Science.gov

Sample records for cp-odd four-quark contributions

  1. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  2. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, A.; Fukushima, K.; Kharzeev, D.; Warringa, H.; Voloshin, S.

    2010-04-26

    This volume contains the proceedings of the RBRC/CATHIE workshop on 'P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter' held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on April 26-30, 2010. The workshop was triggered by the experimental observation of charge correlations in heavy ion collisions at RHIC, which were predicted to occur due to local parity violation (P- and CP-odd fluctuations) in hot and dense QCD matter. This experimental result excited a significant interest in the broad physics community, inspired a few alternative interpretations, and emphasized the need for a deeper understanding of the role of topology in QCD vacuum and in hot and dense quark-gluon matter. Topological effects in QCD are also closely related to a number of intriguing problems in condensed matter physics, cosmology and astrophysics. We therefore felt that a broad cross-disciplinary discussion of topological P- and CP-odd effects in various kinds of matter was urgently needed. Such a discussion became the subject of the workshop. Specific topics discussed at the workshop include the following: (1) The current experimental results on charge asymmetries at RHIC and the physical interpretations of the data; (2) Quantitative characterization of topological effects in QCD matter including both analytical (perturbative and non-perturbative using gauge/gravity duality) and numerical (lattice-QCD) calculations; (3) Topological effects in cosmology of the Early Universe (including baryogenesis and dark energy); (4) Topological effects in condensed matter physics (including graphene and superfiuids); and (5) Directions for the future experimental studies of P- and CP-odd effects at RHIC and elsewhere. We feel that the talks and intense discussions during the workshop were extremely useful, and resulted in new ideas in both theory and experiment. We hope that the workshop has contributed to the progress in understanding the role of topology in QCD and related fields. We thank all the speakers and

  3. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries and the CP-Odd Fraction in the Decay B0->D*+D*-

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-06

    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B{sup 0} D*{sup +}D*{sup -} using 232 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.125 {+-} 0.044(stat) {+-} 0.007(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters C{sub +} and S{sub +} are determined to be 0.06 {+-} 0.17(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst) and -0.75 {+-} 0.25(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst), respectively. The Standard Model predicts these parameters to be 0 and -sin2{beta}, respectively, in the absence of penguin amplitude contributions.

  4. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D(*+)D(*-).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Forti, A C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-09-26

    We present a measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and an updated determination of the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D(*+)D(*-) using a data sample of 88x10(6)BB pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.063+/-0.055(stat)+/-0.009(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters Im(lambda(+)) and /lambda(+)/ are determined to be 0.05+/-0.29(stat)+/-0.10(syst) and 0.75+/-0.19(stat)+/-0.02(syst), respectively. The standard model predicts these parameters to be -sin(2beta and 1, respectively, in the absence of penguin diagram contributions.

  5. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D*+D*-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Macfarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Vazquez, W P; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2005-10-07

    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D*+D*- using 232x10(6)BB pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B factory. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.125+/-0.044(stat)+/-0.007(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters C+ and S+ are determined to be 0.06+/-0.17(stat)+/-0.03(syst) and -0.75+/-0.25(stat)+/-0.03(syst), respectively. The standard model predicts these parameters to be 0 and -sin2beta, respectively, in the absence of penguin amplitude contributions.

  6. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries and the CP-Odd Fraction in the Decay B0→D*+D*-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Ford, K.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Goetzen, K.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Barillari, T.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, P. J.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Tinslay, J.; Andreotti, M.; Azzolini, V.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Morii, M.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Gaillard, J. R.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Taylor, G. P.; Grenier, G. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Brigljević, V.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Hart, P. A.; Forti, A. C.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Hast, C.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; Cartaro, C.; Cavallo, N.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Losecco, J. M.; Gabriel, T. A.; Brau, B.; Pulliam, T.; Wong, Q. K.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Potter, C. T.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Colecchia, F.; Dorigo, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Pivk, M.; Roos, L.; Stark, J.; T'jampens, S.; Therin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Walsh, J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Paick, K.; Wagoner, D. E.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J.; Tanaka, H. A.; Varnes, E. W.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Voena, C.; Christ, S.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; de Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Schott, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yeche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Purohit, M. V.; Weidemann, A. W.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Berger, N.; Boyarski, A. M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Dong, D.; Dorfan, J.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Grauges-Pous, E.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Hryn'ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Jessop, C. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Marsiske, H.; Menke, S.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Robertson, S. H.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Simi, G.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, S. R.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wright, D. H.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Meyer, T. I.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Saleem, M.; Wappler, F. R.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Kim, H.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Panvini, R. S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kowalewski, R.; Roney, J. M.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; di Lodovico, F.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Sekula, S. J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.

    2003-09-01

    We present a measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and an updated determination of the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0→D*+D*- using a data sample of 88×106BB¯ pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.063±0.055(stat)±0.009(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters Im(λ+) and |λ+| are determined to be 0.05±0.29(stat)±0.10(syst) and 0.75±0.19(stat)±0.02(syst), respectively. The standard model predicts these parameters to be -sin(2β and 1, respectively, in the absence of penguin diagram contributions.

  7. Light Four-Quark States and New Observations by BES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Huang, T.; Steele, T.

    Four-quark states are discussed within the constituent quark model.Incompleteness of existed studies of four-quark state with QCD sum rule is analyzed. The masses of diquark cluster were determined by QCD sum rules, and light four-quark states masses were obtained in terms of the diquark. The four-quark state possibility of the newly observed near-threshold pbar p enhancement, X(1835), X(1812) and X(1576) by BES is discussed.

  8. Diquark and light four-quark states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ailin; Huang Tao; Steele, Tom G.

    2007-08-01

    Four-quark states with different internal clusters are discussed within the constituent quark model. It is pointed out that the diquark concept is not meaningful in the construction of a tetraquark interpolating current in the QCD sum-rule approach, and hence existing sum-rule studies of four-quark states are incomplete. An updated QCD sum-rule determination of the properties of diquark clusters is then used as input for the constituent quark model to obtain the masses of light 0{sup ++} tetraquark states (i.e. a bound state of two diquark clusters). The results support the identification of {sigma}(600), f{sub 0}(980), and a{sub 0}(980) as the 0{sup ++} light tetraquark states, and seem to be inconsistent with the tetraquark state interpretation of the new BES observations of the near-threshold pp enhancements, X(1835) and X(1812), with the possible exception that X(1576) may be an exotic first orbital excitation of f{sub 0}(980) or a{sub 0}(980)

  9. Diquark and light four-quark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ailin; Huang, Tao; Steele, Tom G.

    2007-08-01

    Four-quark states with different internal clusters are discussed within the constituent quark model. It is pointed out that the diquark concept is not meaningful in the construction of a tetraquark interpolating current in the QCD sum-rule approach, and hence existing sum-rule studies of four-quark states are incomplete. An updated QCD sum-rule determination of the properties of diquark clusters is then used as input for the constituent quark model to obtain the masses of light 0++ tetraquark states (i.e. a bound state of two diquark clusters). The results support the identification of σ(600), f0(980), and a0(980) as the 0++ light tetraquark states, and seem to be inconsistent with the tetraquark state interpretation of the new BES observations of the near-threshold pp¯ enhancements, X(1835) and X(1812), with the possible exception that X(1576) may be an exotic first orbital excitation of f0(980) or a0(980).

  10. Susceptibility of the QCD vacuum to CP-odd electromagnetic background fields.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Massimo; Mariti, Marco; Negro, Francesco

    2013-02-22

    We investigate two flavor quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the presence of CP-odd electromagnetic background fields and determine, by means of lattice QCD simulations, the induced effective θ term to first order in E[over →] · B[over →]. We employ a rooted staggered discretization and study lattice spacings down to 0.1 fm and Goldstone pion masses around 480 MeV. In order to deal with a positive measure, we consider purely imaginary electric fields and real magnetic fields, and then exploit the analytic continuation. Our results are relevant to a description of the effective pseudoscalar quantum electrodynamics-QCD interactions.

  11. Search for very light CP-odd Higgs Boson in radiative decays of Upsilon(1S).

    PubMed

    Love, W; Savinov, V; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M

    2008-10-10

    We search for a non-SM-like CP-odd Higgs boson (a(1)(0)) decaying to tau(+)tau(-) or mu(+)mu(-) in radiative decays of the Upsilon(1S). No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Our tau(+)tau(-) results are almost 2 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous upper limits. Our data provide no evidence for a Higgs state with a mass of 214 MeV decaying to mu(+)mu(-), previously proposed as an explanation for 3 Sigma(+)-->pmu(+)mu(-) events observed by the HyperCP experiment. Our results constrain NMSSM models.

  12. Decays of a NMSSM CP-odd Higgs in the low-mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Florian

    2017-03-01

    A popular regime in the NMSSM parameter space involves a light CP-odd Higgs A 1. This scenario has consequences for e.g. light singlino Dark Matter annihilating in the A 1-funnel. In order to confront the pseudoscalar to experimental limits such as flavour observables, Upsilon decays or Beam-Dump experiments, it is necessary to control the interactions of this particle with hadronic matter and derive the corresponding decays. The partonic description cannot be relied upon for masses close to {m_A}{_1} ˜ 1GeV and we employ a chiral lagrangian, then extended to a spectator model for somewhat larger masses, to describe the interplay of the CP-odd Higgs with hadrons. Interestingly, a mixing can develop between A 1 and neutral pseudoscalar mesons, leading to substantial hadronic decays and a coupling of A 1 to the chiral anomaly. Additionally, quartic A 1-meson couplings induce tri-meson decays of the Higgs pseudoscalar. We investigate these effects and propose an estimate of the Higgs widths for masses below {m_A}{_1} ≲ 3 GeV. While we focus on the case of the NMSSM, our results are applicable to a large class of models.

  13. Constraints on a very light CP-odd Higgs of the NMSSM and other axion-like particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Sarah; Lebedev, Oleg; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl; Ringwald, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    In the NMSSM, a light CP-odd Higgs arises due to spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries such as Peccei-Quinn or R-symmetry and is motivated by string theory. The case when it is heavier than two muons is well studied and constrained. We analyze various meson decay, g - 2, beam dump and reactor bounds on the CP-odd Higgs with mass below the muon threshold, in particular, addressing the question how light a CP-odd Higgs can be. We find that it has to be heavier than 210 MeV or have couplings to fermions 4 orders of magnitude below those of the Standard Model Higgs. Our analysis applies more generally to couplings of a light pseudoscalar to matter.

  14. Pseudoscalar top-Higgs coupling: exploration of CP-odd observables to resolve the sign ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileo, Nicolas; Kiers, Ken; Szynkman, Alejandro; Crane, Daniel; Gegner, Ethan

    2016-07-01

    We present a collection of CP-odd observables for the process ppto t(to b{ℓ}+{ν}_{ℓ})overline{t}(to overline{b}{ℓ}-{overline{ν}}_{ℓ}) H that are linearly dependent on the scalar ( k t ) and pseudoscalar ({tilde{k}}_t) top-Higgs coupling and hence sensitive to the corresponding relative sign. The proposed observables are based on triple product (TP) correlations that we extract from the expression for the differential cross section in terms of the spin vectors of the top and antitop quarks. In order to explore other possibilities, we progressively modify these TPs, first by combining them, and then by replacing the spin vectors by the lepton momenta or the t and overline{t} momenta by their visible parts. We generate Monte Carlo data sets for several benchmark scenarios, including the Standard Model ({k}_t = 1, {tilde{k}}_t = 0) and two scenarios with mixed CP properties ({k}_t = 1, {tilde{k}}_t=± 1) . Assuming an integrated luminosity that is consistent with that envisioned for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, using Monte Carlo-truth and taking into account only statistical uncertainties, we find that the most promising observable can disentangle the "CP-mixed" scenarios with an effective separation of ˜ 19 σ. In the case of observables that do not require the reconstruction of the t and t momenta, the power of discrimination is up to ˜ 13σ for the same number of events. We also show that the most promising observables can still disentangle the CP-mixed scenarios when the number of events is reduced to values consistent with expectations for the Large Hadron Collider in the near term.

  15. Standard model contribution to the electric dipole moment of the deuteron, 3H, and 3He nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Hiyama, Emiko

    2016-02-01

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron, 3H, and 3He nuclei generated by the one-meson exchange CP-odd nuclear force in the standard model. The effective |Δ S| = 1 four-quark operators are matched to the |Δ S| = 1 standard model processes involving the CP phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix at the electroweak scale and run down to the hadronic scale μ = 1 GeV according to the renormalization group evolution in the next-to-leading logarithmic order. At the hadronic scale, the hadron matrix elements are modeled in the factorization approach. We then obtain the one-meson (pion, eta meson, and kaon) exchange CP-odd nuclear force, which is the combination of the |Δ S| = 1 meson-baryon vertices which issue from the penguin operator and the hyperon-nucleon transition. From this CP-odd nuclear force, the nuclear EDM is calculated with the realistic Argonne v18 interaction and the CP-odd nuclear force using the Gaussian expansion method. It is found that the EDMs of light nuclear systems are of order O (10-31) e cm. We also estimate the standard model contribution to other hadronic CP violating observables such as the EDMs of 6Li, 9Be nuclei, and the atomic EDMs of 129Xe, 199Hg, 211Rn, and 225Ra generated through the nuclear Schiff moment. We then analyze the source of theoretical uncertainties and show some possible ways to overcome them.

  16. Renormalization group-induced phenomena of top pairs from four-quark effective operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Ko, P.; Yoon, Yeo Woong; Yu, Chaehyun

    2014-08-01

    We study the renormalization group(RG) evolution of four-quark operators that contribute to the top pair production. In particular, we focus on the cases in which certain observables are first induced from the one-loop RG while being absent at tree-level. From the operator mixing pattern, we classify all such RG-induced phenomena and underlying models that can induce them. We then calculate the full one-loop QCD RG evolution as the leading estimator of the effects and address the question of which RG-induced phenomena have largest and observable effects. The answer is related to the color structure of QCD. The studied topics include the RG-induction of top asymmetries, polarizations and polarization mixings as well as issues arising at this order. The RG-induction of top asymmetries is further compared with the generation of asymmetries from QCD and QED at one-loop order. We finally discuss the validity of using the RG as the proxy of one-loop effects on the top pair production. As an aside, we clarify the often-studied relations between top pair observables.

  17. Four-quark and hybrid mixing in the light-quark vector sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnachie, A.; Kalashnikova, Yu. S.

    1993-12-01

    The data on e + e - annihilation are shown to be incompatible with an interpretation of the observed vector mesons asqbar q excitations. It is necessary to consider mixing with somenon - qbar q system. Two specific models are considered: either four-quark states or hybrid states mixing with the conventional quark-antiquark excitations. Both models are compatible with the present e + e - annihilation data. It is possible to incorporate the 1.3 GeV J PC =1-- state seen by LASS in the ππ channel in the four-quark model, but this is not possible with the hybrid model.

  18. $$B^{0}_{s}$$ Lifetime Measurement in the CP-odd Decay Channel $$B^{0}_{s} \\to J/\\psi\\mbox{ }f_{0}(980)$$

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, V. M.

    2016-07-06

    Here, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured in the decay channel Bs0→J/ψπ+π- with 880 ≤ Mπ+π- ≤ 1080 MeV/c2, which is mainly a CP-odd state and dominated by the f0(980) resonance. In 10.4 fb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector in Run II of the Tevatron, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured to be τ(Bs0) = 1.70 ± 0.14(stat) ± 0.05(syst) ps. Neglecting CP violation in Bs0/more » $$\\bar{B}$$0s mixing, the measurement can be translated into the width of the heavy mass eigenstate of the Bs0, ΓH = 0.59 ± 0.05(stat) ± 0.02(syst) ps-1.« less

  19. Mass spectra of four-quark states in the hidden charm sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Smruti; Shah, Manan; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-08-01

    Masses of the low-lying four-quark states in the hidden charm sector ( are calculated within the framework of a non-relativistic quark model. The four-body system is considered as two two-body systems such as diquark-antidiquark ( - and quark-antiquark-quark-antiquark ( - q molecular-like four-quark states. Here, the Cornell-type potential has been used for describing the two-body interactions among Q - q , - , Q - , Qq - and Q - q , with appropriate string tensions. Our present analysis suggests the following exotic states: X(3823) , Z c(3900) , X(3915) , Z c(4025) , (4040) , Z 1(4050) and X(4160) as Q - q molecular-like four-quark states, while Z c(3885) , X(3940) and Y(4140) as the diquark-antidiquark four-quark states. We have been able to assign the JPC values for many of the recently observed exotic states according to their structure. Apart from this, we have identified the charged state Z(4430) recently confirmed by LHCb as the first radial excitation of Zc(3885) with G = + 1 and Y(4360) state as the first radial excitation of Y(4008) with G = - 1 and the state as the first radial excitation of the state.

  20. $B^{0}_{s}$ Lifetime Measurement in the CP-odd Decay Channel $B^{0}_{s} \\to J/\\psi\\mbox{ }f_{0}(980)$

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.

    2016-07-06

    Here, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured in the decay channel Bs0→J/ψπ+π- with 880 ≤ Mπ+π- ≤ 1080 MeV/c2, which is mainly a CP-odd state and dominated by the f0(980) resonance. In 10.4 fb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector in Run II of the Tevatron, the lifetime of the Bs0 meson is measured to be τ(Bs0) = 1.70 ± 0.14(stat) ± 0.05(syst) ps. Neglecting CP violation in Bs0/$\\bar{B}$0s mixing, the measurement can be translated into the width of the heavy mass eigenstate of the Bs0, ΓH = 0.59 ± 0.05(stat) ± 0.02(syst) ps-1.

  1. Pion parameters and four quark condensates from τ-decay data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartvelishvili, V. G.; Margvelashvili, M. V.

    1992-03-01

    A modified finite energy sum rules procedure is presented and applied for the phenomenological analysis of the difference of vector and axial-vector two-point current correlators. In the chiral limit π→ evy decay axial formfactor F A , electro-magnetic difference of pion masses and the four quark condensates of dimensions six and eight are determined with improved accuracy, using the data on τ→ v+ nπ decays obtained by ARGUS collaboration. Our values for F A and Δ m em are close to the measured ones, while C 6< O 6> exceeds 2.5 3 times the value given by the vaccum saturation hypothesis.

  2. Search for a Very Light CP-Odd Higgs Boson in Top Quark Decays from pp-bar; Collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-07-11

    We present the results of a search for a very light CP-odd Higgs boson a10 originating from top quark decays t→H±b → W±(*)a10b, and subsequently decaying into τ+τ-. Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb-1 collected by the CDF II detector in pp-bar collisions at 1.96 TeV, we perform a search for events containing a lepton, three or more jets, and an additional isolated track with transverse momentum in the range 3 to 20 GeV/c. Observed events are consistent with background sources, and 95% C.L. limits are set on the branching ratio of t→H±b formore » various masses of H± and a10.« less

  3. Dimension-5 CP -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; ...

    2015-12-23

    Here, we study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T- and P-odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. Furthermore, we present the renormalization matrix to one loop in themore » $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and ’t Hooft–Veltman prescriptions for γ5.« less

  4. Cancellations Between Two-Loop Contributions to the Electron Electric Dipole Moment with a CP-Violating Higgs Sector.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ligong; Liu, Tao; Shu, Jing

    2015-07-10

    We present a class of cancellation conditions for suppressing the total contributions of Barr-Zee diagrams to the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM). Such a cancellation is of particular significance after the new eEDM upper limit was released by the ACME Collaboration, which strongly constrains the allowed magnitude of CP violation in Higgs couplings and hence the feasibility of electroweak baryogenesis (EWBG). Explicitly, if both the CP-odd Higgs-photon-photon (Z boson) and the CP-odd Higgs-electron-positron couplings are turned on, a cancellation may occur either between the contributions of a CP-mixing Higgs boson, with the other Higgs bosons being decoupled, or between the contributions of CP-even and CP-odd Higgs bosons. With a cancellation, large CP violation in the Higgs sector is still allowed, yielding successful EWBG. The reopened parameter regions would be probed by future neutron, mercury EDM measurements, and direct measurements of Higgs CP properties at the Large Hadron Collider Run II and future colliders.

  5. Higgs Discovery in the Presence of Light CP-Odd Scalars

    SciTech Connect

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2009-06-19

    Many models of electroweak symmetry breaking have an additional light pseudoscalar. If the Higgs boson can decay to a new pseudoscalar, LEP searches for the Higgs can be significantly altered and the Higgs can be as light as 86 GeV. Discovering the Higgs boson in these models is challenging when the pseudoscalar is lighter than 10 GeV because it decays dominantly into tau leptons. In this paper, we discuss discovering the Higgs in a subdominant decay mode where one of the pseudoscalars decays to a pair of muons. This search allows for potential discovery of a cascade-decaying Higgs boson with the complete Tevatron data set or early data at the LHC.

  6. The strong isospin-breaking correction for the gluonic penguin contribution to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} at next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Carl E.; Maltman, Kim

    2001-01-01

    The strong isospin-breaking correction {Omega}{sub st}, which appears in estimates of the standard model value for the direct CP-violating ratio {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}, is evaluated to next-to-leading order (NLO) in the chiral expansion using chiral perturbation theory. The relevant linear combinations of the unknown NLO CP-odd weak low-energy constants (LEC's) which, in combination with one-loop and strong LEC contributions, are required for a complete determination at this order, are estimated using two different models. It is found that, to NLO, {Omega}{sub st}=0.08{+-}0.05, significantly reduced from the ''standard'' value, 0.25{+-}0.08, employed in recent analyses. The potentially significant numerical impact of this decrease on standard model predictions for {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}, associated with the decreased cancellation between gluonic penguin and electroweak penguin contributions, is also discussed.

  7. Non-1/mbn power suppressed contributions to inclusive B-->Xsl+l- decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Rupak, Gautam; Savage, Martin J.

    1997-10-01

    We compute non-perturbative contributions to B-->Xsl+l- that are not explicitly suppressed by powers of the b-quark mass. They are proportional to hoverlineσ.GhB> and arise from an interference between the free-quark amplitude and higher order terms in the matrix element of the four-quark operator soverlineαγμ(1- γ5)cαcoverlineβγμ(1- γ5)bβ. This correction is found to be small over most of the dalitz plot except near the charm threshold. Unfortunately, the perturbative computation we have performed is invalid near charm threshold and we do not except to see the structure found at lowest order reproduced in the data. We conclude that these non-perturbative contributions do not significantly modify the previous analysis of B-->Xsl+l-.

  8. Penguin Contributions to C P Phases in Bd ,s Decays to Charmonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, Philipp; Nierste, Ulrich; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The precision of the C P phases 2 β and 2 βs determined from the mixing-induced C P asymmetries in Bd→J /ψ KS and Bs→J /ψ ϕ , respectively, is limited by the unknown long-distance contribution of a penguin diagram involving up quarks. The penguin contribution is expected to be comparable in size to the precision of the LHCb and Belle II experiments and, therefore, limits the sensitivity of the measured quantities to new physics. We analyze the infrared QCD structure of this contribution and find that all soft and collinear divergences either cancel between different diagrams or factorize into matrix elements of local four-quark operators up to terms suppressed by ΛQCD/mψ , where mψ denotes the J /ψ mass. Our results, which are based on an operator product expansion, allow us to calculate the penguin-to-tree ratio P /T in terms of the matrix elements of these operators and to constrain the penguin contribution to the phase 2 β as |Δ ϕd|≤0.68 ° . The penguin contribution to 2 βs is bounded as |Δ ϕs0|≤0.97 ° , |Δ ϕs∥|≤1.22 ° , and |Δ ϕs⊥|≤0.99 ° for the case of longitudinal, parallel, and perpendicular ϕ and J /ψ polarizations, respectively. Further, we place bounds on |Δ ϕd| for Bd→ψ (2 S )KS and the polarization amplitudes in Bd→J /ψ K* . In our approach, it is further possible to constrain P /T for decays in which P /T is Cabibbo unsuppressed, and we derive upper limits on the penguin contribution to the mixing-induced C P asymmetries in Bd→J /ψ π0, Bd→J /ψ ρ0, Bs→J /ψ KS, and Bs→J /ψ K* . For all studied decay modes, we also constrain the sizes of the direct C P asymmetries.

  9. Mathematics: Contributions by Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Jacqueline M.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a core course in a women's-studies program at Loyola Marymount University. Provides information, resources, and an annotated bibliography useful for making students more aware of women's contributions to mathematics. Contains 38 references. (ASK)

  10. Contributed Papers, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, New York, NY. Documentation Div.

    Included are six papers from the Special Libraries Association Documentation Division's Contributed Papers Session at the National Conference in New York, May 28 - June 1, 1967, which were not included in the November, 1967 issue of Special Libraries. The papers are: (1) "The Bibliographical Control of Aerospace Industry Conference Literature…

  11. Avicenna's contribution to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A R; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16(th) century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field.

  12. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  13. Behavioral science space contributions.

    PubMed

    Harris, P R

    1989-07-01

    In anticipation of longer missions on the space stations, Mir and Freedom, as well as a potential return to the Moon and the exploration of Mars, human survival and the quality of life aloft will be increasingly dependent upon research in the behavioral and biological sciences. This article reviews the possible contributions to space habitation of the behavioral sciences--especially anthropology, psychology, and sociology. Before space settlements become a reality, the author makes a case for the broadening of the engineering approach to human factor studies, and consideration of the integrative living systems theory in space planning and management.

  14. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon.

  15. A Profile of Corporate Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hayden W.

    The extent and distribution of charitable contributions by corporations were studied. In addition to a history of giving from 1936 to 1981, information is presented on corporate contributions in 1977 in terms of the distribution of companies (1) by size of contributions, (2) by contributions as percentage of net income, (3) by industry, and (4) by…

  16. EMSL Contribution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-12-01

    This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2

  17. Mexican contributions to Noncommutative Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Vergara, J. David; Garcia-Compean, H.

    2006-09-25

    In this paper we summarize the Mexican contributions to the subject of Noncommutative theories. These contributions span several areas: Quantum Groups, Noncommutative Field Theories, Hopf algebra of renormalization, Deformation Quantization, Noncommutative Gravity, and Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics.

  18. 75 FR 32659 - Contributed Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... partnership, and any consolidated group of which the partner in the partnership is a member (within the... described in Sec. 1.704-3, paragraphs (b), (c) and (d), apply only with respect to the contributions of... treated as owned by the partner; (ii) disregarding one or more contributions or (iii) disregarding one...

  19. 75 FR 43799 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... practice, however, the Agency will soon require a notarized signature for all withdrawal requests...' TSP accounts from fraudulent withdrawals. One commenter requested affirmation that contribution... withdrawal penalty tax). (2) A participant who requests a refund will receive the amount of any...

  20. Assessing Contributions to Group Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the…

  1. Contributions to environmental mechanics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raats, Peter A. C.; Smiles, David E.; Warrick, Arthur W.

    In the second half of the 20th century, environmental mechanics developed from a collection of loosely connected principles and techniques t o a coherent quantitative treatment of flow and transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. John Philip was in many respects the life and soul of this adventure . He contributed foremost to the physics of water in unsaturated soils, but also to micrometeorology and physical ecology. In this introductory chapter we briefly review how his contributions influenced and are related to the activities of his colleagues and provide an overview of the present status of theory of soil water movement. We also indicate how the various contributions to this volume fit in this context. We start with a discussion of the nature, foundation, and application of the Richards equation, with emphasis on the dominant role of John Philip in finding analytical solutions of this equation. This is followed by a discussion of various developments beyond the Richards equation: multiphase flow, simultaneous transport of water and heat, flow of water in soils subject to swelling-shrinkage, transport of solutes in unsaturated soils, and flow and transport processes at various scales in space and time. The varied contributions of John Philip to micrometeorology and physical ecology are also reviewed briefly. In the concluding section, some challenges for environmental mechanics are indicated.

  2. Feminist Contributions to Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Osipow, Samuel H.

    1991-01-01

    The feminist movement has influenced counseling psychology in the following areas: (1) policy and leadership; (2) theory and research; (3) training and practice; and (4) recognition of feminist scholarship and contributions by women. Tracing these areas of impact reveals feminism as a major force in developing inquiry and practice. (SLD)

  3. Supporting Enterprise. A College Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, John F.; Cook, David

    This report describes the experience of one college--Percival Whitley College in Calderdale, England--in contributing to the strategy for economic regeneration of the surrounding metropolitan district. It charts the success of the borough and the college working together to attract national and European funding. A checklist for implementing…

  4. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers.

  5. Changes in accounting for contributions.

    PubMed

    Pelfrey, S

    1992-03-01

    A proposed accounting change in the timing of income recognition for restricted contributions and pledges can greatly impact a hospital's excess of revenue over expenses (net income). The author addresses steps that administrators can take to lessen its impact. With this knowledge, nurse administrators and other hospital executives can plan alternatives to reduce the income recognition and prepare themselves to answer questions posed by patients and members of the community regarding increased hospital profits.

  6. Townes' contribution to nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2015-03-01

    In honour of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physics, this talk introduced the contributions of Nicholas Basov and Alexei Prokhorov, who shared the prize with Charles Townes. The talk then detailed the quantum electronics research of Townes, particularly at MIT, which was related to nonlinear optics. The years from 1961 to 1968 were particularly exciting, as the ruby laser enabled a wide variety of new physics to be discovered and explored.

  7. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section... ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may make a contribution election at any time. (b) A participant must submit a contribution election to his...

  8. Methanotrophs Contribute to Peatland Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, Tuula; Leppänen, Sanna M.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aarva, Maija; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) fixation is potentially an important N input mechanism to peatland ecosystems, but the extent of this process may have been underestimated because of the methods traditionally used inhibit the activity of methanothrophs. We examined the linkage of methane (CH4) oxidation and N2 fixation using 15N2 technique. Dominant flark and hummock Sphagnum species were collected from twelve pristine peatlands in Siikajoki, Finland, which varied in age from 200 to 2,500 y due to the postglacial rebound. The mosses were incubated in a two-day field 15N2 and 13CH4 pulse labelling experiment and the incorporation of 15N2 and 13CH4 in biomass was measured with Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. The rates of Sphagnum-associated N2 fixation (0.1-2.9 g N m-2 y-1) were up to 10 times the current N deposition rates. Methane-induced N2 fixation contributed to over 1/3 of moss-associated N2 fixation in younger stages, but was switched off in old successional stages, despite active CH4 oxidation in these stages. Both the N2 fixation rates and the methanotrophic contribution to N2 fixation during peatland succession were primarily constrained by phosphorus availability. Previously overlooked methanotrophic N contribution may explain rapid peat and N accumulation during fen stages of peatland development. Reference. Larmola T., Leppänen S.M., Tuittila E.-S, Aarva M., Merilä P., Fritze H., Tiirola M. (2014) Methanotrophy induces nitrogen fixation during peatland development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111 (2): 734-739.

  9. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  10. The Viennese contribution to venereology.

    PubMed Central

    Wauch, M

    1977-01-01

    A history of venereology in Vienna from the first manifestations of the French disease in 1498 until the first half of the twentieth century is described. Notable events were the founding of the old Vienna School by van Swieten in the years after 1745, followed by the revival one hundred years later by von Hebra of the scientific basis for dermatovenereology. An account is given of teachers and discoverers of venereological importance after von Hebra and Sigmund to Arzt. The importance of Landsteiner's and Wagner von Jauregg's contributions finalise the historical account. PMID:336146

  11. 11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... political dinner or reception. (7) Contributions received from a joint fundraising activity conducted in... the joint fundraising agreement when they are submitted for matching. (8) Contributions by credit...

  12. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  13. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  14. IDS contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, J.; Lemoine, F.; Ferrage, P.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Le Bail, K.; Moore, P.; Yaya, P.; Soudarin, L.

    2009-12-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS), in operation since 2003, submitted three sets of solutions to ITRF2005 from the IGN/JPL, LEGOS/CLS, and INASAN analysis centers, but no DORIS technique combination. Since that time new analysis centers have become operational including the Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSC), and the University of Newcastle (NCL). These analysis centers run different software, including Gypsy (IGN & INASAN), GINS (LCA), Bernese (GOP), NAPEOS (ESOC), GEODYN (Geoscience Australia and NASA GSFC) and FAUST (NCL). In order to contribute to ITRF2008, seven analysis centers processed DORIS data from TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, and ENVISAT from 1992 to 2008, producing weekly SINEX solutions or normal equations. The weekly SINEX files from seven AC’s were processed with the CATREF software. Three iterations of an IDS weekly combined time series were completed. The IDS-1, and IDS-2 combinations were preliminary station-only solutions. In the final combination, IDS-3, both stations and the Earth Orientation Paramters (EOP’s) were adjusted. Between each of the IDS combinations, the combination strategy (station filtering, outliers, weighting, scale or geocenter contributions) was improved and the AC’s SINEX series were refined. Some series were extended in data span while others were recomputed to correct anomalies or to improve the quality of the submissions, based on feedback from the combination analyses and intercenter comparisons. For example in IDS-1, both the GAU and GSC solutions were affected by a 20 mm scale offset that was removed in IDS-2 and IDS-3 after the application of improved troposphere modelling in the GEODYN software. The analysis for IDS-1 showed a higher station position WRMS in the vicinity of the high solar flux periods (late 2001-2002). Consequently for IDS-2, several AC’s (LCA, GAU, GSC

  15. Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlote, Karl-Heinz

    2004-09-01

    I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).

  16. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  17. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  18. Possible NASA Contributions to HEAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    A four-year experiment (HEAT) has been proposed (one summer in the field, 2005) to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas, in association with simultaneous experiments by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Houston is the third most populous city in the United States and the region contains 50% of the petroleum refining capacity of the United States. Recent studies covering the period 1989-2000 document a 50% increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. It is suggested that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including, 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze, and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size. The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline, on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The project is a multi- agency effort and will employ numerous observing capabilities and expertise. Dr. Shepherd has been asked to serve as a possible co- investigator to contribute expertise in areas related to urban impacts on precipitation variability. Dr. Shepherd is also a key NASA representative in the interagency effort. This presentation will provide an overview of recent NASA research focused on urban rainfall in Houston and offer potential NASA capabilities that could contribute to HEAT.

  19. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  20. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  1. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  2. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  3. 5 CFR 1604.3 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1604.3 Section... § 1604.3 Contribution elections. A service member may make contribution elections as described in 5 CFR... incentive pay when the contribution election is made); those elections will take effect when the...

  4. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  5. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  6. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  7. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  8. 7 CFR 550.15 - Resource contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource contribution. 550.15 Section 550.15... Agreements § 550.15 Resource contribution. Each party must contribute resources towards the successful completion of the project. Required resource contributions must be substantial enough to substantiate a...

  9. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  10. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  11. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  12. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  13. 13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land contributions. 120.911... Company Loan Program (504) The Borrower's Contribution § 120.911 Land contributions. The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of...

  14. The microbial contribution to macroecology

    PubMed Central

    Barberán, Albert; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    There has been a recent explosion of research within the field of microbial ecology that has been fueled, in part, by methodological improvements that make it feasible to characterize microbial communities to an extent that was inconceivable only a few years ago. Furthermore, there is increasing recognition within the field of ecology that microorganisms play a critical role in the health of organisms and ecosystems. Despite these developments, an important gap still persists between the theoretical framework of macroecology and microbial ecology. We highlight two idiosyncrasies of microorganisms that are fundamental to understanding macroecological patterns and their mechanistic drivers. First, high dispersal rates provide novel opportunities to test the relative importance of niche, stochastic, and historical processes in structuring biological communities. Second, high speciation rates potentially lead to the convergence of ecological and evolutionary time scales. After reviewing these unique aspects, we discuss strategies for improving the conceptual integration of microbes into macroecology. As examples, we discuss the use of phylogenetic ecology as an integrative approach to explore patterns across the tree of life. Then we demonstrate how two general theories of biodiversity (i.e., the recently developed theory of stochastic geometry and the neutral theory) can be adapted to microorganisms. We demonstrate how conceptual models that integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms can contribute to the unification of microbial ecology and macroecology. PMID:24829564

  15. Georgius Agricola's contributions to hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Isabel F.

    2015-04-01

    Georgius Agricola's 1546 book De Ortu et Causis Subterraneorum (On the Source and Causes of What is Underground) was the first European work since antiquity to focus on hydrology and helped to shape the thought of Nicolaus Steno, Pierre Perrault, A.G. Werner, and other important figures in the history of hydrology and geology. De Ortu contains the first known expressions of numerous concepts important in modern hydrology: erosion as an active process, groundwater movement through pores and fissures, hydrofracturing, water-rock reaction, and others. The concepts of groundwater origins, movement, and nature in De Ortu were also the foundation for the theories of ore deposit formation for which Agricola is better known. In spite of their importance, most of Agricola's contributions to the study of groundwater are unrecognized today because De Ortu, alone of his major works, has never been translated out of Latin and no existing vernacular summary of it is longer than two pages. This article presents the first detailed description of Agricola's work on hydrology and discusses the derivation and impact of his ideas.

  16. Maternal contributions to preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Murray, Jeffrey C; Feenstra, Bjarke; Melbye, Mads

    2009-12-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD) is a complex trait with a significant familial component. However, no specific inheritance patterns have been established. The authors examined the contribution of PTDs in both the woman's family and her partner's family to her risk of PTD. The authors linked birth information from Danish national registers with pedigree information from the Danish Family Relations Database for 1,107,124 live singleton deliveries occurring from 1978 to 2004. Risk ratios were estimated comparing women with and without various PTD histories. Women with previous PTDs were at greatly increased risk of recurrent PTD (risk ratio = 5.6, 95% confidence interval: 5.5, 5.8); however, their PTD risk was unaffected by a partner's history of preterm children with other women. PTDs to a woman's mother, full sisters, or maternal half-sisters also increased her PTD risk (risk ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 1.6), whereas PTDs in her paternal half-sisters, the female partners of her male relatives, or members of her partner's family did not affect her PTD risk. Inheritance patterns were similar for all gestational ages from very early through late PTD. The substantial portion of PTD risk explained by effects passed through the female line suggests a role for either imprinting or mitochondrial inheritance.

  17. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2016-06-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman-Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cutoff) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can be well described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field theories, require at least a perturbative treatment of inhomogeneity beyond a strict minisuperspace model. The new methods suggest a systematic extension of minisuperspace models by a canonical effective formulation of perturbative inhomogeneity.

  18. Aerosol contributions to speleothem geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dredge, J. A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Harrison, R.; Woodhead, J. D.; Hellstrom, J.

    2011-12-01

    The term "aerosols" encompasses the suspension of both fine solid or liquid particles within a gaseous medium. Aerosols become suspended into the earth's atmosphere through a multitude of processes both natural and anthropogenic. Atmospheric aerosols enter cave networks as a result of cave ventilation processes and are either deposited, or cycled and removed from the system. Speleothem offer a multiproxy palaeoclimate resource; many of the available proxies have been extensively investigated and utilised for palaeoclimatic reconstructions in a range of studies. The potential contribution of aerosols to speleothem chemistry and their applicability for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions remains untested and the extent of their value as an addition to palaeoclimate sciences unknown. Aerosols through incorporation into speleothem may provide a novel palaeoenvironmental resource. The aerosol component of interest is that which is transported into the cave atmosphere and deposited and are available for incorporation into precipitated calcite. Aerosol deposition and therefore distribution in the cave has shown to be a complex function of ventilation and changing environmental factors. Through detailed monitoring aerosols have been detected, identified, characterised and quantified to determine their prominence in the cave system. Investigations are on a case study basis, searching for suitable aerosol proxies of environmentally significant emission processes. Case studies include: Palaeofires at Yarrangobilly Caves, Australia; anthropogenic emissions at St Michaels Cave, Gibraltar and Cheddar gorge, UK; and drip water aerosol production and geochemical addition in Obir cave, Austria. Monitoring has allowed for the temporal and spatial determination of aerosols in karst networks. Speleothem samples will be analysed in combination with in-situ monitoring to determine incorporation factors and record preservation. By understanding how aerosols are transmitted within the

  19. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a person....

  20. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  1. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  2. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  3. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a...

  4. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  5. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to... avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a person....

  6. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a...

  7. 31 CFR 594.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology, including contributions or donations to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  8. 31 CFR 576.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine... violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit...

  9. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to... avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a person....

  10. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  11. 31 CFR 576.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine... violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit...

  12. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  13. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  14. 31 CFR 594.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology, including contributions or donations to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  15. 31 CFR 576.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine... violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit...

  16. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a person....

  17. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine..., to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such...

  18. 31 CFR 576.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine... violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit...

  19. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a...

  20. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to... evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions by, to, or for the benefit of such a...

  1. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  2. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  3. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  4. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  5. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to, or for the benefit of, or received...

  6. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology, including contributions or donations to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or... organizations who donate or contribute funds, goods, services, or technology without knowledge or reason to...

  7. 31 CFR 560.426 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  8. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by,...

  9. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  10. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  11. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  12. 31 CFR 560.426 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  13. 31 CFR 537.414 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to, or for the benefit of, or received...

  14. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  15. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by,...

  16. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  17. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by,...

  18. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  19. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology, including contributions or donations to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or... organizations who donate or contribute funds, goods, services, or technology without knowledge or reason to...

  20. 31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If pay period... in calendar year 1997, and 48 percent of the retirement contributions made to police officers...

  1. Quarkonium Contribution to Meson Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincioglu, E.; Nieves, J.; Ozpineci, A.; Yilmazer, A. U.

    2016-10-01

    Starting from a molecular picture for the X(3872) resonance, this state and its J^{PC}=2^{++} heavy-quark spin symmetry partner [X_2(4012)] are analyzed within a model which incorporates possible mixings with 2 P charmonium (cbar{c}) states. Since it is reasonable to expect the bare χ _{c1}(2P) to be located above the Dbar{D}^* threshold, but relatively close to it, the presence of the charmonium state provides an effective attraction that will contribute to binding the X(3872), but it will not appear in the 2^{++} sector. Indeed in the latter sector, the χ _{c2}(2P) should provide an effective small repulsion, because it is placed well below the D^*bar{D}^* threshold. We show how the 1^{++} and 2^{++} bare charmonium poles are modified due to the D^{(*)}bar{D}^{(*)} loop effects, and the first one is moved to the complex plane. The meson loops produce, besides some shifts in the masses of the charmonia, a finite width for the 1^{++} dressed charmonium state. On the other hand, X(3872) and X_2(4012) start developing some charmonium content, which is estimated by means of the compositeness Weinberg sum rule. It turns out that in the heavy-quark limit, there is only one coupling between the 2 P charmonia and the D^{(*)}bar{D}^{(*)} pairs. We also show that, for reasonable values of this coupling, leading to X(3872) molecular probabilities of around 70-90 %, the X_2 resonance destabilizes and disappears from the spectrum, becoming either a virtual state or one being located deep into the complex plane, with decreasing influence in the D^{*}bar{D}^{*} scattering line. Moreover, we also discuss how around 10-30 % charmonium probability in the X(3872) might explain the ratio of radiative decays of this resonance into ψ (2S)γ and J/ψ γ . Finally, we qualitatively discuss within this scheme, the hidden bottom flavor sector, paying a special attention to the implications for the X_b and X_{b2} states, heavy-quark spin-flavor partners of the X(3872).

  2. 11 CFR 9032.4 - Contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution. 9032.4 Section 9032.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.4 Contribution. For purposes of this subchapter, contribution has the...

  3. 11 CFR 9002.13 - Contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution. 9002.13 Section 9002.13 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.13 Contribution. Contribution has the same meaning given the term under 2 U.S.C....

  4. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  5. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  6. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  7. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contributions. 1.401(m)-1 Section 1.401(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching contributions. (a) General... contributions satisfies the nondiscrimination test of section 401(m) under paragraph (b) of this section and...

  9. IDENTIFYING KEY CONTRIBUTIONS TO INFORMATION SCIENCE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Several alternative approaches were examined to determine how one might identify some of the key (written) contributions to ’ information science ’. The...references. The unclear selective patterns in current bibliographies in the information science field also present problems. It is suggested that in...identifying key contributions we are far from common agreement on the conceptual, methodological or practical contributions to the information science field

  10. [Original contributions of Latin Americans to anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Aldrete, J A

    1998-10-01

    The original contributions of Latin American physicians to the science of anesthesiology are described. Many contributions have been unfairly ignored mainly because they were never published in English, but others have likewise been passed over even when published in the most prestigious journals in the field. Although many discoveries by Latin Americans have been made in the area of regional anesthesia, a considerable number of contributions have involved other aspects of anesthesia as well.

  11. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  12. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  13. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  14. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  15. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  16. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  17. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  18. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  19. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... contributions but these shall only be used for production research, market research and development...

  20. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  1. 10 CFR 603.1225 - Cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cash contributions. 603.1225 Section 603.1225 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms... toward cost sharing, including expenditures of money that third parties contributed to the recipient....

  2. National contributions to observed global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.

  3. How sonochemistry contributes to green chemistry?

    PubMed

    Chatel, Gregory

    2017-03-15

    Based on the analyses of papers from the literature, and especially those published in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry journal, the contribution of sonochemistry to green chemistry area has been discussed here. Important reminders and insights on the good practices and considerations have been made to understand and demonstrate how sonochemistry can continue to efficiently contribute to green chemistry area in the further studies.

  4. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  5. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.203 - Tenant contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tenant contributions. 3560.203 Section 3560.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rents § 3560.203 Tenant contributions. (a)...

  10. Capabilities and Contributions of Unwed Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert I.

    2010-01-01

    Young, minority, and poorly educated fathers in fragile families have little capacity to support their children financially and are hard-pressed to maintain stability in raising those children. In this article, Robert Lerman examines the capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers, how their capabilities and contributions fall short of those…

  11. Louis Guttman's Contributions to Classical Test Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Williams, Richard H.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ross, Donald

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on Louis Guttman's contributions to the classical theory of educational and psychological tests, one of the lesser known of his many contributions to quantitative methods in the social sciences. Guttman's work in this field provided a rigorous mathematical basis for ideas that, for many decades after Spearman's initial work,…

  12. 13 CFR 120.912 - Borrowed contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... borrow its cash contribution from the CDC or a third party. If any of the contribution is borrowed, the interest rate must be reasonable. If the loan is secured by any of the Project assets, the loan must be subordinate to the liens securing the 504 Loan, and the loan may not be repaid at a faster rate than the...

  13. 5 CFR 1620.21 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Judges § 1620.21 Contributions. (a) An individual covered under this subpart can make.... (b) The following amounts are not basic pay and no TSP contributions can be made from them: (1) An annuity or salary received by a justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451) who...

  14. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  15. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  16. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  17. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  18. Magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio of galfenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paes, V. Z. C.; Mosca, D. H.

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present a detailed study on the magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio for samples under applied mechanical stress. Magnetic contributions to strain and Poisson ratio for cubic materials were derived by accounting elastic and magneto-elastic anisotropy contributions. We apply our theoretical results for a material of interest in magnetomechanics, namely, galfenol (Fe1-xGax). Our results show that there is a non-negligible magnetic contribution in the linear portion of the curve of stress versus strain. The rotation of the magnetization towards [110] crystallographic direction upon application of mechanical stress leads to an auxetic behavior, i.e., exhibiting Poisson ratio with negative values. This magnetic contribution to auxetic behavior provides a novel insight for the discussion of theoretical and experimental developments of materials that display unusual mechanical properties.

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contributions. 1.401(m)-1 Section 1.401(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching contributions. (a) General nondiscrimination rules—(1... the nondiscrimination test of section 401(m) under paragraph (b) of this section and the...

  20. The contribution of glacier melt to streamflow

    SciTech Connect

    Schaner, Neil; Voisin, Nathalie; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-09-13

    Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage globally have lead to concerns about the implications for water supplies. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor is the population at risk to future glacier changes. We estimate an upper bound on glacier melt contribution to seasonal streamflow by computing the energy balance of glaciers globally. Melt water quantities are computed as a fraction of total streamflow simulated using a hydrology model and the melt fraction is tracked down the stream network. In general, our estimates of the glacier melt contribution to streamflow are lower than previously published values. Nonetheless, we find that globally an estimated 225 (36) million people live in river basins where maximum seasonal glacier melt contributes at least 10% (25%) of streamflow, mostly in the High Asia region.

  1. 31 CFR 594.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine... evade or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions or donations to such a person....

  2. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... donation of funds, goods, services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  3. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... donation of funds, goods, services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  4. 31 CFR 594.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine... evade or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions or donations to such a person....

  5. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... donation of funds, goods, services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  6. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... donation of funds, goods, services, or technology, including those to relieve human suffering, such as food... if made in an attempt to violate, to evade, or to avoid the bar on the provision of contributions...

  7. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of animals in sinks can compromise persistence. Conversely, sinks can bolster population sizes, improving viability. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional persistence, we simulated the removal of sink hab...

  8. Contribution of Hydrogen Bonds to Protein Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Nick

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the contribution of the burial of polar groups and their hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of proteins. We measured the change in stability, Δ(Δ G), for a series of hydrogen bonding mutants in four proteins: villin head piece subdomain (VHP) containing 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) containing 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa (RNase Sa) and T1 (RNase T1). Crystal structures were determined for three of the hydrogen bonding mutants of RNase Sa: S24A (1.1Å), Y51F(1.5Å), and T95A(1.3Å). The structures are very similar to wild type RNase Sa and the hydrogen bonding partners always form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to water in the mutants. We compare our results with previous studies of similar mutants in other proteins and reach the following conclusions: 1) Hydrogen bonds contribute favorably to protein stability. 2) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. 3) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. 4) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar groups are not hydrogen bonded. 5) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is similar for VHP, a small protein, and VlsE, a large protein.

  9. Incentives to Encourage Scientific Web Contribution (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    We suggest improvements to citation standards and creation of remuneration opportunities to encourage career scientist contributions to Web2.0 and social media science channels. At present, agencies want to accomplish better outreach and engagement with no funding, while scientists sacrifice their personal time to contribute to web and social media sites. Securing active participation by scientists requires career recognition of the value scientists provide to web knowledge bases and to the general public. One primary mechanism to encourage participation is citation standards, which let a contributor improve their reputation in a quantifiable way. But such standards must be recognized by their scientific and workplace communities. Using case studies such as the acceptance of web in the workplace and the growth of open access journals, we examine what agencies and individual can do as well as the time scales needed to secure increased active contribution by scientists. We also discuss ways to jumpstart this process.

  10. Contributions of psychology to war and peace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being.

  11. Indian – American contributions to psychiatric research

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangi, Anand K.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years. PMID:21836715

  12. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments.

  13. Contribution of Hydrophobic Interactions to Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C. Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R.; Shirley, Bret A.; Hendricks, Marsha McNutt; Iimura, Satoshi; Gajiwala, Ketan; Scholtz, J. Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability. We measured the change in conformational stability, Δ(ΔG), for hydrophobic mutants of four proteins: villin head piece subdomain (VHP) with 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) with 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa and T1. We compare our results with previous studies and reach the following conclusions. 1. Hydrophobic interactions contribute less to the stability of a small protein, VHP (0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/mole per –CH2– group), than to the stability of a large protein, VlsE (1.6 ± 0.3 kcal/mol per –CH2– group). 2. Hydrophobic interactions make the major contribution to the stability of VHP (40 kcal/mol) and the major contributors are (in kcal/mol): Phe 18 (3.9), Met 13 (3.1), Phe 7 (2.9), Phe 11 (2.7), and Leu 21 (2.7). 3. Based on Δ(ΔG) values for 148 hydrophobic mutants in 13 proteins, burying a –CH2– group on folding contributes, on average, 1.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. 4. The experimental Δ(ΔG) values for aliphatic side chains (Ala, Val, Ile, and Leu) are in good agreement with their ΔGtr values from water to cyclohexane. 5. For 22 proteins with 36 to 534 residues, hydrophobic interactions contribute 60 ± 4% and hydrogen bonds 40 ± 4% to protein stability. 6. Conformational entropy contributes about 2.4 kcal/mol per residue to protein instability. The globular conformation of proteins is stabilized predominately by hydrophobic interactions. PMID:21377472

  14. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution... within 60 days of the participant's reemployment or return to pay status. (c) Makeup contributions. Makeup contributions will be processed as follows: (1) If the employee had a valid contribution...

  15. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution... within 60 days of the participant's reemployment or return to pay status. (c) Makeup contributions. Makeup contributions will be processed as follows: (1) If the employee had a valid contribution...

  16. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution... within 60 days of the participant's reemployment or return to pay status. (c) Makeup contributions. Makeup contributions will be processed as follows: (1) If the employee had a valid contribution...

  17. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... she must make a new contribution election to begin current contributions. (b) Makeup contribution... within 60 days of the participant's reemployment or return to pay status. (c) Makeup contributions. Makeup contributions will be processed as follows: (1) If the employee had a valid contribution...

  18. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.). (b) A participant may make traditional contributions and Roth contributions... contributions and Roth contributions cannot exceed the applicable Internal Revenue Code elective deferral limit... employee contributions and Roth contributions made to both accounts cannot exceed the Internal Revenue...

  19. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.). (b) A participant may make traditional contributions and Roth contributions... contributions and Roth contributions cannot exceed the applicable Internal Revenue Code elective deferral limit... employee contributions and Roth contributions made to both accounts cannot exceed the Internal Revenue...

  20. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  1. A contemporary Kleinian contribution to understanding racism.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Brian; Salhani, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This article applies a contemporary Kleinian understanding to the problem of racism and, in particular, to microaggressions. The article contributes to the social work literature on racism by (1) moving closer to an explanatory model of the relation between the social and the psyche; (2) adding depth and structure to the concept of unconscious racism; and (3) highlighting a range of Kleinian concepts, such as projection, projective identification, splitting, developmental positions, envy, and reparation, that contribute to understanding the internal and external dimensions of racialized encounters. The dynamic interaction of the psyche and the social is central to understanding racism and to effective antiracist intervention strategies.

  2. Contribution to encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Ocłoń, Pawel

    2015-06-01

    This paper lists the contribution in the international interdisciplinary reference - Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses (ETS). The ETS, edited by the world famous expert in field of Thermal Stresses - Professor Richard Hetnarski from Rochester Institute of Technology, was published by Springer in 2014. This unique Encyclopedia, subdivided into 11 volumes is the most extensive and comprehensive work related to the Thermal Stresses topic. The entries were carefully prepared by specialists in the field of thermal stresses, elasticity, heat conduction, optimization among others. The Polish authors' contribution within this work is significant; over 70 entries were prepared by them.

  3. Magnetic field contribution to the Lorentz model.

    PubMed

    Oughstun, Kurt E; Albanese, Richard A

    2006-07-01

    The classical Lorentz model of dielectric dispersion is based on the microscopic Lorentz force relation and Newton's second law of motion for an ensemble of harmonically bound electrons. The magnetic field contribution in the Lorentz force relation is neglected because it is typically small in comparison with the electric field contribution. Inclusion of this term leads to a microscopic polarization density that contains both perpendicular and parallel components relative to the plane wave propagation vector. The modified parallel and perpendicular polarizabilities are both nonlinear in the local electric field strength.

  4. Method for Tracking Core-Contributed Publications

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Cynthia A.; Curchoe, Carol Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Accurately tracking core-contributed publications is an important and often difficult task. Many core laboratories are supported by programmatic grants (such as Cancer Center Support Grant and Clinical Translational Science Awards) or generate data with instruments funded through S10, Major Research Instrumentation, or other granting mechanisms. Core laboratories provide their research communities with state-of-the-art instrumentation and expertise, elevating research. It is crucial to demonstrate the specific projects that have benefited from core services and expertise. We discuss here the method we developed for tracking core contributed publications. PMID:23204927

  5. Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters.

    PubMed

    Gedamke, Jason; Ferguson, Megan; Harrison, Jolie; Hatch, Leila; Henderson, Laurel; Porter, Michael B; Southall, Brandon L; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the potential effects of chronic underwater noise in US waters, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) organized two working groups in 2011, collectively called "CetSound," to develop tools to map the density and distribution of cetaceans (CetMap) and predict the contribution of human activities to underwater noise (SoundMap). The SoundMap effort utilized data on density, distribution, acoustic signatures of dominant noise sources, and environmental descriptors to map estimated temporal, spatial, and spectral contributions to background noise. These predicted soundscapes are an initial step toward assessing chronic anthropogenic noise impacts on the ocean's varied acoustic habitats and the animals utilizing them.

  6. Variation in contributions to teaching by meerkats.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex

    2008-08-07

    Recent evidence from cooperative insect, bird and mammal societies has challenged the assumption that teaching is restricted to humans. However, little is known about the factors affecting the degree to which individuals in such societies contribute to teaching. Here, I examine variation in contributions to teaching in meerkats, where older group members teach pups to handle difficult prey. I show that investment in teaching varies with characteristics of pups, helpers, groups and ecological conditions. Although prior experience in caring for pups did not significantly influence teaching behaviour, younger helpers, which were still investing in growth, contributed less to teaching than older individuals. This suggests that, in common with other cooperative activities, contributions to teaching vary with the costs experienced by individual group members. However, in contrast to other forms of helping in meerkats, I detected no effects of nutritional state on teaching, suggesting that it carries relatively low costs. In species where individuals can potentially gain direct or indirect fitness benefits from facilitating learning in others, low costs divided among multiple group members may help tip the balance towards selection for teaching.

  7. Characterizing ASOCOPI: Its Affiliates, Ideals, and Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Edgar; Díaz, Zulay

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of an on-line cross-sectional questionnaire and further discussion about the characterization of ASOCOPI's affiliates, their expectations of being a member, and the contributions that the association has made to their professional development. The respondents' answers were analyzed by following a statistical…

  8. Arab Contributions to Civilization. ADC Issues #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macron, Mary

    This booklet, designed to provide educational materials on Arab history and culture, describes the contributions of Islamic civilization to western civilization. To be Arab, like American, was and is a cultural trait rather than a racial mark. To be Arab meant to be from the Arabic speaking world of common traditions, customs, and values shaped by…

  9. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  10. Contribution of Bilingualism in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam

    2013-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the contribution of the use of bilingualism as an aid in learning/teaching English as a foreign language and bilingualism in EFL classroom does not reduce students' communicative abilities but in effect can assist in teaching and learning process. The study employed a qualitative, interpretive research design…

  11. The Contributions of Dr. Alfred Gysi.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Rodney D; Engelmeier, Robert L

    2016-11-24

    This article is a historical overview of Dr. Alfred Gysi's contributions to the profession in the areas of denture tooth and articulator design. His understanding of occlusion and mandibular movement resulted in denture tooth designs and occlusal concepts still in widespread use.

  12. The Contribution of Social Resources To Volunteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John; Musick, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a theory of how social capital contributes to volunteering, hypothesizing that social capital has a stronger effect on volunteering among people with more human capital and socioeconomic status. Specifies a test (of the effects) of social capital on volunteering and discusses the findings (of the test) in detail. (CMK)

  13. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  15. The contribution of astrocytes to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Birch, Amy M

    2014-10-01

    Astrocytes were historically classified as supporting cells; however, it is becoming increasingly clear that they actively contribute to neuronal functioning under normal and pathological conditions. As interest in the contribution of neuroinflammation to Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression has grown, manipulating glial cells has become an attractive target for future therapies. Astrocytes have largely been under-represented in studies that assess the role of glia in these processes, despite substantial evidence of astrogliosis in AD. The actual role of astrocytes in AD remains elusive, as they seem to adopt different functions dependent on disease progression and the extent of accompanying parenchymal inflammation. Astrocytes may contribute to the clearance of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and restrict the spread of inflammation in the brain. Conversely, they may contribute to neurodegeneration in AD by releasing neurotoxins and neglecting crucial metabolic roles. The present review summarizes current evidence on the multi-faceted functions of astrocytes in AD, highlighting the significant scope available for future therapeutic targets.

  16. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  17. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  18. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  19. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that...

  20. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  1. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that...

  2. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  3. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that...

  4. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  5. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  6. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that...

  7. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  8. 45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.67 Service contributions. (a) For services rendered with funding under the Older Americans Act, the area agency on aging shall assure that...

  9. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contributions. 1326.9 Section 1326.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  10. 45 CFR 1328.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions. 1328.9 Section 1328.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  11. Vibrational contribution to molecular polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P. K. K.; Santry, D. P.

    1980-09-01

    The vibrational averaging theory of Kern and Matcha is extended, at the harmonic level of approximation, to the case where the molecular property under investigation can itself lead indirectly to a perturbation of the vibrational levels of the molecule. It is found that contributions arising from this perturbation can be significant, especially for molecular hyperpolarizabilities.

  12. Neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Guzey

    2008-01-22

    Using a simple model for nuclear GPDs, we study the role of the neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS observables. As an example, we use the beam-spin asymmetry $A_{LU}^A$ measured in coherent and incoherent DVCS on a wide range of nuclear targets in the HERMES and JLab kinematics. We find that at small values of the momentum transfer $t$, $A_{LU}^A$ is dominated by the coherent-enriched contribution, which enhances $A_{LU}^A$ compared to the free proton asymmetry $A_{LU}^p$, $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=1.8-2.2$. At large values of $t$, the nuclear asymmetry is dominated by the incoherent contribution and $A_{LU}^A/(\\phi)A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=0.66-0.74$. The deviation of $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)$ from unity at large $t$ is a result of the neutron contribution, which gives a possibility to constain neutron GPDs in incoherent nuclear DVCS. A similar trend is expected for other DVCS asymmetries.

  13. Minority Contributions to Science, Engineering, and Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funches, Peggy; And Others

    Offering an historical perspective on the development of science, engineering, medicine, and technology and providing current role models for minority students, the bulletin lists the outstanding contributions made by: (1) Blacks - medicine, chemistry, architecture, engineering, physics, biology, and exploration; (2) Hispanos - biomedical…

  14. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  15. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  16. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  19. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  20. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 956.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 956.45 Section 956.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  3. 7 CFR 955.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 955.45 Section 955.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  4. Surgical Never Events and Contributing Human Factors

    PubMed Central

    Thiels, Cornelius A.; Lal, Tarun Mohan; Nienow, Joseph M.; Pasupathy, Kalyan S.; Blocker, Renaldo C.; Aho, Johnathon M.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Cima, Robert R.; Hallbeck, Susan; Bingener, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We report the first prospective analysis of human factors elements contributing to invasive procedural never events using a validated Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). Methods From 8/2009 - 8/2014 surgical and invasive procedural “Never Events” (retained foreign object, wrong site/side procedure, wrong implant, wrong procedure) underwent systematic causation analysis promptly after the event. Contributing human factors were categorized using Reason's 4 levels of error causation and 161 HFACS subcategories (nano-codes). Results During the study approximately 1.5 million procedures were performed and 69 never events were identified. A total of 628 contributing human factors nano-codes were identified. Action-based errors (n=260) and preconditions to actions (n=296) accounted for the majority of the nano-codes across all four types of events, with individual cognitive factors contributing half of the nano-codes. The most common action nano-codes were confirmation bias (n=36) and failed to understand (n=36). The most common pre-condition nano-codes were channeled attention on a single issue (n=33) and inadequate communication (n=30). Conclusion Targeting quality and system improvement interventions addressing cognitive factors and team resource management as well as perceptual biases may reduce errors and further improve patient safety. These results delineate targets to further reduce never events from our healthcare system. PMID:26032826

  5. Intergenerational Practice: Contributing to a Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Sacha; Sousa, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of the European population is creating a new demographic mix, increasing the relevance of intergenerational practice (IGP). To date, however, this field lacks an appropriate conceptual framework. This study aims to contribute to such a framework through an integrative review of peer-reviewed papers reporting on IGPs. Fifteen papers were…

  6. Mode Contributions to the Casimir Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intravaia, F.; Henkel, C.

    2010-04-01

    Applying a sum-over-modes approach to the Casimir interaction between two plates with finite conductivity, we isolate and study the contributions of surface plasmons and Foucault (eddy current) modes. We show in particular that for the TE-polarization eddy currents provide a repulsive force that cancels, at high temperatures, the Casimir free energy calculated with the plasma model.

  7. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 983.72 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 983.72 Section 983.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  10. Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

  11. Japanese contributions to International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Hirata, Naru; Shinohara, Iku

    2012-07-01

    In this presentation, we will introduce Japanese contributions to the data archives for international collaborations. In Japan, the importance of planetary data archive was not recognized enough until early in 2000's. While NASA and ESA started their collaborations to their archives: PDS and PSA, and tried to make the new standard, JAXA was looking for the way of contributions because Japan did not have own data and archiving policy. The activities of NASA and ESA extended to the international collaborations, and International Planetary Data Alliance was established. JAXA had an opportunity to join the IPDA as an agency member. One of the contributions, the IPDA chairman was undertaken by Japanese member. The projects in IPDA were managed and were proceeded successfully during the term. For the technical part, JAXA is making several pilot systems to share planetary data. Planetary Data Access Protocol, PDAP, developed by IPDA, is implemented in JAXA's system, and provides a search system for Hayabusa and Kaguya (SELENE) data. Not only for Japanese data, but also Apollo's seismic data archives are prepared for scientific communities. The seismic data on the moon has not been measured for a long time, and Apollo's data are still precious and should be archived together with much information. The contributions to planetary data archives has just started and continues as a member of IPDA.

  12. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 542.408 Section 542.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 542.408 Section 542.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 542.408 Section 542.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 542.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 542.408 Section 542.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Adolescent Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the family, school, peer and psychological factors that contribute to adolescent suicidal ideation. The participants were 1,358 (680 boys and 678 girls) Hong Kong Chinese adolescents who were divided into younger (12.3 years, n = 694) and older (15.4 years, n = 664) age groups. By using structural equation modeling,…

  17. NASA's contributions to patient monitoring, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, D. M.; Siemens, W. D.

    1971-01-01

    Health care problems, and markets for patient monitoring equipment are discussed along with contributions to all phases of patient monitoring, and technology transfer to nonaerospace problems. Health care medical requirements, and NASA achievements in patient monitoring are described, and a summary of the technology transfer is included.

  18. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  19. African Flagship Universities: Their Neglected Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew

    2016-01-01

    This study documents and analyzes the contributions of flagship universities in Africa in teaching, learning, graduates, and research productivity since their inception. On the basis of empirical evidence (from an ongoing study) on eleven "flagship" universities in Africa--Addis Ababa, Botswana, Cairo, Chiekh Anta Diop, Dar es Salaam,…

  20. 7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1703.122 Section 1703.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122...

  1. Pioneer Women Educators: Challenges and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, C. L.

    This paper outlines the educational history of women in the United States and focuses on three women educators from the nineteenth century: Emma Willard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon. The paper considers their contributions to teaching and teacher education--all of these women founded schools to educate women. While these women paved the way…

  2. Augustus Matthiessen and His Contributions to Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reif-Acherman, Simo´n

    2015-01-01

    The British scientist Augustus Matthiessen (1831-1870) is widely known for his investigations on the influence of temperature on the electric conductivity of metals and alloys. However, his contributions to other areas of science throughout his career are not widely acknowledged. His research on the electrolytic decomposition of metallic salts…

  3. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by, to, or for the benefit of a person whose property and interests in property are... benefit of a person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 544.201(a) if...

  4. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by, to, or for the benefit of a person whose property and interests in property are... benefit of a person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 547.201(a) if...

  5. 7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1703.122 Section 1703.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122...

  6. 7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1703.122 Section 1703.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122...

  7. Coulombic contribution and fat center vortex model

    SciTech Connect

    Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Deldar, Sedigheh

    2007-02-27

    The fat (thick) center vortex model is one of the phenomenological models which is fairly successful to interpret the linear potential between static sources. However, the Coulombic part of the potential has not been investigated by the model yet. In an attempt to get the Coulombic contribution and to remove the concavity of the potentials, we are studying different vortex profiles and vortex sizes.

  8. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  9. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  12. 7 CFR 984.70 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 984.70 Section 984.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  13. 7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 966.45 Section 966.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  14. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 548.408 Section 548.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charitable contributions. 548.408 Section 548.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 923.43 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 923.43 Section 923.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  1. California Considers Adding Gays' Contributions to Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    A bill that has been sent to the floor of the California Senate would require textbooks used in public schools to include information on the roles and contributions of gay people throughout history, a move that could affect the content of instructional materials throughout much of the country. The measure would help build tolerance of diverse…

  2. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  3. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  4. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  5. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  6. 7 CFR 982.63 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contributions. 982.63 Section 982.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  7. Mechanism Design for Incentivizing Social Media Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vivek K.; Jain, Ramesh; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    Despite recent advancements in user-driven social media platforms, tools for studying user behavior patterns and motivations remain primitive. We highlight the voluntary nature of user contributions and that users can choose when (and when not) to contribute to the common media pool. A Game theoretic framework is proposed to study the dynamics of social media networks where contribution costs are individual but gains are common. We model users as rational selfish agents, and consider domain attributes like voluntary participation, virtual reward structure, network effect, and public-sharing to model the dynamics of this interaction. The created model describes the most appropriate contribution strategy from each user's perspective and also highlights issues like 'free-rider' problem and individual rationality leading to irrational (i.e. sub-optimal) group behavior. We also consider the perspective of the system designer who is interested in finding the best incentive mechanisms to influence the selfish end-users so that the overall system utility is maximized. We propose and compare multiple mechanisms (based on optimal bonus payment, social incentive leveraging, and second price auction) to study how a system designer can exploit the selfishness of its users, to design incentive mechanisms which improve the overall task-completion probability and system performance, while possibly still benefiting the individual users.

  8. Contributions of the Akamai Workforce Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Castori, Pam

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a third party, external perspective on the Akamai Workforce Initiative (AWI), highlighting some of the contributions of the initiative over the last ten years. AWI is a program that seeks to develop a skilled local STEM workforce to meet the needs of Hawai'i's growing high-tech industry. It began as an internship program…

  9. Contributions from the SuperKamiokande Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, R.J.; Fukuda, Y.; Inoue, K.

    1995-09-01

    This document consists of two reports contributed to the XXIV International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rome, Italy, August 28--September 8, 1995) from the SuperKamiokande Collaboration: one on the SuperKamiokande outer data acquisition system, and one on preliminary results from muon/electron identification tests at KEK of IMB3-detector phototubes and electronics.

  10. Can Inferentialism Contribute to Social Epistemology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Robert Brandom's work can be used to develop ideas in the area of social epistemology. It suggests that this work, precisely because it was influenced by Hegel, can make a significant contribution with philosophical anthropology at its centre. The argument is developed using illustrations from education: the first, from…

  11. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…

  12. Contribution of Vascular Cells to Neointimal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Falei; Wang, Dong; Xu, Kang; Wang, Jixian; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Li; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Li, Song

    2017-01-01

    The de-differentiation and proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are widely accepted as the major contributor to vascular remodeling. However, recent studies indicate that vascular stem cells (VSCs) also play an important role, but their relative contribution remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used genetic lineage tracing approach to further investigate the contribution of SMCs and VSCs to neointimal thickening in response to endothelium denudation injury or artery ligation. In vitro and in vivo analysis of MYH11-cre/Rosa-loxP-RFP mouse artery showed that SMCs proliferated at a much slower rate than non-SMCs. Upon denudation or ligation injury, two distinct types of neointima were identified: Type-I neointimal cells mainly involved SMCs, while Type II mainly involved non-SMCs. Using Sox10-cre/Rosa-loxP-LacZ mice, we found that Sox10+ cells were one of the cell sources in neointima. In addition, lineage tracing using Tie2-cre/Rosa-LoxP-RFP showed that endothelial cells also contributed to the neointimal formation, but rarely transdifferentiated into mesenchymal lineages. These results provide a novel insight into the contribution of vascular cells to neointima formation, and have significant impact on the development of more effective therapies that target specific vascular cell types. PMID:28060852

  13. Mapping Academic Library Contributions to Campus Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Steven W.; Kutner, Laurie; Cooper, Liz

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed academic libraries across the United States to establish baseline data on their contributions to campus internationalization. Supplementing data from the American Council on Education (ACE) on internationalization of higher education, this research measured the level of international activities taking place in academic…

  14. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  15. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  16. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  17. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  18. 38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance...

  19. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) General rule. In the case of any plan (as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of this section), there is imposed a...) Special rule for simplified employee pensions—(i) An employer that maintains a simplified employee pension... contributions made—(1) General rule. No tax is imposed under this section on any excess contribution or...

  20. Extraluminal factors contributing to inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Arvind; Stroh, Thorsten; Siegmund, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Many identified and yet unknown factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The genome-wide association studies clearly support the earlier developed concept that IBD occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to distinct environmental factors, which together result in dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Thus, the majority of previous studies have focused on the immune response within the intestinal wall. The present review aims to emphasize the contribution of three extraluminal structures to this inflammatory process, namely the mesenteric fat tissue, the lymphatics and the microvasculature. Broadening our view across the intestinal wall will not only facilitate our understanding of the disease, but will also us to identify future therapeutic targets. PMID:21350706

  1. The Contributions of Vincent Justus Burnelli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the contributions and the professional life of Vincent Justus Burnelli are presented. Burnelli was an inventor, aircraft designer and a leading pioneer in early aviation within the United States. A discussion of many of his leading accomplishments are discussed, including his design of the first commercial twin engine transport, invent of the lifting-body/lifting-fuselage aircraft. He was one of the first to put into practice retractable landing gear, variable area and camber wings, winglets, and full span flaps for twin engine aircraft. A review of a number of his sixty patents is presented and discussed as they relate to his eleven aircraft designs that were produced. A brief discussion of his accomplishments and contributions, as they relate to present aircraft design trends is also presented.

  2. Abraham Colles and his contributions to anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shayota, Brian J; Oelhafen, Kim; Shoja, Mohammadali; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    Abraham Colles is known among the medical community for his detailed description of Colles' fracture, one of the most common occurring skeletal injuries. It is remarkable that something as seemingly simple as the diagnosis of Colles' fracture had not been established until nearly 200 years ago. While that may have been his most well known accomplishment, Colles made several other contributions to medicine across multiple fields of practice. In the field of anatomy, he is also credited for his discovery and description of Colles' fascia and Colles' ligament. Less commonly known, however, are his clinical observations and offered treatment regimens for syphilis, as well as his achievement in performing the first surgery for axillary artery aneurysm. The current paper will review the life and contributions of this early surgeon and anatomist.

  3. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility

    PubMed Central

    Igberase, Gabriel O.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out. PMID:24765335

  4. The gluon contribution to nucleon spin

    SciTech Connect

    Antje Bruell

    2006-04-06

    EIC is the ideal machine to finally determine the contribution of the gluons to the nucleon spin. Measurements of G{sub 1} will allow: (1) a determination of {Delta}G/G from its scaling violation and (2) a statistically very precise determination of the Bjorken Sum (systematics due to uncertainty in proton beam polarization). Measurements of charm cross section asymmetries will provide a precise determination of {Delta}G/G for 0.003 < x < 0.5 at a fixed value of Q{sup 2} of {approx} GeV{sup 2} provided they can measure the scattered electron at extremely small angles; separate the primary and secondary vertex with sufficient precision; and control the contribution of resolved photons. More work is needed to define the necessary detector requirements.

  5. Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Hydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic hydration plays a key role in a vast variety of biological processes, ranging from the formation of cells to protein folding and ligand binding. Hydrophobicity scales simplify the complex process of hydration by assigning a value describing the averaged hydrophobic character to each amino acid. Previously published scales were not able to calculate the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobicity directly. We present a new method, based on Molecular Dynamics simulations and Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory, that calculates hydrophobicity from enthalpic and entropic contributions. Instead of deriving these quantities from the temperature dependence of the free energy of hydration or as residual of the free energy and the enthalpy, we directly obtain these values from the phase space occupied by water molecules. Additionally, our method is able to identify regions with specific enthalpic and entropic properties, allowing to identify so-called “unhappy water” molecules, which are characterized by weak enthalpic interactions and unfavorable entropic constraints. PMID:27442443

  6. The Contributions of Vincent Justus Burnelli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the contributions and the professional life of Vincent Justus Burnelli are presented. Burnelli was an inventor, aircraft designer and a leading pioneer in early aviation within the United States. A discussion of many of his leading accomplishments are discussed, including hid design of the first commercial twin engine transport, invent of the lifting-body/lifting-fuselage aircraft. He was one of the first to put into practice retractable landing gear, variable area and camber wings, winglets, and full span flaps for twin engine aircraft. A review of a number of his sixty patents is presented and discussed as they relate to his eleven aircraft designs that were produced. A brief discussion of his accomplishments and contributions, as they relate to present aircraft design trends is also presented.

  7. The Immunological Contribution to Heterotopic Ossification Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Convente, Michael R.; Wang, Haitao; Pignolo, Robert J.; Kaplan, Frederick S.; Shore, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of bone outside the endogenous skeleton is a significant clinical event, rendering affected individuals with immobility and a diminished quality of life. This bone, termed heterotopic ossification (HO), can appear in patients following invasive surgeries and traumatic injuries, as well as progressively manifest in several congenital disorders. A unifying feature of both genetic and non-genetic episodes of HO is immune system involvement at the early stages of disease. Activation of the immune system sets the stage for the downstream anabolic events that eventually result in ectopic bone formation, rendering the immune system a particularly appealing site of early therapeutic intervention for optimal management of disease. In this review we will discuss the immunological contributions to HO disorders, with specific focus on contributing cell types, signaling pathways, relevant in vivo animal models, and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25687936

  8. Turkic Contributions To The CLIC Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, A. K.

    2007-04-23

    Turkic group has been a collaborator of CLIC project of CERN since mid-2004. Since then, the group has been contributing CLIC study efforts on: impact of beam dynamics issues on CLIC Physics potential, CLIC*LHC interface (QCD Explorer, ep, {gamma}p, eA and {gamma}A colliding options and FEL {gamma} Nucleus Collider) and operation of CTF3. On this talk the status of the collaboration is given in details.

  9. Cardiac and Arterial Contribution to Blood Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    heart to the blood pressure . We conclude that when the heart hypertrophies, as a result of the hypertension , the changed cardiac behavior, in turn...Plenary Talks Cardiac and Arterial Contribution to Blood Pressure N.Westerhof, Lab. for Physiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research...Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam Blood pressure and blood flow result from the interaction of the heart, the pump, and the arterial system, the load

  10. Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,F.

    2009-05-26

    We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics, in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions, such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distribution of hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches are consistent with each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process.

  11. Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng

    2009-09-11

    We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics,in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions,such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distributionof hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate thatthe transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches areconsistentwith each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusivehadron production in DIS process.

  12. Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,F.

    2009-05-25

    We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics, in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions, such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distribution of hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches are consistent with each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process.

  13. Contribution of globular clusters to halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragaglia, Angela

    2017-03-01

    The contribution of massive star clusters to their hosting halo dramatically depends on their formation mechanism and their early evolution. Massive globular clusters in the Milky Way (and in other galaxies) have been shown to display peculiar chemical patterns (light-elements correlations and anti-correlations) indicative of a complex star formation, confirmed by photometric evidence (spread or split sequences). I use these chemical signatures to try to understand what is the fraction of halo stars originally born in globular clusters.

  14. Gluon Contribution To The Nucleon Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Arash, Firooz; Shahveh, Abolfazl; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh

    2011-07-15

    Gluon polarization in Nucleon is evaluated in the valon representation of hadrons. It is shown that although {delta}g/g is small at the currently measured kinematics, it does not imply that the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is small. In fact the first moment of gluon polarization in the nucleon, {Delta}g(Q{sup 2}), is sizable. We also notice that the majority of {Delta}g is concentrated at around x = 0.08.

  15. Group Contribution Methods for Phase Equilibrium Calculations.

    PubMed

    Gmehling, Jürgen; Constantinescu, Dana; Schmid, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    The development and design of chemical processes are carried out by solving the balance equations of a mathematical model for sections of or the whole chemical plant with the help of process simulators. For process simulation, besides kinetic data for the chemical reaction, various pure component and mixture properties are required. Because of the great importance of separation processes for a chemical plant in particular, a reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is required. The phase equilibrium behavior can be calculated with the help of modern equations of state or g(E)-models using only binary parameters. But unfortunately, only a very small part of the experimental data for fitting the required binary model parameters is available, so very often these models cannot be applied directly. To solve this problem, powerful predictive thermodynamic models have been developed. Group contribution methods allow the prediction of the required phase equilibrium data using only a limited number of group interaction parameters. A prerequisite for fitting the required group interaction parameters is a comprehensive database. That is why for the development of powerful group contribution methods almost all published pure component properties, phase equilibrium data, excess properties, etc., were stored in computerized form in the Dortmund Data Bank. In this review, the present status, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, possible applications, and typical results of the different group contribution methods for the calculation of phase equilibria are presented.

  16. Glacier Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A. S.; Cogley, J. G.; Moholdt, G.; Wouters, B.; Wiese, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Global mean sea level is rising in response to two primary factors: warming oceans and diminishing glaciers and ice sheets. If melted completely, glaciers would raise sea levels by half a meter, much less than that the 80 meters or so that would result from total melt of the massive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. That is why glacier contributions to sea level rise have been less studied, allowing estimates of to vary widely. Glacier contributions to sea level change are challenging to quantify as they are broadly distributed, located in remote and poorly accessible high latitude and high altitude regions, and ground observations are sparse. Advances in satellite altimetry (ICESat) and gravimetry (GRACE) have helped, but they also have their own challenges and limitations. Here we present an updated (2003-2014) synthesis of multiple techniques adapted for varying regions to show that rates of glacier loss change little between the 2003-2009 and 2003-2014 periods, accounting for roughly one third of global mean sea level rise. Over the next century and beyond glaciers are expected to continue to contribute substantial volumes of water to the world's oceans, motivating continued study of how glaciers respond to climate change that will improve projections of future sea levels.

  17. Quantifying cerebral contributions to pain beyond nociception

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Schmidt, Liane; Krishnan, Anjali; Jepma, Marieke; Roy, Mathieu; Lindquist, Martin A.; Atlas, Lauren Y.; Wager, Tor D.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral processes contribute to pain beyond the level of nociceptive input and mediate psychological and behavioural influences. However, cerebral contributions beyond nociception are not yet well characterized, leading to a predominant focus on nociception when studying pain and developing interventions. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with machine learning to develop a multivariate pattern signature—termed the stimulus intensity independent pain signature-1 (SIIPS1)—that predicts pain above and beyond nociceptive input in four training data sets (Studies 1–4, N=137). The SIIPS1 includes patterns of activity in nucleus accumbens, lateral prefrontal and parahippocampal cortices, and other regions. In cross-validated analyses of Studies 1–4 and in two independent test data sets (Studies 5–6, N=46), SIIPS1 responses explain variation in trial-by-trial pain ratings not captured by a previous fMRI-based marker for nociceptive pain. In addition, SIIPS1 responses mediate the pain-modulating effects of three psychological manipulations of expectations and perceived control. The SIIPS1 provides an extensible characterization of cerebral contributions to pain and specific brain targets for interventions. PMID:28195170

  18. 20 CFR 345.304 - New-employer contribution rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New-employer contribution rates. 345.304... INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Contribution Rates § 345.304 New-employer... considered a “new employer” for the purposes of this part and will be assigned a contribution rate...

  19. 5 CFR 1600.23 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Catch-up contributions. (a) A participant may make traditional catch-up contributions or Roth catch-up... traditional catch-up contributions and Roth catch-up contributions during the same year, but the combined... contributions to his or her Roth balance from pay which is exempt from taxation under 26 U.S.C. 112. (g)...

  20. 5 CFR 1600.23 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Catch-up contributions. (a) A participant may make traditional catch-up contributions or Roth catch-up... traditional catch-up contributions and Roth catch-up contributions during the same year, but the combined... contributions to his or her Roth balance from pay which is exempt from taxation under 26 U.S.C. 112. (g)...

  1. Contribution of tropical cyclones to global rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouakhi, Abdou; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel; Smith, James

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) can have both devastating and beneficial impacts in different parts of the world. In this work, daily precipitation and historical six-hour best track TC datasets are used to quantify the contribution of TCs to global rainfall. We select 18607 rain gauge stations with at least 25 complete (at least 330 measurements per year) years between 1970 and 2014. We consider rainfall associated with TCs if the center of circulation of the storm passed within a given distance from the rain gauge and within a given time window. Spatial and temporal sensitivity analyses are performed with varying time windows (same day, ±1 day) and buffer radii (400 km and 500 km) around each rain gauge. Results highlight regional differences in TC-induced rainfall. The highest TC-induced precipitation totals (400 to 600+ mm/year) are prevalent along eastern Asia, western and northeastern Australia, and in the western Pacific islands. Stations along the southeast of the U.S. coast and surrounding the Gulf of Mexico receive up to 200 mm/year of TC rainfall. The highest annual fractional contributions of TCs to total rainfall (from 35 to 50%) are recorded in stations located in northwestern Australia, southeastern China, the northern Philippines and the southern Mexico peninsula. Seasonally, the highest proportions (40 to 50%) are recorded along eastern Australia and Mauritius in winter, and in eastern Asia and Mexico in summer and autumn. Analyses of the relative contribution of TCs to extreme rainfall using annual maximum (AM) and peaks-over-threshold (POT) approaches indicate notable differences among regions. The highest TC-AM rainfall proportions (45 to 60%) are found in stations located in Japan, eastern China, the Philippines, eastern and western Australia. Substantial contributions (25 to 40% of extreme rainfall) are also recorded in stations located along the U.S. East Coast, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mexico peninsula. We find similar

  2. 5 CFR 1600.20 - Types of employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contributions. (b) Roth contributions. A participant may make Roth contributions in addition to or in lieu of... made to his or her traditional or Roth balance in accordance with an election made under paragraph...

  3. 5 CFR 1600.20 - Types of employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contributions. (b) Roth contributions. A participant may make Roth contributions in addition to or in lieu of... made to his or her traditional or Roth balance in accordance with an election made under paragraph...

  4. Contribution mapping: a method for mapping the contribution of research to enhance its impact

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At a time of growing emphasis on both the use of research and accountability, it is important for research funders, researchers and other stakeholders to monitor and evaluate the extent to which research contributes to better action for health, and find ways to enhance the likelihood that beneficial contributions are realized. Past attempts to assess research 'impact' struggle with operationalizing 'impact', identifying the users of research and attributing impact to research projects as source. In this article we describe Contribution Mapping, a novel approach to research monitoring and evaluation that aims to assess contributions instead of impacts. The approach focuses on processes and actors and systematically assesses anticipatory efforts that aim to enhance contributions, so-called alignment efforts. The approach is designed to be useful for both accountability purposes and for assisting in better employing research to contribute to better action for health. Methods Contribution Mapping is inspired by a perspective from social studies of science on how research and knowledge utilization processes evolve. For each research project that is assessed, a three-phase process map is developed that includes the main actors, activities and alignment efforts during research formulation, production and knowledge extension (e.g. dissemination and utilization). The approach focuses on the actors involved in, or interacting with, a research project (the linked actors) and the most likely influential users, who are referred to as potential key users. In the first stage, the investigators of the assessed project are interviewed to develop a preliminary version of the process map and first estimation of research-related contributions. In the second stage, potential key-users and other informants are interviewed to trace, explore and triangulate possible contributions. In the third stage, the presence and role of alignment efforts is analyzed and the preliminary

  5. The ILRS Contribution to ITRF2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Luceri, Cinzia; Sciarretta, Cecilia; Evans, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data have contributed to the definition of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) over the past three decades. The development of ITRF2005 ushered a new era with the use of weekly or session contributions, allowing greater flexibility in the editing, relative weighting and the combination of information from the four contributing techniques. The new approach allows each Service to generate a solution based on the rigorous combination of the individual Analysis Centers' contributions that provides an opportunity to verify the intra-technique consistency and a comparison of internal procedures and adopted models. The intra- and inter-technique comparisons that the time series approach facilitates are an extremely powerful diagnostic that highlights differences and inconsistencies at the single station level. Over the past year the ILRS Analysis Working Group (AWG) worked on designing an improved ILRS contribution for the development of ITRF2013. The ILRS approach is based on the current IERS Conventions 2010 and our internal ILRS standards, with a few deviations that are documented. Since the Global Geodetic Observing System - GGOS identified the ITRF as its key project, the ILRS has taken a two-pronged approach in order to meet its stringent goals: modernizing the engineering components (ground and space segments), and revising the modeling standards taking advantage of recent improvements in system Earth modeling. The main concern in the case of SLR is monitoring systematic errors at individual stations, accounting for undocumented discontinuities, and improving the target signature models. The latter has been addressed with the adoption of mm-level models for all of our targets. As far as the station systematics, the AWG had already embarked on a major effort to improve the handling of such errors prior to the development of ITRF2008. The results of that effort formed the foundation for the re-examination of the

  6. Small meteoroids' major contribution to Mercury's exosphere.

    PubMed

    Grotheer, E B; Livi, S A

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the meteoroid population to the generation of Mercury's exosphere is analyzed to determine which segment contributes most greatly to exospheric refilling via the process of meteoritic impact vaporization. For the meteoroid data, a differential mass distribution based on work by Grün et al. (Grün, E., Zook, H.A., Fechtig, H., Giese, R.H. [1985]. Icarus 62(2), 244-272) and a differential velocity distribution based on the work of Zook (Zook, H.A. [1975]. In: 6th Lunar Science Conference, vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Inc., Houston, TX, pp. 1653-1672) is used. These distributions are then evaluated using the method employed by Cintala (Cintala, M.J. [1992]. J. Geophys. Res. 97(E1), 947-974) to determine impact rates for selected mass and velocity segments of the meteoroid population. The amount of vapor created by a single meteor impact is determined by using the framework created by Berezhnoy and Klumov (Berezhnoy, A.A., Klumov, B.A. [2008] Icarus, 195(2), 511-522). By combining the impact rate of meteoroids with the amount of vapor a single such impact creates, we derive the total vapor production rate which that meteoroid mass segment contributes to the Herman exosphere. It is shown that meteoroids with a mass of 2.1 × 10(-4) g release the largest amount of vapor into Mercury's exosphere. For meteoroids in the mass range of 10(-18) g to 10 g, 90% of all the vapor produced is due to impacts by meteoroids in the mass range 4.2 × 10(-7) g ≤ m ≤ 8.3 × 10(-2) g.

  7. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  8. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Julie A; Lawler, Joshua J; Schumaker, Nathan H; Wilsey, Chad B; Bender, Darren J

    2015-12-01

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of individuals in sinks can compromise persistence; but conversely, sinks can improve viability by improving connectivity and facilitating the recolonization of vacant sources. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional population persistence of declining populations, we simulated source-sink dynamics for 3 very different endangered species: Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapilla) at Fort Hood, Texas, Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) in Alberta, and Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the northwestern United States. We used empirical data from these case studies to parameterize spatially explicit individual-based models. We then used the models to quantify population abundance and persistence with and without long-term sinks. The contributions of sink habitats varied widely. Sinks were detrimental, particularly when they functioned as strong sinks with few emigrants in declining populations (e.g., Alberta's Ord's kangaroo rat) and benign in robust populations (e.g., Black-capped Vireos) when Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism was controlled. Sinks, including ecological traps, were also crucial in delaying declines when there were few sources (e.g., in Black-capped Vireo populations with no Cowbird control). Sink contributions were also nuanced. For example, sinks that supported large, variable populations were subject to greater extinction risk (e.g., Northern Spotted Owls). In each of our case studies, new context-dependent sinks emerged, underscoring the dynamic nature of sources and sinks and the need for frequent re-assessment. Our results imply that management actions based on assumptions that sink habitats are generally harmful or helpful risk undermining conservation efforts for declining populations.

  9. Small meteoroids' major contribution to Mercury's exosphere

    PubMed Central

    Grotheer, E.B.; Livi, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the meteoroid population to the generation of Mercury's exosphere is analyzed to determine which segment contributes most greatly to exospheric refilling via the process of meteoritic impact vaporization. For the meteoroid data, a differential mass distribution based on work by Grün et al. (Grün, E., Zook, H.A., Fechtig, H., Giese, R.H. [1985]. Icarus 62(2), 244–272) and a differential velocity distribution based on the work of Zook (Zook, H.A. [1975]. In: 6th Lunar Science Conference, vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Inc., Houston, TX, pp. 1653–1672) is used. These distributions are then evaluated using the method employed by Cintala (Cintala, M.J. [1992]. J. Geophys. Res. 97(E1), 947–974) to determine impact rates for selected mass and velocity segments of the meteoroid population. The amount of vapor created by a single meteor impact is determined by using the framework created by Berezhnoy and Klumov (Berezhnoy, A.A., Klumov, B.A. [2008] Icarus, 195(2), 511–522). By combining the impact rate of meteoroids with the amount of vapor a single such impact creates, we derive the total vapor production rate which that meteoroid mass segment contributes to the Herman exosphere. It is shown that meteoroids with a mass of 2.1 × 10−4 g release the largest amount of vapor into Mercury's exosphere. For meteoroids in the mass range of 10−18 g to 10 g, 90% of all the vapor produced is due to impacts by meteoroids in the mass range 4.2 × 10−7 g ≤ m ≤ 8.3 × 10−2 g. PMID:24817768

  10. Secondary Contribution Effects on BNCT Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, E.; Goncalves, M.; Pereira, W.

    2004-10-03

    The aimed of this work consists of evaluating the influence of the dose secondary components (thermal neutrons dose, epithermal neutrons dose, fast neutrons dose and photon dose) in treatment planning with BNCT. MCNP4B Code was used to calculate RBE-Gy doses through the irradiation of the modified Snyder head phantom. A reduction of the therapeutical gain of monoenergetic neutron beans was observed in non invasive treatments, provoked for the predominance of the fast neutron dose component in the skin, showing that the secondary components of dose can to contribute more for to raise the healthy-tissue dose of that in the tumor, reducing the treatment efficiency.

  11. Advances in enzyme technology--UK contributions.

    PubMed

    Woodley, J M

    2000-01-01

    Enzyme technology has been a recognised part of bioprocess engineering since its inception in the 1950s and 1960s. In this article the early history of enzyme technology is discussed and the subsequent developments in enzyme isolation, enzyme modification and process technology are described. These creative developments have put enzyme technology in a position of huge potential to contribute to environmentally compatible and cost effective means of industrial chemical synthesis. Recent developments in protein modification to produce designer enzymes are leading a new wave of enzyme application.

  12. Genetic contributions to labor pain and progress.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Studies on genetic contributions to labor analgesia have essentially evaluated the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), with some evidence that p.118A/G of OPRM1 influences the response to neuraxial opioids. As for labor progress, the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is associated with preterm labor and delivery, and impacts the course of labor. Taken together though, there is no evidence that pharmacogenetic testing is needed or beneficial in the context of obstetric anesthesia; however, realizing the influence of genetic variants on specific phenotypes provides the rationale for a more cautious interpretation of clinical studies that attempt to find a dose-regimen that fits all.

  13. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures. PMID:25097763

  14. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  15. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  16. [Placebo effect: a contribution of social psychology].

    PubMed

    Balez, R; Leroyer, C; Couturaud, F

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews the psychosocial variables, which are of interest in the relationship between the patient and the physician. According to a classical model of social psychology, such a relationship might contribute to the placebo/nocebo effects. We develop herein various relational and contextual variables, taking into account four dimensions (intra-individual, interpersonal, positional and ideological) and their potential effects on therapeutic responses. This applies both in the setting of daily clinical practice and of clinical trials. The placebo effect offers an opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between social scientists and physicians.

  17. Contribution of methane to aerosol carbon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, F.; Barmet, P.; Stirnweis, L.; El Haddad, I.; Platt, S. M.; Saurer, M.; Lötscher, C.; Siegwolf, R.; Bigi, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Slowik, J. G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Dommen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Small volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as methane (CH4) have long been considered non-relevant to aerosol formation due to the high volatility of their oxidation products. However, even low aerosol yields from CH4, the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere, would contribute significantly to the total particulate carbon budget. In this study, organic aerosol (OA) mass yields from CH4 oxidation were evaluated at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) smog chamber in the presence of inorganic and organic seed aerosols. Using labeled 13C methane, we could detect its oxidation products in the aerosol phase, with yields up to 0.09

  18. Four Major Factors Contributing to Intrahepatic Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Xi; Yin, Baobing

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic stone is prevalent in Asian countries; though the incidence declines in recent years, the number of patients is still in a large quantity. Because of multiple complications, high recurrence rates, serious systemic damage, and a lack of extremely effective procedure for the management, it is more important to find out the etiology and pathogenesis of intrahepatic stones to prevent the disease from happening and developing rather than curing. A number of factors contribute to the development of the disease, such as cholestasis, infection, and anatomic abnormity of bile duct and bile metabolic defect. The four factors and possible pathogenesis will be discussed in detail in the review. PMID:28163717

  19. Nurses' contributions to the US space program.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, B S; Plush, L H; Bailes, B K

    2000-05-01

    Nurses have been engaged in aspects of aviation and space endeavors from their beginnings. Although no nurse has been chosen as a potential astronaut, nurses have contributed to the space program in many ways. Nurses and other health care providers use technology adapted from the space program. The future of extended space flight remains unclear, although work continues on completing a space station for extended stays on the moon and trips to Mars. Nurses may be one of the health care team members on these excursions.

  20. A contribution for cost models in biobanking.

    PubMed

    Huttin, Christine; Stubbs, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a contribution on financial sustainability of hospital biobanks and data warehouses for biospecimens. It aims to discuss new venues for cost models in addition to conventional cost recovery models. It follows the first paper issues on economics of biobanking by Huttin and Liebman, where adaptive platforms where already suggested for biobanks in translational medicine. A case study approach is proposed in order to identify the type of cost drivers that will be needed for optimization of resource allocation in hospital biobanks. It can help the collaboration with designers of ontologies for adaptive platforms, with new data elements on costs and their measurement in different organizational structures.

  1. [Joseph Babinski's contribution to neurological symptomatology].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Tetsuo

    2014-11-01

    Joseph Babinski (1857-1932) was an excellent clinician. André Breton, a French poet, described Babinski's way of clinical examination in his Manifeste du surréalisme (1924), which vividly revealed Babinski's meticulous character. Babinski is well known by his eponymous Babinski reflex. Although some predecessors had described this phenomenon briefly, its meaning was interpreted by Babinski. His contribution to neurological symptomatology was not restricted to his plantar skin reflex, but also to other wide area. In this article, symptoms described by Babinski, i.e. plantar skin reflex, cerebellar symptoms including cerebellar asynergy, adiadochokinesis, dysmetria, cerebellar catalepsy, and rising sign, platysma sign, anosognosia are explained and are critically discussed.

  2. [Does Darwinism really contribute to ecology].

    PubMed

    Mirkin, B M

    2003-01-01

    The author questions Ghilarov's (2003) claim that Darwinism has high explanatory power in ecology. He is agree with S.V. Meyen who believed that beside synthetic theory of evolution (the popular variant on Darwinism) other explanations of evolution are possible. It is emphasized that several processes (e.g., diversification and unification of species at one trophic level, as well as individual and diffusive coadaptations of species of different levels) can contribute to community evolution. Communities cannot be considered as units of natural selection.

  3. [Nursing contribution in health decision making].

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Díaz, Angélica; Mendoza-Parra, Sara; Jofré-Aravena, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    Decision making in health is a frequent situation, although potentially difficult, depending on patient/user characteristics and the context or the situation of health. This causes decisional conflicts in patients/users. The present study proposes to analyze the decision making process in health, conceptually, and nurses' contributions to understand and confront the phenomenon. The Ottawa the Model of Decisions Making in Health, proposed by Annette O'Connor, arises as a useful tool that enables nurses to carry out effective interventions with persons who face decision problems. Patients/users can assume a more active participation in the decisions on their own health.

  4. Mercury contribution to an adirondack lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrudato, R. J.; Long, D.; Weinbloom, Robert

    1987-10-01

    Elevated copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in the upper 10 to 20 cm of sediment sampled from Cranberry Lake, a large Adirondack lake, are attributed to atmospheric contributions. Pb-210 and pollen core data, however, suggest Cranberry Lake also received mercury discharges during the turn of the century when the area was the center of extensive lumbering and related activities. Elevated mercury concentrations in Cranberry Lake smallmouth bass derived from remobilization from mercury-contaminated bottom sediments which increased the bioavailability to Cranberry Lake organisms. Mercury remobilization and accumulation by fish are promoted by fluctuating pH values resulting from acid precipilation.

  5. Mercury contribution to an Adirondack lake

    SciTech Connect

    Scrudato, R.J. ); Long, D. ); Weinbloom, R. )

    1987-01-01

    Elevated copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in the upper 10 to 20 cm of sediment sampled from Cranberry Lake, a large Adirondack lake, are attributed to atmospheric contributions. Pb-210 and pollen core data, however, suggest Cranberry Lake also received mercury discharges during the turn of the century when the area was the center of extensive lumbering and related activities. Elevated mercury concentrations in Cranberry Lake smallmouth bass derived from remobilization from mercury-contaminated bottom sediments which increased the bioavailability to Cranberry Lake organisms. Mercury remobilization and accumulation by fish are promoted by fluctuating pH values resulting from acid precipitation.

  6. Designing Limnogeology: Contributions of Kerry R. Kelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurrenberger, D. W.

    2001-12-01

    Kerry Kelts' dream for a new field of geology, entitled Limnogeology, sprang from his fervent belief that lakes could provide continental paleorecords of equal, if not greater, sensitivity and precision than marine paleorecords. To that end he devoted his professional life to nurturing limnogeology into a mature field of geoscience. He made contributions and encouraged others to study modern systems, paleorecords from extant basins and paleorecords from fossil lacustrine systems. To really contribute to the study of past environment and climate, Kerry realized that there were three crucial areas that needed development; new systems for retrieving high-quality sediment cores from a variety of basin types, new techniques and methods for core analyses, and the development of an infrastructure to curate lacustrine sediment cores. Kerry made major contributions in the first area with his development of a mobile, Kullenberg-type coring system and his untiring efforts that led to the construction and successful deployment of the GLAD800 coring system. Although significantly more expensive to operate than traditional lake-coring systems, these new systems opened new vistas for lake coring and provided more and higher quality sediment cores: "there's nothing cheaper than the best" (KRK). Kerry made numerous contributions in the area of core analysis ranging from his insistence on exhaustive core descriptions and documentation to his pioneering work with lacustrine isotopes (oxygen, carbon, strontium). His papers on carbonate sedimentation are required reading for aspiring Limnogeologists today. Finally, near the end of his life, Kerry saw the achievement of the final piece of the puzzle with the opening of the National Lacustrine Core Repository at the University of Minnesota. This archive serves as a testament to Kerry's idea of "generous science" and will develop into a major resource for limnogeology. Other centers are spinning off throughout the globe, in part

  7. Astroglial networking contributes to neurometabolic coupling

    PubMed Central

    Escartin, Carole; Rouach, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The strategic position of astrocytic processes between blood capillaries and neurons, provided the early insight that astrocytes play a key role in supplying energy substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. The central role of astrocytes in neurometabolic coupling has been first established at the level of single cell. Since then, exciting recent work based on cellular imaging and electrophysiological recordings has provided new mechanistic insights into this phenomenon, revealing the crucial role of gap junction (GJ)-mediated networks of astrocytes. Indeed, astrocytes define the local availability of energy substrates by regulating blood flow. Subsequently, in order to efficiently reach distal neurons, these substrates can be taken up, and distributed through networks of astrocytes connected by GJs, a process modulated by neuronal activity. Astrocytic networks can be morphologically and/or functionally altered in the course of various pathological conditions, raising the intriguing possibility of a direct contribution from these networks to neuronal dysfunction. The present review upgrades the current view of neuroglial metabolic coupling, by including the recently unravelled properties of astroglial metabolic networks and their potential contribution to normal and pathological neuronal activity. PMID:23637659

  8. ONERA's contribution to space environment standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maget, Vincent; Ecoffet, Robert; Roussel, Jean-Francois

    Ever since its creation in 1967, the Space Environment Department (DESP) at ONERA's objective has been to evaluate the environmental conditions of space missions and prevent the damage they may cause. The DESP studies and models the different components of the space mission environment (mainly charged particles) and evaluates the associated risks with on-board experiments and simulations on the ground. As the reference expert in space environment for both the French Space Agency and European space industries, the DESP has been named as the French representative in the ISO TC20 / SC14 / WG4 working group. In parallel to this contribution, the DESP is also involved in WG1 (Design engineering and production) and WG6 (Materials and Processes),as well as in the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) committee dedicated to Space Environment standards (ECSS-10.04C). The purpose of this presentation is, first, to detail the ONERA’s contributions to space environment standardizations (its role as well as the standards developed at ONERA). In a second step, I shall also present some on-going works such as data assimilation and specifications model for other planets (Jupiter and Saturn) conducted at ONERA, in order to prepare the next generation standards and anticipate Space community needs.

  9. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  10. Ted Irving's early contributions to paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Edward (Ted) Irving (1927 - 2014) was one of the most deeply and widely respected paleomagnetists, making significant contributions to the field throughout his career which spanned six decades. Restricting attention to the first decade of his career, the 1950s, he discovered from work on the Torridonian (1951-1953) that fine-grained red sandstones were generally suitable for paleomagnetic work (1951-1952). He rediscovered (1951) that paleomagnetism could be used to test continental drift, and initiated (1951) the first paleomagnetic test of whether India had drifted northward relative to Asia and argued (1954) that it had. He also made significant contributions to the first APW path for Great Britain (Creer, Irving, and Runcorn, 1954). He was the first to draw two APW paths to explain results from Great Britain and North America (1956) and to use paleomagnetism and paleoclimatology together to argue for continental drift (1954, 1956). With Ron Green, his first student, he first APW path for Australia (1958). He was the first to invoke axial rotations to explain away an apparent anomaly with an APW path (1959). His work on the Torridonian led to the first description of stratigraphically sequential reversals in sedimentary rocks. Moreover, his 1959 superb review of the paleomagnetic support for continental drift was instrumental in Hess's becoming a continental drifter before he came up with the idea of seafloor spreading.

  11. Literature and medicine: contributions to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Charon, R; Banks, J T; Connelly, J E; Hawkins, A H; Hunter, K M; Jones, A H; Montello, M; Poirer, S

    1995-04-15

    Introduced to U.S. medical schools in 1972, the field of literature and medicine contributes methods and texts that help physicians develop skills in the human dimensions of medical practice. Five broad goals are met by including the study of literature in medical education: 1) Literary accounts of illness can teach physicians concrete and powerful lessons about the lives of sick people; 2) great works of fiction about medicine enable physicians to recognize the power and implications of what they do; 3) through the study of narrative, the physician can better understand patients' stories of sickness and his or her own personal stake in medical practice; 4) literary study contributes to physicians' expertise in narrative ethics; and 5) literary theory offers new perspectives on the work and the genres of medicine. Particular texts and methods have been found to be well suited to the fulfillment of each of these goals. Chosen from the traditional literary canon and from among the works of contemporary and culturally diverse writers, novels, short stories, poetry, and drama can convey both the concrete particularity and the metaphorical richness of the predicaments of sick people and the challenges and rewards offered to their physicians. In more than 20 years of teaching literature to medical students and physicians, practitioners of literature and medicine have clarified its conceptual frameworks and have identified the means by which its studies strengthen the human competencies of doctoring, which are a central feature of the art of medicine.

  12. The missing metric: quantifying contributions of reviewers

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Maurício; Gero, Shane

    2015-01-01

    The number of contributing reviewers often outnumbers the authors of publications. This has led to apathy towards reviewing and the conclusion that the peer-review system is broken. Given the trade-offs between submitting and reviewing manuscripts, reviewers and authors naturally want visibility for their efforts. While study after study has called for revolutionizing publication practices, the current paradigm does not recognize reviewers' time and expertise. We propose the R-index as a simple way to quantify scientists' contributions as reviewers. We modelled its performance using simulations based on real data to show that early–mid career scientists, who complete high-quality reviews of longer manuscripts within their field, can perform as well as leading scientists reviewing only for high-impact journals. By giving citeable academic recognition for reviewing, R-index will encourage more participation with better reviews, regardless of the career stage. Moreover, the R-index will allow editors to exploit scores to manage and improve their review team, and for journals to promote high average scores as signals of a practical and efficient service to authors. Peer-review is a pervasive necessity across disciplines and the simple utility of this missing metric will credit a valuable aspect of academic productivity without having to revolutionize the current peer-review system. PMID:26064609

  13. Glial Cell Contributions to Auditory Brainstem Development

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Karina S.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms. Several classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, have now been explored in these circuits in both avian and mammalian brainstems. Distinct populations of astrocytes are found over the course of auditory brainstem maturation. Early appearing astrocytes are associated with spatial compartments in the avian auditory brainstem. Factors from late appearing astrocytes promote synaptogenesis and dendritic maturation, and astrocytes remain integral parts of specialized auditory synapses. Oligodendrocytes play a unique role in both birds and mammals in highly regulated myelination essential for proper timing to decipher interaural cues. Microglia arise early in brainstem development and may contribute to maturation of auditory pathways. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of non-neuronal cells in the assembly of specialized auditory brainstem circuits. PMID:27818624

  14. Does paedomorphosis contribute to prairie vole monogamy?

    PubMed Central

    Bushyhead, Timothy; Curtis, J. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We examined skull morphology in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus), two closely related species with fundamentally different mating systems, to test the hypothesis that paedomorphosis contributes to the evolution of monogamous mating systems. Using several skull measurements, we found that the overall length:width ratio of meadow vole skulls was greater than that of prairie voles suggesting that meadow vole have longer narrower skulls. We then examined which aspects of skull morphology differed between the species and found that the ratio difference was attributable primarily to longer snout length in meadow voles. Finally, we compared adult morphology in both species to that of pups and found the prairie vole, a monogamous species, displays a more juvenile-like skull morphology than does the meadow vole, a promiscuous species. These results suggest that monogamous vole species retain more juvenile-like morphology than do promiscuous species, and thus possibly retain juvenile-like behaviors that may contribute to a monogamous mating system. PMID:26594100

  15. Perirhinal contributions to human visual perception.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Joseph T; Price, Cathy J

    2007-09-04

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex are thought to be part of a unitary system dedicated to memory [1, 2], although recent studies suggest that at least one component-perirhinal cortex-might also contribute to perceptual processing [3, 4, 5, 6]. To date, the strongest evidence for this comes from animal lesion studies [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. In contrast, the findings from human patients with naturally occurring MTL lesions are less clear and suggest a possible functional difference between species [15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. Here, both these issues were addressed with functional neuroimaging in healthy volunteers performing a perceptual discrimination task originally developed for monkeys [7]. This revealed perirhinal activation when the task required the integration of visual features into a view-invariant representation but not when it could be accomplished on the basis of simple features (e.g., color and shape). This activation pattern matched lateral inferotemporal regions classically associated with visual processing but differed from entorhinal cortex associated with memory encoding. The results demonstrate a specific role for the perirhinal cortex in visual perception and establish a functional homology for perirhinal cortex between species, although we propose that in humans, the region contributes to a wider behavioral repertoire including mnemonic, perceptual, and linguistic processes.

  16. Contribution of rock fragments to soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Besnault, Adeline; Tétégan, Marion; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Research in plant-soil interactions has focused on the role played by the finest particles, but much less attention has been devoted to quantify the contribution of rock fragments. While the coarse soil fraction is known to affect soil physical properties, such as bulk density, porosity, water infiltration and storage, its contribution to the biogeochemical cycle is neglected. In particular in plant nutrition studies, only the fine fraction (< 2 mm) of soils is sampled and analysed while the coarse fraction (> 2 mm) is considered chemically inert. However, several recent studies have showed that rock fragments contribute significantly to nutrient content and the cation exchange capacity of soils. Considering that stony soils cover about 30% of the surface soils of Western Europe, and 60% in the Mediterranean area, new data on the potential contribution of rock fragments to soil fertility may give new insights that will re-evaluate their role in models on biogeochemical cycling. We attempt to study nutrient availability differents types of rock fragments, and started with five types of pebbles: oolitic limestone, marly limestone, lithographic limestone, chert, and flint. Pebbles were collected in topsoils, brushed thoroughly, and dried before chemical analyses. Exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, and K) were extracted after immersion of whole pebbles in an ammonium acetate solution (1M) under agitation for 48h. We had previously established the kinetic of extraction over 6 days (after 1, 3.5, 7, 24, 48, 72 and 144 h) and showed that a plateau was reached at 48h, and with a good repeatability. The pattern of release differed among the three studied exchangeable cations, and among pebbles of different origin. The capacity of pebbles to release exchangeable calcium and magnesium was in the following decreasing order: lithographic limestone = marly limestone > oolitic limestone >> chert > flint. As expected, the greatest difference was found between limestones and the two

  17. A mesonic analog of the deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbar, Richard R.; Goldman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Using the LAMP model for nuclear quark structure, we calculate the binding energy and quark structure of a B meson merging with a D meson. Our variational calculation shows that a molecular, deuteron-like state structure changes rather abruptly, as the separation between the two mesons decreases, and at a separation of about 0.14 fm, the hadronic system transforms into a four-quark bound state, although one maintaining an internal structure rather than that of a four-quark "bag." Unlike the deuteron, pion exchange does not provide any contribution to the ≈ 150 MeV binding.

  18. Worldwide academic contributions of Japanese neurosurgeons.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tomio; Hashiguchi, Kimiaki; Yoshimoto, Koji; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data reported in the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy 2010, Japan is ranked in fourth place in the world in terms of the numbers of the articles in the fields of clinical medicine. However, there had not been any objective data regarding the numbers of publications by neurosurgeons. As it is important for neurosurgeons to realize the extent of academic contributions by the neurosurgeons in different countries, the numbers of publications in the major journals by the members of the Japan Neurosurgical Society and those from neurosurgical institutions around the world were analyzed using both the biomedical literature database PubMed and the publication database "ISI Web of Knowledge." Parts of the results were presented in the 69th Annual Meeting of the Japan Neurosurgical Society. As to the number of neurosurgical publications in English from the top 9 countries, the US has been consistently in first place and Japan in second. However, the number of publications from Japan has been decreasing since 2000. With regards to the "top 8 journals" such as the Lancet and the Journal of the American Medical Association, the number of first-author publications by Japanese neurosurgeons increased in the late 1980s and had been 2-9 articles per year until recently. In the "top 12 neuroscience journals" which include Stroke, Neuro-Oncology, Cancer Research, and others, Japan had been in the third next to the US and UK till 2004, but Germany surpassed Japan in 2005. In the "top 6 clinical journals" such as the Journal of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery, the US has been consistently keeping first place and Japan second place since 1977. Searches using the key word elucidated that Japanese neurosurgeons are greatly contributing in the field of "aneurysm." Regarding the number of publications per neurosurgeon, Canada and UK are in the forefront and Japan is down to eighth place. Japanese neurosurgeons have been contributing greatly next to the

  19. Biophotons Contribute to Retinal Dark Noise.

    PubMed

    Li, Zehua; Dai, Jiapei

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of dark noise in retinal photoreceptors resulted in a long-lasting controversy over its origin and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a novel ultra-weak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) to detect biophotonic activity (emission) under dark conditions in rat and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) retinas in vitro. We found a significant temperature-dependent increase in biophotonic activity that was completely blocked either by removing intracellular and extracellular Ca(2+) together or inhibiting phosphodiesterase 6. These findings suggest that the photon-like component of discrete dark noise may not be caused by a direct contribution of the thermal activation of rhodopsin, but rather by an indirect thermal induction of biophotonic activity, which then activates the retinal chromophore of rhodopsin. Therefore, this study suggests a possible solution regarding the thermal activation energy barrier for discrete dark noise, which has been debated for almost half a century.

  20. Contributions to Industrial-Minerals Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, James D.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Long, Keith R.

    2003-01-01

    Contributions to Industrial-Minerals Research, an ongoing series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bulletin chapters, presents research strategies, results, and updates of investigations of industrial minerals by USGS scientists and cooperators. Industrial minerals are defined as valuable nonmetallic, nonfuel geologic materials, generally rocks or minerals, used in a wide range of construction and industrial applications-for example, sand, gravel, and crushed rock used as aggregate for construction; limestone used for cement; phosphate for fertilizers and insecticides; and diatomite used for filtration, fillers, and abrasives. The term also comprises some processed materials, such as cement and metallic compounds with major utilization in nonmetallic forms. For example, titanium is commonly grouped with industrial minerals because more than 90 percent of it is sold and utilized in the form of the oxide (TiO2) rather than as Ti metal. Other metals and metallic compounds commonly grouped with industrial minerals include Mn, Cr, Fe oxides, and rare-earth elements (REEs).

  1. Sea Quark Contribution to the Nucleon Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2015-10-01

    The widespread belief is that proton and neutron, commonly known as nucleons, are each composed of three elementary particles called quarks. But in the last two decades experiments showed that the mass, momentum, spin and electromagnetic properties of the three quarks do not add up to the known proprieties of the nucleon. Theory predicts that a ``sea'' of virtual pairs of quarks and anti-quarks, along with the strong force carrier particles called gluons, should account for the difference. I will present ongoing work on the preparation of an experiment to isolate the contributions of the sea to the nucleon spin using semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering technique at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  2. The Amtex DAMA Project: The Brookhaven contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Amtex Partnership organized in 1993 as a Technology Transfer Collaboration among members of the integrated textile industry, the DOE National Laboratories, a number of universities, and several research/education/technology transfer organizations (RETTs). Under the Amtex umbrella organization, a number of technology areas were defined and individual projects were launched addressing various aspects of improving the health and competitiveness of the American textile industry. The first and, to date, the largest of these has been the computer-based Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project. Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in DAMA beginning in March of 1993 and remained an active participant through January of 1995. It was staffed almost exclusively with personnel of the Computing and Communications Division. This document summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Brookhaven team in working with the larger collaboration. Detailed information about the Amtex Partnership, the DAMA Project, and specific BNL contributions are documented elsewhere.

  3. Contributions of Thomas Jefferson to American medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohn, L H

    1979-08-01

    Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence, had a consuming interest in all fields of education and science, including the practice of medicine and public health. He actively developed medical education, supported measures for public health, and encouraged scientific research supported by the government without policy intervention. Although a close friend of eminent physicians, his rationalism and scientific method placed him ahead of many practitioners of his time. He disparaged medical quackery but actively supported therapies such as vaccination that were based on research and careful observation. The School of Medicine at the University of Virginia was Jefferson's concrete contribution to the advancement of medical education in the United States and epitomized his preoccupation with medicine and science as important cornerstones of a healthy American nation.

  4. Scientific contributions of extensive biodiversity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Couvet, Denis; Devictor, Vincent; Jiguet, Frédéric; Julliard, Romain

    2011-05-01

    To develop a complete and informative biodiversity observation system, it is necessary to compare the strengths and limits of various monitoring schemes. In this article, we examine the various advantages of extensively monitoring fine-grained spatial variations of biodiversity, where the prominent traits of many species within a community (abundance, phenology, etc.) are regularly recorded at numerous sites over a large territory, usually via human observation networks. Linking these variations with environmental factors sheds lights on the major mechanisms leading to changes in biodiversity, thus increasing our knowledge of macroecology and community ecology. This extensive monitoring allows us to assess diffuse effects, contributing to the sound use of the precautionary principle. Combined with site-focused monitoring, information gathered from extensive monitoring provides the raw material necessary to build biodiversity scenarios.

  5. Michael Faraday's Contributions to Archaeological Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Moshenska, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of ancient artefacts is a long but largely neglected thread within the histories of archaeology and chemistry. This paper examines Michael Faraday's contributions to this nascent field, drawing on his published correspondence and the works of his antiquarian collaborators, and focusing in particular on his analyses of Romano-British and ancient Egyptian artefacts. Faraday examined the materials used in ancient Egyptian mummification, and provided the first proof of the use of lead glazes on Roman ceramics. Beginning with an assessment of Faraday's personal interests and early work on antiquities with Humphry Davy, this paper critically examines the historiography of archaeological chemistry and attempts to place Faraday's work within its institutional, intellectual, and economic contexts.

  6. Factors contributing to thixotropy of inspiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Izumizaki, Masahiko; Shibata, Masahiko; Homma, Ikuo

    2004-06-25

    Thixotropy is a passive property of the skeletal muscle dependent on the muscle's immediate history of contraction and length change. Thixotropic properties of inspiratory muscles, introduced by forceful muscle contraction at an inflated lung volume, cause an increased end-expiratory position (EEP) of the rib cage. We searched for factors contributing to the development of inspiratory muscle thixotropy in nine healthy subjects. Using induction plethysmography, we examined aftereffects on EEP of the duration of inspiratory muscle contraction and subsequent muscle relaxation. We also studied effects of inspiratory effort intensity measured by mouth pressure at different lung volumes. EEP elevation was noted subsequent to 5-s contraction followed by 2-s relaxation and was enhanced when conditioned at higher lung volumes with a strong inspiratory effort. Our results suggest four factors that influence inspiratory muscle thixotropy: (1) intensity of muscle contraction, (2) lung volume when contraction occurs, (3) duration of contraction, and (4) muscle relaxation.

  7. The enduring scientific contributions of Sigmund Freud.

    PubMed

    Gedo, John E

    2002-01-01

    Through the development of a novel observational method, Sigmund Freud made possible the collection of reliable data about man's inner life. The scientific hypotheses he formulated about these formed the initial version of psychoanalysis. Many of these first thoughts have had to be revised in the light of subsequent scientific findings about the operations of the central nervous system, but even these refuted propositions often had much heuristic value. Despite the passage of a whole century, many Freudian hypotheses have retained their scientific standing. Most important among these was Freud's realization that human thought is usually unconscious. His understanding of the role of the automatic repetition of basic patterns of behavior, of the fateful consequences of early childhood emotional vicissitudes in structuring enduring mental dispositions, and of the distinction between two distinct modes of thinking are the most significant among his many contributions.

  8. Dorsal hippocampal contributions to unimodal contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Otto, Tim; Poon, Patrick

    2006-06-14

    Although there is general consensus that the hippocampus is not critically involved in the acquisition of fear conditioned to an explicit conditioned stimulus (CS), the extent to which the hippocampus participates in contextual fear conditioning remains unclear. To further characterize the potential role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning, the present experiments examined the effect of excitotoxic lesions of dorsal hippocampus on the acquisition of a novel contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which a unimodal (olfactory) cue served to disambiguate discrete "contexts" within a single behavioral training chamber. Selective lesions of dorsal hippocampus severely attenuated olfactory contextual conditioning without affecting conditioning to an explicit auditory or olfactory CS. Additional experiments indicate that these contextual conditioning deficits cannot be attributed to a lesion-induced decrement in olfactory perception, a preferential impairment of "weak" forms of conditioning, or hyperactivity. Thus, the hippocampus appears to contribute importantly to the acquisition of fear conditioned to explicitly nonspatial, unimodal, temporally, and spatially diffuse contextual stimuli.

  9. Cal Poly Contributions to the CUORE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David; Meijer, Samuel; Haskin, Michael; Gutierrez, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) is a multinational experimental collaboration searching for the lepton-violating neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in ^130Te. The detection of 0νββ would indicate the neutrino is a Majorana fermion and also set the absolute mass scale of the electron neutrino. The experiment is currently being built in stages at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Assergi, Italy. CUORE-0 is a detector array expected to go online this year consisting of 52 bolometric crystals in a single tower, which is equivalent to 1/19th of the full mass of CUORE. We will describe our recent contributions to activities associated with CUORE-0 deployment, background reduction efforts, and the CUORE crystal verification runs as the collaboration works towards bringing CUORE online in 2014.

  10. Contributions from the CYGNUS/Milagro Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.E.; Chang, C.Y.; Chen, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    This document consists of eleven reports contributed to the XXIV International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rome, Italy, August 28--September 8, 1995) from the CYGNUS/Milagro Collaboration: ``Search for Ultra-High-Energy Radiation from Gamma-Ray Bursts``, ``Gamma-Ray Bursts: Detection and Distance Estimates with Milagro``, ``Searching for Gamma-Ray Bursts with Water-Cerenkov-Detector Single-Particle Rates``, ``The Milagro Detector``, ``The Milagro Data Acquisition System``, ``Source Searches Using the CYGNUS Water-Cerenkov Array``, ``Search for UHE Emission from Supernova Remnants``, ``Solar Physics with the Milagro Telescope``, ``An Experiment to Detect Correlations Between Cerenkov and Muon Lateral Distributions in EAS``, ``A Study of Large-Zenith-Angle Air Showers with the CYGNUS Experiment``, and ``Mass Resolution of Ground Based Air Shower Experiments in the 10 to 10000 TeV range.``

  11. The Contributions of Immigrants to American Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The standard account of American immigration focuses on the acculturation and assimilation of immigrants and their children to American society. This analysis typically ignores the significant contributions of immigrants to the creation of American culture through the performing arts, sciences, and other cultural pursuits. Immigrants and their children are not born with more creative talents than native-born citizens, but their selectivity and marginality may have pushed and pulled those with ability into high-risk career paths that reward creative work. The presence of large numbers of talented immigrants in Hollywood, academia, and the high-tech industries has pushed American institutions to be more meritocratic and open to innovation than they would be otherwise. PMID:24339451

  12. Microbial contributions to the Precambrian Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Bermudes, D.; Obar, R.

    1986-01-01

    Life has existed on Earth for approximately 3.5 billion years. For most of this time, prokaryotic communities provided the major biological forces changing the Earth. Many changes in atmospheric gas composition occurred during the Archean and Proterozoic eons as a result of microbial activity. Extant microbial communities were used to help understand the dynamics which contributed to these atmospheric changes. The microbial mat communities were characterized according to the organismic constituents. Symbiosis in microbial communities is recognized as a major force in cell evolution. Among the evolutinary enigmas investigated is the problem of the origin of the undulipodia. Undulipodial microtubules are still deployed for major cellular processes such as mitosis and meiosis. Several prokaryotes were tested for the presence of the S1-type protein, so far only spirochetes were found to possess it. The S1-type protein is being sought in cyanobacteria reported to contain microtubules.

  13. Dynamic contribution to hemispheric mean temperature trends

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.M.; Zhang, Y.; Renwick, J.A.

    1995-11-03

    On the basis of land station data from the Northern Hemisphere, it was determined that roughly half of the temporal variance of monthly mean hemispheric mean anomalies in surface air temperature during the period from 1900 through 1990 were linearly related to the amplitude of a distinctive spatial pattern in which the oceans are anomalously cold and the continents are anomalously warm poleward of 40 degrees north when the hemisphere is warm. Apart from an upward trend since 1975, to which El Nino has contributed, the amplitude time series associated with this pattern resembles seasonally dependent white noise. it is argued that the variability associated with this pattern is dynamically induced and is not necessarily an integral part of the fingerprint of global warming. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Contribution of imaging to cancer care costs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Czernin, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Health care costs in the United States are increasing faster than the gross domestic product (GDP), and the growth rate of costs related to diagnostic imaging exceeds those of overall health care expenditures. Here we show that the contribution of imaging to cancer care costs pales in comparison to those of other key cost components, such as cancer drugs. Specifically, we estimate that (18)F-FDG PET or PET/CT accounted for approximately 1.5% of overall Medicare cancer care costs in 2009. Moreover, we propose that the appropriate use of (18)F-FDG PET or PET/CT could reduce the costs of cancer care. Because the U.S. health care system is complex and because it is difficult to find accurate data elsewhere, most cost and use assessments are based on published data from the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

  15. Contribution of autophagy to antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Rey-Jurado, Emma; Riedel, Claudia A; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-11-14

    Although identified in the 1960's, interest in autophagy has significantly increased in the past decade with notable research efforts oriented at understanding as to how this multi-protein complex operates and is regulated. Autophagy is commonly defined as a "self-eating" process evolved by eukaryotic cells to recycle senescent organelles and expired proteins, which is significantly increased during cellular stress responses. In addition, autophagy can also play important roles during human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, novel findings suggest that autophagy contributes to the host defense against microbial infections. In this article, we review the role of macroautophagy in antiviral immune responses and discuss molecular mechanisms evolved by viral pathogens to evade this process. A role for autophagy as an effector mechanism used both, by innate and adaptive immunity is also discussed.

  16. Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Pevsner, Jonathan

    2002-04-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure. Leonardo developed an original, mechanistic model of sensory physiology. He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input, and integrates that information via the soul.

  17. Hysteria to conversion disorders: Babinski's contributions.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the importance of hysteria on Babinski's oeuvre, and the conceptions of pithiatism from Babinski until the one of conversion disorder. Babinski gave a mental basis for hysteria in the place of Charcot's encephalopatic one, and several important semiotic tools to differentiate organic from hysterical manifestations based on studies from 1893-1917/8. His teachings were spread worldwide, and in Brazil they were also appreciated in the work on hysteria by Antonio Austregesilo, the first Brazilian neurology chairman. The neurobiological basis of hysteria conceived by Charcot is nowadays reappraised, and Babinski's neurosemiological contribution is everlasting. The patients believed to be hysterical, and the two outstanding neurologists, Charcot and Babinski, gave support for the development of the modern neurology.

  18. Energy system contributions in indoor rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo Cássio de Moraes; Franchini, Emerson; Kokubun, Eduardo; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin

    2007-10-01

    The present study cross-sectionally investigated the influence of training status, route difficulty and upper body aerobic and anaerobic performance of climbers on the energetics of indoor rock climbing. Six elite climbers (EC) and seven recreational climbers (RC) were submitted to the following laboratory tests: (a) anthropometry, (b) upper body aerobic power, and (c) upper body Wingate test. On another occasion, EC subjects climbed an easy, a moderate, and a difficult route, whereas RC subjects climbed only the easy route. The fractions of the aerobic (W(AER)), anaerobic alactic (W(PCR)) and anaerobic lactic (W[La(-)]) systems were calculated based on oxygen uptake, the fast component of excess post-exercise oxygen uptake, and changes in net blood lactate, respectively. On the easy route, the metabolic cost was significantly lower in EC [40.3 (6.5) kJ] than in RC [60.1 (8.8) kJ] (P < 0.05). The respective contributions of the W (AER), W (PCR), and W[La(-)] systems in EC were: easy route = 41.5 (8.1), 41.1 (11.4) and 17.4% (5.4), moderate route = 45.8 (8.4), 34.6 (7.1) and 21.9% (6.3), and difficult route = 41.9 (7.4), 35.8 (6.7) and 22.3% (7.2). The contributions of the W (AER), W (PCR), and W[La(-)] systems in RC subjects climbing an easy route were 39.7 (5.0), 34.0 (5.8), and 26.3% (3.8), respectively. These results indicate that the main energy systems required during indoor rock climbing are the aerobic and anaerobic alactic systems. In addition, climbing economy seems to be more important for the performance of these athletes than improved energy metabolism.

  19. Thermal and compositional contributions to mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.; Forte, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    We have integrated seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics constraints to obtain models of mantle heterogeneity. The seismic constraints primarily consist of teleseismic shear body wave travel times and the geodynamic constraints include the global free-air gravity field, tectonic plate divergences, dynamic surface topography and the excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary. The geodynamic observations are interpreted with viscous flow response kernels and velocity-to-density scaling relationships for thermally-varying mantle material. Considering the viscosity model from Mitrovica & Forte (2004) and an optimal thermal density-velocity scaling relationship, we have found a single velocity/density model capable of satisfying the combined dataset to high degrees. The implication is that thermal variations dominate and compositional contributions are secondary throughout most of the non-cratonic mantle (Simmons et al. 2007). This modeling approach inherently minimizes potential non-thermal contributions to the density field and thus establishes a minimal estimate of the influence of composition needed to reconcile the observations. This is due to the fact that we use optimal viscosity and density-velocity scaling relationships to model the data with the initial assumption that all heterogeneity is generated by thermal variations. Therefore, we test other possibilities including simplified viscosity profiles and alternative thermal density-velocity relationships in order to evaluate how these input parameters increase the level of compositional influence required to satisfy the combined dataset. We also demonstrate the potential downfall of scaling a purely seismically-derived shear velocity model to obtain density heterogeneity in the mantle. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. UCRL-ABS-233968

  20. Assessing the maximum contribution from ancient populations.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Per; Skoglund, Pontus; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2014-05-01

    Ancestral relationships between populations separated by time represent an often neglected dimension in population genetics, a field which historically has focused on analysis of spatially distributed samples from the same point in time. Models are usually straightforward when two time-separated populations are assumed to be completely isolated from all other populations. However, this is usually an unrealistically stringent assumption when there is gene flow with other populations. Here, we investigate continuity in the presence of gene flow from unknown populations. This setup allows a more nuanced treatment of questions regarding population continuity in terms of "level of contribution" from a particular ancient population to a more recent population. We propose a statistical framework which makes use of a biallelic marker sampled at two different points in time to assess population contribution, and present two different interpretations of the concept. We apply the approach to published data from a prehistoric human population in Scandinavia (Malmström H, Gilbert MTP, Thomas MG, Brandström M, Storå J, Molnar P, Andersen PK, Bendixen C, Holmlund G, Götherström A, et al. 2009. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians. Curr Biol. 19:1758-1762) and Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Barnes I, Shapiro B, Lister A, Kuznetsova T, Sher A, Guthrie D, Thomas MG. 2007. Genetic structure and extinction of the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius. Curr Biol. 17:1072-1075; Debruyne R, Chu G, King CE, Bos K, Kuch M, Schwarz C, Szpak P, Gröcke DR, Matheus P, Zazula G, et al. 2008. Out of America: ancient DNA evidence for a new world origin of late quaternary woolly mammoths. Curr Biol. 18:1320-1326).

  1. Atmospheric Methane Contributions From Fractured Bedrock Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater is not normally considered as an important contributor of atmospheric methane because the organic carbon content of aquifers is too low to sustain significant methanogenesis. Also, groundwater-generated methane partitions into the gas phase of the overlying soil, where it either dissolves in the pore water or is oxidized to carbon dioxide by methanotrophs. There are, however, localized conditions (related to human activities and hydrogeologic conditions) under which atmospheric contributions of groundwater-generated methane occur at the ground surface. Storing and transporting liquid petroleum products in the subsurface has resulted in the local introduction of high concentrations of degradable organic carbon and the creation of redox conditions that favor methanogenesis over more oxidative biodegradation pathways. Groundwater overlain by fractured bedrock, rather than by unconsolidated porous media, creates a situation where CH4 migrates through discrete fractures, thus limiting the soil volume and the surface area available for methanotrophic activity. The spatial distribution of methane in thin surface soils overlying bedrock suggests that CH4 migrates via fracture networks and that CH4 oxidation is a factor of about 50 less than that measured in typical unconsolidated soils. Atmospheric flux rates associated with contaminated bedrock aquifers were on the order of several grams of carbon (as CH4) per square meter, which is less than that reported for well documented sources (e.g., rice paddies) and probably represents a minor worldwide contribution. Nonetheless, these aquifers can represent an important localized source, can shift soils from a sink to a source of methane, and can permit petroleum products to load carbon (as biogenic CH4 and CO2) to the atmosphere without ever being combusted.

  2. Jung's Contribution to Clinical Psychiatry 1

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Murdo

    1935-01-01

    This attempt to correlate Jung's work with practical psychiatry is concerned mainly with his conception of clinical types. Jung went far away from the provinces of clinical medicine and psychiatry for his evidence, and the possible cause for this is discussed. He expands his view of introversion and extraversion, and so the suggestion is made that for practical purposes his early limitation of these terms should be maintained. The difficulties encountered in type description by comparison and contrast are emphasized. The value of his conception of basic functions is discussed and criticized. A review is made of the personalities he describes, and a simplification of his resulting classification suggested for practical purposes. The notion is put forward that Jung describes one type in psychological adaptation much better than any others, and it is hinted that his psycho-pathological description of this type in nerve disorder constitutes his main contribution to clinical psychiatry. A review of the treatable nerve disorders suggests that this disorder has received more adequate description from Jung than any other, and reveals a unique method of investigation and therapy. This does not apply to his other descriptions. Possibly some of the vagueness attributed to Jung is because he did not give this disorder an adequate diagnosis, and an explanation for this is offered. The correlation between the simplified classification and the classification of treatable nerve disorders is close, and it is suggested that this constitutes Jung's contribution to clinical psychiatry in general. The application of Jung's principles is of daily help to the practising psychiatrist. PMID:19990325

  3. Primate Kinship: Contributions from Cayo Santiago.

    PubMed

    Berman, Carol M

    2016-01-01

    Research on Cayo Santiago and Japan deserves credit for launching the study of primate kinship and for continuing to help shape it in important ways. This review describes the origins of kinship research on Cayo Santiago, beginning with Donald Sade's pioneering work establishing the concepts of kin preferences, matrilineal dominance systems and incest avoidance. It then reviews subsequent research by later Cayo Santiago researchers and alumni, focusing primarily on maternal kinship. Together these researchers have greatly expanded our knowledge of kin preferences in rhesus in terms of (i) what age-sex classes, behaviors and types of kin show them, (ii) the ways in which kinship interfaces with rank, sex, age, and dispersal patterns, and (iii) the graded and variably limited nature of kin preferences in terms of degree of relatedness. Second, the argument for kin selection at least for some types of behavior has survived challenges posed by several alternative explanations, and has been both strengthened by recent findings of paternal kin preferences and narrowed by studies showing that unilateral altruism may extend only to very close kin. Third, work on Cayo Santiago has contributed to an appreciation that both current conditions and inherent social characteristics may influence the strength of kin preferences, and fourth, it has contributed to an understanding of the possible origins of our own species' family systems. Cayo Santiago became a leader in kinship research in large part because of management practices that produce known extended lineages. These lineages have promoted and accelerated research on kinship, prompting other researchers to investigate its importance in other groups and species, where its effects only then became clear. The extended lineages remain valuable tools for research on a species that lives in a broad range of environments in the wild, including those with key parallels to Cayo Santiago.

  4. Patterns of Errors Contributing to Trauma Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Russell L.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; McIntyre, Lisa K.; Foy, Hugh M.; Maier, Ronald V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify patterns of errors contributing to inpatient trauma deaths. Methods: All inpatient trauma deaths at a high-volume level I trauma center from 1996 to 2004 inclusive were audited. Data were collected with daily trauma registry chart abstraction, weekly morbidity and mortality reports, hospital quality assurance reports, and annual trauma registry analyses of risk of death using TRISS and HARM methodology. Deaths that met criteria for low to medium probability of mortality or those with quality of care concerns were analyzed for errors and then subjected to 3-stage peer review at weekly departmental, monthly hospital, and annual regional forums. Patterns of errors were constructed from the compiled longitudinal data. Results: In 9 years, there were 44,401 trauma patient admissions and 2594 deaths (5.8%), of which 601 met low to medium mortality risks. Sixty-four patients (0.14% admissions, 2.47% deaths) had recognized errors in care that contributed to their death. Important error patterns included: failure to successfully intubate, secure or protect an airway (16%), delayed operative or angiographic control of acute abdominal/pelvic hemorrhage (16%), delayed intervention for ongoing intrathoracic hemorrhage (9%), inadequate DVT or gastrointestinal prophylaxis (9%), lengthy initial operative procedures rather than damage control surgery in unstable patients (8%), over-resuscitation with fluids (5%), and complications of feeding tubes (5%). Resulting data-directed institutional and regional trauma system policy changes have demonstrably reduced the incidence of associated error-related deaths. Conclusions: Preventable deaths will occur even in mature trauma systems. This review has identified error patterns that are likely common in all trauma systems, and for which policy interventions can be effectively targeted. PMID:16926563

  5. Does predation contribute to tree diversity?

    PubMed

    Beckage, Brian; Clark, James S

    2005-04-01

    Seed and seedling predation may differentially affect competitively superior tree species to increase the relative recruitment success of poor competitors and contribute to the coexistence of tree species. We examined the effect of seed and seedling predation on the seedling recruitment of three tree species, Acer rubrum (red maple), Liriodendron tulipifera (yellow poplar), and Quercus rubra (northern red oak), over three years by manipulating seed and seedling exposure to predators under contrasting microsite conditions of shrub cover, leaf litter, and overstory canopy. Species rankings of seedling emergence were constant across microsites, regardless of exposure to seed predators, but varied across years. A. rubrum had the highest emergence probabilities across microsites in 1997, but Q. rubra had the highest emergence probabilities in 1999. Predators decreased seedling survival uniformly across species, but did not affect relative growth rates (RGRs). Q. rubra had the highest seedling survivorship across microsites, while L. tulipifera had the highest RGRs. Our results suggest that annual variability in recruitment success contributes more to seedling diversity than differential predation across microsites. We synthesized our results from separate seedling emergence and survival experiments to project seedling bank composition. With equal fecundity assumed across species, Q. rubra dominated the seedling bank, capturing 90% of the regeneration sites on average, followed by A. rubrum (8% of sites) and L. tulipifera (2% of sites). When seed abundance was weighted by species-specific fecundity, seedling bank composition was more diverse; L. tulipifera captured 62% of the regeneration sites, followed by A. rubrum (21% of sites) and Q. rubra (17% of sites). Tradeoffs between seedling performance and fecundity may promote the diversity of seedling regeneration by increasing the probability of inferior competitors capturing regeneration sites.

  6. 11 CFR 9034.3 - Non-matchable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-matchable contributions. 9034.3 Section... PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.3 Non-matchable contributions. A contribution to a candidate other than one which meets the requirements of 11 CFR 9034.2 is not matchable. Contributions which...

  7. 7 CFR 1485.25 - Failure to make required contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contribution. A MAP Participant's required contribution will be specified in the approval letter. If the MAP Participant's required contribution is specified as a dollar amount and the MAP Participant does not make the required contribution, the MAP Participant shall pay to CCC in dollars the difference between the...

  8. 24 CFR 92.219 - Recognition of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recognition of matching... Contribution Requirement § 92.219 Recognition of matching contribution. (a) Match contribution to HOME-assisted... recognition of matching contributions made to affordable housing that is not HOME-assisted: (1) For...

  9. 24 CFR 92.219 - Recognition of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recognition of matching... Contribution Requirement § 92.219 Recognition of matching contribution. (a) Match contribution to HOME-assisted... recognition of matching contributions made to affordable housing that is not HOME-assisted: (1) For...

  10. 24 CFR 92.219 - Recognition of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recognition of matching... Contribution Requirement § 92.219 Recognition of matching contribution. (a) Match contribution to HOME-assisted... recognition of matching contributions made to affordable housing that is not HOME-assisted: (1) For...

  11. 24 CFR 92.219 - Recognition of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognition of matching... Contribution Requirement § 92.219 Recognition of matching contribution. (a) Match contribution to HOME-assisted... recognition of matching contributions made to affordable housing that is not HOME-assisted: (1) For...

  12. 24 CFR 92.219 - Recognition of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recognition of matching... Contribution Requirement § 92.219 Recognition of matching contribution. (a) Match contribution to HOME-assisted... recognition of matching contributions made to affordable housing that is not HOME-assisted: (1) For...

  13. 26 CFR 54.4980G-4 - Calculating comparable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Employer K contributes $900 on a look-back basis for the calendar year to Y's HSA ($100) per month for the... contributes $150 to Employee T's HSA and $400 to Employee U's HSA. Employer L's contributions satisfy the... employer's self-only HDHP. Employer A's HSA contributions satisfy the comparability rules. Example......

  14. Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need

  15. 75 FR 69026 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations; Uniformed Services Accounts; Death...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Elections and Contribution Allocations; Uniformed Services Accounts; Death Benefits; Thrift Savings Plan... participant must either transfer his or her TSP death benefit payment to another eligible employer plan or... participant to retain a lump sum death benefit payment in the TSP, subject to certain restrictions...

  16. Impact contribution of prebiotic reactants to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Hans R.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that the AIB amino acid at the K/T boundary were synthesized during entry of a comet. However, whether they were synthesized or supplied directly from space, the concentration of amino acids in the shallow K/T sea would have been about 10(exp -7) M. It is probable that clays were the dominant sinks for the amino acids in the K/T sea and in the primordial ocean. Because clay removed amino acids from sea water quickly, the amino acid contribution must be studied from individual comets in order to evaluate the effectiveness of comets for chemical evolution. Such an evaluation shows that comets would have produced amino acid concentration higher than equilibrium concentrations of amino acid from corona discharge at all times preceding the age of the oldest fossils. The perferred sites for chemical evolution of cometary amino acids are in cloud drops and tide pools where the concentration of amino acids would have been the highest. Life could have originated at the surface even during periods of intense bombardment of the earth before 3.8 billion years ago.

  17. Impact contribution of prebiotic reactants to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Hans R.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that the AIB amino acids at the K/T boundary were synthesized during entry of a comet. However, whether they were synthesized or supplied directly from space, the concentration of amino acids in the shallow K/T sea would have been about 10(exp -7) M. It is probable that clays were the dominant sinks for the amino acids in the K/T sea and in the primordial ocean. Because clay removed amino from the sea so quickly, we must study the amino acid contribution from individual comets in order to evaluate the effectiveness of comets for chemical evolution. Such an evaluation shows that comets would have produced amino acid concentrations higher than equilibrium concentrations of amino acids from corona discharge at all times preceding the age of the oldest fossils. The preferred sites for chemical evolution of cometary amino acids are in cloud drops and tide pools where the concentration of amino acids would have been the highest. Life could have originated at the surface even during periods of intense bombardment of the earth before 3.8 billion years ago.

  18. Michael Faraday and his contribution to anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Bergman, N A

    1992-10-01

    Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was a protégé of Humphry Davy. He became one of Davy's successors as Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Of Faraday's many brilliant discoveries in chemistry and physics, probably the best remembered today is his work on electromagnetic induction. Faraday's contribution to introduction of anesthesia was his published announcement in 1818 that inhalation of the vapor of ether produced the same effects on mentation and consciousness as the breathing of nitrous oxide. He most likely became familiar with the central nervous system effects of nitrous oxide through his association with Davy, an avid user of the gas. Sulfuric ether was a common, convenient, cheap, and easily available substance, in contrast to nitrous oxide, which required expensive, cumbersome, and probably not widely available apparatus for its production and administration. The capability for inhaling intoxicating vapors eventually became commonly available with the use of ether instead of the gas. The first surgical anesthetics were a consequence of the resulting student "ether frolics." The 1818 announcement on breathing ether vapor was published anonymously; however, notations in Faraday's handwriting in some of his personal books clearly establish Michael Faraday as the author of this brief communication.

  19. The Spanish contribution to the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, J. A.; CTA Consortium

    2015-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project is an initiative to build the next generation ground- based Very High Energy gamma-ray instrument. It will serve as an open observatory to a wide astrophysics community and will provide a deep insight into the non-thermal high-energy universe. To achieve such goals, it will offer full-sky coverage (with Northern and Southern hemisphere sites), an improvement in sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, an enlarged span in energy (from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV), and enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1100 members from 28 countries all over the world. The Spanish High Energy Astrophysics community is deeply committed to CTA, with more than 70 scientists and technicians from 9 research groups currently involved in building prototypes for several CTA subsystems. This participation covers a wide list of items, both hardware- and software-related. The former includes telescope-level (camera electronics and mechanics and telescope undercarriage) and observatory- level (array optical calibration and atmospheric monitoring) elements. And the latter includes the design of the data pipelines and the scheduling for observational proposals. In this report, the status of the CTA project and the contribution of the Spanish community will be presented.

  20. Contribution of Asparagine Catabolism to Salmonella Virulence.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Patrick A; McClelland, Michael; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Porwollik, Steffen; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Chen, Juei-Suei; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; van der Velden, Adrianus W M

    2017-02-01

    Salmonellae are pathogenic bacteria that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Salmonellae establish infection and avoid clearance by the immune system by mechanisms that are not well understood. We previously showed that l-asparaginase II produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) inhibits T cell responses and mediates virulence. In addition, we previously showed that asparagine deprivation such as that mediated by l-asparaginase II of S Typhimurium causes suppression of activation-induced T cell metabolic reprogramming. Here, we report that STM3997, which encodes a homolog of disulfide bond protein A (dsbA) of Escherichia coli, is required for l-asparaginase II stability and function. Furthermore, we report that l-asparaginase II localizes primarily to the periplasm and acts together with l-asparaginase I to provide S Typhimurium the ability to catabolize asparagine and assimilate nitrogen. Importantly, we determined that, in a murine model of infection, S Typhimurium lacking both l-asparaginase I and II genes competes poorly with wild-type S Typhimurium for colonization of target tissues. Collectively, these results indicate that asparagine catabolism contributes to S Typhimurium virulence, providing new insights into the competition for nutrients at the host-pathogen interface.

  1. Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India's contribution.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Ramesh, B N; Vasudevaraju, P; Rao, K S J

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders.

  2. The contributions of Carl Ludwig to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, H G

    1999-03-01

    The basic instruments for measuring functional cardiovascular parameters and the most important discoveries made by Carl Ludwig and his disciples in cardiovascular physiology are described and put into perspective in regard to the further development of his methods and ideas. The most important apparatus was the kymograph, which, for the first time, made recording and documenting of functional parameters possible. This instrument was also used for the functional evaluation of the isolated perfused frog heart that was developed by Elias Cyon in Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute. In the isolated frog heart, important phenomena were discovered such as the staircase ('Treppe'), the absolute refractory period and the all-or-none law of the heart. The isolated dog heart was used to determine the origin of the first heart sound, which was characterized as a muscle tone. To measure regional blood flow and eventually cardiac output, a flowmeter ('Stromuhr') was designed. Precise measurements of cardiac output became possible only when Adolf Fick had developed his principle, which served as the basis for the modern indicator methods. Cyon and Ludwig also discoverd the depressor nerve, which constitutes the basis of the baroreceptor reflex. Finally, the precise localization of the vasomotor centre in the ventrolateral medulla was achieved in Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute. This was confirmed more than 100 years later with modern neuroanatomical methods making use of retrograde axonal transport. Thus, Ludwig and his scholars made major substantial contributions to cardiovascular knowledge that can be considered to constitute the basis of modern cardiology.

  3. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth`s interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges.

  4. Allelic variation contributes to bacterial host specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Min; Han, Xiangan; Masi, Leon De; Zhu, Chunhong; Ma, Xun; Zhang, Junjie; Wu, Renwei; Schmieder, Robert; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Fraser, George P.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Weill, François-Xavier; Mainil, Jacques G.; Arze, Cesar; Fricke, W. Florian; Edwards, Robert A.; Brisson, Dustin; Zhang, Nancy R.; Rankin, Shelley C.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2015-10-30

    Understanding the molecular parameters that regulate cross-species transmission and host adaptation of potential pathogens is crucial to control emerging infectious disease. Although microbial pathotype diversity is conventionally associated with gene gain or loss, the role of pathoadaptive nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) has not been systematically evaluated. Here, our genome-wide analysis of core genes within Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genomes reveals a high degree of allelic variation in surface-exposed molecules, including adhesins that promote host colonization. Subsequent multinomial logistic regression, MultiPhen and Random Forest analyses of known/suspected adhesins from 580 independent Typhimurium isolates identifies distinct host-specific nsSNP signatures. Moreover, population and functional analyses of host-associated nsSNPs for FimH, the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, highlights the role of key allelic residues in host-specific adherence in vitro. In conclusion, together, our data provide the first concrete evidence that functional differences between allelic variants of bacterial proteins likely contribute to pathoadaption to diverse hosts.

  5. Allelic variation contributes to bacterial host specificity

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Min; Han, Xiangan; Masi, Leon De; ...

    2015-10-30

    Understanding the molecular parameters that regulate cross-species transmission and host adaptation of potential pathogens is crucial to control emerging infectious disease. Although microbial pathotype diversity is conventionally associated with gene gain or loss, the role of pathoadaptive nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) has not been systematically evaluated. Here, our genome-wide analysis of core genes within Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genomes reveals a high degree of allelic variation in surface-exposed molecules, including adhesins that promote host colonization. Subsequent multinomial logistic regression, MultiPhen and Random Forest analyses of known/suspected adhesins from 580 independent Typhimurium isolates identifies distinct host-specific nsSNP signatures. Moreover, population andmore » functional analyses of host-associated nsSNPs for FimH, the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, highlights the role of key allelic residues in host-specific adherence in vitro. In conclusion, together, our data provide the first concrete evidence that functional differences between allelic variants of bacterial proteins likely contribute to pathoadaption to diverse hosts.« less

  6. Contribution of mitochondrial oxidative stress to hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dikalov, Sergey I.; Dikalova, Anna E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review In 1954 Harman proposed the free radical theory of aging, and in 1972 he suggested that mitochondria are both the source and the victim of toxic free radicals. Interestingly, hypertension is age-associated disease and clinical data show that by age 70, 70% of the population has hypertension and this is accompanied by oxidative stress. Antioxidant therapy however is not currently available and common antioxidants like ascorbate and vitamin E are ineffective in preventing hypertension. The present review focuses on molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial oxidative stress and therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondria in hypertension. Recent findings In the past several years, we have shown that the mitochondria become dysfunctional in hypertension and have defined novel role of mitochondrial superoxide radicals in this disease. We have shown that genetic manipulation of mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD2) affects blood pressure and have developed mitochondria-targeted therapies such as SOD2 mimetics that effectively lower blood pressure. The specific mechanism of mitochondrial oxidative stress in hypertension, however, remains unclear. Recent animal and clinical studies have demonstrated several hormonal, metabolic, inflammatory, and environmental pathways contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Summary Nutritional supplements, calorie restriction, and life style change are the most effective preventive strategies to improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress. Aging associated mitochondrial dysfunction, however, reduces efficacy of these strategies. Therefore, we propose that new classes of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can provide high therapeutic potential to improve endothelial function and reduce hypertension. PMID:26717313

  7. [Methologic contribution to blood transfusion materials surveillance].

    PubMed

    Roussel, P; Pujol-Rey, A; Arzur, C

    2001-08-01

    To reduce seriousness and frequency of iatrogenic risk implies prevention policies and efficient operational systems for vigilance. This risk management implies definition of precise organizations and procedures able to locate and to notify quickly undesirable events. This is the case about single use medical devices (SUMD) used in blood transfusion. This article is a contribution to the organisation of the implemented material vigilance in blood transfusion, collectively carried out with actors concerned (users, manufacturers, National Commission for Material Vigilance). It presents a lot of tools and methods to favour practices harmonization, as well as preventive a curative (specifications before purchase, main part of the quality contract between customer and supplier; internal control plan; index for medical device used in transfusion; illustrated glossaries for three main families of medical devices; index about symptomatic events; definitions of seriousness levels with their operational consequences; methods to manage a single use medical device judged as defective; tool for the review of incidents according to reference and batch). Then, the management of incidents about SUMD is presented within a material vigilance system integrated into the quality system of the institution, for user as for manufacturer. This is done in a chronological order with successively description of the incident, the assessment of the impact, the management of the associated risk, the periodical review of incidents and management of matters in dispute.

  8. Anomalous Motion Illusion Contributes to Visual Preference

    PubMed Central

    Stevanov, Jasmina; Spehar, Branka; Ashida, Hiroshi; Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the magnitude of illusory motion in the variants of the “Rotating Snakes” pattern and the visual preference among such patterns. In Experiment 1 we manipulated the outer contour and the internal geometrical structure of the figure to test for corresponding modulations in the perceived illusion magnitude. The strength of illusory motion was estimated by the method of adjustment where the speed of a standard moving figure was matched to the speed of the perceived illusory motion in test figures. We observed modulation of the perceived strength of illusory motion congruent with our geometrical manipulations. In Experiment 2, we directly compared the magnitude of the perceived illusory motion and the preference for these patterns by a method of paired comparison. Images differing in illusion magnitude showed corresponding differences in the reported preference for these patterns. In addition, further analysis revealed that the geometry and lower level image characteristics also substantially contributed to the observed preference ratings. Together these results support the idea that presence of illusory effect and geometrical characteristics determine affective preference for images, as they may be regarded as more interesting, surprising, or fascinating. PMID:23226138

  9. Possible Russian Contribution to the ERNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Vladimir; Kent, Peter

    1998-09-01

    This paper, and the following five papers, were presented during the NAV 97 Conference held at Church House, Westminster, London on 11th and 12th November 1997. A full listing of the Conference, and how to obtain a copy of the proceedings, is shown on Page 279.The Government of the Russian Federation has made available, subject to certain conditions, the GLONASS satellite radionavigation system for civil use. Useof the system is free and there is no intention to introduce coding or to cause any deterioration to the accuracy of the signals. Discussions are currently taking place between the European Commission and the Russian Federation on cooperation concerning the implementation of a navigation satellite system for civil purposes. Discussions are also taking place between interested European Governments and the Russian Federation into the possibility of developing joint Chayka/Loran-C chains wherever this is feasible, and in particular, to cover the Barents Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. The development of a concept on integration of radionavigation systems would probably be a significant contribution to the European Radionavigation Plan.

  10. Contribution to a symbiogenic approach in astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrapiço, Francisco; Pereira, Luísa; Rodrigues, Telma

    2007-09-01

    This article intends to continue our previous work on the symbiogenic approach to chemical and biological evolution. We believe that cooperative and synergistic processes were responsible, using terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials, for the creation of a large prebiotic pool, closely related to geochemical contexts, and intense interactions within. Probably, a series of synergistic and cooperative effects produced a wide source of creativity, and functional advantages that pushed the emergence of complex and functionally integrated biological systems, through the evolution of self-organization and auto-catalysis. It was only after this biochemical evolution of structures, which produced the informational capabilities necessary for self-replication, that the Darwinian mechanisms could arise. This way of perceiving the emergence of life follows the proposals regarding life's initial evolution in which the progenote proposed consisted in an open community of very diverse primitive cellular entities with intense symbiotic associations, antagonisms, and competition, and with a rapid and reticulate pattern of evolution. We believe this symbiogenic approach should be considered in the understanding of chemical and biological evolution. This discussion contributes to the development of astrobiological knowledge, since it gives other perspectives about life's appearance and development on Earth and elsewhere.

  11. [Carpal tunnel syndrome. The contribution of ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M

    2014-11-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most frequent mononeuropathy. Its incidence is huge and the ensuing community health problems are therefore the cause of much concern. Such a situation has made it necessary to develop a key point in the management of the illness, that is, to find flexible, sensitive, specific and cost-effective diagnostic procedures. Today tools of proven worth are now available, especially electrophysiology, and quite recently we also have ultrasonography. Both of these techniques allow us to confirm and characterise neuropathies due to entrapment and indeed a large number of papers dealing with ultrasound imaging have been published in the literature over the last few years. It therefore comes as no surprise that many renowned authors have acknowledged the usefulness of this technique. Here, we review the pathophysiological and diagnostic aspects of carpal tunnel syndrome, with greater emphasis on how ultrasonography has contributed to the morphological evaluation of the entrapped nerve. This method has proved itself to have significant advantages not only due to its being readily available, inexpensive, fast and painless, but also, and above all, because of its high capacity to detect neural and perineural alterations. A critical review of the literature supports this thesis and shows its incorporation into routine daily evaluation to be highly recommendable.

  12. REDD-plus and China's contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuyong, Li; Mei, Huang; Shenggong, Li

    2014-03-01

    The United Nations' program Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) seeks to reduce emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. The program's overarching goal is to curb rising CO2 levels and combat global climate change, and it focuses in particular on nations in or near the tropics that possess abundant rainforest resources. REDD-plus upgrades the program to include additional emphases on the roles of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. China has one of the world's richest forest resources and, through its afforestation and reforestation efforts, also possesses the world's largest reserve of planted forests. Currently, most of China's forests are young and/or mid-aged, and, as a result, China is positioned to make significant contributions to REDD-plus through sustainable forest management that enhanced forest carbon stocks. Though REDD-plus does not represent a comprehensive solution to global climate change, it can help stabilize rising temperatures and buy time for researchers to devise solutions that target the greenhouse effect.

  13. A monocular contribution to stimulus rivalry.

    PubMed

    Brascamp, Jan; Sohn, Hansem; Lee, Sang-Hun; Blake, Randolph

    2013-05-21

    When corresponding areas of the two eyes view dissimilar images, stable perception gives way to visual competition wherein perceptual awareness alternates between those images. Moreover, a given image can remain visually dominant for several seconds at a time even when the competing images are swapped between the eyes multiple times each second. This perceptual stability across eye swaps has led to the widespread belief that this unique form of visual competition, dubbed stimulus rivalry, is governed by eye-independent neural processes at a purely binocular stage of cortical processing. We tested this idea by investigating the influence of stimulus rivalry on the buildup of the threshold elevation aftereffect, a form of contrast adaptation thought to transpire at early cortical stages that include eye-specific neural activity. Weaker threshold elevation aftereffects were observed when the adapting image was engaged in stimulus rivalry than when it was not, indicating diminished buildup of adaptation during stimulus-rivalry suppression. We then confirmed that this reduction occurred, in part, at eye-specific neural stages by showing that suppression of an image at a given moment specifically diminished adaptation associated with the eye viewing the image at that moment. Considered together, these results imply that eye-specific neural events at early cortical processing stages contribute to stimulus rivalry. We have developed a computational model of stimulus rivalry that successfully implements this idea.

  14. Cleft contribution to ring current formation

    SciTech Connect

    Delcourt, D.C. ); Sauvaud, J.A. ); Moore, T.E. )

    1990-12-01

    The storm time transport of ionospheric plasma from the cleft fountain to the plasma sheet and ring current is investigated by means of three-dimensional trajectory codes. Using observations to define the source location and flow rate. The authors trace test particles during a taillike to dipolelike reconfiguration of the geomagnetic field. Emphasis is placed on the behavior of heavy ions of low charge state (O{sup +}). As a result of their long periods of gyration, these ions are highly sensitive to rapid field variations and possible display transient nonadiabatic motions. It is demonstrated that O{sup +} which have originated in the high-latitude ionosphere but which find themselves in the vicinity of the equator at substorm onset can experience considerable erergization (from several keV up to several hundred keV) and pitch angle increase leading to trapping, as an effect of the induced electric field. These effects accompany a rapid earthward transport from midtail ({approximately}10-15 R{sub E}) to geosynchronous altitudes. The average particle energy and density involved suggest a substantial contribution of the cleft O{sup +} fountain to the ring current during substorms.

  15. Orthopantomography contribution to prevent isquemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; López-López, osé

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The ortopantomography (OPG) can be a valuable way for an early detection of calcified atheroma plaques, thus contributing for a preliminary stroke risk evaluation. The study looks for the existence of calcified atheroma plates through the use of OPG, comparing the results with the stenosis percentage found through eco-doppler. It has been analyzed the correlation of the number of years as a smoker, arterial hypertension and body mass index, against the risk of having calcified atheroma plaques. Study Design: Observational, transversal and prospective study with 84 patients from the Dental Center of Hospital Particular de Lisboa. First the patients answered to an inquiry and them they were submitted to an OPG and an eco-doppler. Results and Conclusions: It is possible to detect calcified atheroma plaques in the carotid artery through an OPG and patients who have them have got a fifteen fold greater risk of suffering from carotid stenosis. In this study, it has been confirmed the increase in carotid stenosis for long term smokers (OR = 1,033, n=18, 42,9%). The study results show that hypertension patients have a probability 5,426 greater than normal of developing atheroma plaques (with sig=0,049). Amid analyzed patients, the correlation between obesity and the existence of carotid atheroma plaques was significant, although negative (sig=0,047). OPG can help find patients with higher risk of isquemic stroke. Key words:Orthopantomography, Stroke, Carotid disease, Calcified atheroma. PMID:24790711

  16. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2014

    PubMed Central

    Koutkias, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To summarize recent research and propose a selection of best papers published in 2014 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. Method A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry systems in order to select a list of candidate best papers to be then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the editorial team was finally organized to conclude on the selection of best papers. Results Among the 1,254 returned papers published in 2014, the full review process selected four best papers. The first one is an experimental contribution to a better understanding of unintended uses of CDSSs. The second paper describes the effective use of previously collected data to tailor and adapt a CDSS. The third paper presents an innovative application that uses pharmacogenomic information to support personalized medicine. The fourth paper reports on the long-term effect of the routine use of a CDSS for antibiotic therapy. Conclusions As health information technologies spread more and more meaningfully, CDSSs are improving to answer users’ needs more accurately. The exploitation of previously collected data and the use of genomic data for decision support has started to materialize. However, more work is still needed to address issues related to the correct usage of such technologies, and to assess their effective impact in the long term. PMID:26293858

  17. The lunar exosphere: The sputtering contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurz, P.; Rohner, U.; Whitby, J. A.; Kolb, C.; Lammer, H.; Dobnikar, P.; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2007-11-01

    We have extended our Monte Carlo model of exospheres [Wurz, P., Lammer, H., 2003. Icarus 164 (1), 1-13] by treating the ion-induced sputtering process from a known surface in a self-consistent way. The comparison of the calculated exospheric densities with experimental data, which are mostly upper limits, shows that all of our calculated densities are within the measurement limits. The total calculated exospheric density at the lunar surface of about 1×10 m as result of solar wind sputtering we find is much less than the experimental total exospheric density of about 10 m. We conclude that sputtering contributes only a small fraction of the total exosphere, at least close to the surface. Because of the considerably larger scale height of atoms released via sputtering into the exosphere, sputtered atoms start to dominate the exosphere at altitudes exceeding a few 1000 km, with the exception of some light and abundant species released thermally, e.g. H 2, He, CH 4, and OH. Furthermore, for more refractory species such as calcium, our model indicates that sputtering may well be the dominant mechanism responsible for the lunar atmospheric inventory, but observational data does not yet allow firm conclusions to be drawn.

  18. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  19. [Latin American social medicine: contributions and challenges].

    PubMed

    Iriart, Celia; Waitzkin, Howard; Breilh, Jaime; Estrada, Alfredo; Merhy, Emerson Elías

    2002-08-01

    This piece presents and analyzes a number of issues related to social medicine: the context of the emergence of social medicine; the differences between social medicine and public health; the theories, methods, and debates in social medicine; the main subjects or problems considered in social medicine; and the difficulties of disseminating the concepts of social medicine among English-speaking persons and among medical and public health professionals in general. Latin American social medicine has challenged other views by contributing to an understanding of the determinants of the health-disease-health care process and by using theories, methods, and techniques that are little known in the field of public health. Introducing Latin American social medicine, especially among English speakers, will be difficult due to the conceptual complexity of this field for persons who are accustomed to the theoretical framework of public health and medicine and also due to skepticism concerning research coming from the Third World. A multidisciplinary team is facing this challenge through two primary initiatives: 1) the creation of an Internet portal and database where there are structured abstracts in English, Portuguese, and Spanish of books, book chapters, and articles on social medicine and 2) the electronic publication of two journals on Latin American social medicine.

  20. Globular Cluster Contributions to the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah; Grebel, Eva; Lai, David

    2010-08-01

    The goal of this project is to confirm chemically that globular clusters are the source of as much as half the population of the Galactic halo. Using moderate-resolution spectroscopy from the SEGUE survey, we have identified a previously unknown population of halo field giants with distinctly strong CN features. CN variations are typically only observed in globular clusters, so these stars are interpreted as immigrants to the halo that originally formed in globular clusters. In one night of Keck/HIRES time, we will obtain high-quality, high- resolution spectra for five such stars, and determine abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, alpha, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements. With this information we can state clearly whether these unusual CN-strong halo stars carry the full abundance pattern seen in CN-strong globular cluster stars, with depleted C, O, and Mg and enhanced N, Na, and Al. This type of coarse ``chemical tagging'' will allow a clearer division of the Galactic halo into contributions from globular clusters and from dwarf galaxies, and will place constraints on theoretical models of globular cluster formation and evolution.

  1. Quantification of social contributions to earthquake mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, I. G.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; McCloskey, J.; Pelling, M.; Naylor, M.

    2013-12-01

    Death tolls in earthquakes, which continue to grow rapidly, are the result of complex interactions between physical effects, such as strong shaking, and the resilience of exposed populations and supporting critical infrastructures and institutions. While it is clear that the social context in which the earthquake occurs has a strong effect on the outcome, the influence of this context can only be exposed if we first decouple, as much as we can, the physical causes of mortality from our consideration. (Our modelling assumes that building resilience to shaking is a social factor governed by national wealth, legislation and enforcement and governance leading to reduced levels of corruption.) Here we attempt to remove these causes by statistically modelling published mortality, shaking intensity and population exposure data; unexplained variance from this physical model illuminates the contribution of socio-economic factors to increasing earthquake mortality. We find that this variance partitions countries in terms of basic socio-economic measures and allows the definition of a national vulnerability index identifying both anomalously resilient and anomalously vulnerable countries. In many cases resilience is well correlated with GDP; people in the richest countries are unsurprisingly safe from even the worst shaking. However some low-GDP countries rival even the richest in resilience, showing that relatively low cost interventions can have a positive impact on earthquake resilience and that social learning between these countries might facilitate resilience building in the absence of expensive engineering interventions.

  2. Proteomic Contributions to Personalized Cancer Care*

    PubMed Central

    Koomen, John M.; Haura, Eric B.; Bepler, Gerold; Sutphen, Rebecca; Remily-Wood, Elizabeth R.; Benson, Kaaron; Hussein, Mohamad; Hazlehurst, Lori A.; Yeatman, Timothy J.; Hildreth, Lynne T.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Dalton, William S.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer impacts each patient and family differently. Our current understanding of the disease is primarily limited to clinical hallmarks of cancer, but many specific molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Genetic markers can be used to determine predisposition to tumor development, but molecularly targeted treatment strategies that improve patient prognosis are not widely available for most cancers. Individualized care plans, also described as personalized medicine, still must be developed by understanding and implementing basic science research into clinical treatment. Proteomics holds great promise in contributing to the prevention and cure of cancer because it provides unique tools for discovery of biomarkers and therapeutic targets. As such, proteomics can help translate basic science discoveries into the clinical practice of personalized medicine. Here we describe how biological mass spectrometry and proteome analysis interact with other major patient care and research initiatives and present vignettes illustrating efforts in discovery of diagnostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer, development of treatment strategies in lung cancer, and monitoring prognosis and relapse in multiple myeloma patients. PMID:18664563

  3. The Global Climate Observing System. French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvanon-Du-Vachat, R.

    2010-09-01

    THE GLOBAL CLIMATE OBSERVING SYSTEM. FRENCH CONTRIBUTION Régis Juvanon du Vachat Société Météorologique de France, c/o D2I/MI, 1, Quai Branly 75007 Paris France is participating fully in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). It incorporates the following four components: meteorological and atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial, spatial, which will be briefly presented, especially in relation with the monitoring of the climate. The presentation will give an overview of the general principles governing the GCOS system and particularly the concepts used to maintain efficiently this climate observing system for a long period of time ("from research networks to operational networks"). The presentation will cover all the four components of the GCOS system. The whole report has been published in the Fifth National Communication from France to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The presentation will give an overview of the different networks of these four domains devoted to the monitoring of climate and maintained by France and highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of this climate observing system.

  4. The emergence of a heavy quark family on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preparata, Giuliano; Xue, She-Sheng

    1996-02-01

    Within the framework of the “Rome approach” for a lattice chiral gauge theory, the four-quark interaction with flavour symmetry is included. We analyse spontaneous symmetry breaking and compute composite modes and their contributions to the ground state energy. As a result, it is shown that the emergence of a heavy quark family is the energetically favoured solution.

  5. The Emergence of a Heavy Quark Family on a Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, She-Sheng

    1996-03-01

    Within the framework of the "Rome approach" for a lattice chiral gauge theory, the four-quark interaction with flavour symmetry is included. We analyse spontaneous symmetry breaking and compute composite modes and their contributions to the ground state energy. As a result, it is shown that the emergence of a heavy quark family is the energetically favoured solution.

  6. Contributions of TRMM and GPM to GEOSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2008-01-01

    Two international satellite missions have a major role in the development of global precipitation data under the auspices of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) to meet the needs of several Societal Benefit Areas set forth by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). One is the joint U.S.-Japan Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), launched in 1997, which provides combined radar/radiometer measurements to serve as a benchmark for tropical precipitation measurements by passive microwave radiometers and has played a key role in the development of the current generation of multi-satellite global rainfall products. The other is the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, an international satellite mission to be launched in 2013 to deliver the next-generation global precipitation observations from a constellation of dedicated and operational microwave sensors. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals aimed at (1) advancing the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle variability and freshwater availability and (2) improving weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with additional partners in satellite constellation and ground validation under discussion. With NASA and JAXA science team activities providing the framework and infrastructures for international collaboration on satellite inter-calibration, retrieval algorithm development, and ground validation, GPM has been identified as the cornerstone for the development of the Precipitation Constellation for the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). An overview of current accomplishments by TRMM and anticipated contributions by GPM to GEOSS activities will be presented.

  7. Elements That Contribute to Healthy Building Design

    PubMed Central

    Loftness, Vivian; Hakkinen, Bert; Adan, Olaf; Nevalainen, Aino

    2007-01-01

    Background The elements that contribute to a healthy building are multifactorial and can be discussed from different perspectives. Objectives We present three viewpoints of designing a healthy building: the importance of sustainable development, the role of occupants for ensuring indoor air quality, and ongoing developments related to indoor finishes with low chemical emissions and good fungal resistance. Discussion Sustainable design rediscovers the social, environmental, and technical values of pedestrian and mixed-use communities, using existing infrastructures including “main streets” and small-town planning principles and recapturing indoor–outdoor relationships. This type of design introduces nonpolluting materials and assemblies with lower energy requirements and higher durability and recyclability. Building occupants play a major role in maintaining healthy indoor environments, especially in residences. Contributors to indoor air quality include cleaning habits and other behaviors; consumer products, furnishings, and appliances purchases, as well as where and how the occupants use them. Certification of consumer products and building materials as low-emitting products is a primary control measure for achieving good indoor air quality. Key products in this respect are office furniture, flooring, paints and coatings, adhesives and sealants, wall coverings, wood products, textiles, insulation, and cleaning products. Finishing materials play a major role in the quality of indoor air as related to moisture retention and mold growth. Conclusions Sustainable design emphasizes the needs of infrastructure, lower energy consumption, durability, and recyclability. To ensure good indoor air quality, the product development for household use should aim to reduce material susceptibility to contaminants such as mold and should adopt consumer-oriented product labeling. PMID:17589608

  8. Porting Social Media Contributions with SIOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojars, Uldis; Breslin, John G.; Decker, Stefan

    Social media sites, including social networking sites, have captured the attention of millions of users as well as billions of dollars in investment and acquisition. To better enable a user's access to multiple sites, portability between social media sites is required in terms of both (1) the personal profiles and friend networks and (2) a user's content objects expressed on each site. This requires representation mechanisms to interconnect both people and objects on the Web in an interoperable, extensible way. The Semantic Web provides the required representation mechanisms for portability between social media sites: it links people and objects to record and represent the heterogeneous ties that bind each to the other. The FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend) initiative provides a solution to the first requirement, and this paper discusses how the SIOC (Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities) project can address the latter. By using agreed-upon Semantic Web formats like FOAF and SIOC to describe people, content objects, and the connections that bind them together, social media sites can interoperate and provide portable data by appealing to some common semantics. In this paper, we will discuss the application of Semantic Web technology to enhance current social media sites with semantics and to address issues with portability between social media sites. It has been shown that social media sites can serve as rich data sources for SIOC-based applications such as the SIOC Browser, but in the other direction, we will now show how SIOC data can be used to represent and port the diverse social media contributions (SMCs) made by users on heterogeneous sites.

  9. Contribution of trunk muscularity on sprint run.

    PubMed

    Kubo, T; Hoshikawa, Y; Muramatsu, M; Iida, T; Komori, S; Shibukawa, K; Kanehisa, H

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the trunk muscularity is related to sprint running performance. In 23 youth soccer players, the cross-sectional images at the mid level of each of L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging to determine the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of rectus abdominis, oblique, psoas major, quadratus lumborum and erector spinae muscles. The times taken to sprint over 20 m were measured, and the mean velocity of running was calculated for each of the 2 distances (V (10 m) and V (20 m)) and for the distance from 10 m to 20 m (V (10-20 m)). The CSA values of the 5 slice levels for all muscles except for the quadratus lumborum and those of the 3 slice levels (L1-L2, L2-L3 and L3-L4) for the quadratus lumborum were averaged and expressed relative to the two-third power of body mass (CSA/BM (2/3)). The CSA/BM (2/3) values of the erector spinae and quadratus lumborum were selected as significant contributors to predict V (10 m) ( R(2)=0.450), V (20 m) ( R(2)=0.504) and V (10-20 m) ( R(2)=0.420). The current results indicate that the muscularity of the erector spinae and quadratus lumborum contributes to achieving a high performance in sprint running over distances of less than 20 m.

  10. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ranhel, André Silva; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2016-04-01

    The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons.

  11. Contribution of systematic reviews to management decisions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  12. The soil physics contributions of Edgar Buckingham

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Landa, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    During 1902 to 1906 as a soil physicist at the USDA Bureau of Soils (BOS), Edgar Buckingham originated the concepts of matric potential, soil-water retention curves, specific water capacity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a distinct property of a soil. He applied a formula equivalent to Darcy's law (though without specific mention of Darcy's work) to unsaturated flow. He also contributed significant research on quasi-empirical formulas for K as a function of water content, water flow in capillary crevices and in thin films, and scaling. Buckingham's work on gas flow in soils produced paradigms that are consistent with our current understanding. His work on evaporation elucidated the concept of self-mulching and produced sound and sometimes paradoxical generalizations concerning conditions that favor or retard evaporation. Largely overshadowing those achievements, however, is that he launched a theory, still accepted today, that could predict transient water content as a function of time and space. Recently discovered documents reveal some of the arguments Buckingham had with BOS officials, including the text of a two-paragraph conclusion of his famous 1907 report on soil water, and the official letter documenting rejection of that text. Strained interpersonal relations motivated the departure of Buckingham and other brilliant physicists (N.E. Dorsey, F.H. King, and Lyman Briggs) from the BOS during 1903 to 1906. Given that Buckingham and his BOS colleagues had been rapidly developing the means of quantifying unsaturated flow, these strained relations probably slowed the advancement of unsaturated flow theory. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  13. Cochlear contributions to the precedence effect.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Sarah; Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Normal-hearing individuals have sharply tuned auditory filters, and consequently their basilar-membrane (BM) impulse responses (IRs) have durations of several ms at frequencies in the range from 0 to 5 kHz. When presenting clicks that are several ms apart, the BM IRs to the individual clicks will overlap in time, giving rise to complex interactions that have not been fully understood in the human cochlea. The perceptual consequences of these BM IR interactions are of interest as lead-lag click pairs are often used to study localization and the precedence effect. The present study aimed at characterizing perceptual consequences of BM IR interactions in individual listeners based on click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Lag suppression, denoting the level difference between the CEOAE or wave-V response amplitude evoked by the first and the second clicks, was observed for inter-click intervals (ICIs) between 1 and 4 ms. Behavioral correlates of lag suppression were obtained for the same individuals by investigating the percept of the lead-lag click pairs presented either monaurally or binaurally. The click pairs were shown to give rise to fusion (i.e., the inability to hear out the second click in a lead-lag click pair), regardless of monaural or binaural presentation. In both cases, the ICI range where the percept was a fused image correlated well with the ICI range for which monaural lag suppression occurred in the CEOAE and ABR (i.e., for ICIs below 4.3 ms). Furthermore, the lag suppression observed in the wave-V amplitudes to binaural stimulation did not show additional contributions to the lag suppression obtained monaurally, suggesting that peripheral lag suppression up to the level of the brainstem is dominant in the perception of the precedence effect.

  14. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ranhel, André Silva; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2016-01-01

    The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons. PMID:27556317

  15. PNL CONTRIBUTIONS TO AMBIENS: DATA SUMMARY L CONTRIBUTIONS TO AMBIENS: DATA SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R. N.; Alkezweeny, A.; Hales, J. M.

    1980-11-01

    In October 1977, the Atmospheric Sciences Department of Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory participated in the Atmospheric Mass Balance of Industrially Emitted and Natural Sulfur (AMBIENS) experiment in southern Indiana . This experimental series was conducted as part of the inter-laboratory Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study (MAP3S). PNL's primary contribution to the AMBIENS program focused on airborne measurements with an instrumented DC-3 aircraft. This report summarizes the results of this work.

  16. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-4 - Contribution limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). (4) Coordination with designated Roth contributions. See regulations under section 402A for rules for determining whether an elective deferral is a pre-tax elective deferral or a designated Roth contribution....

  17. 5 CFR 890.1306 - Government premium contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1306 Section 890.1306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1306 Government premium contributions. The Secretary... family members. The government contribution toward demonstration project premium rates will be...

  18. 5 CFR 1620.12 - Employing authority contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to make employer contributions under 5 U.S.C. 8432(c) for employees who are covered under FERS. Such.... The employing authority can commence or terminate employer contributions at any time after...

  19. Contributions to Pursuit-Evasion Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyler, Dave Wilson

    is developed that requires minimal information and highlights a limitation of dominance regions. These contributions extend pursuit-evasion game theory to a number of games that have not previously been solved, and in some cases, the solutions presented are more amenable to implementation than previous methods.

  20. Contribution from pressure-sensitive adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Gilbert

    1996-03-01

    The successful use of many security papers, foils and films depends on the technology of chemical fastening systems -- especially pressure sensitive adhesives. These are adhesives activated not by heat or by the evaporation of water or some other solvent, but simply by the act of application -- by pressure. These adhesives provide the means whereby laminations, substrates and seals are made effective. In addition to their physical properties these adhesives are often required to possess optical properties to allow the security materials to be visibly active and indeed the adhesive system may itself contribute as a carrier for a variety of security materials. Recent advances in adhesives chemistry have made it possible to achieve virtually all the required physical performance characteristics combined with a choice of optical properties ranging from total opacity to invisibility and including controlled translucency and tinting. The implications for security printing and packaging are important. Opacity is easy to achieve, for example by loading the adhesive with aluminum powder, by the selection of totally opaque materials like metallized film or by various printing processes. But achieving transparency is a different matter, and transparency is mandatory for applications involving the protection of documents, photographs, etc. with a clear film over-laminate. Obvious examples would be for passports, visas and other personal identification. But some security devices may themselves require protection; for example holograms or embossings. And transparency in the test laboratory is not enough. The Australian driving licence is stuck to the windshield, so the transparency of the adhesive must be sustained over long periods without deterioration due to prolonged u/v exposure, climatic conditions or aging. The commercial label market has helped to push the technology forward. There is a strong demand for the 'no-label look' for packaging of clear plastic and glass

  1. Species decline: Contaminants and other contributing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Eisler, R.

    1998-01-01

    Members of over 1,200 taxa have been listed as Threatened or Endangered, and over 4,000 additional organisms have been identified as Candidate Species or Species of Concern. Identification of critical limiting factors may result in management actions that stabilize vulnerable populations and insure their perpetuation. Both naturally-occurring and anthropogenic activities (e.g., environmental contaminants and pollution) have been demonstrated to be a significant factor in depressing populations or catalyzing the final crash of some species. The objective of this project is to develop a synthesis document and database that lists and ranks the presumed causes of decline, with special emphasis on contaminants and pollutant-related situations. This will be accomplished by synoptic review of all recovery plans (n=479) with listing packages (n=1134) serving as a secondary source of information, followed by itemization, cross-referencing, enumeration, and ranking of contributing and limiting factors. To date we have analyzed all of the recovery plans for reptiles (n=26) and amphibians (n=6). 188 causes are defined, falling into 6 major categories: habitat alteration/availability (47.8%); exploitation/harvest (19.7%); introduction of exotic species (10.1%); contaminants (9.0%); miscellaneous others (6.9%); pollution (6.4%). The applicability of these data are extensive, including facilitating reviews of Section 7 consultations and Environmental Impact Statements, reviewing permit applications, conducting environmental contaminant risk assessments, identifying specific data gaps and research needs, selecting potential management actions, and establishing priorities for broad-based research on limiting factors applicable to groups of species rather than the current species-by-species approach. However. caution must be exercised in the use of this data because of the speculative nature of the causes; most of the causes (69.7%) are based on poorly documented expert opinion and

  2. Resolving the Brainstem Contributions to Attentional Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jonathan C.W.; Davies, Wendy-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Animal data indicate that the PAG acts via caudal brainstem structures to control nociception. We investigated this issue within an attentional analgesia paradigm with brainstem-optimized fMRI and analysis using a probabilistic brainstem atlas. We find pain intensity encoding in several forebrain structures, including the insula and attentional activation of the PAG. Discrete regions of the rostral ventromedial medulla bidirectionally influence pain perception, and locus coeruleus activity mirrors the interaction between attention and nociception. This approach has enabled the resolution of contributions from a hub of key brainstem structures to endogenous analgesia. PMID:28096471

  3. Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and Lamb shift

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M.I.

    1996-05-01

    Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and the Lamb shift in hydrogen and muonium are discussed. The problem of sign of the weak-interaction contribution to HFS is clarified, and simple physical arguments that make this sign evident are presented. It is shown that weak-interaction contributions to HFS in hydrogen and muonium have opposite signs. A weak-interaction contribution to the Lamb shift is obtained. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. 26 CFR 1.1502-24 - Consolidated charitable contributions deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consolidated return year shall consist of any excess consolidated charitable contributions of the group, plus any excess charitable contributions of members of the group arising in separate return years of such... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated charitable contributions...

  5. 26 CFR 1.408A-5 - Recharacterized contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution (as described in section 408(d)(3)(A)(i)), is contributed to a Roth IRA in the next taxable year... Roth IRA is worth $80,000, Taxpayer A makes a $160,000 conversion contribution to the Roth IRA. Subsequently, Taxpayer A discovers that she was ineligible to make a Roth conversion contribution in 2004...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For...

  11. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Military Service § 1620.42 Processing TSP contribution elections. (a) Current contribution election. If the... employee files a new contribution election. If the employee separated to perform military service, he or... on file when he or she separated or entered nonpay status to perform military service, that...

  12. 78 FR 68735 - Reduction or Suspension of Safe Harbor Contributions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI64 Reduction or Suspension of Safe Harbor Contributions... guidance on permitted mid-year reductions or suspensions of safe harbor nonelective contributions in... requirements for permitted mid-year reductions or suspensions of safe harbor matching contributions for...

  13. 7 CFR 1485.21 - Failure to make required contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required contribution. An MAP participant's contribution requirement will be specified in the MAP.... The MAP participant shall pay to CCC in dollars the difference between the amount actually contributed and the amount specified in the allocation approval letter. An MAP participant shall remit...

  14. 7 CFR 1485.21 - Failure to make required contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required contribution. An MAP participant's contribution requirement will be specified in the MAP.... The MAP participant shall pay to CCC in dollars the difference between the amount actually contributed and the amount specified in the allocation approval letter. An MAP participant shall remit...

  15. 26 CFR 1.408A-5 - Recharacterized contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distribution (as described in section 408(d)(3)(A)(i)), is contributed to a Roth IRA in the next taxable year... Roth IRA is worth $80,000, Taxpayer A makes a $160,000 conversion contribution to the Roth IRA. Subsequently, Taxpayer A discovers that she was ineligible to make a Roth conversion contribution in 2004...

  16. 26 CFR 1.408A-5 - Recharacterized contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distribution (as described in section 408(d)(3)(A)(i)), is contributed to a Roth IRA in the next taxable year... Roth IRA is worth $80,000, Taxpayer A makes a $160,000 conversion contribution to the Roth IRA. Subsequently, Taxpayer A discovers that she was ineligible to make a Roth conversion contribution in 2004...

  17. 26 CFR 1.408A-5 - Recharacterized contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distribution (as described in section 408(d)(3)(A)(i)), is contributed to a Roth IRA in the next taxable year... Roth IRA is worth $80,000, Taxpayer A makes a $160,000 conversion contribution to the Roth IRA. Subsequently, Taxpayer A discovers that she was ineligible to make a Roth conversion contribution in 2004...

  18. 26 CFR 1.408A-5 - Recharacterized contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distribution (as described in section 408(d)(3)(A)(i)), is contributed to a Roth IRA in the next taxable year... Roth IRA is worth $80,000, Taxpayer A makes a $160,000 conversion contribution to the Roth IRA. Subsequently, Taxpayer A discovers that she was ineligible to make a Roth conversion contribution in 2004...

  19. An Examination of University Student-Athletes' Motivations to Contribute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Colin Jeffery; Camiré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Little research has examined why student-athletes contribute. "Contribution" can be defined as the actions taken by individuals that benefit their own well-being or that of their family, community, and civil society. The purpose of this study was to examine university student-athletes' motivations to contribute. Interviews were conducted…

  20. Some NASA contributions to human factors engineering: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behan, R. A.; Wendhausen, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    This survey presents the NASA contributions to the state of the art of human factors engineering, and indicates that these contributions have a variety of applications to nonaerospace activities. Emphasis is placed on contributions relative to man's sensory, motor, decisionmaking, and cognitive behavior and on applications that advance human factors technology.

  1. 5 CFR 890.1306 - Government premium contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government premium contributions. 890... Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1306 Government premium contributions. The Secretary of Defense is responsible for the government contribution for enrolled eligible beneficiaries...

  2. 5 CFR 890.1306 - Government premium contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government premium contributions. 890... Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1306 Government premium contributions. The Secretary of Defense is responsible for the government contribution for enrolled eligible beneficiaries...

  3. 5 CFR 890.1306 - Government premium contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government premium contributions. 890... Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1306 Government premium contributions. The Secretary of Defense is responsible for the government contribution for enrolled eligible beneficiaries...

  4. 5 CFR 890.1306 - Government premium contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government premium contributions. 890... Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1306 Government premium contributions. The Secretary of Defense is responsible for the government contribution for enrolled eligible beneficiaries...

  5. 26 CFR 1.704-4 - Distribution of contributed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.704-4 Distribution of contributed property. (a) Determination of gain and loss—(1) In general. A partner that contributes section... section on the distribution of such property to another partner within five years of its contribution...

  6. 47 CFR 54.633 - Health care provider contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health care provider contribution. 54.633... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.633 Health care provider contribution. (a) Health care provider contribution. All health...

  7. 47 CFR 54.633 - Health care provider contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health care provider contribution. 54.633... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.633 Health care provider contribution. (a) Health care provider contribution. All health...

  8. 12 CFR 701.25 - Charitable contributions and donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charitable contributions and donations. 701.25... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.25 Charitable contributions and donations. (a) A... directors must approve charitable contributions and/or donations, and the approval must be based on...

  9. 48 CFR 31.205-8 - Contributions or donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions or donations. 31.205-8 Section 31.205-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-8 Contributions or donations. Contributions or donations, including cash, property...

  10. 34 CFR 690.13 - Notification of expected family contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of expected family contribution. 690.13 Section 690.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Determining Expected Family Contribution § 690.13 Notification of expected family contribution. The...

  11. 76 FR 18490 - Contributions to the Telecommunications Relay Service Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1 and 64 Contributions to the Telecommunications Relay Service Fund AGENCY: Federal...- interconnected VoIP service to participate in and contribute to the Telecommunications Relay Services (TRS) Fund... summary of the Commission's Contributions to the Telecommunications Relay Service Fund, Notice of...

  12. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest on voluntary contributions. 831.405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.405 Interest on voluntary contributions....

  13. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest on voluntary contributions. 831.405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.405 Interest on voluntary contributions....

  14. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest on voluntary contributions. 831.405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.405 Interest on voluntary contributions....

  15. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest on voluntary contributions. 831.405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.405 Interest on voluntary contributions....

  16. Dysregulation of Autophagy Contributes to Anal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carchman, Evie H.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Meske, Louise; Lambert, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients. We hypothesize that autophagy is inhibited by HPV–encoded oncoproteins thereby promoting anal carcinogenesis (Fig 1). Materials and Methods HPV16 transgenic mice (K14E6/E7) and non-transgenic mice (FVB/N), both of which do not spontaneously develop anal tumors, were treated topically with the chemical carcinogen, 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), to induce anal cancer. The anuses at different time points of treatment (5, 10, 15 and 20 weeks) were analyzed using immunofluorescence (IF) for two key autophagy marker proteins (LC3β and p62) in addition to histological grading. The anuses from the K14E6/E7 mice were also analyzed for visual evidence of autophagic activity by electron microscopy (EM). To see if there was a correlation to humans, archival anal specimens were assessed histologically for grade of dysplasia and then analyzed for LC3β and p62 protein content. To more directly examine the effect of autophagic inhibition on anal carcinogenesis, nontransgenic mice that do not develop anal cancer with DMBA treatment were treated with a known pharmacologic inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, and examined for tumor development and analyzed by IF for autophagic proteins. Results Histologically, we observed the progression of normal anoderm to invasive SCC with DMBA treatment in K14E6/E7 mice but not in nontransgenic

  17. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  18. Wildfire contribution to world-wide desertification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Wittenberg, L.; Bautista, S.; Ffolliott, P.

    2009-04-01

    a three-year period (2003 - 2005). In 2005, 338,262 ha of forest land burned. This was a 77% increase over the 10-year burn average of 189,500 ha. Desertification is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function, biological productivity, and other ecosystem services as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects one third of the earth's surface and over a billion people. In the past, desertification was considered a problem of only arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas. However, humid zones can undergo desertification with the wrong combination of human impacts. The Amazon region is an example of where forest harvesting, shifting cut and burn agriculture, and large-scale grazing are producing desertification of a tropical rain forest on a large scale. Some of the environmental consequences of wildfires are vegetation destruction, plant species and type shifts, exotic plant invasions, wildlife habitat destruction, soil erosion, floods, watershed function decline, water supply disruption, and air pollution. All of these are immediate impacts. Some impacts will persist beyond the careers and lifetimes of individuals. Small, isolated areas do not produce noticeable desertification. But, the cumulative effect of multiple, large area, and adjacent fires can be landscape-level desertification. This paper examines wildfire contributions to desertification in regions of the world that are prone to wildfire and climate change.

  19. Contributions to the understanding of gait control.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Erik Bruun

    2014-04-01

    the gastrocnemius already before heel strike and before the onset of EMG activity in the same two muscles and with a relatively high activity in the anterior tibial muscle, but this was most pronounced in the soleus. The H-reflex was always higher in the soleus also when expressed as percentage of the maximal M-wave. This is due to the difference in muscle fiber type distribution between the two muscles. The H-reflex increased from walking to running in both muscles and further with increasing running speed. Unexpectedly, there were no signs of the faster gastrocnemius becoming more important at higher running speed. During walking it is not possible to observe a stretch reflex in the form of a synchronized activation of a large number of muscle fibers as this would disturb the movement pattern. It is rather likely that the input from Ia afferents directly contributes to activate the α-motoneurones. However, during running the stance phase is much shorter, which enables the possibility of a stretch reflex to contribute to a strong contraction during push-off. EMG peaks in the soleus with an appropriate latency were observed in the soleus during running. This was not the case with the gastrocnemius and the explanation is most likely that the gastrocnemius is biarticular and not stretched to any great extent during running.

  20. Contribution of Systematic Reviews to Management Decisions

    PubMed Central

    COOK, CARLY N; POSSINGHAM, HUGH P; FULLER, RICHARD A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Contribuciones de las Revisiones Sistemáticas a las

  1. Measurement of CP Content and Time-Dependent CP Violation in B0 → D*+D*- Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jacob M.

    2008-12-01

    This dissertation presents the measurement of the Cp-odd fraction and time-dependent CP violation parameters for the B0 → D*+ D*- decay. These results are based on the full BABAR dataset of (467 ± 5) x 106 B$\\bar{B}$ pairs collected at the PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. An angular analysis finds that the CP-odd fraction of the B0 →D*+ D*- decay is Rperpendicular = 0.158 ± 0.028 ± 0.006, where the first uncertainty is statistical, and the second is systematic. A fit to the flavor-tagged, time-dependent, angular decay rate yields C+ = 0.02 ± 0.12 ± 0.02; Cperpendicular = 0.41 ± 0.50 ± 0.08; S+ = -0.76 ± 0.16 ± 0.04; S perpendicular = -1.81 ± 0.71 ± 0.16, for the CP-odd (perpendicular) and CP-even (plus) contributions. Constraining these two contributions to be the same results in C = 0.047 ± 0.091 ± 0.019; S = -0.71 ± 0.16 ± 0.03. These measurements are consistent with the Standard Model and with measurements of sin2β from B0 → (c$\\bar{c}$)K0 decays.

  2. Contributions of GRACE to Climate Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Famiglietti, James; Chambers, Don P.; Wahr, John

    2011-01-01

    western Antarctica. For 2002 to present, the rate of ice mass loss has been 200 to 300 GT/yr in Greenland and 70 to 210 GT/yr in Antarctica, and some scientists are suggesting that the rates are accelerating. Similarly, GRACE has been used to monitor mass changes in alpine glaciers. Tamisiea et al. first characterized glacier melt along the southern coast of Alaska, more recently estimated to be occurring at a rate of 84 GT/yr. Chen et al. estimated that Patagonian glaciers are melting at a rate of 28 GT/yr, and estimated that the high mountains of central Asia lose ice at a rate of 47 GT/yr. Tapley et al. and Wahr et al. presented the first GRACE based estimates of changes in column-integrated terrestrial water storage (TWS; the sum of ground-water, soil moisture, surface waters, snow, ice, and water stored in vegetation) at continental scales. Since then, dozens of studies have shown that GRACE based estimates of regional to continental scale TWS variations agree with independent information, and some innovative uses of GRACE data have been developed. Rodell et al. (2004) and Swenson and Wahr (2006) demonstrated that by combining GRACE derived terrestrial water storage changes with observations of precipitation and runoff in a river basin scale water budget, it was possible to produce new estimates of evapotranspiration and atmospheric moisture convergence, essential climate variables that are difficult to estimate accurately. Similarly, GRACE has been used to constrain estimates of global river discharge and the contribution of changes in TWS to sea level rise. Crowley et al. observed a negative correlation between interannual TWS anomalies in the Amazon and the Congo River basin. Yeh et al. and Rodell et al. estimated regionally averaged groundwater storage variations based on GRACE and auxiliary observations. Rodell et al. and Tiwari et al. applied that method to quantify massive groundwater depletion in northern India caused by over reliance on aquifers for irration

  3. Estimating areas contributing recharge to wells, lessons from previous studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, T.E.; Pollock, D.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Factors relating to the estimation of areas contributing recharge to wells, such as complexity of the ground-water flow system, effects of changing hydrologic conditions, and effects of well-screen locations and pumping rates, are reviewed. The point of view that simulation is the best means to obtain physically based estimates of contributing areas is emphasized. An extensive list of USGS reports that include estimation of contributing areas is provided.

  4. Charming penguin contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi}

    SciTech Connect

    Isola, C.; Ladisa, M.; Nardulli, G.; Pham, T. N.; Santorelli, P.

    2001-07-01

    We present calculations of the charming-penguin long-distance contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi} decays due to intermediate charmed meson states. Our calculation is based on the chiral effective Lagrangian for light and heavy mesons, corrected for the hard pion and kaon momenta. We find that the charming-penguin contributions increase significantly the B{r_arrow}K{pi} decay rates in comparison with the short-distance contributions, giving results in better agreement with experimental data.

  5. Contributions from Women to the Radiation Sciences: A Brief History.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Nicole E

    2017-04-01

    Contributions from men to radiation science are well known, particularly the early contributions from such luminaries as William Roentgen, James Chadwick, Niels Bohr, Robert Oppenheimer, and the like. Although not ignored per se, beyond Marie Curie and Lise Meitner, the contributions of female nuclear scientists are not as widely recognized. This paper provides a concise historical summary of contributions to radiation science from the discovery of radiation through the current status of international leadership within the radiation protection community. Beyond lead scientists and academics, this paper also considers support personnel as well as the role women have played in the advancement of radiation epidemiology.

  6. B. F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew…

  7. 11 CFR 115.6 - Employee contributions or expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee contributions or expenditures. 115.6... contributions or expenditures. Nothing in this part shall prohibit the stockholders, officers, or employees of a... organization, labor organization, or other group or organization which is a Federal contractor from...

  8. A "Spreadsheet Approach" for Monitoring Faculty Intellectual Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scroggins, William; Gooding, Carl; Cobb, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Sufficiency of faculty intellectual contributions (IC's) is a critical aspect in preparing for the initial AACSB International accreditation or reaffirmation of a business program. School administrators are confronted with the task of making sure business faculty achieve adequate intellectual contributions. To have a successful Peer Review Team…

  9. 26 CFR 1.704-3 - Contributed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.704-3 Contributed property. (a) In general—(1... partners with respect to precontribution gain or loss. Under section 704(c), a partnership must allocate income, gain, loss, and deduction with respect to property contributed by a partner to the partnership...

  10. 26 CFR 1.704-4 - Distribution of contributed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.704-4 Distribution of contributed property... distribution of such property to another partner within five years of its contribution to the partnership in an...) and § 1.704-3 if the distributed property had been sold by the partnership to the distributee...

  11. Training in Counseling Psychology: An Introduction to the Major Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Charles R.; Mollen, Debra

    2011-01-01

    This Major Contribution, consisting of four articles, critically evaluates the status of training in counseling psychology, especially at the entry level, and offers a model for moving the field forward. In this first article, we provide a rationale for the contribution, laying the foundation for the subsequent three articles. Specifically, we ask…

  12. John Nelson Darby: His Contributions to Evangelical Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Winston Terrance

    2010-01-01

    The study reported in this article focused on the contributions of John Nelson Derby to biblical hermeneutics and contemporary eschatological thought. Darby continues to exert a great influence on Christianity, particularly conservative evangelical Christianity. This research provides a discussion of Darby's contributions to contemporary…

  13. Arab Contributions to World Knowledge: A Contemporary Curriculum Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Lucking, Robert

    2015-01-01

    American K-12 school curricula are often bereft of acknowledgements of the historical contributions of Arab societies to our present-day intellectual heritage, an oversight most apparent in the sciences. Teachers in a thriving democracy are obliged to introduce contemporary scholarship that reflects the contributions of Arab scientists between the…

  14. 7 CFR 1400.7 - Commensurate contributions and risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commensurate contributions and risk. 1400.7 Section 1400.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... contributions and risk. (a) In order to be considered eligible to receive payments under the programs...

  15. 26 CFR 1.362-2 - Certain contributions to capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... motivating the contribution; (b) In the case of an excess of the amount of money contributed over the cost of.... Variations from such rule may, for example, involve adjusting the basis of only certain units of the taxpayer's property within a given category. A request for variations from the general rule should be...

  16. 34 CFR 690.13 - Notification of expected family contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification of expected family contribution. 690.13 Section 690.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... for Determining Expected Family Contribution § 690.13 Notification of expected family...

  17. Exploring the Contribution of Virtual Worlds to Learning in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jessica; D'Souza, Derrick; Du, Yunfei

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing interest of business executives, there is limited academic research on the contributions of virtual worlds to learning in organizations. We address this limitation by using a recently developed typology of virtual world capabilities to investigate the potential contributions of virtual worlds to learning in organizations.…

  18. Supporting and Structuring "Contributing Student Pedagogy" in Computer Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkner, Katrina; Falkner, Nickolas J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Contributing student pedagogy (CSP) builds upon social constructivist and community-based learning principles to create engaging and productive learning experiences. What makes CSP different from other, related, learning approaches is that it involves students both learning from and also explicitly valuing the contributions of other students. The…

  19. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure...

  20. 42 CFR 35.62 - Acceptance of contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance of contributions. 35.62 Section 35.62 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.62 Acceptance...

  1. 42 CFR 35.62 - Acceptance of contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance of contributions. 35.62 Section 35.62 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.62 Acceptance...

  2. 42 CFR 35.62 - Acceptance of contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance of contributions. 35.62 Section 35.62 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.62 Acceptance...

  3. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure...

  4. 77 FR 28476 - Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... investment adviser would meet the definition of ``covered associate.'' \\4\\ \\1\\ Political Contributions by... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 275 Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers AGENCY: Securities and... Commission (``Commission'') is making a technical amendment to the definition of ``covered associate''...

  5. 20 CFR 345.304 - New-employer contribution rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contribution with respect to compensation paid in calendar months before the end of the first full calendar... employers during the three calendar years preceding the calendar year before the calendar year in which the... contributions paid by all employers during those three calendar years by the aggregate compensation with...

  6. 20 CFR 345.304 - New-employer contribution rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contribution with respect to compensation paid in calendar months before the end of the first full calendar... employers during the three calendar years preceding the calendar year before the calendar year in which the... contributions paid by all employers during those three calendar years by the aggregate compensation with...

  7. Contributions to College Costs by Married, Divorced, and Remarried Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Ruth N. Lopez; Desmond, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Using parent interview data from a subsample of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS), the authors compared the financial contributions of married, divorced, and remarried parents toward their children's college education and found that although divorced parents contributed significantly less than married parents, remarried parents…

  8. Darwin's contributions to our understanding of emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Paul

    2009-12-12

    Darwin charted the field of emotional expressions with five major contributions. Possible explanations of why he was able to make such important and lasting contributions are proposed. A few of the important questions that he did not consider are described. Two of those questions have been answered at least in part; one remains a major gap in our understanding of emotion.

  9. Beauty and physics: 13 important contributions of Chen Ning Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research.

  10. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  11. Darwin's contributions to our understanding of emotional expressions

    PubMed Central

    Ekman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Darwin charted the field of emotional expressions with five major contributions. Possible explanations of why he was able to make such important and lasting contributions are proposed. A few of the important questions that he did not consider are described. Two of those questions have been answered at least in part; one remains a major gap in our understanding of emotion. PMID:19884139

  12. 10 CFR 603.555 - Value of other contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Value of other contributions. 603.555 Section 603.555 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.555 Value of other contributions. For types of...

  13. 5 CFR 846.402 - Refunds of all CSRS contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refunds of all CSRS contributions. 846.402 Section 846.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-ELECTIONS OF COVERAGE Refunds of CSRS Contributions § 846.402 Refunds of all...

  14. 5 CFR 1605.12 - Removal of erroneous contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (1) To remove money from a participant's account, the employing agency must submit, for each... the employing agency. Earnings on the erroneous contribution will remain in the participant's account... under the rules set forth in this section, the earnings attributable to those contributions will...

  15. 20 CFR 410.395 - Contributions and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions and support. 410.395 Section 410.395 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.395 Contributions...

  16. 20 CFR 410.395 - Contributions and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contributions and support. 410.395 Section 410.395 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.395 Contributions...

  17. 76 FR 65965 - Contributions to the Telecommunications Relay Services Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1 and 64 Contributions to the Telecommunications Relay Services Fund AGENCY: Federal... contributing to the interstate Telecommunications Relay Services (TRS) Fund in a manner prescribed by... to the Telecommunications Relay Service Fund, Report and Order (Order), document FCC 11-150,...

  18. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure of... the actual obligation or expenditure of such monies. (b) Only those officers or employees...

  19. 5 CFR 831.404 - Procedure for making voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for making voluntary contributions. 831.404 Section 831.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... voluntary contributions to the Office of Personnel Management, at the address designated for that...

  20. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. 831.406 Section 831.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.406 Withdrawal of...