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Sample records for cp-odd four-quark contributions

  1. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-10-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.

  2. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  3. CP-odd invariants for multi-Higgs models and applications with discrete symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo

    2017-07-01

    CP-odd invariants are useful for studying the CP properties of Lagrangians in any basis. We explain how to build basis invariants for the scalar sector, and how to distinguish CP-odd invariants from CP-even invariants. Up to a certain order, we use these methods to systematically build all the CP-odd invariants. The CP-odd invariants signal either explicit or spontaneous violation of CP. Making use of the CP-odd invariants, we determine the CP properties of potentials with 3 and with 6 Higgs fields arranged as triplets of specific discrete symmetries in the Δ(3n 2) or Δ(6n 2) series (inlcuding A 4, S 4, Δ(27) and Δ(54) as well as the cases for n > 3).

  4. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, A.; Fukushima, K.; Kharzeev, D.; Warringa, H.; Voloshin, S.

    2010-04-26

    This volume contains the proceedings of the RBRC/CATHIE workshop on 'P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter' held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on April 26-30, 2010. The workshop was triggered by the experimental observation of charge correlations in heavy ion collisions at RHIC, which were predicted to occur due to local parity violation (P- and CP-odd fluctuations) in hot and dense QCD matter. This experimental result excited a significant interest in the broad physics community, inspired a few alternative interpretations, and emphasized the need for a deeper understanding of the role of topology in QCD vacuum and in hot and dense quark-gluon matter. Topological effects in QCD are also closely related to a number of intriguing problems in condensed matter physics, cosmology and astrophysics. We therefore felt that a broad cross-disciplinary discussion of topological P- and CP-odd effects in various kinds of matter was urgently needed. Such a discussion became the subject of the workshop. Specific topics discussed at the workshop include the following: (1) The current experimental results on charge asymmetries at RHIC and the physical interpretations of the data; (2) Quantitative characterization of topological effects in QCD matter including both analytical (perturbative and non-perturbative using gauge/gravity duality) and numerical (lattice-QCD) calculations; (3) Topological effects in cosmology of the Early Universe (including baryogenesis and dark energy); (4) Topological effects in condensed matter physics (including graphene and superfiuids); and (5) Directions for the future experimental studies of P- and CP-odd effects at RHIC and elsewhere. We feel that the talks and intense discussions during the workshop were extremely useful, and resulted in new ideas in both theory and experiment. We hope that the workshop has contributed to the progress in understanding the role of topology in QCD and related fields. We thank all the speakers and

  5. Light Four-Quark States and New Observations by BES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Huang, T.; Steele, T.

    Four-quark states are discussed within the constituent quark model.Incompleteness of existed studies of four-quark state with QCD sum rule is analyzed. The masses of diquark cluster were determined by QCD sum rules, and light four-quark states masses were obtained in terms of the diquark. The four-quark state possibility of the newly observed near-threshold pbar p enhancement, X(1835), X(1812) and X(1576) by BES is discussed.

  6. Diquark and light four-quark states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ailin; Huang Tao; Steele, Tom G.

    2007-08-01

    Four-quark states with different internal clusters are discussed within the constituent quark model. It is pointed out that the diquark concept is not meaningful in the construction of a tetraquark interpolating current in the QCD sum-rule approach, and hence existing sum-rule studies of four-quark states are incomplete. An updated QCD sum-rule determination of the properties of diquark clusters is then used as input for the constituent quark model to obtain the masses of light 0{sup ++} tetraquark states (i.e. a bound state of two diquark clusters). The results support the identification of {sigma}(600), f{sub 0}(980), and a{sub 0}(980) as the 0{sup ++} light tetraquark states, and seem to be inconsistent with the tetraquark state interpretation of the new BES observations of the near-threshold pp enhancements, X(1835) and X(1812), with the possible exception that X(1576) may be an exotic first orbital excitation of f{sub 0}(980) or a{sub 0}(980)

  7. Diquark and light four-quark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ailin; Huang, Tao; Steele, Tom G.

    2007-08-01

    Four-quark states with different internal clusters are discussed within the constituent quark model. It is pointed out that the diquark concept is not meaningful in the construction of a tetraquark interpolating current in the QCD sum-rule approach, and hence existing sum-rule studies of four-quark states are incomplete. An updated QCD sum-rule determination of the properties of diquark clusters is then used as input for the constituent quark model to obtain the masses of light 0++ tetraquark states (i.e. a bound state of two diquark clusters). The results support the identification of σ(600), f0(980), and a0(980) as the 0++ light tetraquark states, and seem to be inconsistent with the tetraquark state interpretation of the new BES observations of the near-threshold pp¯ enhancements, X(1835) and X(1812), with the possible exception that X(1576) may be an exotic first orbital excitation of f0(980) or a0(980).

  8. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D(*+)D(*-).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Forti, A C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-09-26

    We present a measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and an updated determination of the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D(*+)D(*-) using a data sample of 88x10(6)BB pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.063+/-0.055(stat)+/-0.009(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters Im(lambda(+)) and /lambda(+)/ are determined to be 0.05+/-0.29(stat)+/-0.10(syst) and 0.75+/-0.19(stat)+/-0.02(syst), respectively. The standard model predicts these parameters to be -sin(2beta and 1, respectively, in the absence of penguin diagram contributions.

  9. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D*+D*-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Macfarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Vazquez, W P; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2005-10-07

    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D*+D*- using 232x10(6)BB pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B factory. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.125+/-0.044(stat)+/-0.007(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters C+ and S+ are determined to be 0.06+/-0.17(stat)+/-0.03(syst) and -0.75+/-0.25(stat)+/-0.03(syst), respectively. The standard model predicts these parameters to be 0 and -sin2beta, respectively, in the absence of penguin amplitude contributions.

  10. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries and the CP-Odd Fraction in the Decay B0→D*+D*-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Ford, K.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Goetzen, K.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Barillari, T.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, P. J.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Tinslay, J.; Andreotti, M.; Azzolini, V.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Morii, M.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Gaillard, J. R.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Taylor, G. P.; Grenier, G. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Brigljević, V.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Hart, P. A.; Forti, A. C.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Hast, C.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; Cartaro, C.; Cavallo, N.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Losecco, J. M.; Gabriel, T. A.; Brau, B.; Pulliam, T.; Wong, Q. K.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Potter, C. T.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Colecchia, F.; Dorigo, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Pivk, M.; Roos, L.; Stark, J.; T'jampens, S.; Therin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Walsh, J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Paick, K.; Wagoner, D. E.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J.; Tanaka, H. A.; Varnes, E. W.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Voena, C.; Christ, S.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; de Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Schott, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yeche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Purohit, M. V.; Weidemann, A. W.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Berger, N.; Boyarski, A. M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Dong, D.; Dorfan, J.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Grauges-Pous, E.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Hryn'ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Jessop, C. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Marsiske, H.; Menke, S.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Robertson, S. H.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Simi, G.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, S. R.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wright, D. H.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Meyer, T. I.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Saleem, M.; Wappler, F. R.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Kim, H.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Panvini, R. S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kowalewski, R.; Roney, J. M.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; di Lodovico, F.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Sekula, S. J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.

    2003-09-01

    We present a measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and an updated determination of the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0→D*+D*- using a data sample of 88×106BB¯ pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.063±0.055(stat)±0.009(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters Im(λ+) and |λ+| are determined to be 0.05±0.29(stat)±0.10(syst) and 0.75±0.19(stat)±0.02(syst), respectively. The standard model predicts these parameters to be -sin(2β and 1, respectively, in the absence of penguin diagram contributions.

  11. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries and the CP-Odd Fraction in the Decay B0->D*+D*-

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-06

    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B{sup 0} D*{sup +}D*{sup -} using 232 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.125 {+-} 0.044(stat) {+-} 0.007(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters C{sub +} and S{sub +} are determined to be 0.06 {+-} 0.17(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst) and -0.75 {+-} 0.25(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst), respectively. The Standard Model predicts these parameters to be 0 and -sin2{beta}, respectively, in the absence of penguin amplitude contributions.

  12. Search for very light CP-odd Higgs Boson in radiative decays of Upsilon(1S).

    PubMed

    Love, W; Savinov, V; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M

    2008-10-10

    We search for a non-SM-like CP-odd Higgs boson (a(1)(0)) decaying to tau(+)tau(-) or mu(+)mu(-) in radiative decays of the Upsilon(1S). No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Our tau(+)tau(-) results are almost 2 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous upper limits. Our data provide no evidence for a Higgs state with a mass of 214 MeV decaying to mu(+)mu(-), previously proposed as an explanation for 3 Sigma(+)-->pmu(+)mu(-) events observed by the HyperCP experiment. Our results constrain NMSSM models.

  13. Susceptibility of the QCD vacuum to CP-odd electromagnetic background fields.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Massimo; Mariti, Marco; Negro, Francesco

    2013-02-22

    We investigate two flavor quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the presence of CP-odd electromagnetic background fields and determine, by means of lattice QCD simulations, the induced effective θ term to first order in E[over →] · B[over →]. We employ a rooted staggered discretization and study lattice spacings down to 0.1 fm and Goldstone pion masses around 480 MeV. In order to deal with a positive measure, we consider purely imaginary electric fields and real magnetic fields, and then exploit the analytic continuation. Our results are relevant to a description of the effective pseudoscalar quantum electrodynamics-QCD interactions.

  14. Decays of a NMSSM CP-odd Higgs in the low-mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Florian

    2017-03-01

    A popular regime in the NMSSM parameter space involves a light CP-odd Higgs A 1. This scenario has consequences for e.g. light singlino Dark Matter annihilating in the A 1-funnel. In order to confront the pseudoscalar to experimental limits such as flavour observables, Upsilon decays or Beam-Dump experiments, it is necessary to control the interactions of this particle with hadronic matter and derive the corresponding decays. The partonic description cannot be relied upon for masses close to {m_A}{_1} ˜ 1GeV and we employ a chiral lagrangian, then extended to a spectator model for somewhat larger masses, to describe the interplay of the CP-odd Higgs with hadrons. Interestingly, a mixing can develop between A 1 and neutral pseudoscalar mesons, leading to substantial hadronic decays and a coupling of A 1 to the chiral anomaly. Additionally, quartic A 1-meson couplings induce tri-meson decays of the Higgs pseudoscalar. We investigate these effects and propose an estimate of the Higgs widths for masses below {m_A}{_1} ≲ 3 GeV. While we focus on the case of the NMSSM, our results are applicable to a large class of models.

  15. Constraints on a very light CP-odd Higgs of the NMSSM and other axion-like particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Sarah; Lebedev, Oleg; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl; Ringwald, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    In the NMSSM, a light CP-odd Higgs arises due to spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries such as Peccei-Quinn or R-symmetry and is motivated by string theory. The case when it is heavier than two muons is well studied and constrained. We analyze various meson decay, g - 2, beam dump and reactor bounds on the CP-odd Higgs with mass below the muon threshold, in particular, addressing the question how light a CP-odd Higgs can be. We find that it has to be heavier than 210 MeV or have couplings to fermions 4 orders of magnitude below those of the Standard Model Higgs. Our analysis applies more generally to couplings of a light pseudoscalar to matter.

  16. CP-odd component of the lightest neutral Higgs boson in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bing; Wagner, Carlos E.M.

    2015-05-26

    The Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) may be described with a two Higgs doublet model with properties that depend on the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters. For instance, flavor independent CP-violating phases associated with the gaugino masses, the squark trilinear mass parameters and the Higgsino mass parameter mu may lead to sizable CP-violation in the Higgs sector. For these CP-violating effects to affect the properties of the recently observed SM-like Higgs resonance, the nonstandard charged and neutral Higgs boson masses must be of the order of the weak scale, and both mu as well as the trilinear stop mass parameter A(t) must be of the order or larger than the stop mass parameters. Constraints on this possibility come from direct searches for nonstandard Higgs bosons, precision measurements on the lightest neutral Higgs properties, including its mass, and electric dipole moments. In this article, we discuss these constraints within the MSSM, trying to evaluate the possible size of the CP-odd component of the lightest neutral Higgs boson, and the possible experimental tests of this CP-violating effect at the LHC.

  17. Pseudoscalar top-Higgs coupling: exploration of CP-odd observables to resolve the sign ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileo, Nicolas; Kiers, Ken; Szynkman, Alejandro; Crane, Daniel; Gegner, Ethan

    2016-07-01

    We present a collection of CP-odd observables for the process ppto t(to b{ℓ}+{ν}_{ℓ})overline{t}(to overline{b}{ℓ}-{overline{ν}}_{ℓ}) H that are linearly dependent on the scalar ( k t ) and pseudoscalar ({tilde{k}}_t) top-Higgs coupling and hence sensitive to the corresponding relative sign. The proposed observables are based on triple product (TP) correlations that we extract from the expression for the differential cross section in terms of the spin vectors of the top and antitop quarks. In order to explore other possibilities, we progressively modify these TPs, first by combining them, and then by replacing the spin vectors by the lepton momenta or the t and overline{t} momenta by their visible parts. We generate Monte Carlo data sets for several benchmark scenarios, including the Standard Model ({k}_t = 1, {tilde{k}}_t = 0) and two scenarios with mixed CP properties ({k}_t = 1, {tilde{k}}_t=± 1) . Assuming an integrated luminosity that is consistent with that envisioned for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, using Monte Carlo-truth and taking into account only statistical uncertainties, we find that the most promising observable can disentangle the "CP-mixed" scenarios with an effective separation of ˜ 19 σ. In the case of observables that do not require the reconstruction of the t and t momenta, the power of discrimination is up to ˜ 13σ for the same number of events. We also show that the most promising observables can still disentangle the CP-mixed scenarios when the number of events is reduced to values consistent with expectations for the Large Hadron Collider in the near term.

  18. Standard model contribution to the electric dipole moment of the deuteron, 3H, and 3He nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Hiyama, Emiko

    2016-02-01

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron, 3H, and 3He nuclei generated by the one-meson exchange CP-odd nuclear force in the standard model. The effective |Δ S| = 1 four-quark operators are matched to the |Δ S| = 1 standard model processes involving the CP phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix at the electroweak scale and run down to the hadronic scale μ = 1 GeV according to the renormalization group evolution in the next-to-leading logarithmic order. At the hadronic scale, the hadron matrix elements are modeled in the factorization approach. We then obtain the one-meson (pion, eta meson, and kaon) exchange CP-odd nuclear force, which is the combination of the |Δ S| = 1 meson-baryon vertices which issue from the penguin operator and the hyperon-nucleon transition. From this CP-odd nuclear force, the nuclear EDM is calculated with the realistic Argonne v18 interaction and the CP-odd nuclear force using the Gaussian expansion method. It is found that the EDMs of light nuclear systems are of order O (10-31) e cm. We also estimate the standard model contribution to other hadronic CP violating observables such as the EDMs of 6Li, 9Be nuclei, and the atomic EDMs of 129Xe, 199Hg, 211Rn, and 225Ra generated through the nuclear Schiff moment. We then analyze the source of theoretical uncertainties and show some possible ways to overcome them.

  19. Renormalization group-induced phenomena of top pairs from four-quark effective operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Ko, P.; Yoon, Yeo Woong; Yu, Chaehyun

    2014-08-01

    We study the renormalization group(RG) evolution of four-quark operators that contribute to the top pair production. In particular, we focus on the cases in which certain observables are first induced from the one-loop RG while being absent at tree-level. From the operator mixing pattern, we classify all such RG-induced phenomena and underlying models that can induce them. We then calculate the full one-loop QCD RG evolution as the leading estimator of the effects and address the question of which RG-induced phenomena have largest and observable effects. The answer is related to the color structure of QCD. The studied topics include the RG-induction of top asymmetries, polarizations and polarization mixings as well as issues arising at this order. The RG-induction of top asymmetries is further compared with the generation of asymmetries from QCD and QED at one-loop order. We finally discuss the validity of using the RG as the proxy of one-loop effects on the top pair production. As an aside, we clarify the often-studied relations between top pair observables.

  20. Four-quark and hybrid mixing in the light-quark vector sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnachie, A.; Kalashnikova, Yu. S.

    1993-12-01

    The data on e + e - annihilation are shown to be incompatible with an interpretation of the observed vector mesons asqbar q excitations. It is necessary to consider mixing with somenon - qbar q system. Two specific models are considered: either four-quark states or hybrid states mixing with the conventional quark-antiquark excitations. Both models are compatible with the present e + e - annihilation data. It is possible to incorporate the 1.3 GeV J PC =1-- state seen by LASS in the ππ channel in the four-quark model, but this is not possible with the hybrid model.

  1. Mass spectra of four-quark states in the hidden charm sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Smruti; Shah, Manan; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-08-01

    Masses of the low-lying four-quark states in the hidden charm sector ( are calculated within the framework of a non-relativistic quark model. The four-body system is considered as two two-body systems such as diquark-antidiquark ( - and quark-antiquark-quark-antiquark ( - q molecular-like four-quark states. Here, the Cornell-type potential has been used for describing the two-body interactions among Q - q , - , Q - , Qq - and Q - q , with appropriate string tensions. Our present analysis suggests the following exotic states: X(3823) , Z c(3900) , X(3915) , Z c(4025) , (4040) , Z 1(4050) and X(4160) as Q - q molecular-like four-quark states, while Z c(3885) , X(3940) and Y(4140) as the diquark-antidiquark four-quark states. We have been able to assign the JPC values for many of the recently observed exotic states according to their structure. Apart from this, we have identified the charged state Z(4430) recently confirmed by LHCb as the first radial excitation of Zc(3885) with G = + 1 and Y(4360) state as the first radial excitation of Y(4008) with G = - 1 and the state as the first radial excitation of the state.

  2. $$B^{0}_{s}$$ Lifetime Measurement in the CP-odd Decay Channel $$B^{0}_{s} \\to J/\\psi\\mbox{ }f_{0}(980)$$

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, V. M.

    2016-07-06

    Here, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured in the decay channel Bs0→J/ψπ+π- with 880 ≤ Mπ+π- ≤ 1080 MeV/c2, which is mainly a CP-odd state and dominated by the f0(980) resonance. In 10.4 fb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector in Run II of the Tevatron, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured to be τ(Bs0) = 1.70 ± 0.14(stat) ± 0.05(syst) ps. Neglecting CP violation in Bs0/more » $$\\bar{B}$$0s mixing, the measurement can be translated into the width of the heavy mass eigenstate of the Bs0, ΓH = 0.59 ± 0.05(stat) ± 0.02(syst) ps-1.« less

  3. Search for a CP-odd Higgs boson decaying to Zh in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Schlatter, W. -D.

    2015-03-28

    A search for a heavy, CP-odd Higgs boson, A, decaying into a Z boson and a 125 GeV Higgs boson, h, with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. The search uses proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3fb-1. Decays of CP-even h bosons to ττ or bb pairs with the Z boson decaying to electron or muon pairs are considered, as well as h → bb decays with the Z boson decaying to neutrinos. No evidence for the production of an A boson in these channels is foundmore » and the 95% confidence level upper limits derived for σ(gg → A) × BR(A → Zh) × BR(h → f¯f) are 0.098–0.013pb for f = τ and 0.57–0.014 pb for f = b in a range of mA=220–1000 GeV. The results are combined and interpreted in the context of two-Higgs-doublet models.« less

  4. $B^{0}_{s}$ Lifetime Measurement in the CP-odd Decay Channel $B^{0}_{s} \\to J/\\psi\\mbox{ }f_{0}(980)$

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.

    2016-07-06

    Here, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured in the decay channel Bs0→J/ψπ+π- with 880 ≤ Mπ+π- ≤ 1080 MeV/c2, which is mainly a CP-odd state and dominated by the f0(980) resonance. In 10.4 fb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector in Run II of the Tevatron, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured to be τ(Bs0) = 1.70 ± 0.14(stat) ± 0.05(syst) ps. Neglecting CP violation in Bs0/$\\bar{B}$0s mixing, the measurement can be translated into the width of the heavy mass eigenstate of the Bs0, ΓH = 0.59 ± 0.05(stat) ± 0.02(syst) ps-1.

  5. $B^{0}_{s}$ Lifetime Measurement in the CP-odd Decay Channel $B^{0}_{s} \\to J/\\psi\\mbox{ }f_{0}(980)$

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.

    2016-07-06

    Here, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured in the decay channel Bs0→J/ψπ+π- with 880 ≤ Mπ+π- ≤ 1080 MeV/c2, which is mainly a CP-odd state and dominated by the f0(980) resonance. In 10.4 fb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector in Run II of the Tevatron, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured to be τ(Bs0) = 1.70 ± 0.14(stat) ± 0.05(syst) ps. Neglecting CP violation in Bs0/$\\bar{B}$0s mixing, the measurement can be translated into the width of the heavy mass eigenstate of the Bs0, ΓH = 0.59 ± 0.05(stat) ± 0.02(syst) ps-1.

  6. Search for a low mass CP-odd Higgs boson in {e+e^-} collisions with the OPAL detector at LEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OPAL Collaboration; Abbiendi, G.; et al.

    2003-04-01

    We have analysed the data collected by OPAL at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV searching for Higgs boson candidates from the process e+e^- -> h0 Z0 followed by the decay of h0 -> A0 A0 where A0 is the CP-odd Higgs boson. The search is done in the region where the A0 mass, m A, is below the production threshold for {b b}, and the CP-even Higgs boson mass mh is within the range 45-86 GeV/c2. In this kinematic range, the decay of h0 -> A0 A0 may be dominant and previous Higgs boson searches have very small sensitivities. This search can be interpreted within any model that predicts the existence of at least one scalar and one pseudoscalar Higgs boson. No excess of events is observed above the expected Standard Model backgrounds. Model-independent limits on the cross-section for the process e+e^- -> h0 Z0 are derived assuming 100% decays of the h0 into A0 A0 and 100% decays of the A0 A0 into each of the following final states: {c c} {c c}, {gggg}, τ + τ - τ + τ -, {c c} {gg}, {gg} τ + τ - and {c c} τ + τ -. The results are also interpreted in the CP-conserving no-mixing MSSM scenario, where the region 45 <= m {h} <= 85 {GeV}/c2 and 2<= m A <= 9.5 GeV/c2 is excluded.

  7. Pion parameters and four quark condensates from τ-decay data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartvelishvili, V. G.; Margvelashvili, M. V.

    1992-03-01

    A modified finite energy sum rules procedure is presented and applied for the phenomenological analysis of the difference of vector and axial-vector two-point current correlators. In the chiral limit π→ evy decay axial formfactor F A , electro-magnetic difference of pion masses and the four quark condensates of dimensions six and eight are determined with improved accuracy, using the data on τ→ v+ nπ decays obtained by ARGUS collaboration. Our values for F A and Δ m em are close to the measured ones, while C 6< O 6> exceeds 2.5 3 times the value given by the vaccum saturation hypothesis.

  8. On the perturbative renormalization of four-quark operators for new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papinutto, M.; Pena, C.; Preti, D.

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the renormalization properties of the full set of Δ F=2 operators involved in BSM processes, including the definition of RGI versions of operators that exhibit mixing under RG transformations. As a first step for a fully non-perturbative determination of the scale-dependent renormalization factors and their runnings, we introduce a family of appropriate Schrödinger Functional schemes, and study them in perturbation theory. This allows, in particular, to determine the NLO anomalous dimensions of all Δ F=1,2 operators in these schemes. Finally, we discuss the systematic uncertainties related to the use of NLO perturbation theory for the RG running of four-quark operators to scales in the GeV range, in both our SF schemes and standard {\\overline{MS}} and RI-MOM schemes. Large truncation effects are found for some of the operators considered.

  9. Search for a Very Light CP-Odd Higgs Boson in Top Quark Decays from pp-bar; Collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-07-11

    We present the results of a search for a very light CP-odd Higgs boson a10 originating from top quark decays t→H±b → W±(*)a10b, and subsequently decaying into τ+τ-. Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb-1 collected by the CDF II detector in pp-bar collisions at 1.96 TeV, we perform a search for events containing a lepton, three or more jets, and an additional isolated track with transverse momentum in the range 3 to 20 GeV/c. Observed events are consistent with background sources, and 95% C.L. limits are set on the branching ratio of t→H±b formore » various masses of H± and a10.« less

  10. Search for a very light CP-odd Higgs boson in top quark decays from pp collisions at sqrt(s)]=1.96  TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2011-07-15

    We present the results of a search for a very light CP-odd Higgs boson a(1)(0) originating from top quark decays t → H(±)b → W(±(*)) a(1)(0)b, and subsequently decaying into τ+ τ-. Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7  fb(-1) collected by the CDF II detector in pp collisions at 1.96 TeV, we perform a search for events containing a lepton, three or more jets, and an additional isolated track with transverse momentum in the range 3 to 20  GeV/c. Observed events are consistent with background sources, and 95% C.L. limits are set on the branching ratio of t → H(±)b for various masses of H(±) and a(1)(0).

  11. Search for a Very Light CP-Odd Higgs Boson in Top Quark Decays from pp-bar; Collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-07-11

    We present the results of a search for a very light CP-odd Higgs boson a10 originating from top quark decays t→H±b → W±(*)a10b, and subsequently decaying into τ+τ-. Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb-1 collected by the CDF II detector in pp-bar collisions at 1.96 TeV, we perform a search for events containing a lepton, three or more jets, and an additional isolated track with transverse momentum in the range 3 to 20 GeV/c. Observed events are consistent with background sources, and 95% C.L. limits are set on the branching ratio of t→H±b for various masses of H± and a10.

  12. New CP-odd observable in H{yields}tt

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, G.; Wang Yili

    2006-03-01

    We study a CP-violating triple product correlation that occurs in the decay of a neutral Higgs boson into tt pairs when the Higgs boson does not have a definite CP nature. We consider the H{yields}tt decay channel as well as the gluon fusion process gg{yields}H{yields}tt. The asymmetry in Higgs decay, normalized to the H{yields}tt width, can reach the 6% percent level. In the gluon fusion process the corresponding normalized asymmetry is smaller by an order of magnitude. We present a crude estimate of this observable at the LHC.

  13. Dimension-5 CP -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; ...

    2015-12-23

    Here, we study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T- and P-odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. Furthermore, we present the renormalization matrix to one loop in themore » $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and ’t Hooft–Veltman prescriptions for γ5.« less

  14. Cancellations Between Two-Loop Contributions to the Electron Electric Dipole Moment with a CP-Violating Higgs Sector.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ligong; Liu, Tao; Shu, Jing

    2015-07-10

    We present a class of cancellation conditions for suppressing the total contributions of Barr-Zee diagrams to the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM). Such a cancellation is of particular significance after the new eEDM upper limit was released by the ACME Collaboration, which strongly constrains the allowed magnitude of CP violation in Higgs couplings and hence the feasibility of electroweak baryogenesis (EWBG). Explicitly, if both the CP-odd Higgs-photon-photon (Z boson) and the CP-odd Higgs-electron-positron couplings are turned on, a cancellation may occur either between the contributions of a CP-mixing Higgs boson, with the other Higgs bosons being decoupled, or between the contributions of CP-even and CP-odd Higgs bosons. With a cancellation, large CP violation in the Higgs sector is still allowed, yielding successful EWBG. The reopened parameter regions would be probed by future neutron, mercury EDM measurements, and direct measurements of Higgs CP properties at the Large Hadron Collider Run II and future colliders.

  15. Higgs Discovery in the Presence of Light CP-Odd Scalars

    SciTech Connect

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2009-06-19

    Many models of electroweak symmetry breaking have an additional light pseudoscalar. If the Higgs boson can decay to a new pseudoscalar, LEP searches for the Higgs can be significantly altered and the Higgs can be as light as 86 GeV. Discovering the Higgs boson in these models is challenging when the pseudoscalar is lighter than 10 GeV because it decays dominantly into tau leptons. In this paper, we discuss discovering the Higgs in a subdominant decay mode where one of the pseudoscalars decays to a pair of muons. This search allows for potential discovery of a cascade-decaying Higgs boson with the complete Tevatron data set or early data at the LHC.

  16. Exotic four quark matter: Z1(4475)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li; Liu, Xiao-Hai; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by the LHCb's recent confirmation of Z1(4475) as the JP=1+ resonance, we investigate various exotic interpretations of Z1(4475), which may be an axial vector tetraquark state, the P-wave excitation of the S-wave D1D¯* or D2D¯* molecule, the S-wave molecule composed of a D or D* meson and a D-wave vector D meson, or the cousin molecular state of Zc(3900) and Zc(4020) composed of a D or D* meson and their radial excitations. With the help of the heavy quark symmetry, we predict the typical radiative and hidden-charm and open-charm strong decay patterns of Z1(4475), which are crucial to further identify the molecular state assignment of Z1(4475).

  17. The strong isospin-breaking correction for the gluonic penguin contribution to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} at next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Carl E.; Maltman, Kim

    2001-01-01

    The strong isospin-breaking correction {Omega}{sub st}, which appears in estimates of the standard model value for the direct CP-violating ratio {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}, is evaluated to next-to-leading order (NLO) in the chiral expansion using chiral perturbation theory. The relevant linear combinations of the unknown NLO CP-odd weak low-energy constants (LEC's) which, in combination with one-loop and strong LEC contributions, are required for a complete determination at this order, are estimated using two different models. It is found that, to NLO, {Omega}{sub st}=0.08{+-}0.05, significantly reduced from the ''standard'' value, 0.25{+-}0.08, employed in recent analyses. The potentially significant numerical impact of this decrease on standard model predictions for {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}, associated with the decreased cancellation between gluonic penguin and electroweak penguin contributions, is also discussed.

  18. Non-1/mbn power suppressed contributions to inclusive B-->Xsl+l- decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Rupak, Gautam; Savage, Martin J.

    1997-10-01

    We compute non-perturbative contributions to B-->Xsl+l- that are not explicitly suppressed by powers of the b-quark mass. They are proportional to hoverlineσ.GhB> and arise from an interference between the free-quark amplitude and higher order terms in the matrix element of the four-quark operator soverlineαγμ(1- γ5)cαcoverlineβγμ(1- γ5)bβ. This correction is found to be small over most of the dalitz plot except near the charm threshold. Unfortunately, the perturbative computation we have performed is invalid near charm threshold and we do not except to see the structure found at lowest order reproduced in the data. We conclude that these non-perturbative contributions do not significantly modify the previous analysis of B-->Xsl+l-.

  19. CP-odd static electromagnetic properties of the W gauge boson and the t quark via the anomalous tbW coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Sanchez, J.; Honorato, C. G.; Procopio, F.; Tavares-Velasco, G.; Toscano, J. J.

    2007-04-01

    In the framework of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian, the one-loop induced effects of the anomalous tbW coupling, which includes both left- and right-handed complex components, on the static electromagnetic properties of the W boson and the t quark are studied. The attention is focused mainly on the CP-violating electromagnetic properties. It is found that the tbW anomalous coupling can induce both CP-violating moments of the W boson, namely, its electric dipole ({mu}-tilde{sub W}) and magnetic quadrupole (Q-tilde{sub W}) moments. As far as the t quark is concerned, a potentially large electric dipole moment (d{sub t}) can arise due to the anomalous tbW coupling. The most recent bounds on the tbW coupling left- and right-handed parameters from B meson physics lead to the following estimates {mu}-tilde{sub W}{approx}4x10{sup -23}-4x10{sup -22} e{center_dot}cm and Q-tilde{sub W}{approx}10{sup -38}-10{sup -37} e{center_dot}cm{sup 2}, which are 7 and 14 orders of magnitude larger than the standard model (SM) predictions, whereas d{sub t} may be as large as 10{sup -22} e{center_dot}cm, which is about 8 orders of magnitude larger than its SM counterpart.

  20. Penguin Contributions to C P Phases in Bd ,s Decays to Charmonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, Philipp; Nierste, Ulrich; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The precision of the C P phases 2 β and 2 βs determined from the mixing-induced C P asymmetries in Bd→J /ψ KS and Bs→J /ψ ϕ , respectively, is limited by the unknown long-distance contribution of a penguin diagram involving up quarks. The penguin contribution is expected to be comparable in size to the precision of the LHCb and Belle II experiments and, therefore, limits the sensitivity of the measured quantities to new physics. We analyze the infrared QCD structure of this contribution and find that all soft and collinear divergences either cancel between different diagrams or factorize into matrix elements of local four-quark operators up to terms suppressed by ΛQCD/mψ , where mψ denotes the J /ψ mass. Our results, which are based on an operator product expansion, allow us to calculate the penguin-to-tree ratio P /T in terms of the matrix elements of these operators and to constrain the penguin contribution to the phase 2 β as |Δ ϕd|≤0.68 ° . The penguin contribution to 2 βs is bounded as |Δ ϕs0|≤0.97 ° , |Δ ϕs∥|≤1.22 ° , and |Δ ϕs⊥|≤0.99 ° for the case of longitudinal, parallel, and perpendicular ϕ and J /ψ polarizations, respectively. Further, we place bounds on |Δ ϕd| for Bd→ψ (2 S )KS and the polarization amplitudes in Bd→J /ψ K* . In our approach, it is further possible to constrain P /T for decays in which P /T is Cabibbo unsuppressed, and we derive upper limits on the penguin contribution to the mixing-induced C P asymmetries in Bd→J /ψ π0, Bd→J /ψ ρ0, Bs→J /ψ KS, and Bs→J /ψ K* . For all studied decay modes, we also constrain the sizes of the direct C P asymmetries.

  1. Appendix: Additional Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    The number of contributions to the Symposium was so high that only the review and invited talks have found place, in the form of articles, in this volume. This Appendix lists all these additional contributions (oral and posters) which are not present as articles. The abstracts of all contributions were published in a booklet produced by the Local Organizing Committee and are available at the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). More information on these contributions (PowerPoint presentations and/or articles) have been made public in the Internet web site of the conference (http://cab.inta-csic.es/molecular_universe/).

  2. Mathematics: Contributions by Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Jacqueline M.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a core course in a women's-studies program at Loyola Marymount University. Provides information, resources, and an annotated bibliography useful for making students more aware of women's contributions to mathematics. Contains 38 references. (ASK)

  3. Contribution Margin Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambrino, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Iowa Valley Community College District's Contribution Margin Budgeting (CMB) program, successfully implemented to stave off bankruptcy. In this program, each responsibility center receives credit for all income generated and is charged for all expenditures, and each must build its own reserve against revenue shortfalls and unanticipated…

  4. Contributed Papers, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, New York, NY. Documentation Div.

    Included are six papers from the Special Libraries Association Documentation Division's Contributed Papers Session at the National Conference in New York, May 28 - June 1, 1967, which were not included in the November, 1967 issue of Special Libraries. The papers are: (1) "The Bibliographical Control of Aerospace Industry Conference Literature…

  5. Avicenna's contribution to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A R; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16(th) century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field.

  6. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  7. Behavioral science space contributions.

    PubMed

    Harris, P R

    1989-07-01

    In anticipation of longer missions on the space stations, Mir and Freedom, as well as a potential return to the Moon and the exploration of Mars, human survival and the quality of life aloft will be increasingly dependent upon research in the behavioral and biological sciences. This article reviews the possible contributions to space habitation of the behavioral sciences--especially anthropology, psychology, and sociology. Before space settlements become a reality, the author makes a case for the broadening of the engineering approach to human factor studies, and consideration of the integrative living systems theory in space planning and management.

  8. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon.

  9. Defined contribution health benefits.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  10. Japanese contributions to MAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.

    1989-01-01

    Japan contributed much to MAP in many branches. The MU (middle and upper atmosphere) radar, in operation during the MAP period, produced various novel possibilities in observations of middle atmosphere dynamics; possibilities which were fairly well realized. Gravity wave saturation and its spectrum in the mesosphere were observed successfully. Campaign observations by radars between Kyoto and Adelaide were especially significant in tidal and planetary wave observations. In Antarctica, middle atmosphere observation of the dramatic behavior of aerosols in winter is well elucidated together with the ozone hole. Theoretical and numerical studies have been progressing actively since a time much earlier than MAP. Now it is pointed out that gravity waves play an important role in producing the weak wind region in the stratosphere as well as the mesosphere.

  11. A Profile of Corporate Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hayden W.

    The extent and distribution of charitable contributions by corporations were studied. In addition to a history of giving from 1936 to 1981, information is presented on corporate contributions in 1977 in terms of the distribution of companies (1) by size of contributions, (2) by contributions as percentage of net income, (3) by industry, and (4) by…

  12. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  13. EMSL Contribution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-12-01

    This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2

  14. Mexican contributions to Noncommutative Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Vergara, J. David; Garcia-Compean, H.

    2006-09-25

    In this paper we summarize the Mexican contributions to the subject of Noncommutative theories. These contributions span several areas: Quantum Groups, Noncommutative Field Theories, Hopf algebra of renormalization, Deformation Quantization, Noncommutative Gravity, and Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics.

  15. Alternative Significant Contribution Approaches Evaluated

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) discusses alternative approaches that EPA evaluated for defining emissions that constitute each upwind state’s significant contribution to nonattainment and interference with maintenance downwind.

  16. Analysis to Quantify Significant Contribution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Technical Support Document provides information that supports EPA’s analysis to quantify upwind state emissions that significantly contribute to nonattainment or interfere with maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards in downwind states.

  17. Vienna Contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Sigrid; Krásná, Hana; Bachmann, Sabine

    2016-12-01

    The next realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System, the ITRF2014, was released in the beginning of 2016. The VLBI input to ITRF2014 was provided by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) and consists of a combination of all Analysis Center contributions. One of these single solutions was contributed by the Vienna Special Analysis Center of the Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation at TU Wien. In this paper we describe the characteristics of the Vienna contribution (calculated using the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS) to ITRF2014 and VTRF2014, respectively. We give a documentation of the included sessions and stations as well as some statistical information which shows the performance of the Vienna contribution compared to the other contributions in the IVS combination. In addition to that, a single TRF solution, VieTRF2014a, which is based on the Vienna input to ITRF2014, is presented and compared to previous TRF solutions. By and large the Vienna contribution does not exhibit any outstanding features when compared to the other submissions, except for the Earth rotation component dUT1, which shows large residuals with respect to the combined solution. The reason for this discrepancy is probably the different parameterization of EOP in VieVS as piecewise linear offsets, necessitating a transformation prior to the combination.

  18. 75 FR 43799 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... practice, however, the Agency will soon require a notarized signature for all withdrawal requests...' TSP accounts from fraudulent withdrawals. One commenter requested affirmation that contribution... withdrawal penalty tax). (2) A participant who requests a refund will receive the amount of any...

  19. Recent Langley helicopter acoustics contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Homer G.; Pao, S. P.; Powell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The helicopter acoustics program at NASA Langley has included technology for elements of noise control ranging from sources of noise to receivers of noise. The scope of Langley contributions for about the last decade is discussed. Specifically, the resolution of two certification noise quantification issues by subjective acoustics research, the development status of the helicopter system noise prediction program ROTONET are reviewed and the highlights from research on blade rotational, broadband, and blade vortex interaction noise sources are presented. Finally, research contributions on helicopter cabin (or interior) noise control are presented. A bibliography of publications from the Langley helicopter acoustics program for the past 10 years is included.

  20. Supporting Enterprise. A College Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, John F.; Cook, David

    This report describes the experience of one college--Percival Whitley College in Calderdale, England--in contributing to the strategy for economic regeneration of the surrounding metropolitan district. It charts the success of the borough and the college working together to attract national and European funding. A checklist for implementing…

  1. Gravitational contribution to fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemblo, A.; Tresguerres, R.

    2005-08-01

    In the context of a non-linear gauge theory of the Poincaré group, we show that covariant derivatives of Dirac fields include a coupling to the translational connections, manifesting itself in the matter action as a universal background mass contribution to fermions.

  2. Feminist Contributions to Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Osipow, Samuel H.

    1991-01-01

    The feminist movement has influenced counseling psychology in the following areas: (1) policy and leadership; (2) theory and research; (3) training and practice; and (4) recognition of feminist scholarship and contributions by women. Tracing these areas of impact reveals feminism as a major force in developing inquiry and practice. (SLD)

  3. Maximizing Pharmacy's Contribution to Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Robert Q.

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that the role of colleges in the effort to maximize pharmacy's contribution to society requires an emphasis on research in the pharmaceutical sciences, in the clinical use of drugs, and in the socioeconomic aspects of drug therapy. This will produce more qualified pharmacists and greater credibility for the profession. (JMD)

  4. Assessing Contributions to Group Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the…

  5. Supporting Enterprise. A College Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, John F.; Cook, David

    This report describes the experience of one college--Percival Whitley College in Calderdale, England--in contributing to the strategy for economic regeneration of the surrounding metropolitan district. It charts the success of the borough and the college working together to attract national and European funding. A checklist for implementing…

  6. Contributions to environmental mechanics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raats, Peter A. C.; Smiles, David E.; Warrick, Arthur W.

    In the second half of the 20th century, environmental mechanics developed from a collection of loosely connected principles and techniques t o a coherent quantitative treatment of flow and transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. John Philip was in many respects the life and soul of this adventure . He contributed foremost to the physics of water in unsaturated soils, but also to micrometeorology and physical ecology. In this introductory chapter we briefly review how his contributions influenced and are related to the activities of his colleagues and provide an overview of the present status of theory of soil water movement. We also indicate how the various contributions to this volume fit in this context. We start with a discussion of the nature, foundation, and application of the Richards equation, with emphasis on the dominant role of John Philip in finding analytical solutions of this equation. This is followed by a discussion of various developments beyond the Richards equation: multiphase flow, simultaneous transport of water and heat, flow of water in soils subject to swelling-shrinkage, transport of solutes in unsaturated soils, and flow and transport processes at various scales in space and time. The varied contributions of John Philip to micrometeorology and physical ecology are also reviewed briefly. In the concluding section, some challenges for environmental mechanics are indicated.

  7. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers.

  8. Changes in accounting for contributions.

    PubMed

    Pelfrey, S

    1992-03-01

    A proposed accounting change in the timing of income recognition for restricted contributions and pledges can greatly impact a hospital's excess of revenue over expenses (net income). The author addresses steps that administrators can take to lessen its impact. With this knowledge, nurse administrators and other hospital executives can plan alternatives to reduce the income recognition and prepare themselves to answer questions posed by patients and members of the community regarding increased hospital profits.

  9. Townes' contribution to nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2015-03-01

    In honour of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physics, this talk introduced the contributions of Nicholas Basov and Alexei Prokhorov, who shared the prize with Charles Townes. The talk then detailed the quantum electronics research of Townes, particularly at MIT, which was related to nonlinear optics. The years from 1961 to 1968 were particularly exciting, as the ruby laser enabled a wide variety of new physics to be discovered and explored.

  10. Galileo's contribution to modern orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Jastifer, James R; Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H; Gustafson, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), world-renowned Italian mathematician, astronomer, physicist and philosopher, made many contributions to science. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that Galileo's discovery of scaling principles permitted others to define and advance orthopaedic research and clinical sciences. The science and scaling principles of Galileo Galilei were extensively analyzed by reviewing his 1638 original work Discorsi e Demostrazioni Matematiche Intorno a Due Nuove Scienze. Works about Galileo's science were reviewed for the concept of the scaling principles and with the idea of shedding light on how his work influenced modern orthopaedics. Galileo strictly adhered to the Copernican heliocentric theory with the sun at the center of the universe, which caused him aggravation and made him the target of inquisition rage at the end of his prodigious life. With his attention away from the cosmos, Galileo--through the voices of Salviati, Sagredo and Simplicio in the Discourses on Two New Sciences--defined how scaling was important to the movement and function of objects. Galileo introduced important advances in scaling laws, which contributed to the development of the field of biomechanics. This discipline, in many ways, has defined modern clinical and research orthopaedics. Galileo, by introducing the principles of scaling, permitted their application to human physical capacity, to bone and tissue response after injury, and to clinical treatment of injuries. Galileo in this way made important contributions to the practice of modern orthopaedics.

  11. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section... ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may make a contribution election at any time. (b) A participant must submit a contribution election to his...

  12. Methanotrophs Contribute to Peatland Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, Tuula; Leppänen, Sanna M.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aarva, Maija; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) fixation is potentially an important N input mechanism to peatland ecosystems, but the extent of this process may have been underestimated because of the methods traditionally used inhibit the activity of methanothrophs. We examined the linkage of methane (CH4) oxidation and N2 fixation using 15N2 technique. Dominant flark and hummock Sphagnum species were collected from twelve pristine peatlands in Siikajoki, Finland, which varied in age from 200 to 2,500 y due to the postglacial rebound. The mosses were incubated in a two-day field 15N2 and 13CH4 pulse labelling experiment and the incorporation of 15N2 and 13CH4 in biomass was measured with Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. The rates of Sphagnum-associated N2 fixation (0.1-2.9 g N m-2 y-1) were up to 10 times the current N deposition rates. Methane-induced N2 fixation contributed to over 1/3 of moss-associated N2 fixation in younger stages, but was switched off in old successional stages, despite active CH4 oxidation in these stages. Both the N2 fixation rates and the methanotrophic contribution to N2 fixation during peatland succession were primarily constrained by phosphorus availability. Previously overlooked methanotrophic N contribution may explain rapid peat and N accumulation during fen stages of peatland development. Reference. Larmola T., Leppänen S.M., Tuittila E.-S, Aarva M., Merilä P., Fritze H., Tiirola M. (2014) Methanotrophy induces nitrogen fixation during peatland development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111 (2): 734-739.

  13. Contributive factors to aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

  14. The Viennese contribution to venereology.

    PubMed Central

    Wauch, M

    1977-01-01

    A history of venereology in Vienna from the first manifestations of the French disease in 1498 until the first half of the twentieth century is described. Notable events were the founding of the old Vienna School by van Swieten in the years after 1745, followed by the revival one hundred years later by von Hebra of the scientific basis for dermatovenereology. An account is given of teachers and discoverers of venereological importance after von Hebra and Sigmund to Arzt. The importance of Landsteiner's and Wagner von Jauregg's contributions finalise the historical account. PMID:336146

  15. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  16. 11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... political dinner or reception. (7) Contributions received from a joint fundraising activity conducted in... the joint fundraising agreement when they are submitted for matching. (8) Contributions by credit...

  17. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  18. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  19. IDS contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, J.; Lemoine, F.; Ferrage, P.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Le Bail, K.; Moore, P.; Yaya, P.; Soudarin, L.

    2009-12-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS), in operation since 2003, submitted three sets of solutions to ITRF2005 from the IGN/JPL, LEGOS/CLS, and INASAN analysis centers, but no DORIS technique combination. Since that time new analysis centers have become operational including the Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSC), and the University of Newcastle (NCL). These analysis centers run different software, including Gypsy (IGN & INASAN), GINS (LCA), Bernese (GOP), NAPEOS (ESOC), GEODYN (Geoscience Australia and NASA GSFC) and FAUST (NCL). In order to contribute to ITRF2008, seven analysis centers processed DORIS data from TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, and ENVISAT from 1992 to 2008, producing weekly SINEX solutions or normal equations. The weekly SINEX files from seven AC’s were processed with the CATREF software. Three iterations of an IDS weekly combined time series were completed. The IDS-1, and IDS-2 combinations were preliminary station-only solutions. In the final combination, IDS-3, both stations and the Earth Orientation Paramters (EOP’s) were adjusted. Between each of the IDS combinations, the combination strategy (station filtering, outliers, weighting, scale or geocenter contributions) was improved and the AC’s SINEX series were refined. Some series were extended in data span while others were recomputed to correct anomalies or to improve the quality of the submissions, based on feedback from the combination analyses and intercenter comparisons. For example in IDS-1, both the GAU and GSC solutions were affected by a 20 mm scale offset that was removed in IDS-2 and IDS-3 after the application of improved troposphere modelling in the GEODYN software. The analysis for IDS-1 showed a higher station position WRMS in the vicinity of the high solar flux periods (late 2001-2002). Consequently for IDS-2, several AC’s (LCA, GAU, GSC

  20. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  1. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  2. Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlote, Karl-Heinz

    2004-09-01

    I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).

  3. Possible NASA Contributions to HEAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    A four-year experiment (HEAT) has been proposed (one summer in the field, 2005) to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas, in association with simultaneous experiments by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Houston is the third most populous city in the United States and the region contains 50% of the petroleum refining capacity of the United States. Recent studies covering the period 1989-2000 document a 50% increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. It is suggested that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including, 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze, and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size. The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline, on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The project is a multi- agency effort and will employ numerous observing capabilities and expertise. Dr. Shepherd has been asked to serve as a possible co- investigator to contribute expertise in areas related to urban impacts on precipitation variability. Dr. Shepherd is also a key NASA representative in the interagency effort. This presentation will provide an overview of recent NASA research focused on urban rainfall in Houston and offer potential NASA capabilities that could contribute to HEAT.

  4. Possible NASA Contributions to HEAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    A four-year experiment (HEAT) has been proposed (one summer in the field, 2005) to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas, in association with simultaneous experiments by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Houston is the third most populous city in the United States and the region contains 50% of the petroleum refining capacity of the United States. Recent studies covering the period 1989-2000 document a 50% increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. It is suggested that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including, 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze, and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size. The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline, on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The project is a multi- agency effort and will employ numerous observing capabilities and expertise. Dr. Shepherd has been asked to serve as a possible co- investigator to contribute expertise in areas related to urban impacts on precipitation variability. Dr. Shepherd is also a key NASA representative in the interagency effort. This presentation will provide an overview of recent NASA research focused on urban rainfall in Houston and offer potential NASA capabilities that could contribute to HEAT.

  5. 5 CFR 1604.3 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1604.3 Section... § 1604.3 Contribution elections. A service member may make contribution elections as described in 5 CFR... incentive pay when the contribution election is made); those elections will take effect when the...

  6. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  7. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  8. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  9. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  10. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  11. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  12. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  13. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  14. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a true...

  15. Defined contribution: a part of our future.

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Reginald F.

    2003-01-01

    Rising employer health care costs and consumer backlash against managed care are trends fostering the development of defined contribution plans. Defined contribution plans limit employer responsibility to a fixed financial contribution rather than a benefit program and dramatically increase consumer responsibility for health care decision making. Possible outcomes of widespread adoption of defined contribution plans are presented. PMID:12934869

  16. Maternal contributions to preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Murray, Jeffrey C; Feenstra, Bjarke; Melbye, Mads

    2009-12-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD) is a complex trait with a significant familial component. However, no specific inheritance patterns have been established. The authors examined the contribution of PTDs in both the woman's family and her partner's family to her risk of PTD. The authors linked birth information from Danish national registers with pedigree information from the Danish Family Relations Database for 1,107,124 live singleton deliveries occurring from 1978 to 2004. Risk ratios were estimated comparing women with and without various PTD histories. Women with previous PTDs were at greatly increased risk of recurrent PTD (risk ratio = 5.6, 95% confidence interval: 5.5, 5.8); however, their PTD risk was unaffected by a partner's history of preterm children with other women. PTDs to a woman's mother, full sisters, or maternal half-sisters also increased her PTD risk (risk ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 1.6), whereas PTDs in her paternal half-sisters, the female partners of her male relatives, or members of her partner's family did not affect her PTD risk. Inheritance patterns were similar for all gestational ages from very early through late PTD. The substantial portion of PTD risk explained by effects passed through the female line suggests a role for either imprinting or mitochondrial inheritance.

  17. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2016-06-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman-Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cutoff) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can be well described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field theories, require at least a perturbative treatment of inhomogeneity beyond a strict minisuperspace model. The new methods suggest a systematic extension of minisuperspace models by a canonical effective formulation of perturbative inhomogeneity.

  18. The microbial contribution to macroecology

    PubMed Central

    Barberán, Albert; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    There has been a recent explosion of research within the field of microbial ecology that has been fueled, in part, by methodological improvements that make it feasible to characterize microbial communities to an extent that was inconceivable only a few years ago. Furthermore, there is increasing recognition within the field of ecology that microorganisms play a critical role in the health of organisms and ecosystems. Despite these developments, an important gap still persists between the theoretical framework of macroecology and microbial ecology. We highlight two idiosyncrasies of microorganisms that are fundamental to understanding macroecological patterns and their mechanistic drivers. First, high dispersal rates provide novel opportunities to test the relative importance of niche, stochastic, and historical processes in structuring biological communities. Second, high speciation rates potentially lead to the convergence of ecological and evolutionary time scales. After reviewing these unique aspects, we discuss strategies for improving the conceptual integration of microbes into macroecology. As examples, we discuss the use of phylogenetic ecology as an integrative approach to explore patterns across the tree of life. Then we demonstrate how two general theories of biodiversity (i.e., the recently developed theory of stochastic geometry and the neutral theory) can be adapted to microorganisms. We demonstrate how conceptual models that integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms can contribute to the unification of microbial ecology and macroecology. PMID:24829564

  19. Georgius Agricola's contributions to hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Isabel F.

    2015-04-01

    Georgius Agricola's 1546 book De Ortu et Causis Subterraneorum (On the Source and Causes of What is Underground) was the first European work since antiquity to focus on hydrology and helped to shape the thought of Nicolaus Steno, Pierre Perrault, A.G. Werner, and other important figures in the history of hydrology and geology. De Ortu contains the first known expressions of numerous concepts important in modern hydrology: erosion as an active process, groundwater movement through pores and fissures, hydrofracturing, water-rock reaction, and others. The concepts of groundwater origins, movement, and nature in De Ortu were also the foundation for the theories of ore deposit formation for which Agricola is better known. In spite of their importance, most of Agricola's contributions to the study of groundwater are unrecognized today because De Ortu, alone of his major works, has never been translated out of Latin and no existing vernacular summary of it is longer than two pages. This article presents the first detailed description of Agricola's work on hydrology and discusses the derivation and impact of his ideas.

  20. Country Contributions to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuenemann, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    An assignment called "Country Contributions to Climate Change" is used in an introductory Global Climate Change course and answers the question, "Who is responsible for climate change?" This assignment is used about a third of the way into the course, which fulfills a science requirement, but also a Global Diversity requirement within the university. The assignment involves taking a trip to the computer lab to learn how to create graphs in Excel. Two graphs are created, the Keeling Curve, and a graph on total carbon emissions by country since 1900. Students are given data for a few key countries, then are sent to the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) website to find data on their assigned country. Students create a graph to compare emissions over time from each of these countries. Using this data and the data from the CDIAC, students are asked to draw conclusions about which country is the largest emitter, then on a per capita basis, which people are the largest emitters. Later in the semester they will calculate their own carbon footprint and compare to these numbers. Finally, students are asked to add up emissions by country since 1900 to find out how the countries compare in cumulative emissions, and we learn why this number is relevant. Students also learn the difference between carbon emissions and concentrations, tying together some lessons on the carbon cycle. Students discover the complex role of several countries in climate change, showing them how complicated a climate change solution policy can be.

  1. Nordic contributions to disability policies.

    PubMed

    Kebbon, L

    1997-04-01

    The most spectacular contribution from the nordic countries to intellectual disability policy is probably the idea of normalization, but it is not the simplistic notion that can be inferred from international debate. Its major significance may have been to act as an inspiring catchword for the important trend away from institutions into integrated living. However, it is more fully understood when seen in the concrete context where it has successively developed, and been critically analysed and tested in operation. Scandinavian sociologists and psychologists--as well as politicians--were also among the first to use the concept of quality of life for analysis of social policy, including intellectual disability. The primary medium for implementation has been legislation, where the dominant difficulty is to find a balance between security and freedom, protection and self-determination. Through this process, the role of social engineering in the welfare state, based on humanistic ideas of solidarity, can be followed into today's emphasis on individual influence and participation.

  2. Aerosol contributions to speleothem geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dredge, J. A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Harrison, R.; Woodhead, J. D.; Hellstrom, J.

    2011-12-01

    The term "aerosols" encompasses the suspension of both fine solid or liquid particles within a gaseous medium. Aerosols become suspended into the earth's atmosphere through a multitude of processes both natural and anthropogenic. Atmospheric aerosols enter cave networks as a result of cave ventilation processes and are either deposited, or cycled and removed from the system. Speleothem offer a multiproxy palaeoclimate resource; many of the available proxies have been extensively investigated and utilised for palaeoclimatic reconstructions in a range of studies. The potential contribution of aerosols to speleothem chemistry and their applicability for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions remains untested and the extent of their value as an addition to palaeoclimate sciences unknown. Aerosols through incorporation into speleothem may provide a novel palaeoenvironmental resource. The aerosol component of interest is that which is transported into the cave atmosphere and deposited and are available for incorporation into precipitated calcite. Aerosol deposition and therefore distribution in the cave has shown to be a complex function of ventilation and changing environmental factors. Through detailed monitoring aerosols have been detected, identified, characterised and quantified to determine their prominence in the cave system. Investigations are on a case study basis, searching for suitable aerosol proxies of environmentally significant emission processes. Case studies include: Palaeofires at Yarrangobilly Caves, Australia; anthropogenic emissions at St Michaels Cave, Gibraltar and Cheddar gorge, UK; and drip water aerosol production and geochemical addition in Obir cave, Austria. Monitoring has allowed for the temporal and spatial determination of aerosols in karst networks. Speleothem samples will be analysed in combination with in-situ monitoring to determine incorporation factors and record preservation. By understanding how aerosols are transmitted within the

  3. 31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If pay period... in calendar year 1997, and 48 percent of the retirement contributions made to police officers or...

  4. Contributions to Intercollegiate Athletic Programs: Further Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Cletus C.; Erekson, O. Homer

    1985-01-01

    Football success is found to significantly increase athletic contributions. Athletic contributions were also found to depend significantly upon football attendance, affiliation with the Atlantic Coast Conference, bowl participation, basketball winning percentage, state population, and professional competition. (RM)

  5. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan, gift... solicitation or promotion or otherwise to secure the conclusion of a sale of defense articles or defense...

  6. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to...

  7. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to...

  8. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to...

  9. 32 CFR 37.1245 - Cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1245 Cash contributions. A recipient's cash expenditures made as contributions toward cost sharing, including expenditures...

  10. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  11. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  12. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  13. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  14. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to, or for the benefit of, or received...

  15. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology, including contributions or donations to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or... organizations who donate or contribute funds, goods, services, or technology without knowledge or reason to...

  16. 31 CFR 560.426 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  17. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by,...

  18. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  19. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  20. 31 CFR 560.426 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  1. 31 CFR 537.414 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to, or for the benefit of, or received...

  2. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by,...

  3. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  4. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  5. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology, including contributions or donations to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or... organizations who donate or contribute funds, goods, services, or technology without knowledge or reason to...

  6. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a person....

  7. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  8. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  9. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  10. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a...

  11. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  12. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to... avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a person....

  13. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a...

  14. 31 CFR 594.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology, including contributions or donations to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  15. 31 CFR 576.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine... violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit...

  16. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to... avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a person....

  17. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  18. 31 CFR 576.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine... violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit...

  19. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  20. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  1. 31 CFR 594.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology, including contributions or donations to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  2. 31 CFR 576.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine... violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit...

  3. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a person....

  4. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  5. 31 CFR 576.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine... violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit...

  6. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a...

  7. Cerebellar Contribution to Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Hoche, Franziska; Guell, Xavier; Sherman, Janet C; Vangel, Mark G; Schmahmann, Jeremy D

    2016-12-01

    Emotion attribution (EA) from faces is key to social cognition, and deficits in perception of emotions from faces underlie neuropsychiatric disorders in which cerebellar pathology is reported. Here, we test the hypothesis that the cerebellum contributes to social cognition through EA from faces. We examined 57 patients with cerebellar disorders and 57 healthy controls. Thirty-one patients had complex cerebrocerebellar disease (complex cerebrocerebellar disease group (CD)); 26 had disease isolated to cerebellum (isolated cerebellar disease group (ID)). EA was measured with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET), and informants were administered a novel questionnaire, the Cerebellar Neuropsychiatric Rating Scale (CNRS). EA was impaired in all patients (CD p < 0.001, ID p < 0.001). When analyzed for valence categories, both CD and ID missed more positive and negative stimuli. Positive targets produced the highest deficit (CD p < 0.001, ID p = 0.004). EA impairments correlated with CNRS measures of deficient social skills (p < 0.05) and autism spectrum behaviors (p < 0.005). Patients had difficulties with emotion regulation (CD p < 0.001, ID p < 0.001), autism spectrum behaviors (CD p < 0.049, ID p < 0.001), and psychosis spectrum symptoms (CD p < 0.021, ID p < 0.002). ID informants endorsed deficient social skills (CD p < 0.746, ID p < 0.003) and impaired attention regulation (CD p < 0.144, ID p < 0.001). Within the psychosis spectrum domain, CD patients were worse than controls for lack of empathy (CD p = 0.05; ID p = 0.49). Thus, patients with cerebellar damage were impaired on an EA task associated with deficient social skills and autism spectrum behaviors and experienced psychosocial difficulties on the CNRS. This has relevance for ataxias, the cerebellar cognitive affective/Schmahmann syndrome, and neuropsychiatric disorders with cerebellar pathology.

  8. Quarkonium Contribution to Meson Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincioglu, E.; Nieves, J.; Ozpineci, A.; Yilmazer, A. U.

    2016-10-01

    Starting from a molecular picture for the X(3872) resonance, this state and its J^{PC}=2^{++} heavy-quark spin symmetry partner [X_2(4012)] are analyzed within a model which incorporates possible mixings with 2 P charmonium (cbar{c}) states. Since it is reasonable to expect the bare χ _{c1}(2P) to be located above the Dbar{D}^* threshold, but relatively close to it, the presence of the charmonium state provides an effective attraction that will contribute to binding the X(3872), but it will not appear in the 2^{++} sector. Indeed in the latter sector, the χ _{c2}(2P) should provide an effective small repulsion, because it is placed well below the D^*bar{D}^* threshold. We show how the 1^{++} and 2^{++} bare charmonium poles are modified due to the D^{(*)}bar{D}^{(*)} loop effects, and the first one is moved to the complex plane. The meson loops produce, besides some shifts in the masses of the charmonia, a finite width for the 1^{++} dressed charmonium state. On the other hand, X(3872) and X_2(4012) start developing some charmonium content, which is estimated by means of the compositeness Weinberg sum rule. It turns out that in the heavy-quark limit, there is only one coupling between the 2 P charmonia and the D^{(*)}bar{D}^{(*)} pairs. We also show that, for reasonable values of this coupling, leading to X(3872) molecular probabilities of around 70-90 %, the X_2 resonance destabilizes and disappears from the spectrum, becoming either a virtual state or one being located deep into the complex plane, with decreasing influence in the D^{*}bar{D}^{*} scattering line. Moreover, we also discuss how around 10-30 % charmonium probability in the X(3872) might explain the ratio of radiative decays of this resonance into ψ (2S)γ and J/ψ γ . Finally, we qualitatively discuss within this scheme, the hidden bottom flavor sector, paying a special attention to the implications for the X_b and X_{b2} states, heavy-quark spin-flavor partners of the X(3872).

  9. 77 FR 27365 - Inventions and Contributions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1240 RIN 2700-AD51 Inventions and Contributions AGENCY: National... Brief awards, and to update citations and the information on the systems used for reporting inventions... Invention and Contributions Board Awards for Scientific and Technical Contributions , were published at 25...

  10. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911 Section 120.911 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's...

  11. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911 Section 120.911 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's...

  12. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911 Section 120.911 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's...

  13. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911 Section 120.911 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's...

  14. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911 Section 120.911 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's...

  15. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  16. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  17. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  18. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  19. 11 CFR 9032.4 - Contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution. 9032.4 Section 9032.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.4 Contribution. For purposes of this subchapter, contribution has the...

  20. 11 CFR 9002.13 - Contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution. 9002.13 Section 9002.13 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.13 Contribution. Contribution has the same meaning given the term under 2 U.S.C....

  1. 10 CFR 603.1225 - Cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cash contributions. 603.1225 Section 603.1225 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1225 Cash contributions. A recipient's cash expenditures made as contributions...

  2. 10 CFR 603.1225 - Cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cash contributions. 603.1225 Section 603.1225 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1225 Cash contributions. A recipient's cash expenditures made as contributions...

  3. 10 CFR 603.1225 - Cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cash contributions. 603.1225 Section 603.1225 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1225 Cash contributions. A recipient's cash expenditures made as contributions...

  4. 10 CFR 603.1225 - Cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cash contributions. 603.1225 Section 603.1225 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1225 Cash contributions. A recipient's cash expenditures made as contributions...

  5. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans, for each enrolled employee who is paid biweekly, is the amount provided in section 8906 of title 5, United...

  6. 47 CFR 54.706 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Toll-free service; (9) 900 service; (10) Message telephone service (MTS); (11) Private line service... revenues, net of projected contributions. (c) Any entity required to contribute to the federal universal... telecommunications revenues, net of projected contributions. For purposes of this paragraph, an “entity” shall refer...

  7. Contribution behavior of 401(k) plan participants.

    PubMed

    Holden, S; VanDerhei, J

    2001-10-01

    This Issue Brief examines the 1999 contribution behavior of 1.7 million 401(k) plan participants drawn from the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project. The findings in this paper build on previous academic research examining the contribution activity of 401(k) participants, by using a large sample of participants in a wide range of plan sizes and by examining in detail the factors that influence contribution activity. Eighty-five percent of participants in the sample only made before-tax contributions to their plans, and 97 percent of all dollars contributed by employees were contributed on a before-tax basis. On average, participants contributed 6.8 percent of their salaries on a before-tax basis. Before-tax contribution activity varied among participants. About 61 percent of participants contributed more than 5 percent of their salaries on a before-tax basis and about 21 percent set aside more than 10 percent of their salaries on a before-tax basis. Eleven percent of participants analyzed in this study earning more than $40,000 a year contributed at the $10,000 before-tax IRC limit in 1999. Thirteen percent of participants with salaries between $70,000 and $80,000 contributed at the cap, and 18 percent of those with salaries between $80,000 and $90,000 were at the limit. However, it appears that among participants not contributing at the IRC limit, 52 percent could not have done so because of formal plan-imposed contribution limits below the IRC limit. Older participants tended to contribute a higher percentage of their salaries to plans than did younger participants, even after factoring out differences in salary and job tenure. Participants tended to increase the share of their salary (and amounts) contributed to their 401(k) plan as their salaries rose until salaries reached $80,000. For individuals with salaries above $80,000, before-tax contribution rates (though not the amounts contributed) tended to fall as salaries rose

  8. Exploring the Recurrence of Contributing Area Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Mengistu, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed a progression towards using models as a tool for predicting high frequency contributing area dynamics in catchments. High frequency contributing area modeling can become a viable alternative to the current approach for estimating contributing area in Canadian catchments, which assumes a static portion of the catchment's gross drainage area. The current approach does not consider the spatiotemporal variability of contributing area dynamics, and therefore, represents an important challenge for characterizing the recurrence that saturated areas in the catchment can actively connect and contribute to the main channel in response to runoff producing snowmelt or storm events. Such characterizations are useful to assess the relative importance of different areas within a catchment for runoff generation, and nutrient production and transport. In this study, the PDMROF configuration of Environment Canada's MESH model has been applied to simulate areas actively contributing to daily streamflow from four nested catchments of the Qu'Appelle River basin. The return periods of annual maximum contributing areas were computed using Weibull's equation. The research also evaluates if runoff magnitude is always associated with the same extent and recurrence of contributing area and investigates how contributing area and streamflow return periods relate. This work provides the foundation for evaluating the effect of environmental changes (mainly land use and climate associated changes) on contributing area recurrence by conducting similar investigations under various environmental change scenarios.

  9. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contributions. 1.401(m)-1 Section 1.401(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching contributions. (a) General... contributions satisfies the nondiscrimination test of section 401(m) under paragraph (b) of this section and...

  10. [Original contributions of Latin Americans to anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Aldrete, J A

    1998-10-01

    The original contributions of Latin American physicians to the science of anesthesiology are described. Many contributions have been unfairly ignored mainly because they were never published in English, but others have likewise been passed over even when published in the most prestigious journals in the field. Although many discoveries by Latin Americans have been made in the area of regional anesthesia, a considerable number of contributions have involved other aspects of anesthesia as well.

  11. IDENTIFYING KEY CONTRIBUTIONS TO INFORMATION SCIENCE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Several alternative approaches were examined to determine how one might identify some of the key (written) contributions to ’ information science ’. The...references. The unclear selective patterns in current bibliographies in the information science field also present problems. It is suggested that in...identifying key contributions we are far from common agreement on the conceptual, methodological or practical contributions to the information science field

  12. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All State...

  13. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All State...

  14. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All State...

  15. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All State...

  16. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All State...

  17. Contributions of psychology to limiting climate change.

    PubMed

    Stern, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological contributions, summarizes what psychology has learned, and sets out an agenda for making additional contributions. It emphasizes that the greatest potential for contributions from psychology comes not from direct application of psychological concepts but from integrating psychological knowledge and methods with knowledge from other fields of science and technology.

  18. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  19. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  20. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  1. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  2. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  3. How sonochemistry contributes to green chemistry?

    PubMed

    Chatel, Gregory

    2017-03-15

    Based on the analyses of papers from the literature, and especially those published in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry journal, the contribution of sonochemistry to green chemistry area has been discussed here. Important reminders and insights on the good practices and considerations have been made to understand and demonstrate how sonochemistry can continue to efficiently contribute to green chemistry area in the further studies.

  4. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  9. 13 CFR 120.910 - Borrower contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.910 Borrower contributions. (a) The Borrower... cost, excluding administrative costs: (1) At least 15 percent, if the Borrower (or Operating Company if the Borrower is an Eligible Passive Company) has operated for two years or less; (2) At least 15...

  10. 13 CFR 120.912 - Borrowed contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... borrow its cash contribution from the CDC or a third party. If any of the contribution is borrowed, the interest rate must be reasonable. If the loan is secured by any of the Project assets, the loan must be subordinate to the liens securing the 504 Loan, and the loan may not be repaid at a faster rate than the...

  11. Capabilities and Contributions of Unwed Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert I.

    2010-01-01

    Young, minority, and poorly educated fathers in fragile families have little capacity to support their children financially and are hard-pressed to maintain stability in raising those children. In this article, Robert Lerman examines the capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers, how their capabilities and contributions fall short of those…

  12. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  13. Louis Guttman's Contributions to Classical Test Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Williams, Richard H.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ross, Donald

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on Louis Guttman's contributions to the classical theory of educational and psychological tests, one of the lesser known of his many contributions to quantitative methods in the social sciences. Guttman's work in this field provided a rigorous mathematical basis for ideas that, for many decades after Spearman's initial work,…

  14. National contributions to observed global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.

  15. 10 CFR 603.1225 - Cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cash contributions. 603.1225 Section 603.1225 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms... toward cost sharing, including expenditures of money that third parties contributed to the recipient....

  16. 7 CFR 1739.14 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1739.14 Section 1739.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.14 Matching contributions. (a) The...

  17. 7 CFR 1739.14 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1739.14 Section 1739.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.14 Matching contributions. (a) The...

  18. 7 CFR 1739.14 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1739.14 Section 1739.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.14 Matching contributions. (a) The...

  19. 7 CFR 1739.14 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1739.14 Section 1739.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.14 Matching contributions. (a) The...

  20. 43 CFR 4120.3-7 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-7 Contributions. The authorized officer may accept contributions of labor, material...

  1. 43 CFR 4120.3-7 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-7 Contributions. The authorized officer may accept contributions of labor, material...

  2. 43 CFR 4120.3-7 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-7 Contributions. The authorized officer may accept contributions of labor, material...

  3. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  4. Louis Guttman's Contributions to Classical Test Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Williams, Richard H.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ross, Donald

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on Louis Guttman's contributions to the classical theory of educational and psychological tests, one of the lesser known of his many contributions to quantitative methods in the social sciences. Guttman's work in this field provided a rigorous mathematical basis for ideas that, for many decades after Spearman's initial work,…

  5. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  6. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary of...

  7. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary of...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary of...

  9. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  10. 5 CFR 1620.21 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Judges § 1620.21 Contributions. (a) An individual covered under this subpart can make.... (b) The following amounts are not basic pay and no TSP contributions can be made from them: (1) An annuity or salary received by a justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451) who...

  11. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 547.408 Section 547.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.408 Charitable contributions. Unless specifically authorized by the Office...

  12. Magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio of galfenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paes, V. Z. C.; Mosca, D. H.

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present a detailed study on the magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio for samples under applied mechanical stress. Magnetic contributions to strain and Poisson ratio for cubic materials were derived by accounting elastic and magneto-elastic anisotropy contributions. We apply our theoretical results for a material of interest in magnetomechanics, namely, galfenol (Fe1-xGax). Our results show that there is a non-negligible magnetic contribution in the linear portion of the curve of stress versus strain. The rotation of the magnetization towards [110] crystallographic direction upon application of mechanical stress leads to an auxetic behavior, i.e., exhibiting Poisson ratio with negative values. This magnetic contribution to auxetic behavior provides a novel insight for the discussion of theoretical and experimental developments of materials that display unusual mechanical properties.

  13. Theodore Millon's Contributions to Conceptualizing Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Aaron L; Krueger, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    We review Theodore Millon's contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders in contemporary clinical science and practice. Millon worked tirelessly across professional domains and theoretical orientations, developing a rich integrative theory of personality and its pathology, directly and indirectly impacting the evolving iterations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III through DSM-5), and advocating for the personality disorders through his contributions to cofounding the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders and the Journal of Personality Disorders. We conclude with a closer look at Millon's final major contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders as well as the strengths and limitations of his approach.

  14. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contributions. 1.401(m)-1 Section 1.401(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching contributions. (a) General nondiscrimination rules—(1... the nondiscrimination test of section 401(m) under paragraph (b) of this section and the...

  15. The contribution of glacier melt to streamflow

    SciTech Connect

    Schaner, Neil; Voisin, Nathalie; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-09-13

    Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage globally have lead to concerns about the implications for water supplies. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor is the population at risk to future glacier changes. We estimate an upper bound on glacier melt contribution to seasonal streamflow by computing the energy balance of glaciers globally. Melt water quantities are computed as a fraction of total streamflow simulated using a hydrology model and the melt fraction is tracked down the stream network. In general, our estimates of the glacier melt contribution to streamflow are lower than previously published values. Nonetheless, we find that globally an estimated 225 (36) million people live in river basins where maximum seasonal glacier melt contributes at least 10% (25%) of streamflow, mostly in the High Asia region.

  16. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of animals in sinks can compromise persistence. Conversely, sinks can bolster population sizes, improving viability. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional persistence, we simulated the removal of sink hab...

  17. Quantifying arthropod contributions to wood decay

    Treesearch

    Michael Ulyshen; Terry Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Termites carry large amounts of soil into dead wood, and this behaviour complicates efforts to measure their contributions to wood decay. A novel method for isolating termite soil by burning the wood is described, and some preliminary results are presented.

  18. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to, or for the benefit of a person whose property and interests in property are...

  19. 31 CFR 594.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine... evade or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions or donations to such a person....

  20. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... donation of funds, goods, services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  1. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... donation of funds, goods, services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  2. 31 CFR 594.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine... evade or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions or donations to such a person....

  3. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... donation of funds, goods, services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  4. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of animals in sinks can compromise persistence. Conversely, sinks can bolster population sizes, improving viability. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional persistence, we simulated the removal of sink hab...

  5. COST Action 724: the Italian contribution .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerotti, M.; Candidi, M.; Storini, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    COST Action 724, devoted to developing the scientific basis for monitoring, modelling and predicting Space Weather, is briefly outlined with emphasis to the contribution by Italian researchers of the solar and solar-terrestrial communities.

  6. Reliability of disclosure forms of authors' contributions

    PubMed Central

    Ilakovac, Vesna; Fister, Kristina; Marusic, Matko; Marusic, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Background The contribution disclosure forms used by medical journals to assess and confirm authorship are surveys of self-reported behaviour that follow the cognitive rules of psychometric instruments. We sought to analyze how autobiographical memory, defined as memory for events and issues related to oneself, affected the reliability of contribution forms for the judging of authorship of research articles. Methods We conducted a prospective study, which ultimately included 919 authors of 201 articles submitted to a general medical journal from July 2001 through December 2002. A authorship disclosure form with a checklist of 11 possible contribution choices for all authors was sent first to each article's corresponding author, who was asked to fill it out for all authors. A blank form was then sent to each author individually to disclose his or her own contribution to that article. The main outcome measure was test– retest differences between the corresponding authors' self-declarations, expressed in percent as the gross difference rate (GDR) for each article. Results More than two-thirds of the corresponding authors (69.7%) differed in at least 1 contribution choice between the 2 disclosure statements made about their own contributions. The reliability of their answers was low to moderate (GDRs > 10%), especially for contributions on the provision of study materials or patients or final approval of the article (GDR 22.9%), guarantor of the study (GDR 20.9%) and drafting of the manuscript (GDR 20.4%). As a proxy for their coauthors' contributions, corresponding authors also differed from them in the perception of noncorresponding authors' contributions, disagreeing in 69.4% of cases. Of the 718 noncorresponding authors, 204 (28.4%) met all the criteria for authorship set out by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors according to the statement given by the corresponding author. When they described their own contributions, this prevalence increased

  7. Contribution of Hydrogen Bonds to Protein Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Nick

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the contribution of the burial of polar groups and their hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of proteins. We measured the change in stability, Δ(Δ G), for a series of hydrogen bonding mutants in four proteins: villin head piece subdomain (VHP) containing 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) containing 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa (RNase Sa) and T1 (RNase T1). Crystal structures were determined for three of the hydrogen bonding mutants of RNase Sa: S24A (1.1Å), Y51F(1.5Å), and T95A(1.3Å). The structures are very similar to wild type RNase Sa and the hydrogen bonding partners always form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to water in the mutants. We compare our results with previous studies of similar mutants in other proteins and reach the following conclusions: 1) Hydrogen bonds contribute favorably to protein stability. 2) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. 3) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. 4) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar groups are not hydrogen bonded. 5) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is similar for VHP, a small protein, and VlsE, a large protein.

  8. Contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R; Schell, David; Thurlkill, Richard L; Imura, Satoshi; Scholtz, J Martin; Gajiwala, Ketan; Sevcik, Jozef; Urbanikova, Lubica; Myers, Jeffery K; Takano, Kazufumi; Hebert, Eric J; Shirley, Bret A; Grimsley, Gerald R

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of the burial of polar groups and their hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of proteins. We measured the change in stability, Δ(ΔG), for a series of hydrogen bonding mutants in four proteins: villin headpiece subdomain (VHP) containing 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) containing 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa (RNase Sa) and T1 (RNase T1). Crystal structures were determined for three of the hydrogen bonding mutants of RNase Sa: S24A, Y51F, and T95A. The structures are very similar to wild type RNase Sa and the hydrogen bonding partners form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to water in all three mutants. We compare our results with previous studies of similar mutants in other proteins and reach the following conclusions. (1) Hydrogen bonds contribute favorably to protein stability. (2) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. (3) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. (4) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar groups are not hydrogen bonded. (5) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is similar for VHP, a small protein, and VlsE, a large protein. PMID:24591301

  9. Contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability.

    PubMed

    Pace, C Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R; Shirley, Bret A; Hendricks, Marsha McNutt; Iimura, Satoshi; Gajiwala, Ketan; Scholtz, J Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R

    2011-05-06

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability. We measured the change in conformational stability, Δ(ΔG), for hydrophobic mutants of four proteins: villin headpiece subdomain (VHP) with 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) with 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa and T1. We compared our results with those of previous studies and reached the following conclusions: (1) Hydrophobic interactions contribute less to the stability of a small protein, VHP (0.6±0.3 kcal/mol per -CH(2)- group), than to the stability of a large protein, VlsE (1.6±0.3 kcal/mol per -CH(2)- group). (2) Hydrophobic interactions make the major contribution to the stability of VHP (40 kcal/mol) and the major contributors are (in kilocalories per mole) Phe18 (3.9), Met13 (3.1), Phe7 (2.9), Phe11 (2.7), and Leu21 (2.7). (3) Based on the Δ(ΔG) values for 148 hydrophobic mutants in 13 proteins, burying a -CH(2)- group on folding contributes, on average, 1.1±0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. (4) The experimental Δ(ΔG) values for aliphatic side chains (Ala, Val, Ile, and Leu) are in good agreement with their ΔG(tr) values from water to cyclohexane. (5) For 22 proteins with 36 to 534 residues, hydrophobic interactions contribute 60±4% and hydrogen bonds contribute 40±4% to protein stability. (6) Conformational entropy contributes about 2.4 kcal/mol per residue to protein instability. The globular conformation of proteins is stabilized predominantly by hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic contributions in livestock gene introgression programmes

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Eileen; Visscher, Peter M; Hospital, Frédéric; Woolliams, John A

    2005-01-01

    The composition of the genome after introgression of a marker gene from a donor to a recipient breed was studied using analytical and simulation methods. Theoretical predictions of proportional genomic contributions, including donor linkage drag, from ancestors used at each generation of crossing after an introgression programme agreed closely with simulated results. The obligate drag, the donor genome surrounding the target locus that cannot be removed by subsequent selection, was also studied. It was shown that the number of backcross generations and the length of the chromosome affected proportional genomic contributions to the carrier chromosomes. Population structure had no significant effect on ancestral contributions and linkage drag but it did have an effect on the obligate drag whereby larger offspring groups resulted in smaller obligate drag. The implications for an introgression programme of the number of backcross generations, the population structure and the carrier chromosome length are discussed. The equations derived describing contributions to the genome from individuals from a given generation provide a framework to predict the genomic composition of a population after the introgression of a favourable donor allele. These ancestral contributions can be assigned a value and therefore allow the prediction of genetic lag. PMID:15823237

  11. Incentives to Encourage Scientific Web Contribution (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    We suggest improvements to citation standards and creation of remuneration opportunities to encourage career scientist contributions to Web2.0 and social media science channels. At present, agencies want to accomplish better outreach and engagement with no funding, while scientists sacrifice their personal time to contribute to web and social media sites. Securing active participation by scientists requires career recognition of the value scientists provide to web knowledge bases and to the general public. One primary mechanism to encourage participation is citation standards, which let a contributor improve their reputation in a quantifiable way. But such standards must be recognized by their scientific and workplace communities. Using case studies such as the acceptance of web in the workplace and the growth of open access journals, we examine what agencies and individual can do as well as the time scales needed to secure increased active contribution by scientists. We also discuss ways to jumpstart this process.

  12. Indian – American contributions to psychiatric research

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangi, Anand K.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years. PMID:21836715

  13. Contributions of psychology to war and peace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being.

  14. Neuromuscular Contributions to Age-Related Weakness

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Declines in skeletal muscle mass and quality are important factors contributing to age-related weakness. Neural activation of agonist and antagonist muscles may also be important contributing factors. Methods. We conducted a review of the scientific literature on older adults to determine (a) methodologies used to quantify activation, (b) the potential role of agonist and antagonist activation on weakness, and (c) some possible neurophysiological mechanisms that may underlie impaired activation. Results. The cumulative evidence indicates that agonist activation is impaired in some, but not all, older adults and that this impairment contributes to age-related weakness. It is possible that antagonist coactivation also plays a role in age-related weakness, though a definitive link has not been established. Conclusion. Future research should focus on improving quantitative measurement and mechanistic understanding of impaired activation with aging. PMID:21415261

  15. Contribution of Hydrophobic Interactions to Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C. Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R.; Shirley, Bret A.; Hendricks, Marsha McNutt; Iimura, Satoshi; Gajiwala, Ketan; Scholtz, J. Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability. We measured the change in conformational stability, Δ(ΔG), for hydrophobic mutants of four proteins: villin head piece subdomain (VHP) with 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) with 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa and T1. We compare our results with previous studies and reach the following conclusions. 1. Hydrophobic interactions contribute less to the stability of a small protein, VHP (0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/mole per –CH2– group), than to the stability of a large protein, VlsE (1.6 ± 0.3 kcal/mol per –CH2– group). 2. Hydrophobic interactions make the major contribution to the stability of VHP (40 kcal/mol) and the major contributors are (in kcal/mol): Phe 18 (3.9), Met 13 (3.1), Phe 7 (2.9), Phe 11 (2.7), and Leu 21 (2.7). 3. Based on Δ(ΔG) values for 148 hydrophobic mutants in 13 proteins, burying a –CH2– group on folding contributes, on average, 1.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. 4. The experimental Δ(ΔG) values for aliphatic side chains (Ala, Val, Ile, and Leu) are in good agreement with their ΔGtr values from water to cyclohexane. 5. For 22 proteins with 36 to 534 residues, hydrophobic interactions contribute 60 ± 4% and hydrogen bonds 40 ± 4% to protein stability. 6. Conformational entropy contributes about 2.4 kcal/mol per residue to protein instability. The globular conformation of proteins is stabilized predominately by hydrophobic interactions. PMID:21377472

  16. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution... within 60 days of the participant's reemployment or return to pay status. (c) Makeup contributions. Makeup contributions will be processed as follows: (1) If the employee had a valid contribution election...

  18. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution... within 60 days of the participant's reemployment or return to pay status. (c) Makeup contributions. Makeup contributions will be processed as follows: (1) If the employee had a valid contribution election...

  19. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution... within 60 days of the participant's reemployment or return to pay status. (c) Makeup contributions. Makeup contributions will be processed as follows: (1) If the employee had a valid contribution election...

  20. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution... within 60 days of the participant's reemployment or return to pay status. (c) Makeup contributions. Makeup contributions will be processed as follows: (1) If the employee had a valid contribution election...

  1. 7 CFR 1400.7 - Commensurate contributions and risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commensurate contributions and risk. 1400.7 Section... contributions and risk. (a) In order to be considered eligible to receive payments under the programs specified...'s contribution(s) to the operation; (2) Contribution(s) to the farming operation that are at risk...

  2. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.). (b) A participant may make traditional contributions and Roth contributions... contributions and Roth contributions cannot exceed the applicable Internal Revenue Code elective deferral limit... employee contributions and Roth contributions made to both accounts cannot exceed the Internal Revenue...

  3. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.). (b) A participant may make traditional contributions and Roth contributions... contributions and Roth contributions cannot exceed the applicable Internal Revenue Code elective deferral limit... employee contributions and Roth contributions made to both accounts cannot exceed the Internal Revenue...

  4. Contribution to encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Ocłoń, Pawel

    2015-06-01

    This paper lists the contribution in the international interdisciplinary reference - Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses (ETS). The ETS, edited by the world famous expert in field of Thermal Stresses - Professor Richard Hetnarski from Rochester Institute of Technology, was published by Springer in 2014. This unique Encyclopedia, subdivided into 11 volumes is the most extensive and comprehensive work related to the Thermal Stresses topic. The entries were carefully prepared by specialists in the field of thermal stresses, elasticity, heat conduction, optimization among others. The Polish authors' contribution within this work is significant; over 70 entries were prepared by them.

  5. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  6. Magnetic field contribution to the Lorentz model.

    PubMed

    Oughstun, Kurt E; Albanese, Richard A

    2006-07-01

    The classical Lorentz model of dielectric dispersion is based on the microscopic Lorentz force relation and Newton's second law of motion for an ensemble of harmonically bound electrons. The magnetic field contribution in the Lorentz force relation is neglected because it is typically small in comparison with the electric field contribution. Inclusion of this term leads to a microscopic polarization density that contains both perpendicular and parallel components relative to the plane wave propagation vector. The modified parallel and perpendicular polarizabilities are both nonlinear in the local electric field strength.

  7. Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters.

    PubMed

    Gedamke, Jason; Ferguson, Megan; Harrison, Jolie; Hatch, Leila; Henderson, Laurel; Porter, Michael B; Southall, Brandon L; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the potential effects of chronic underwater noise in US waters, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) organized two working groups in 2011, collectively called "CetSound," to develop tools to map the density and distribution of cetaceans (CetMap) and predict the contribution of human activities to underwater noise (SoundMap). The SoundMap effort utilized data on density, distribution, acoustic signatures of dominant noise sources, and environmental descriptors to map estimated temporal, spatial, and spectral contributions to background noise. These predicted soundscapes are an initial step toward assessing chronic anthropogenic noise impacts on the ocean's varied acoustic habitats and the animals utilizing them.

  8. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Dedre Gentner.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2016 award winners is Dedre Gentner, who received this award for her "achievements in research and theory in cognitive psychology and cognitive development, especially for developing the structure-mapping theory of analogy and similarity." Her award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Monocyte and macrophage contributions to cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hulsmans, Maarten; Sam, Flora; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The mammalian heart contains a population of resident macrophages that expands in response to myocardial infarction and hemodynamic stress. This expansion occurs likely through both local macrophage proliferation and monocyte recruitment. Given the role of macrophages in tissue remodeling, their contribution to adaptive processes in the heart is conceivable but currently poorly understood. In this review, we discuss monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity associated with cardiac stress, the cell's potential contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, and describe different tools to study and characterize these innate immune cells. Finally, we highlight their potential role as therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A contemporary Kleinian contribution to understanding racism.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Brian; Salhani, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This article applies a contemporary Kleinian understanding to the problem of racism and, in particular, to microaggressions. The article contributes to the social work literature on racism by (1) moving closer to an explanatory model of the relation between the social and the psyche; (2) adding depth and structure to the concept of unconscious racism; and (3) highlighting a range of Kleinian concepts, such as projection, projective identification, splitting, developmental positions, envy, and reparation, that contribute to understanding the internal and external dimensions of racialized encounters. The dynamic interaction of the psyche and the social is central to understanding racism and to effective antiracist intervention strategies.

  11. [Contributions and novelties from Functional Analytic Psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ferro García, Rafael; Valero Aguayo, Luis; López Bermúdez, Miguel A

    2007-08-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy is based on the principles of radical behaviourism. It emphasises the impact of events occurring during therapeutic sessions, the therapist-client interaction context, functional equivalence of environments, natural reinforcement, and shaping by the therapist. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy makes use of both the basic principles of behaviour analysis: individual functional assessment and application of in vivo treatment. This paper analyses novelties and new contributions of this therapy. New contributions are classified in various categories: integration with other psychotherapies, improvement of therapeutic skills, methods for evaluation and data recording in therapy, its application to several clinical problems, and studies of its efficacy.

  12. Metabolic Factors that Contribute to Lupus Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Sivakumar, Ramya; Titov, Anton A.; Choi, Seung-Chul; Morel, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which organ damage is mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies directed against nucleic acids and protein complexes. Studies in SLE patients and in mouse models of lupus have implicated virtually every cell type in the immune system in the induction or amplification of the autoimmune response as well as the promotion of an inflammatory environment that aggravates tissue injury. Here, we review the contribution of CD4+ T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells to lupus pathogenesis and then discuss alterations in the metabolism of these cells that may contribute to disease, given the recent advances in the field of immunometabolism. PMID:27480903

  13. Method for Tracking Core-Contributed Publications

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Cynthia A.; Curchoe, Carol Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Accurately tracking core-contributed publications is an important and often difficult task. Many core laboratories are supported by programmatic grants (such as Cancer Center Support Grant and Clinical Translational Science Awards) or generate data with instruments funded through S10, Major Research Instrumentation, or other granting mechanisms. Core laboratories provide their research communities with state-of-the-art instrumentation and expertise, elevating research. It is crucial to demonstrate the specific projects that have benefited from core services and expertise. We discuss here the method we developed for tracking core contributed publications. PMID:23204927

  14. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 593.408 Section 593.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR...

  15. 7 CFR 915.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 915.43 Section 915.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order...

  16. 7 CFR 915.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 915.43 Section 915.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order...

  17. 7 CFR 915.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 915.43 Section 915.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order...

  18. 7 CFR 915.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 915.43 Section 915.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order...

  19. 7 CFR 915.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 915.43 Section 915.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order...

  20. Japanese contributions to International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Hirata, Naru; Shinohara, Iku

    2012-07-01

    In this presentation, we will introduce Japanese contributions to the data archives for international collaborations. In Japan, the importance of planetary data archive was not recognized enough until early in 2000's. While NASA and ESA started their collaborations to their archives: PDS and PSA, and tried to make the new standard, JAXA was looking for the way of contributions because Japan did not have own data and archiving policy. The activities of NASA and ESA extended to the international collaborations, and International Planetary Data Alliance was established. JAXA had an opportunity to join the IPDA as an agency member. One of the contributions, the IPDA chairman was undertaken by Japanese member. The projects in IPDA were managed and were proceeded successfully during the term. For the technical part, JAXA is making several pilot systems to share planetary data. Planetary Data Access Protocol, PDAP, developed by IPDA, is implemented in JAXA's system, and provides a search system for Hayabusa and Kaguya (SELENE) data. Not only for Japanese data, but also Apollo's seismic data archives are prepared for scientific communities. The seismic data on the moon has not been measured for a long time, and Apollo's data are still precious and should be archived together with much information. The contributions to planetary data archives has just started and continues as a member of IPDA.

  1. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  4. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  5. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Adolescent Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the family, school, peer and psychological factors that contribute to adolescent suicidal ideation. The participants were 1,358 (680 boys and 678 girls) Hong Kong Chinese adolescents who were divided into younger (12.3 years, n = 694) and older (15.4 years, n = 664) age groups. By using structural equation modeling,…

  7. Variation in contributions to teaching by meerkats.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex

    2008-08-07

    Recent evidence from cooperative insect, bird and mammal societies has challenged the assumption that teaching is restricted to humans. However, little is known about the factors affecting the degree to which individuals in such societies contribute to teaching. Here, I examine variation in contributions to teaching in meerkats, where older group members teach pups to handle difficult prey. I show that investment in teaching varies with characteristics of pups, helpers, groups and ecological conditions. Although prior experience in caring for pups did not significantly influence teaching behaviour, younger helpers, which were still investing in growth, contributed less to teaching than older individuals. This suggests that, in common with other cooperative activities, contributions to teaching vary with the costs experienced by individual group members. However, in contrast to other forms of helping in meerkats, I detected no effects of nutritional state on teaching, suggesting that it carries relatively low costs. In species where individuals can potentially gain direct or indirect fitness benefits from facilitating learning in others, low costs divided among multiple group members may help tip the balance towards selection for teaching.

  8. 7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1703.122 Section 1703.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching...

  9. 7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1703.122 Section 1703.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching...

  10. Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

  11. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 542.408 Section 542.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 542.408 Section 542.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 542.408 Section 542.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 542.408 Section 542.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 548.408 Section 548.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 548.408 Section 548.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 7 CFR 927.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 927.45 Section 927.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  18. 7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1703.122 Section 1703.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122...

  19. 7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1703.122 Section 1703.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122...

  20. Coulombic contribution and fat center vortex model

    SciTech Connect

    Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Deldar, Sedigheh

    2007-02-27

    The fat (thick) center vortex model is one of the phenomenological models which is fairly successful to interpret the linear potential between static sources. However, the Coulombic part of the potential has not been investigated by the model yet. In an attempt to get the Coulombic contribution and to remove the concavity of the potentials, we are studying different vortex profiles and vortex sizes.

  1. Vibrational contribution to molecular polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P. K. K.; Santry, D. P.

    1980-09-01

    The vibrational averaging theory of Kern and Matcha is extended, at the harmonic level of approximation, to the case where the molecular property under investigation can itself lead indirectly to a perturbation of the vibrational levels of the molecule. It is found that contributions arising from this perturbation can be significant, especially for molecular hyperpolarizabilities.

  2. Minority Contributions to Science, Engineering, and Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funches, Peggy; And Others

    Offering an historical perspective on the development of science, engineering, medicine, and technology and providing current role models for minority students, the bulletin lists the outstanding contributions made by: (1) Blacks - medicine, chemistry, architecture, engineering, physics, biology, and exploration; (2) Hispanos - biomedical…

  3. Mapping Academic Library Contributions to Campus Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Steven W.; Kutner, Laurie; Cooper, Liz

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed academic libraries across the United States to establish baseline data on their contributions to campus internationalization. Supplementing data from the American Council on Education (ACE) on internationalization of higher education, this research measured the level of international activities taking place in academic…

  4. Contributions of the Akamai Workforce Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Castori, Pam

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a third party, external perspective on the Akamai Workforce Initiative (AWI), highlighting some of the contributions of the initiative over the last ten years. AWI is a program that seeks to develop a skilled local STEM workforce to meet the needs of Hawai'i's growing high-tech industry. It began as an internship program…

  5. Characterizing ASOCOPI: Its Affiliates, Ideals, and Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Edgar; Díaz, Zulay

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of an on-line cross-sectional questionnaire and further discussion about the characterization of ASOCOPI's affiliates, their expectations of being a member, and the contributions that the association has made to their professional development. The respondents' answers were analyzed by following a statistical…

  6. California Considers Adding Gays' Contributions to Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    A bill that has been sent to the floor of the California Senate would require textbooks used in public schools to include information on the roles and contributions of gay people throughout history, a move that could affect the content of instructional materials throughout much of the country. The measure would help build tolerance of diverse…

  7. Does predation contribute to tree diversity?

    Treesearch

    Brian Beckage; James S. Clark

    2005-01-01

    Seed and seedling predation may differentially affect competitively superior tree species to increase the relative recruitment success of poor competitors and contribute to the coexistence of tree species. We examined the effect of seed and seedling predation on the seedling recruitment of three tree species, Acer rubrum (red maple), ...

  8. 11 CFR 9002.13 - Contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contribution. 9002.13 Section 9002.13 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING...), 441b and 441c, and under 11 CFR part 100, subparts B and C, and 11 CFR parts 114 and 115. ...

  9. 11 CFR 9032.4 - Contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contribution. 9032.4 Section 9032.4 Federal... meaning given the term under 2 U.S.C. 431(8)(A) and 11 CFR part 100, subparts B and C, except as provided at 11 CFR 9034.4(b)(4). ...

  10. Intergenerational Practice: Contributing to a Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Sacha; Sousa, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of the European population is creating a new demographic mix, increasing the relevance of intergenerational practice (IGP). To date, however, this field lacks an appropriate conceptual framework. This study aims to contribute to such a framework through an integrative review of peer-reviewed papers reporting on IGPs. Fifteen papers were…

  11. Intergenerational Practice: Contributing to a Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Sacha; Sousa, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of the European population is creating a new demographic mix, increasing the relevance of intergenerational practice (IGP). To date, however, this field lacks an appropriate conceptual framework. This study aims to contribute to such a framework through an integrative review of peer-reviewed papers reporting on IGPs. Fifteen papers were…

  12. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  13. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  14. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  17. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  18. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  1. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  2. Piaget's Enduring Contribution to Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilin, Harry

    1992-01-01

    Describes Jean Piaget's transformation of society's conception of childhood thought. Emphasizes the enduring contribution to developmental psychology of Piaget's constructivism, his description of developmental mechanisms, his cognitivism, his explication of structural and functional analysis, and his addressing of epistemological issues and…

  3. Surgical Never Events and Contributing Human Factors

    PubMed Central

    Thiels, Cornelius A.; Lal, Tarun Mohan; Nienow, Joseph M.; Pasupathy, Kalyan S.; Blocker, Renaldo C.; Aho, Johnathon M.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Cima, Robert R.; Hallbeck, Susan; Bingener, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We report the first prospective analysis of human factors elements contributing to invasive procedural never events using a validated Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). Methods From 8/2009 - 8/2014 surgical and invasive procedural “Never Events” (retained foreign object, wrong site/side procedure, wrong implant, wrong procedure) underwent systematic causation analysis promptly after the event. Contributing human factors were categorized using Reason's 4 levels of error causation and 161 HFACS subcategories (nano-codes). Results During the study approximately 1.5 million procedures were performed and 69 never events were identified. A total of 628 contributing human factors nano-codes were identified. Action-based errors (n=260) and preconditions to actions (n=296) accounted for the majority of the nano-codes across all four types of events, with individual cognitive factors contributing half of the nano-codes. The most common action nano-codes were confirmation bias (n=36) and failed to understand (n=36). The most common pre-condition nano-codes were channeled attention on a single issue (n=33) and inadequate communication (n=30). Conclusion Targeting quality and system improvement interventions addressing cognitive factors and team resource management as well as perceptual biases may reduce errors and further improve patient safety. These results delineate targets to further reduce never events from our healthcare system. PMID:26032826

  4. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  6. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  7. Mode Contributions to the Casimir Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intravaia, F.; Henkel, C.

    2010-04-01

    Applying a sum-over-modes approach to the Casimir interaction between two plates with finite conductivity, we isolate and study the contributions of surface plasmons and Foucault (eddy current) modes. We show in particular that for the TE-polarization eddy currents provide a repulsive force that cancels, at high temperatures, the Casimir free energy calculated with the plasma model.

  8. 7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1703.122 Section 1703.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching...

  9. Arab Contributions to Civilization. ADC Issues #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macron, Mary

    This booklet, designed to provide educational materials on Arab history and culture, describes the contributions of Islamic civilization to western civilization. To be Arab, like American, was and is a cultural trait rather than a racial mark. To be Arab meant to be from the Arabic speaking world of common traditions, customs, and values shaped by…

  10. Contributions of Probability to Everyday Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    The contributions made by including probability theory in the primary grade curriculum are examined with respect to the day to day living of the developing child and his preparation for later life. In particular, language and decision making, misconceptions, research and systematic thinking, occupations, and the future are discussed. (MN)

  11. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 549.408 Section 549.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations...

  12. Contributions of orthodontists to organized dentistry.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, H P

    1980-01-01

    The first specialty board in dentistry has been celebrating its 50th anniversary. The need for the specialty and for presenting orthodontic diagnosis and classification at the undergraduate level remains. The orthodontic specialty has contributed an active source of leadership to all of dentistry and is proud to share in the common heritage of service to the public and in responsibility to the patient.

  13. Can Inferentialism Contribute to Social Epistemology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Robert Brandom's work can be used to develop ideas in the area of social epistemology. It suggests that this work, precisely because it was influenced by Hegel, can make a significant contribution with philosophical anthropology at its centre. The argument is developed using illustrations from education: the first, from…

  14. Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

  15. Variation in contributions to teaching by meerkats

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence from cooperative insect, bird and mammal societies has challenged the assumption that teaching is restricted to humans. However, little is known about the factors affecting the degree to which individuals in such societies contribute to teaching. Here, I examine variation in contributions to teaching in meerkats, where older group members teach pups to handle difficult prey. I show that investment in teaching varies with characteristics of pups, helpers, groups and ecological conditions. Although prior experience in caring for pups did not significantly influence teaching behaviour, younger helpers, which were still investing in growth, contributed less to teaching than older individuals. This suggests that, in common with other cooperative activities, contributions to teaching vary with the costs experienced by individual group members. However, in contrast to other forms of helping in meerkats, I detected no effects of nutritional state on teaching, suggesting that it carries relatively low costs. In species where individuals can potentially gain direct or indirect fitness benefits from facilitating learning in others, low costs divided among multiple group members may help tip the balance towards selection for teaching. PMID:18445555

  16. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Adolescent Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the family, school, peer and psychological factors that contribute to adolescent suicidal ideation. The participants were 1,358 (680 boys and 678 girls) Hong Kong Chinese adolescents who were divided into younger (12.3 years, n = 694) and older (15.4 years, n = 664) age groups. By using structural equation modeling,…

  17. Augustus Matthiessen and His Contributions to Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reif-Acherman, Simo´n

    2015-01-01

    The British scientist Augustus Matthiessen (1831-1870) is widely known for his investigations on the influence of temperature on the electric conductivity of metals and alloys. However, his contributions to other areas of science throughout his career are not widely acknowledged. His research on the electrolytic decomposition of metallic salts…

  18. Contributions of the Akamai Workforce Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Castori, Pam

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a third party, external perspective on the Akamai Workforce Initiative (AWI), highlighting some of the contributions of the initiative over the last ten years. AWI is a program that seeks to develop a skilled local STEM workforce to meet the needs of Hawai'i's growing high-tech industry. It began as an internship program…

  19. African Flagship Universities: Their Neglected Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew

    2016-01-01

    This study documents and analyzes the contributions of flagship universities in Africa in teaching, learning, graduates, and research productivity since their inception. On the basis of empirical evidence (from an ongoing study) on eleven "flagship" universities in Africa--Addis Ababa, Botswana, Cairo, Chiekh Anta Diop, Dar es Salaam,…

  20. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  2. 11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, the term written instrument means a check written on a personal... written instrument also means, in the case of a contribution by a credit card or debit card, either a... made: By an individual; by a written instrument and for the purpose of influencing the result of a...

  3. 11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, the term written instrument means a check written on a personal... written instrument also means, in the case of a contribution by a credit card or debit card, either a... made: By an individual; by a written instrument and for the purpose of influencing the result of a...

  4. 11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, the term written instrument means a check written on a personal... written instrument also means, in the case of a contribution by a credit card or debit card, either a... made: By an individual; by a written instrument and for the purpose of influencing the result of a...

  5. 11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, the term written instrument means a check written on a personal... written instrument also means, in the case of a contribution by a credit card or debit card, either a... made: By an individual; by a written instrument and for the purpose of influencing the result of a...

  6. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  7. Contribution of Bilingualism in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam

    2013-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the contribution of the use of bilingualism as an aid in learning/teaching English as a foreign language and bilingualism in EFL classroom does not reduce students' communicative abilities but in effect can assist in teaching and learning process. The study employed a qualitative, interpretive research design…

  8. Neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Guzey

    2008-01-22

    Using a simple model for nuclear GPDs, we study the role of the neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS observables. As an example, we use the beam-spin asymmetry $A_{LU}^A$ measured in coherent and incoherent DVCS on a wide range of nuclear targets in the HERMES and JLab kinematics. We find that at small values of the momentum transfer $t$, $A_{LU}^A$ is dominated by the coherent-enriched contribution, which enhances $A_{LU}^A$ compared to the free proton asymmetry $A_{LU}^p$, $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=1.8-2.2$. At large values of $t$, the nuclear asymmetry is dominated by the incoherent contribution and $A_{LU}^A/(\\phi)A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=0.66-0.74$. The deviation of $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)$ from unity at large $t$ is a result of the neutron contribution, which gives a possibility to constain neutron GPDs in incoherent nuclear DVCS. A similar trend is expected for other DVCS asymmetries.

  9. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  10. Glyoxal contribution to aerosols over Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have indicated that glyoxal (chemical formula OCHCHO), an atmospheric oxidation product of isoprene and aromatic compounds, may contribute to secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere, which can block sunlight and affect atmospheric chemistry. Some aerosols are primary aerosols, emitted directly into the atmosphere, while others are secondary, formed through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Washenfelder et al. describe in situ glyoxal measurements from Pasadena, Calif., near Los Angeles, made during summer 2010. They used three different methods to calculate the contribution of glyoxal to secondary atmospheric aerosol and found that it is responsible for 0-0.2 microgram per cubic meter, or 0-4%, of the secondary organic aerosol mass. The researchers also compared their results to those of a previous study that calculated the glyoxal contribution to aerosol for Mexico City. Mexico City had higher levels of organic aerosol mass from glyoxal. They suggest that the lower contribution of glyoxal to aerosol concentrations for Los Angeles may be due to differences in the composition or water content of the aerosols above the two cities. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2011JD016314, 2011)

  11. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS FOR...

  12. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO...

  13. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that each...

  14. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that each...

  15. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO...

  16. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS FOR...

  17. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO...

  18. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO...

  19. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS FOR...

  20. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that each...

  1. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that each...

  2. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that each...

  3. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO...

  4. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS FOR...

  5. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS FOR...

  6. Augustus Matthiessen and His Contributions to Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reif-Acherman, Simo´n

    2015-01-01

    The British scientist Augustus Matthiessen (1831-1870) is widely known for his investigations on the influence of temperature on the electric conductivity of metals and alloys. However, his contributions to other areas of science throughout his career are not widely acknowledged. His research on the electrolytic decomposition of metallic salts…

  7. African Flagship Universities: Their Neglected Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew

    2016-01-01

    This study documents and analyzes the contributions of flagship universities in Africa in teaching, learning, graduates, and research productivity since their inception. On the basis of empirical evidence (from an ongoing study) on eleven "flagship" universities in Africa--Addis Ababa, Botswana, Cairo, Chiekh Anta Diop, Dar es Salaam,…

  8. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  9. Contemporary American Indian Women: Careers And Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellanger, Patricia; Reese, Lillian

    Biographies of 77 Indian women highlight professional and personal accomplishments as well as contributions to the Indian community. Biographies are arranged by area of professional achievement in eight chapters: tribal government and politics, law, administration, education, communications, special fields (the arts, armed forces, and independent…

  10. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…

  11. Guillaume Dupuytren: his life and surgical contributions.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Lukas A; de Parades, Vincent; Holzer, Gerold

    2013-10-01

    Guillaume Dupuytren (1777-1835) was one of the most influential surgeons of the past. He described and popularized many conditions, including Dupuytren disease, which continues to carry his name. This article reviews Guillaume Dupuytren's life and his contributions in surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serial Item Contribution Identifier: New SISAC Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of the Serial Item Contribution Identifier (SICI) standard for serials handling. Developed by the Serials Industry Systems Advisory Committee (SISAC), SICI applications through the use of a SISAC barcode are expected to benefit shipping, ordering, serials processing and claiming, document delivery, and information exchange.…

  13. The Contributions of Dr. Alfred Gysi.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Rodney D; Engelmeier, Robert L

    2016-11-24

    This article is a historical overview of Dr. Alfred Gysi's contributions to the profession in the areas of denture tooth and articulator design. His understanding of occlusion and mandibular movement resulted in denture tooth designs and occlusal concepts still in widespread use.

  14. Neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Guzey

    2008-01-22

    Using a simple model for nuclear GPDs, we study the role of the neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS observables. As an example, we use the beam-spin asymmetry $A_{LU}^A$ measured in coherent and incoherent DVCS on a wide range of nuclear targets in the HERMES and JLab kinematics. We find that at small values of the momentum transfer $t$, $A_{LU}^A$ is dominated by the coherent-enriched contribution, which enhances $A_{LU}^A$ compared to the free proton asymmetry $A_{LU}^p$, $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=1.8-2.2$. At large values of $t$, the nuclear asymmetry is dominated by the incoherent contribution and $A_{LU}^A/(\\phi)A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=0.66-0.74$. The deviation of $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)$ from unity at large $t$ is a result of the neutron contribution, which gives a possibility to constain neutron GPDs in incoherent nuclear DVCS. A similar trend is expected for other DVCS asymmetries.

  15. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  16. The contribution of astrocytes to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Birch, Amy M

    2014-10-01

    Astrocytes were historically classified as supporting cells; however, it is becoming increasingly clear that they actively contribute to neuronal functioning under normal and pathological conditions. As interest in the contribution of neuroinflammation to Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression has grown, manipulating glial cells has become an attractive target for future therapies. Astrocytes have largely been under-represented in studies that assess the role of glia in these processes, despite substantial evidence of astrogliosis in AD. The actual role of astrocytes in AD remains elusive, as they seem to adopt different functions dependent on disease progression and the extent of accompanying parenchymal inflammation. Astrocytes may contribute to the clearance of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and restrict the spread of inflammation in the brain. Conversely, they may contribute to neurodegeneration in AD by releasing neurotoxins and neglecting crucial metabolic roles. The present review summarizes current evidence on the multi-faceted functions of astrocytes in AD, highlighting the significant scope available for future therapeutic targets.

  17. Physical mechanisms contributing to device ''REBOUND''

    SciTech Connect

    Schwank, J.R.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; McWhorter, P.J.; Sexton, F.W.; Turpin, D.C.; Winokur, P.S.

    1984-12-01

    The physical mechanisms that produce rebound have been identified. The positive increase in threshold voltage during a bias anneal is due to annealing of oxide trapped charge. Rebound can be predicted by measuring the contribution to the threshold voltage from radiation-induced interface states immediately after irradiation.

  18. Can Inferentialism Contribute to Social Epistemology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Robert Brandom's work can be used to develop ideas in the area of social epistemology. It suggests that this work, precisely because it was influenced by Hegel, can make a significant contribution with philosophical anthropology at its centre. The argument is developed using illustrations from education: the first, from…

  19. The Contribution of Social Resources To Volunteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John; Musick, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a theory of how social capital contributes to volunteering, hypothesizing that social capital has a stronger effect on volunteering among people with more human capital and socioeconomic status. Specifies a test (of the effects) of social capital on volunteering and discusses the findings (of the test) in detail. (CMK)

  20. Contribution of Vascular Cells to Neointimal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Falei; Wang, Dong; Xu, Kang; Wang, Jixian; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Li; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Li, Song

    2017-01-01

    The de-differentiation and proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are widely accepted as the major contributor to vascular remodeling. However, recent studies indicate that vascular stem cells (VSCs) also play an important role, but their relative contribution remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used genetic lineage tracing approach to further investigate the contribution of SMCs and VSCs to neointimal thickening in response to endothelium denudation injury or artery ligation. In vitro and in vivo analysis of MYH11-cre/Rosa-loxP-RFP mouse artery showed that SMCs proliferated at a much slower rate than non-SMCs. Upon denudation or ligation injury, two distinct types of neointima were identified: Type-I neointimal cells mainly involved SMCs, while Type II mainly involved non-SMCs. Using Sox10-cre/Rosa-loxP-LacZ mice, we found that Sox10+ cells were one of the cell sources in neointima. In addition, lineage tracing using Tie2-cre/Rosa-LoxP-RFP showed that endothelial cells also contributed to the neointimal formation, but rarely transdifferentiated into mesenchymal lineages. These results provide a novel insight into the contribution of vascular cells to neointima formation, and have significant impact on the development of more effective therapies that target specific vascular cell types. PMID:28060852

  1. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…

  2. Pioneer Women Educators: Challenges and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, C. L.

    This paper outlines the educational history of women in the United States and focuses on three women educators from the nineteenth century: Emma Willard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon. The paper considers their contributions to teaching and teacher education--all of these women founded schools to educate women. While these women paved the way…

  3. Ambient Ammonium Contribution to total Nitrogen Deposition ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There has been a wealth of evidence over the last decade illustrating the rising importance of reduced inorganic nitrogen (NHx = ammonia gas, NH3, plus particulate ammonium, p-NH4) in the overall atmospheric mass balance and deposition of nitrogen as emissions of oxidized nitrogen have decreased throughout a period of stable or increasing NH3 emissions. In addition, the fraction of ambient ammonia relative to p-NH4 generally has risen as a result of decreases in both oxides of nitrogen and sulfur emissions. EPA plans to consider ecological effects related to deposition of nitrogen, of which NHx is a contributing component, in the review of secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen and sulfur (NOx/SOx standard). Although these ecological effects are associated with total nitrogen deposition, it will be important to understand the emissions sources contributing to the total nitrogen deposition and to understand how much of the total nitrogen deposition is from deposition of NHx versus other nitrogen species. Because p-NH4 contributes to nitrogen deposition and can also be a significant component of particulate matter, there is a potential overlap in addressing nitrogen based deposition effects in the secondary PM and NOx/SOx NAAQS. Consequently, there is a policy interest in quantifying the contribution of p-NH4 to total nitrogen deposition. While dry deposition of p-NH4 is calculated through a variety of modeling app

  4. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  5. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  6. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  7. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  8. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  9. Mapping Academic Library Contributions to Campus Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Steven W.; Kutner, Laurie; Cooper, Liz

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed academic libraries across the United States to establish baseline data on their contributions to campus internationalization. Supplementing data from the American Council on Education (ACE) on internationalization of higher education, this research measured the level of international activities taking place in academic…

  10. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  11. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  12. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  13. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  14. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  15. Librarian contributions to clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Cruse, Peggy; Protzko, Shandra

    2014-01-01

    Librarians have become more involved in developing high quality systematic reviews. Evidence-based practice guidelines are an extension of systematic reviews and offer another significant area for librarian involvement. This column highlights opportunities and challenges for the librarian working on guideline panels and provides practical considerations for meaningful contributions to the guideline creation process.

  16. Contributions from the SuperKamiokande Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, R.J.; Fukuda, Y.; Inoue, K.

    1995-09-01

    This document consists of two reports contributed to the XXIV International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rome, Italy, August 28--September 8, 1995) from the SuperKamiokande Collaboration: one on the SuperKamiokande outer data acquisition system, and one on preliminary results from muon/electron identification tests at KEK of IMB3-detector phototubes and electronics.

  17. Mechanism Design for Incentivizing Social Media Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vivek K.; Jain, Ramesh; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    Despite recent advancements in user-driven social media platforms, tools for studying user behavior patterns and motivations remain primitive. We highlight the voluntary nature of user contributions and that users can choose when (and when not) to contribute to the common media pool. A Game theoretic framework is proposed to study the dynamics of social media networks where contribution costs are individual but gains are common. We model users as rational selfish agents, and consider domain attributes like voluntary participation, virtual reward structure, network effect, and public-sharing to model the dynamics of this interaction. The created model describes the most appropriate contribution strategy from each user's perspective and also highlights issues like 'free-rider' problem and individual rationality leading to irrational (i.e. sub-optimal) group behavior. We also consider the perspective of the system designer who is interested in finding the best incentive mechanisms to influence the selfish end-users so that the overall system utility is maximized. We propose and compare multiple mechanisms (based on optimal bonus payment, social incentive leveraging, and second price auction) to study how a system designer can exploit the selfishness of its users, to design incentive mechanisms which improve the overall task-completion probability and system performance, while possibly still benefiting the individual users.

  18. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 966.45 Section 966.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  19. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  20. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  1. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  2. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  3. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  4. NASA's contributions to patient monitoring, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, D. M.; Siemens, W. D.

    1971-01-01

    Health care problems, and markets for patient monitoring equipment are discussed along with contributions to all phases of patient monitoring, and technology transfer to nonaerospace problems. Health care medical requirements, and NASA achievements in patient monitoring are described, and a summary of the technology transfer is included.

  5. Neurovascular contributions to migraine: Moving beyond vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Blaine; Dussor, Gregory

    2016-12-03

    Migraine is the third most common disease worldwide, the most common neurological disorder, and one of the most common pain conditions. Despite its prevalence, the basic physiology and underlying mechanisms contributing to the development of migraine are still poorly understood and development of new therapeutic targets is long overdue. Until recently, the major contributing pathophysiological event thought to initiate migraine was cerebral and meningeal arterial vasodilation. However, the role of vasodilation in migraine is unclear and recent findings challenge its necessity. While vasodilation itself may not contribute to migraine, it remains possible that vessels play a role in migraine pathophysiology in the absence of vasodilation. Blood vessels consist of a variety of cell types that both release and respond to numerous mediators including growth factors, cytokines, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nitric oxide (NO). Many of these mediators have actions on neurons that can contribute to migraine. Conversely, neurons release factors such as norepinephrine and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) that act on cells native to blood vessels. Both normal and pathological events occurring within and between vascular cells could thus mediate bi-directional communication between vessels and the nervous system, without the need for changes in vascular tone. This review will discuss the potential contribution of the vasculature, specifically endothelial cells, to current neuronal mechanisms hypothesized to play a role in migraine. Hypothalamic activity, cortical spreading depression (CSD), and dural afferent input from the cranial meninges will be reviewed with a focus on how these mechanisms can influence or be impacted by blood vessels. Together, the data discussed will provide a framework by which vessels can be viewed as important potential contributors to migraine pathophysiology, even in light of the current uncertainty over the role of vasodilation in this

  6. Analyzing Revenue Contribution Ratios: Net versus Gross Tuition and Fees Revenue Contribution Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.; Minter, W. John

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that analysis of tuition and fees revenue contributions can enable colleges and universities to develop pricing, admissions, and student aid policies that produce desired financial outcomes. Long-term trends of three tuition and fees revenue contribution ratios are explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  7. Small meteoroids' major contribution to Mercury's exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotheer, E. B.; Livi, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the meteoroid population to the generation of Mercury's exosphere is analyzed to determine which segment contributes most greatly to exospheric refilling via the process of meteoritic impact vaporization. For the meteoroid data, a differential mass distribution based on work by Grün et al. (Grün, E., Zook, H.A., Fechtig, H., Giese, R.H. [1985]. Icarus 62(2), 244-272) and a differential velocity distribution based on the work of Zook (Zook, H.A. [1975]. In: 6th Lunar Science Conference, vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Inc., Houston, TX, pp. 1653-1672) is used. These distributions are then evaluated using the method employed by Cintala (Cintala, M.J. [1992]. J. Geophys. Res. 97(E1), 947-974) to determine impact rates for selected mass and velocity segments of the meteoroid population.

  8. Extraluminal factors contributing to inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Arvind; Stroh, Thorsten; Siegmund, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Many identified and yet unknown factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The genome-wide association studies clearly support the earlier developed concept that IBD occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to distinct environmental factors, which together result in dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Thus, the majority of previous studies have focused on the immune response within the intestinal wall. The present review aims to emphasize the contribution of three extraluminal structures to this inflammatory process, namely the mesenteric fat tissue, the lymphatics and the microvasculature. Broadening our view across the intestinal wall will not only facilitate our understanding of the disease, but will also us to identify future therapeutic targets. PMID:21350706

  9. The Contributions of Vincent Justus Burnelli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the contributions and the professional life of Vincent Justus Burnelli are presented. Burnelli was an inventor, aircraft designer and a leading pioneer in early aviation within the United States. A discussion of many of his leading accomplishments are discussed, including his design of the first commercial twin engine transport, invent of the lifting-body/lifting-fuselage aircraft. He was one of the first to put into practice retractable landing gear, variable area and camber wings, winglets, and full span flaps for twin engine aircraft. A review of a number of his sixty patents is presented and discussed as they relate to his eleven aircraft designs that were produced. A brief discussion of his accomplishments and contributions, as they relate to present aircraft design trends is also presented.

  10. The gluon contribution to nucleon spin

    SciTech Connect

    Antje Bruell

    2006-04-06

    EIC is the ideal machine to finally determine the contribution of the gluons to the nucleon spin. Measurements of G{sub 1} will allow: (1) a determination of {Delta}G/G from its scaling violation and (2) a statistically very precise determination of the Bjorken Sum (systematics due to uncertainty in proton beam polarization). Measurements of charm cross section asymmetries will provide a precise determination of {Delta}G/G for 0.003 < x < 0.5 at a fixed value of Q{sup 2} of {approx} GeV{sup 2} provided they can measure the scattered electron at extremely small angles; separate the primary and secondary vertex with sufficient precision; and control the contribution of resolved photons. More work is needed to define the necessary detector requirements.

  11. Abraham Colles and his contributions to anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shayota, Brian J; Oelhafen, Kim; Shoja, Mohammadali; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    Abraham Colles is known among the medical community for his detailed description of Colles' fracture, one of the most common occurring skeletal injuries. It is remarkable that something as seemingly simple as the diagnosis of Colles' fracture had not been established until nearly 200 years ago. While that may have been his most well known accomplishment, Colles made several other contributions to medicine across multiple fields of practice. In the field of anatomy, he is also credited for his discovery and description of Colles' fascia and Colles' ligament. Less commonly known, however, are his clinical observations and offered treatment regimens for syphilis, as well as his achievement in performing the first surgery for axillary artery aneurysm. The current paper will review the life and contributions of this early surgeon and anatomist.

  12. Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Hydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic hydration plays a key role in a vast variety of biological processes, ranging from the formation of cells to protein folding and ligand binding. Hydrophobicity scales simplify the complex process of hydration by assigning a value describing the averaged hydrophobic character to each amino acid. Previously published scales were not able to calculate the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobicity directly. We present a new method, based on Molecular Dynamics simulations and Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory, that calculates hydrophobicity from enthalpic and entropic contributions. Instead of deriving these quantities from the temperature dependence of the free energy of hydration or as residual of the free energy and the enthalpy, we directly obtain these values from the phase space occupied by water molecules. Additionally, our method is able to identify regions with specific enthalpic and entropic properties, allowing to identify so-called “unhappy water” molecules, which are characterized by weak enthalpic interactions and unfavorable entropic constraints. PMID:27442443

  13. The Contributions of Vincent Justus Burnelli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the contributions and the professional life of Vincent Justus Burnelli are presented. Burnelli was an inventor, aircraft designer and a leading pioneer in early aviation within the United States. A discussion of many of his leading accomplishments are discussed, including hid design of the first commercial twin engine transport, invent of the lifting-body/lifting-fuselage aircraft. He was one of the first to put into practice retractable landing gear, variable area and camber wings, winglets, and full span flaps for twin engine aircraft. A review of a number of his sixty patents is presented and discussed as they relate to his eleven aircraft designs that were produced. A brief discussion of his accomplishments and contributions, as they relate to present aircraft design trends is also presented.

  14. The Immunological Contribution to Heterotopic Ossification Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Convente, Michael R.; Wang, Haitao; Pignolo, Robert J.; Kaplan, Frederick S.; Shore, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of bone outside the endogenous skeleton is a significant clinical event, rendering affected individuals with immobility and a diminished quality of life. This bone, termed heterotopic ossification (HO), can appear in patients following invasive surgeries and traumatic injuries, as well as progressively manifest in several congenital disorders. A unifying feature of both genetic and non-genetic episodes of HO is immune system involvement at the early stages of disease. Activation of the immune system sets the stage for the downstream anabolic events that eventually result in ectopic bone formation, rendering the immune system a particularly appealing site of early therapeutic intervention for optimal management of disease. In this review we will discuss the immunological contributions to HO disorders, with specific focus on contributing cell types, signaling pathways, relevant in vivo animal models, and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25687936

  15. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility

    PubMed Central

    Igberase, Gabriel O.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out. PMID:24765335

  16. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility.

    PubMed

    Igberase, Gabriel O

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out.

  17. A mesonic analog of the deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbar, Richard R.; Goldman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Using the LAMP model for nuclear quark structure, we calculate the binding energy and quark structure of a B meson merging with a D meson. Our variational calculation shows that a molecular, deuteron-like state structure changes rather abruptly, as the separation between the two mesons decreases, and at a separation of about 0.14 fm, the hadronic system transforms into a four-quark bound state, although one maintaining an internal structure rather than that of a four-quark "bag." Unlike the deuteron, pion exchange does not provide any contribution to the ≈ 150 MeV binding.

  18. Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,F.

    2009-05-26

    We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics, in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions, such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distribution of hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches are consistent with each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process.

  19. Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng

    2009-09-11

    We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics,in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions,such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distributionof hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate thatthe transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches areconsistentwith each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusivehadron production in DIS process.

  20. Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,F.

    2009-05-25

    We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics, in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions, such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distribution of hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches are consistent with each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process.

  1. Turkic Contributions To The CLIC Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, A. K.

    2007-04-23

    Turkic group has been a collaborator of CLIC project of CERN since mid-2004. Since then, the group has been contributing CLIC study efforts on: impact of beam dynamics issues on CLIC Physics potential, CLIC*LHC interface (QCD Explorer, ep, {gamma}p, eA and {gamma}A colliding options and FEL {gamma} Nucleus Collider) and operation of CTF3. On this talk the status of the collaboration is given in details.

  2. Contribution of globular clusters to halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragaglia, Angela

    2017-03-01

    The contribution of massive star clusters to their hosting halo dramatically depends on their formation mechanism and their early evolution. Massive globular clusters in the Milky Way (and in other galaxies) have been shown to display peculiar chemical patterns (light-elements correlations and anti-correlations) indicative of a complex star formation, confirmed by photometric evidence (spread or split sequences). I use these chemical signatures to try to understand what is the fraction of halo stars originally born in globular clusters.

  3. Cardiac and Arterial Contribution to Blood Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    heart to the blood pressure . We conclude that when the heart hypertrophies, as a result of the hypertension , the changed cardiac behavior, in turn...Plenary Talks Cardiac and Arterial Contribution to Blood Pressure N.Westerhof, Lab. for Physiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research...Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam Blood pressure and blood flow result from the interaction of the heart, the pump, and the arterial system, the load

  4. Gluon Contribution To The Nucleon Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Arash, Firooz; Shahveh, Abolfazl; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh

    2011-07-15

    Gluon polarization in Nucleon is evaluated in the valon representation of hadrons. It is shown that although {delta}g/g is small at the currently measured kinematics, it does not imply that the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is small. In fact the first moment of gluon polarization in the nucleon, {Delta}g(Q{sup 2}), is sizable. We also notice that the majority of {Delta}g is concentrated at around x = 0.08.

  5. Quantifying cerebral contributions to pain beyond nociception

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Schmidt, Liane; Krishnan, Anjali; Jepma, Marieke; Roy, Mathieu; Lindquist, Martin A.; Atlas, Lauren Y.; Wager, Tor D.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral processes contribute to pain beyond the level of nociceptive input and mediate psychological and behavioural influences. However, cerebral contributions beyond nociception are not yet well characterized, leading to a predominant focus on nociception when studying pain and developing interventions. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with machine learning to develop a multivariate pattern signature—termed the stimulus intensity independent pain signature-1 (SIIPS1)—that predicts pain above and beyond nociceptive input in four training data sets (Studies 1–4, N=137). The SIIPS1 includes patterns of activity in nucleus accumbens, lateral prefrontal and parahippocampal cortices, and other regions. In cross-validated analyses of Studies 1–4 and in two independent test data sets (Studies 5–6, N=46), SIIPS1 responses explain variation in trial-by-trial pain ratings not captured by a previous fMRI-based marker for nociceptive pain. In addition, SIIPS1 responses mediate the pain-modulating effects of three psychological manipulations of expectations and perceived control. The SIIPS1 provides an extensible characterization of cerebral contributions to pain and specific brain targets for interventions. PMID:28195170

  6. THE CONTRIBUTION OF SUPERNOVAE TO COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2011-12-20

    While stars are widely discussed as the source of the high-energy photons that reionized the universe, an additional source of ionizing photons that must also contribute to reionization in this scenario are the supernovae (SNe) which mark the end of the life of massive stars. Here we estimate the relative contributions of SNe and stars to reionization. While the rate at which ionizing photons are produced in SNe shocks is well below that at which they are produced by stars, the harder spectra of radiation emitted from SNe lead to an enhanced escape fraction of SN-generated photons relative to that of stellar photons. In particular, along a given line of sight out of a galaxy, we find that for neutral hydrogen column densities N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} the contribution to reionization from SNe is greater than that from stars. Drawing on the results of simulations presented in the literature, we find that the overall (line-of-sight-averaged) SNe shock-generated ionizing photon escape fraction is larger than the stellar photon escape fraction by a factor of {approx_equal}4 to {approx_equal}7, depending on the metallicity of the stellar population. Overall, our results suggest that the effect of SNe is an enhancement of up to {approx}10% in the fraction of hydrogen reionized by stellar sources. We briefly discuss the implications of our results for the population of galaxies responsible for reionization.

  7. Active and passive contributions to spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H

    2012-02-01

    It seems intuitively obvious that active exploration of a new environment will lead to better spatial learning than will passive exposure. However, the literature on this issue is decidedly mixed-in part, because the concept itself is not well defined. We identify five potential components of active spatial learning and review the evidence regarding their role in the acquisition of landmark, route, and survey knowledge. We find that (1) idiothetic information in walking contributes to metric survey knowledge, (2) there is little evidence as yet that decision making during exploration contributes to route or survey knowledge, (3) attention to place-action associations and relevant spatial relations contributes to route and survey knowledge, although landmarks and boundaries appear to be learned without effort, (4) route and survey information are differentially encoded in subunits of working memory, and (5) there is preliminary evidence that mental manipulation of such properties facilitates spatial learning. Idiothetic information appears to be necessary to reveal the influence of attention and, possibly, decision making in survey learning, which may explain the mixed results in desktop virtual reality. Thus, there is indeed an active advantage in spatial learning, which manifests itself in the task-dependent acquisition of route and survey knowledge.

  8. Glacier Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A. S.; Cogley, J. G.; Moholdt, G.; Wouters, B.; Wiese, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Global mean sea level is rising in response to two primary factors: warming oceans and diminishing glaciers and ice sheets. If melted completely, glaciers would raise sea levels by half a meter, much less than that the 80 meters or so that would result from total melt of the massive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. That is why glacier contributions to sea level rise have been less studied, allowing estimates of to vary widely. Glacier contributions to sea level change are challenging to quantify as they are broadly distributed, located in remote and poorly accessible high latitude and high altitude regions, and ground observations are sparse. Advances in satellite altimetry (ICESat) and gravimetry (GRACE) have helped, but they also have their own challenges and limitations. Here we present an updated (2003-2014) synthesis of multiple techniques adapted for varying regions to show that rates of glacier loss change little between the 2003-2009 and 2003-2014 periods, accounting for roughly one third of global mean sea level rise. Over the next century and beyond glaciers are expected to continue to contribute substantial volumes of water to the world's oceans, motivating continued study of how glaciers respond to climate change that will improve projections of future sea levels.

  9. Group Contribution Methods for Phase Equilibrium Calculations.

    PubMed

    Gmehling, Jürgen; Constantinescu, Dana; Schmid, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    The development and design of chemical processes are carried out by solving the balance equations of a mathematical model for sections of or the whole chemical plant with the help of process simulators. For process simulation, besides kinetic data for the chemical reaction, various pure component and mixture properties are required. Because of the great importance of separation processes for a chemical plant in particular, a reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is required. The phase equilibrium behavior can be calculated with the help of modern equations of state or g(E)-models using only binary parameters. But unfortunately, only a very small part of the experimental data for fitting the required binary model parameters is available, so very often these models cannot be applied directly. To solve this problem, powerful predictive thermodynamic models have been developed. Group contribution methods allow the prediction of the required phase equilibrium data using only a limited number of group interaction parameters. A prerequisite for fitting the required group interaction parameters is a comprehensive database. That is why for the development of powerful group contribution methods almost all published pure component properties, phase equilibrium data, excess properties, etc., were stored in computerized form in the Dortmund Data Bank. In this review, the present status, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, possible applications, and typical results of the different group contribution methods for the calculation of phase equilibria are presented.

  10. U.S. Contributions to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Ned R. Sauthoff

    2005-05-13

    The United States participates in the ITER project and program to enable the study of the science and technology of burning plasmas, a key programmatic element missing from the world fusion program. The 2003 U.S. decision to enter the ITER negotiations followed an extensive series of community and governmental reviews of the benefits, readiness, and approaches to the study of burning plasmas. This paper describes both the technical and the organizational preparations and plans for U.S. participation in the ITER construction activity: in-kind contributions, staff contributions, and cash contributions as well as supporting physics and technology research. Near-term technical activities focus on the completion of R&D and design and mitigation of risks in the areas of the central solenoid magnet, shield/blanket, diagnostics, ion cyclotron system, electron cyclotron system, pellet fueling system, vacuum system, tritium processing system, and conventional systems. Outside the project, the U .S. is engaged in preparations for the test blanket module program. Organizational activities focus on preparations of the project management arrangements to maximize the overall success of the ITER Project; elements include refinement of U.S. directions on the international arrangements, the establishment of the U.S. Domestic Agency, progress along the path of the U.S. Department of Energy's Project Management Order, and overall preparations for commencement of the fabrication of major items of equipment and for provision of staff and cash as specified in the upcoming ITER agreement.

  11. CODE's contribution to the IGS MGEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prange, Lars; Dach, Rolf; Lutz, Simon; Schaer, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is contributing as a global analysis center to the International GNSS Service (IGS) since many years. The processing of GPS and GLONASS data is well established in CODE's ultra-rapid, rapid, and final product lines. Since 2012 CODE contributes to the "Multi GNSS EXperiment" (MGEX), launched by the IGS as a testbed for the incorporation of new GNSS and their signals into the existing IGS processing chains and software packages. The focus of CODE's MGEX activities was on Galileo so far. Comparisons with other groups results proved the quality of CODE's Galileo orbit (based on a 3-day long-arc solution) and clock products. The MGEX processing at CODE is currently extended to the BeiDou system, which will result in a fully consistent quadruple-system solution including GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou. We present the latest status of the CODE MGEX processing. The quality of the orbit and clock solutions will be evaluated. The characteristics and the impact of the contributing GNSS on the products will be assessed. The CODE MGEX orbit and clock products are publicly available in the IGS MGEX products directory at the CDDIS data center: ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gnss/products/mgex (the solution ID "com" stands for CODE-MGEX).

  12. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution election. Upon reemployment or return to pay status, an employee has 60 days to elect to make up missed contributions. An employee's right to make retroactive TSP contributions will expire if an election is not made...

  13. 20 CFR 345.304 - New-employer contribution rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New-employer contribution rates. 345.304... INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Contribution Rates § 345.304 New-employer contribution rates. (a) An employer whose coverage under the RUIA becomes effective after December 31, 1989, is...

  14. 20 CFR 345.304 - New-employer contribution rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true New-employer contribution rates. 345.304... INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Contribution Rates § 345.304 New-employer... considered a “new employer” for the purposes of this part and will be assigned a contribution rate as...

  15. 20 CFR 345.304 - New-employer contribution rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New-employer contribution rates. 345.304... INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Contribution Rates § 345.304 New-employer... considered a “new employer” for the purposes of this part and will be assigned a contribution rate as...

  16. 20 CFR 345.304 - New-employer contribution rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New-employer contribution rates. 345.304... INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Contribution Rates § 345.304 New-employer... considered a “new employer” for the purposes of this part and will be assigned a contribution rate as...

  17. 5 CFR 1600.23 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Catch-up contributions. (a) A participant may make traditional catch-up contributions or Roth catch-up... traditional catch-up contributions and Roth catch-up contributions during the same year, but the combined... contributions to his or her Roth balance from pay which is exempt from taxation under 26 U.S.C. 112. (g)...

  18. 5 CFR 1600.23 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Catch-up contributions. (a) A participant may make traditional catch-up contributions or Roth catch-up... traditional catch-up contributions and Roth catch-up contributions during the same year, but the combined... contributions to his or her Roth balance from pay which is exempt from taxation under 26 U.S.C. 112. (g)...

  19. Contribution of tropical cyclones to global rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouakhi, Abdou; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel; Smith, James

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) can have both devastating and beneficial impacts in different parts of the world. In this work, daily precipitation and historical six-hour best track TC datasets are used to quantify the contribution of TCs to global rainfall. We select 18607 rain gauge stations with at least 25 complete (at least 330 measurements per year) years between 1970 and 2014. We consider rainfall associated with TCs if the center of circulation of the storm passed within a given distance from the rain gauge and within a given time window. Spatial and temporal sensitivity analyses are performed with varying time windows (same day, ±1 day) and buffer radii (400 km and 500 km) around each rain gauge. Results highlight regional differences in TC-induced rainfall. The highest TC-induced precipitation totals (400 to 600+ mm/year) are prevalent along eastern Asia, western and northeastern Australia, and in the western Pacific islands. Stations along the southeast of the U.S. coast and surrounding the Gulf of Mexico receive up to 200 mm/year of TC rainfall. The highest annual fractional contributions of TCs to total rainfall (from 35 to 50%) are recorded in stations located in northwestern Australia, southeastern China, the northern Philippines and the southern Mexico peninsula. Seasonally, the highest proportions (40 to 50%) are recorded along eastern Australia and Mauritius in winter, and in eastern Asia and Mexico in summer and autumn. Analyses of the relative contribution of TCs to extreme rainfall using annual maximum (AM) and peaks-over-threshold (POT) approaches indicate notable differences among regions. The highest TC-AM rainfall proportions (45 to 60%) are found in stations located in Japan, eastern China, the Philippines, eastern and western Australia. Substantial contributions (25 to 40% of extreme rainfall) are also recorded in stations located along the U.S. East Coast, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mexico peninsula. We find similar

  20. 5 CFR 1600.20 - Types of employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contributions. (b) Roth contributions. A participant may make Roth contributions in addition to or in lieu of... made to his or her traditional or Roth balance in accordance with an election made under paragraph...

  1. 5 CFR 1600.20 - Types of employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contributions. (b) Roth contributions. A participant may make Roth contributions in addition to or in lieu of... made to his or her traditional or Roth balance in accordance with an election made under paragraph...

  2. Contribution mapping: a method for mapping the contribution of research to enhance its impact

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At a time of growing emphasis on both the use of research and accountability, it is important for research funders, researchers and other stakeholders to monitor and evaluate the extent to which research contributes to better action for health, and find ways to enhance the likelihood that beneficial contributions are realized. Past attempts to assess research 'impact' struggle with operationalizing 'impact', identifying the users of research and attributing impact to research projects as source. In this article we describe Contribution Mapping, a novel approach to research monitoring and evaluation that aims to assess contributions instead of impacts. The approach focuses on processes and actors and systematically assesses anticipatory efforts that aim to enhance contributions, so-called alignment efforts. The approach is designed to be useful for both accountability purposes and for assisting in better employing research to contribute to better action for health. Methods Contribution Mapping is inspired by a perspective from social studies of science on how research and knowledge utilization processes evolve. For each research project that is assessed, a three-phase process map is developed that includes the main actors, activities and alignment efforts during research formulation, production and knowledge extension (e.g. dissemination and utilization). The approach focuses on the actors involved in, or interacting with, a research project (the linked actors) and the most likely influential users, who are referred to as potential key users. In the first stage, the investigators of the assessed project are interviewed to develop a preliminary version of the process map and first estimation of research-related contributions. In the second stage, potential key-users and other informants are interviewed to trace, explore and triangulate possible contributions. In the third stage, the presence and role of alignment efforts is analyzed and the preliminary

  3. The ILRS Contribution to ITRF2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Luceri, Cinzia; Sciarretta, Cecilia; Evans, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data have contributed to the definition of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) over the past three decades. The development of ITRF2005 ushered a new era with the use of weekly or session contributions, allowing greater flexibility in the editing, relative weighting and the combination of information from the four contributing techniques. The new approach allows each Service to generate a solution based on the rigorous combination of the individual Analysis Centers' contributions that provides an opportunity to verify the intra-technique consistency and a comparison of internal procedures and adopted models. The intra- and inter-technique comparisons that the time series approach facilitates are an extremely powerful diagnostic that highlights differences and inconsistencies at the single station level. Over the past year the ILRS Analysis Working Group (AWG) worked on designing an improved ILRS contribution for the development of ITRF2013. The ILRS approach is based on the current IERS Conventions 2010 and our internal ILRS standards, with a few deviations that are documented. Since the Global Geodetic Observing System - GGOS identified the ITRF as its key project, the ILRS has taken a two-pronged approach in order to meet its stringent goals: modernizing the engineering components (ground and space segments), and revising the modeling standards taking advantage of recent improvements in system Earth modeling. The main concern in the case of SLR is monitoring systematic errors at individual stations, accounting for undocumented discontinuities, and improving the target signature models. The latter has been addressed with the adoption of mm-level models for all of our targets. As far as the station systematics, the AWG had already embarked on a major effort to improve the handling of such errors prior to the development of ITRF2008. The results of that effort formed the foundation for the re-examination of the

  4. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  5. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Julie A; Lawler, Joshua J; Schumaker, Nathan H; Wilsey, Chad B; Bender, Darren J

    2015-12-01

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of individuals in sinks can compromise persistence; but conversely, sinks can improve viability by improving connectivity and facilitating the recolonization of vacant sources. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional population persistence of declining populations, we simulated source-sink dynamics for 3 very different endangered species: Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapilla) at Fort Hood, Texas, Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) in Alberta, and Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the northwestern United States. We used empirical data from these case studies to parameterize spatially explicit individual-based models. We then used the models to quantify population abundance and persistence with and without long-term sinks. The contributions of sink habitats varied widely. Sinks were detrimental, particularly when they functioned as strong sinks with few emigrants in declining populations (e.g., Alberta's Ord's kangaroo rat) and benign in robust populations (e.g., Black-capped Vireos) when Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism was controlled. Sinks, including ecological traps, were also crucial in delaying declines when there were few sources (e.g., in Black-capped Vireo populations with no Cowbird control). Sink contributions were also nuanced. For example, sinks that supported large, variable populations were subject to greater extinction risk (e.g., Northern Spotted Owls). In each of our case studies, new context-dependent sinks emerged, underscoring the dynamic nature of sources and sinks and the need for frequent re-assessment. Our results imply that management actions based on assumptions that sink habitats are generally harmful or helpful risk undermining conservation efforts for declining populations. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  7. Small meteoroids' major contribution to Mercury's exosphere

    PubMed Central

    Grotheer, E.B.; Livi, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the meteoroid population to the generation of Mercury's exosphere is analyzed to determine which segment contributes most greatly to exospheric refilling via the process of meteoritic impact vaporization. For the meteoroid data, a differential mass distribution based on work by Grün et al. (Grün, E., Zook, H.A., Fechtig, H., Giese, R.H. [1985]. Icarus 62(2), 244–272) and a differential velocity distribution based on the work of Zook (Zook, H.A. [1975]. In: 6th Lunar Science Conference, vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Inc., Houston, TX, pp. 1653–1672) is used. These distributions are then evaluated using the method employed by Cintala (Cintala, M.J. [1992]. J. Geophys. Res. 97(E1), 947–974) to determine impact rates for selected mass and velocity segments of the meteoroid population. The amount of vapor created by a single meteor impact is determined by using the framework created by Berezhnoy and Klumov (Berezhnoy, A.A., Klumov, B.A. [2008] Icarus, 195(2), 511–522). By combining the impact rate of meteoroids with the amount of vapor a single such impact creates, we derive the total vapor production rate which that meteoroid mass segment contributes to the Herman exosphere. It is shown that meteoroids with a mass of 2.1 × 10−4 g release the largest amount of vapor into Mercury's exosphere. For meteoroids in the mass range of 10−18 g to 10 g, 90% of all the vapor produced is due to impacts by meteoroids in the mass range 4.2 × 10−7 g ≤ m ≤ 8.3 × 10−2 g. PMID:24817768

  8. Small meteoroids' major contribution to Mercury's exosphere.

    PubMed

    Grotheer, E B; Livi, S A

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the meteoroid population to the generation of Mercury's exosphere is analyzed to determine which segment contributes most greatly to exospheric refilling via the process of meteoritic impact vaporization. For the meteoroid data, a differential mass distribution based on work by Grün et al. (Grün, E., Zook, H.A., Fechtig, H., Giese, R.H. [1985]. Icarus 62(2), 244-272) and a differential velocity distribution based on the work of Zook (Zook, H.A. [1975]. In: 6th Lunar Science Conference, vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Inc., Houston, TX, pp. 1653-1672) is used. These distributions are then evaluated using the method employed by Cintala (Cintala, M.J. [1992]. J. Geophys. Res. 97(E1), 947-974) to determine impact rates for selected mass and velocity segments of the meteoroid population. The amount of vapor created by a single meteor impact is determined by using the framework created by Berezhnoy and Klumov (Berezhnoy, A.A., Klumov, B.A. [2008] Icarus, 195(2), 511-522). By combining the impact rate of meteoroids with the amount of vapor a single such impact creates, we derive the total vapor production rate which that meteoroid mass segment contributes to the Herman exosphere. It is shown that meteoroids with a mass of 2.1 × 10(-4) g release the largest amount of vapor into Mercury's exosphere. For meteoroids in the mass range of 10(-18) g to 10 g, 90% of all the vapor produced is due to impacts by meteoroids in the mass range 4.2 × 10(-7) g ≤ m ≤ 8.3 × 10(-2) g.

  9. Participation and Contribution in Crowdsourced Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Robert; Berger, Alex; Bongard, Josh; Hines, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies trends within and relationships between the amount of participation and the quality of contributions in three crowdsourced surveys. Participants were asked to perform a collective problem solving task that lacked any explicit incentive: they were instructed not only to respond to survey questions but also to pose new questions that they thought might-if responded to by others-predict an outcome variable of interest to them. While the three surveys had very different outcome variables, target audiences, methods of advertisement, and lengths of deployment, we found very similar patterns of collective behavior. In particular, we found that: the rate at which participants submitted new survey questions followed a heavy-tailed distribution; the distribution in the types of questions posed was similar; and many users posed non-obvious yet predictive questions. By analyzing responses to questions that contained a built-in range of valid response we found that less than 0.2% of responses lay outside of those ranges, indicating that most participants tend to respond honestly to surveys of this form, even without explicit incentives for honesty. While we did not find a significant relationship between the quantity of participation and the quality of contribution for both response submissions and question submissions, we did find several other more nuanced participant behavior patterns, which did correlate with contribution in one of the three surveys. We conclude that there exists an optimal time for users to pose questions early on in their participation, but only after they have submitted a few responses to other questions. This suggests that future crowdsourced surveys may attract more predictive questions by prompting users to pose new questions at specific times during their participation and limiting question submission at non-optimal times. PMID:25837602

  10. Autophagy contributes to degradation of Hirano bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Davis, Richard C.; Furukawa, Ruth; Fechheimer, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Hirano bodies are actin-rich inclusions reported most frequently in the hippocampus in association with a variety of conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and aging. We have developed a model system for formation of Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium and cultured mammalian cells to permit detailed studies of the dynamics of these structures in living cells. Model Hirano bodies are frequently observed in membrane-enclosed vesicles in mammalian cells consistent with a role of autophagy in the degradation of these structures. Clearance of Hirano bodies by an exocytotic process is supported by images from electron microscopy showing extracellular release of Hirano bodies, and observation of Hirano bodies in the culture medium of Dictyostelium and mammalian cells. An autophagosome marker protein Atg8-GFP was colocalized with model Hirano bodies in wild-type Dictyostelium cells, but not in atg5- or atg1-1 autophagy mutant strains. Induction of model Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium with a high-level expression of 34 kDa ΔEF1 from the inducible discoidin promoter resulted in larger Hirano bodies and a cessation of cell doubling. The degradation of model Hirano bodies still occurred rapidly in autophagy mutant (atg5-) Dictyostelium, suggesting that other mechanisms such as the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway could contribute to the degradation of Hirano bodies. Chemical inhibition of the proteasome pathway with lactacystin significantly decreased the turnover of Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium, providing direct evidence that autophagy and the proteasome can both contribute to degradation of Hirano bodies. Short-term treatment of mammalian cells with either lactacystin or 3-methyl adenine results in higher levels of Hirano bodies and a lower level of viable cells in the cultures, supporting the conclusion that both autophagy and the proteasome contribute to degradation of Hirano bodies. PMID:18989098

  11. The contributions of Marcel Proust to psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Anne Elayne

    2005-01-01

    This article is about the major contribution of Marcel Proust to psychoanalysis in his seven-part novel, A La Rècherche Du Temps Perdu (translated as Rembrance of Things Past, 1934). This work spans two decades, from 1988, when Proust writing to 1927, when the last part was published 5 years after his death. Proust, a literary scholar whose knowledge dated to the early Greeks, knew nothing of Freud or psychoanalysis. His major contributions were to the emergence of memory, specifically the exquisite details of the descriptive unconscious, which we can now explain in cognitive neuroscientific terms. Freud wanted to do this for all mental processes in 'The Project'. Proust contributed to the projective aspects of passionate love. Kernberg has pointed out that although psychoanalysts knew about transference love, idealization, and sex, love has only been a subject for us in the 1900s. Proust also wrote of jealousy as a necessary concomitant of love. He proposed that all humans had pluripotential sexuality and recognized the psychodynamics of the perversions in a way that is closer to modern psychoanalysts like Chassuguet-Smirgel. Proust was himself psychologically disabled, with an illness his father called neurasthenia, adding somatic components and abulia, inability to make decisions. We would probably recognize him today as having a borderline personality disorder, with superior cognition, depression, somatization, obsessions, compulsions, phobias, and severe anxiety, which he understood was the result of his inability to separate from his mother. Proust's findings in all these areas are compared with the psychoanalytic literature--Freud, to the present.

  12. A contribution for cost models in biobanking.

    PubMed

    Huttin, Christine; Stubbs, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a contribution on financial sustainability of hospital biobanks and data warehouses for biospecimens. It aims to discuss new venues for cost models in addition to conventional cost recovery models. It follows the first paper issues on economics of biobanking by Huttin and Liebman, where adaptive platforms where already suggested for biobanks in translational medicine. A case study approach is proposed in order to identify the type of cost drivers that will be needed for optimization of resource allocation in hospital biobanks. It can help the collaboration with designers of ontologies for adaptive platforms, with new data elements on costs and their measurement in different organizational structures.

  13. [Does Darwinism really contribute to ecology].

    PubMed

    Mirkin, B M

    2003-01-01

    The author questions Ghilarov's (2003) claim that Darwinism has high explanatory power in ecology. He is agree with S.V. Meyen who believed that beside synthetic theory of evolution (the popular variant on Darwinism) other explanations of evolution are possible. It is emphasized that several processes (e.g., diversification and unification of species at one trophic level, as well as individual and diffusive coadaptations of species of different levels) can contribute to community evolution. Communities cannot be considered as units of natural selection.

  14. Secondary Contribution Effects on BNCT Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, E.; Goncalves, M.; Pereira, W.

    2004-10-03

    The aimed of this work consists of evaluating the influence of the dose secondary components (thermal neutrons dose, epithermal neutrons dose, fast neutrons dose and photon dose) in treatment planning with BNCT. MCNP4B Code was used to calculate RBE-Gy doses through the irradiation of the modified Snyder head phantom. A reduction of the therapeutical gain of monoenergetic neutron beans was observed in non invasive treatments, provoked for the predominance of the fast neutron dose component in the skin, showing that the secondary components of dose can to contribute more for to raise the healthy-tissue dose of that in the tumor, reducing the treatment efficiency.

  15. [Nursing contribution in health decision making].

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Díaz, Angélica; Mendoza-Parra, Sara; Jofré-Aravena, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    Decision making in health is a frequent situation, although potentially difficult, depending on patient/user characteristics and the context or the situation of health. This causes decisional conflicts in patients/users. The present study proposes to analyze the decision making process in health, conceptually, and nurses' contributions to understand and confront the phenomenon. The Ottawa the Model of Decisions Making in Health, proposed by Annette O'Connor, arises as a useful tool that enables nurses to carry out effective interventions with persons who face decision problems. Patients/users can assume a more active participation in the decisions on their own health.

  16. [Joseph Babinski's contribution to neurological symptomatology].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Tetsuo

    2014-11-01

    Joseph Babinski (1857-1932) was an excellent clinician. André Breton, a French poet, described Babinski's way of clinical examination in his Manifeste du surréalisme (1924), which vividly revealed Babinski's meticulous character. Babinski is well known by his eponymous Babinski reflex. Although some predecessors had described this phenomenon briefly, its meaning was interpreted by Babinski. His contribution to neurological symptomatology was not restricted to his plantar skin reflex, but also to other wide area. In this article, symptoms described by Babinski, i.e. plantar skin reflex, cerebellar symptoms including cerebellar asynergy, adiadochokinesis, dysmetria, cerebellar catalepsy, and rising sign, platysma sign, anosognosia are explained and are critically discussed.

  17. Medical contribution to the comprehensive approach.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J M

    2011-12-01

    The coordination of the Military, Diplomatic and Economic/Development levers of power, the so-called "hard" and "soft" powers, to bring about the strategic aims of governments, supported by Non-Governmental Organisations and international organisations, is commonly known as the Comprehensive Approach (CA). The CA is now part of both NATO and UK military doctrine and concepts development. This article describes how medical branch HQ Allied Rapid Reaction Corp, as part of the HQs work to operationalise the CA, has sought and developed training opportunities to improve individual skill-sets to enable the branch to better contribute to the CA process.

  18. Mercury contribution to an adirondack lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrudato, R. J.; Long, D.; Weinbloom, Robert

    1987-10-01

    Elevated copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in the upper 10 to 20 cm of sediment sampled from Cranberry Lake, a large Adirondack lake, are attributed to atmospheric contributions. Pb-210 and pollen core data, however, suggest Cranberry Lake also received mercury discharges during the turn of the century when the area was the center of extensive lumbering and related activities. Elevated mercury concentrations in Cranberry Lake smallmouth bass derived from remobilization from mercury-contaminated bottom sediments which increased the bioavailability to Cranberry Lake organisms. Mercury remobilization and accumulation by fish are promoted by fluctuating pH values resulting from acid precipilation.

  19. Mercury contribution to an Adirondack lake

    SciTech Connect

    Scrudato, R.J. ); Long, D. ); Weinbloom, R. )

    1987-01-01

    Elevated copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in the upper 10 to 20 cm of sediment sampled from Cranberry Lake, a large Adirondack lake, are attributed to atmospheric contributions. Pb-210 and pollen core data, however, suggest Cranberry Lake also received mercury discharges during the turn of the century when the area was the center of extensive lumbering and related activities. Elevated mercury concentrations in Cranberry Lake smallmouth bass derived from remobilization from mercury-contaminated bottom sediments which increased the bioavailability to Cranberry Lake organisms. Mercury remobilization and accumulation by fish are promoted by fluctuating pH values resulting from acid precipitation.

  20. [Placebo effect: a contribution of social psychology].

    PubMed

    Balez, R; Leroyer, C; Couturaud, F

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews the psychosocial variables, which are of interest in the relationship between the patient and the physician. According to a classical model of social psychology, such a relationship might contribute to the placebo/nocebo effects. We develop herein various relational and contextual variables, taking into account four dimensions (intra-individual, interpersonal, positional and ideological) and their potential effects on therapeutic responses. This applies both in the setting of daily clinical practice and of clinical trials. The placebo effect offers an opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between social scientists and physicians.

  1. Contribution of methane to aerosol carbon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, F.; Barmet, P.; Stirnweis, L.; El Haddad, I.; Platt, S. M.; Saurer, M.; Lötscher, C.; Siegwolf, R.; Bigi, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Slowik, J. G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Dommen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Small volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as methane (CH4) have long been considered non-relevant to aerosol formation due to the high volatility of their oxidation products. However, even low aerosol yields from CH4, the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere, would contribute significantly to the total particulate carbon budget. In this study, organic aerosol (OA) mass yields from CH4 oxidation were evaluated at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) smog chamber in the presence of inorganic and organic seed aerosols. Using labeled 13C methane, we could detect its oxidation products in the aerosol phase, with yields up to 0.09

  2. Four Major Factors Contributing to Intrahepatic Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Xi; Yin, Baobing

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic stone is prevalent in Asian countries; though the incidence declines in recent years, the number of patients is still in a large quantity. Because of multiple complications, high recurrence rates, serious systemic damage, and a lack of extremely effective procedure for the management, it is more important to find out the etiology and pathogenesis of intrahepatic stones to prevent the disease from happening and developing rather than curing. A number of factors contribute to the development of the disease, such as cholestasis, infection, and anatomic abnormity of bile duct and bile metabolic defect. The four factors and possible pathogenesis will be discussed in detail in the review. PMID:28163717

  3. Contributions to osteoclast biology from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue, in which bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts continue throughout life. In 1998, we molecularly cloned osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), a long-thought factor responsible for osteoclast formation. This review article describes how Japanese scientists contributed to osteoclast biology before and after the discovery of ODF. This review article is based on the Louis V. Avioli Memorial Lecture of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) held in Honolulu in September, 2007. PMID:19075515

  4. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures. PMID:25097763

  5. Contributions of bioethics to health sector leadership.

    PubMed

    Hodelín, Ricardo; Fuentes, Damaris

    2012-07-01

    Leadership is the perception or acceptance by members of a group of their superior's ability to inspire, influence and motivate them to meet their goals and contribute to the achievement of shared objectives. This article analyzes the characteristics of bioethics and the profile of the bioethicist in relation to the comprehensive development required of health leaders. We address this relationship in the areas of research and clinical practice; intersectoral activity; health sciences education; bioethicist's profile; and influence on organizational structures, functioning and decisionmaking, with particular reference to development and current situation of these aspects in Cuba. KEYWORDS Bioethics, leadership, medical education, health professional education, health, values, workplace stress, Cuba.

  6. Nurses' contributions to the US space program.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, B S; Plush, L H; Bailes, B K

    2000-05-01

    Nurses have been engaged in aspects of aviation and space endeavors from their beginnings. Although no nurse has been chosen as a potential astronaut, nurses have contributed to the space program in many ways. Nurses and other health care providers use technology adapted from the space program. The future of extended space flight remains unclear, although work continues on completing a space station for extended stays on the moon and trips to Mars. Nurses may be one of the health care team members on these excursions.

  7. Galen's Contribution to Head and Neck Surgery.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-06-01

    The historical relevance of Galen has always been very high and his works have exerted a profound influence on medical thought for more than 1,300 years. This could be the main reason why his surgical expertise is often neglected. This brief study focuses on the contribution of this distinguished physician to head and neck surgery and it shows that Galen's surgical experience is well documented in his work. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Advances in enzyme technology--UK contributions.

    PubMed

    Woodley, J M

    2000-01-01

    Enzyme technology has been a recognised part of bioprocess engineering since its inception in the 1950s and 1960s. In this article the early history of enzyme technology is discussed and the subsequent developments in enzyme isolation, enzyme modification and process technology are described. These creative developments have put enzyme technology in a position of huge potential to contribute to environmentally compatible and cost effective means of industrial chemical synthesis. Recent developments in protein modification to produce designer enzymes are leading a new wave of enzyme application.

  9. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    PubMed

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    'Neuromarketing' is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods 'neuromarketing' and scientific ones 'consumer neuroscience'. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology:First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom.Third, trust research in the medical context lacks

  10. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  11. Designing Limnogeology: Contributions of Kerry R. Kelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurrenberger, D. W.

    2001-12-01

    Kerry Kelts' dream for a new field of geology, entitled Limnogeology, sprang from his fervent belief that lakes could provide continental paleorecords of equal, if not greater, sensitivity and precision than marine paleorecords. To that end he devoted his professional life to nurturing limnogeology into a mature field of geoscience. He made contributions and encouraged others to study modern systems, paleorecords from extant basins and paleorecords from fossil lacustrine systems. To really contribute to the study of past environment and climate, Kerry realized that there were three crucial areas that needed development; new systems for retrieving high-quality sediment cores from a variety of basin types, new techniques and methods for core analyses, and the development of an infrastructure to curate lacustrine sediment cores. Kerry made major contributions in the first area with his development of a mobile, Kullenberg-type coring system and his untiring efforts that led to the construction and successful deployment of the GLAD800 coring system. Although significantly more expensive to operate than traditional lake-coring systems, these new systems opened new vistas for lake coring and provided more and higher quality sediment cores: "there's nothing cheaper than the best" (KRK). Kerry made numerous contributions in the area of core analysis ranging from his insistence on exhaustive core descriptions and documentation to his pioneering work with lacustrine isotopes (oxygen, carbon, strontium). His papers on carbonate sedimentation are required reading for aspiring Limnogeologists today. Finally, near the end of his life, Kerry saw the achievement of the final piece of the puzzle with the opening of the National Lacustrine Core Repository at the University of Minnesota. This archive serves as a testament to Kerry's idea of "generous science" and will develop into a major resource for limnogeology. Other centers are spinning off throughout the globe, in part

  12. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  13. The minimal power spectrum: Higher order contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    It has been an accepted belief for some time that gravity induces a minimal tail P(k) approximately k(exp 4) in the power spectrum as k approaches 0 for distributions with no initial power on large scales. In a recent numerical experiment with initial power confined to a restricted range in k, Shandarin and Melott (1990) found a k approaches 0 tail that at early stages of evolution behaves as k(exp 4) and grows with time as a(exp 4)(t), where a(t) is the cosmological expansion factor, and at late times depends on scale as k(exp 3) and grows with time as a(exp 2)(t). I compute analytically several contributions to the power spectrum of higher order than those included in earlier work, and I apply the results to the particular case of initial power restricted to a finite range of k. As expected, in the perturbative regime P(k) approximately a(exp 4)k(exp 4) from the first correction to linear perturbation theory is the dominant term as k approaches 0. Numerical investigations show that the higher order contributions go as k(exp 4) also. However, perturbation theory alone cannot tell whether the P approximately a(exp 2)k(exp 3) result is 'nonperturbative' or a numerical artifact.

  14. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  15. What causes autism? Exploring the environmental contribution.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J

    2010-04-01

    Autism is a biologically based disorder of brain development. Genetic factors--mutations, deletions, and copy number variants--are clearly implicated in causation of autism. However, they account for only a small fraction of cases, and do not easily explain key clinical and epidemiological features. This suggests that early environmental exposures also contribute. This review explores this hypothesis. Indirect evidence for an environmental contribution to autism comes from studies demonstrating the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead, ethyl alcohol and methyl mercury. But the most powerful proof-of-concept evidence derives from studies specifically linking autism to exposures in early pregnancy - thalidomide, misoprostol, and valproic acid; maternal rubella infection; and the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos. There is no credible evidence that vaccines cause autism. Expanded research is needed into environmental causation of autism. Children today are surrounded by thousands of synthetic chemicals. Two hundred of them are neurotoxic in adult humans, and 1000 more in laboratory models. Yet fewer than 20% of high-volume chemicals have been tested for neurodevelopmental toxicity. I propose a targeted discovery strategy focused on suspect chemicals, which combines expanded toxicological screening, neurobiological research and prospective epidemiological studies.

  16. Ted Irving's early contributions to paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Edward (Ted) Irving (1927 - 2014) was one of the most deeply and widely respected paleomagnetists, making significant contributions to the field throughout his career which spanned six decades. Restricting attention to the first decade of his career, the 1950s, he discovered from work on the Torridonian (1951-1953) that fine-grained red sandstones were generally suitable for paleomagnetic work (1951-1952). He rediscovered (1951) that paleomagnetism could be used to test continental drift, and initiated (1951) the first paleomagnetic test of whether India had drifted northward relative to Asia and argued (1954) that it had. He also made significant contributions to the first APW path for Great Britain (Creer, Irving, and Runcorn, 1954). He was the first to draw two APW paths to explain results from Great Britain and North America (1956) and to use paleomagnetism and paleoclimatology together to argue for continental drift (1954, 1956). With Ron Green, his first student, he first APW path for Australia (1958). He was the first to invoke axial rotations to explain away an apparent anomaly with an APW path (1959). His work on the Torridonian led to the first description of stratigraphically sequential reversals in sedimentary rocks. Moreover, his 1959 superb review of the paleomagnetic support for continental drift was instrumental in Hess's becoming a continental drifter before he came up with the idea of seafloor spreading.

  17. ONERA's contribution to space environment standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maget, Vincent; Ecoffet, Robert; Roussel, Jean-Francois

    Ever since its creation in 1967, the Space Environment Department (DESP) at ONERA's objective has been to evaluate the environmental conditions of space missions and prevent the damage they may cause. The DESP studies and models the different components of the space mission environment (mainly charged particles) and evaluates the associated risks with on-board experiments and simulations on the ground. As the reference expert in space environment for both the French Space Agency and European space industries, the DESP has been named as the French representative in the ISO TC20 / SC14 / WG4 working group. In parallel to this contribution, the DESP is also involved in WG1 (Design engineering and production) and WG6 (Materials and Processes),as well as in the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) committee dedicated to Space Environment standards (ECSS-10.04C). The purpose of this presentation is, first, to detail the ONERA’s contributions to space environment standardizations (its role as well as the standards developed at ONERA). In a second step, I shall also present some on-going works such as data assimilation and specifications model for other planets (Jupiter and Saturn) conducted at ONERA, in order to prepare the next generation standards and anticipate Space community needs.

  18. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Steve M; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B; Bahijri, Suhad M; Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M A; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 10(14) microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 10(14) microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  19. The contribution of neuropsychology to psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Keefe, R S

    1995-01-01

    Neuropsychological test data are applied with increasing frequency in research studies and clinical practice in psychiatry. This article addresses three popular assumptions about neuropsychological test data and describes the limitations and contributions of neuropsychological assessment of patients with psychiatric disorders. All research articles from major journals in psychiatry and clinical psychology since 1991 that focused on neuropsychological assessment of psychiatric patients were reviewed. Other journals and earlier studies were reviewed selectively. Neuropsychological test data have made significant contributions to the development of hypotheses about abnormal brain structure and function in patients with psychiatric disorders, yet many findings from neuropsychological assessments of psychiatric patients are misinterpreted. The extent to which neuropsychological test data in psychiatric populations can be interpreted to reflect abnormalities in brain structure and function is frequently exaggerated, as is the ability of neuropsychological measures to serve as specific cognitive probes in imaging studies of physiological activation. On the other hand, the utility of neuropsychological test batteries as measures of the patterns of cognitive strength and deficit in individuals with specific psychiatric disorders is frequently underestimated. In addition to testing models of regional brain dysfunction in psychiatric disorders, neuropsychological tests can provide researchers in psychiatry with an improved understanding of the relation between central cognitive impairments and symptoms and serve to identify cognitive predictors of course of illness, and they may provide a method for discriminating among heterogeneous forms of some psychiatric disorders. Clinically, neuropsychological test data can be used to develop treatment strategies tailored for an individual's specific cognitive strengths and deficits.

  20. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  1. The missing metric: quantifying contributions of reviewers

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Maurício; Gero, Shane

    2015-01-01

    The number of contributing reviewers often outnumbers the authors of publications. This has led to apathy towards reviewing and the conclusion that the peer-review system is broken. Given the trade-offs between submitting and reviewing manuscripts, reviewers and authors naturally want visibility for their efforts. While study after study has called for revolutionizing publication practices, the current paradigm does not recognize reviewers' time and expertise. We propose the R-index as a simple way to quantify scientists' contributions as reviewers. We modelled its performance using simulations based on real data to show that early–mid career scientists, who complete high-quality reviews of longer manuscripts within their field, can perform as well as leading scientists reviewing only for high-impact journals. By giving citeable academic recognition for reviewing, R-index will encourage more participation with better reviews, regardless of the career stage. Moreover, the R-index will allow editors to exploit scores to manage and improve their review team, and for journals to promote high average scores as signals of a practical and efficient service to authors. Peer-review is a pervasive necessity across disciplines and the simple utility of this missing metric will credit a valuable aspect of academic productivity without having to revolutionize the current peer-review system. PMID:26064609

  2. [Cerebellar contribution to cognitive process: current advances].

    PubMed

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J; Luna-Lario, P; Iglesias-Fernandez, M D; Hernaez-Goni, P

    2011-09-01

    The cerebellum has traditionally been considered a neuronal system which is an essential part of coordination and motor control. However, in recent decades the idea of the cerebellum as an organ related to high level cognitive processes has gained strength, a claim supported by studies carried out on animals and humans with cerebellar lesions such as the contribution of modern neuroimaging techniques. The contribution of the cerebellum is reviewed in different cognitive functions such as the regulation of motor functions, attention, language, visuoconstructional skills, learning, memory and executive functions. The results of said review produce, as the most clarifying data, the influence of the cerebellum on processes such as attention, working memory (covert articulation) and verbal fluency as well as procedural learning. The results found regarding the cerebellum and the executive functions are not conclusive. We consider it necessary to systematize the table that has already been outlined. This will enable us to answer not only the question of whether the cerebellum plays a role in human cognition but which is its role. Perhaps the basis for understanding the cognitive functions of the cerebellum are not found in the fact that the cerebellum contains functions but that it relates the intention to the action in the emotional as well as the behavioural cognitive plane although the role of 'interface' is found closer to the output processes than processing of functions with a motor component.

  3. Resilience Significantly Contributes to Exceptional Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Shen, Ke

    2010-01-01

    Objective. We aim to investigate whether centenarians are significantly more resilient than younger elders and whether resilience significantly contributes to exceptional longevity. Data. We use a unique dataset from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey with the largest sample to date of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and a compatible group of young old aged 65–79. Methods and Results. Logistic regressions based on the cross-sectional sample show that after controlling for various confounders, including physical health and cognitive status, centenarians are significantly more resilient than any other old-age group. Logistic regression analyses based on the longitudinal data show that nonagenarians aged 94–98 with better resilience have a 43.1% higher likelihood of becoming a centenarian compared to nonagenarians with lower resilience. Conclusions. Resilience significantly contributes to longevity at all ages, and it becomes even more profound at very advanced ages. These findings indicate that policies and programs to promote resilience would have long-term and positive effects on the well-being and longevity for senior citizens and their families. PMID:21197075

  4. Mitochondrial signaling contributes to disuse muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wiggs, Michael P.; Duarte, Jose A.; Zergeroglu, A. Murat; Demirel, Haydar A.

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that long durations of bed rest, limb immobilization, or reduced activity in respiratory muscles during mechanical ventilation results in skeletal muscle atrophy in humans and other animals. The idea that mitochondrial damage/dysfunction contributes to disuse muscle atrophy originated over 40 years ago. These early studies were largely descriptive and did not provide unequivocal evidence that mitochondria play a primary role in disuse muscle atrophy. However, recent experiments have provided direct evidence connecting mitochondrial dysfunction to muscle atrophy. Numerous studies have described changes in mitochondria shape, number, and function in skeletal muscles exposed to prolonged periods of inactivity. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that increased mitochondrial ROS production plays a key signaling role in both immobilization-induced limb muscle atrophy and diaphragmatic atrophy occurring during prolonged mechanical ventilation. Moreover, new evidence reveals that, during denervation-induced muscle atrophy, increased mitochondrial fragmentation due to fission is a required signaling event that activates the AMPK-FoxO3 signaling axis, which induces the expression of atrophy genes, protein breakdown, and ultimately muscle atrophy. Collectively, these findings highlight the importance of future research to better understand the mitochondrial signaling mechanisms that contribute to disuse muscle atrophy and to develop novel therapeutic interventions for prevention of inactivity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:22395111

  5. Understanding Oceanographic Contribution to Polar Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, S. R.; Chambers, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have shown that mass redistribution within the oceans and ocean currents are significant contributors to polar motion. Chambers and Willis (2009) have previously identified a significant low-frequency mass exchange between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic Oceans. Here, we examine how much this large-scale mass exchange contributes to polar motion by using ocean bottom pressure data from a model for 1993 to 2011. We find that the interbasin exchange of mass explains nearly 53% of the y-component of polar motion driven by ocean mass variations, but less than 3% the x-component. On the other hand, redistribution of mass within the Pacific alone explains nearly 60% of the variance in the x-component driven by ocean mass variations. The remainder of the variance is explained by redistribution within the Indo-Atlantic Ocean. The motion component of polar motion based on currents from the same model was also calculated using only data from areas poleward of of 30°S to the contribution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current on polar motion.

  6. Literature and medicine: contributions to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Charon, R; Banks, J T; Connelly, J E; Hawkins, A H; Hunter, K M; Jones, A H; Montello, M; Poirer, S

    1995-04-15

    Introduced to U.S. medical schools in 1972, the field of literature and medicine contributes methods and texts that help physicians develop skills in the human dimensions of medical practice. Five broad goals are met by including the study of literature in medical education: 1) Literary accounts of illness can teach physicians concrete and powerful lessons about the lives of sick people; 2) great works of fiction about medicine enable physicians to recognize the power and implications of what they do; 3) through the study of narrative, the physician can better understand patients' stories of sickness and his or her own personal stake in medical practice; 4) literary study contributes to physicians' expertise in narrative ethics; and 5) literary theory offers new perspectives on the work and the genres of medicine. Particular texts and methods have been found to be well suited to the fulfillment of each of these goals. Chosen from the traditional literary canon and from among the works of contemporary and culturally diverse writers, novels, short stories, poetry, and drama can convey both the concrete particularity and the metaphorical richness of the predicaments of sick people and the challenges and rewards offered to their physicians. In more than 20 years of teaching literature to medical students and physicians, practitioners of literature and medicine have clarified its conceptual frameworks and have identified the means by which its studies strengthen the human competencies of doctoring, which are a central feature of the art of medicine.

  7. Glial Cell Contributions to Auditory Brainstem Development

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Karina S.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms. Several classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, have now been explored in these circuits in both avian and mammalian brainstems. Distinct populations of astrocytes are found over the course of auditory brainstem maturation. Early appearing astrocytes are associated with spatial compartments in the avian auditory brainstem. Factors from late appearing astrocytes promote synaptogenesis and dendritic maturation, and astrocytes remain integral parts of specialized auditory synapses. Oligodendrocytes play a unique role in both birds and mammals in highly regulated myelination essential for proper timing to decipher interaural cues. Microglia arise early in brainstem development and may contribute to maturation of auditory pathways. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of non-neuronal cells in the assembly of specialized auditory brainstem circuits. PMID:27818624

  8. Does paedomorphosis contribute to prairie vole monogamy?

    PubMed Central

    Bushyhead, Timothy; Curtis, J. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We examined skull morphology in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus), two closely related species with fundamentally different mating systems, to test the hypothesis that paedomorphosis contributes to the evolution of monogamous mating systems. Using several skull measurements, we found that the overall length:width ratio of meadow vole skulls was greater than that of prairie voles suggesting that meadow vole have longer narrower skulls. We then examined which aspects of skull morphology differed between the species and found that the ratio difference was attributable primarily to longer snout length in meadow voles. Finally, we compared adult morphology in both species to that of pups and found the prairie vole, a monogamous species, displays a more juvenile-like skull morphology than does the meadow vole, a promiscuous species. These results suggest that monogamous vole species retain more juvenile-like morphology than do promiscuous species, and thus possibly retain juvenile-like behaviors that may contribute to a monogamous mating system. PMID:26594100

  9. Perirhinal contributions to human visual perception.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Joseph T; Price, Cathy J

    2007-09-04

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex are thought to be part of a unitary system dedicated to memory [1, 2], although recent studies suggest that at least one component-perirhinal cortex-might also contribute to perceptual processing [3, 4, 5, 6]. To date, the strongest evidence for this comes from animal lesion studies [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. In contrast, the findings from human patients with naturally occurring MTL lesions are less clear and suggest a possible functional difference between species [15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. Here, both these issues were addressed with functional neuroimaging in healthy volunteers performing a perceptual discrimination task originally developed for monkeys [7]. This revealed perirhinal activation when the task required the integration of visual features into a view-invariant representation but not when it could be accomplished on the basis of simple features (e.g., color and shape). This activation pattern matched lateral inferotemporal regions classically associated with visual processing but differed from entorhinal cortex associated with memory encoding. The results demonstrate a specific role for the perirhinal cortex in visual perception and establish a functional homology for perirhinal cortex between species, although we propose that in humans, the region contributes to a wider behavioral repertoire including mnemonic, perceptual, and linguistic processes.

  10. Astroglial networking contributes to neurometabolic coupling

    PubMed Central

    Escartin, Carole; Rouach, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The strategic position of astrocytic processes between blood capillaries and neurons, provided the early insight that astrocytes play a key role in supplying energy substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. The central role of astrocytes in neurometabolic coupling has been first established at the level of single cell. Since then, exciting recent work based on cellular imaging and electrophysiological recordings has provided new mechanistic insights into this phenomenon, revealing the crucial role of gap junction (GJ)-mediated networks of astrocytes. Indeed, astrocytes define the local availability of energy substrates by regulating blood flow. Subsequently, in order to efficiently reach distal neurons, these substrates can be taken up, and distributed through networks of astrocytes connected by GJs, a process modulated by neuronal activity. Astrocytic networks can be morphologically and/or functionally altered in the course of various pathological conditions, raising the intriguing possibility of a direct contribution from these networks to neuronal dysfunction. The present review upgrades the current view of neuroglial metabolic coupling, by including the recently unravelled properties of astroglial metabolic networks and their potential contribution to normal and pathological neuronal activity. PMID:23637659

  11. Contribution of rock fragments to soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Besnault, Adeline; Tétégan, Marion; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Research in plant-soil interactions has focused on the role played by the finest particles, but much less attention has been devoted to quantify the contribution of rock fragments. While the coarse soil fraction is known to affect soil physical properties, such as bulk density, porosity, water infiltration and storage, its contribution to the biogeochemical cycle is neglected. In particular in plant nutrition studies, only the fine fraction (< 2 mm) of soils is sampled and analysed while the coarse fraction (> 2 mm) is considered chemically inert. However, several recent studies have showed that rock fragments contribute significantly to nutrient content and the cation exchange capacity of soils. Considering that stony soils cover about 30% of the surface soils of Western Europe, and 60% in the Mediterranean area, new data on the potential contribution of rock fragments to soil fertility may give new insights that will re-evaluate their role in models on biogeochemical cycling. We attempt to study nutrient availability differents types of rock fragments, and started with five types of pebbles: oolitic limestone, marly limestone, lithographic limestone, chert, and flint. Pebbles were collected in topsoils, brushed thoroughly, and dried before chemical analyses. Exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, and K) were extracted after immersion of whole pebbles in an ammonium acetate solution (1M) under agitation for 48h. We had previously established the kinetic of extraction over 6 days (after 1, 3.5, 7, 24, 48, 72 and 144 h) and showed that a plateau was reached at 48h, and with a good repeatability. The pattern of release differed among the three studied exchangeable cations, and among pebbles of different origin. The capacity of pebbles to release exchangeable calcium and magnesium was in the following decreasing order: lithographic limestone = marly limestone > oolitic limestone >> chert > flint. As expected, the greatest difference was found between limestones and the two

  12. Worldwide academic contributions of Japanese neurosurgeons.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tomio; Hashiguchi, Kimiaki; Yoshimoto, Koji; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data reported in the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy 2010, Japan is ranked in fourth place in the world in terms of the numbers of the articles in the fields of clinical medicine. However, there had not been any objective data regarding the numbers of publications by neurosurgeons. As it is important for neurosurgeons to realize the extent of academic contributions by the neurosurgeons in different countries, the numbers of publications in the major journals by the members of the Japan Neurosurgical Society and those from neurosurgical institutions around the world were analyzed using both the biomedical literature database PubMed and the publication database "ISI Web of Knowledge." Parts of the results were presented in the 69th Annual Meeting of the Japan Neurosurgical Society. As to the number of neurosurgical publications in English from the top 9 countries, the US has been consistently in first place and Japan in second. However, the number of publications from Japan has been decreasing since 2000. With regards to the "top 8 journals" such as the Lancet and the Journal of the American Medical Association, the number of first-author publications by Japanese neurosurgeons increased in the late 1980s and had been 2-9 articles per year until recently. In the "top 12 neuroscience journals" which include Stroke, Neuro-Oncology, Cancer Research, and others, Japan had been in the third next to the US and UK till 2004, but Germany surpassed Japan in 2005. In the "top 6 clinical journals" such as the Journal of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery, the US has been consistently keeping first place and Japan second place since 1977. Searches using the key word elucidated that Japanese neurosurgeons are greatly contributing in the field of "aneurysm." Regarding the number of publications per neurosurgeon, Canada and UK are in the forefront and Japan is down to eighth place. Japanese neurosurgeons have been contributing greatly next to the

  13. Capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Robert I

    2010-01-01

    Young, minority, and poorly educated fathers in fragile families have little capacity to support their children financially and are hard-pressed to maintain stability in raising those children. In this article, Robert Lerman examines the capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers, how their capabilities and contributions fall short of those of married fathers, how those capabilities and contributions differ by the kind of relationship the fathers have with their child's mother, and how they change as infants grow into toddlers and kindergartners. Unwed fathers' employment and earnings vary widely among groups but generally rise over time. At the child's birth, cohabiting fathers earn nearly 20 percent more than noncohabiting unwed fathers, and the gap widens over time. Still, five years after an unwed birth, the typical unwed father is working full time for the full year. Although most unwed fathers spend considerable time with their children in the years soon after birth, explains Lerman, over time their involvement erodes. Men who lose touch with their children are likely to see their earnings stagnate, provide less financial support, and often face new obligations when they father children with another partner. By contrast, the unwed fathers who marry or cohabit with their child's mother earn considerably higher wages and work substantially more than unwed fathers who do not marry or cohabit. These results suggest that unwed fathers' earnings are affected by family relationships as well as their education and work experience. Lerman notes that several factors influence the extent to which unwed fathers stay involved with their children. Better-educated fathers, those who most identify with the father's role, and those with good relationships with the child's mother, are most likely to sustain a relationship with their children. Some studies even find that strong child support enforcement increases father involvement. For many years, policy makers approached

  14. The emergence of a heavy quark family on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preparata, Giuliano; Xue, She-Sheng

    1996-02-01

    Within the framework of the “Rome approach” for a lattice chiral gauge theory, the four-quark interaction with flavour symmetry is included. We analyse spontaneous symmetry breaking and compute composite modes and their contributions to the ground state energy. As a result, it is shown that the emergence of a heavy quark family is the energetically favoured solution.

  15. The Emergence of a Heavy Quark Family on a Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, She-Sheng

    1996-03-01

    Within the framework of the "Rome approach" for a lattice chiral gauge theory, the four-quark interaction with flavour symmetry is included. We analyse spontaneous symmetry breaking and compute composite modes and their contributions to the ground state energy. As a result, it is shown that the emergence of a heavy quark family is the energetically favoured solution.

  16. Contributions to Industrial-Minerals Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, James D.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Long, Keith R.

    2003-01-01

    Contributions to Industrial-Minerals Research, an ongoing series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin chapters, presents research strategies, results, and updates of investigations of industrial minerals by USGS scientists and cooperators. Industrial minerals are defined as valuable nonmetallic, nonfuel geologic materials, generally rocks or minerals, used in a wide range of construction and industrial applications-for example, sand, gravel, and crushed rock used as aggregate for construction; limestone used for cement; phosphate for fertilizers and insecticides; and diatomite used for filtration, fillers, and abrasives. The term also comprises some processed materials, such as cement and metallic compounds with major utilization in nonmetallic forms. For example, titanium is commonly grouped with industrial minerals because more than 90 percent of it is sold and utilized in the form of the oxide (TiO2) rather than as Ti metal. Other metals and metallic compounds commonly grouped with industrial minerals include Mn, Cr, Fe oxides, and rare-earth elements (REEs).

  17. Hysteria to conversion disorders: Babinski's contributions.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the importance of hysteria on Babinski's oeuvre, and the conceptions of pithiatism from Babinski until the one of conversion disorder. Babinski gave a mental basis for hysteria in the place of Charcot's encephalopatic one, and several important semiotic tools to differentiate organic from hysterical manifestations based on studies from 1893-1917/8. His teachings were spread worldwide, and in Brazil they were also appreciated in the work on hysteria by Antonio Austregesilo, the first Brazilian neurology chairman. The neurobiological basis of hysteria conceived by Charcot is nowadays reappraised, and Babinski's neurosemiological contribution is everlasting. The patients believed to be hysterical, and the two outstanding neurologists, Charcot and Babinski, gave support for the development of the modern neurology.

  18. Genetic contributions to labor pain and progress.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Studies on genetic contributions to labor analgesia have essentially evaluated the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), with some evidence that p.118A/G of OPRM1 influences the response to neuraxial opioids. As for labor progress, the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is associated with preterm labor and delivery, and impacts the course of labor. Taken together though, there is no evidence that pharmacogenetic testing is needed or beneficial in the context of obstetric anesthesia; however, realizing the influence of genetic variants on specific phenotypes provides the rationale for a more cautious interpretation of clinical studies that attempt to find a dose-regimen that fits all. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serotonin research: contributions to understanding psychoses.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-09-01

    The history of serotonin research is closely related to the study of hallucinogenic drugs that function as agonists at serotonin-2A receptors. The fundamental idea that psychotic states seen in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia might be attributable, in part, to abnormalities in serotonergic systems began with the almost simultaneous discovery of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin and serotonin. Sixty years of study have confirmed early speculations regarding the important relationship between serotonin and both drug-induced and disorder-based psychotic states. Now, modern biochemical, pharmacological, behavioral, neuroimaging, genetic and molecular biological sciences are converging to understand how serotonergic systems interact with other monoaminergic and glutamatergic systems to modulate states of consciousness and contribute to psychotic disorders such as the group of schizophrenias. This review summarizes experimental assessments of the serotonergic hallucinogen model psychosis in relation to the serotonin hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  20. Striatal contributions to declarative memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Jason M.; Badre, David

    2012-01-01

    Declarative memory is known to depend on the medial temporal lobe memory system. Recently, there has been renewed focus on the relationship between the basal ganglia and declarative memory, including the involvement of striatum. However, the contribution of striatum to declarative memory retrieval remains unknown. Here, we review neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for the involvement of the striatum in declarative memory retrieval. From this review, we propose that, along with the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the striatum primarily supports cognitive control of memory retrieval. We conclude by proposing three hypotheses for the specific role of striatum in retrieval: (1) Striatum modulates the re-encoding of retrieved items in accord with their expected utility (adaptive encoding), (2) striatum selectively admits information into working memory that is expected to increase the likelihood of successful retrieval (adaptive gating), and (3) striatum enacts adjustments in cognitive control based on the outcome of retrieval (reinforcement learning). PMID:22884322

  1. Contributions from the CYGNUS/Milagro Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.E.; Chang, C.Y.; Chen, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    This document consists of eleven reports contributed to the XXIV International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rome, Italy, August 28--September 8, 1995) from the CYGNUS/Milagro Collaboration: ``Search for Ultra-High-Energy Radiation from Gamma-Ray Bursts``, ``Gamma-Ray Bursts: Detection and Distance Estimates with Milagro``, ``Searching for Gamma-Ray Bursts with Water-Cerenkov-Detector Single-Particle Rates``, ``The Milagro Detector``, ``The Milagro Data Acquisition System``, ``Source Searches Using the CYGNUS Water-Cerenkov Array``, ``Search for UHE Emission from Supernova Remnants``, ``Solar Physics with the Milagro Telescope``, ``An Experiment to Detect Correlations Between Cerenkov and Muon Lateral Distributions in EAS``, ``A Study of Large-Zenith-Angle Air Showers with the CYGNUS Experiment``, and ``Mass Resolution of Ground Based Air Shower Experiments in the 10 to 10000 TeV range.``

  2. Microbial contributions to the Precambrian Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Bermudes, D.; Obar, R.

    1986-01-01

    Life has existed on Earth for approximately 3.5 billion years. For most of this time, prokaryotic communities provided the major biological forces changing the Earth. Many changes in atmospheric gas composition occurred during the Archean and Proterozoic eons as a result of microbial activity. Extant microbial communities were used to help understand the dynamics which contributed to these atmospheric changes. The microbial mat communities were characterized according to the organismic constituents. Symbiosis in microbial communities is recognized as a major force in cell evolution. Among the evolutinary enigmas investigated is the problem of the origin of the undulipodia. Undulipodial microtubules are still deployed for major cellular processes such as mitosis and meiosis. Several prokaryotes were tested for the presence of the S1-type protein, so far only spirochetes were found to possess it. The S1-type protein is being sought in cyanobacteria reported to contain microtubules.

  3. Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Pevsner, Jonathan

    2002-04-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure. Leonardo developed an original, mechanistic model of sensory physiology. He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input, and integrates that information via the soul.

  4. Contribution of autophagy to antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Rey-Jurado, Emma; Riedel, Claudia A; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-11-14

    Although identified in the 1960's, interest in autophagy has significantly increased in the past decade with notable research efforts oriented at understanding as to how this multi-protein complex operates and is regulated. Autophagy is commonly defined as a "self-eating" process evolved by eukaryotic cells to recycle senescent organelles and expired proteins, which is significantly increased during cellular stress responses. In addition, autophagy can also play important roles during human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, novel findings suggest that autophagy contributes to the host defense against microbial infections. In this article, we review the role of macroautophagy in antiviral immune responses and discuss molecular mechanisms evolved by viral pathogens to evade this process. A role for autophagy as an effector mechanism used both, by innate and adaptive immunity is also discussed.

  5. The enduring scientific contributions of Sigmund Freud.

    PubMed

    Gedo, John E

    2002-01-01

    Through the development of a novel observational method, Sigmund Freud made possible the collection of reliable data about man's inner life. The scientific hypotheses he formulated about these formed the initial version of psychoanalysis. Many of these first thoughts have had to be revised in the light of subsequent scientific findings about the operations of the central nervous system, but even these refuted propositions often had much heuristic value. Despite the passage of a whole century, many Freudian hypotheses have retained their scientific standing. Most important among these was Freud's realization that human thought is usually unconscious. His understanding of the role of the automatic repetition of basic patterns of behavior, of the fateful consequences of early childhood emotional vicissitudes in structuring enduring mental dispositions, and of the distinction between two distinct modes of thinking are the most significant among his many contributions.

  6. Factors contributing to thixotropy of inspiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Izumizaki, Masahiko; Shibata, Masahiko; Homma, Ikuo

    2004-06-25

    Thixotropy is a passive property of the skeletal muscle dependent on the muscle's immediate history of contraction and length change. Thixotropic properties of inspiratory muscles, introduced by forceful muscle contraction at an inflated lung volume, cause an increased end-expiratory position (EEP) of the rib cage. We searched for factors contributing to the development of inspiratory muscle thixotropy in nine healthy subjects. Using induction plethysmography, we examined aftereffects on EEP of the duration of inspiratory muscle contraction and subsequent muscle relaxation. We also studied effects of inspiratory effort intensity measured by mouth pressure at different lung volumes. EEP elevation was noted subsequent to 5-s contraction followed by 2-s relaxation and was enhanced when conditioned at higher lung volumes with a strong inspiratory effort. Our results suggest four factors that influence inspiratory muscle thixotropy: (1) intensity of muscle contraction, (2) lung volume when contraction occurs, (3) duration of contraction, and (4) muscle relaxation.

  7. Contribution of imaging to cancer care costs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Czernin, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Health care costs in the United States are increasing faster than the gross domestic product (GDP), and the growth rate of costs related to diagnostic imaging exceeds those of overall health care expenditures. Here we show that the contribution of imaging to cancer care costs pales in comparison to those of other key cost components, such as cancer drugs. Specifically, we estimate that (18)F-FDG PET or PET/CT accounted for approximately 1.5% of overall Medicare cancer care costs in 2009. Moreover, we propose that the appropriate use of (18)F-FDG PET or PET/CT could reduce the costs of cancer care. Because the U.S. health care system is complex and because it is difficult to find accurate data elsewhere, most cost and use assessments are based on published data from the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

  8. Dynamic contribution to hemispheric mean temperature trends

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.M.; Zhang, Y.; Renwick, J.A.

    1995-11-03

    On the basis of land station data from the Northern Hemisphere, it was determined that roughly half of the temporal variance of monthly mean hemispheric mean anomalies in surface air temperature during the period from 1900 through 1990 were linearly related to the amplitude of a distinctive spatial pattern in which the oceans are anomalously cold and the continents are anomalously warm poleward of 40 degrees north when the hemisphere is warm. Apart from an upward trend since 1975, to which El Nino has contributed, the amplitude time series associated with this pattern resembles seasonally dependent white noise. it is argued that the variability associated with this pattern is dynamically induced and is not necessarily an integral part of the fingerprint of global warming. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Microbial contributions to the Precambrian Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Bermudes, D.; Obar, R.

    1986-01-01

    Life has existed on Earth for approximately 3.5 billion years. For most of this time, prokaryotic communities provided the major biological forces changing the Earth. Many changes in atmospheric gas composition occurred during the Archean and Proterozoic eons as a result of microbial activity. Extant microbial communities were used to help understand the dynamics which contributed to these atmospheric changes. The microbial mat communities were characterized according to the organismic constituents. Symbiosis in microbial communities is recognized as a major force in cell evolution. Among the evolutinary enigmas investigated is the problem of the origin of the undulipodia. Undulipodial microtubules are still deployed for major cellular processes such as mitosis and meiosis. Several prokaryotes were tested for the presence of the S1-type protein, so far only spirochetes were found to possess it. The S1-type protein is being sought in cyanobacteria reported to contain microtubules.

  10. The Contributions of Immigrants to American Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The standard account of American immigration focuses on the acculturation and assimilation of immigrants and their children to American society. This analysis typically ignores the significant contributions of immigrants to the creation of American culture through the performing arts, sciences, and other cultural pursuits. Immigrants and their children are not born with more creative talents than native-born citizens, but their selectivity and marginality may have pushed and pulled those with ability into high-risk career paths that reward creative work. The presence of large numbers of talented immigrants in Hollywood, academia, and the high-tech industries has pushed American institutions to be more meritocratic and open to innovation than they would be otherwise. PMID:24339451

  11. Research contributions of counseling psychologists to neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Lopez, S J; Ryan, J J; Sumerall, S W

    1998-10-01

    Research productivity of counseling psychologists with credentials in clinical neuropsychology were examined. Eighteen were ABPP/ABCN Diplomates. Division 40 Fellows, or both. They published an average of 3.06 (SD= 4.82; range = 0 to 20) neuropsychologically relevant, first-authored articles over the past 5 years. When counseling psychologists were compared to a random sample of ABPP/ABCN diplomates with doctoral degrees in other areas of psychology, no reliable differences emerged between the groups in age, research productivity, or number of years between graduation and receipt of the ABPP/ABCN diploma. Research contributions of neuropsychologists with degrees in counseling psychology are comparable to those of ABPP/ABCN diplomates who were trained in other areas of psychology (e.g., clinical, developmental, and physiological).

  12. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  13. Biophotons Contribute to Retinal Dark Noise.

    PubMed

    Li, Zehua; Dai, Jiapei

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of dark noise in retinal photoreceptors resulted in a long-lasting controversy over its origin and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a novel ultra-weak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) to detect biophotonic activity (emission) under dark conditions in rat and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) retinas in vitro. We found a significant temperature-dependent increase in biophotonic activity that was completely blocked either by removing intracellular and extracellular Ca(2+) together or inhibiting phosphodiesterase 6. These findings suggest that the photon-like component of discrete dark noise may not be caused by a direct contribution of the thermal activation of rhodopsin, but rather by an indirect thermal induction of biophotonic activity, which then activates the retinal chromophore of rhodopsin. Therefore, this study suggests a possible solution regarding the thermal activation energy barrier for discrete dark noise, which has been debated for almost half a century.

  14. Sea Quark Contribution to the Nucleon Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2015-10-01

    The widespread belief is that proton and neutron, commonly known as nucleons, are each composed of three elementary particles called quarks. But in the last two decades experiments showed that the mass, momentum, spin and electromagnetic properties of the three quarks do not add up to the known proprieties of the nucleon. Theory predicts that a ``sea'' of virtual pairs of quarks and anti-quarks, along with the strong force carrier particles called gluons, should account for the difference. I will present ongoing work on the preparation of an experiment to isolate the contributions of the sea to the nucleon spin using semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering technique at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  15. Contribution of neutrophils to acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Grommes, Jochen; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neutrophils are regarded to play a key role in progression of ALI/ARDS. Neutrophils are the first cells to be recruited to the site of inflammation and have a potent antimicrobial armour that includes oxidants, proteinases and cationic peptides. Under pathological circumstances, however, unregulated release of these microbicidal compounds into the extracellular space paradoxically can damage host tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment into the lung and on the contribution of neutrophils to tissue damage in ALI.

  16. Michael Faraday's Contributions to Archaeological Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Moshenska, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of ancient artefacts is a long but largely neglected thread within the histories of archaeology and chemistry. This paper examines Michael Faraday's contributions to this nascent field, drawing on his published correspondence and the works of his antiquarian collaborators, and focusing in particular on his analyses of Romano-British and ancient Egyptian artefacts. Faraday examined the materials used in ancient Egyptian mummification, and provided the first proof of the use of lead glazes on Roman ceramics. Beginning with an assessment of Faraday's personal interests and early work on antiquities with Humphry Davy, this paper critically examines the historiography of archaeological chemistry and attempts to place Faraday's work within its institutional, intellectual, and economic contexts.

  17. Scientific contributions of extensive biodiversity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Couvet, Denis; Devictor, Vincent; Jiguet, Frédéric; Julliard, Romain

    2011-05-01

    To develop a complete and informative biodiversity observation system, it is necessary to compare the strengths and limits of various monitoring schemes. In this article, we examine the various advantages of extensively monitoring fine-grained spatial variations of biodiversity, where the prominent traits of many species within a community (abundance, phenology, etc.) are regularly recorded at numerous sites over a large territory, usually via human observation networks. Linking these variations with environmental factors sheds lights on the major mechanisms leading to changes in biodiversity, thus increasing our knowledge of macroecology and community ecology. This extensive monitoring allows us to assess diffuse effects, contributing to the sound use of the precautionary principle. Combined with site-focused monitoring, information gathered from extensive monitoring provides the raw material necessary to build biodiversity scenarios.

  18. Dorsal hippocampal contributions to unimodal contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Otto, Tim; Poon, Patrick

    2006-06-14

    Although there is general consensus that the hippocampus is not critically involved in the acquisition of fear conditioned to an explicit conditioned stimulus (CS), the extent to which the hippocampus participates in contextual fear conditioning remains unclear. To further characterize the potential role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning, the present experiments examined the effect of excitotoxic lesions of dorsal hippocampus on the acquisition of a novel contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which a unimodal (olfactory) cue served to disambiguate discrete "contexts" within a single behavioral training chamber. Selective lesions of dorsal hippocampus severely attenuated olfactory contextual conditioning without affecting conditioning to an explicit auditory or olfactory CS. Additional experiments indicate that these contextual conditioning deficits cannot be attributed to a lesion-induced decrement in olfactory perception, a preferential impairment of "weak" forms of conditioning, or hyperactivity. Thus, the hippocampus appears to contribute importantly to the acquisition of fear conditioned to explicitly nonspatial, unimodal, temporally, and spatially diffuse contextual stimuli.

  19. Cal Poly Contributions to the CUORE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David; Meijer, Samuel; Haskin, Michael; Gutierrez, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) is a multinational experimental collaboration searching for the lepton-violating neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in ^130Te. The detection of 0νββ would indicate the neutrino is a Majorana fermion and also set the absolute mass scale of the electron neutrino. The experiment is currently being built in stages at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Assergi, Italy. CUORE-0 is a detector array expected to go online this year consisting of 52 bolometric crystals in a single tower, which is equivalent to 1/19th of the full mass of CUORE. We will describe our recent contributions to activities associated with CUORE-0 deployment, background reduction efforts, and the CUORE crystal verification runs as the collaboration works towards bringing CUORE online in 2014.

  20. Contributions of Thomas Jefferson to American medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohn, L H

    1979-08-01

    Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence, had a consuming interest in all fields of education and science, including the practice of medicine and public health. He actively developed medical education, supported measures for public health, and encouraged scientific research supported by the government without policy intervention. Although a close friend of eminent physicians, his rationalism and scientific method placed him ahead of many practitioners of his time. He disparaged medical quackery but actively supported therapies such as vaccination that were based on research and careful observation. The School of Medicine at the University of Virginia was Jefferson's concrete contribution to the advancement of medical education in the United States and epitomized his preoccupation with medicine and science as important cornerstones of a healthy American nation.