injury, specifically, pulmonary contusion, remain unknown. We used an animal model of pulmonary contusion to determine whether the injury resulted in priming of the innate immune response and to test the hypothesis that resuscitation fluids could attenuate the primed response to a second hit. Male, 8 to 9 weeks, C57/BL6 mice with a pulmonary contusion were challenged by a second hit of intratracheal administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 microg) 24 hours after injury (injury + LPS). Other experimental groups were injury + vehicle or LPS alone. A separate group was injured and resuscitated by 4 cc/kg of hypertonic saline (HTS) or Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation before LPS challenge. Mice were killed 4 hours after LPS challenge and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, and tissue were isolated and analyzed. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni multiple comparison posttest for significant differences (*p < or = 0.05). Injury + LPS showed immune priming observed by lung injury histology and increased bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia, lung myeloperoxidase and serum IL-6, CXCL1, and MIP-2 levels when compared with injury + vehicle or LPS alone. After injury, resuscitation with HTS, but not Lactated Ringer's was more effective in attenuating the primed response to a second hit. Pulmonary contusion primes innate immunity for an exaggerated response to a second hit with the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, LPS. We observed synergistic increases in inflammatory mediator expression in the blood and a more severe lung injury in injured animals challenged with LPS. This priming effect was reduced when HTS was used to resuscitate the animal after lung contusion.

  5. Pulmonary contusion primes systemic innate immunity responses

    PubMed Central

    Hoth, JJ; Martin, RS; Yoza, BK; Wells, JD; Meredith, JW; McCall, CE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic injury may result in an exaggerated response to subsequent immune stimuli such as nosocomial infection. This “second hit” phenomenon, and molecular mechanism(s) of immune priming by traumatic lung injury, specifically pulmonary contusion, remains unknown. We used an animal model of pulmonary contusion to determine if the injury resulted in priming of the innate immune response and to test the hypothesis that resuscitation fluids could attenuate the primed response to a second hit. Methods Male, 8-9 wk, C57/BL6 mice with a pulmonary contusion were challenged by a second hit of intratracheal administration of the Toll like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50mcg) 24hrs after injury (injury+LPS). Other experimental groups were injury+vehicle or LPS alone. A separate group were injured and resuscitated by 4cc/kg of hypertonic saline (HTS) or Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation prior to LPS challenge. Mice were euthanized 4hrs after LPS challenge and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and tissue were isolated and analyzed. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA with Bonferroni multiple comparison post-test for significant differences (*, p≤0.05). Results Injury+LPS showed immune priming observed by lung injury histology and increased BAL neutrophilia, lung myeloperoxidase, and serum IL-6, CXCL1 and MIP-2 levels when compared to injury+vehicle or LPS alone. After injury, resuscitation with HTS, but not LR was more effective in attenuating the primed response to a second hit. Conclusion Pulmonary contusion primes innate immunity for an exaggerated response to a second hit with the TLR4 agonist, LPS. We observed synergistic increases in inflammatory mediator expression in the blood and a more severe lung injury in injured animals challenged with LPS. This priming effect was reduced when HTS was used to resuscitate the animal after lung contusion. PMID:19590302

  6. Innate Immune Gene Polymorphisms in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadee, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause worldwide of human mortality attributable to a single infectious agent. Recent studies targeting candidate genes and “case-control” association have revealed numerous polymorphisms implicated in host susceptibility to TB. Here, we review current progress in the understanding of causative polymorphisms in host innate immune genes associated with TB pathogenesis. We discuss genes encoding several types of proteins: macrophage receptors, such as the mannose receptor (MR, CD206), dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), Dectin-1, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18), nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and NOD2, CD14, P2X7, and the vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR); soluble C-type lectins, such as surfactant protein-A (SP-A), SP-D, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL); phagocyte cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18; chemokines, such as IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), RANTES, and CXCL10; and other important innate immune molecules, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and solute carrier protein 11A1 (SLC11A1). Polymorphisms in these genes have been variably associated with susceptibility to TB among different populations. This apparent variability is probably accounted for by evolutionary selection pressure as a result of long-term host-pathogen interactions in certain regions or populations and, in part, by lack of proper study design and limited knowledge of molecular and functional effects of the implicated genetic variants. Finally, we discuss genomic technologies that hold promise for resolving questions regarding the evolutionary paths of the human genome, functional effects of polymorphisms, and corollary impacts of adaptation on human health, ultimately leading to novel approaches to controlling TB. PMID:22825450

  7. Alzheimer's disease: Innate immunity gone awry?

    PubMed

    VanItallie, Theodore B

    2017-01-11

    Inflammation is an immune activity designed to protect the host from pathogens and noxious agents. In its low-intensity form, presence of an inflammatory process must be inferred from appropriate biomarkers. Occult neuroinflammation is not just secondary to Alzheimer's disease (AD) but may contribute to its pathogenesis and promote its progression. A leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been observed in early AD and may play a role in its initiation and development. Studies of the temporal evolution of AD's biomarkers have shown that, in AD, the brain's amyloid burden correlates poorly with cognitive decline. In contrast, cognitive deficits in AD correlate well with synapse loss. Oligomeric forms of amyloid-beta (oAβs) can be synaptotoxic and evidence of their deposition inside synaptic terminals of cognition-associated neurons explains early memory loss in AD better than formation of extracellular Aβ plaques. Among innate immune cells that reside in the brain, microglia sense danger signals represented by proteins like oAβ and become activated by neuronal damage such as that caused by bacterial endotoxins. The resulting reactive microgliosis has been implicated in generating the chronic form of microglial activation believed to promote AD's development. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have yielded data from patients with sporadic AD indicating that its causes include genetic variation in the innate immune system. Recent preclinical studies have reported that β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) may protect the brain from the adverse effects of both the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and the deacetylation of histone. Consequently, there is an urgent need for clinical investigations designed to test whether an orally administered βOHB preparation, such as a ketone ester, can have a similar beneficial effect in human subjects.

  8. The pathology of orthopedic implant failure is mediated by innate immune system cytokines.

    PubMed

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Jäger, Marcus; Jacobs, Joshua J; Hallab, Nadim James

    2014-01-01

    All of the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after 15-25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation at the bone implant interface. This inflammatory disease state is caused by implant debris acting, primarily, on innate immune cells, that is, macrophages. This slow progressive pathological bone loss or "aseptic loosening" is a potentially life-threatening condition due to the serious complications in older people (>75 yrs) of total joint replacement revision surgery. In some people implant debris (particles and ions from metals) can influence the adaptive immune system as well, giving rise to the concept of metal sensitivity. However, a consensus of studies agrees that the dominant form of this response is due to innate reactivity by macrophages to implant debris where both danger (DAMP) and pathogen (PAMP) signalling elicit cytokine-based inflammatory responses. This paper discusses implant debris induced release of the cytokines and chemokines due to activation of the innate (and the adaptive) immune system and the subsequent formation of osteolysis. Different mechanisms of implant-debris reactivity related to the innate immune system are detailed, for example, danger signalling (e.g., IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, etc.), toll-like receptor activation (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, etc.), apoptosis (e.g., caspases 3-9), bone catabolism (e.g., TRAP5b), and hypoxia responses (Hif1-α). Cytokine-based clinical and basic science studies are in progress to provide diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies.

  9. Is downer cow syndrome related to chronic botulism?

    PubMed

    Rulff, R; Schrödl, W; Basiouni, S; Neuhaus, J; Krüger, M

    2015-01-01

    The present work was directed to investigate the relationship between Downer cow syndrome (DCS) and chronic botulism in dairy cattle. For this purpose, a total of 52 fresh calving downer cows and 206 apparently healthy cows at 14 dairy farms were investigated for Clostridium botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels, C. botulinum and botulinum neurotoxin in rumen fluids as well as in faeces. Results indicated that the downer cows had higher IgG titers for C. botulinum ABE and CD than the healthy cows. All tested rumen fluids were negative for BoNT and C. botulinum. BoNT/D, however, and C. botulinum type D spores were detected in faecal samples of healthy and downer cows in the selected farms. In conclusion, the presence of a significantly higher C. botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels in DCS cows than in the healthy animals suggests that chronic C. botulinum toxico-infection could be a predisposing factor for DCS.

  10. Effect of biostimulation and social organization on the interval from calving to resumption of ovarian cyclicity in postpartum Angus cows.

    PubMed

    Landaeta-Hernández, A J; Meléndez, P; Bartolomé, J; Rae, D O; Archbald, L F

    2013-04-15

    The objective was to assess the effect of biostimulation by the male presence and social organization on the interval from calving to resumption of ovarian cyclicity (ICR). Thirty Angus cows were allocated according parity into three groups (10 per group); two groups were exposed to bulls, and a third group not exposed to bulls served as a control. Dominance values (with subsequent arc-sin transformation) were calculated from daily recorded agonistic interactions and later organized into dominance order comprising three social categories as follows: dominant (D), intermediate (I), and subordinates (S). The ICR was established by determining presence of luteal tissue and a rise of blood progesterone concentration above 1 ng/mL using ultrasonography and a solid-phase, nonextraction radioimmunoassay (Coat-a-Count; Diagnostics Products Corporation, Los Angeles, CA, USA), respectively. The effect of biostimulation, dominance order, and treatment by dominance order on ICR was statistically analyzed applying ANOVA using PROC GLM of SAS (2010). The ICR was influenced by biostimulation (P < 0.002) and dominance order (P < 0.004). The ICR increased as dominance order decreased (D = 34.5 ± 6 days; I = 45.0 ± 6; S = 53.1 ± 4 days; P < 0.01). However, when comparing cows within social categories, ICR was reduced in the group exposed to bulls (D = 26.3 ± 8.2 days; I = 42.0 ± 6.4 days; S = 46.1 ± 4.1 days) compared with those not exposed to bulls (D = 43.0 ± 8.2 days; I = 48.0 ± 10.1 days; S = 60.2 ± 6.4 days) cows. In conclusion, biostimulation and social dominance influenced the ICR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct benefits of social dominance in juvenile crayfish.

    PubMed

    Herberholz, Jens; McCurdy, Catherine; Edwards, Donald H

    2007-08-01

    Crayfish are known for their innate aggressiveness and willingness to quickly establish dominance relationships among group members. Consequently, the formation of dominance hierarchies and the analysis of behavioral patterns displayed during agonistic encounters have mostly been tested in environments that provide no immediate resources besides space. We tested the hypothesis that social hierarchy formation in crayfish serves to determine access to future resources. Individuals within groups of three juvenile crayfish were allowed to form a social hierarchy in a featureless environment before a single food resource was presented. Higher dominance indices were significantly correlated with increased access to the food. The highest ranked crayfish spent more time in contact with the food than did medium-ranked and lowest ranked crayfish, and crayfish of medium rank spent more time in contact with the resource than did lowest ranked animals. The highest ranked crayfish consolidated their dominant status in the presence of food, indicated by a complete absence of any submissive behaviors during that period. The results of these experiments show that the disposition of crayfish to engage in fighting and formation of a dominance hierarchy in a featureless environment serves to determine future access to an emerging resource, thereby entailing greater benefits for animals of higher social rank.

  12. Dominant optic atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3) encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8) are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7) are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of bilateral, mild

  13. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H

    2005-11-01

    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  14. Form of supplemental selenium fed to cycling cows affects systemic concentrations of progesterone but not those of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Katheryn L; Anderson, Les; Burris, Walter R; Rhoads, Michelle; Matthews, James C; Bridges, Phillip J

    2016-03-15

    In areas where soils are deficient in selenium (Se), dietary supplementation of this trace mineral directly to cattle is recommended. Selenium status affects fertility, and the form of Se supplemented to cows affects tissue-specific gene expression profiles. The objective of this study was to determine whether the form of Se consumed by cows would affect follicular growth and the production of steroids. Thirty-three Angus-cross cows that had ad libitum access of a mineral mix containing 35 ppm of Se in free-choice vitamin-mineral mixes as either inorganic (ISe), organic (OSe), or a 50/50 mix of ISe and OSe (MIX) for 180 days were used. After 170 days of supplementation, all cows were injected with 25-mg PGF2α to induce regression of the CL and then monitored for behavioral estrus (Day 0). From Day 4 to Day 8 after estrus, follicular growth was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. On Day 6, cows were injected with PGF2α (20 then 15 mg, 8-12 hours apart) to induce regression of the developing CL and differentiation of the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave into a preovulatory follicle. On Day 8, 36 hours after PGF2α (20 mg), the contents of the preovulatory follicle were aspirated by ultrasound-guided follicular puncture. Blood collected on Days 6 and 8 and follicular fluid collected on Day 8 was analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol. Form of Se supplemented to cows affected (P = 0.04) the systemic concentration of progesterone on Day 6, but not on Day 8. Form of Se did not affect the systemic concentration of estradiol on Day 6 or Day 8. Form of Se tended to affect (P = 0.07) the concentration of progesterone, but not that of estradiol, in the follicular fluid. Form of Se did not affect diameter of the dominant ovarian follicle on Days 4 to 6, but tended to affect (P = 0.08) the diameter of the preovulatory follicle on Day 8. Our results suggest that form of Se fed to cows affects the production of progesterone but not that

  15. Cancer Immunosurveillance by Tissue-resident Innate Lymphoid Cells and Innate-like T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dadi, Saïda; Chhangawala, Sagar; Whitlock, Benjamin M.; Franklin, Ruth A.; Luo, Chong T.; Oh, Soyoung A.; Toure, Ahmed; Pritykin, Yuri; Huse, Morgan; Leslie, Christina S.; Li, Ming O.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Malignancy can be suppressed by the immune system in a process termed immunosurveillance. However, to what extent immunosurveillance occurs in spontaneous cancers and the composition of participating cell types remain obscure. Here we show that cell transformation triggers a tissue-resident lymphocyte response in oncogene-induced murine cancer models. Non-circulating cytotoxic lymphocytes, derived from innate, TCRαβ and TCRγδ lineages, expand in early tumors. Characterized by high expression of NK1.1, CD49a and CD103, these cells share a gene expression signature distinct from those of conventional NK cells, T cells and invariant NKT cells. Generation of these lymphocytes is dependent on the cytokine IL-15, but not the transcription factor Nfil3 that is required for the differentiation of tumor-infiltrating NK cells, and IL-15, but not Nfil3, deficiency results in accelerated tumor growth. These findings reveal a tumor-elicited immunosurveillance mechanism that engages unconventional type 1-like innate lymphoid cells and type 1 innate-like T cells. PMID:26806130

  16. Effect of dietary phosphorus on performance of lactating dairy cows: milk production and cow health.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H; Kanitz, F D; Moreira, V R; Wiltbank, M C; Satter, L D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure cow response to feeding of two dietary concentrations of P, one of which was close to recent National Research Council requirements, and the other of which was well in excess of the requirement. Diets containing 0.37 or 0.57% P (dry basis) were fed to Holstein cows for the first 165 d of lactation, and occasionally longer until cows were confirmed pregnant approximately 60 d after insemination. At calving, cows were randomly assigned to experimental diets. The number of cows completing a minimum of 165 d of lactation was 123 for the 0.37 and 124 for the 0.57% P groups. Cows were housed in a stanchion barn and fed one of two transition diets, each formulated to contain one of the P treatments for the first 3 wk of lactation, and then cows were moved to a free-stall barn where the experimental diets were group fed. Milk production, milk fat, and milk protein averaged 35.1 kg/d, 3.92%, and 2.90% for the 0.37% P diet, and 34.9 kg/d, 3.98%, and 2.91% for the 0.57% P diet. None of these measures were different between treatments. Blood serum P concentrations on d 50 and 100 of lactation averaged 6.1 and 6.2 mg/dL for the 0.37% P diet, and 6.8 and 6.9 mg/dL for the 0.57% P diet. No treatment differences were detected in milk production, cow health, or body condition score.

  17. Recombinant oncolytic poliovirus, PVSRIPO, has potent cytotoxic and innate inflammatory effects, mediating therapy in human breast and prostate cancer xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Eda K.; Brown, Michael C.; Boczkowski, David; McNamara, Megan A.; George, Daniel J.; Bigner, Darell D.; Gromeier, Matthias; Nair, Smita K.

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral inoculation of viruses with tumor-selective cytotoxicity may induce cancer cell death and, thereby, shrink neoplastic lesions. It is unlikely, however, that viral tumor cell killing alone could produce meaningful, durable clinical responses, as clinically suitable ‘oncolytic’ viruses are severely attenuated and their spread and propagation are opposed by host immunity. Thus, a more propitious event in this context is the innate antiviral response to intratumoral virus administration, in particular for recruiting durable adaptive immune effector responses. It may represent a double-edged sword, as innate immune activation may eliminate infected tumor cells early, intercept viral spread and block any meaningful therapeutic response. The innate response to viral infection of tumors may be very different from that in non-malignant target tissues, owing to the unusual composition/tissue properties of tumor stroma. In this work, we report investigations of the innate immune response to the oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVSRIPO, in two mouse xenotransplantation models for breast and prostate cancer. Our observations indicate short-term virus persistence in infected tumors and virus recovery indicative of modest intratumoral propagation and persistence. Yet, a powerful innate inflammatory response coincided with chemokine induction and myeloid cell infiltration into tumors that was, interestingly, dominated by neutrophils. The combined effect of PVSRIPO tumor infection and the innate response it elicits was significant tumor regression in both models. PMID:27806313

  18. Finger Enslaving in the Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Luke A.; Martin, Joel R.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    During single-finger force production, the non-instructed fingers unintentionally produce force (finger enslaving). In this study, enslaving effects were compared between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The test consisted of a series of maximum voluntary contractions with different finger combinations. Enslaving matrices were calculated by means of training an artificial neural network. The dominant hand was found to be stronger, but there was found to be no difference between the overall enslaving effects in the dominant and non-dominant hands. There was no correlation between the magnitude of finger enslaving and the performance in such tests as the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Grooved Pegboard test, and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. Each one of those three tests showed a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hand performances. Eleven subjects were retested after two months, and it was found that enslaving effects did not fluctuate significantly between the two testing sessions. While the dominant and non-dominant hands are involved differently in everyday tasks, e.g. in writing or eating, this practice does not cause significant differences in enslaving between the hands. PMID:24360253

  19. Finger enslaving in the dominant and non-dominant hand.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Luke A; Martin, Joel R; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2014-02-01

    During single-finger force production, the non-instructed fingers unintentionally produce force (finger enslaving). In this study, enslaving effects were compared between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The test consisted of a series of maximum voluntary contractions with different finger combinations. Enslaving matrices were calculated by means of training an artificial neural network. The dominant hand was found to be stronger, but there was found to be no difference between the overall enslaving effects in the dominant and non-dominant hands. There was no correlation between the magnitude of finger enslaving and the performance in such tests as the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Grooved Pegboard test, and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. Each one of those three tests showed a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hand performances. Eleven subjects were retested after two months, and it was found that enslaving effects did not fluctuate significantly between the two testing sessions. While the dominant and non-dominant hands are involved differently in everyday tasks, e.g. in writing or eating, this practice does not cause significant differences in enslaving between the hands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  1. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  2. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  3. Factors affecting preovulatory concentrations of estradiol and its role in establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in suckled beef cows using reciprocal embryo transfer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously (Perry et...

  4. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  5. Similarity of the ruminal bacteria across individual lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Jami, Elie; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-06-01

    Dairy cattle hold enormous significance for man as a source of milk and meat. Their remarkable ability to convert indigestible plant mass into these digestible food products resides in the rumen - an anaerobic chambered compartment - in the bovine digestive system. The rumen houses a complex microbiota which is responsible for the degradation of plant material, consequently enabling the conversion of plant fibers into milk and meat and determining their quality and quantity. Hence, an understanding of this complex ecosystem has major economic implications. One important question that is yet to be addressed is the degree of conservation of rumen microbial composition across individual animals. Here we quantified the degree of similarity between rumen bacterial populations of 16 individual cows. We used real-time PCR to determine the variance of specific ruminal bacterial species with different metabolic functions, revealing that while some bacterial strains vary greatly across animals, others show only very low variability. This variance could not be linked to the metabolic traits of these bacteria. We examined the degree of similarity in the dominant bacterial populations across all animals using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), and identified a bacterial community consisting of 32% operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared by at least 90% of the animals and 19% OTUs shared by 100% of the animals. Looking only at the presence or absence of each OTU gave an average similarity of 75% between each cow pair. When abundance of each OTU was added to the analysis, this similarity decreased to an average of less than 60%. Thus, as suggested in similar recent studies of the human gut, a bovine rumen core microbiome does exist, but taxa abundance may vary greatly across animals.

  6. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  7. Arsenic exposure to dairy cows in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Majumder, Shankar; Awal, Md Abdul; Rao, D Ramkishan

    2013-01-01

    Food-chain contamination by arsenic (As) is a newly uncovered disaster. Effects of As-contaminated drinking water and paddy straw on the excretion of As through milk, urine, and dung of dairy cows (n = 240) were studied in As-prone areas of Bangladesh. Mean (±SEM) total As (inorganic plus organic) concentration in drinking water, paddy straw [dry weight dw)], cow's urine (specific gravity adjusted to 1.035), dung (dw), and milk (wet weight) were 89.6 ± 6.5 μg/l, 1,114.4 ± 57.3 μg/kg, 123.6 ± 7.6 μg/l, 1,693.0 ± 65.1 μg/kg, and 26.2 ± 2.8 μg/l, respectively. Significantly (p < 0.01) greater As was in Boro straw (1,386.9 ± 71.8 μg/kg) than Aus (702.4 ± 67.1 μg/kg) and Aman (431.7 ± 28.8 μg/kg) straw and in straw irrigated with shallow (1,697.3 ± 81.9 μg/kg) than deep well water (583.6 ± 62.7 μg/kg) and surface water (511.8 ± 30.0 μg/kg). Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between As contents of cow's urine and drinking water (r = 0.92) as well as cow dung and straw (r = 0.82). Concentrations of As in cow urine, dung, and milk were increased with the relative increment of As in drinking water and/or straw. These results provide evidence that dairy cows excrete ingested As mainly through urine and dung; thus, As biotransformation through milk remains low. This low concentration of As in milk may be of concern when humans are exposed to multiple sources of As simultaneously. Moreover, As in cow dung could be an environmental issue in Bangladesh.

  8. Modulation of post-partum reproductive performance in dairy cows through supplementation of long- or short-chain fatty acids during transition period.

    PubMed

    Ulfina, G G; Kimothi, S P; Oberoi, P S; Baithalu, R K; Kumaresan, A; Mohanty, T K; Imtiwati, P; Dang, A K

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-six cross-bred cows were used to study the effect of long-chain (flaxseed) or short-chain (butyric acid) fatty acid supplementation on metabolic status, ovarian function and reproduction performance during transition period. Control cows received a routine feed of transition diet, while the cows in two treatment groups were supplemented with either 750-g crushed flaxseed or 250 g butyric acid per cow per day. Ovarian activity was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography on 10th, 20th and 30th days post-partum. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture into heparinized polystyrene tubes; plasma was prepared and stored under -20 °C until analysis. Results indicated that cows in flaxseed group were in positive energy balance as indicated by lower NEFA and Beta hydroxy Butyrate and higher glucose concentrations. Uterine involution was completed well within 30 days post-partum in all the cows in flaxseed fed group compared to 76.9% in butyric acid supplemented and 61.5% in control groups. The size of dominant follicle and corpus luteum was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for flaxseed group compared to control group, which in turn resulted in higher concentrations of plasma progesterone. Cows fed on diets supplemented with flaxseed exhibited post-partum heat earlier and bred sooner (p < 0.05) than control cows. It has been noticed that supplementation of flaxseed and butyric acid enhanced involution of uterus, early resumption of cyclicity and thereby early breeding. However, in view of the encouraging results obtained for flaxseed supplemented group, its organic nature and easier availability at farmer's gate, we concluded that flaxseed can be safely included in transition diet to modulate reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

  9. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing Cancer Immunotherapy Via Activation of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jacob L.; Sondel, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Given recent technological advances and advances in our understanding of cancer, immunotherapy of cancer is being used with clear clinical benefit. The immunosuppression accompanying cancer itself, as well as with current cancer treatment with radiation or chemotherapy, impairs adaptive immune effectors to a greater extent than innate effector cells. In addition to being less suppressed, innate immune cells are capable of being enhanced via immune-stimulatory regimens. Most strategies being investigated to promote innate immune responses against cancer do not require complex, patient-specific, ex-vivo cellular or molecular creation of therapeutic agents; thus they can, generally, be used as “off the shelf” therapeutics that could be administered by most cancer clinics. Successful applications of innate immunotherapy in the clinic have effectively targeted components of the innate immune response. Preclinical data demonstrate how initiation of innate immune responses can lead to subsequent adaptive long-term cancer immunity. We hypothesize that integration of innate immune activation strategies into combination therapies for cancer treatment will lead to more effective and long term clinical benefit. PMID:26320061

  11. Enhancing Cancer Immunotherapy Via Activation of Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jacob L; Sondel, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    Given recent technological advances and advances in our understanding of cancer, immunotherapy of cancer is being used with clear clinical benefit. The immunosuppression accompanying cancer itself, as well as with current cancer treatment with radiation or chemotherapy, impairs adaptive immune effectors to a greater extent than innate effector cells. In addition to being less suppressed, innate immune cells are capable of being enhanced via immune-stimulatory regimens. Most strategies being investigated to promote innate immune responses against cancer do not require complex, patient-specific, ex vivo cellular or molecular creation of therapeutic agents; thus they can, generally, be used as "off the shelf" therapeutics that could be administered by most cancer clinics. Successful applications of innate immunotherapy in the clinic have effectively targeted components of the innate immune response. Preclinical data demonstrate how initiation of innate immune responses can lead to subsequent adaptive long-term cancer immunity. We hypothesize that integration of innate immune activation strategies into combination therapies for cancer treatment will lead to more effective and long-term clinical benefit.

  12. Innate Immunity and antimicrobial defense systems in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Büchau, Amanda S.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is mediated by elements of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Its characteristic features in the skin consist of inflammatory changes in both dermis and epidermis, with abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation. Despite the elucidation of many aspects of psoriasis pathogenesis, some puzzling questions remain to be answered. A major question currently debated is if psoriasis is a primary abnormality of the epidermal keratinocyte or a reflection of dysregulated bone-marrow derived immunocytes. In this review we will focus on understanding the role of the innate immune system in psoriasis and how this provides a rational solution to address the origin of this multifactorial disease. Innate immunity is non-specific and genetically-based. It protects the body against the constant risk of pathogens through the use of rapidly mobilized defenses that are able to recognize and kill a wide variety of threats (bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.). The key mechanisms of innate immune responses are the existence of receptors to recognize pathogens, and the production of factors that kill pathogens, such as antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Any combination of excessive sensitivity of the innate detection system, or dysregulation of the response system, can manifest both an epidermal phenotype and abnormal T-cell function. Thus, the multidimensional action of the innate immune system, its triggers, and its recently understood role in T-cell function, argue for an important role for innate mechanisms of recognition and response in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:18021900

  13. The innate immune system in human systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Weidenbusch, Marc; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-04-25

    Although the role of adaptive immune mechanisms, e.g. autoantibody formation and abnormal T-cell activation, has been long noted in the pathogenesis of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the role of innate immunity has been less well characterized. An intricate interplay between both innate and adaptive immune elements exists in protective anti-infective immunity as well as in detrimental autoimmunity. More recently, it has become clear that the innate immune system in this regard not only starts inflammation cascades in SLE leading to disease flares, but also continues to fuel adaptive immune responses throughout the course of the disease. This is why targeting the innate immune system offers an additional means of treating SLE. First trials assessing the efficacy of anti-type I interferon (IFN) therapy or modulators of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signalling have been attempted. In this review, we summarize the available evidence on the role of several distinct innate immune elements, especially neutrophils and dendritic cells as well as the IFN system, as well as specific innate PRRs along with their signalling pathways. Finally, we highlight recent clinical trials in SLE addressing one or more of the aforementioned components of the innate immune system.

  14. Developing and Fielding Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Developing and Fielding Information Dominance Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command’s IT-21 Blocks 1 and 2 2002 Command and Control Research and...00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing and Fielding Information Dominance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...force levels were uncertain, the necessary role of information dominance to maintaining strategic superiority was not. Platform Centric Warfare, with its

  15. Dominantly-inherited lop ears.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander K C; Kong, Albert Y F; Robson, W Lane M; McLeod, D Ross

    2007-10-01

    We describe a four-generation Chinese family that included five members who had an isolated bilateral lop ear anomaly. The presentation suggested a dominant mode of inheritance. The absence of male-to-male transmission does not exclude an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance. Since the phenotypic anomaly of the male proband was no more severe than the affected female members, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is most likely. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  16. Immune response of pregnant cows to bovine rotavirus immunization.

    PubMed

    Saif, L J; Smith, K L; Landmeier, B J; Bohl, E H; Theil, K W; Todhunter, D A

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen pregnant Holstein cows were freely assigned to 3 experimental groups (5 cows in each group). Cows in group I were inoculated IM and intramammarily (IMm) with Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) tissue culture-propagated modified-live Nebraska calf diarrhea bovine rotavirus with added adjuvant (OARDC vaccine-immunized cows). Group II cows were given IM injections of a commercial modified-live rotavirus-coronavirus vaccine (commercial vaccine-immunized cows), and the remaining 5 cows were noninoculated controls (group III). Rotavirus antibody in colostrum and milk was mainly associated with immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, and less so with IgG2, IgA, and IgM, as analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using monospecific anti-bovine IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA sera. In serum, the rotavirus antibody was distributed almost equally between IgG1 and IgG2. The same relationships appeared in both immunized and nonvaccinated cows. All OARDC vaccine-injected cows had virus-neutralization (VN) and ELISA IgG1 rotavirus antibody titers in serum and mammary secretions at significantly increased levels (at least 100-fold; P less than 0.05) compared with the titers in groups II (commercial vaccine-immunized cows) and III (controls). Serum, colostrum, and milk antibody titers from these latter 2 groups did not differ statistically. The ELISA IgG2, IgA, and IgM rotavirus antibody titers also were significantly greater in mammary secretions from OARDC vaccine-immunized cows than in groups II and III cows. There was a high correlation between ELISA IgG1 and VN rotavirus antibody titers for all samples tested (r = 0.97, P less than 0.001), but ELISA IgG1 antibody titers were consistently higher than VN titers. The ELISA IgG1 and VN antibody titers of milk samples collected from cows 30 days after parturition were higher from the OARDC vaccine-immunized cows (ELISA IgG1, geometric mean titer (GMT) = 3,511; VN GMT = 1,689) than were titers from the

  17. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility.

  18. Innate small babies are metabolically healthy children.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Ivana; Njuieyon, Falucar; Deghmoun, Samia; Chevenne, Didier; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Beltrand, Jacques

    2012-12-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is regarded as a risk factor for later metabolic complications. The SGA is defined as a birth weight below -2 SD of the distribution for sex and gestational age. However, the definition of SGA does not distinguish between those born after fetal growth restriction and innate SGA (iSGA). Our objective was to test whether innate SGA infants show any metabolic complications at the age of 2 yr in comparison with infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Fifty-eight infants with family SGA risk factors (SGA in a previous pregnancy or among parents, maternal height less than -2 sd for adult height in French women, and small fetal size at second-trimester ultrasound examination) were prospectively followed from midgestation to 2 yr of age. Fetal growth velocity was measured from ultrasound measurements. Body composition and hormonal profile were measured at birth and 1 and 2 yr. Fetal growth velocity was not significantly different between iSGA and AGA (-0.17 ± 0.2 vs. -0.17 ± 0.3 percentiles/d of gestation; P = 0.96). iSGA infants were significantly lighter at birth (-1.7 ± 0.45 vs. 0.46 ± 0.77 SD; P < 0.0001) and at 4 months of age (-0.85 ± 0.88 vs. 0.29 ± 1 SD; P < 0.0001), and they remain so over follow-up (-0.73 ± 1.08 vs. 0.2 ± 1.02 SD; P = 0.0014 at 2 yr). Height z-scores and percent fat time courses followed a similar pattern. No differences in any of the metabolic and hormonal parameters were observed between iSGA and AGA up to 2 yr (insulin at birth, 5.1 ± 6.8 vs. 5.2 ± 4.6 mIU/liter, P = 0.2; at 2 yr, 2 ± 1.6 vs. 2 ± 1.5 mIU/liter, P = 0.66). Infants born iSGA do not experience severe fetal growth restriction and do not show any evidence of metabolic risk either at birth or in the first 2 yr of life.

  19. Residues in colostrum following antibiotic dry cow therapy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, S P; Duby, R T; Prange, R W; Tritschler, J P

    1984-12-01

    Cows from five dairy herds were used to determine persistence of antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy. Cows were treated in all quarters at drying off with antibiotics approved for use for nonlactating cows. Antibiotics procaine penicillin G plus dihydrostreptomycin, novobiocin, cloxacillin, or cephapirin were compared with no treatment. Composite colostrum samples were collected from each cow at first milking after parturition. Samples were screened for residues by Delvotest P. Colostrum samples positive by Delvotest also were tested by Bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay. Four of 186 colostrum samples from cows treated with antibiotics at drying off were positive for residues by Delvotest. Only one was confirmed positive by disc assay following heat treatment. All colostrum samples from 48 cows not treated were negative. Samples of first marketable milk also were collected. Over 96% of milk samples from cows treated at drying off and 100% of milk samples from cows not treated were negative for residues by Delvotest. If manufacturer's recommendations are followed, antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy with products in our study should not be a significant problem.

  20. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P<0.01). Post-calving, ketotic cows had increased serum amyloid A (4.2 and 1.8 fold in studies A and B, respectively; P=0.03 and P=0.04), haptoglobin (>6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; P<0.01 and P=0.02) compared with their healthy counterparts. Antepartum circulating LPS in ketotic cows was increased (2.3 fold; P=0.01) compared to healthy cows in Study B. In summary, increased biomarkers of inflammation appear to be closely associated with ketosis in transition dairy cows.

  1. Population genetic tools to dissect innate immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Clark, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity involves direct interactions between the host and the microbial world, both pathogenic and symbiotic, so natural selection is expected to strongly influence genes involved in these processes. Population genetics investigates the impact of past natural selection events on the genome of present-day human populations, and complements immunological, and clinical and epidemiological genetic studies. Recent data show that the impact of selection on the different families of innate immune receptors and their downstream signalling molecules varies considerably. This Review discusses these findings and highlights how they help delineate the relative functional importance of innate immune pathways, which can range from being essential to being redundant. PMID:23470320

  2. Day-to-Day Dynamics of Commensal Escherichia coli in Zimbabwean Cows Evidence Temporal Fluctuations within a Host-Specific Population Structure.

    PubMed

    Massot, Méril; Couffignal, Camille; Clermont, Olivier; D'Humières, Camille; Chatel, Jérémie; Plault, Nicolas; Andremont, Antoine; Caron, Alexandre; Mentré, France; Denamur, Erick

    2017-07-01

    To get insights into the temporal pattern of commensal Escherichia coli populations, we sampled the feces of four healthy cows from the same herd in the Hwange District of Zimbabwe daily over 25 days. The cows had not received antibiotic treatment during the previous 3 months. We performed viable E. coli counts and characterized the 326 isolates originating from the 98 stool samples at a clonal level, screened them for stx and eae genes, and tested them for their antibiotic susceptibilities. We observed that E. coli counts and dominant clones were different among cows, and very few clones were shared. No clone was shared by three or four cows. Clone richness and evenness were not different between cows. Within each host, the variability in the E. coli count was evidenced between days, and no clone was found to be dominant during the entire sampling period, suggesting the existence of clonal interference. Dominant clones tended to persist longer than subdominant ones and were mainly from phylogenetic groups A and B1. Five E. coli clones were found to contain both the stx1 and stx2 genes, representing 6.3% of the studied isolates. All cows harbored at least one Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strain. Resistance to tetracycline, penicillins, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides was rare and observed in three clones that were shed at low levels in two cows. This study highlights the fact that the commensal E. coli population, including the STEC population, is host specific, is highly dynamic over a short time frame, and rarely carries antibiotic resistance determinants in the absence of antibiotic treatment.IMPORTANCE The literature about the dynamics of commensal Escherichia coli populations is very scarce. Over 25 days, we followed the total E. coli counts daily and characterized the sampled clones in the feces of four cows from the same herd living in the Hwange District of Zimbabwe. This study deals with the day-to-day dynamics of both quantitative and qualitative

  3. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  4. Separate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, S; Thomsen, P T; Burow, E

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis was that dairy cows housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate group with herd mates would produce more milk and would be healthier than cows integrated in a group of all lactating cows immediately after calving. The experiment was conducted with 489 cows in 6 commercial loose-housing dairy herds where cows were randomly selected for treatment (separate housing) or control. Cows selected for treatment were housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate section, and controls were housed in the remaining section of the barn for lactating cows. Data were compared for milk yield, somatic cell count, medical treatments, reproductive performance, culling, mortality, and clinical observation of scores for body condition, leg and udder hygiene, lameness, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, and condition of the hair coat. The analysis of the effect of separate housing showed that primiparous cows produced more milk [approximately 230 kg of energy-corrected milk from 0 to 305 d in milk (DIM)], whereas multiparous and especially parity 3+ cows produced less milk (approximately 394 kg of energy-corrected milk from 0 to 305 DIM) during the lactation. Separate housing had no effect on mortality or reproductive efficiency. In primiparous cows, the number of medical treatments for ketosis was reduced by separate housing [hazard ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.83]. Clinical evaluations showed that separate housing decreased the scores for hock lesions in cows at 0 to 30 DIM (odds ratio 0.41, CI: 0.19-0.91), whereas the scoring of leg cleanliness showed more dirty legs in separated cows at 0 to 30 DIM (odds ratio 3.61, CI: 2.01-6.47) compared with cows integrated into the herd immediately. The body condition score in separated cows was reduced from 0 to 30 DIM (score reduced by 0.16, CI: 0.07-0.25) and from 31 to 60 DIM (score reduced by 0.13, CI: 0.04-0.23) compared with cows integrated immediately. We concluded that separate

  5. [Innate Lymphoid Cells: new actors of immunity].

    PubMed

    Cypowyj, Sophie; Vivier, Éric

    2016-03-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A new group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphoid tissue--inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as interferon-γ). (IFN-γ). Advances in our understanding of NK cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens in the absence of specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples.

  6. Innate lymphoid cells, precursors and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have only recently been recognized as a separate entity of the lymphoid lineage. Their subpopulations share common characteristics in terms of early development and major transcriptional circuitry with their related cousins of the T cell world. It is currently hypothesized that ILCs constitute an evolutionary older version of the lymphoid immune system. They are found at all primary entry points for pathogens such as mucosal surfaces of the lung and gastrointestinal system, the skin and the liver, which is the central contact point for pathogens that breach the intestinal barrier and enter the circulation. There, ILC contribute to the first line defense as well as to organ homeostasis. However, ILC are not only involved in classical defense tasks, but also contribute to the organogenesis of lymphoid organs as well as tissue remodeling and even stem cell regeneration. ILC may, therefore, implement different functions according to their emergence in ontogeny, their development and their final tissue location. We will review here their early development from precursors of the fetal liver and the adult bone marrow as well as their late plasticity in adaptation to their environment. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Innate Resistance and Susceptibility to Norovirus Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Nordgren, Johan; Sharma, Sumit; Kambhampati, Anita; Lopman, Ben; Svensson, Lennart; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2016-04-26

    The notion that certain individuals appear more or less susceptible to infections or to specific microbes is not new, but, until recently, it was assumed that clinical outcome of an infection was mainly owing to virulence factors of the microorganism. Relatively little attention has been given to host genetic factors involved in innate or adaptive immunity or expression of pathogen receptors. A remarkable example of susceptibility dependence is the strong Mendelian trait resistance to the most common noroviruses among individuals with a nonsense mutation in chromosome 19. Norovirus is recognized as the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, affecting children and adults alike. Noroviruses are highly contagious and genetically diverse RNA viruses, but not all individuals are susceptible to infection to the same norovirus genotypes. Presence of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) on gut epithelial surfaces is essential for susceptibility to many norovirus genotypes. The synthesis of these HBGAs, specifically of the ABH and Lewis families, requires the use of several fucosyl and glycosyltransferases encoded by the FUT2, FUT3, and ABH genes. Polymorphisms in these genes vary considerably depending on ethnicity, with a homozygous nonsense mutation (individuals called non-secretors) in the FUT2 gene occurring in approximately 5%–50% of different populations worldwide. Secretor status also affects gut microbiota composition, including HBGA-expressing bacteria and bacteria inducing fucosylation in the gut. These could be intermediary factors that govern norovirus susceptibility.

  9. Innate olfactory preferences in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Dormont, Laurent; Jay-Robert, Pierre; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Rapior, Sylvie; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2010-09-15

    The effects of insect larval diet on adult olfactory responses to host-plant or food volatiles are still debated. The induction of adult host preferences has been studied in insects with diverse ecologies, including parasitoids, flower-visitors and phytophagous species. We investigated this question for the first time in a coprophagous insect species. Larvae of the French scarab dung beetle Agrilinus constans were reared on four different artificial substrates containing dung from cattle, horse, sheep or wild boar, and responses of imagos to dung volatiles were then behaviourally tested in an olfactometer. We also reported the first analysis of the composition of different mammal dung volatiles. We showed that adult beetles were more attracted to cattle and sheep dung odours, and that larval feeding experience had no effect on the adult olfactory responses to dung volatiles. A second experiment showed that the presence of other insects inside the dung resource affects the process of dung selection by adults. We identified 64 chemical compounds from dung emissions, and showed that dung volatiles clearly differed among different mammal species, allowing olfactory discrimination by dung beetles. Our results suggest that resource selection in coprophagous insects may be based on innate olfactory preferences. Further experiments should examine whether Agrilinus adults can learn new dung odours, and whether larval diet may influence the behaviour of adults in other coprophagous species.

  10. Innate immunity and inflammation: a transcriptional paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hawiger, J

    2001-01-01

    The innate immune response and the process of inflammation are interwoven. Excessive and continuing cytokine production in response to bacterial lipopolysacharides (LPS) or superantigens is a hallmark of the systemic inflammatory response (IR), which can be life-threatening. Dissemination of these bacterial products induces waves of proinflammatory cytokines that cause vascular injury and multiple organ dysfunction. Both LPS and superantigens induce signaling to the nucleus in mononuclear phagocytes and T cells, respectively. These signaling pathways are mediated by NF-kappaB and other stress-responsive transcription factors (SRTFs), which play a critical role in reprogramming gene expression. The nuclear import of NF-kappaB allows transcriptional activation of over 100 genes that encode mediators of inflammatory and immune responses. We have developed a novel method to block nuclear import of NF-kappaB through cell-permeable peptide transduction in monocytes, macrophages, T lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. Strikingly, a cell-permeable peptide that antagonizes nuclear import of NF-kappaB and other SRTFs, suppressed the systemic production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha and interferon gamma) in mice challenged with a lethal dose of LPS, and increased their survival by at least 90%. Thus, systemic inflammatory responses are critically dependent on the transcriptional activation ofcytokine genes that are controlled by NF-kappaB and other SRTFs.

  11. Innate Sensing of HIV-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lepelley, Alice; Louis, Stéphanie; Sourisseau, Marion; Law, Helen K. W.; Pothlichet, Julien; Schilte, Clémentine; Chaperot, Laurence; Plumas, Joël; Randall, Richard E.; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Mammano, Fabrizio; Albert, Matthew L.; Schwartz, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Cell-free HIV-1 virions are poor stimulators of type I interferon (IFN) production. We examined here how HIV-infected cells are recognized by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and by other cells. We show that infected lymphocytes are more potent inducers of IFN than virions. There are target cell-type differences in the recognition of infected lymphocytes. In primary pDCs and pDC-like cells, recognition occurs in large part through TLR7, as demonstrated by the use of inhibitors and by TLR7 silencing. Donor cells expressing replication-defective viruses, carrying mutated reverse transcriptase, integrase or nucleocapsid proteins induced IFN production by target cells as potently as wild-type virus. In contrast, Env-deleted or fusion defective HIV-1 mutants were less efficient, suggesting that in addition to TLR7, cytoplasmic cellular sensors may also mediate sensing of infected cells. Furthermore, in a model of TLR7-negative cells, we demonstrate that the IRF3 pathway, through a process requiring access of incoming viral material to the cytoplasm, allows sensing of HIV-infected lymphocytes. Therefore, detection of HIV-infected lymphocytes occurs through both endosomal and cytoplasmic pathways. Characterization of the mechanisms of innate recognition of HIV-infected cells allows a better understanding of the pathogenic and exacerbated immunologic events associated with HIV infection. PMID:21379343

  12. Innate immune receptors in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Georgel, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) followed by that of their role in the early detection of pathogens and the ignition of the innate immune response has been a formidable progress for immunological research in the past 15years. This has massively fueled investigations aiming at developing better strategies to fight off infectious diseases and/or to prevent their occurrence. However, infected individuals are for most part outliers in a given population and therefore, the primary function of these receptors should be considered in pathogen-free conditions. Our current understanding indicates that an important physiological function of PRRs resides in their capacity to maintain epithelial homeostasis in response to colonizing commensals. In addition, endogenous host-derived ligands, expressed under stressed, albeit sterile, conditions (called DAMPs for Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns) are also able to trigger PRR signaling. Solid organ transplantation represents a unique situation where both contributions of PRRs signaling can be studied. Indeed, dysbiosis (either caused by antibiotherapy preceding organ transplantation or simply due to the microbiota differences between the transplanted organ and the recipient host) is a characteristic feature of this situation, which is also marked by a massive synthesis and liberation of DAMPs as a result of hypoxia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, in the transplanted organ, at least two compartments (epithelial and that composed of immune cells) participate in graft rejection/acceptance depending on the activation status of expressed PRRs.

  13. Innate Resistance and Susceptibility to Norovirus Infection

    DOE PAGES

    Nordgren, Johan; Sharma, Sumit; Kambhampati, Anita; ...

    2016-04-26

    The notion that certain individuals appear more or less susceptible to infections or to specific microbes is not new, but, until recently, it was assumed that clinical outcome of an infection was mainly owing to virulence factors of the microorganism. Relatively little attention has been given to host genetic factors involved in innate or adaptive immunity or expression of pathogen receptors. A remarkable example of susceptibility dependence is the strong Mendelian trait resistance to the most common noroviruses among individuals with a nonsense mutation in chromosome 19. Norovirus is recognized as the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, affecting children andmore » adults alike. Noroviruses are highly contagious and genetically diverse RNA viruses, but not all individuals are susceptible to infection to the same norovirus genotypes. Presence of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) on gut epithelial surfaces is essential for susceptibility to many norovirus genotypes. The synthesis of these HBGAs, specifically of the ABH and Lewis families, requires the use of several fucosyl and glycosyltransferases encoded by the FUT2, FUT3, and ABH genes. Polymorphisms in these genes vary considerably depending on ethnicity, with a homozygous nonsense mutation (individuals called non-secretors) in the FUT2 gene occurring in approximately 5%–50% of different populations worldwide. Secretor status also affects gut microbiota composition, including HBGA-expressing bacteria and bacteria inducing fucosylation in the gut. These could be intermediary factors that govern norovirus susceptibility.« less

  14. Innate antioxidant activity of some traditional formulations

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gunpreet; Gupta, Vikas; Bansal, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Herbal medicine is the oldest form of healthcare known to humanity. Recently, much attention is being directed toward the use of antioxidants. There are some very commonly used Ayurvedic preparations that might have inbuilt antioxidant activity, and their therapeutic potential can be partially attributable to its antioxidant activity. Hence, it was proposed to find out antioxidant activity of such common formulations. Estimation of innate antioxidant activity of some commonly used traditional formulations. In this study, five formulations were evaluated for antioxidant activity in comparison to gallic acid (standard) using the in vitro reducing power method and superoxide radical scavenging activity by dimethyl sulfoxide method followed by calculation of scavenging activity and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The result shows that Ayurvedic drug extracts possess good reducing power and antioxidant activity. Laxmivilas Ras shows higher reducing power ranging from 117 ± 0.021 to 0.176 ± 0.012 as compared to other extracts. The drug extracts were also found to be an efficient scavenger of superoxide radical. The IC50 values for Laxmivilas Ras, Agnitundi Vati, Ajmodadi Churna, Tribhuvankirti Rasa, gallic acid (standard) and Sitopladi Churna, were found to be 50.07, 98.41, 105.13, 116.39, 176.80, and 200.17, respectively. From this study, it can be concluded that the above Ayurvedic formulations possess antioxidant property. However, work could be initiated on the isolation and identification of these antioxidant components. PMID:28217554

  15. Dominance Hierarchies in Leptothorax Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Blaine J.

    1981-04-01

    The social organization of Leptothorax allardycei is unique among ant species thus far studied. The workers form linear dominance hierarchies characterized by routine displays of dominance, avoidance behavior, and even fighting. The high-ranking ants are favored in liquid food exchange, have greater ovarian development, and produce 20 percent of the eggs.

  16. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  17. Brain Dominance & Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhoft, Franklin O.

    Numerous areas associated with brain dominance have been researched since Bogen and Sperry's work with split-brain patients in the 1960s, but only slight attention has been given to the connection between brain dominance and personality. No study appears in the literature seeking to understand optimal mental health as defined by Maslow's…

  18. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  19. Exotic plants as ecosystem dominants

    Treesearch

    Julie S. Denslow; R. Flint Hughes

    2004-01-01

    Dominant species have long been appreciated for their role in determining ecosystem attributes such as vegetation structure, successional patterns, soil characteristics, hydrology, and productivity. Exotic species may reach such high densities that they become community dominants, and it is in this role that exotics pose the greatest threat to native ecosystems. Four...

  20. Brain Dominance & Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhoft, Franklin O.

    Numerous areas associated with brain dominance have been researched since Bogen and Sperry's work with split-brain patients in the 1960s, but only slight attention has been given to the connection between brain dominance and personality. No study appears in the literature seeking to understand optimal mental health as defined by Maslow's…

  1. Eating and rumination activities two weeks prepartum to one month postpartum in 100 healthy cows and cows with peripartum diseases.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Buchli, H; Hässig, M

    2017-10-01

    Eating and rumination activities were investigated in 100 cows from 14 days prepartum to 30 days postpartum. All cows were clinically healthy at the start of the study. A pressure sensor incorporated into the noseband of a halter was used to record jaw movements, which allowed the quantification of the daily duration of eating and rumination, number of regurgitated cuds and number of chewing cycles per cud. The cows were retrospectively divided into 2 main groups healthy (n = 24) and ill cows (n = 76), and the latter were further divided into the following subgroups: cows with periparturient paresis (n = 12), retained placenta (n = 13), metritis (n = 17), primary ketosis (n = 19) and lameness (n = 6). Healthy cows had the shortest eating and rumination times on the day of calving; duration of eating decreased continually before and increased steadily after calving. In contrast, duration of rumination varied little except for a significant drop on the days of calving. Compared with healthy cows, eating times of ill cows were significantly shorter before and after calving and rumination time was reduced on days 2 to 4 postpartum. The duration of eating differed between healthy and ill cows before calving, and therefore the usefulness of eating and rumination variables for early recognition of periparturient diseases in cows requires further investigation.

  2. Post-treatment sequential ultrasound imaging of follicular cyst in a crossbred dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Khan, Muqtaza Manzoor; Prasad, Shiv

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in dairy cattle have investigated the final outcome of different treatment regimens in follicular cyst condition. However, sequential monitoring of the response of follicular cysts to these treatments is rather scanty. In this paper, we present the response of a large follicular cyst in a pluriparous crossbred dairy cow with prolonged conception failure to human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG (3,000 IU; day 0) and cloprostenol (500 μg; day 9) treatment. Using transrectal ultrasonography (USG), reproductive tract was imaged daily beginning day 0 until day 11. The follicular cyst showed a consistent regression to a very small anechoic area on day 7 and was undetectable thereafter. Concurrently, there was development of a new dominant follicle that was first detected on day 4 and showed progressive growth to preovulatory stage. The cow was inseminated and ovulation occurred, as diagnosed by the presence of a corpus luteum (CL) 7 days later, but conception did not occur. The animal was re-inseminated after estrus detection in the estrous cycle that immediately followed. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on 30 and 60 days post-insemination (DPI) and the cow was confirmed to be pregnant. This paper underscores the importance of diagnostic ultrasound in veterinary medicine, especially in the management of reproductive problems.

  3. Methane Production in Dairy Cows Correlates with Rumen Methanogenic and Bacterial Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Dicksved, Johan; Sun, Li; Gonda, Horacio; Müller, Bettina; Schnürer, Anna; Bertilsson, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is produced as an end product from feed fermentation in the rumen. Yield of CH4 varies between individuals despite identical feeding conditions. To get a better understanding of factors behind the individual variation, 73 dairy cows given the same feed but differing in CH4 emissions were investigated with focus on fiber digestion, fermentation end products and bacterial and archaeal composition. In total 21 cows (12 Holstein, 9 Swedish Red) identified as persistent low, medium or high CH4 emitters over a 3 month period were furthermore chosen for analysis of microbial community structure in rumen fluid. This was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene and by quantitative qPCR of targeted Methanobrevibacter groups. The results showed a positive correlation between low CH4 emitters and higher abundance of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level of bacteria showed two distinct clusters (P < 0.01) that were related to CH4 production. One cluster was associated with low CH4 production (referred to as cluster L) whereas the other cluster was associated with high CH4 production (cluster H) and the medium emitters occurred in both clusters. The differences between clusters were primarily linked to differential abundances of certain OTUs belonging to Prevotella. Moreover, several OTUs belonging to the family Succinivibrionaceae were dominant in samples belonging to cluster L. Fermentation pattern of volatile fatty acids showed that proportion of propionate was higher in cluster L, while proportion of butyrate was higher in cluster H. No difference was found in milk production or organic matter digestibility between cows. Cows in cluster L had lower CH4/kg energy corrected milk (ECM) compared to cows in cluster H, 8.3 compared to 9.7 g CH4/kg ECM, showing that low CH4 cows utilized the feed more efficient for milk production which might indicate a more efficient microbial

  4. Diversity, function, and transcriptional regulation of gut innate lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Lucille; Groom, Joanna; Mielke, Lisa A.; Seillet, Cyril; Belz, Gabrielle T.

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system plays a critical early role in host defense against viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells. Until recently, natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells were the primary members of the innate lymphocyte family: NK cells form the front-line interface between the external environment and the adaptive immune system, while LTi cells are essential for secondary lymphoid tissue formation. More recently, it has become apparent that the composition of this family is much more diverse than previously appreciated and newly recognized populations play distinct and essential functions in tissue protection. Despite the importance of these cells, the developmental relationships between different innate lymphocyte populations remain unclear. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the development of different innate immune cell subsets, the transcriptional programs that might be involved in driving fate decisions during development, and their relationship to NK cells. PMID:23508190

  5. Effects of engineered nanoparticles on the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanchang; Hardie, Joseph; Zhang, Xianzhi; Rotello, Vincent M

    2017-10-03

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have broad applications in industry and nanomedicine. When NPs enter the body, interactions with the immune system are unavoidable. The innate immune system, a non-specific first line of defense against potential threats to the host, immediately interacts with introduced NPs and generates complicated immune responses. Depending on their physicochemical properties, NPs can interact with cells and proteins to stimulate or suppress the innate immune response, and similarly activate or avoid the complement system. NPs size, shape, hydrophobicity and surface modification are the main factors that influence the interactions between NPs and the innate immune system. In this review, we will focus on recent reports about the relationship between the physicochemical properties of NPs and their innate immune response, and their applications in immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Manipulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity through Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Duane A.

    2017-01-01

    Although cancer immunotherapy has shown significant promise in mediating efficacious responses, it remains encumbered by tumor heterogeneity, loss of tumor-specific antigen targets, and the regulatory milieu both regionally and systemically. Cross talk between the innate and adaptive immune response may be requisite to polarize sustained antigen specific immunity. Cancer vaccines can serve as an essential fulcrum in initiating innate immunity while molding and sustaining adaptive immunity. Although peptide vaccines have shown tepid responses in a therapeutic setting with poor correlates for immune activity, RNA vaccines activate innate immune responses and have shown promising effects in preclinical and clinical studies based on enhanced DC migration. While the mechanistic insights behind the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity may be unique to the immunotherapeutic being investigated, understanding this dynamic is important to coordinate the different arms of the immune response in a focused response against cancer antigens. PMID:28265580

  7. Innate microbial sensors and their relevance to allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Andrew H

    2008-11-01

    The innate immune system oversees the gateway to immunity with its microbial sensors. Innate microbial sensors are germ line-encoded receptors with genetically predetermined specificities for microbes. The readiness and effectiveness of the innate immune system to provide immediate and appropriate responses at the host-environment interface is dependent on its sensitive and comprehensive microbial detection systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of innate microbial sensors, our growing understanding of their diverse repertoire, and their elegant structural and functional approaches to microbial recognition. Their relevance to allergic disease is also discussed: the potential recognition and uptake of allergens by some of these receptors, inhibited expression of other microbial sensors by allergic immune responses and inflammation, and their upregulation by microbial exposures in early life that may help to protect against the development of allergic immune responses and disease.

  8. Mast cells in allergy: innate instructors of adaptive responses.

    PubMed

    Stelekati, Erietta; Orinska, Zane; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The function of mast cells as effector cells in allergy has been extensively studied. However, increasing insight into mast cell physiology has revealed new mast cell functions and has introduced mast cells as key players in the regulation of innate as well as adaptive immunity. For example, mast cells have recently been found to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which enable them to participate in the innate immune response against pathogens. Furthermore, mast cells have been reported to interact with B cells, dendritic cells and T cells and thereby modulate the direction of an adaptive immune response. Finally, recent documentation that mast cells express functional MHC class II and costimulatory molecules and release immunologically active exosomes, has raised the possibility that mast cells also engage in (as yet) poorly understood antigen presentation functions. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that mast cells serve as central mediators between innate and adaptive immunity, rather as pure effector cells, during allergic innate responses.

  9. [Bacterial proteases and bacterial resistance against human innate immunity factors].

    PubMed

    Tiurin, Iu A; Mustafin, I G; Fassakhov, R S

    2011-01-01

    The molecular and cell-mediated mechanisms that are developed by certain opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and were obtained over the course of evolution to preserve resistance against principal components of human body innate immunity are summarized.

  10. Control of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Akiko; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-04-01

    Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system both to elicit immediate defense and to generate long-lasting adaptive immunity. To detect and respond to vastly different groups of pathogens, the innate immune system uses several recognition systems that rely on sensing common structural and functional features associated with different classes of microorganisms. These recognition systems determine microbial location, viability, replication and pathogenicity. Detection of these features by recognition pathways of the innate immune system is translated into different classes of effector responses though specialized populations of dendritic cells. Multiple mechanisms for the induction of immune responses are variations on a common design principle wherein the cells that sense infections produce one set of cytokines to induce lymphocytes to produce another set of cytokines, which in turn activate effector responses. Here we discuss these emerging principles of innate control of adaptive immunity.

  11. Innate receptors and microbes in induction of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Chervonsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Cells of the adaptive immune system (T and B cells) causing autoimmunity require activation signals that are normally provided by the innate immune system. Innate signaling receptors are obvious candidates for participation in the induction of autoimmunity, and the nature of these receptors suggests that microbes could be the triggers. Recent publications describing the development of autoimmunity in sterile conditions and in animals deficient in innate signaling question the requirement of these receptors for initiation of autoimmunity. In addition, the role of the non-pathogenic (commnesal) microbiota as a regulator of autoimmunity has come into the spotlight. In this review we discuss recent reports that deal with the link between innate signaling receptors and ‘adaptive’ autoimmunity. PMID:19747810

  12. The Innate Immune-Related Genes in Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; He, Chongbo; Liu, Xueguang; Su, Hao; Gao, Xianggang; Li, Yunfeng; Liu, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa). In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, complements, lectins, cytokines, transferrin and gene expression profiling using microarrays and next generation sequencing technologies. This review will benefit the understanding of innate immune system in catfish and further efforts in studying the innate immune-related genes in fish. PMID:23203058

  13. Influenza A Virus Infection, Innate Immunity, and Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Bria M.; Staricha, Kelly L.; Wiese, Kristin M.; Ridge, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with influenza A virus is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. While it is apparent that adequate activation of the innate immune system is essential for pathogen clearance and host survival, an excessive inflammatory response to infection is detrimental to the young host. A review of the literature indicates that innate immune responses change throughout childhood. Whether these changes are genetically programmed or triggered by environmental cues is unknown. The objectives of this review are to summarize the role of innate immunity in influenza A virus infection in the young child and to highlight possible differences between children and adults that may make children more susceptible to severe influenza A infection. A better understanding of age-related differences in innate immune signaling will be essential to improve care for this high-risk population. PMID:26237589

  14. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation.

  15. Control of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Akiko; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system both to elicit immediate defense and to generate long-lasting adaptive immunity. To detect and respond to vastly different groups of pathogens, the innate immune system uses several recognition systems that rely on sensing common structural and functional features associated with different classes of microorganisms. These recognition systems determine microbial location, viability, replication and pathogenicity. Detection of these features by recognition pathways of the innate immune system is translated into different classes of effector responses though specialized populations of dendritic cells. Multiple mechanisms for the induction of immune responses are variations on a common design principle wherein the cells that sense infections produce one set of cytokines to induce lymphocytes to produce another set of cytokines, which in turn activate effector responses. Here we discuss these emerging principles of innate control of adaptive immunity. PMID:25789684

  16. Innate immunity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Pickup, John C

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence has disclosed previously unrecognized links among insulin resistance, obesity, circulating immune markers, immunogenetic susceptibility, macrophage function and chronic infection. Genetic variations leading to altered production or function of circulating innate immune proteins, cellular pattern-recognition receptors and inflammatory cytokines have been linked with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis. Cellular innate immune associations with obesity and insulin resistance include increased white blood cell count and adipose tissue macrophage numbers. The innate immune response is modulated possibly by both predisposition (genetic or fetal programming), perhaps owing to evolutionary pressures caused by acute infections at the population level (pandemics), and chronic low exposure to environmental products or infectious agents. The common characteristics shared among innate immunity activation, obesity and insulin resistance are summarized.

  17. Elevated plasma haptoglobin concentrations following parturition are associated with elevated leukocyte responses and decreased subsequent reproductive efficiency in multiparous Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Cameron R; Sellers, Matthew D; Ballou, Michael A

    2015-03-15

    The objectives were to describe the relationship between the intensity of the acute phase response and the metabolic status and leukocyte responses of early postpartum, multiparous cows and determine if subsequent reproductive performance was impaired in cows with a greater acute phase response. Peripheral blood was collected from 240 Holstein cows, 2-8 days in milk and 2nd-8th parity from 8 dairies in Western TX and Eastern NM across 5 days (n=6 cows/dairy/day). Plasma concentrations of haptoglobin were measured and cows were classified as Low (1st quartile), Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), or High (4th quartile) responders. Metabolic measurements included: plasma glucose, urea nitrogen, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Leukocyte response measurements included: total leukocyte counts and differentials, neutrophil surface expression of L-selectin, neutrophil oxidative burst capacity when co-cultured with an environmental Escherichia coli, as well as the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ when diluted whole blood were co-cultured with lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P, respectively. All data are reported as Low, Moderate, and High haptoglobin responders. Plasma haptoglobin concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to 8.4 μg/mL, 8.5 to 458 μg/mL, and 459 to 1757 μg/mL. The High cows had more severe neutropenia (3.45, 3.31, and 2.23 ± 0.31 × 10(6)cells/mL; P=0.013) Additionally, the innate leukocyte responses of the High cows were stimulated as evident by increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (568, 565, and 730 ± 73.4 pg/mL; P=0.003), surface expression of L-selectin on neutrophils (70.8, 71.9, and 119.8 ± 7.9 geometric mean fluorescence intensity; P=0.001), and greater neutrophil oxidative burst capacity (37.9, 40.4, and 47.9 ± 0.31 geometric mean fluorescence intensity; P=0.002). In contrast, the secretion of the T-lymphocyte derived cytokine, interferon-γ, was

  18. [Radiotelemetric studies of uterine motility in cows with acute endometritis].

    PubMed

    Kostov, I

    1980-01-01

    Thirty two cows with postpartum complication were radiotelemetrically studied to register uterine motility. The results were compared with those of the control group of 42 cows with normal calving and no complications. Enhanced uterine reactivity to oxytocin and other agents was established in all cows with complications in the postpartum period. It is manifested in the spring also by intensified motor activity of the uterus. Motor activity of the uterus is hardly registered during to summer months in cows with normal peurperium and complications following day 2 of calving. No essential difference was found in estradiol-17 beta content in the blood plasma of both groups of cows. Body temperature rises in cows with postpartum complications.

  19. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  20. Fatal winter dysentery with severe anemia in an adult cow.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Sumiko; Goto, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Ueo, Hiroshi; Komori, Toshihiro; Shirakawa, Hitomi; Uchinuno, Yukinori

    2007-09-01

    An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in necrotic crypt epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virus particles were found in the necrotic epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virologically, BCV was isolated from the feces of the dead cow. The dead cow had no serum antibody against BCV although the co-habitants did. These suggest that severe infection of BCV in the cow without the BCV antibody accompanied by severe hemorrhagic anemia resulted in the cow's death.

  1. Effects of prepartum stocking density on innate and adaptive leukocyte responses and serum and hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Silva, P R B; Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Cerri, R L A; Haines, D M; Ballou, M A; Endres, M I; Chebel, R C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of prepartum stocking density on innate and adaptive leukocyte responses, serum cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations and hair cortisol concentration of Jersey cows. The cows (254 ± 3d of gestation) were balanced for parity (nulliparous vs. parous) and previous lactation projected 305-d mature equivalent milk yield and assigned to one of two treatments: 80SD=80% stocking density (38 animals/48 headlocks) and 100SD=100% stocking density (48 animals/48 headlocks). Pens (n=4) were identical in size and design and each pen received each treatment a total of 2 times (4 replicates; 80SD: n=338; 100SD: n=418). A sub-group of cows (n=48/treatment per parity) was randomly selected on week 1 of each replicate from which blood was sampled weekly from d -14 to 14 (d 0=calving) to determine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and expression of CD18 and L-selectin, and hemogram. The same sub-group of cows was treated with chicken egg ovalbumin on d -21, -7, and 7 and had blood sampled weekly from d -21 to 21 for determination of serum IgG anti-ovalbumin concentration. Blood was sampled weekly from d -21 to 21 to determine glucose, cortisol, and haptoglobin concentrations in serum. Hair samples collected at enrollment and within 24h of calving were analyzed for cortisol concentration. The percentage of leukocytes classified as granulocyte and the granulocyte to the lymphocyte ratio were not affected by treatment. Treatment did not affect the percentage of PMNL positive for phagocytosis and oxidative burst or the intensity of phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Similarly, treatment did not affect the percentage of PMNL expressing CD18 and L-selectin or the intensity of expression of CD18 and L-selectin. Concentration of IgG anti-ovalbumin was not affected by treatment. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol were not affected by treatment. Similarly, hair cortisol concentration at calving was not

  2. Pentraxins as a key component of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia; Salvatori, Giovanni; Jeannin, Pascale; Manfredi, Angelo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    Pentraxins are a complex superfamily of multifunctional molecules characterized by a multimeric structure. C-reactive protein and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) are prototypic molecules of the short and long pentraxin family, respectively. PTX3 is conserved in evolution and produced by innate immune cells. Evidence suggests that PTX3 acts as a non-redundant component of the humoral arm of innate immunity, downstream of, and complementary to, cellular recognition, as well as a tuner of inflammation.

  3. Interplay between Candida albicans and the Mammalian Innate Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is both the most common fungal commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and the major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in at-risk populations, especially immunocompromised patients. In this review, we summarize the interplay between the host innate system and C. albicans, ranging from how the host recognizes, responds, and clears C. albicans infection to how C. albicans evades, dampens, and escapes from host innate immunity. PMID:22252867

  4. Innate immunity's path to the Nobel Prize 2011 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hermann

    2012-05-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine to Ralph Steinmann, Jules Hoffmann, and Bruce Beutler recognized a paradigm shift in our understanding of innate immunity, and its impact on adaptive immunity. The Prize highlighted the initial discoveries of Toll's role in immunity in flies, Toll-like receptors in mammals, and the establishment of dendritic cells as the initiators of adaptive immunity. This historical Commentary focuses on the developments in our understanding of innate immunity.

  5. Fungal Surface and Innate Immune Recognition of Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Carneiro, Leticia A. M.; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system performs specific detection of molecules from infectious agents through pattern recognition receptors. This recognition triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. Infections caused by filamentous fungi have increased in incidence and represent an important cause of mortality and morbidity especially in individuals with immunosuppression. This review will discuss the innate immune recognition of filamentous fungi molecules and its importance to infection control and disease. PMID:22194732

  6. Innate immunity in the Aegean: ancient pathways for today's survival.

    PubMed

    Vasta, G R; Lambris, J D

    2002-04-01

    A workshop on innate immunity that took place this past autumn in Fira, Santorini, as part of the Aegean Conferences, provided tantalizing evidence about the early origin and evolutionary conservation of humoral and cellular components of innate immunity from sponges, flies and sea squirts to man, uncovered mechanistic aspects of its fundamental role in defense against disease, as well as the serious consequences of misdirected responses, and revealed the untapped potential of novel therapeutic approaches.

  7. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (<200 d) and SCC (<100,000 cells/mL). Farms were followed for 4, 5-week periods. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC <100,000 cells/mL but whose next SCC exceeded 200,000 cells/mL. Lying behavior was recorded 5d after each milk sampling using data loggers. For these 5d, individual milking times and feeding times were also recorded. On d1 of each recording period 2 trained observers scored focal cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate

  8. Cow Castle Creek, Orangeburg County, South Carolina. Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    woodlands, and drainage features. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Cow Castle Creek Basin is located within the larger Edisto River Basin in Orangeburg...about 47 inches of precipitation per year. Water Quality. Cow Castle Creek lies within the Edisto River drainage basin . The Edisto Basin is located... Edisto River . Several small tributaries enter Cow Castle Creek, adding to its flow during storms and hurricanes. Siltation and extensive litter and log

  9. Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-06

    foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease) in...1 For additional details and background see CRS Report RS22345, BSE (“Mad Cow Disease:): A Brief Overview, and CRS Report RL32199, Bovine Spongiform ...rejection of three shipments of U.S. beef because of the presence of bone fragments. CRS-4 8 See also CRS Report RL32932, Bovine Spongiform

  10. Late gestation supplementation of beef cows differing in body condition score: effects on cow and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, D W; Stalker, L A; Mills, R R; Nyman, A; Falck, S J; Cooke, R F

    2013-11-01

    A 2-yr study utilizing 120 mature, crossbred (Angus × Herford) cows/year, evaluated the influence of cow BCS and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplementation during late gestation on cow performance and productivity of subsequent offspring. Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 2 BCS and with or without DDGS supplementation. Cows were nutritionally managed to enter the last trimester of gestation with a BCS of approximately 4 (LBCS) or 6 (HBCS) and were thereafter managed in a single herd (initial BCS were 4.4 and 5.7 for LBCS and HBCS treatments, respectively). During the last trimester, 12.7 kg/cow of low quality meadow hay (6.4% CP; DM basis) was provided each day. Supplemented cows were gathered and sorted into pens (12 pens; 5 cows/pen; 6 pens/BCS) every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and received the equivalent of 0.9 kg/cow daily of DDGS (31% CP; DM basis; supplement was consumed within 30 min on each supplementation day). Calf birth weight was greater for HBCS compared to LBCS (P=0.001) and for supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.04). Cow weight at weaning was greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P<0.001); however, no differences were noted because of supplementation (P=0.16). Weaning weight was greater for the offspring of supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.02). There were no differences in postweaning calf performance (growing lot and feedlot) or carcass characteristics (P>0.05) due to treatments. Nevertheless, HBCS cows had approximately 10% more live calves at birth and at weaning (P≤0.01) compared to LBCS cows. Consequently, the total weaned calf weight per cow was 26 kg greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P=0.004). Pregnancy rate was greater (P=0.05) for HBCS than LBCS cows (92% vs. 79%, respectively) but not affected by supplementation (P=0.94). This research demonstrates the potential consequences of not maintaining cows in adequate BCS at calving

  11. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ≥12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation

  12. Estrogen receptors regulate innate immune cells and signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kovats, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Humans show strong sex differences in immunity to infection and autoimmunity, suggesting sex hormones modulate immune responses. Indeed, receptors for estrogens (ERs) regulate cells and pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, as well as immune cell development. ERs are ligand-dependent transcription factors that mediate long-range chromatin interactions and form complexes at gene regulatory elements, thus promoting epigenetic changes and transcription. ERs also participate in membrane-initiated steroid signaling to generate rapid responses. Estradiol and ER activity show profound dose- and context-dependent effects on innate immune signaling pathways and myeloid cell development. While estradiol most often promotes the production of type I interferon, innate pathways leading to pro-inflammatory cytokine production may be enhanced or dampened by ER activity. Regulation of innate immune cells and signaling by ERs may contribute to the reported sex differences in innate immune pathways. Here we review the recent literature and highlight several molecular mechanisms by which ERs regulate the development or functional responses of innate immune cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Innate immune targets of hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Li; Wang, Kai; Yu, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) globally despite the widespread immunization of HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies. The immunopathogenesis of HBV infection is initiated and driven by complexed interactions between the host immune system and the virus. Host immune responses to viral particles and proteins are regarded as the main determinants of viral clearance or persistent infection and hepatocyte injury. Innate immune system is the first defending line of host preventing from virus invasion. It is acknowledged that HBV has developed active tactics to escape innate immune recognition or actively interfere with innate immune signaling pathways and induce immunosuppression, which favor their replication. HBV reduces the expression of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune cells in humans. Also, HBV may interrupt different parts of antiviral signaling pathways, leading to the reduced production of antiviral cytokines such as interferons that contribute to HBV immunopathogenesis. A full comprehension of the mechanisms as to how HBV inactivates various elements of the innate immune response to initiate and maintain a persistent infection can be helpful in designing new immunotherapeutic methods for preventing and eradicating the virus. In this review, we aimed to summarize different branches the innate immune targeted by HBV infection. The review paper provides evidence that multiple components of immune responses should be activated in combination with antiviral therapy to disrupt the tolerance to HBV for eliminating HBV infection. PMID:27330680

  14. Stress hyperglycemia, insulin treatment, and innate immune cells.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fangming; Stanojcic, Mile; Diao, Li; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia (HG) and insulin resistance are the hallmarks of a profoundly altered metabolism in critical illness resulting from the release of cortisol, catecholamines, and cytokines, as well as glucagon and growth hormone. Recent studies have proposed a fundamental role of the immune system towards the development of insulin resistance in traumatic patients. A comprehensive review of published literatures on the effects of hyperglycemia and insulin on innate immunity in critical illness was conducted. This review explored the interaction between the innate immune system and trauma-induced hypermetabolism, while providing greater insight into unraveling the relationship between innate immune cells and hyperglycemia. Critical illness substantially disturbs glucose metabolism resulting in a state of hyperglycemia. Alterations in glucose and insulin regulation affect the immune function of cellular components comprising the innate immunity system. Innate immune system dysfunction via hyperglycemia is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality in critical illness. Along with others, we hypothesize that reduction in morbidity and mortality observed in patients receiving insulin treatment is partially due to its effect on the attenuation of the immune response. However, there still remains substantial controversy regarding moderate versus intensive insulin treatment. Future studies need to determine the integrated effects of HG and insulin on the regulation of innate immunity in order to provide more effective insulin treatment regimen for these patients.

  15. Habitat odor can alleviate innate stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mutsumi; Imada, Masato; Aizawa, Shin; Sato, Takaaki

    2016-01-15

    Predatory odors, which can induce innate fear and stress responses in prey species, are frequently used in the development of animal models for several psychiatric diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a life-threatening event. We have previously shown that odors can be divided into at least three types; odors that act as (1) innate stressors, (2) as innate relaxants, or (3) have no innate effects on stress responses. Here, we attempted to verify whether an artificial odor, which had no innate effect on predatory odor-induced stress, could alleviate stress if experienced in early life as a habitat odor. In the current study, we demonstrated that the innate responses were changed to counteract stress following a postnatal experience. Moreover, we suggest that inhibitory circuits involved in stress-related neuronal networks and the concentrations of norepinephrine in the hippocampus may be crucial in alleviating stress induced by the predatory odor. Overall, these findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms involved in differential odor responses and also for the development of pharmacotherapeutic interventions that can alleviate stress in illnesses like PTSD.

  16. Innate immune reconstitution with suppression of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Eileen P.; Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo; Palmer, Christine D.; Musante, Chelsey; Rosenberg, Eric; Allen, Todd M.; Bosch, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Progressive HIV-1 infection leads to both profound immune suppression and pathologic inflammation in the majority of infected individuals. While adaptive immune dysfunction, as evidenced by CD4+ T cell depletion and exhaustion, has been extensively studied, less is known about the functional capacity of innate immune cell populations in the context of HIV-1 infection. Given the broad susceptibility to opportunistic infections and the dysregulated inflammation observed in progressive disease, we hypothesized that there would be significant changes in the innate cellular responses. Using a cohort of patients with multiple samplings before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, we demonstrated increased responses to innate immune stimuli following viral suppression, as measured by the production of inflammatory cytokines. Plasma viral load itself had the strongest association with this change in innate functional capacity. We further identified epigenetic modifications in the TNFA promoter locus in monocytes that are associated with viremia, suggesting a molecular mechanism for the observed changes in innate immune function following initiation of ART. These data indicate that suppression of HIV-1 viremia is associated with changes in innate cellular function that may in part determine the restoration of protective immune responses. PMID:27158667

  17. Hepatocytes: a key cell type for innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Gao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes, the major parenchymal cells in the liver, play pivotal roles in metabolism, detoxification, and protein synthesis. Hepatocytes also activate innate immunity against invading microorganisms by secreting innate immunity proteins. These proteins include bactericidal proteins that directly kill bacteria, opsonins that assist in the phagocytosis of foreign bacteria, iron-sequestering proteins that block iron uptake by bacteria, several soluble factors that regulate lipopolysaccharide signaling, and the coagulation factor fibrinogen that activates innate immunity. In this review, we summarize the wide variety of innate immunity proteins produced by hepatocytes and discuss liver-enriched transcription factors (e.g. hepatocyte nuclear factors and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins), pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. interleukin (IL)-6, IL-22, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α), and downstream signaling pathways (e.g. signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 and nuclear factor-κB) that regulate the expression of these innate immunity proteins. We also briefly discuss the dysregulation of these innate immunity proteins in chronic liver disease, which may contribute to an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26685902

  18. Innate immune targets of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Li; Wang, Kai; Yu, Ji-Guang

    2016-06-18

    Approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) globally despite the widespread immunization of HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies. The immunopathogenesis of HBV infection is initiated and driven by complexed interactions between the host immune system and the virus. Host immune responses to viral particles and proteins are regarded as the main determinants of viral clearance or persistent infection and hepatocyte injury. Innate immune system is the first defending line of host preventing from virus invasion. It is acknowledged that HBV has developed active tactics to escape innate immune recognition or actively interfere with innate immune signaling pathways and induce immunosuppression, which favor their replication. HBV reduces the expression of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune cells in humans. Also, HBV may interrupt different parts of antiviral signaling pathways, leading to the reduced production of antiviral cytokines such as interferons that contribute to HBV immunopathogenesis. A full comprehension of the mechanisms as to how HBV inactivates various elements of the innate immune response to initiate and maintain a persistent infection can be helpful in designing new immunotherapeutic methods for preventing and eradicating the virus. In this review, we aimed to summarize different branches the innate immune targeted by HBV infection. The review paper provides evidence that multiple components of immune responses should be activated in combination with antiviral therapy to disrupt the tolerance to HBV for eliminating HBV infection.

  19. Follicular growth-stimulated cows provide favorable oocytes for producing cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Ohtake, Masaki; Kaneda, Masahiro; Yamanouchi, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Hideo; Aikawa, Yoshio; Watanabe, Shinya; Nagai, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2012-02-01

    We examined the influence of recipient oocytes on in vitro development, oxygen consumption, and gene expression in the resulting cloned bovine embryos. Oocytes derived from slaughterhouse ovaries and ovum pickup (OPU)-derived oocytes were used as recipient cytoplasts for the production of cloned embryos. A series of OPU sessions was conducted on Holstein cows without follicular growth treatment (FGT). In the same cows, we then performed dominant follicle ablation and subsequently administered follicle-stimulating hormone and prostaglandin F(2α) with controlled internal drug release device before a second series of OPU. Cumulus cells collected from single Holstein cows were used as donor cells. After measurement of oxygen consumption at the blastocyst stage with modified scanning electrochemical microscopy, analysis of 10 genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, ATP5A1, GLUT1, AKR1B1, and IGF2R) was performed with real-time RT-PCR. Rates of fusion, cleavage, and blastocyst formation were not different among the treatment groups. Levels of oxygen consumption in cloned blastocysts derived from slaughterhouse ovaries or OPU without FGT were significantly lower than in blastocysts derived from artificial insemination (AI). However, oxygen consumption was increased in cloned blastocysts derived from OPU with FGT, depending on the individual oocyte donor. Furthermore, gene expression of IFN-tau and OCT4 in cloned blastocysts derived from OPU with FGT was similar to that in AI-derived blastocysts, whereas expression of those genes in cloned blastocysts derived from slaughterhouse ovaries or OPU without FGT was significantly different from that in AI-derived blastocysts. Thus, recipient oocytes collected by OPU in combination with manipulation of follicular growth in donor cows are suitable for producing cloned embryos.

  20. Electrostatic Radionuclide Separation: A New Version of Rutherford's "Thorium Cow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiswirth, Marcus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes three experiments (also useful as demonstrations) using a "thorium cow," a device which concentrates the daughter products from thorium compounds by precipitation on a charged electrode. (JN)