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Sample records for crab nebula supernova

  1. EVOLUTION OF THE CRAB NEBULA IN A LOW ENERGY SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haifeng; Chevalier, Roger A. E-mail: rac5x@virginia.edu

    2015-06-20

    The nature of the supernova leading to the Crab Nebula has long been controversial because of the low energy that is present in the observed nebula. One possibility is that there is significant energy in extended fast material around the Crab but searches for such material have not led to detections. An electron capture supernova model can plausibly account for the low energy and the observed abundances in the Crab. Here, we examine the evolution of the Crab pulsar wind nebula inside a freely expanding supernova and find that the observed properties are most consistent with a low energy event. Both the velocity and radius of the shell material, and the amount of gas swept up by the pulsar wind point to a low explosion energy (∼10{sup 50} erg). We do not favor a model in which circumstellar interaction powers the supernova luminosity near maximum light because the required mass would limit the freely expanding ejecta.

  2. Evolution of the Crab Nebula in a Low Energy Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haifeng; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2015-06-01

    The nature of the supernova leading to the Crab Nebula has long been controversial because of the low energy that is present in the observed nebula. One possibility is that there is significant energy in extended fast material around the Crab but searches for such material have not led to detections. An electron capture supernova model can plausibly account for the low energy and the observed abundances in the Crab. Here, we examine the evolution of the Crab pulsar wind nebula inside a freely expanding supernova and find that the observed properties are most consistent with a low energy event. Both the velocity and radius of the shell material, and the amount of gas swept up by the pulsar wind point to a low explosion energy (∼1050 erg). We do not favor a model in which circumstellar interaction powers the supernova luminosity near maximum light because the required mass would limit the freely expanding ejecta.

  3. The Hubble Heritage Image of the Crab Nebula Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, W. P.; English, J.; Bond, H. E.; Christian, C. A.; Frattare, L.; Hamilton, F.; Levay, Z.; Noll, K. S.

    2000-05-01

    The Hubble Heritage Project has the aim of providing the public with pictorially striking images of celestial objects obtained with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Here we present a 5-color Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) image of the Crab Nebula, a ~950 year old supernova remnant located 6500 light-years distant in the constellation Taurus. The images were obtained in 1995 January and April, and the science investigation reporting results was published by Blair, W. P., et al. (1997, ApJS, 109, 473--480). Over 10 hours of exposure time through 5 separate optical continuum band and emission-line filters were used to study size scales and ionization structures of the filaments and newly synthesized dust within the expanding ejecta. The Heritage version of these data shows several important aspects of the Crab Nebula all in one spectacular image. The continuum image shows stars, including the enigmatic pulsar (the collapsed core of the original star) and the ghostly diffuse synchrotron nebula energized by the pulsar. The synchrotron nebula in turn heats and ionizes the surrounding clumpy filaments of gas and dust visible in the emission line images. These filaments are the supernova ejecta that were expelled during the explosion and are now expanding outward from the pulsar at high speed. The different colors in the picture show optical emission lines of hydrogen (orange), nitrogen (red), sulfur (pink) and oxygen (bluish-green). The subtle changes in color from one filament to the next arise because of varying temperatures and densities of the gas, and variable chemical abundances of the ``star stuff," or the doppler shifting of emission into or out of the various narrow filter bandpasses. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers GO-07632.01-96A and GO-5354.04-93A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  4. The Crab Nebula's progenitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomoto, K.; Sugimoto, D.; Sparks, W. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Gull, T. R.; Miyaji, S.

    1982-01-01

    The initial mass of the Crab Nebula's progenitor star is estimated by comparing the observed nebular chemical abundances with detailed evolutionary calculations for 2.4- and 2.6-solar-mass helium cores of stars with masses of 8 to 10 solar masses. The results indicate that the mass of the Crab's progenitor was between the upper limit of about 8 solar masses for carbon deflagration and the lower limit of about 9.5 solar masses set by the dredge-up of the helium layer before the development of the helium-burning convective region. A scenario is outlined for the evolution of the progenitor star. It is suggested that the Crab Nebula was probably the product of an electron-capture supernova.

  5. The origin of the Crab Nebula and the electron capture supernova in 8-10 M solar mass stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomoto, K.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Crab Nebula is compared with several presupernova models. The small carbon and oxygen abundances in the helium-rich nebula are consistent with only the presupernova model of the star whose main sequence mass was MMS approximately 8-9.5 M. More massive stars contain too much carbon in the helium layer and smaller mass stars do not leave neutron stars. The progenitor star of the Crab Nebula lost appreciable part of the hydrogen-rich envelope before the hydrogen-rich and helium layers were mixed by convection. Finally it exploded as the electron capture supernova; the O+Ne+Mg core collapsed to form a neutron star and only the extended helium-rich envelope was ejected by the weak shock wave.

  6. Observations of discrete gamma ray sources with SAS-2. [compact sources centered on Crab nebula and Vela X supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    Compact gamma ray sources centered on the Crab nebula and the Vela X supernova remnant are considered. An excess in the galactic radiation was observed in both regions. Data indicate that a large fraction of this flux is pulsed. The excess from the Vela region could reflect either a large-scale galactic feature, such as a superposition of spiral arm segments, or it could be associated with the Vela supernova remnant. Low-energy gamma ray bursts were observed in the SAS-2 anticoincidence shielding.

  7. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA (color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This colorful photo shows a ground-based image of the entire Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion witnessed over 900 years ago. The nebula, which is 10 light-years across, is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. The green, yellow and red filaments concentrated toward the edges of the nebula are remnants of the star that were ejected into space by the explosion. At the center of the Crab Nebula lies the Crab Pulsar -- the collapsed core of the exploded star. The Crab Pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star -- an object only about six miles across, but containing more mass than our Sun. As it rotates at a rate of 30 times per second the Crab Pulsar's powerful magnetic field sweeps around, accelerating particles, and whipping them out into the nebula at speeds close to that of light. The blue glow in the inner part of the nebula -- light emitted by energetic electrons as they spiral through the Crab's magnetic field -- is powered by the Crab Pulsar. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  8. The Crab Nebula: A Flickering X-ray Candle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Crab Nebula, created by a supernova seen nearly a thousand years ago, is one of the sky's most famous "star wrecks." For decades, most astronomers have regarded it as the steadiest beacon at X-...

  9. The Great Crab Nebula Superflare

    NASA Video Gallery

    There are strange goings-on in the Crab Nebula. On April 12, 2011, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected the most powerful in a series of gamma-ray flares occurring somewhere within the s...

  10. Peculair Abundances in the Crab Nebula's Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.

    Investigations into the elemental abundances of supernova remnants can provide invaluable information concerning the properties of the progenitor star as well as details of stellar nucleosynthesis. In this regard, the Crab Nebula is especially useful, it being the youngest supernova remnant observable with IUE. Despite being fairly heavily reddened, UV emission-lines from its filaments have been successfully obtained many times early in the history of IUE. These UV spectra provided important and unique data for determining elemental composition of the filamentary ejecta, especially for C, N, and O. Analysis of these data by Davidson et al (1982) indicated nearly solar C/O and N/O ratios despite the large general enrichment of helium in the remnant. Although not realized at the time, there is considerable recent evidence which indicates that significant abundance variations do exist among the filaments. The strongest anomalies in composition are puzzlingly confined to a few relatively bright northern filaments which exhibit nearly solar He abundance yet show possibly large Ni enrichment. If we hope to understand the elemental composition of remnants in general and the Crab Nebula in particular, we then need to determine the composition of these peculiar filaments and to what extent they differ from the rest of the remnant. Towards that goal, we therefore propose to obtain IUE low dispersion SWP spectra on the brightest of these peculiar filaments where we have already obtained matching optical data. Analysis will follow that of Davidson el al but with much more detailed photoionization models for the Crab already developed by us. These data should help determine the true range of abundances present in the Crab's filamentary ejecta.

  11. The Importance of Physical Models for Deriving Dust Masses and Grain Size Distributions in Supernova Ejecta. I. Radiatively Heated Dust in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 Solar Mass, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 micron. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  12. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli

    2013-09-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  13. The Crab Nebula: The gift that keeps on giving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, J. Jeff

    2001-05-01

    In many ways the Crab Nebula is the object that started off the study of supernova remnants, yet hundreds of years after its discovery it is still poorly understood in many respects. Recently, a number of observational and theoretical results have shed new light on longstanding questions and misconceptions about the Crab. We are taught in graduate school that the Crab is a freely expanding ejecta-dominated remnant, with the slight added complication that it contains a pulsar and synchrotron nebula. This conception of the Crab is incorrect. Instead, when we think of the Crab we should think first of the powerful and dynamic axisymmetric wind from an energetic pulsar as it powers a high pressure synchrotron nebula. That synchrotron nebula is sweeping up and concentrating thermal ejecta into dense, complex Rayleigh-Taylor filaments as it pushes its way out through a large, freely expanding remnant. This larger remnant is all but unseen, but probably carries the bulk of the mass and kinetic energy from the explosion. Every aspect of the visible Crab-from its overall size and shape, to the complex structure of its filaments, to the highly dynamical structure at its heart-is a direct result of the action of the wind from the Crab pulsar. .

  14. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera.

    The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  15. ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Satterfield, Timothy J.; Katz, Andrea M.; Sibley, Adam R.; MacAlpine, Gordon M.; Uomoto, Alan

    2012-07-15

    Images of the Crab Nebula have been obtained through custom interference filters that transmit emission from the expanding supernova remnant in He II {lambda}4686, H{beta}, He I {lambda}5876, [O I] {lambda}{lambda}6300, 6364, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548, 6583, [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6716, 6731, [S III] {lambda}9069, and [C I] {lambda}{lambda}9823, 9850. We present both raw and flux-calibrated emission-line images. Arrays of 19,440 photoionization models, with extensive input abundance ranges, were matched pixel by pixel to the calibrated data in order to derive corresponding element abundance or mass-fraction distributions for helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. These maps show distinctive structure, and they illustrate regions of gas in which various stages of nucleosynthesis have apparently occurred, including the CNO cycle, helium burning, carbon burning, and oxygen burning. It is hoped that the calibrated observations and chemical abundance distribution maps will be useful for developing a better understanding of the precursor star evolution and the supernova explosive process.

  16. Magnetic dissipation in the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic dissipation is frequently invoked as a way of powering the observed emission of relativistic flows in Gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei. Pulsar Wind Nebulae provide closer to home cosmic laboratories which can be used to test the hypothesis. To this end, we reanalyze the observational data on the spindown power of the Crab pulsar, energetics of the Crab nebula and its magnetic field. We show that unless the magnetic inclination angle of the Crab pulsar is very close to 90 degrees the overall magnetization of the striped wind after total dissipation of its stripes is significantly higher than that deduced in the Kennel-Coroniti model and recent axisymmetric simulations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae. On the other hand, higher wind magnetization is in conflict with the observed low magnetic field of the Crab nebula, unless it is subject to efficient dissipation inside the nebula as well. For the likely inclination angle of 45 degrees the data require magnetic dissipation on the time-scale of about 80 years, which is short compared to the lifetime of the nebula but long compared to the time-scale of Crab's gamma-ray flares.

  17. Monitoring the Crab Nebula with LOFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2008-2010, the Crab Nebula was found to decline by 7% in the 15-50 keV band, consistently in Fermi GBM, INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEMX, RXTE PCA, and Swift BAT. From 2001-2010, the 15-50 keV flux from the Crab Nebula typically varied by about 3.5% per year. Analysis of RXTE PCA data suggests possible spectral variations correlated with the flux variations. I will present estimates of the LOFT sensitivity to these variations. Prior to 2001 and since 2010, the observed flux variations have been much smaller. Monitoring the Crab with the LOFT WFM and LAD will provide precise measurements of flux variations in the Crab Nebula if it undergoes a similarly active episode.

  18. A large bubble around the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.; Reach, William T.; Koo, Bon Chul; Heiles, Carl

    1990-01-01

    IRAS and 21 cm observations of the interstellar medium around the Crab nebula show evidence of a large bubble surrounded by a partial shell. If located at the canonical 2 kpc distance of the Crab pulsar, the shell is estimated to have a radius of about 90 pc and to contain about 50,000 solar masses of swept-up gas. The way in which interior conditions of this bubble can have important implications for observations of the Crab are described, and the fashion in which presupernova evolution of the pulsar progenitor has affected its local environment is described.

  19. Search for excess showers from Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirov, I. N.; Stamenov, J. N.; Ushev, S. Z.; Janminchev, V. D.; Aseikin, V. S.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nikolskaja, N. M.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Morozov, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival directions of muon poor showers registrated in the Tien Shan experiment during an effective running time about I,8.IO(4)h were analyzed. It is shown that there is a significant excess of these showers coming the direction of Crab Nebula.

  20. A shadowed flow in the stem of the Crab nebula?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, P.; Roberts, D.

    1985-01-01

    The faint radio and emission line 'jet' outward from the northern boundary of the Crab Nebula which appears as a neat right cylinder is modelled here as the convected margin of a gas cloud that accidentially cast its shallow across the nearly ballistic flow of the stellar envelope ejected in the supernova explosion. It is shown that this model is consistent with known data on the jet, and that it accounts for the strikingly regular geometrical features in a natural way. In contrast, flow instability models do not easily result in so neat a cylinder.

  1. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This picture shows a Hubble Space Telescope image of the inner parts of the Crab. The pulsar itself is visible as the left of the pair of stars near the center of the frame. Surrounding the pulsar is a complex of sharp knots and wisp-like features. This image is one of a sequence of Hubble images taken over the course of several months. This sequence shows that the inner part of the Crab Nebula is far more dynamic than previously understood. The Crab literally 'changes it stripes' every few days as these wisps stream away from the pulsar at half the speed of light. The Hubble Space Telescope photo was taken Nov. 5, 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 at a wavelength of around 550 nanometers, in the middle of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  2. A HYPERSPECTRAL VIEW OF THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Charlebois, M.; Drissen, L.; Bernier, A.-P.; Grandmont, F.; Binette, L. E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.c

    2010-05-15

    We have obtained spatially resolved spectra of the Crab nebula in the spectral ranges 450-520 nm and 650-680 nm, encompassing the H{beta}, [O III] {lambda}4959, {lambda}5007, H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}6548, {lambda}6584, and [S II] {lambda}6717, {lambda}6731 emission lines, with the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SpIOMM at the Observatoire du Mont-Megantic's 1.6 m telescope. We first compare our data with published observations obtained either from a Fabry-Perot interferometer or from a long-slit spectrograph. Using a spectral deconvolution technique similar to the one developed by Cadez et al., we identify and resolve multiple emission lines separated by large Doppler shifts and contained within the rapidly expanding filamentary structure of the Crab. This allows us to measure important line ratios, such as [N II]/H{alpha}, [S II]/H{alpha}, and [S II] {lambda}6717 /[S II] {lambda}6731 of individual filaments, providing a new insight on the SE-NW asymmetry in the Crab. From our analysis of the spatial distribution of the electronic density and of the respective shocked versus photoionized gas components, we deduce that the skin-less NW region must have evolved faster than the rest of the nebula. Assuming a very simple expansion model for the ejecta material, our data provide us with a complete tridimensional view of the Crab.

  3. OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB NEBULA'S ASYMMETRICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, A. M.; Desch, S. J.; Scowen, P. A.; Foy, J. P.

    2013-03-10

    We present the first Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 imaging survey of the entire Crab Nebula, in the filters F502N ([O III] emission), F673N ([S II]), F631N ([O I]), and F547M (continuum). We use our mosaics to characterize the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its three-dimensional structure, the ionizational structure in the filaments forming at its periphery, the speed of the shock driven by the PWN into surrounding ejecta (by inferring the cooling rates behind the shock), and the morphology and ionizational structure of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) fingers. We quantify a number of asymmetries between the northwest (NW) and southeast (SE) quadrants of the Crab Nebula. The lack of observed filaments in the NW, and our observations of the spatial extent of [O III] emission lead us to conclude that cooling rates are slower, and therefore the shock speeds are greater, in the NW quadrant of the nebula, compared with the SE. We conclude that R-T fingers are longer, more ionizationally stratified, and apparently more massive in the NW than in the SE, and the R-T instability appears more fully developed in the NW.

  4. a Surprise from the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    New observations of the spectrum of the rapidly spinning neutron star (the `pulsar') in the Crab Nebula have been carried out with the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT) by a group of Italian astronomers [1]. Because of greatly improved spectral resolution which allows to register even very fine details in the pulsar's spectrum, they are able to determine for the first time with high accuracy the overall dependance of the emission on wavelength, i.e. the `shape' of the spectrum. Quite unexpectedly, they also detect a hitherto unknown 100 A (10 nm) broad `absorption dip', which can be securely attributed to the pulsar. These results open an exciting new window for the study of the extreme physical processes close to a pulsar. The Nature of Pulsars It is estimated that there may be as many as 100 million neutron stars in our Galaxy. A neutron star is the superdense remnant of the extremely violent supernova explosion that occurs at the end of the life of a comparatively massive star. In fact, all stars that are more than about 6 times heavier than the Sun are believed to end their lives as supernovae. During the explosion, the central core of the dying star collapses in a few milliseconds and the matter at the centre is compressed to a density comparable to that of an atomic nucleus. Due to the enormous inward pressure, the atomic particles are squeezed together into a kind of neutron jam. The outcome is the formation of a neutron star with a diameter of 10-15 kilometres, weighing as much as the Sun. In accordance with the physical law that implies that the rotation momentum of the exploding star must be conserved, newborn neutron stars will rotate very rapidly around their axis, in some cases as fast as 100 times per second. In the same way, the new neutron star is expected to possess a strong magnetic field. Of these myriads of neutron stars, about 700 have been observed to emit radio pulses (hence the name `pulsar'). A few of these can also be detected

  5. Properties and Spatial Distribution of Dust Emission in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Temim, T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, R.; Gehrz, R.; Slane, P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature and quantity of dust produced in supernovae (SNe) is still poorly understood. Recent IR observations of freshly-formed dust in supernova remnants (SNRs) have yielded significantly lower dust masses than predicted by theoretical models and observations high-redshift galaxies. The Crab Nebula's pulsar wind is thought to be sweeping up freshly-formed SN dust along with the SN ejecta. The evidence for this dust was found in the form of an IR bump in the integrated spectrum of the Crab and in extinction against the synchrotron nebula that revealed the presence of dust in the filament cores. We present the first spatially-resolved emission spectra of dust in the Crab Nebula acquired with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IR spectra are dominated by synchrotron emission and show forbidden line emission from both sides of the expanding nebula, including emission from [S III], [Si II], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Ne V], [Ar III], [Ar V], [Fe II], and [Ni II]. We extrapolated a synchrotron spectral data cube from the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micron images, and subtracted this contribution from our 15-40 micron spectral data to produce a map of the residual continuum emission from dust. The emission appears to be concentrated along the ejecta filaments and is well described by astronomical silicates at an average temperature of 65 K. The estimated mass of dust in the Crab Nebula is 0.008 solar masses.

  6. The Dust and Gas Content of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, P. J.; Barlow, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    We have constructed mocassin photoionization plus dust radiative transfer models for the Crab Nebula core-collapse supernova (CCSN) remnant, using either smooth or clumped mass distributions, in order to determine the chemical composition and masses of the nebular gas and dust. We computed models for several different geometries suggested for the nebular matter distribution but found that the observed gas and dust spectra are relatively insensitive to these geometries, being determined mainly by the spectrum of the pulsar wind nebula which ionizes and heats the nebula. Smooth distribution models are ruled out since they require 16-49 M ⊙ of gas to fit the integrated optical nebular line fluxes, whereas our clumped models require 7.0 M ⊙ of gas. A global gas-phase C/O ratio of 1.65 by number is derived, along with a He/H number ratio of 1.85, neither of which can be matched by current CCSN yield predictions. A carbonaceous dust composition is favored by the observed gas-phase C/O ratio: amorphous carbon clumped model fits to the Crab’s Herschel and Spitzer infrared spectral energy distribution imply the presence of 0.18-0.27 M ⊙ of dust, corresponding to a gas to dust mass ratio of 26-39. Mixed dust chemistry models can also be accommodated, comprising 0.11-0.13 M ⊙ of amorphous carbon and 0.39-0.47 M ⊙ of silicates. Power-law grain size distributions with mass distributions that are weighted toward the largest grain radii are derived, favoring their longer-term survival when they eventually interact with the interstellar medium. The total mass of gas plus dust in the Crab Nebula is 7.2 ± 0.5 M ⊙ , consistent with a progenitor star mass of ˜9 M ⊙ .

  7. Detection of a Noble Gas Molecular Ion, 36ArH+, in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Owen, P. J.; Cernicharo, J.; Gomez, H. L.; Ivison, R. J.; Krause, O.; Lim, T. L.; Matsuura, M.; Miller, S.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E. T.

    2013-12-01

    Noble gas molecules have not hitherto been detected in space. From spectra obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory, we report the detection of emission in the 617.5- and 1234.6-gigahertz J = 1-0 and 2-1 rotational lines of 36ArH+ at several positions in the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant known to contain both molecular hydrogen and regions of enhanced ionized argon emission. Argon-36 is believed to have originated from explosive nucleosynthesis in massive stars during core-collapse supernova events. Its detection in the Crab Nebula, the product of such a supernova event, confirms this expectation. The likely excitation mechanism for the observed 36ArH+ emission lines is electron collisions in partially ionized regions with electron densities of a few hundred per centimeter cubed.

  8. Detection of a noble gas molecular ion, 36ArH+, in the Crab Nebula.

    PubMed

    Barlow, M J; Swinyard, B M; Owen, P J; Cernicharo, J; Gomez, H L; Ivison, R J; Krause, O; Lim, T L; Matsuura, M; Miller, S; Olofsson, G; Polehampton, E T

    2013-12-13

    Noble gas molecules have not hitherto been detected in space. From spectra obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory, we report the detection of emission in the 617.5- and 1234.6-gigahertz J = 1-0 and 2-1 rotational lines of (36)ArH(+) at several positions in the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant known to contain both molecular hydrogen and regions of enhanced ionized argon emission. Argon-36 is believed to have originated from explosive nucleosynthesis in massive stars during core-collapse supernova events. Its detection in the Crab Nebula, the product of such a supernova event, confirms this expectation. The likely excitation mechanism for the observed (36)ArH(+) emission lines is electron collisions in partially ionized regions with electron densities of a few hundred per centimeter cubed. PMID:24337290

  9. Element Masses in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, Adam R.; Katz, Andrea M.; Satterfield, Timothy J.; Vanderveer, Steven J.; MacAlpine, Gordon M.

    2016-10-01

    Using our previously published element abundance or mass-fraction distributions in the Crab Nebula, we derived actual mass distributions and estimates for overall nebular masses of hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. As with the previous work, computations were carried out for photoionization models involving constant hydrogen density and also constant nuclear density. In addition, employing new flux measurements for [Ni ii] λ7378, along with combined photoionization models and analytic computations, a nickel abundance distribution was mapped and a nebular stable nickel mass estimate was derived.

  10. a Surprise from the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    New observations of the spectrum of the rapidly spinning neutron star (the `pulsar') in the Crab Nebula have been carried out with the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT) by a group of Italian astronomers [1]. Because of greatly improved spectral resolution which allows to register even very fine details in the pulsar's spectrum, they are able to determine for the first time with high accuracy the overall dependance of the emission on wavelength, i.e. the `shape' of the spectrum. Quite unexpectedly, they also detect a hitherto unknown 100 A (10 nm) broad `absorption dip', which can be securely attributed to the pulsar. These results open an exciting new window for the study of the extreme physical processes close to a pulsar. The Nature of Pulsars It is estimated that there may be as many as 100 million neutron stars in our Galaxy. A neutron star is the superdense remnant of the extremely violent supernova explosion that occurs at the end of the life of a comparatively massive star. In fact, all stars that are more than about 6 times heavier than the Sun are believed to end their lives as supernovae. During the explosion, the central core of the dying star collapses in a few milliseconds and the matter at the centre is compressed to a density comparable to that of an atomic nucleus. Due to the enormous inward pressure, the atomic particles are squeezed together into a kind of neutron jam. The outcome is the formation of a neutron star with a diameter of 10-15 kilometres, weighing as much as the Sun. In accordance with the physical law that implies that the rotation momentum of the exploding star must be conserved, newborn neutron stars will rotate very rapidly around their axis, in some cases as fast as 100 times per second. In the same way, the new neutron star is expected to possess a strong magnetic field. Of these myriads of neutron stars, about 700 have been observed to emit radio pulses (hence the name `pulsar'). A few of these can also be detected

  11. Peering into the Heart of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the year 1054 A.D., Chinese astronomers were startled by the appearance of a new star, so bright that it was visible in broad daylight for several weeks. Today, the Crab Nebula is visible at the site of the 'Guest Star.' Located about 6,500 light-years from Earth, the Crab Nebula is the remnant of a star that began its life with about 10 times the mass of our own Sun. Its life ended on July 4, 1054 when it exploded as a supernova. In this image, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has zoomed in on the center of the Crab to reveal its structure with unprecedented detail. The Crab Nebula data were obtained by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in 1995. Images taken with five different color filters have been combined to construct this new false-color picture. Resembling an abstract painting by Jackson Pollack, the image shows ragged shards of gas that are expanding away from the explosion site at over 3 million miles per hour. The core of the star has survived the explosion as a pulsar, visible in the Hubble image as the lower of the two moderately bright stars to the upper left of center. The pulsar is a neutron star that spins on its axis 30 times a second. It heats its surroundings, creating the ghostly diffuse bluish-green glowing gas cloud in its vicinity, including a blue arc just to its right. The colorful network of filaments is the material from the outer layers of the star that was expelled during the explosion. The picture is somewhat deceptive in that the filaments appear to be close to the pulsar. In reality, the yellowish green filaments toward the bottom of the image are closer to us, and approaching at some 300 miles per second. The orange and pink filaments toward the top of the picture include material behind the pulsar, rushing away from us at similar speeds. The various colors in the picture arise from different chemical elements in the expanding gas, including hydrogen (orange), nitrogen (red), sulfur (pink), and oxygen (green). The shades

  12. New Radio and Optical Expansion Rate Measurements of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, M. F.; Nugent, R. L.

    2016-06-01

    We present new JVLA radio observations of the Crab nebula, which we use, along with older observations taken over a ~30 yr period, to determined the expansion rate of the synchrotron nebula. We find a convergence date for the radio synchrotron nebula of AD 1255 +/- 27. We also re-evaluated the expansion rate of the optical line emitting filaments, and we show that the traditional estimates of their convergence date are slightly biased. We find an un-biased convergence date of AD 1091 +/- 34, ~40 yr earlier than previous estimates. Our results show that both the synchrotron nebula and the optical line-emitting filaments have been accelerated since the explosion in AD 1054, but former more strongly than the latter. This finding supports the picture that the filaments are the result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface between the pulsar-wind nebula and the surrounding freely-expanding supernova ejecta, and rules out models where the pulsar wind bubble is interacting directly with the pre-supernova wind of the Crab's progenitor. Our new observations were taken ~2 months after the gamma-ray flare of 2012 July, and also allow us to put a sensitive limit on any radio emission associated with the flare of <0.0002 times the radio luminosity that of the nebula.

  13. New expansion rate measurements of the Crab nebula in radio and optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, M. F.; Nugent, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    We present new radio measurements of the expansion rate of the Crab nebula's synchrotron nebula over a ˜30-yr period. We find a convergence date for the radio synchrotron nebula of CE 1255 ± 27. We also re-evaluated the expansion rate of the optical-line-emitting filaments, and we show that the traditional estimates of their convergence date are slightly biased. Using an unbiased Bayesian analysis, we find a convergence date for the filaments of CE 1091 ± 34 (˜40 yr earlier than previous estimates). Our results show that both the synchrotron nebula and the optical-line-emitting filaments have been accelerated since the explosion in CE 1054, but that the synchrotron nebula has been relatively strongly accelerated, while the optical filaments have been only slightly accelerated. The finding that the synchrotron emission expands more rapidly than the filaments supports the picture that the latter are the result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface between the pulsar-wind nebula and the surrounding freely expanding supernova ejecta, and rules out models where the pulsar-wind bubble is interacting directly with the pre-supernova wind of the Crab's progenitor.

  14. Observation of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.

    2010-03-26

    The Crab Pulsar and Nebula are the remnants of the explosion of the supernova SN1054, which was observed by Chinese astronomers. Previously detected by EGRET, the Crab Pulsar and Nebula have been extensively observed in the gamma-ray energy band by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite. The data collected by the LAT during its early operation stage have allowed a detailed measurement of the fluxes and of the energy spectra of both sources. The pulsar spectrum is consistent with the EGRET measurement in the region below 1 GeV and is well described by a power law with exponential cutoff at a few GeV. The nebula spectrum is well modeled by a sum of two power laws, identified respectively as the falling edge of the synchrotron and the rising edge of the inverse Compton components, and is in agreement with the observations from Earth-based telescopes.

  15. Future GLAST Observations of Supernova Remnants And Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-09-26

    Shell-type Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been known to harbour a population of ultra-relativistic particles, accelerated in the Supernova shock wave by the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration. Experimental evidence for the existence of electrons up to energies of 100 TeV was first provided by the detection of hard X-ray synchrotron emission as e.g. in the shell of the young SNR SN1006. Furthermore using theoretical arguments shell-type Supernova remnants have long been considered as the main accelerator of protons - Cosmic rays - in the Galaxy; definite proof of this process is however still missing. Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) - diffuse structures surrounding young pulsars - are another class of objects known to be a site of particle acceleration in the Galaxy, again through the detection of hard synchrotron X-rays such as in the Crab Nebula. Gamma-rays above 100 MeV provide a direct access to acceleration processes. The GLAST Large Area telescope (LAT) will be operating in the energy range between 30 MeV and 300 GeV and will provide excellent sensitivity, angular and energy resolution in a previously rather poorly explored energy band. We will describe prospects for the investigation of these Galactic particle accelerators with GLAST.

  16. Extreme Particle Acceleration via Magnetic Reconnection in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Benoit; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery by Agile and Fermi of intense day-long synchrotron gamma-ray flares above 100 MeV in the Crab Nebula challenges classical models of pulsar wind nebulae and particle acceleration. We argue that the flares are powered by magnetic reconnection in the nebula. Using relativistic test-particle simulations, we show that particles are naturally focused into a thin fan beam, deep inside the reconnection layer where the magnetic field is small. The particles then suffer less from synchrotron losses and pile up at the maximum energy given by the electric potential drop in the layer. Applying this model to the Crab Nebula, we find that the emerging synchrotron emission spectrum above 100 MeV is consistent with the September 2010 flare observations. No detectable emission is expected at other wavelengths. This scenario provides a viable explanation for the Crab Nebula gamma-ray flares.

  17. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review.

    PubMed

    Bühler, R; Blandford, R

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae. PMID:24913306

  18. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review.

    PubMed

    Bühler, R; Blandford, R

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae.

  19. A 3D kinematic study of the northern ejecta `jet' of the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Christine S.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2015-03-01

    We present moderate resolution [O III] λλ4959, 5007 line emission spectra of the Crab nebula's northern ejecta jet. These data along with an [O III] image of the Crab nebula were used to build three-dimensional kinematic maps of the jet and adjacent remnant nebulosity to better understand the jet's properties and thus its likely origin. We find the jet's systemic velocity to be +170 ± 15 km s-1 with radial velocities ranging from -190 to +480 km s-1. Our data indicate that the jet consists of thin filamentary walls (Vexp ≃ 40-75 km s-1), is virtually hollow in [O III] emission, and elliptical and funnel-like in shape rather than a straight cylindrical tube as previously thought. Examination of the Crab's 3D filamentary structure along the jet's base reveals a large and nearly emission-free opening in the remnant's thick outer ejecta shell. The jet's blueshifted and redshifted sides are surprisingly well defined and, like the jet's sharp western limb, appear radially aligned with the remnant's centre of expansion. These alignments, along with the opening in the nebula at the jet's base and proper motions indicating an expansion age in line with the 1054 supernova event, suggest a direct connection between the jet's formation and the Crab's radial expansion. While our analysis supports the scenario that the jet may simply represent the highest velocity material of the remnant's N-S bipolar expansion, the nature of this expansion asymmetry remains unclear.

  20. A New Color Image of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, R. J.; Kormendy, K.

    1997-03-01

    A new color image of the Crab Nebula is presented. This is a $2782 \\times 1904$ pixel mosaic of CCD frames taken through \\B\\ (blue), \\V\\ (green), and \\R\\ (red) filters; it was carefully color balanced so that the Sun would appear white. The resolution of the final image is approximately 0\\farcs8 FWHM. The technique by which this image was constructed is described, and some aspects of the structure of the Crab Nebula revealed by the image are discussed. We also discuss the weaknesses of this technique for producing ``true-color'' images, and describe how our image would differ from what the human eye might see in a very large wide-field telescope. The structure of the inner part of the synchrotron nebula is compared with recent high-resolution images from the {\\it Hubble Space Telescope\\/} and from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. (SECTION: Interstellar Medium and Nebulae)

  1. Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope observations of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Gregory S.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Cheng, Kwang P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hintzen, Paul; Isensee, Joan E.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Smith, Eric P.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-08-01

    We obtained ultraviolet images of the Crab Nebula with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope during the Astro-1 Space Shuttle mission in 1990 December. The UV continuum morphology of the Crab is generally similar to that in the optical region, but the wispy structures are less conspicuous in the UV and X-ray. UV line emission from the thermal filaments is not strong. UV spectral index maps with a resolution of 10 arcsecs show a significant gradient across the nebula, with the outer parts being redder, as expected from synchrotron losses. The location of the bluest synchrotron continuum does not coincide with the pulsar.

  2. Hard X-ray Variations in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Baumgarter, W. H.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Jahoda, K.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Krimm, H. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Lund, N.; Meegan, C. A.; Natalucci, L.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rodi, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, a approx.7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approx.3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, and MAXI, and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA.

  3. Hard X-ray Variations in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Jahoda, K.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Krimm, H. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Meegan, C. A.; Natalucci, L.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rodi, J. C.; Skinner, G. K.

    2013-01-01

    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approximately 3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL and MAXI, and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA.

  4. Hard X-ray Variations in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Jahoda, K.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Krimm, H. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Meegan, C. A.; Natalucci, L.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rodi, J. C.; Skinner, G. K.

    2013-01-01

    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/ PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approximately 3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab Nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL and MAXI, and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA.

  5. Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We see no clear connections between the hard X-ray variations and the GeV flares

  6. PROPERTIES AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DUST EMISSION IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Sonneborn, George; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Slane, Patrick; Roellig, Thomas L.

    2012-07-01

    Recent infrared (IR) observations of freshly formed dust in supernova remnants have yielded significantly lower dust masses than predicted by theoretical models and measured from high-redshift observations. The Crab Nebula's pulsar wind is thought to be sweeping up freshly formed supernova (SN) dust along with the ejected gas. The evidence for this dust was found in the form of an IR excess in the integrated spectrum of the Crab and in extinction against the synchrotron nebula that revealed the presence of dust in the filament cores. We present the first spatially resolved emission spectra of dust in the Crab Nebula acquired with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IR spectra are dominated by synchrotron emission and show forbidden line emission from S, Si, Ne, Ar, O, Fe, and Ni. We derived a synchrotron spectral map from the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m images, and subtracted this contribution from our data to produce a map of the residual continuum emission from dust. The dust emission appears to be concentrated along the ejecta filaments and is well described by an amorphous carbon or silicate grain compositions. We find a dust temperature of 55 {+-} 4 K for silicates and 60 {+-} 7 K for carbon grains. The total estimated dust mass is (1.2-12) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun }, well below the theoretical dust yield predicted for a core-collapse supernova. Our grain heating model implies that the dust grain radii are relatively small, unlike what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP SN.

  7. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porth, Oliver; Komissarov, Serguei S.; Keppens, Rony

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we give a detailed account of the first three-dimensional (3D) relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of pulsar wind nebulae, with parameters most suitable for the Crab nebula. In contrast to the previous 2D simulations, we also consider pulsar winds with much stronger magnetization, up to σ ≃ few. The 3D models preserve the separation of the post-termination shock flow into the equatorial and polar components, but the polar jets are disrupted by the kink mode of the current driven instability and `dissolve' into the main body of the nebula after propagation of several shock radii. With the exception of the region near the termination shock, the 3D models do not exhibit the strong z-pinch configuration characteristic of the 1D and 2D models. Contrary to the expectations based on 1D analytical and semi-analytical models, the 3D solutions with highly magnetized pulsar winds still produce termination shocks with radii comparable to those deduced from the observations. The reason for this is not only the randomization of magnetic field observed in the 3D solutions, but also the magnetic dissipation inside the nebula. Assuming that the particle acceleration occurs only at the termination shock, we produced synthetic maps of the Crab nebula synchrotron emission. These maps retain most of the features revealed in the previous 2D simulations, including thin wisps and the inner knot. The polarization and variability of the inner knot is in a particularly good agreement with the observations of the Crab nebula and the overall polarization of the inner nebula is also reproduced quite well. However, the polar jet is not as bright as observed, suggesting that an additional particle acceleration, presumably related to the magnetic dissipation, has to be invoked.

  8. Discovery of powerful gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula.

    PubMed

    Tavani, M; Bulgarelli, A; Vittorini, V; Pellizzoni, A; Striani, E; Caraveo, P; Weisskopf, M C; Tennant, A; Pucella, G; Trois, A; Costa, E; Evangelista, Y; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; Del Monte, E; Campana, R; Pilia, M; De Luca, A; Donnarumma, I; Horns, D; Ferrigno, C; Heinke, C O; Trifoglio, M; Gianotti, F; Vercellone, S; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A W; Contessi, T; D'Ammando, F; DePris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Galli, M; Giuliani, A; Giusti, M; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Fuschino, F; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Perotti, F; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Vallazza, E; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Lucarelli, F; Santolamazza, P; Giommi, P; Salotti, L; Bignami, G F

    2011-02-11

    The well-known Crab Nebula is at the center of the SN1054 supernova remnant. It consists of a rotationally powered pulsar interacting with a surrounding nebula through a relativistic particle wind. The emissions originating from the pulsar and nebula have been considered to be essentially stable. Here, we report the detection of strong gamma-ray (100 mega-electron volts to 10 giga-electron volts) flares observed by the AGILE satellite in September 2010 and October 2007. In both cases, the total gamma-ray flux increased by a factor of three compared with the non-flaring flux. The flare luminosity and short time scale favor an origin near the pulsar, and we discuss Chandra Observatory x-ray and Hubble Space Telescope optical follow-up observations of the nebula. Our observations challenge standard models of nebular emission and require power-law acceleration by shock-driven plasma wave turbulence within an approximately 1-day time scale.

  9. Discovery of powerful gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula.

    PubMed

    Tavani, M; Bulgarelli, A; Vittorini, V; Pellizzoni, A; Striani, E; Caraveo, P; Weisskopf, M C; Tennant, A; Pucella, G; Trois, A; Costa, E; Evangelista, Y; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; Del Monte, E; Campana, R; Pilia, M; De Luca, A; Donnarumma, I; Horns, D; Ferrigno, C; Heinke, C O; Trifoglio, M; Gianotti, F; Vercellone, S; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A W; Contessi, T; D'Ammando, F; DePris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Galli, M; Giuliani, A; Giusti, M; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Fuschino, F; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Perotti, F; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Vallazza, E; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Lucarelli, F; Santolamazza, P; Giommi, P; Salotti, L; Bignami, G F

    2011-02-11

    The well-known Crab Nebula is at the center of the SN1054 supernova remnant. It consists of a rotationally powered pulsar interacting with a surrounding nebula through a relativistic particle wind. The emissions originating from the pulsar and nebula have been considered to be essentially stable. Here, we report the detection of strong gamma-ray (100 mega-electron volts to 10 giga-electron volts) flares observed by the AGILE satellite in September 2010 and October 2007. In both cases, the total gamma-ray flux increased by a factor of three compared with the non-flaring flux. The flare luminosity and short time scale favor an origin near the pulsar, and we discuss Chandra Observatory x-ray and Hubble Space Telescope optical follow-up observations of the nebula. Our observations challenge standard models of nebular emission and require power-law acceleration by shock-driven plasma wave turbulence within an approximately 1-day time scale. PMID:21212318

  10. Observation and Spectral Measurements of the Crab Nebula with Milagro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Allen, B. T.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Berley, D.; Chen, C.; Christopher, G. E.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Falcone, A.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Gordo, J. B.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C. M.; Huntemeyer, P. H.; Kolterman, B. E.; Linnemann, J. T.; McEnery, J. E.; Morgan, T.; Mincer, A. I.; Nemethy, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100 GeV - 100 TeV gamma ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between 1 and 100 TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton up-scattering scattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a Te V steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fit.

  11. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Image of Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After barely 2 months in space, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) took this sturning image of the Crab Nebula, the spectacular remains of a stellar explosion, revealing something never seen before, a brilliant ring around the nebula's heart. The image shows the central pulsar surrounded by tilted rings of high-energy particles that appear to have been flung outward over a distance of more than a light-year from the pulsar. Perpendicular to the rings, jet-like structures produced by high-energy particles blast away from the pulsar. Hubble Space Telescope images have shown moving knots and wisps around the neutron star, and previous x-ray images have shown the outer parts of the jet and hinted at the ring structure. With CXO's exceptional resolution, the jet can be traced all the way in to the neutron star, and the ring pattern clearly appears. The image was made with CXO's Advanced Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) and High Energy Transmission Grating. The Crab Nebula, easily the most intensively studied object beyond our solar system, has been observed using virtually every astronomical instrument that could see that part of the sky

  12. UNRAVELING THE GEOMETRY OF THE CRAB NEBULA's 'INNER RING'

    SciTech Connect

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Tennant, Allyn F.

    2012-02-10

    Chandra images of the Crab Nebula resolve the detailed structure of its 'inner ring', possibly a termination shock where pulsar-accelerated relativistic particles begin to emit X radiation. Analysis of these images finds that the center of the ellipse-presumably a circular ring in projection-lies about 0.''9 (10 light days at 2 kpc) from the pulsar's image, at a position angle of about 300 Degree-Sign (east of north). This analysis also measures properties of the ellipse: the position angle of the semi-major axis is about 210 Degree-Sign (east of north); the aspect ratio is 0.49. In a simple-albeit, not unique-de-projection of the observed geometry, a circular ring is centered on the axis of symmetry of the pulsar wind nebula. This ring is not equatorial but rather lies near +4.{sup 0}5 latitude in pulsar-centered coordinates. Alternative geometries are briefly discussed.

  13. Modeling Gamma-ray Flares in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yajie; Blandford, R. D.; Simeon, P.

    2013-04-01

    The gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula shows variations on a wide range of time scales, with the most dramatic events being the flares observed by Fermi and AGILE: the flux can increase by a factor of ~10 within ~10 hours; the spectrum is characterized by a peak energy ~300 MeV, while no variation in other wavebands was detected. These variations present a great challenge to particle acceleration mechanisms. We consider two possible explanations of these flares. Firstly, we consider emission from a moving relativistic shock terminating the pulsar wind. Secondly, we treat the pulsar and its wind as a current generator and suppose that the current filaments into individual pinches that can undergo radial collapse and become strongly dissipative when the electric field becomes as strong as the magnetic field and Larmor radius of the highest energy particles becomes comparable with the radius. The application of these models to pulsar wind nebulae and relativistic jets will be outlined.

  14. A sensitive upper limit to the circular polarization of the Crab nebula at λ3 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesemeyer, H.; Thum, C.; Morris, D.; Aumont, J.; Rosset, C.

    2011-04-01

    A new observation of the distribution of the circular polarization over the Crab Nebula supernova remnant yields an upper limit of <0.2% at a radio frequency of 89.2 GHz. This limit is set by the uncertainty in correcting for the instrumental polarization. The raw data were dominated by the conversion of the strong linear polarization to circular in the crosspolarized sidelobes of the 30 m telescope. They were modeled as due to a differential phase gradient between the orthogonally linearly polarized far-field radiation patterns of the two receivers. As the source is tracked these rotate with respect to the radio source distribution on the sky since the telescope has an alt-azimuth mount and a Nasmyth focus. This allows the model to be fit to the raw data and a correction can be made. Our limit of <0.2% is to be compared with <0.03% derived at 610 MHz (Wilson & Weiler 1997, ApJ, 475, 661) and <6% measured at 23 GHz (Wright & Forster 1980, ApJ, 239, 873). These limits are consistent with the polarization expected from an optically thin synchrotron source with the known physical properties of the Crab Nebula. This non-detection does not allow an estimate to be made of the relative contribution to the radio emission from electrons and positrons.

  15. On Calibrations Using the Crab Nebula as a Standard Candle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin; Guainazzi, Matteo; Jahoda, Keith; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; ODell, Stephen; Zavlin, Vyacheslav; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Elsner, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by a recent paper (Kirsch et al. 2005) on possible use of the Crab Nebula as a standard candle for calibrating X-ray response func tions, we examine possible consequences of intrinsic departures from a single (absorbed) power law upon such calibrations. We limited our analyses to three more modern X-ray instruments -- the ROSAT/PSPC, th e RXTE/PCA, and the XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn. The results are unexpected an d indicate a need to refine two of the three response functions studi ed. The implications for Chandra will be discussed.

  16. A COOL DUST FACTORY IN THE CRAB NEBULA: A HERSCHEL STUDY OF THE FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Gomez, E. L.; Gear, W. K.; Krause, O.; Besel, M.-A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th.; Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Owen, P. J.; Matsuura, M.; Rho, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Sibthorpe, B.; Polehampton, E. T.

    2012-11-20

    Whether supernovae are major sources of dust in galaxies is a long-standing debate. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Crab Nebula between 51 and 670 {mu}m as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program. We compare the emission detected with Herschel with multiwavelength data including millimeter, radio, mid-infrared, and archive optical images. We carefully remove the synchrotron component using the Herschel and Planck fluxes measured in the same epoch. The contribution from line emission is removed using Herschel spectroscopy combined with Infrared Space Observatory archive data. Several forbidden lines of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are detected where multiple velocity components are resolved, deduced to be from the nitrogen-depleted, carbon-rich ejecta. No spectral lines are detected in the SPIRE wavebands; in the PACS bands, the line contribution is 5% and 10% at 70 and 100 {mu}m and negligible at 160 {mu}m. After subtracting the synchrotron and line emission, the remaining far-infrared continuum can be fit with two dust components. Assuming standard interstellar silicates, the mass of the cooler component is 0.24{sup +0.32} {sub -0.08} M {sub Sun} for T = 28.1{sup +5.5} {sub -3.2} K. Amorphous carbon grains require 0.11 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} of dust with T = 33.8{sup +2.3} {sub -1.8} K. A single temperature modified blackbody with 0.14 M {sub Sun} and 0.08 M {sub Sun} for silicate and carbon dust, respectively, provides an adequate fit to the far-infrared region of the spectral energy distribution but is a poor fit at 24-500 {mu}m. The Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust, suggesting the formation of dust in core-collapse supernova ejecta is efficient.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnants in the Magellanic Clouds. III. WFPC2 Imaging of the Young, Crab-like Supernova Remnant SNRO540-69.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Jon A.; Smith, Nathan; Blair, William P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Winkler, P. Frank; Hughes, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope images with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 of the young, oxygen-rich, Crab-like supernova remnant SNR0540-69.3 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) reveal details of the emission distribution and the relationship between the expanding ejecta and synchrotron nebula. The emission distributions appear very similar to those seen in the Crab nebula, with the ejecta located in a thin envelope surrounding the synchrotron nebula. The [O III] emission is more extended than other tracers, forming a faint "skin" around the denser filaments and synchrotron nebula, as also observed in the Crab. The [O III] exhibits somewhat different kinematic structure in long-slit spectra, including a more extended high-velocity emission halo not seen in images. Yet even the fastest expansion speeds in SNR 0540 s halo are slow when compared to most other young supernova remnants, though the Crab nebula has similar slow expansion speeds. We show a striking correspondence between the morphology of the synchrotron nebula observed in an optical continuum filter with that recently resolved in Chandra X-ray images. We argue that the multi-component kinematics and filamentary morphology of the optical emission-line features likely result from magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities that form as the synchrotron nebula expands and sweeps up ejecta, as seen in the Crab nebula. Our images and spectra help to refine our understanding of SNR 0540 in several more detailed respects: they confirm the identification of H(alpha)+[N II] in the red spectrum, they show that the systemic velocity of SNR 0540 is not significantly different from that of the LMC, and they hint at a lower Ne abundance than the Crab (potentially indicating a more massive progenitor star).

  18. A SURVEY OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, E. D.; Baldwin, J. A.; Curtis, Z. K.; Ferland, G. J.; O'Dell, C. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Salome, Philippe E-mail: baldwin@pa.msu.edu E-mail: gary@pa.uky.edu E-mail: acf@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2011-06-01

    We have carried out a near-infrared, narrowband imaging survey of the Crab Nebula, in the H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m and Br{gamma} 2.17 {mu}m lines, using the Spartan Infrared camera on the SOAR Telescope. Over a 2.'8 x 5.'1 area that encompasses about 2/3 of the full visible extent of the Crab, we detect 55 knots that emit strongly in the H{sub 2} line. We catalog the observed properties of these knots. We show that they are in or next to the filaments that are seen in optical-passband emission lines. Comparison to Hubble Space Telescope [S II] and [O III] images shows that the H{sub 2} knots are strongly associated with compact regions of low-ionization gas. We also find evidence of many additional, fainter H{sub 2} features, both discrete knots and long streamers following gas that emits strongly in [S II]. A pixel-by-pixel analysis shows that about 6% of the Crab's projected surface area has significant H{sub 2} emission that correlates with [S II] emission. We measured radial velocities of the [S II] {lambda}6716 emission lines from 47 of the cataloged knots and find that most are on the far (receding) side of the nebula. We also detect Br{gamma} emission. It is right at the limit of our survey, and our Br{gamma} filter cuts off part of the expected velocity range. But clearly the Br{gamma} emission has a quite different morphology than the H{sub 2} knots, following the long linear filaments that are seen in H{alpha} and in [O III] optical emission lines.

  19. Chandra Discovers X-Ray Ring Around Cosmic Powerhouse in Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    Grating. The Crab Nebula, easily the most intensively studied object beyond our solar system, is the remnant of a star that was observed to explode in 1054 A.D. Chinese astronomers in that year reported a "guest star" that appeared suddenly and remained visible for weeks, even during daytime. From gamma-ray telescopes to radio telescopes, the Crab has been observed using virtually every astronomical instrument that could see that part of the sky. Unraveling the mysteries of the Crab has proven to be the door to insight after insight into the workings of the universe. The Crab convincingly tied the origin of enigmatic "pulsars" to the stellar cataclysms known as supernovas. Observations of the expanding cloud of filaments in the Crab were instrumental in confirming the cosmic origin of the chemical elements from which planets (and people) are made. The nebula is located 6,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Taurus. The Crab pulsar, which was discovered by radio astronomers in 1968, is a neutron star rotating 30 times per second. Neutron stars are formed in the seconds before a supernova explosion when gravity crushes the central core of the star to densities 50 trillion times that of lead and a diameter of only 12 miles. Another consequence of the dramatic collapse is that neutron stars are rapidly rotating and highly magnetized. Like a gigantic cosmic generator, the rotating magnet generates 10 quadrillion volts of electricity, 30 million times that of a typical lightning bolt. "It is an incredibly efficient generator," Ruderman explained. "More than ninety-five percent efficient. There's nothing like it on Earth." Press: Fact Sheet To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra News Web site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight

  20. OBSERVATION AND SPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE CRAB NEBULA WITH MILAGRO

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Atkins, R.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Coyne, D. G.; Dorfan, D. E.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Bussons, J.; Bonamente, E.; Galbraith-Frew, J.; Christopher, G. E.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R.; DeYoung, T.; Falcone, A.; Dingus, B. L.; Ellsworth, R. W.; and others

    2012-05-01

    The Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100 GeV-100 TeV gamma-ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between {approx}1 and {approx}100 TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton upscattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a TeV steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fitted. The differential photon energy spectrum, including the statistical errors from the fit, obtained using a simple power-law hypothesis for data between 2005 September and 2008 March is (6.5 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14}(E/10 TeV){sup -3.1{+-}0.1}(cm{sup 2} s TeV ){sup -1} between {approx}1 TeV and {approx}100 TeV. Allowing for a possible exponential cutoff, the photon energy spectrum is fitted as (2.5{sup +0.7}{sub -0.4}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}(E/3 TeV){sup -2.5{+-}0.4}exp (- E/32{sup +39}{sub -18} TeV) (cm{sup 2} s TeV){sup -1}. The results are subject to an {approx}30% systematic uncertainty in the overall flux and an {approx}0.1 systematic uncertainty in the power-law indices quoted. Uncertainty in the overall energy scale has been absorbed into these errors. Fixing the spectral index to values that have been measured below 1 TeV by IACT experiments (2.4-2.6), the fit to the Milagro data suggests that Crab exhibits a

  1. New Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; ODell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald f.; Yakovlev, Dmitry R.; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Becker, Werner

    2010-01-01

    We present a phase-resolved study of the X-ray spectrum of the Crab Pulsar, using data obtained in a special mode with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The superb angular resolution easily enables discerning the Pulsar from the surrounding nebulosity, even at pulse minimum. We find that the Pulsar's X-ray spectral index varies sinusoidally with phase---except over the same phase range for which rather abrupt changes in optical polarization magnitude and position angle have been reported. In addition, we use the X-ray data to constrain the surface temperature for various neutron-star equations of state and atmospheres. Finally, we present new data on dynamical variations of structure within the Nebula.

  2. A BRIGHT MOLECULAR CORE IN A CRAB NEBULA FILAMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, E. D.; Baldwin, J. A.; Ferland, G. J. E-mail: baldwin@pa.msu.ed

    2010-06-10

    In a sub-arcsec near-infrared survey of the Crab Nebula using the new Spartan Infrared Camera, we have found several knots with high surface brightness in the H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m line and a very large H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m to Br{gamma} ratio. The brightest of these knots has an intensity ratio I(H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m)/I(Br{gamma}) = 18 {+-} 9, which we show sets a lower limit on the ratio of masses in the molecular and recombination (i.e., ionized) zones M{sub mol}/M{sub rec} {>=} 0.9, and a total molecular mass within this single knot M{sub mol} {>=} 5 x 10{sup -5} M{sub sun}. We argue that the knot discussed here probably is able to emit so strongly in the 2.12 {mu}m line because its physical conditions are better tuned for such emission than is the case in other filaments. It is unclear whether this knot has an unusually large M{sub mol}/M{sub rec} ratio, or if many other Crab filaments also have similar amounts of molecular gas which is not emitting because the physical conditions are not so well tuned.

  3. The VERITAS Supernova Remnant / Pulsar Wind Nebula Observation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humensky, Thomas Brian; VERITAS Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae together constitute the vast majority of galactic gamma-ray sources seen at TeV energies. Supernova remnants are widely considered to be the strongest candidate for the source of cosmic rays below the knee around 1015 eV. Pulsar wind nebulae, powered by the spin-down energy released by pulsars and visible due to synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation emitted by their constituent electrons, comprise one of the most populous VHE gamma-ray source classes. VERITAS, an array of four imaging Cherenkov telescopes located at the Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, has made significant contributions to the study of both classes of objects. This poster will summarize the results of this observation program and prospects for the future.

  4. Gamma radiation from the Crab nebula above 35 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Oegelman, H.; Tuemer, T.

    1974-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation from the Crab nebula were observed, showing that the Crab is unique among strong X-ray sources in that major component in the low energy range (1 to 10 KeV) shows little or no temporal variation. Observations of the Crab above 35 MeV were made with the high energy gamma ray telescope flown on SAS-2. The detector and technique are described in detail.

  5. CRAB NEBULA: FIVE-YEAR OBSERVATION WITH ARGO-YBJ

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2015-01-10

    The ARGO-YBJ air shower detector monitored the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission from 2007 November to 2013 February. The integrated signal, consisting of ∼3.3 × 10{sup 5} events, reached the statistical significance of 21.1 standard deviations. The obtained energy spectrum in the energy range 0.3-20 TeV can be described by a power law function dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α}, with a flux normalization I {sub 0} = (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup –12} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1} and α = 2.63 ± 0.05, corresponding to an integrated flux above 1 TeV of 1.97 × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. The systematic error is estimated to be less than 30% for the flux normalization and 0.06 for the spectral index. Assuming a power law spectrum with an exponential cutoff dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α} exp (–E/E {sub cut}), the lower limit of the cutoff energy E {sub cut} is 12 TeV, at 90% confidence level. Our extended data set allows the study of the TeV emission over long timescales. Over five years, the light curve of the Crab Nebula in 200-day bins is compatible with a steady emission with a probability of 7.3 × 10{sup –2}. A correlated analysis with Fermi-LAT data over ∼4.5 yr using the light curves of the two experiments gives a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.56 ± 0.22. Concerning flux variations on timescales of days, a ''blind'' search for flares with a duration of 1-15 days gives no excess with a significance higher than four standard deviations. The average rate measured by ARGO-YBJ during the three most powerful flares detected by Fermi-LAT is 205 ± 91 photons day{sup –1}, consistent with the average value of 137 ± 10 day{sup –1}.

  6. The effects of magnetic field, age and intrinsic luminosity on Crab-like pulsar wind nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. F.; Martín, J.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Cillis, Analia

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the time-dependent behaviour of Crab-like pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) generating a set of models using four different initial spin-down luminosities (L0 = {1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001} × L0,Crab), eight values of magnetic fraction (η = 0.001, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.5, 0.9, 0.99 and 0.999, i.e. from fully particle dominated to fully magnetically dominated nebulae) and three distinctive ages: 940, 3000 and 9000 years. We find that the self-synchrotron Compton (SSC) contribution is irrelevant for LSD = 0.1, 1 and 10 per cent of the Crab power, disregarding the age and the magnetic fraction. SSC only becomes relevant for highly energetic (˜70 per cent of the Crab), particle dominated nebulae at low ages (of less than a few kyr), located in a far-infrared (FIR) background with relatively low energy density. Since no pulsar other than Crab is known to have these features, these results clarify why the Crab nebula, and only it, is SSC dominated. No young PWN would be detectable at TeV energies if the pulsar's spin-down power is 0.1 per cent Crab or lower. For 1 per cent of the Crab spin-down, only particle-dominated nebulae can be detected by HESS-like telescopes when young enough (with details depending on the precise injection and environmental parameters). Above 10 per cent of the Crab's power, all PWNe are detectable by HESS-like telescopes if they are particle dominated, no matter the age. The impact of the magnetic fraction on the final spectral energy distribution is varied and important, generating order of magnitude variations in the luminosity output for systems that are otherwise the same (equal P, dot{P}, injection and environment).

  7. UV Timing and Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Lunqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper; Lindler, Don; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have used the Hubble Space Telescope and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to obtain Near Ultraviolet (NUV) (1600-3200 Angstroms) and Far Ultraviolet (FUV) (1140-1720 Angstroms) spectra and pulse profiles of the Crab Nebula's pulsar. The pulse period agrees well with the radio predictions. The NUV and FUV pulse profiles are little changed from the visible wavelength profile. Spectra obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope were combined with the UV spectra for full coverage from 1140-9250Angstoms. Dereddening the spectrum with a standard extinction curve achieves a flat spectrum for E(B-V)=0.52, R=3.1. Lyman alpha absorption indicates a column density of 3.0=/-0.5 x 10(exp 21) cm -2, consistent with the E(B-V) of 0.52. The dereddened spectrum can be fitted by a power law with spectral index alpha=0.11+/-0.04. A broad, blueshifted absorption is seen in CIV (1550Angstroms), reaching a velocity of about 2500 kilometer per second.

  8. FLARES IN THE CRAB NEBULA DRIVEN BY UNTWISTING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, Peter; Aschwanden, Markus J. E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com

    2012-06-01

    The recent discovery of PeV electrons from the Crab Nebula, produced on rapid timescales of one day or less with a sharply peaked gamma-ray spectrum without hard X-rays, challenges traditional models of diffusive shock acceleration followed by synchrotron radiation. Here, we outline an acceleration model involving a DC electric field parallel to the magnetic field in a twisted toroidal field around the pulsar. Sudden developments of resistivity in localized regions of the twisted field are thought to drive the particle acceleration, up to PeV energies, resulting in flares. This model can reproduce the observed timescales of T Almost-Equal-To 1 day, the peak photon energies of U{sub {Phi},rr} Almost-Equal-To 1 MeV, maximum electron energies of U{sub e,rr} Almost-Equal-To 1 PeV, and luminosities of L Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}.

  9. Is the Eagle Nebula powered by a hidden supernova remnant ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Francois

    2008-10-01

    Spitzer observations of the Eagle nebula (M16) reveal the presence of a large (8 pc diameter) shell of dust heated to anomalously high temperatures. Modeling of dust excitation shows that the shell emission cannot be powered by the cluster UV radiation but that it can be accounted for by collisionally heated dust in a young (a few 1000 yrs) supernova remnant. We have re-analyzed deep Chandra observations that show diffuse emission consistent with this hypothesis, but also with galactic ridge emission. We propose a 50 ksec XMM observation to probe the spatial extent of the diffuse X-ray emission beyond the Spitzer shell. Absence of emission outside of this shell will strongly support the supernova remnant interpretation

  10. When a Standard Candle Flickers: Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Collen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Jahoda, K.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Krimm, H. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Lund, N.; Meegan, C. A.; Natalucci, L.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rodi, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    RXTE played a crucial role in our surprising discovery that the Crab Nebula is variable in hard X-rays. In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008-2010, a approx.7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed in the 15-50 keV band with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approx.3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003 and Swift/BAT starting in 2005. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula 15-50 keV flux measured with RXTE/PCA appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. In this talk I will present Crab light curves including RXTE data for the entire 16-year mission in multiple energy bands.

  11. When a Standard Candle Flickers: Hard X-ray Variations in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, Narayana P.; Briggs, Michael Stephen; Buehler, Rolf; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Connaughton, Valerie; Diehl, Roland; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Harrison, Fiona; Hays, Elizabeth A.; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A.; Kuulkers, Erik; Madsen, Kristin; Markwardt, Craig; Meegan, Charles A.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William Simon; Preece, Robert D.; Rodi, James; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Skinner, Gerald K.; Swartz, Douglas A.; von Kienlin, Andreas; Zhang, Xiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, a ~7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to ~3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. At higher energies, above 50 keV, the Crab flux appears to be slowly recovering to its 2008 levels. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL, MAXI, and NuSTAR and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA. We will compare these variations to higher energies as well, e.g. Fermi LAT.

  12. When a Standard Candle Flickers: Hard X-ray Variations in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, Narayana P.; Briggs, Michael S.; Buehler, Rolf; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Connaughton, Valerie; Diehl, Roland; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Harrison, Fiona; Hays, Elizabeth A.; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A.; Kuulkers, Erik; Madsen, Kristin; Markwardt, Craig; Meegan, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, an approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approximately3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. At higher energies, above 50 keV, the Crab flux appears to be slowly recovering to its 2008 levels. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL, MAXI, and NuSTAR and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA. We will compare these variations to higher energies as well, e.g. Fermi LAT.

  13. When a Standard Candle Flickers: Hard X-Ray Variations in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camaro-Arranz, A.; Connaughton, V.; Diehl, R.; Finger, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Harrison, F.; Jahoda, K.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Krimm, H. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Madsen, K.; Markwardt, C.; Meegan, C. A.; Natalucci, L.; Paciesas, W. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, an approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approximately 3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. At higher energies, above 50 keV, the Crab flux appears to be slowly recovering to its 2008 levels. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL, MAXI, and NuSTAR and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA.

  14. THE RADIO-2 mm SPECTRAL INDEX OF THE CRAB NEBULA MEASURED WITH GISMO

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, R. G.; George, J. V.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Maher, S. F.; Moseley, S. H.; Sharp, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Korngut, P. M.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, T. M.; Kovacs, A.; Mason, B. S.; Navarro, S.; Sievers, A.; Sievers, J. L.

    2011-06-10

    We present results of 2 mm observations of the Crab Nebula, obtained using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) bolometer camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional 3.3 mm observations with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope are also presented. The integrated 2 mm flux density of the Crab Nebula provides no evidence for the emergence of a second synchrotron component that has been proposed. It is consistent with the radio power-law spectrum, extrapolated up to a break frequency of log ({nu}{sub b}[GHz]) = 2.84 {+-} 0.29 or {nu}{sub b} = 695{sup +651}{sub -336} GHz. The Crab Nebula is well resolved by the {approx}16.''7 beam (FWHM) of GISMO. Comparison to radio data at comparable spatial resolution enables us to confirm significant spatial variation of the spectral index between 21 cm and 2 mm. The main effect is a spectral flattening in the inner region of the Crab Nebula, correlated with the toroidal structure at the center of the nebula that is prominent in the near-IR through X-ray regime.

  15. The origin of the argonium emission discovered in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priestley, Felix; Barlow, Mike; Viti, Serena

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the origin of the argonium (ArH+) emission discovered by Herschel in the Crab Nebula (Barlow et al. 2013). The argonium molecule is believed to be formed principally by the reaction of singly ionised argon (Ar+) with molecular hydrogen (H2), and to be destroyed by reactions with H2 and UV photons. For the case of the argonium ground state absorption lines seen by Herschel along several interstellar sightlines (Schilke et al. 2014), those authors argued that the presence of H2 in both the formation and destruction mechanisms means that ArH+ must form in largely atomic interstellar hydrogen clouds containing only trace amounts of H2. However, In the case of the Crab Nebula the observed argonium emission might originate either from transition regions containing both Ar+ and H2, or alternatively from inside the Crab Nebula's H2 knots into which X-ray photons or charged particles from the pulsar wind nebula have penetrated to produce Ar+ and other ions. We report the results of our numerical studies that have used a combination of photoionisation and photodissociation region codes to investigate these alternative scenarios for producing ArH+ in the Crab Nebula.

  16. When a Standard Candle Flickers: Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Jahoda, K.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Krimm, H. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Lund, N.; Meegan, C. A.; Natalucci, L.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rodi, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) since August 2008, a 7% (70 mcrab) decline was observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the 15-50 keV band with four other instruments: Swift/BAT, the RXTE/PCA, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. A similar decline is also observed in the 3-15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and in the 50-100 keV band with GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a 3 year timescale are also seen independently with the PCA, BAT, IBIS, and SPI from 2005 to 2008, with a flux minimum in April 2007. As of April 2011, the Crab nebula flux has stopped declining and may be beginning to increase. We will present updated results on our multi-instrument study of long-term Crab nebula variations.

  17. When a Standard Candle Flickers: Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We will miss RXTE, but will continue our monitoring program using Fermi/GBM, MAXI, and Swift/BAT.

  18. Imaging the Crab nebula when it is flaring in gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    One of the most intriguing results of the gamma-ray instruments currently in orbit has been the detection of powerful flares from the Crab Nebula in September 2010. In April 2011 a similar flare, lasting several days, made the nebula the brightest source in the gamma-ray sky. A critical reassessment of long term behavior of the Crab flux clearly showed that both Agile and Fermi had already detected similar events in October 2007 and February 2009, pointing to a recurrence time of once per year. A HST observing strategy must be set up to react promptly to any possible new brightening of the Crab in gamma rays. In September 2010 we requested a DD observation which was promptly accepted and carried out. However, the lack of a suitable reference image hampered our efforts to pinpoint the sites of possible variability inside the nebula. Thus, while now we ask for a triggered TOO observation of the Crab Nebula with ACS/WFC in case a gamma-ray flare is announced by the Agile and/or Fermi missions, we are also organizing a regular {monthly} monitoring of the source both in X-ray and optical through a joint Chandra-HST proposal.

  19. The Crab nebula energy origin and its high frequency radiation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machabeli, George Z.; Rogava, A.; Chkheidze, N.; Osmanov, Z.; Shapakidze, D.

    2016-06-01

    > In the present work there is presented a model describing transfer of the Crab pulsar's spin-down energy into the powerful synchrotron emission of the nebula. The process of the energy transfer consists of several consecutive stages. The physical processes underlying the theoretical model provide us with the synchrotron emission spectrum, which fits well with the observed one.

  20. The high energy X-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula observed from OSO 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, L. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.; Maurer, G. S.; Frost, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula was measured with the scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite. The total emission of the X-ray source shows no long term variability. The spectrum itself can be described by a single power law out to energies of at least 500 keV.

  1. Discovery of Spatial and Spectral Structure in the X-Ray Emission from the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Hester, J. Jeff; Tennant, Allyn F.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Marshall, Herman L.; Karovska, Margarita; Nichols, Joy S.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory observed the Crab Nebula and pulsar during orbital calibration. Zeroth-order images with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) readout by the Advanced Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopy array (ACIS-S) show a striking richness of X-ray structure at a resolution comparable to that of the best ground-based visible-light observations. The HETG-ACIS-S images reveal, for the first time, an X-ray inner ring within the X-ray torus, the suggestion of a hollow-tube structure for the torus, and X-ray knots along the inner ring and (perhaps) along the inward extension of the X-ray jet. Although complicated by instrumental effects and the brightness of the Crab Nebula, the spectrometric analysis shows systematic variations of the X-ray spectrum throughout the nebula.

  2. Magnetic Fields in Supernova Remnants and Pulsar-Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Bocchino, Fabrizio

    2012-05-01

    We review the observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) and pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe) that give information on the strength and orientation of magnetic fields. Radio polarimetry gives the degree of order of magnetic fields, and the orientation of the ordered component. Many young shell supernova remnants show evidence for synchrotron X-ray emission. The spatial analysis of this emission suggests that magnetic fields are amplified by one to two orders of magnitude in strong shocks. Detection of several remnants in TeV gamma rays implies a lower limit on the magnetic-field strength (or a measurement, if the emission process is inverse-Compton upscattering of cosmic microwave background photons). Upper limits to GeV emission similarly provide lower limits on magnetic-field strengths. In the historical shell remnants, lower limits on B range from 25 to 1000 μG. Two remnants show variability of synchrotron X-ray emission with a timescale of years. If this timescale is the electron-acceleration or radiative loss timescale, magnetic fields of order 1 mG are also implied. In pulsar-wind nebulae, equipartition arguments and dynamical modeling can be used to infer magnetic-field strengths anywhere from ˜5 μG to 1 mG. Polarized fractions are considerably higher than in SNRs, ranging to 50 or 60% in some cases; magnetic-field geometries often suggest a toroidal structure around the pulsar, but this is not universal. Viewing-angle effects undoubtedly play a role. MHD models of radio emission in shell SNRs show that different orientations of upstream magnetic field, and different assumptions about electron acceleration, predict different radio morphology. In the remnant of SN 1006, such comparisons imply a magnetic-field orientation connecting the bright limbs, with a substantial density gradient across the remnant.

  3. Evolution of Pulsar Wind Nebulae inside Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temim, T.

    2016-06-01

    Composite supernova remnants (SNRs) are those consisting of both a central pulsar that produces a wind of synchrotron-emitting relativistic particle and a supernova (SN) blast wave that expands into the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). The evolution of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is coupled to the evolution of its host SNR and characterized by distinct stages, from the PWN's early expansion into the unshocked SN ejecta to its late-phase interaction with the SNR reverse shock. I will present an overview of the various evolutionary stages of composite SNRs and show how the signatures of the PWN/SNR interaction can reveal important information about the SNR and PWN dynamics, the SN progenitor and explosion asymmetry, the properties of the SN ejecta and newly-formed dust, particle injection and loss processes, and the eventual escape of energetic particles into the ISM. I will also discuss recent multi-wavelength observations and hydrodynamical modeling of evolved systems in which the PWN interacts with the SNR reverse shock and discuss their implications for our general understanding of the structure and evolution of composite SNRs.

  4. Explosive reconnection of the double tearing mode in relativistic plasmas with application to the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, J.; Takamoto, M.; Baty, H.; Zenitani, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Crab pulsar and its surrounding nebula is a well-known relic of a massive star that exploded in 1054 AD. The Crab nebula was generally believed to be a good standard candle in gamma rays. Recently, this view has been challenged by sudden increases in the gamma-ray flux in a narrow spectral band within a few hundred MeV. These flares are short but powerful; their duration is between a few hours and up to several days with a rising/falling time of a few hours/days. To date it is neither clear what mechanism powers these flares nor where exactly in the nebula they should be located. However, recent models seem to favor emission sites inside the nebula. In the present work, we study the magneto-hydrodynamic tearing instability occurring in a double current sheet configuration with application to the Crab flares. This is investigated by means of resistive relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. These put some constraints on the maximum Lorentz factor of the striped wind, Γ≲150 and on the localization of the emission region, r ≈ 50 rL where rL = c/Ω is the light-cylinder radius, c is the speed of light and Ω is the rotation speed of the pulsar. Sites close to but outside the light-cylinder are favored in our model.

  5. Multi-wavelength observations of pulsar wind nebulae and composite supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temim, Tea

    Multi-wavelength studies of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs) lead to a better understanding of their evolutionary development, the interaction of supernovae (SNe) and pulsar winds with their surroundings, and nucleosynthesis and production and processing of dust grains by SNe. PWNe and composite supernova remnants, in particular, are unique laboratories for the study of the energetic pulsar winds, particle injection processes, and the impact of PWNe on the evolving SNR. They provide information on SNR shock properties, densities and temperatures, and the chemical composition and the ionization state of the material ejected by SNe. SNRs also serve as laboratories for the study of dust production and processing in SNe. While X-ray observations yield important information about the SN progenitor, hot gas properties, SN explosion energy, and the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM), the IR can provide crucial information about the faint non-thermal emission, continuum emission from dust, and forbidden line emission from SN ejecta. Combining observations at a wide range of wavelengths provides a more complete picture of the SNR development and helps better constrain current models describing a SNR's evolution and its impact on the surrounding medium. This thesis focuses on a multi-wavelength study of PWNe in various stages of their evolution and investigates their interaction with the expanding SN ejecta and dust and the SNR reverse shock. The study of these interactions can provide important information on the SNR properties that may otherwise be unobservable. The work in this thesis has been carried out under the supervision of Patrick Slane at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Charles E. Woodward and Rebert D. Gehrz at the University of Minnesota. The first part of the thesis summarizes the evolution and observational properties of SNRs and PWNe, with a focus on the evolution of young PWNe that are sweeping up inner SN

  6. Gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula: A case of relativistic reconnection?

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, B.; Werner, G. R. Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2014-05-15

    The Crab Nebula was formed after the collapse of a massive star about a thousand years ago, leaving behind a pulsar that inflates a bubble of ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs permeated with magnetic field. The observation of brief but bright flares of energetic gamma rays suggests that pairs are accelerated to PeV energies within a few days; such rapid acceleration cannot be driven by shocks. Here, it is argued that the flares may be the smoking gun of magnetic dissipation in the Nebula. Using 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations, it is shown that the observations are consistent with relativistic magnetic reconnection, where pairs are subject to strong radiative cooling. The Crab flares may highlight the importance of relativistic magnetic reconnection in astrophysical sources.

  7. Fermi-LAT confirmation of enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. C.

    2016-10-01

    Preliminary LAT analysis confirms the recent enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula detected by AGILE (ATel #9586). The daily-averaged gamma-ray fluxes (E > 100 MeV) from the direction of the Crab Nebula were (4.8 +/- 0.5) x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 (Sep 30), (3.3 +/- 0.4) x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 (Oct 1), and (4.5 +/- 0.5) x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 (Oct 2). These are up to a factor of ~1.8 greater than the average gamma-ray flux of (2.71 +/- 0.02) x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 reported in the third Fermi-LAT source catalog (Acero et al. 2015, ApJS, 218, 23). All fluxes given are the sums of the pulsar and nebular emission, and with statistical uncertainties only.

  8. Burst activity of the Crab Nebula and its pulsar at high and ultra-high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidvansky, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of the flares of gamma rays detected from the Crab Nebula by the AGILE and Fermi-LAT satellite instruments are compared with those of a gamma ray burst recorded by several air shower arrays on February 23, 1989 and with one recent observation made by ARGO-YBJ array. It is demonstrated that though pulsar-periodicity and energy spectra of emissions at 100 MeV (satellite gamma ray telescopes) and 100 TeV (EAS arrays) are different, their time structures seem to be similar. Moreover, may be the difference between "flares" and "waves" recently found in the Crab Nebula emission by AGILE team also exists at ultra-high energies.

  9. AGILE detection of enhanced gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, M.; Striani, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; de Paris, G.; Vittorini, V.; D'Ammando, F.; Sabatini, S.; Piano, G.; Costa, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Pacciani, L.; Del Monte, E.; Lazzarotto, F.; Soffitta, P.; Evangelista, Y.; Lapshov, I.; Chen, A.; Giuliani, A.; Marisaldi, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Labanti, C.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Caraveo, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Perotti, F.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Vercellone, S.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Longo, F.; Picozza, P.; Morselli, A.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Giommi, P.; Santolamazza, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Colafrancesco, S.; Salotti, L.

    2010-09-01

    AGILE is detecting an increased gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the Crab Nebula. Integrating during the period 2010-09-19 00:10 UT to 2010-09-21 00:10 UT the AGILE-GRID detected enhanced gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV from a source at Galactic coordinates (l,b) = (184.6, -6.0) +/- 0.4 (stat.) +/- 0.1 (syst.) deg, and flux F > 500 e-8 ph/cm2/sec above 100 MeV, corresponding to an excess with significance above 4.4 sigma with respect to the average flux from the Crab nebula (F = (220 +/- 15)e-8 ph/cm^2/sec, Pittori et al., 2009, A&A, 506, 1563).

  10. High resolution X-ray and radio images of the Crab-like supernova remnant G21.5-0.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    The Crab-like supernova remnant G21.5-0.9 has been imaged at 6 cm wavelength with the VLA and between 0.1-4 keV with the Einstein Observatory. Both the X-ray and radio images show a centrally peaked distribution of extended emission with no indication of a pointlike component. In contrast, the linearly polarized radio emission is distributed in a ring with a distinct central minimum. The electric vectors of the polarized radio emission are oriented circumferentially. The data support a Crab-like model for G21.5-0.9, but one in which a lower percentage of the radiated flux is emitted as X-rays relative to the Crab Nebula.

  11. Imaging the Crab nebula when it is flaring in gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    One of the most intriguing results of the gamma-ray instruments currently in orbit has been the detection of powerful flares from the Crab Nebula. Such events, detected roughly once per year, can be very spectacular. Indeed, in April 2011, for a few days the Crab was by far the brightest source in the gamma-ray sky. Such a dramatic variability challenges our understanding of how pulsar wind nebulae work and defies current astrophysical models for particle acceleration. With the aim of locating the site{s} of the flares, an ad hoc HST strategy must be put in place to be prepared and react promptly in case of a new brightening in gamma rays. We ask here for a triggered TOO observation of the Crab Nebula with ACS/WFC in case a gamma-ray flare is announced by the Agile and/or Fermi missions. This is a crucial part of a multiwavelength program that we are organizing, based on lessons learnt from our follow-up observations of previous flares, including a regular {monthly} monitoring of the source both in X-ray and optical through a joint Chandra-HST proposal.

  12. Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet

    PubMed Central

    Li, C. K.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lamb, D.; Gregori, G.; Norreys, P. A.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Follett, R. K.; Froula, D. H.; Koenig, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D. D.; Wilks, S. C.; Betti, R.; Frank, A.; Hu, S. X.; Sangster, T. C.; Hartigan, P.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable discovery by the Chandra X-ray observatory that the Crab nebula's jet periodically changes direction provides a challenge to our understanding of astrophysical jet dynamics. It has been suggested that this phenomenon may be the consequence of magnetic fields and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, but experimental demonstration in a controlled laboratory environment has remained elusive. Here we report experiments that use high-power lasers to create a plasma jet that can be directly compared with the Crab jet through well-defined physical scaling laws. The jet generates its own embedded toroidal magnetic fields; as it moves, plasma instabilities result in multiple deflections of the propagation direction, mimicking the kink behaviour of the Crab jet. The experiment is modelled with three-dimensional numerical simulations that show exactly how the instability develops and results in changes of direction of the jet. PMID:27713403

  13. Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lamb, D.; Gregori, G.; Norreys, P. A.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Follett, R. K.; Froula, D. H.; Koenig, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D. D.; Wilks, S. C.; Betti, R.; Frank, A.; Hu, S. X.; Sangster, T. C.; Hartigan, P.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2016-10-01

    The remarkable discovery by the Chandra X-ray observatory that the Crab nebula's jet periodically changes direction provides a challenge to our understanding of astrophysical jet dynamics. It has been suggested that this phenomenon may be the consequence of magnetic fields and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, but experimental demonstration in a controlled laboratory environment has remained elusive. Here we report experiments that use high-power lasers to create a plasma jet that can be directly compared with the Crab jet through well-defined physical scaling laws. The jet generates its own embedded toroidal magnetic fields; as it moves, plasma instabilities result in multiple deflections of the propagation direction, mimicking the kink behaviour of the Crab jet. The experiment is modelled with three-dimensional numerical simulations that show exactly how the instability develops and results in changes of direction of the jet.

  14. A scanning modulation collimator observation of the high-energy X-ray source in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelling, R. M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Peterson, L. E.; Makishima, K.; Oda, M.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional maps of the 22-64 keV emission from the Crab Nebula with an angular resolution of 15 arcsec has been synthesized. The maps are generated by application of a maximum entropy method operating on a series of one-dimensional scans obtained with a balloon-borne modulation collimator telescope. The two-dimensional size, shape and orientation of the hard X-ray nebula relative to the pulsar have been measured for the first time. The implications of these results for models of electron transport in the Crab are discussed, and the geometry of the observed X-ray nebula is related to other features of the Crab Nebula system.

  15. RAPID GAMMA-RAY FLUX VARIABILITY DURING THE 2013 MARCH CRAB NEBULA FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, M.; Buehler, R.; Hays, E.; Cheung, C. C.; Grove, J. E.; Dutka, M. S.; Kerr, M.; Ojha, R. E-mail: rolf.buehler@desy.de

    2013-10-01

    We report on a bright flare in the Crab Nebula detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The period of significantly increased luminosity occurred in 2013 March and lasted for approximately two weeks. During this period, we observed flux variability on timescales of approximately 5 hr. The combined photon flux above 100 MeV from the pulsar and its nebula reached a peak value of (12.5 ± 0.8) · 10{sup –6} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} on 2013 March 6. This value exceeds the average flux by almost a factor of six and implies a ∼20 times higher flux for the synchrotron component of the nebula alone. This is the second brightest flare observed from this source. Spectral and temporal analysis of the LAT data collected during the outburst reveal a rapidly varying synchrotron component of the Crab Nebula while the pulsar emission remains constant in time.

  16. Detonative propagation and accelerative expansion of the Crab Nebula shock front.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K

    2011-10-21

    The accelerative expansion of the Crab Nebula's outer envelope is a mystery in dynamics, as a conventional expanding blast wave decelerates when bumping into the surrounding interstellar medium. Here we show that the strong relativistic pulsar wind bumping into its surrounding nebula induces energy-generating processes and initiates a detonation wave that propagates outward to form the current outer edge, namely, the shock front, of the nebula. The resulting detonation wave, with a reactive downstream, then provides the needed power to maintain propagation of the shock front. Furthermore, relaxation of the curvature-induced reduction of the propagation velocity from the initial state of formation to the asymptotic, planar state of Chapman-Jouguet propagation explains the observed accelerative expansion. Potential richness in incorporating reactive fronts in the description of various astronomical phenomena is expected.

  17. Exploration of the Kinked Jet in the Crab Nebula with Scaled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chikang

    2015-11-01

    X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray Observatory show that the South-East jet in the Crab nebula changes direction every few years. This remarkable phenomenon is also frequently observed for jets in other pulsar-wind nebulae and in other astrophysical objects. Numerical simulations suggest that it may be a consequence of current-driven, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities taking place in the jet, yet that is just a hypothesis without verification in controlled experiments. To that end, we recently conducted scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced this phenomenon. In these experiments, a supersonic plasma jet was generated in the collision of two laser-produced plasma plumes, and this jet was radiographed from the side using 15-MeV and 3-MeV protons. It was observed that if self-generated toroidal magnetic fields around the jet were strong enough, they triggered plasma instabilities that caused substantial deflections throughout the jet propagation, mimicking the kinked jet structure seen in the Crab Nebula. We have modeled these laboratory experiments with comprehensive two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations, which in conjunction with the experiments provide compelling evidence that we have an accurate model of the most important physics of magnetic fields and MHD instabilities in the observed jet in the Crab Nebula. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  18. DETECTING THE RAPIDLY EXPANDING OUTER SHELL OF THE CRAB NEBULA: WHERE TO LOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiang; Ferland, G. J.; Baldwin, J. A.; Loh, E. D.; Richardson, C. T.

    2013-09-10

    We present a range of steady-state photoionization simulations, corresponding to different assumed shell geometries and compositions, of the unseen postulated rapidly expanding outer shell to the Crab Nebula. The properties of the shell are constrained by the mass that must lie within it, and by limits to the intensities of hydrogen recombination lines. In all cases the photoionization models predict very strong emissions from high ionization lines that will not be emitted by the Crab's filaments, alleviating problems with detecting these lines in the presence of light scattered from brighter parts of the Crab. The near-NIR [Ne VI] {lambda}7.652 {mu}m line is a particularly good case; it should be dramatically brighter than the optical lines commonly used in searches. The C IV {lambda}1549 doublet is predicted to be the strongest absorption line from the shell, which is in agreement with Hubble Space Telescope observations. We show that the cooling timescale for the outer shell is much longer than the age of the Crab, due to the low density. This means that the temperature of the shell will actually ''remember'' its initial conditions. However, the recombination time is much shorter than the age of the Crab, so the predicted level of ionization should approximate the real ionization. In any case, it is clear that IR observations present the best opportunity to detect the outer shell and so guide future models that will constrain early events in the original explosion.

  19. Imaging the Crab nebula when it is flaring in gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    One of the most intriguing results of the gamma-ray instruments currently in orbit has been the detection of powerful flares from the Crab Nebula. Such events, with a recurrence time of about once per year, can be so dramatic to make the system the brightest source in the gamma-ray sky, as it occurred in April 2011. Such a discovery challenges our understanding of how pulsar wind nebulae work and defies current astrophysical models for particle acceleration. With the aim of locating the site(s) of the flares, an ad hoc HST strategy have been put in place to be prepared and react promptly in case of a new brightening in gamma rays. We ask here for a triggered TOO observation of the Crab Nebula with ACS/WFC in case a gamma-ray flare is announced by the Agile and/or the Fermi missions. This TOO is crucial part of a multiwavelength program that we have organized, based on lessons learnt from our follow-up observations of previous flares, including a regular (quarterly) monitoring of the source both in X-rays and optical through a joint Chandra-HST proposal.

  20. Monitoring of the Crab Nebula with Chandra and Other Observatories Including HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Subsequent to the detections AGILE and Fermi/LAT of the gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula in the fall of 2010, this team has been monitoring the X-Ray emission from the Crab on a regular basis. X-Ray observations have taken place typically once per month when viewing constraints allow and more recently four times per year. There have been notable exceptions, e.g. in April of 2011 and March 2013 when we initiated a set of Chandra Target of opportunity observations in conjunction with bright gamma-ray flares. For much of the time regular HST observations were made in conjunction with the Chandra observations. The aim of this program to further characterize, in depth, the X-Ray and optical variations that take place in the nebula, and by so doing determine the regions which contribute to the harder X-ray variations and, if possible, determine the precise location within the Nebula of the origin of the gamma-ray flares. As part of this project members of the team have developed Singular Value Decomposition techniques to sequences of images in order to more accurately characterize features. The current status of the project will be presented highlighting studies of the inner knot and possible correlations with the flares.

  1. Extreme Particle Acceleration in Reconnection Layers and Gamma-ray Flares in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Benoit; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2011-09-01

    The Fermi and Agile gamma-ray space telescopes recently discovered short and powerful gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula. These events presumably originate from a tiny region of the nebula where electrons are accelerated to PeV energies and radiate >100 MeV synchrotron radiation in a milli-Gauss magnetic field. In classical models of particle acceleration, where the accelerating electric field is smaller than the magnetic field, the synchrotron radiation cannot exceed 100 MeV because radiative losses balance the acceleration rate. We propose that particles are efficiently accelerated to PeV energies in a magnetic reconnection layer. We find that ultrarelativistic electron orbits are trapped and collapse rapidly deep into the current layer where the magnetic field becomes small. After a few days of acceleration by the reconnection electric field, electrons are accelerated to PeV energies and are focused into a tight, narrow beam. This mechanism provides a viable explanation to the gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula and could be at work in other astrophysical objects such as relativistic jets in AGN.

  2. A Search for Enhanced Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the 2013 March Crab Nebula Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Lyutikov, M.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sembroski, G. H.; Sheidaei, F.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Theiling, M.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Williams, D. A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zitzer, B.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 March, a flaring episode from the Crab Nebula lasting ~2 weeks was detected by Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope). The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) provides simultaneous observations throughout this period. During the flare, Fermi-LAT detected a 20 fold increase in flux above the average synchrotron flux >100 MeV seen from the Crab Nebula. Simultaneous measurements with VERITAS are consistent with the non-variable long-term average Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Assuming a linear correlation between the very high energy flux change >1 TeV and the flux change seen in the Fermi-LAT band >100 MeV during the period of simultaneous observations, the linear correlation factor can be constrained to be at most 8.6 × 10-3 with 95% confidence.

  3. A SEARCH FOR ENHANCED VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE 2013 MARCH CRAB NEBULA FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S. E-mail: gtrichards@gatech.edu; and others

    2014-01-20

    In 2013 March, a flaring episode from the Crab Nebula lasting ∼2 weeks was detected by Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope). The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) provides simultaneous observations throughout this period. During the flare, Fermi-LAT detected a 20 fold increase in flux above the average synchrotron flux >100 MeV seen from the Crab Nebula. Simultaneous measurements with VERITAS are consistent with the non-variable long-term average Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Assuming a linear correlation between the very high energy flux change >1 TeV and the flux change seen in the Fermi-LAT band >100 MeV during the period of simultaneous observations, the linear correlation factor can be constrained to be at most 8.6 × 10{sup –3} with 95% confidence.

  4. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula and its pulsar has been the subject of a number of detailed observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The superb angular resolution of Chandra s high-resolution telescope has made possible numerous remarkable results. Here we describe a number of specific studies of the Crab that I and my colleagues have undertaken. We discuss the geometry of the system, which indicates that the "inner X-ray ring", typically identified with the termination shock of the pulsar s particle wind, is most likely not in the equatorial plane of the pulsar. Other topics are the northern wisps and their evolution with time; the characterization of features in the jet to the southeast; pulse-phase spectroscopy and possible correlations with the features at other wavelengths, particularly the optical polarization; and a search for correlations of the X-ray flux with the recently-discovered gamma -ray flares.

  5. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab nebula and its associated pulsar have been the target of thousands of observations at all wavelengths over the years. Nevertheless, the system continues to provide new surprises and observational insights into its physical mechanisms. We shall discuss a number of new results we have obtained through Chandra observations. Results include highly detailed pulse-phase spectroscopy which poses challenges to our understanding of pulsar emission mechanisms, a new and precise look at the pulsar geometry, a study of the spatial and temporal variation(s) of the southern jet, and the results of a search for the site of the recently-discovered gamma ]ray flares. We have been using the Chandra X -Ray observatory to monitor the Crab on a monthly cadence since just after the 2010 September gamma ]ray flare. We were fortunate to trigger series of preplanned target of opportunity observations during the 2011 April flare.

  6. Resolving the Crab Nebula with Direct Hard X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Apple, Jeff A.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Weisskopf, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We report the first direct hard (25--60 keV) X-ray imaging observation of the Crab Nebula that resolves structure to approximately 0.25 pc. The observation was performed over a 1.4 hour period during a balloon flight from Ft. Sumner, NM, on 2007 May 27. The source was detected in the energy band above the atmospheric cutoff at approx.25 keV and below the mirror graze angle cutoff at approx.60 keV. The image shows elongation about 25 degrees E of N in the direction along the plane of the torus (and perpendicular to the jet axis) with a slight surface-brightness enhancement NE of the pulsar. The spectrum within a 1.7 arcminute radius region centered on the Crab pulsar can be fitted with a Gamma=2 power law absorbed by an atmospheric column consistent with the balloon altitude at the time of observation.

  7. The Crab Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Peter

    2011-10-01

    The Crab Nebula, along with its central pulsar and its explosive originin SN 1054, plays a crucial role in our understanding of the linkbetween supernovae and pulsar formation and activity.Yet, there are fundamental uncertainties in the nature of the event thathave not been settled in more than two decades of investigation.The observed mass in the nebula and pulsar is nearly half of theexpected initial stellar mass and the observed energy {much of whichmay come from the central pulsar} is only a fewpercent of the typical supernova energy.An attractive solution to this ``missing mass'' problem is that this massis in a high velocity envelope around the observed Crab Nebula.The envelope would have most of the energy of the explosion {roughly 10^{51} ergs}, bringing the energy up to that typical of a Type II supernova. The fact that the Crab filaments have a measured acceleration and show no deceleration at the outer edge is consistent with this hypothesis. The lack of an interaction region created by the fast shell can be attributed to a very low density around the supernova. We propose to search for the fast shell by taking a COS spectrum of the Crab pulsar in the region of the C IV 1550 line. We have carried out time-dependent ionization calculations that show that this line should produce a detectable broad, blueshifted absorption if the shell is present.

  8. New Results from an Old Friend: The Crab Nebula and its Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    The Crab nebula and its associated pulsar have been the target of thousands of observations at all wavelengths over the years. Nevertheless, the system continues to provide new surprises and observational insights into its physical mechanisms. We shall discuss a number of new results we have obtained through Chandra observations. Results include highly detailed pulse-phase spectroscopy which poses challenges to our understanding of pulsar emission mechanisms, a new and precise look at the pulsar geometry, the results of a search for the site of the recently-discovered gamma-ray flares, and a study of the spatial and temporal variation(s) of the southern jet.

  9. A recent change in the optical and γ-ray polarization of the Crab nebula and pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, P.; Kyne, G.; Gouiffès, C.; Laurent, P.; Hallinan, G.; Redfern, R. M.; Shearer, A.

    2016-03-01

    We report on observations of the polarization of optical and γ-ray photons from the Crab nebula and pulsar system using the Galway Astronomical Stokes Polarimeter (GASP), the Hubble Space Telescope, Advanced Camera for Surveys and the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory satellite (INTEGRAL). These, when combined with other optical polarization observations, suggest that the polarized optical emission and γ-ray polarization changes in a similar manner. A change in the optical polarization angle has been observed by this work, from 109.5 ± 0.7° in 2005 to 85.3 ± 1.4° in 2012. On the other hand, the γ-ray polarization angle changed from 115 ± 11° in 2003-2007 to 80 ± 12° in 2012-2014. Strong flaring activities have been detected in the Crab nebula over the past few years by the high-energy γ-ray missions Agile and Fermi, and magnetic reconnection processes have been suggested to explain these observations. The change in the polarized optical and γ-ray emission of the Crab nebula/pulsar as observed, for the first time, by GASP and INTEGRAL may indicate that reconnection is possibly at work in the Crab nebula. We also report, for the first time, a non-zero measure of the optical circular polarization from the Crab pulsar+knot system.

  10. GLOBAL SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE CRAB NEBULA IN THE PROSPECT OF THE PLANCK SATELLITE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION

    SciTech Connect

    MacIas-Perez, J. F.; Mayet, F.; Aumont, J.

    2010-03-01

    Within the framework of the Planck satellite polarization calibration, we present a study of the Crab Nebula spectral energy distribution (SED) over more than six decades in frequency ranging from 1 to 10{sup 6} GHz (from 299 to 2.99 x 10{sup -4} mm). The Planck satellite mission observes the sky from 30 to 857 GHz (from 9.99 to 0.3498 mm) and therefore we focus on the millimeter region. We use radio and submillimeter data from the WMAP satellite between 23 and 94 GHz (from 13 to 3.18 mm), from the Archeops balloon experiment between 143 (2.1 mm) and 545 GHz (0.55 mm), and a compendium of other Crab Nebula observations. The Crab SED is compared to models including three main components: synchrotron that is responsible for the emission at low and high frequencies, dust that explains the excess of flux observed by the IRAS satellite, and an extra component on the millimeter regime. From this analysis, we conclude that the unpolarized emission of the Crab Nebula at microwave and millimeter wavelengths is the same synchrotron emission as the one observed in the radio domain. Therefore, we expect the millimeter emission of the Crab Nebula to be polarized with the same degree of polarization and orientation as the radio emission. We set upper limits on the possible errors induced by any millimeter extra component on the reconstruction of the degree and angle of polarization at the percent level as a maximum. This result strongly supports the choice by the Planck collaboration of the Crab Nebula emission for performing polarization cross-checks in the range 30 (299 mm) to 353 GHz (0.849 mm).

  11. Detection of the Crab Nebula By UV Imaging of TeV Gamma Ray Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantell, M.

    1994-12-01

    With successful detection of TeV gamma ray fluxes from the Crab Nebula and the AGN, MRK421, the Whipple Observatory Gamma Ray Collaboration has demonstrated the sensitivity of the Cherenkov imaging technique in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. This technique uses an array of 109 blue-sensitive photomultipliers to image the Cherenkov radiation produced when TeV gamma and cosmic rays enter the earth's atmosphere. One major limitation of this technique is the requirement of absolutely dark skies during observations. The presence of the moon rules out the possibility of making observations because of the high sensitivity of the photomultipliers used in the camera. To address this limitation we have developed a camera which utilizes solar-blind photomultpliers with primary sensitivity from 220nm to 280nm allowing observations even in the presence of the full moon. After two years of UV observations of the Crab Nebula we have demonstrated the ability to discriminate gamma rays from the hadronic background with an energy threshold of approximately 1 TeV. The development of this camera makes it possible to increase the duty cycle of the 10 meter telescope allowing observations in bright time. Additionally the insensitivity to background star light allows this camera to observe sources in bright regions of the galactic plane, where high background light levels have limited the usefulness of the visible camera.

  12. THE CRAB NEBULA SUPER-FLARE IN 2011 APRIL: EXTREMELY FAST PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND GAMMA-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Cardillo, M; Piano, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Vittorini, V.; Trois, A.; Costa, E.; Argan, A.; De Paris, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Weisskopf, M.; Tennant, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Chen, A. W.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the extremely intense and fast gamma-ray flare above 100 MeV detected by AGILE from the Crab Nebula in mid-April 2011. This event is the fourth of a sequence of reported major gamma-ray flares produced by the Crab Nebula in the period 2007/mid-2011. These events are attributed to strong radiative and plasma instabilities in the inner Crab Nebula, and their properties are crucial for theoretical studies of fast and efficient particle acceleration up to 10{sup 15} eV. Here we study the very rapid flux and spectral evolution of the event that on 2011 April 16 reached the record-high peak flux of F = (26 {+-} 5) x 10{sup -6} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with a rise-time timescale that we determine to be in the range 6-10 hr. The peak flaring gamma-ray spectrum reaches a distinct maximum near 500 MeV with no substantial emission above 1 GeV. The very rapid rise time and overall evolution of the Crab Nebula flare strongly constrain the acceleration mechanisms and challenge MHD models. We briefly discuss the theoretical implications of our observations.

  13. Fermi LAT Observations of the Crab Nebula During the Exceptional April 2011 Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula, formerly thought to be steady in gamma rays, shows unexpected and occasionally dramatic variability in high-energy gamma rays. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi recorded several strong outbursts, including dedicated pointed observations of the brightest yet seen, a spectacular flare in April 2011. These observations provide a particularly detailed look at the temporal and spectral characteristics of the nebula during the flare. The LAT data show an additional component in the spectral energy distribution that peaks at a maximum of $375\\pm26\\mathrm{MeV}$. In the probable scenario that this component is synchrotron emission, the electrons are accelerated to extreme energies that are difficult to reconcile with the very rapid change in flux and the expectation for acceleration processes and conditions occurring within the pulsar wind nebula. The physical location and mechanism driving the flares remains undetermined despite observations across the spectrum made by a variety of instruments including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Very Large Array. I will present timing and spectral studies of the high-energy gamma-ray data, discuss implications for the origin of the flares, and highlight preparations for the next major flare.

  14. ON THE ORIGIN AND PHYSICS OF GAMMA FLARES IN CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Machabeli, George; Rogava, Andria; Shapakidze, David

    2015-11-20

    We consider parametric generation of electrostatic waves in the magnetosphere of the pulsar PSR0531. The suggested mechanism allows us to convert the pulsar rotational energy into the energy of Langmuir waves. The maximum growth rate is achieved in the “superluminal” area, where the phase velocity of perturbations exceeds the speed of light. Therefore, electromagnetic waves do not damp on particles. Instead, they create plasmon condensate, which is carried out outside of the pulsar magnetosphere and reaches the Crab Nebula. It is shown that the transfer of the energy of the plasmon condensate from the light cylinder to the active region of the nebula happens practically without losses. Unlike the plasma of the magnetosphere, the one of the nebula contains ions, i.e., it may sustain modulation instability, that leads to the collapse of the Langmuir condensate. Langmuir wave collapse, in turn, leads to the acceleration of the distribution function particles. Furthermore, the processes that lead to self-trapping of the synchrotron radiation are discussed. The self-trapping results in the growth of the radiation intensity, which manifests itself observationally as a flare. The condition for the self-trapping onset is derived, showing that if the phenomenon takes place at 100 MeV, then it does not happen at lower (or higher) energies. This specific kind of higher-/lower-energy cutoff could explain why when we observe the flare at 100 MeV that no enhanced emission is observed at lower/higher energies!.

  15. Structure of relativistic shocks in pulsar winds: A model of the wisps in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallant, Yves A.; Arons, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    We propose a model of a optical 'wisps' of the Crab Nebula, features observed in the nebular synchrotron surface brightness near the central pulsar, as manifestations of the internal structure of the shock terminating the pulsar wind. We assume that this wind is composed of ions and a much denser plasma of electrons and positrons, frozen together to a toroidal magnetic field and flowing relativistically. We construct a form of solitary wave model of the shock structure in which we self-consistently solve for the ion orbits and the dynamics of the relativistically hot, magnetized e(+/-) background flow. We ignore dispersion in the ion energies, and we treat the pairs as an adiabatic fluid. The synchrotron emission enhancements, observed as the wisps, are then explained as the regions where reflection of the ions in the self-consistent magnetic field causes compressions of the e(+/-).

  16. GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN THE CRAB NEBULA: THE EXCEPTIONAL FLARE OF 2011 APRIL

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Funk, S.; Kerr, M.; Massaro, F.; Romani, R. W.; Scargle, J. D.; Baldini, L.; Baring, M. G.; Belfiore, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; D'Ammando, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Grove, J. E.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Tennant, A. F. E-mail: rdb3@stanford.edu; and others

    2012-04-10

    The Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite observed a gamma-ray flare in the Crab Nebula lasting for approximately nine days in April of 2011. The source, which at optical wavelengths has a size of Almost-Equal-To 11 lt-yr across, doubled its gamma-ray flux within eight hours. The peak photon flux was (186 {+-} 6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 100 MeV, which corresponds to a 30-fold increase compared to the average value. During the flare, a new component emerged in the spectral energy distribution, which peaked at an energy of (375 {+-} 26) MeV at flare maximum. The observations imply that the emission region was likely relativistically beamed toward us and that variations in its motion are responsible for the observed spectral variability.

  17. Adventures in Modern Time Series Analysis: From the Sun to the Crab Nebula and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    With the generation of long, precise, and finely sampled time series the Age of Digital Astronomy is uncovering and elucidating energetic dynamical processes throughout the Universe. Fulfilling these opportunities requires data effective analysis techniques rapidly and automatically implementing advanced concepts. The Time Series Explorer, under development in collaboration with Tom Loredo, provides tools ranging from simple but optimal histograms to time and frequency domain analysis for arbitrary data modes with any time sampling. Much of this development owes its existence to Joe Bredekamp and the encouragement he provided over several decades. Sample results for solar chromospheric activity, gamma-ray activity in the Crab Nebula, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts will be displayed.

  18. Gamma-Ray Activity in the Crab Nebula: The Exceptional Flare of April 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, R.; Scargle, J. D.; Blandford, R. D.; Baldini, L; Baring, M. G.; Belfiore, A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; DAmmando, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Funk, S,; Grove, J. E.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Kerr, M.; Massaro, F.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Romani, R. W.; SazParkinson, P, M.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite observed a gamma-ray flare in the Crab nebula lasting for approximately nine days in April of 2011. The source, which at optical wavelengths has a size of approximately 11 ly across, doubled its gamma-ray flux within eight hours. The peak photon flux was (186 +/- 6) x 10(exp -7) /square cm/s above 100 MeV, which corresponds to a 30-fold increase compared to the average value. During the flare, a new component emerged in the spectral energy distribution, which peaked at an energy of (375 +/- 26) MeV at flare maximum. The observations imply that the emission region was relativistically beamed toward us and that variations in its motion are responsible for the observed spectral variability.

  19. Three-dimensional relativistic pair plasma reconnection with radiative feedback in the Crab Nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, B.; Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C. E-mail: greg.werner@colorado.edu E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu

    2014-02-20

    The discovery of rapid synchrotron gamma-ray flares above 100 MeV from the Crab Nebula has attracted new interest in alternative particle acceleration mechanisms in pulsar wind nebulae. Diffuse shock-acceleration fails to explain the flares because particle acceleration and emission occur during a single or even sub-Larmor timescale. In this regime, the synchrotron energy losses induce a drag force on the particle motion that balances the electric acceleration and prevents the emission of synchrotron radiation above 160 MeV. Previous analytical studies and two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations indicate that relativistic reconnection is a viable mechanism to circumvent the above difficulties. The reconnection electric field localized at X-points linearly accelerates particles with little radiative energy losses. In this paper, we check whether this mechanism survives in three dimension (3D), using a set of large PIC simulations with radiation reaction force and with a guide field. In agreement with earlier works, we find that the relativistic drift kink instability deforms and then disrupts the layer, resulting in significant plasma heating but few non-thermal particles. A moderate guide field stabilizes the layer and enables particle acceleration. We report that 3D magnetic reconnection can accelerate particles above the standard radiation reaction limit, although the effect is less pronounced than in 2D with no guide field. We confirm that the highest-energy particles form compact bunches within magnetic flux ropes, and a beam tightly confined within the reconnection layer, which could result in the observed Crab flares when, by chance, the beam crosses our line of sight.

  20. Three-dimensional Relativistic Pair Plasma Reconnection with Radiative Feedback in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, B.; Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2014-02-01

    The discovery of rapid synchrotron gamma-ray flares above 100 MeV from the Crab Nebula has attracted new interest in alternative particle acceleration mechanisms in pulsar wind nebulae. Diffuse shock-acceleration fails to explain the flares because particle acceleration and emission occur during a single or even sub-Larmor timescale. In this regime, the synchrotron energy losses induce a drag force on the particle motion that balances the electric acceleration and prevents the emission of synchrotron radiation above 160 MeV. Previous analytical studies and two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations indicate that relativistic reconnection is a viable mechanism to circumvent the above difficulties. The reconnection electric field localized at X-points linearly accelerates particles with little radiative energy losses. In this paper, we check whether this mechanism survives in three dimension (3D), using a set of large PIC simulations with radiation reaction force and with a guide field. In agreement with earlier works, we find that the relativistic drift kink instability deforms and then disrupts the layer, resulting in significant plasma heating but few non-thermal particles. A moderate guide field stabilizes the layer and enables particle acceleration. We report that 3D magnetic reconnection can accelerate particles above the standard radiation reaction limit, although the effect is less pronounced than in 2D with no guide field. We confirm that the highest-energy particles form compact bunches within magnetic flux ropes, and a beam tightly confined within the reconnection layer, which could result in the observed Crab flares when, by chance, the beam crosses our line of sight.

  1. The synchrotron bays of the Crab Nebula - A magnetic structure associated with a presupernova circumstellar disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Martin, Crystal L.; Shull, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the nature of two large conical indentations in the Crab Nebula's synchrotron emission, commonly known as the east and west 'bays'. Optical images spanning nearly nine decades (1899-1988) reveal the bays to be long-lasting remnant features. Proper motions of the bays away from the remnant's center of expansion are consistent with their locations near the SN progenitor site in A.D. 1054. Based on their morphologies and polarization properties, the bays appear to be portions of a torus encircling the remnant's center of expansion. The nebular magnetic field wrapped around this torus blocks the pulsar's relativistic particles, resulting in the observed lack of synchrotron emission. We propose that this torus is the result of a presupernova disklike ejection not less than 0.1 solar mass by the Crab progenitor, similar to the ring around SN 1987 A. A 0.5 solar mass disk of He-rich filaments along the equatorial plane is probably also related to presupernova mass loss, which might explain the wide range of abundances seen among filaments.

  2. DETECTION AND IMAGING OF THE CRAB NEBULA WITH THE NUCLEAR COMPTON TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bandstra, M. S.; Bellm, E. C.; Boggs, S. E.; Perez-Becker, D.; Zoglauer, A.; Chang, H.-K.; Chiu, J.-L.; Liang, J.-S.; Chang, Y.-H.; Liu, Z.-K.; Hung, W.-C.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Chiang, S. J.; Run, R.-S.; Lin, C.-H.; Amman, M.; Luke, P. N.; Jean, P.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Wunderer, C. B.

    2011-09-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne Compton telescope designed for the study of astrophysical sources in the soft gamma-ray regime (200 keV-20 MeV). NCT's 10 high-purity germanium crossed-strip detectors measure the deposited energies and three-dimensional positions of gamma-ray interactions in the sensitive volume, and this information is used to restrict the initial photon to a circle on the sky using the Compton scatter technique. Thus NCT is able to perform spectroscopy, imaging, and polarization analysis on soft gamma-ray sources. NCT is one of the next generation of Compton telescopes-the so-called compact Compton telescopes (CCTs)-which can achieve effective areas comparable to the Imaging Compton Telescope's with an instrument that is a fraction of the size. The Crab Nebula was the primary target for the second flight of the NCT instrument, which occurred on 2009 May 17 and 18 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Analysis of 29.3 ks of data from the flight reveals an image of the Crab at a significance of 4{sigma}. This is the first reported detection of an astrophysical source by a CCT.

  3. RECONNECTION-POWERED LINEAR ACCELERATOR AND GAMMA-RAY FLARES IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Cerutti, BenoIt; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: benoit.cerutti@colorado.edu

    2011-08-20

    The recent discovery of day-long gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula, presumed to be synchrotron emission by PeV (10{sup 15} eV) electrons in milligauss magnetic fields, presents a strong challenge to particle acceleration models. The observed photon energies exceed the upper limit ({approx}100 MeV) obtained by balancing the acceleration rate and synchrotron radiation losses under standard conditions where the electric field is smaller than the magnetic field. We argue that a linear electric accelerator, operating at magnetic reconnection sites, is able to circumvent this difficulty. Sufficiently energetic electrons have gyroradii so large that their motion is insensitive to small-scale turbulent structures in the reconnection layer and is controlled only by large-scale fields. We show that such particles are guided into the reconnection layer by the reversing magnetic field as they are accelerated by the reconnection electric field. As these electrons become confined within the current sheet, they experience a decreasing perpendicular magnetic field that may drop below the accelerating electric field. This enables them to reach higher energies before suffering radiation losses and hence to emit synchrotron radiation in excess of the 100 MeV limit, providing a natural resolution to the Crab gamma-ray flare paradox.

  4. Reconnection-Powered Extreme Particle Acceleration and Gamma-Ray Flares in Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri; Cerutti, Benoit; Begelman, Mitchell

    2011-11-01

    Recent discovery of gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula challenges traditional relativistic particle acceleration models. These flares are presumably produced by PeV electrons radiating >100 MeV synchrotron photons in a milli-gauss magnetic field. In traditional models, where the accelerating electric field is smaller than the magnetic field, synchrotron radiation cannot exceed 100 MeV because radiative losses balance the acceleration rate. We propose that linear electric acceleration in a magnetic reconnection layer can resolve this difficulty. The gyroradii of PeV electrons are so large that their motion is insensitive to small-scale turbulent structures and is controlled only by large-scale fields. As these particles are accelerated by the reconnection electric field, their relativistic Speiser-like orbits collapse deep into the layer and get focused into a tight beam. Furthermore, since perpendicular magnetic field is small inside the layer, the radiation reaction there is suppressed, so the particles can reach higher energies and emit synchrotron radiation in excess of the 100 MeV limit, resolving the Crab gamma-ray flare paradox.

  5. Near-Infrared, Kilosecond Variability of the Wisps And Jet in the Crab Pulsar Wind Nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Melatos, Andrew; Scheltus, D.; Whiting, M.T.; Eikenberry, S.S.; Romani, R.W.; Rigaut, F.; Spitkovsky, A.; Arons, J.; Payne, D.J.B.; /Melbourne U.

    2006-01-11

    We present a time-lapse sequence of 20 near-infrared (J- and K'-band) snapshots of the central 20'' x 20'' of the Crab pulsar wind nebula, taken at sub-arcsecond resolution with the Hokupa'a/QUIRC adaptive optics camera on the Gemini North Telescope, and sampled at intervals of 10 minutes and 24 hours. It is observed that the equatorial wisps and polar knots in the termination shock of the pulsar wind appear to fluctuate in brightness on kilosecond time-scales. Maximum flux variations of {+-}24 {+-} 4 and {+-}14 {+-} 4 per cent relative to the mean (in 1.2 ks) are measured for the wisps and knots respectively, with greatest statistical significance in J band where the nebula background is less prominent. The J and K' flux densities imply different near-infrared spectra for the nonthermal continuum emission from the wisps and outermost polar knot (''sprite''), giving F{sub {nu}} {proportional_to} {nu}{sup -0.56{+-}0.12} and F{sub {nu}} {proportional_to} {nu}{sup -0.21{+-}0.13} respectively. The data are compared with existing optical and UV photometry and applied to constrain theories of the variability of the wisps (relativistic ion-cyclotron instability) and knots (relativistic fire hose instability).

  6. Tracing Dust Grains from Supernovae to The Solar Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebbers, Ian; Goodson, Matthew; Heitsch, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Short-lived radioisotopes (SLRs) were present in the early solar system, providing evidence that the solar system was impacted by a supernova prior to or during its formation. However, hydrodynamical models of the injection of SLRs fail to achieve sufficient mixing, presenting a challenge to this hypothesis. We propose the injection of SLRs via dust grains in an attempt to overcome the mixing barrier. To test this hypothesis we simulate injection into a presolar gas cloud under various assumptions. Our results suggest that SLR transport in dust grains is a viable mechanism for generating observed SLR abundances.

  7. Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Space Velocities and Supernova Remnant Associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    I am pleased to be able to report significant progress in my research relevant to my LTSA grant. This progress I believe is demonstrated by a long list of publications in 2002, as detailed below. I summarize the research results my collaborators and I obtained in 2002. First, my group announced the major discovery of soft-gamma-repeater-like X-ray bursts from the anomalous X-ray pulsars lE-1048.1$-$5937 and lE-2259+586, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. This result provides an elegant and long-sought-after confirmation that this class of objects and the soft gamma repeaters share a common nature, namely that they are magnetars. Magnetars are a novel manifestation of young neutron stars, quite different from conventional Crab-like radio pulsars. This discovery was made as part of our regular monitoring program, among the goals of which was to detect such outbursts.

  8. Nonlinear reflection from the surface of neutron stars and features of radio emission from the pulsar in the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontorovich, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    There are no explanations for the high-frequency component of the emission from the pulsar in the Crab nebula, but it may be a manifestation of instability in nonlinear reflection from the star's surface. Radiation from relativistic positrons flying from the magnetosphere to the star and accelerated by the electric field of the polar gap is reflected. The instability involves stimulated scattering on surface waves.

  9. EXTREME PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION LAYERS: APPLICATION TO THE GAMMA-RAY FLARES IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, Benoit; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: uzdensky@colorado.edu

    2012-02-20

    The gamma-ray space telescopes AGILE and Fermi detected short and bright synchrotron gamma-ray flares at photon energies above 100 MeV in the Crab Nebula. This discovery suggests that electron-positron pairs in the nebula are accelerated to PeV energies in a milligauss magnetic field, which is difficult to explain with classical models of particle acceleration and pulsar wind nebulae. We investigate whether particle acceleration in a magnetic reconnection layer can account for the puzzling properties of the flares. We numerically integrate relativistic test-particle orbits in the vicinity of the layer, including the radiation reaction force, and using analytical expressions for the large-scale electromagnetic fields. As they get accelerated by the reconnection electric field, the particles are focused deep inside the current layer where the magnetic field is small. The electrons suffer less from synchrotron losses and are accelerated to extremely high energies. Population studies show that, at the end of the layer, the particle distribution piles up at the maximum energy given by the electric potential drop and is focused into a thin fan beam. Applying this model to the Crab Nebula, we find that the emerging synchrotron emission spectrum peaks above 100 MeV and is close to the spectral shape of a single electron. The flare inverse Compton emission is negligible and no detectable emission is expected at other wavelengths. This mechanism provides a plausible explanation for the gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula and could be at work in other astrophysical objects such as relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei.

  10. Extreme Particle Acceleration in Magnetic Reconnection Layers: Application to the Gamma-Ray Flares in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Benoît; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2012-02-01

    The gamma-ray space telescopes AGILE and Fermi detected short and bright synchrotron gamma-ray flares at photon energies above 100 MeV in the Crab Nebula. This discovery suggests that electron-positron pairs in the nebula are accelerated to PeV energies in a milligauss magnetic field, which is difficult to explain with classical models of particle acceleration and pulsar wind nebulae. We investigate whether particle acceleration in a magnetic reconnection layer can account for the puzzling properties of the flares. We numerically integrate relativistic test-particle orbits in the vicinity of the layer, including the radiation reaction force, and using analytical expressions for the large-scale electromagnetic fields. As they get accelerated by the reconnection electric field, the particles are focused deep inside the current layer where the magnetic field is small. The electrons suffer less from synchrotron losses and are accelerated to extremely high energies. Population studies show that, at the end of the layer, the particle distribution piles up at the maximum energy given by the electric potential drop and is focused into a thin fan beam. Applying this model to the Crab Nebula, we find that the emerging synchrotron emission spectrum peaks above 100 MeV and is close to the spectral shape of a single electron. The flare inverse Compton emission is negligible and no detectable emission is expected at other wavelengths. This mechanism provides a plausible explanation for the gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula and could be at work in other astrophysical objects such as relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei.

  11. The interstellar medium in the direction of the Crab Nebula - Reconciling soft X-ray and radio observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, S. K.; Walker, A. B. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The total soft X-ray photoabsorption cross section of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the direction of the Crab Nebula is computed on the basis of a two-phase model of the ISM. This cross section is used to reanalyze Copernicus data on the X-ray spectrum of the Crab between 0.7 and 1.5 keV. The total hydrogen column density along the line of sight to that nebula is found to be approximately 2.6 by 10 to the 21st power H atoms/sq cm. This result is evaluated in light of the two-phase model of the ISM, and the predictions based on the X-ray data are compared with results of radio and UV observations. A discrepancy between the radio and X-ray measurements of the hydrogen column density is resolved by noting that 21-cm absorption measurements sample only the neutral hydrogen in clouds while X-ray measurements are sensitive to all forms of hydrogen in both cloud and intercloud regions. It is suggested that roughly 50% of the hydrogen in the direction of the Crab Nebula is in clouds and that 85% of this hydrogen is neutral and atomic.

  12. Observations of the Crab Nebula, NGC 4151, Cyg X1 and Cyg X3 at medium gamma ray energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanrosso, E. M.; Long, J. L.; Zych, A. D.; Gibbons, R.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper analyzes observations of the Crab Nebula, NGC 4151, Cyg X1, and Cyg X3 taken with the UCR gamma ray telescope at a residual atmospheric depth of about 3.5 g/sq cm on a balloon launched from Palestine, Texas, 4.5 GV, 2000 local time LT (0100 UT), on September 29, 1978. The data consists of continuous observations from 0430 LT (0930 UT) on September 30 to 1800 LT (2300 UT) on October 1, 1979. A flux increase is observed at the right ascension of the Crab Nebula within about a 10 min uncertainty of telescope source position determination, eliminating the SAS-2, CG 195+4, and the two COS-B sources in the antigalactic center direction as the origin of the gamma rays. The total flux of gamma rays for the Crab Nebula from 1.2 to 10 MeV is (6.1 + or - 1.5) x 10 to the -3rd photons/sq cm-s, with an upper limit at 10-20 MeV of 7 x 10 to the -5th photons/sq cm-s. Results for the NGC 4151, Cyg X1, and Cyg X3 are also discussed and flux upper limits are given.

  13. The Radio Properties and Magnetic Field Configuration in the Crab-Like Pulsar Wind Nebula G54.1+0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Cornelia C.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Lu, Fangjun; Clubb, Kelsey I.

    2010-02-01

    We present a multifrequency radio investigation of the Crab-like pulsar wind nebula (PWN) G54.1+0.3 using the Very Large Array. The high resolution of the observations reveals that G54.1+0.3 has a complex radio structure which includes filamentary and loop-like structures that are magnetized, a diffuse extent similar to the associated diffuse X-ray emission. But the radio and X-ray structures in the central region differ strikingly, indicating that they trace very different forms of particle injection from the pulsar and/or particle acceleration in the nebula. No spectral index gradient is detected in the radio emission across the PWN, whereas the X-ray emission softens outward in the nebula. The extensive radio polarization allows us to image in detail the intrinsic magnetic field, which is well-ordered and reveals that a number of loop-like filaments are strongly magnetized. In addition, we determine that there are both radial and toroidal components to the magnetic field structure of the PWN. Strong mid-infrared (IR) emission detected in Spitzer Space Telescope data is closely correlated with the radio emission arising from the southern edge of G54.1+0.3. In particular, the distributions of radio and X-ray emission compared with the mid-IR emission suggest that the PWN may be interacting with this interstellar cloud. This may be the first PWN where we are directly detecting its interplay with an interstellar cloud that has survived the impact of the supernova explosion associated with the pulsar's progenitor.

  14. Star Trek: The Search for the First Alleged Crab Supernova Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1950s, star/crescent combinations in prehistoric rock art in the American Southwest have become broadly accepted as eyewitness records of the Crab supernova explosion, a spectacular event visible in 1054 A.D. For more than three decades, images of this "supernova" rock art have routinely appeared in astronomy textbooks, in popular articles, on websites, and in television programs. As this Crab supernova interpretation became more fashionable, Griffith Observatory Director E.C. Krupp began a long-term effort to inspect each of these sites in person. His field work eventually led him, in 2008, to the two sites in northern Arizona that started this cottage industry in supernova rock art, sites that had been lost and had not been revisited for 50 years. Developments in the study of rock art, Pueblo Indian iconography, and Pueblo ceremonialism have permitted a greater appreciation of the role of the sky in the ancient Southwest. The best known star/crescent sites are surveyed to clarify the discipline required for cross-disciplinary research. Through this exploration of an aspect of the relationship between astronomy and culture, the presentation acknowledges the intent of American Institute of Physics Andrew Gemant Award.

  15. BROADBAND X-RAY IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CRAB NEBULA AND PULSAR WITH NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Reynolds, Stephen; An, Hongjun; Boggs, Steven; Craig, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas; Christensen, Finn E.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Nynka, Melania; Markwardt, Craig; Zhang, William; Stern, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    We present broadband (3-78 keV) NuSTAR X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the Crab nebula and pulsar. We show that while the phase-averaged and spatially integrated nebula + pulsar spectrum is a power law in this energy band, spatially resolved spectroscopy of the nebula finds a break at ∼9 keV in the spectral photon index of the torus structure with a steepening characterized by ΔΓ ∼ 0.25. We also confirm a previously reported steepening in the pulsed spectrum, and quantify it with a broken power law with break energy at ∼12 keV and ΔΓ ∼ 0.27. We present spectral maps of the inner 100'' of the remnant and measure the size of the nebula as a function of energy in seven bands. These results find that the rate of shrinkage with energy of the torus size can be fitted by a power law with an index of γ = 0.094 ± 0.018, consistent with the predictions of Kennel and Coroniti. The change in size is more rapid in the NW direction, coinciding with the counter-jet where we find the index to be a factor of two larger. NuSTAR observed the Crab during the latter part of a γ-ray flare, but found no increase in flux in the 3-78 keV energy band.

  16. Chandra Detection of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Associated With Supernova Remnant 3C 396

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olbert, C. M.; Keohane, J. W.; Arnaud, K. A.; Dyer, K. K.; Reynolds, S. P.; Safi-Harb, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a 100 ks observation of the Galactic supernova remnant 3C396 (G39.2-0.3) with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory that we compare to a 20cm map of the remnant from the Very Large Array. In the Chandra images, a nonthermal nebula containing an embedded pointlike source is apparent near the center of the remnant which we interpret as a synchrotron pulsar wind nebula surrounding a yet undetected pulsar. From the 2-10 keV spectrum for the nebula (N(sub H) = 5.3 plus or minus 0.9 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, GAMMA =1.5 plus or minus 0.3) we derive an unabsorbed x-ray flux of S(sub z)=1.62 x 10(exp -12) erg per square centimeter per second, and from this we estimate the spin-down power of the neutron star to be E(sup dot) = 7.2 x 10(exp 36) ergs per second. The central nebula is morphologically complex, showing bent, extended structure. The radio and X-ray shells of the remnant correlate poorly on large scales, particularly on the eastern half of the remnant, which appears very faint in X-ray images. At both radio and X-ray wavelengths the western half of the remnant is substantially brighter than the east.

  17. VARIABLE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE CRAB NEBULA: SHORT FLARES AND LONG 'WAVES'

    SciTech Connect

    Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Donnarumma, I.; Argan, A.; Cardillo, M.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Pacciani, L.; Piano, G.; Sabatini, S.; Bulgarelli, A.; Ferrari, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pittori, C.; and others

    2013-03-01

    Gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula has been recently shown to be unsteady. In this paper, we study the flux and spectral variability of the Crab above 100 MeV on different timescales ranging from days to weeks. In addition to the four main intense and day-long flares detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT between 2007 September and 2012 September, we find evidence for week-long and less intense episodes of enhanced gamma-ray emission that we call 'waves'. Statistically significant 'waves' show timescales of 1-2 weeks, and can occur by themselves or in association with shorter flares. We present a refined flux and spectral analysis of the 2007 September-October gamma-ray enhancement episode detected by AGILE that shows both 'wave' and flaring behavior. We extend our analysis to the publicly available Fermi-LAT data set and show that several additional 'wave' episodes can be identified. We discuss the spectral properties of the 2007 September 'wave'/flare event and show that the physical properties of the 'waves' are intermediate between steady and flaring states. Plasma instabilities inducing 'waves' appear to involve spatial distances l {approx} 10{sup 16} cm and enhanced magnetic fields B {approx} (0.5-1) mG. Day-long flares are characterized by smaller distances and larger local magnetic fields. Typically, the deduced total energy associated with the 'wave' phenomenon (E{sub w} {approx} 10{sup 42} erg, where E{sub w} is the kinetic energy of the emitting particles) is comparable with that associated to the flares, and can reach a few percent of the total available pulsar spin-down energy. Most likely, flares and waves are the product of the same class of plasma instabilities that we show acting on different timescales and radiation intensities.

  18. An Optical Study of the Circumstellar Environment Around the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Shull, J. Michael; Hurford, Alan P.

    1997-01-01

    Long-slit spectra of two peripheral regions around the Crab Nebula show no H(alpha) emission down to a flux level of 1.5 x 10(exp -7)erg/sq cm s sr (0.63 Rayleigh), corresponding to an emission measure limit of 4.2 cm(sup - 6) pc (3(sigma)) assuming A(sub V)= 1.6(sup m) and T(sub e)=7000 K. This is below the flux levels reported by Murdin & Clark (Nature, 294, 543 (198 1)) for an H(alpha) halo around the Crab. Narrow H(beta) emission as described by Murdin (MNRAS, 269, 89 (1994)) is detected but appears to be Galactic emission unassociated with the remnant. A review of prior searches indicates no convincing observational evidence to support either a high- or low-velocity envelope around the remnant. Spectral scans confirm a well-organized, N-S expansion asymmetry of the filaments with a approx. 500 km/s central velocity constriction as described by MacAlpine et al. (ApJ, 342, 364 (1989)) and Lawrence et (it. (AJ, 109, 2635 (1995)] but questioned by Hester et al. (ApJ, 448, 240 (1995)). The velocity pinching appears to coincide with an cast-west chain of bright [O III] and helium-rich filaments. This expansion asymmetry might be the result of ejecta interaction with a disk of circumstellar matter, but such a model may be inconsistent with H and He filament abundances in the velocity constriction zone. A re-analysis of the remnant's total mass suggests that the filaments contain 4.6 +/- 1.8 M(solar) in ionized and neutral cas, about twice that of earlier estimates. For a 10M(solar) progenitor, this suggests that approx.equals 4M(solar) remains to be detected in an extended halo or wind.

  19. Observations of supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, John W.; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, gamma-ray astronomy has entered a golden age thanks to two major breakthroughs: Cherenkov telescopes on the ground and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite. The sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) detected at gamma-ray energies is now much larger: it goes from evolved supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds up to young shell-type supernova remnants and historical supernova remnants. Studies of SNRs are of great interest, as these analyses are directly linked to the long standing issue of the origin of the Galactic cosmic rays. In this context, pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) need also to be considered since they evolve in conjunction with SNRs. As a result, they frequently complicate interpretation of the gamma-ray emission seen from SNRs and they could also contribute directly to the local cosmic ray spectrum, particularly the leptonic component. This paper reviews the current results and thinking on SNRs and PWNe and their connection to cosmic ray production. xml:lang="fr"

  20. Image of the Crab Nebula Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This is an x-ray image of the Crab Nebula taken with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory. The image is demonstrated by a pulsar, which appears as a bright point due to its pulsed x-ray emissions. The strongest region of diffused emissions comes from just northwest of the pulsar, and corresponds closely to the region of brightest visible-light emission. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  1. On the implications of recent observations of the inner knot in the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yajie; Blandford, Roger D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations of the Crab nebula (Rudy et al.) have maintained its reputation for high-energy astrophysical enlightenment and its use as a test-bed for theories of the behaviour of magnetized, relativistic plasma. In particular, new observations of the inner knot located 0.65 arcsec SE from the pulsar confirm that it is compact, elongated transversely to the symmetry axis and curved concave towards the pulsar. 60 per cent polarization has been measured along the symmetry axis (Moran et al.). The knot does not appear to be involved in the gamma-ray flares. The new observations both reinforce the interpretation of the knot as dissipation of the pulsar wind at a strong shock and challenge the details of existing models of this process. In particular, it is argued that the compactness, high polarization, and curvature are difficult to reconcile with simple relativistic shock models. Alternative possibilities include deflection of the outflow ahead of the shock and spatial variation in which the knot is interpreted as a caustic. Some future observations are proposed and new theoretical investigations are suggested.

  2. A STATISTICAL MODEL FOR THE {gamma}-RAY VARIABILITY OF THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Qiang; Yin Pengfei; Bi Xiaojun; Wu Xuefeng; Zhang Bing; Liu Siming

    2011-04-01

    A statistical scenario is proposed to explain the {gamma}-ray variability and flares of the Crab Nebula, which were observed recently by the Fermi/LAT. In this scenario electrons are accelerated in a series of knots, whose sizes follow a power-law distribution. These knots presumably move outward from the pulsar and have a distribution in the Doppler boost factor. The maximal electron energy is assumed to be proportional to the size of the knot. Fluctuations at the highest energy end of the overall electron distribution will result in variable {gamma}-ray emission via the synchrotron process in the {approx}100 MeV range. Since highly boosted larger knots are rarer than smaller knots, the model predicts that the variability of the synchrotron emission increases with the photon energy. We realize such a scenario with a Monte Carlo simulation and find that the model can reproduce both the two {gamma}-ray flares over a period of {approx}1 year and the monthly scale {gamma}-ray flux fluctuations as observed by the Fermi/LAT. The observed {gamma}-ray spectra in both the steady and flaring states are also well reproduced.

  3. SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF THE 2010 SEPTEMBER GAMMA-RAY FLARE FROM THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Vittorini, V.; Tavani, M.; Donnarumma, I.; Trois, A.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Striani, E.; Caraveo, P.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Ferrari, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Pilia, M.

    2011-05-10

    Strong gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula have been recently discovered by AGILE and confirmed by Fermi-LAT. We study here the spectral evolution in the gamma-ray energy range above 50 MeV of the 2010 September flare that was simultaneously detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT. We revisit the AGILE spectral data and present an emission model based on rapid (within 1 day) acceleration followed by synchrotron cooling. We show that this model successfully explains both the published AGILE and Fermi-LAT spectral data showing a rapid rise and a decay within 2 and 3 days. Our analysis constrains the acceleration timescale and mechanism, the properties of the particle distribution function, and the local magnetic field. The combination of very rapid acceleration, emission well above 100 MeV, and the spectral evolution consistent with synchrotron cooling contradicts the idealized scenario predicting an exponential cutoff at photon energies above 100 MeV. We also consider a variation of our model based on even shorter acceleration and decay timescales, which can be consistent with the published averaged properties.

  4. Doppler Boosted Diffusive Shock Acceleration as an Explanation for the Crab Nebula Gamma-Ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter A.; Dermer, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable observations of intense flares of ~GeV gamma-rays from the Crab Nebula in 2009 and 2010 have raised many difficult questions for high-energy astrophysics. There is a consensus that the gamma rays probably represent synchrotron emission from highly relativistic electrons, but the implied energy budget raises severe constraints on the required acceleration mechanism, because at the electron energies implied by the gamma-ray observations, the synchrotron loss timescale is comparable to the gyration timescale in the magnetic field. We explore a hybrid scenario in which the electrons experience diffusive shock acceleration, which raises their energies to within about a factor of ten of the energy required to produce the observed synchrotron gamma-ray emission. The radiating electrons are envisioned to be entrained in a mildly relativistic flow downstream from the oblique shock, and the associated Doppler boost shifts the radiation into the observed range. Variability in the downstream flow causes the Doppler beamed radiation to point towards Earth during the observed flares. This mechanism may help to explain the energetics, spectrum and duration of the flares, as well as their rarity.

  5. Relationship between the Nonstationary Radio-Luminosity Variations of the Crab Nebula and the Activity of Its Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankevich, K. S.; Ivanov, V. P.

    2005-02-01

    Based on the half-century-long history of radio observations of the Crab Nebula, we investigate the evolution of its radio luminosity. We found a secular decrease in the radio luminosity; it has decreased by 9% since the discovery of the radio source in 1948. Apart from the secular decrease in the luminosity of the Crab Nebula, we identified two time intervals, 1981 1987 and 1992 1998, when radio bursts with energy release ˜1041 erg took place. In these years, the spectral indices of the instantaneous spectra decreased significantly due to the increase in the flux densities at short (centimeter and millimeter) wavelengths. These events were preceded by sudden increases in the pulsar’s rotation rates, the largest of which, with an amplitude of ΔΩ/Ω = 3 × 10-8, occurred in 1975 and 1989. We show that the magnetospheric instability mechanism that accompanies strong glitches can provide the energetics of the excess luminosity of the Nebula through the ejection of relativistic electrons with a total energy higher than 6 × 1042 erg from the pulsar’s magnetosphere.

  6. Neutrino Analysis of the September 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and Time-integrated Constraints on Neutrino Emission From the Crab Using IceCube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatikos, M.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguliar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J. L. Bazo; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. -H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, SW.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results for a search of high-energy muon neutrinos with the IceCube detector in coincidence with the Crab nebula flare reported on September 2010 by various experiments. Due to the unusual flaring state of the otherwise steady source we performed a prompt analysis of the 79-string configuration data to search for neutrinos that might be emitted along with the observed gamma-rays. We performed two different and complementary data selections of neutrino events in the time window of 10 days around the flare. One event selection is optimized for discovery of E(sub nu)(sup -2) neutrino spectrum typical of 1st order Fermi acceleration. A similar event selection has also been applied to the 40-string data to derive the time-integrated limits to the neutrino emission from the Crab [35]. The other event selection was optimized for discovery of neutrino spectra with softer spectral index and TeV energy cut-offs as observed for various galactic sources in gamma-rays. The 90% CL best upper limits on the Crab flux during the 10 day flare are 4.73 x 10(exp -11) per square centimeter per second TeV (sup -1) for an E(sub nu) (sup -2) neutrino spectrum and 2.50 x 10(exp -10) per square centimeter per second TeV(sup -1) for a softer neutrino spectra of E(sub nu)(sup -2.7), as indicated by Fermi measurements during the flare. IceCube has also set a time-integrated limit on the neutrino emission of the Crab using 375.5 days of livetime of the 40-string configuration data. This limit is compared to existing models of neutrino production from the Crab and its impact on astrophysical parameters is discussed. The most optimistic predictions of some models are already rejected by the IceCube neutrino telescope with more than 90% CL.

  7. Radioactive Probes of the Supernova-contaminated Solar Nebula: Evidence that the Sun Was Born in a Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looney, Leslie W.; Tobin, John J.; Fields, Brian D.

    2006-12-01

    We construct a simple model for radioisotopic enrichment of the protosolar nebula by injection from a nearby supernova, based on the inverse square law for ejecta dispersion. In this parameter study, the presolar radioisotopic abundances (i.e., in solar masses) demand a nearby supernova: its distance D can be no larger than 66 times the radius of the protosolar nebula, at a 90% confidence level, assuming 1 Msolar of protosolar material. The relevant size of the nebula depends on its state of evolution at the time of radioactivity injection. In one scenario, a collection of low-mass stars, including our Sun, formed in a group or cluster with a high-mass star that ended its life as a supernova while our Sun was still a protostar, a starless core, or perhaps a diffuse cloud. Using recent observations of protostars to estimate the size of the protosolar nebula constrains the distance of the supernova to D~0.02-1.6 pc. This supernova distance limit is consistent with the scales of low-mass star formation around one or more massive stars, but it is closer than expected were the Sun formed in an isolated, solitary state. Consequently, if any presolar radioactivities originated via supernova injection, we must conclude that our Sun was a member of such a group or cluster that has since dispersed; thus, solar system formation should be understood in this context. The temporal choreography from supernova ejecta to meteorites is important, as the modeled timescale is <=1.8 Myr. Finally, the model does not distinguish between progenitor masses from 15 to 25 Msolar, although the 20 Msolar model is somewhat preferred.

  8. CHANDRA, KECK, AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB NEBULA DURING THE 2011-APRIL GAMMA-RAY FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Arons, Jonathan; Blandford, Roger; Funk, Stefan; Romani, Roger W.; Buehler, Rolf; Caraveo, Patrizia; De Luca, Andrea; Cheung, Chi C.; Costa, Enrico; Ferrigno, Carlo; Fu, Hai; Habermehl, Moritz; Horns, Dieter; Linford, Justin D.; Lobanov, Andrei; Max, Claire; Mignani, Roberto; and others

    2013-03-01

    We present results from our analysis of Chandra X-Ray Observatory, W. M. Keck Observatory, and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) images of the Crab Nebula that were contemporaneous with the {gamma}-ray flare of 2011 April. Despite hints in the X-ray data, we find no evidence for statistically significant variations that pinpoint the specific location of the flares within the Nebula. The Keck observations extend this conclusion to the 'inner knot', i.e., the feature within an arcsecond of the pulsar. The VLA observations support this conclusion. We also discuss theoretical implications of the {gamma}-ray flares and suggest that the most dramatic {gamma}-ray flares are due to radiation-reaction-limited synchrotron emission associated with sudden, dissipative changes in the current system sustained by the central pulsar.

  9. The expected high-energy to ultra-high-energy gamma-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Jager, O. C.; Harding, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    The inverse Compton scattering model for the unpulsed TeV emission from the Crab Nebula is reexamined using the magnetic field distribution derived from MHD flow models of the nebula. It is shown that the observed flux can be explained if the average nebular field is indeed about 0.0003, as is predicted by the spectral break between radio and optical. The brightness distribution of the TeV gamma-ray signal is expected to extend out to about 1.5 arcmin from the pulsar. The present estimates predict a steady flux of unpulsed ultrahigh-energy gamma-rays due to the inverse Compton scattering of soft photons by shock-accelerated electrons and/or positrons in the vicinity of the shock.

  10. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB-LIKE PULSAR WIND NEBULA G54.1+0.3 AND SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF THE ASSOCIATED INFRARED SHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Raymond, John C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2010-02-10

    G54.1+0.3 is a young pulsar wind nebula (PWN), closely resembling the Crab, for which no thermal shell emission has been detected in X-rays. Recent Spitzer observations revealed an infrared (IR) shell containing a dozen point sources arranged in a ring-like structure, previously proposed to be young stellar objects. An extended knot of emission located in the NW part of the shell appears to be aligned with the pulsar's X-ray jet, suggesting a possible interaction with the shell material. Surprisingly, the IR spectrum of the knot resembles the spectrum of freshly formed dust in Cas A, and is dominated by an unidentified dust emission feature at 21 {mu}m. The spectra of the shell also contain various emission lines and show that some are significantly broadened, suggesting that they originate in rapidly expanding supernova (SN) ejecta. We present the first evidence that the PWN is driving shocks into expanding SN ejecta and we propose an alternative explanation for the origin of the IR emission in which the shell is composed entirely of SN ejecta. In this scenario, the freshly formed SN dust is being heated by early-type stars belonging to a cluster in which the SN exploded. Simple dust models show that this interpretation can give rise to the observed shell emission and the IR point sources.

  11. PULSAR WIND NEBULAE WITH THICK TOROIDAL STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Reynolds, Stephen P. E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu

    2011-10-10

    We investigate a class of pulsar wind nebulae that show synchrotron emission from a thick toroidal structure. The best studied such object is the small radio and X-ray nebula around the Vela pulsar, which can be interpreted as the result of interaction of a mildly supersonic inward flow with the recent pulsar wind. Such a flow near the center of a supernova remnant can be produced in a transient phase when the reverse shock reaches the center of the remnant. Other nebulae with a thick toroidal structure are G106.6+2.9 and G76.9+1.0. Their structure contrasts with young pulsar nebulae like the Crab Nebula and 3C 38, which show a more chaotic, filamentary structure in the synchrotron emission. In both situations, a torus-jet structure is present where the pulsar wind passes through a termination shock, indicating the flow is initially toroidal. We suggest that the difference is due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that operates when the outer boundary of the nebula is accelerating into freely expanding supernova ejecta. The instability gives rise to mixing in the Crab and related objects, but is not present in the nebulae with thick toroidal regions.

  12. Balloon-borne experiment for observation of sub-MeV/MeV gamma-rays from Crab Nebula using an Electron Tracking Compton Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Shotaro

    In astronomy, the observations of gamma-ray in sub-MeV/MeV energy band is expected to provide much information of various high energy phenomena, for example, the nucleosynthesis in supernovae, the particle acceleration in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and the strong gravity potential of black holes. However, sufficient observation has not yet been achieved due to difficulties of Compton gamma-ray imaging and rejection of large radiation backgrounds produced by the interaction of cosmic rays with a satellite body. To advance the MeV gamma-ray astronomy, we have developed an Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) as a next-generation MeV gamma-ray telescope. In comparison with a classical Compton camera, the ETCC measures a three dimensional track of the Compton recoil electron in the gas detector, which makes it possible to restrict the arrival direction of each incident gamma-ray to arc segment and remove backgrounds strongly using the kinematics test of Compton scattering and the particle identification by energy loss rate of charged particle. We planned the balloon experiments “Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment” (SMILE) to check the performance of ETCC in space for the future satellite observation. We have already carried out the first balloon borne experiment in 2006 using a small size ETCC with a 10 times 10 times 15 cm(3) detection area (SMILE-I), and we observed successfully the fluxes of the diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays at an altitude of 35 km during a live time of 3 hours and reveal the good background rejection ability of an ETCC. As the next step of SMILE, we plan to observe bright celestial sources like Crab Nebula to verify the gamma-ray imaging ability of an ETCC (SMILE-II) at middle latitude in the northern hemisphere. We have already constructed the SMILE-II flight ETCC system using a large size ETCC with (30 cm)(3) detection area and completely upgraded data acquisition system for reducing the dead

  13. Mapping supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae across decades of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, John W.

    2016-04-01

    Ground- and space-based gamma ray observatories of the past decade have given us a new understanding of particle accelerators in our galaxy. The improved spatial resolution and sensitivity of recent gamma-ray surveys of the Galactic plane have resolved confusion of sources identified numerous sources to study the physics of particle acceleration and the diffusion of energetic particles into the galaxy. Here I highlight some recent studies of Galactic accelerators from GeV to TeV energies, that allow us to disentangle hadronic from leptonic emission, constrain cosmic ray diffusion, and measure the conditions of particle acceleration. Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae are found to be the two most common Galactic sources identified in very high energy gamma rays, and the future capabilities of CTA promise a dramatic increase in our knowledge of these classes which are currently limited to only a few of the most well-studied cases.

  14. The Vela Pulsar and Its Synchrotron Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, D.; Gotthelf, E.; Halpern, J.

    2000-10-01

    We present high-resolution Chandra X-ray observations of PSR0833-45, the 89 ms pulsar associated with the Vela supernova remnant. We have acquired two observations of the pulsar separated by one month to search for morphological changes in the pulsar and its environment following an extreme glitch in its rotation frequency. We find a well-resolved nebula with a morphology remarkably similar to the torus-like structure observed in the Crab Nebula, along with an axial Crab-like jet. The flux from the pulsar is found to be steady to within 0.75 %; the 3 sigma limit on the fractional increase in the pulsar's X-ray flux is <10-5 of the inferred glitch energy. We use this limit to constrain parameters of glitch models and neutron star structure. We do find a significant increase in the flux of the nebula's outer torus; if associated with the glitch, the inferred propogation velocity is ~0.5c, similar to that seen in the brightening of the Crab Nebula wisps. We propose an explanation for the X-ray structure of the Vela synchrotron nebula based on a model originally developed for the Crab Nebula. In this model, the bright, arc-shaped X-ray wisps are the shocked termination of a relativistic equatorial pulsar wind which is contained within the surrounding kidney-bean shaped synchrotron nebula which comprises the post-shock, but still relativistic, flow. In a departure from the Crab model, the magnetization parameter of the Vela pulsar wind is required to be of order unity; this is consistent with the simplest MHD transport of magnetic field from the pulsar to the nebula, where B ~ 4 x 10-4G.

  15. The Variable Crab Nebula: Evidence for a Connection Between GeV Flares and Hard X-ray Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E. A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, hard X-ray variations (Wilson-Hodge et al. 2011) and GeV flares (Tavani et al 2011, Abdo et al. 2011) from the Crab Nebula were discovered. Connections between these two phenomena were unclear, in part because the timescales were quite different, with yearly variations in hard X-rays and hourly to daily variations in the GeV flares. The hard X-ray flux from the Crab Nebula has again declined since 2014, much like it did in 2008-2010. During both hard X-ray decline periods, the Fermi LAT detected no GeV flares, suggesting that injection of particles from the GeV flares produces the much slower and weaker hard X-ray variations. The timescale for the particles emitting the GeV flares to lose enough energy to emit synchrotron photons in hard X-rays is consistent with the yearly variations observed in hard X-rays and with the expectation that the timescale for variations slowly increases with decreasing energy. This hypothesis also predicts even slower and weaker variations below 10 keV, consistent with the non-detection of counterparts to the GeV flares by Chandra (Weisskopf et al 2013). We will present a comparison of the observed hard X-ray variations and a simple model of the decay of particles from the GeV flares to test our hypothesis.

  16. The Variable Crab Nebula: Evidence for a Connection between GeV flares and Hard X-ray Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Kust Harding, Alice; Hays, Elizabeth A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Finger, Mark H.; Jenke, Peter; Zhang, Xiao-Ling

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, hard X-ray variations (Wilson-Hodge et al. 2011) and GeV flares (Tavani et al 2011, Abdo et al. 2011) from the Crab Nebula were discovered. Connections between these two phenomena were unclear, in part because the timescales were quite different, with yearly variations in hard X-rays and hourly to daily variations in the GeV flares. The hard X-ray flux from the Crab Nebula has again declined since 2014, much like it did in 2008-2010. During both hard X-ray decline periods, the Fermi LAT detected no GeV flares, suggesting that injection of particles from the GeV flares produces the much slower and weaker hard X-ray variations. The timescale for the particles emitting the GeV flares to lose enough energy to emit synchrotron photons in hard X-rays is consistent with the yearly variations observed in hard X-rays and with the expectation that the timescale for variations slowly increases with decreasing energy. This hypothesis also predicts even slower and weaker variations below 10 keV, consistent with the non-detection of counterparts to the GeV flares by Chandra (Weisskopf et al 2013). We will present a comparison of the observed hard X-ray variations and a simple model of the decay of particles from the GeV flares to test our hypothesis.

  17. Electron-capture supernovae of super-asymptotic giant branch stars and the Crab supernova 1054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2014-05-01

    An electron-capture supernova (ECSN) is a core-collapse supernova explosion of a super-asymptotic giant branch (SAGB) star with a main-sequence mass MMs ˜ 7 - 9.5M⊙. The explosion takes place in accordance with core bounce and subsequent neutrino heating and is a unique example successfully produced by first-principle simulations. This allows us to derive a first self-consistent multicolor light curves of a core-collapse supernova. Adopting the explosion properties derived by the first-principle simulation, i.e., the low explosion energy of 1.5 × 1050 erg and the small 56Ni mass of 2.5 × 10-3 M⊙, we perform a multigroup radiation hydrodynamics calculation of ECSNe and present multicolor light curves of ECSNe of SAGB stars with various envelope mass and hydrogen abundance. We demonstrate that a shock breakout has peak luminosity of L ˜ 2 × 1044 erg s-1 and can evaporate circumstellar dust up to R ˜ 1017 cm for a case of carbon dust, that plateau luminosity and plateau duration of ECSNe are L ˜ 1042 erg s-1 and t ˜ 60 - 100 days, respectively, and that a plateau is followed by a tail with a luminosity drop by ˜ 4 mag. The ECSN shows a bright and short plateau that is as bright as typical Type II plateau supernovae, and a faint tail that might be influenced by spin-down luminosity of a newborn pulsar. Furthermore, the theoretical models are compared with ECSN candidates: SN 1054 and SN 2008S. We find that SN 1054 shares the characteristics of the ECSNe. For SN 2008S, we find that its faint plateau requires a ECSN model with a significantly low explosion energy of E ˜ 1048 erg.

  18. Electron-capture supernovae of super-asymptotic giant branch stars and the Crab supernova 1054

    SciTech Connect

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2014-05-02

    An electron-capture supernova (ECSN) is a core-collapse supernova explosion of a super-asymptotic giant branch (SAGB) star with a main-sequence mass M{sub Ms} ∼ 7 - 9.5M{sub ⊙}. The explosion takes place in accordance with core bounce and subsequent neutrino heating and is a unique example successfully produced by first-principle simulations. This allows us to derive a first self-consistent multicolor light curves of a core-collapse supernova. Adopting the explosion properties derived by the first-principle simulation, i.e., the low explosion energy of 1.5 × 10{sup 50} erg and the small {sup 56}Ni mass of 2.5 × 10{sup −3} M{sub ⊙}, we perform a multigroup radiation hydrodynamics calculation of ECSNe and present multicolor light curves of ECSNe of SAGB stars with various envelope mass and hydrogen abundance. We demonstrate that a shock breakout has peak luminosity of L ∼ 2 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1} and can evaporate circumstellar dust up to R ∼ 10{sup 17} cm for a case of carbon dust, that plateau luminosity and plateau duration of ECSNe are L ∼ 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1} and {sup t} ∼ 60 - 100 days, respectively, and that a plateau is followed by a tail with a luminosity drop by ∼ 4 mag. The ECSN shows a bright and short plateau that is as bright as typical Type II plateau supernovae, and a faint tail that might be influenced by spin-down luminosity of a newborn pulsar. Furthermore, the theoretical models are compared with ECSN candidates: SN 1054 and SN 2008S. We find that SN 1054 shares the characteristics of the ECSNe. For SN 2008S, we find that its faint plateau requires a ECSN model with a significantly low explosion energy of E ∼ 10{sup 48} erg.

  19. NEUTRINO ANALYSIS OF THE 2010 SEPTEMBER CRAB NEBULA FLARE AND TIME-INTEGRATED CONSTRAINTS ON NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM THE CRAB USING ICECUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; and others

    2012-01-20

    We present the results of a search for high-energy muon neutrinos with the IceCube detector in coincidence with the Crab Nebula flare reported on 2010 September by various experiments. Due to the unusual flaring state of the otherwise steady source we performed a prompt analysis of the 79-string configuration data to search for neutrinos that might be emitted along with the observed {gamma}-rays. We performed two different and complementary data selections of neutrino events in the time window of 10 days around the flare. One event selection is optimized for discovery of E{sup -2}{sub {nu}} neutrino spectrum typical of first-order Fermi acceleration. A similar event selection has also been applied to the 40-string data to derive the time-integrated limits to the neutrino emission from the Crab. The other event selection was optimized for discovery of neutrino spectra with softer spectral index and TeV energy cutoffs as observed for various Galactic sources in {gamma}-rays. The 90% confidence level (CL) best upper limits on the Crab flux during the 10 day flare are 4.73 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1} for an E{sup -2}{sub {nu}} neutrino spectrum and 2.50 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1} for a softer neutrino spectra of E{sup -2.7}{sub {nu}}, as indicated by Fermi measurements during the flare. In this paper, we also illustrate the impact of the time-integrated limit on the Crab neutrino steady emission. The limit obtained using 375.5 days of the 40-string configuration is compared to existing models of neutrino production from the Crab and its impact on astrophysical parameters is discussed. The most optimistic predictions of some models are already rejected by the IceCube neutrino telescope with more than 90% CL.

  20. Ionization break-out from millisecond pulsar wind nebulae: an X-ray probe of the origin of superluminous supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Vurm, Indrek; Hascoët, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic spin-down of a rapidly rotating (millisecond) neutron star has been proposed as the power source of hydrogen-poor `superluminous' supernovae (SLSNe-I). However, producing an unambiguous test that can distinguish this model from alternatives, such as circumstellar interaction, has proven challenging. After the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind inflates a hot cavity behind the expanding stellar ejecta: the nascent millisecond pulsar wind nebula. Electron/positron pairs injected by the wind cool through inverse Compton scattering and synchrotron emission, producing a pair cascade and hard X-ray spectrum inside the nebula. These X-rays ionize the inner exposed side of the ejecta, driving an ionization front that propagates outwards with time. Under some conditions this front can breach the ejecta surface within months after the optical supernova peak, allowing ˜0.1-1 keV photons to escape the nebula unattenuated with a characteristic luminosity LX ˜ 1043-1045 erg s-1. This `ionization break-out' may explain the luminous X-ray emission observed from the transient SCP 06F, providing direct evidence that this SLSN was indeed engine powered. Luminous break-out requires a low ejecta mass and that the spin-down time of the pulsar be comparable to the photon diffusion time-scale at optical maximum, the latter condition being similar to that required for a supernova with a high optical fluence. These relatively special requirements may explain why most SLSNe-I are not accompanied by detectable X-ray emission. Global asymmetry of the supernova ejecta increases the likelihood of an early break-out along the direction of lowest density. Atomic states with lower threshold energies are more readily ionized at earlier times near optical maximum, allowing `UV break-out' across a wider range of pulsar and ejecta properties than X-ray break-out, possibly contributing to the blue/UV colours of SLSNe-I.

  1. Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The observation of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma rays is an excellent tool to study the most energetic and violent environments in the Galaxy. This energy range is only accessible with ground-based instruments such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) that reconstruct the energy and direction of the primary gamma ray by observing the Cherenkov light from the induced extended air showers in Earths atmosphere. The main goals of Galactic VHE gamma-ray science are the identification of individual sources of cosmic rays (CRs), such as supernova remnants (SNRs), and the study of other extreme astrophysical objects at the highest energies, such as gamma-ray binaries and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). One of the main challenges is the discrimination between leptonic and hadronic gamma-ray production channels. To that end, the gamma-ray signal from each individual source needs to be brought into context with the multi-wavelength environment of the astrophysical object in question, particularly with observations tracing the density of the surrounding interstellar medium, or synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons. In this review presented at the European Cosmic Ray Symposium 2014 (ECRS2014), the most recent developments in the field of Galactic VHE gamma-ray science are highlighted, with particular emphasis on SNRs and PWNe.

  2. X-ray Polarization of Supernova Remnants and Pulsar-Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2011-09-01

    A dozen or more young shell supernova remnants (SNRs) show fast shocks and hard X-ray continuum emission best interpreted as synchrotron emission. The X-ray emission from pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe) is entirely synchrotron. Radio emission from young SNRs is polarized at typical levels of 5 -- 15%, while that from PWNe can reach 50% polarization or more. Thus extended polarized X-ray emission is expected for both classes of source. Its detection would confirm beyond any doubt the synchrotron interpretation for those SNR X-ray continua. It will allow the inference of the degree of order in the magnetic field in X-ray emitting regions, along with the spatial orientation of the ordered component. Fractional polarizations may either be higher in X-rays than radio, due to the absence of any Faraday effects at X-ray wavelengths, or lower if magnetic fields are less ordered in (generally smaller) X-ray emitting regions. Efficient particle acceleration in SNRs can result in amplification of the magnetic field by orders of magnitude. The degree of order expected in such amplified fields is unknown; if fields are highly turbulent, no net polarization may survive. I shall review prospects for detecting polarized X-ray emission from SNRs and PWNe and what we stand to learn from detections or upper limits.

  3. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory During the Gamma-Ray Flare of 2011 April

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, using the AGILE and Fermi satellites, gamma-ray flares have been discovered from the direction of the Crab Nebula (Tavani et al. 2011, Abdo et al. 2011). We have been using the Chandra X-Ray observatory to monitor the Crab on a monthly cadence since just after the 2010 September gamma-ray flare. We were fortunate to trigger series of pre-planned target of opportunity observations during the 2011 April flare. We present the results of these observations and address some implications both for now and for the future.

  4. The Response of the BATSE LADs to Radiation From the Crab Nebula and Plans for Radioactivity Studies on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) was designed to measure X-rays and gamma rays with energies from about 50 keV to above 2 MeV. As with many scientific investigations, the success of the original experiment lead to additional areas of research interest. In the case of BATSE the ability to observe the radiation from sources down to about 20 keV became readily apparent. This lead to a continuing program of measuring the spectrum of radiation from stellar objects at these lower energies. One of these, the Crab Nebula, has a very steady radiation flux and, thus, has become a "standard candle" for such measurements. The Large Area Detectors (LADS) on BATSE contain a 1.27-cm thick, 25.4-cm radius NaI(Tl) detector behind a 6.35-mm thick polystyrene Charged Particle Detector (CPD) used to "veto" charged particles signals. The detectors have been calibrated with a series of gamma and X-ray sources and the results carefully simulated with a Monte Carlo code. In the calibration process the computer simulation accounts for scattering from material in the counting room as well as the BATSE structure. For an orbiting detector, scattering from the entire spacecraft must be modeled as well as for all covering material over the detectors. Five years after CGRO was launched on April 5, 1991, a large body of observational data has been taken of the Crab Nebula. The technique used for these observations, and for many other X-ray sources, is Earth occultation. From the perspective of the spacecraft, the Earth occults most stellar objects once in orbit, i.e., the signal is lost as the source sets and is regained as the source rises. A careful analysis of the continuing signals from all sources measured allows for an accurate measurement of the spectrum of a given source. An analysis of this data from the Crab has indicated that the LADs are very responsive at energies as low as 20 keV-at energies below the range of

  5. Meter-wavelength observations of pulsars using very long baseline interferometry. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ., College Park; [with particular attention to the Crab nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, N. R.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the angular structure imposed on pulsar radiation due to scattering in the interstellar medium are presented. The technique of very-long-baseline interferometry was used to obtain the necessary high angular resolution. The interferometers formed by the Arecibo, NRAO, and Sugar Grove telescopes were used at radio frequencies of 196, 111, and 74 MHz during seven separate observing sessions between November 1971 and February 1973. A crude visibility function for the Crab nebular pulsar was obtained along with the correlated pulse profile. The technique of differential fringe phase was used to show that the pulsar and the compact source in the Crab nebula are coincident to within 0.001 arcsec which corresponds to aproximately 2 a.u. at the distance to the nebula. The ratio of pulsing to total flux, and the fringe visibility of the time-averaged pulsing flux are also discussed, and apparent angular sizes of the pulsars were measured.

  6. When a Standard Candle Flickers: Gamma-ray Flares and Hard X-Ray Variations in the Crab Nebula since 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    The Crab Nebula, one of the most important and best studied astronomical objects, often considered to be a "standard candle" reference source, is now known to be variable, with flares above 100 MeV on 1-day timescales and variability up to ~10% on timescales of ~1 year below 100 keV. These results motivate a search for variability in historical observations and have changed the widely held view that the Crab Nebula is a stable source suitable for calibration. We propose to investigate the past variability of the Crab Nebula by reanalyzing Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (CGRO) data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE, 20 keV-1 MeV), the Oriented Scintillating Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE, 40 keV-10 MeV), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL, 1-30 MeV), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET, 20 MeV-30 GeV). We will search for evidence of flares in daily EGRET data, more than doubling the baseline for flare detection, look for lower-energy counterparts to flares, and study their energy dependence using COMPTEL, OSSE, and BATSE. Using the Crab pulsar spectrum from contemporaneous data, we will cross-calibrate the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and CGRO to extend our baseline for studies of long-term (yearly) variations from 15 to 25 years of near-continuous monitoring. Data from BATSE, OSSE, COMPTEL, and EGRET will be used to investigate the energy dependence of these long-term variations, which have not yet been explored with sufficient sensitivity above about 100 keV. Results from this study will be combined with more recent results from RXTE, Swift, INTEGRAL, and Fermi to reveal the 25-year behavior of the Crab. A theorist on our team will use our results for the energy and time dependence of the flaring and long-term behaviors to constrain models of the Crab Nebula and other pulsar wind nebulae.

  7. The attenuation of X-rays emitted by supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schocken, K.

    1973-01-01

    The attenuation of X-rays in Arnett's C-12 detonation supernova model is computed. The attenuation of X-rays in the filaments of the Crab Nebula is computed using a model for the filaments by Woltjer and a model by Davidson and Tucker. An empirical expression by Gorenstein, Kellogg, and Gursky for the optical thickness of the interstellar medium for three supernova remnants is analyzed.

  8. Ain't no Crab, PWN Got a Brand New Bag: Correlated Radio and X-ray Structures in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. S. E.; Lyutikov, M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Brogan, C. L.; Tam, C. R.; Romani, R. W.

    2005-04-01

    The traditional view of radio pulsar wind nebulae (PWN), encouraged by the Crab nebula's X-ray and radio morphologies, is that they are a result of the integrated history of their pulsars' wind. The radio emission should therefore be largely unaffected by recent pulsar activity, and hence minimally correlated with structures in the X-ray nebulae. Observations of several PWN, both stationary and rapidly moving, now show clear morphological relationships between structures in the radio and X-ray with radio intensity variations on the order of unity. We present high-resolution X-ray and radio images of several PWN of both types and discuss the morphological relationships between the two wavebands.

  9. Vela Pulsar and Its Synchrotron Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, D. J.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    We present high-resolution Chandra X-ray observations of PSR B0833-45, the 89 ms pulsar associated with the Vela supernova remnant. We have acquired two observations separated by 1 month to search for changes in the pulsar and its environment following an extreme glitch in its rotation frequency. We find a well-resolved nebula with a toroidal morphology remarkably similar to that observed in the Crab Nebula, along with an axial Crab-like jet. Between the two observations, taken ~3×105 s and ~3×106 s after the glitch, the flux from the pulsar is found to be steady to within 0.75% the 3 σ limit on the fractional increase in the pulsar's X-ray flux is <~10-5 of the inferred glitch energy. We use this limit to constrain parameters of glitch models and neutron star structure. We do find a significant increase in the flux of the nebula's outer arc; if associated with the glitch, the inferred propagation velocity is >~0.7c, similar to that seen in the brightening of the Crab Nebula wisps. We propose an explanation for the X-ray structure of the Vela synchrotron nebula based on a model originally developed for the Crab Nebula. In this model, the bright X-ray arcs are the shocked termination of a relativistic equatorial pulsar wind that is contained within the surrounding kidney-bean shaped synchrotron nebula comprising the postshock, but still relativistic, flow. In a departure from the Crab model, the magnetization parameter σ of the Vela pulsar wind is allowed to be of order unity; this is consistent with the simplest MHD transport of magnetic field from the pulsar to the nebula, where B<=4×10-4 G. The inclination angle of the axis of the equatorial torus with respect to the line of sight is identical to that of the rotation axis of the pulsar as previously measured from the polarization of the radio pulse. The projection of the rotation axis on the sky may also be close to the direction of proper motion of the pulsar if previous radio measurements were confused by

  10. Characterization of the optical and X-ray properties of the north-western wisps in the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, T.; Bucciantini, N.; Idec, W.; Nilsson, K.; Tennant, A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zanin, R.

    2013-08-01

    We have studied the wisps to the north-west of the Crab pulsar as part of a multiwavelength campaign in the visible and in X-rays. Optical observations were obtained using the Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma and X-ray observations were made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The observing campaign took place from 2010 October until 2012 September. About once per year we observe wisps forming and peeling off from (or near) the region commonly associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We find that the exact locations of the north-western wisps in the optical and in X-rays are similar but not coincident, with X-ray wisps preferentially located closer to the pulsar. This suggests that the optical and X-ray wisps are not produced by the same particle distribution. Our measurements and their implications are interpreted in terms of a Doppler-boosted ring model that has its origin in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling. While the Doppler boosting factors inferred from the X-ray wisps are consistent with current MHD simulations of pulsar wind nebulae, the optical boosting factors are not, and typically exceed values from MHD simulations by about a factor of 3.

  11. A Optical Synchrotron Nebula around the X-Ray Pulsar 0540-693

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanan, G.; Helfand, D.; Reynolds, S.

    The authors report the discovery of extended optical continuum emission around the recently discovered 50 ms X-ray pulsar in the supernova remnant 0540-693. Exposures in blue and red broadband filters made with the CTIO 4 m telescope and prime focus CCD show a center-brightened but clearly extended nebula about 4arcsec in diameter (FWHM), while an image in an [O III] filter shows an 8arcsec diameter shell (as reported earlier) which encloses the continuum source. 0540-693 is a system very similar to the Crab nebula and represents the second detection of optical synchrotron radiation in a supernova remnant.

  12. Walter Baade, Fritz Zwicky, and Rudolph Minkowski's Early Supernova Research, 1927 - 1973

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1999-12-01

    Long before he ``discovered" the two stellar populations, Walter Baade was a pioneer in research on supernovae and their remnants. In 1927, while still in Germany, Baade emphasized what he called ``Hauptnovae" (chief novae) as highly luminous, potential distance indicators. He joined the Mount Wilson staff in 1931, bringing the ``secret" of the Schmidt camera with him, and encouraged Fritz Zwicky to carry out a supernova search with one at Palomar. Baade and Zwicky used the term ``supernova" in their 1933 joint paper. Zwicky began a systematic search in 1936, and Baade followed up with the 100-in reflector to derive light curves. He confirmed that Tycho's ``nova" of 1572 and the Crab nebula had been supernovae in our Galaxy. Baade advised N. U. Mayall, at Lick, on his spectroscopic study of the Crab nebula. In 1933, after Hitler came to power, Rudolph Minkowski had to leave Germany. Baade managed to get him a Mount Wilson staff position. Minkowski then did the spectroscopic observations of supernovae, beginning in 1937. Within a few years he and Baade were able to distinguish type I and II supernovae. Baade's further work on supernovae included historical research in Latin, Italian, and German, as well as filter photography. He searched hard for a remnant of SN 1885 in M 31, but never succeeded in finding it. After World War II the Crab nebula was found to be a strong radio source, and Baade and Minkowski used the 200-in to identify other supernova remnants, beginning with Cas A. Baade collaborated closely with Jan Oort and his student, Lo Woltjer, in their studies of the Crab nebula. After Baade retired in 1958, Minkowski continued supernova research for more than a decade; one of his favorite objects was the expanding Cygnus Loop.

  13. An X-ray Synchrotron Nebula Associated with the Radio Pulsar PSR B1853+01 in the Supernova Remnant W44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrus, I.; Hughes, J. P.

    1995-12-01

    We present results of a study using ASCA X-ray data from the vicinity of the radio pulsar PSR B1853+01 located within the supernova remnant (SNR) W44. PSR B1853+01 is a 267 ms pulsar, which to date has only been detected in the radio band. Previous observations at soft X-ray energies (e.g., ROSAT HRI) have failed to detect any significant X-ray emission (pulsed or unpulsed) from the pulsar. In addition, no high energy tail was seen in the Ginga spectrum of W44 leading to a 3sigma upper limit of 3.6x 10(-12) ergs cm(-2) s(-1) for the 2--10 keV flux of a Crab-like power-law component contributing to the spectrum of W44. Over the 0.5--5 keV band, the ASCA data show soft thermal (kT ~ 0.5 keV) emission from W44 with a morphology very similar to that observed before by Einstein and ROSAT. In the high energy band (5--10 keV) the SNR for the most part is not visible and instead an unresolved source coincident with the position of PSR B1853+01 is evident. The observed ASCA spectra are consistent with a power-law origin (photon index ~ 3.5) for the X-ray emission from this source at a flux level below the Ginga upper limit. The maximum allowed size for the source is determined directly from the ASCA data (<5(') ), while the minimum size is determined indirectly from the nondetection of a point source in the ROSAT HRI data (>1.5(') ). We also report on our timing analysis, which failed to detect pulsations from the X-ray source at the pulsar's period. Based on these lines of evidence, we suggest that the new hard source in W44 represents the X-ray synchrotron nebula surrounding PSR B1853+01, rather than the beamed output of the pulsar itself. The ratio of the nebula's X-ray luminosity to the spin-down energy loss of the pulsar is consistent with that of other known plerions, lending further support to our interpretation. This is the first indirect detection in the X-ray band of the pulsar associated with W44.

  14. Characterization of the Optical and X-ray Properties of the Northwestern Wisps in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Tennant, A.; Schweizer, T.; Bucciantini, N.; Nilsson, K.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the variability of the Crab Nebula both in the visible and in X -rays. Optical observations were obtained using the Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma and X -ray observations were made with the Chandra X -Ray Observatory. We observe wisps forming and peeling off from the region commonly associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We measure a number of properties of the wisps to the Northwest of the pulsar. We find that the exact locations of the wisps in the optical and in X-rays are similar but not coincident, with the X-ray wisp preferentially located closer to the pulsar. Our measurements and their implications are interpreted in terms of a MHD model. We find that the optical wisps are more strongly Doppler boosted than X-ray wisps, a result inconsistent with current MHD simulations. Indeed the inferred optical boosting factors exceed MHD simulation values by about one order of magnitude. These findings suggest that the optical and X-ray wisps are not produced by the same particle distribution, a result which is consistent with the spatial differences. Further, the X -ray wisps and optical wisps are apparently developing independently from each other, but every time a new X ]ray wisp is born so is an optical wisp, thus pointing to a possible common cause or trigger. Finally, we find that the typical wisp formation rate is approximately once per year, interestingly at about the same rate of production of the large gamma-ray flares.

  15. Characterization of the Optical and X-ray Properties of the Northwestern Wisps in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Schweitzer, T.; Bucciantini, N.; Idec, W.; Nilsson, K.; Tennant, A.; Zanin, R.

    2013-04-01

    We have studied the variability of the Crab Nebula both in the visible and in X-rays. Optical observations were obtained using the Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma and X-ray observations were made with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We observe wisps forming and peeling off from the region commonly associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We measure a number of properties of the wisps to the Northwest of the pulsar. We find that the exact locations of the wisps in the optical and in X-rays are similar but not coincident, with the X-ray wisp preferentially located closer to the pulsar. Our measurements and their implications are interpreted in terms of a MHD model. We find that the optical wisps are more strongly Doppler boosted than X-ray wisps, a result inconsistent with current MHD simulations. Indeed the inferred optical boosting factors exceed MHD simulation values by about one order of magnitude. These findings suggest that the optical and X-ray wisps are not produced by the same particle distribution, a result which is consistent with the spatial differences. Further, the X-ray wisps and optical wisps are apparently developing independently from each other, but every time a new X-ray wisp is born so is an optical wisp, thus pointing to a possible common cause or trigger. Finally, we find that the typical wisp formation rate is approximately once per year, interestingly at about the same rate of production of the large gamma-ray flares.

  16. Search for Transient gamma -Ray Line Emission Between 400 and 600 keV from the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, M. J.; Share, G. H.; Leising, M. D.

    1992-12-01

    Previous experiments reported transient gamma -ray line emission from the Crab Nebula for periods of several hr, at energies 400-460 keV (Leventhal et al. 1977, Yoshimori et al. 1979, Owens et al. 1985, Massaro et al. 1991) and 545 keV (Sunyaev et al. 1992). We have searched data taken by the SMM Gamma Ray Spectrometer for lines at these energies, using the method of Harris et al. (1991). Line features associated with the pulse period cannot be resolved by this method. We find no evidence of significant line emission at any energy during 1981-1989 on time-scales between ~ 1 d and ~ 1 yr. Our 3 sigma upper limits on the transient flux in any line are characteristically ~ 1.0 times 10(-3) gamma cm(-2) s(-1) over time-scales 12 d or greater, and ~ 2.5 times 10(-3) gamma cm(-2) s(-1) over time-scales ~ 1 d. The duty cycle during 1981-1989 for strong (>> 1times 10(-3) gamma cm(-2) s(-1) ) transient lines on ~ 1 d time-scales, such as those detected by Leventhal et al. (1977), Yoshimori et al. (1979), Owens et al. (1985) and Sunyaev et al. (1992), must have been <1%. We searched our data for the ~ 5 hr on 1981 June 6 coinciding with the transient line at 405 keV detected by Owens et al. (1985). Our null result for this line during that period is inconsistent with the measurement of Owens et al. This work was performed under NASA Grant NAGW-2789. M.J. Harris et al. 1991, Bull AAS 23, 1440. M. Leventhal et al. 1977 ApJ 216, 491. E. Massaro et al. 1991, ApJ 376, L11. A. Owens et al. 1985, Proc. 19th ICRC 1, 145. R. Sunyaev et al. 1992, IAUC 5481. M. Yoshimori et al. 1979, Aust.J. Phys. 32, 375.

  17. Studies of Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443: Preliminary Observations from the Chandra Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyibi, E. A.

    2009-10-01

    Preliminary observations of the Chandra data were made in order to study the Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443. The Chandra X-ray observatory short observation on IC443 was centred on 13 chip ACIS. The CIAO analytical programme was used for the data analysis. The data were separated into point source, with an energy range of 2.1 to 10.0 keV, and diffuse source with energy less than 2.1 Kev. The resulting spectra were fitted to a power law. The observed density numbers and the normalised counts of both the point source and the diffuse source were used to describe the X-ray source. Afin d'étudier la "Pulsar wind Nebula" dans le reste de la Supernova IC 443, nous avons mené une exploitation préliminaire des observations provenant du satellite spatiale Chandra. L'observation brêve de IC 443, par Chandra fut centrée sur les composantes du spectromètre identifiées par la séquence 13. Le programme informatique CIAO fut utilisé pour l'analyse des données. Les données furent groupées en sources ponctuelles, chacune ayant des énergies allant de 2.1 a 10.0 kev ; et en sources diffuses chacune avec des énergies de moins de 2.1 kev. Les spectres obtenus furent interpolés à l'aide de fonction puissance. La densité de flux ainsi que le décompte des particules induites au détecteur par le rayonnement provenant des sources ponctuelles et diffuses furent utilisés pour décrire la source de rayon-X.

  18. The Infrared Detection of the Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Galactic Supernova Remnant 3C 58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, P.; Helfand, D. J.; Reynolds, S. P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Lemiere, A.; Wang, Z.

    2008-03-01

    We present infrared observations of 3C 58 with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the IRAC camera, we have imaged the entire source, which results in clear detections of the nebula at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The derived flux values are consistent with extrapolation of the X-ray spectrum to the infrared band, demonstrating that any cooling break in the synchrotron spectrum must occur near the soft X-ray band. We also detect the torus surrounding PSR J0205+6449, the 65 ms pulsar that powers 3C 58. The torus spectrum requires a break between the infrared and X-ray bands, and perhaps multiple breaks. This complex spectrum, which is an imprint of the particles injected into the nebula, has considerable consequences for the evolution of the broadband spectrum of 3C 58. We illustrate these effects and discuss the impact of these observations on the modeling of broadband spectra of pulsar wind nebulae.

  19. Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, CAIs contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A < 140 and negative r-process anomalies in isotopes A > 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of CAIs around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by CAIs. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy. PMID:24101483

  20. Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Brennecka, Gregory A; Borg, Lars E; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2013-10-22

    The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, CAIs contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A < 140 and negative r-process anomalies in isotopes A > 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of CAIs around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by CAIs. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy. PMID:24101483

  1. Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Brennecka, Gregory A; Borg, Lars E; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2013-10-22

    The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, CAIs contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A < 140 and negative r-process anomalies in isotopes A > 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of CAIs around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by CAIs. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy.

  2. Search for Gamma Rays above 100 TeV from the Crab Nebula with the Tibet Air Shower Array and the 100 m2 muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; He, Z. T.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, L.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Kozai, M.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, H. J.; Li, W. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J. S.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Meng, X. R.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizutani, K.; Munakata, K.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Niwa, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Ozawa, S.; Qian, X. L.; Qu, X. B.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shao, J.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Yang, Z.; Yasue, S.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhai, L. M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Tibet ASγ Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A 100 m2 muon detector (MD) was successfully constructed under the existing Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late fall of 2007. The sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved by selecting muon-poor events with the MD. Our MC simulation of the MD response reasonably agrees with the experimental data in terms of the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data collected by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m2 MD taken from 2008 March to 2010 February, we search for continuous gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula above ˜100 TeV. No significant excess is found, and the most stringent upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  3. Search for 100 TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with the Tibet Air Shower Array and the 100 m2 muon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    The 100 m ^{2} muon detector (MD) was constructed under the Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late autumn of 2007. By selecting muon-poor events with the MD, the sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved. Our MC simulation of the MD response is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, with regard to the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data taken from 2008 March to 2010 February by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m ^{2} MD, we search for continuous 100 TeV gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula. No significant excess is detected, and the world's best upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  4. SEARCH FOR GAMMA RAYS ABOVE 100 TeV FROM THE CRAB NEBULA WITH THE TIBET AIR SHOWER ARRAY AND THE 100 m{sup 2} MUON DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, W. Y.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Hu, Haibing; Cui, S. W.; He, Z. T.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Z. Y.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Collaboration: Tibet ASγ Collaboration; and others

    2015-11-10

    A 100 m{sup 2} muon detector (MD) was successfully constructed under the existing Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late fall of 2007. The sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved by selecting muon-poor events with the MD. Our MC simulation of the MD response reasonably agrees with the experimental data in terms of the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data collected by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m{sup 2} MD taken from 2008 March to 2010 February, we search for continuous gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula above ∼100 TeV. No significant excess is found, and the most stringent upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  5. Limiting Superluminal Electron and Neutrino Velocities Using the 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and the IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of two PetaelectronVolt (PeV)-scale neutrino events reported by Ice Cube allows one to place constraints on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the neutrino sector. After first arguing that at least one of the PetaelectronVolt IceCube events was of extragalactic origin, I derive an upper limit for the difference between putative superluminal neutrino and electron velocities of less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19) in units where c = 1, confirming that the observed PetaelectronVolt neutrinos could have reached Earth from extragalactic sources. I further derive a new constraint on the superluminal electron velocity, obtained from the observation of synchrotron radiation from the Crab Nebula flare of September, 2010. The inference that the greater than 1 GigaelectronVolt gamma-rays from synchrotron emission in the flare were produced by electrons of energy up to approx. 5.1 PetaelectronVolt indicates the nonoccurrence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation by these electrons. This implies a new, strong constraint on superluminal electron velocities delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 5 x 10(exp -21). It immediately follows that one then obtains an upper limit on the superluminal neutrino velocity alone of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19), many orders of magnitude better than the time-of-flight constraint from the SN1987A neutrino burst. However, if the electrons are subluminal the constraint on the absolute value of delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17), obtained from the Crab Nebula gamma-ray spectrum, places a weaker constraint on superluminal neutrino velocity of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17).

  6. Dust production in supernovae and AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Mikako

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, the role of supernovae on dust has changed; it has been long proposed that supernovae are dust destroyers, but now recent observations show that core-collapse supernovae can become dust factories. Theoretical models of dust evolution in galaxies have predicted that core-collapse supernovae can be an important source of dust in galaxies, if these supernovae can form a significant mass of dust (0.1-1 solar masses). The Herschel Space Observatory and ALMA detected dust in the ejecta of Supernova 1987A. They revealed an estimated 0.5 solar masses of dust. Herschel also found nearly 0.1 solar masses of dust in historical supernovae remnants, namely Cassiopeia A and the Crab Nebula. If dust grains can survive future interaction with the supernova winds and ambient interstellar medium, core-collapse supernovae can be an important source of dust in the interstellar media of galaxies. We further discuss the total dust mass injected by AGB stars and SNe into the interstellar medium of the Magellanic Clouds.

  7. X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2): AN EVOLVED PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Matheson, H.; Safi-Harb, S.; Kothes, R. E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca

    2013-09-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) studies with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory have opened a new window to address the physics of pulsar winds, zoom on their interaction with their hosting supernova remnant (SNR) and interstellar medium, and identify their powering engines. We here present a new 70 ks, plus an archived 18 ks, Chandra ACIS observation of the SNR CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2), classified as a PWN with unusual radio properties and poorly studied in X-rays. We find that the peak of the X-ray emission is clearly offset from the peak of the radio emission by {approx}100'' and located at the southeastern edge of the radio nebula. We detect a point source-the putative pulsar-at the peak of the X-ray emission and study its spectrum separately from the PWN. This new point source, CXOU J201609.2+371110, is surrounded by a compact nebula displaying a torus-like structure and possibly a jet. A more extended diffuse nebula is offset from the radio nebula, extending from the point source to the northwest for {approx}250''. The spectra of the point source, compact nebula, and extended diffuse nebula are all well described by a power-law model with a photon index of 1.1 (0.7-1.6), 1.2 (0.9-1.4), and 1.7 (1.5-1.8), respectively, for a column density N{sub H} = 1.38 (1.21-1.57) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (90% confidence). The total X-ray luminosity of the source is {approx}1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} at an assumed distance of 6.1 kpc, with {approx}2% and 6% contribution from the point source and compact nebula, respectively. The observed properties suggest that CTB 87 is an evolved ({approx}5-28 kyr) PWN, with the extended radio emission likely a ''relic'' PWN, as in Vela-X and G327.1-1.1. To date, however, there is no evidence for thermal X-ray emission from this SNR, and the SNR shell is still missing, suggesting expansion into a low-density medium (n{sub 0} < 0.2 D{sup -1/2}{sub 6.1} cm{sup -3}), likely caused by a stellar wind bubble blown by the

  8. X-Ray Observations of the Supernova Remnant CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2): An Evolved Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, H.; Safi-Harb, S.; Kothes, R.

    2013-09-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) studies with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory have opened a new window to address the physics of pulsar winds, zoom on their interaction with their hosting supernova remnant (SNR) and interstellar medium, and identify their powering engines. We here present a new 70 ks, plus an archived 18 ks, Chandra ACIS observation of the SNR CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2), classified as a PWN with unusual radio properties and poorly studied in X-rays. We find that the peak of the X-ray emission is clearly offset from the peak of the radio emission by ~100'' and located at the southeastern edge of the radio nebula. We detect a point source—the putative pulsar—at the peak of the X-ray emission and study its spectrum separately from the PWN. This new point source, CXOU J201609.2+371110, is surrounded by a compact nebula displaying a torus-like structure and possibly a jet. A more extended diffuse nebula is offset from the radio nebula, extending from the point source to the northwest for ~250''. The spectra of the point source, compact nebula, and extended diffuse nebula are all well described by a power-law model with a photon index of 1.1 (0.7-1.6), 1.2 (0.9-1.4), and 1.7 (1.5-1.8), respectively, for a column density N H = 1.38 (1.21-1.57) × 1022 cm-2 (90% confidence). The total X-ray luminosity of the source is ~1.6 × 1034 erg s-1 at an assumed distance of 6.1 kpc, with ~2% and 6% contribution from the point source and compact nebula, respectively. The observed properties suggest that CTB 87 is an evolved (~5-28 kyr) PWN, with the extended radio emission likely a "relic" PWN, as in Vela-X and G327.1-1.1. To date, however, there is no evidence for thermal X-ray emission from this SNR, and the SNR shell is still missing, suggesting expansion into a low-density medium (n_0 < 0.2 D^{-1/2}_{6.1} cm-3), likely caused by a stellar wind bubble blown by the progenitor star.

  9. Radio flux variation of young supernova remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Bubukin, I.T.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    The 31.5-cm radio flux density of Cas A, the Crab Nebula, and the remnant of the 1572 supernova relative to that of the radio galaxies Cyg A and Vir A was measured in 1981. Comparison with similar observations in 1964 and 1972 shows that over the past decade the decline of the Cas A flux has slowed by a factor 2.2 and now amounts to (0.413 +- 0.08)%/yr. The Crab flux was (3.5 +- 1.0)% weaker in 1981 than in 1964 and 1972; it probably dropped abruptly between 1972 and 1977. For the 1572 SNR the annual mean decline over the 17-yr period is (0.5 +- 0.15)%/yr.

  10. Characterization of the Optical and X-ray Properties of the Northwestern Wisps in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Bucciantini, N.; Idec, W.; Nillson, K.; Schweizer, T.; Tennant, A. F.; Zanin, R.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the wisps to the northwest of the Crab pulsar as part of a multi-wavelength campaign in the visible and in X-rays. Optical observations were obtained using the Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma and X-ray observations were made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The observing campaign took place from October 2010 until September 2012. About once per year we observe wisps forming and peeling off from (or near) the region commonly associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We find that the exact locations of the northwestern wisps in the optical and in X-rays are similar but not coincident, with X-ray wisps preferentially located closer to the pulsar. This suggests that the optical and X-ray wisps are not produced by the same particle distribution. It is also interesting to note that the optical and radio wisps are also separated from each other (Bietenholz et al. 2004). Our measurements and their implications are interpreted in terms of a Doppler-boosted ring model that has its origin in MHD modeling. While the Doppler boosting factors inferred from the X-ray wisps are consistent with current MHD simulations of PWNe, the optical boosting factors are not, and typically exceed values from MHD simulations by about a factor of 4.

  11. ON THE INJECTION OF SHORT-LIVED RADIONUCLIDES FROM A SUPERNOVA INTO THE SOLAR NEBULA: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE OXYGEN ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ming-Chang

    2014-02-01

    Injection of short-lived radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this ''late-injection'' scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the short-lived radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of {sup 41}Ca and {sup 60}Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.

  12. On the Injection of Short-lived Radionuclides from a Supernova into the Solar Nebula: Constraints from the Oxygen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Chang

    2014-02-01

    Injection of short-lived radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this "late-injection" scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the short-lived radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in 17O/16O and 18O/16O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of 41Ca and 60Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.

  13. Radio-Quiet Pulsars and Point Sources in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, David

    2002-04-01

    Since Baade and Zwicky made their prescient remark identifying the central blue star in the Crab Nebula as a neutron star, this pulsar's period has increased by 0.9 msec, turning 10^48 ergs of rotational kinetic energy into a relativistic wind that has been deposited in its surroundings. This makes the compact remnant of the supernova of 1054 AD highly conspicuous. It also makes this remnant highly anomalous. Nowhere else in the Galaxy does such a luminous young pulsar exists, despite the fact that at least half a dozen core-collapse supernovae have occurred since the Crab's birth. Indeed, the newly discovered central object in Cas A is four orders of magnitude less luminous in the X-ray band. While the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories are discovering an increasing number of Crab-like synchrotron nebulae (albeit, far less luminous than the prototype), they are also revealing X-ray point sources inside supernova remnants that lack detectable radio pulses and show no evidence of a relativistic outflow to power a surrounding nebula. I will provide an inventory of these objects, discuss whether or not truly radio-silent young neutron stars exist, and speculate on the emission mechanisms and power sources which make such objects shine. I will conclude with a commentary on the implications of this population for the distributions of pulsar birth parameters such as spin period, magnetic field strength, and space velocity, as well as offer a glimpse of what future observations might reveal about the demographics of core-collapse remnants.

  14. Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    We live in a Universe that is getting bigger faster. This astonishing discovery of Universal acceleration was made in the late 1990s by two teams who made observations of a special type of exploded star known as a `Supernova Type Ia'. (SNeIa) Since the discovery of the accelerating Universe, one of the biggest questions in modern cosmology has been to determine the cause of that acceleration - the answer to this question will have far reaching implications for our theories of cosmology and fundamental physics more broadly. The two main competing explanations for this apparent late time acceleration of the Universe are modified gravity and dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) has been designed and commissioned to find to find answers to these questions about the nature of dark energy and modified gravity. The new 570 megapixel Dark Energy Camera is currently operating with the Cerro-Tololo Inter American Observatory's 4m Blanco teleccope, carrying out a systematic search for SNeIa, and mapping out the large scale structure of the Universe by making observations of galaxies. The DES science program program which saw first light in September 2013 will run for five years in total. DES SNeIa data in combination with the other DES observations of large scale structure will enable us to put increasingly accurate constraints on the expansion history of the Universe and will help us distinguish between competing theories of dark energy and modified gravity. As we draw to the close of the first observing season of DES in March 2014, we will report on the current status of the DES supernova survey, presenting first year supernovae data, preliminary results, survey strategy, discovery pipeline, spectroscopic target selection and data quality. This talk will give the first glimpse of the DES SN first year data and initial results as we begin our five year survey in search of dark energy. On behalf of the Dark Energy Survey collaboration.

  15. Pulsar-like emission from the supernova remnant CTB 80

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    A compact radio source has been found immersed in the flat-spectrum central component of the peculiar supernova remnant CTB 80. The object's apparent steep radio spectrum, moderate degree of polarization, and near-coincidence with an unresolved X-ray source are consistent with a pulsar/neutron star which provides energy to power the flat-spectrum component. Its eccentric location and other evidence suggest a fast-moving object interacting with its environment. The morphology of the surrounding emission which resembles a wisp near the center of the Crab Nebula provides clues to particle acceleration near the neutron star. 30 references.

  16. Radio emision from supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies have been discovered through radio observations, and only a very small number of the SNRs catalogued in the Milky Way have not been detected in the radio band, or are poorly defined by current radio observations. The study of the radio emission from SNRs is an excellent tool to investigate morphological characteristics, marking the location of shock fronts and contact discontinuities; the presence, orientation and intensity of the magnetic field; the energy spectrum of the emitting particles; and the dynamical consequences of the interaction with the circumstellar and interstellar medium. I will review the present knowledge of different important aspects of radio remnants and their impact on the interstellar gas. Also, new radio studies of the Crab Nebula carried out with the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 3 GHz and with ALMA at 100 GHz, will be presented.

  17. Late-Time Evolution of Composite Supernova Remnants: Deep Chandra Observations and Hydrodynamical Modeling of a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula in SNR G327.1-1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Kolb, Christopher; Blondin, John; Hughes, John P.; Bucciantini, Niccolo

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the evolution of composite supernova remnants (SNRs) and the eventual fate of relativistic particles injected by their pulsars, we present a multifaceted investigation of the interaction between a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its host SNR G327.1-1.1. Our 350 ks Chandra X-ray observations of SNR G327.1-1.1 reveal a highly complex morphology; a cometary structure resembling a bow shock, prong-like features extending into large arcs in the SNR interior, and thermal emission from the SNR shell. Spectral analysis of the non-thermal emission offers clues about the origin of the PWN structures, while enhanced abundances in the PWN region provide evidence for mixing of supernova ejecta with PWN material. The overall morphology and spectral properties of the SNR suggest that the PWN has undergone an asymmetric interaction with the SNR reverse shock(RS) that can occur as a result of a density gradient in the ambient medium and or a moving pulsar that displaces the PWN from the center of the remnant. We present hydrodynamical simulations of G327.1-1.1 that show that its morphology and evolution can be described by a approx. 17,000 yr old composite SNR that expanded into a density gradient with an orientation perpendicular to the pulsar's motion. We also show that the RSPWN interaction scenario can reproduce the broadband spectrum of the PWN from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The analysis and modeling presented in this work have important implications for our general understanding of the structure and evolution of composite SNRs.

  18. Is the central binary system of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428 a type Ia supernova progenitor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Soker, Noam; Althaus, Leandro G.; Ribas, Ignasi; Morales, Juan C.

    2016-05-01

    We critically discuss the recent observations of the binary system at the center of the bipolar planetary nebula Henize 2-428. We find that the proposed explanation of two equal-mass degenerate objects with a total mass larger than the Chandrasekhar limiting mass that supposedly will merge in less than a Hubble time, possibly leading to a SN Ia, is controversial. This hypothesis relies on the assumption that the variability of the He II 5412 Å spectral line is due to two absorption components. Instead, we propose that it can be accounted for by a broad absorption line from the central system on top of which there is a narrow emission line from the nebula. This prompted us to study if the binary system can be made of a degenerate star and a low-mass main sequence companion, or of two degenerate objects of smaller mass. We find that although both scenarios can account for the existence of two symmetric broad minima in the light curve, the second one agrees better with observations. We thus argue that the claim that Henize 2-428 provides observational evidence supporting the double-degenerate scenario for SN Ia is premature.

  19. Light-element Nucleosynthesis in a Molecular Cloud Interacting with a Supernova Remnant and the Origin of Beryllium-10 in the Protosolar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatischeff, Vincent; Duprat, Jean; de Séréville, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The presence of short-lived radionuclides (t 1/2 < 10 Myr) in the early solar system provides important information about the astrophysical environment in which the solar system formed. The discovery of now extinct 10Be (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope anomalies (FUN-CAIs) suggests that a baseline concentration of 10Be in the early solar system was inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud. In this paper, we investigate various astrophysical contexts for the nonthermal nucleosynthesis of 10Be by cosmic-ray-induced reactions. We first show that the 10Be recorded in FUN-CAIs cannot have been produced in situ by irradiation of the FUN-CAIs themselves. We then show that trapping of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the collapsing presolar cloud core induced a negligible 10Be contamination of the protosolar nebula, the inferred 10Be/9Be ratio being at least 40 times lower than that recorded in FUN-CAIs (10Be/9Be ~ 3 × 10-4). Irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by background GCRs produced a steady-state 10Be/9Be ratio <~ 1.3 × 10-4 at the time of the solar system formation, which suggests that the presolar cloud was irradiated by an additional source of CRs. Considering a detailed model for CR acceleration in a supernova remnant (SNR), we find that the 10Be abundance recorded in FUN-CAIs can be explained within two alternative scenarios: (1) the irradiation of a giant molecular cloud by CRs produced by >~ 50 supernovae exploding in a superbubble of hot gas generated by a large star cluster of at least 20,000 members, and (2) the irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by freshly accelerated CRs escaped from an isolated SNR at the end of the Sedov-Taylor phase. In the second picture, the SNR resulted from the explosion of a massive star that ran away from its parent OB association, expanded during most of its adiabatic phase in an intercloud medium of density of about 1 H

  20. A KINEMATIC DISTANCE STUDY OF THE PLANETARY NEBULAE-SUPERNOVA REMNANT-H II REGION COMPLEX AT G35.6–0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Tian, W. W.; Su, H. Q.; Torres, D. F.; Pedaletti, G. E-mail: tww@bao.ac.cn

    2013-10-01

    Two possible planetary nebulae (PN G035.5–00.4 and IRAS 18551+0159), one newly re-identified supernova remnant (SNR G35.6–0.4), and one H II region (G35.6–0.5) form a line-of-sight-overlapping complex known as G35.6–0.5. We analyze 21 cm H I absorption spectra toward the complex to constrain the kinematic distances of these objects. PN G035.5–00.4 has a distance from 3.8 ± 0.4 kpc to 5.4 ± 0.7 kpc. IRAS 18551+0159 is at 4.3 ± 0.5 kpc. We discuss the distance for SNR 35.6–0.4, for which the previous estimate was 10.5 kpc, and find a plausible distance of 3.6 ± 0.4 kpc. The new distance of SNR G35.6–0.4 and the derived mass for the ∼55 km s{sup –1} CO molecular cloud can accommodate an association with HESS J1858+020. We also conclude that SNR G35.6–0.4 is unlikely to be associated with PSR J1857+0210 or PSR J1857+0212, which are projected onto the SNR area.

  1. New insights into the physical state of gaseous nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peimbert, M.

    1981-01-01

    The impact of knowledge of H II regions, planetary nebulae and supernova remnants due to International Ultraviolet Explorer is examined. The more relevant aspects related to the physical conditions of gaseous nebulae are reviewed. The following properties of gaseous nebulae are discussed: (1) density and temperature distribution; (2) ionization structure; (3) chemical composition; (4) internal dust; and (5) shock velocity for supernova remnants. The CNO abundances of planetary nebulae are compared with stellar evolution models.

  2. Discovery of an X-Ray Synchrotron Nebula Associated with the Radio Pulsar PSR B1853+01 in the Supernova Remnant W44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrus, Ilana M.; Hughes, John P.; Helfand, David J.

    1996-06-01

    We report the detection, using data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), of a hard X-ray source in the vicinity of the radio pulsar PSR B1853+01, which is located within the supernova remnant (SNR) W44. PSR B1853+01, a 267 ms pulsar, has to date been detected only in the radio band. Previous observations at soft X-ray energies (e.g., with ROSAT HRI) have failed to detect any significant X-ray emission (pulsed or unpulsed) from the pulsar. In addition, no high-energy emission (>~4 keV) has been detected previously from W44. Over the 0.5--4.0 keV band, the ASCA data show soft thermal emission from W44, with a morphology very similar to that observed earlier by Einstein and ROSAT. In the high-energy band (4.0--9.5 keV), the SNR is, for the most part, invisible, although a source coincident with the position of PSR B1853+01 is evident. The observed ASCA spectra are consistent with a power-law origin (photon index ~2.3) for the X-ray emission from this source at a flux level (flux density ~0.5 mu Jy at 1 keV) consistent with previous upper limits. The maximum allowed size for the source is determined directly from the ASCA data (<5'), while the minimum size is derived from the nondetection of a point source in the ROSAT HRI data (>~30"). Timing analysis of the hard X-ray source failed to detect pulsations at the pulsar's period. Based on these lines of evidence, we conclude that the new hard source in W44 represents an X-ray synchrotron nebula associated with PSR B1853+01, rather than the beamed output of the pulsar itself. This discovery adds W44 to the small group of previously known plerionic SNRs. This nebula lies at the low end of, but is consistent with, the correlation between X-ray luminosity and pulsar spin-down energy loss found for such objects, lending further support to our interpretation.

  3. Searching for the Thermal Plasma in the Naked Pulsar Wind Nebula CTB 87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi-Harb, Samar

    2013-10-01

    The missing thermal X-ray emission from dozens of naked pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) remains one of the most puzzling questions in the SNR field. Our understanding of PWNe has been largely biased by the study of the brightest and youngest objects, such as the Crab nebula. We propose a deep EPIC observation of CTB 87. Our Chandra study, complemented with multi-wavelength observations, suggests that this remnant is an evolved PWN, most likely crushed by the supernova explosion's reverse shock. Alternatively, a bow-shock interpretation is also plausible. Our proposed observation will discriminate between these two scenarios. XMM-Newton is the ideal facility to perform a deep search for the thermal emission expected at the PWN-reverse shock interaction site and from the long-sought SNR shell.

  4. Young Pulsar Reveals Clues to Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Astronomers examined the remnants of a stellar explosion with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and discovered one of the youngest known pulsars. The properties of this pulsar, a neutron star rotating 15 times a second, will enable scientists to better understand how neutron stars are formed in the seconds just before a supernova explosion, and how they pump energy into the space around them for thousands of years after the explosion. A team led by Stephen Murray of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA studied 3C58, the remains of a supernova observed on Earth in 1181 AD in the constellation Cassiopeia. In addition to a pulsating central source they observed an extended X-ray source surrounding the pulsar thought to be produced by a cloud of high-energy particles about 20 light years across. These results were presented at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium in Washington, D.C. According to Murray, "Our discovery shows that all pulsars are not born equal. This pulsar is about the same age as the Crab Nebula pulsar, but there is little family resemblance." Murray explained that the 3C58 pulsar, which is now rotating at about half the rate of the Crab pulsar, is rotating almost as fast as it was when it was formed. In contrast, the Crab pulsar was formed spinning much more rapidly and has slowed to about half its initial speed. Conventional theory has assumed that all pulsars were like the Crab, born with rapid rotation and then have spun down considerably. The observations of 3C58, along with Chandra observations by another group of scientists of a pulsar associated with the supernova of 386 AD have cast doubt on that assumption, however. Furthermore, the X-ray power of 3C58 and its surrounding nebula are 20,000 and 1,000 times weaker than the Crab pulsar and its surrounding nebula respectively. One possibility for the low power of 3C58 is that the energy flow from its pulsar is primarily in the form of electromagnetic fields

  5. An optical synchrotron nebula around the X-ray pulsar 0540 693 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanan, G. A.; Helfand, D. J.; Reynolds, S. P.

    1984-12-01

    The discovery of extended optical continuum emission around the recently discovered 50 ms X-ray pulsar in the supernova remnant 0540 - 693 is reported. Exposures in blue and red broad-band filters made with the CTIO 4 m telescope and prime focus CCD show a center-brightened but clearly extended nebula about 4 arcsec in diameter (FWHM), while an image in an (O III) filter shows an 8 arcsec diameter shell (as reported earlier) which encloses the continuum source. The extinction-correction magnitudes B = 17.5 and I = 16.4 both correspond to flux densities which lie directly on the extrapolation of the observed X-ray power-law spectrum, suggesting that the emission from 10 to the 14.5 Hz to 10 to the 18th Hz is synchrotron radiation from a single population of particles. Line emission is shown to be only a small contaminant in the broad-band images. Thus the 0540 - 693 system is apparently a very close analog of the Crab Nebula. Any point source component in the former nebula must have B greater than 20; the Crab pulsar at this distance would have B approximately 23. The implications of the observations for the energetics of the pulsar/nebula system are discussed.

  6. GAMMA-RAY AND HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM PULSAR-AIDED SUPERNOVAE AS A PROBE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN EMBRYONIC PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Kiuchi, Kenta; Bartos, Imre

    2015-05-20

    It has been suggested that some classes of luminous supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are driven by newborn magnetars. Fast-rotating proto-neutron stars have also been of interest as potential sources of gravitational waves (GWs). We show that for a range of rotation periods and magnetic fields, hard X-rays and GeV gamma rays provide us with a promising probe of pulsar-aided SNe. It is observationally known that young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) in the Milky Way are very efficient lepton accelerators. We argue that, if embryonic PWNe satisfy similar conditions at early stages of SNe (in ∼1–10 months after the explosion), external inverse-Compton emission via upscatterings of SN photons is naturally expected in the GeV range as well as broadband synchrotron emission. To fully take into account the Klein–Nishina effect and two-photon annihilation process that are important at early times, we perform detailed calculations including electromagnetic cascades. Our results suggest that hard X-ray telescopes such as NuSTAR can observe such early PWN emission by follow-up observations in months to years. GeV gamma-rays may also be detected by Fermi for nearby SNe, which serve as counterparts of these GW sources. Detecting the signals will give us an interesting probe of particle acceleration at early times of PWNe, as well as clues to driving mechanisms of luminous SNe and GRBs. Since the Bethe–Heitler cross section is lower than the Thomson cross section, gamma rays would allow us to study subphotospheric dissipation. We encourage searches for high-energy emission from nearby SNe, especially SNe Ibc including super-luminous objects.

  7. A Stochastic Acceleration Model of Radio Emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Asano, K.

    2016-06-01

    The broadband emission of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) is well described by non-thermal emissions from accelerated electrons and positrons. However, the difference of spectral indices at radio and X-rays are not reproduced by the standard shock particle acceleration and cooling processes, and then, for example, the broken power-law spectrum for the particle energy distribution at the injection has been groundlessly adopted. Here, we propose a possible resolution for the particle distribution; the radio emitting particles are not accelerated at the pulsar wind termination shock but are stochastically accelerated by turbulence inside the PWNe. The turbulence may be induced by the interaction of the pulsar wind with the supernova ejecta. We upgrade our one-zone spectral evolution model including the stochastic acceleration and apply it to the Crab Nebula. We consider both continuous and impulsive injections of particles to the stochastic acceleration process. The radio emission in the Crab Nebula is reproduced by our stochastic acceleration model. The required forms of the momentum diffusion coefficient will be discussed.

  8. Electron-capture supernovae exploding within their progenitor wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Langer, Norbert; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Blinnikov, Sergei I.; Sorokina, Elena I.

    2014-09-01

    The most massive stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), or the so-called super-AGB stars, are thought to produce supernovae triggered by electron captures in their degenerate O+Ne+Mg cores. Super-AGB stars are expected to have slow winds with high mass-loss rates, so their circumstellar density is high. The explosions of super-AGB stars are therefore presumed to occur in this dense circumstellar environment. We provide the first synthetic light curves for such events by exploding realistic electron-capture supernova progenitors within their super-AGB winds. We find that the early light curve - that is, before the recombination wave reaches the bottom of the hydrogen-rich envelope of supernova ejecta (the plateau phase) - is not affected by the dense wind. However, after the luminosity drop following the plateau phase, the luminosity remains much higher when the super-AGB wind is taken into account. We compare our results to the historical light curve of SN 1054, the progenitor of the Crab Nebula, and show that the explosion of an electron-capture supernova within an ordinary super-AGB wind can explain the observed light curve features. We conclude that SN 1054 could have been a Type IIn supernova without any extra extreme mass loss, which was previously suggested to be necessary to account for its early high luminosity. We also show that our light curves match Type IIn supernovae with an early plateau phase or the so-called Type IIn-P supernovae, and suggest that they are electron-capture supernovae within super-AGB winds. Although some electron-capture supernovae can be bright in the optical spectral range due to the large progenitor radius, their X-ray luminosity from the interaction does not necessarily get as bright as other Type IIn supernovae whose optical luminosities are also powered by the interaction. Thus, we suggest that optically bright X-ray-faint Type IIn supernovae can emerge from electron-capture supernovae. Optically faint Type IIn supernovae

  9. Light-element nucleosynthesis in a molecular cloud interacting with a supernova remnant and the origin of beryllium-10 in the protosolar nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Tatischeff, Vincent; Duprat, Jean; De Séréville, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The presence of short-lived radionuclides (t {sub 1/2} < 10 Myr) in the early solar system provides important information about the astrophysical environment in which the solar system formed. The discovery of now extinct {sup 10}Be (t {sub 1/2} = 1.4 Myr) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope anomalies (FUN-CAIs) suggests that a baseline concentration of {sup 10}Be in the early solar system was inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud. In this paper, we investigate various astrophysical contexts for the nonthermal nucleosynthesis of {sup 10}Be by cosmic-ray-induced reactions. We first show that the {sup 10}Be recorded in FUN-CAIs cannot have been produced in situ by irradiation of the FUN-CAIs themselves. We then show that trapping of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the collapsing presolar cloud core induced a negligible {sup 10}Be contamination of the protosolar nebula, the inferred {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio being at least 40 times lower than that recorded in FUN-CAIs ({sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ∼ 3 × 10{sup –4}). Irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by background GCRs produced a steady-state {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio ≲ 1.3 × 10{sup –4} at the time of the solar system formation, which suggests that the presolar cloud was irradiated by an additional source of CRs. Considering a detailed model for CR acceleration in a supernova remnant (SNR), we find that the {sup 10}Be abundance recorded in FUN-CAIs can be explained within two alternative scenarios: (1) the irradiation of a giant molecular cloud by CRs produced by ≳ 50 supernovae exploding in a superbubble of hot gas generated by a large star cluster of at least 20,000 members, and (2) the irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by freshly accelerated CRs escaped from an isolated SNR at the end of the Sedov-Taylor phase. In the second picture, the SNR resulted from the explosion of a massive star that ran away from its parent OB

  10. Art as an Evolutionary Adaptation: Inspiration from the Visible Supernovae of AD 1054 and AD 3054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, C. J.; Rappaport, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The authors, an astronomer/priest and an anthropologist/biologist, describe their use of the dramatic arts at the INSAP VIII meeting in their performance of two short skits on the sighting of a supernova in AD 1054 (creating the beautiful Crab Nebula) and a future “Rho Cas” stellar explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia, in AD 3054. They speculate on the emergence of science, religion, and art as bona fide adaptations, responding to natural selection, which served early hominins well in their struggle for existence. They draw parallels to the continued functions of science, religion, and art in modern society.

  11. Neutron star formation in theoretical supernovae. Low mass stars and white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Nomoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    The presupernova evolution of stars that form semi-degenerate or strongly degenerate O + Ne + Mg cores is discussed. For the 10 to 13 Msub solar stars, behavior of off-center neon flashes is crucial. The 8 to 10 m/sub solar stars do not ignite neon and eventually collapse due to electron captures. Properties of supernova explosions and neutron stars expected from these low mass progenitors are compared with the Crab nebula. The conditions for which neutron stars form from accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs in clsoe binary systems is also examined.

  12. Multi-frequency observations of SNR J0453-6829 in the LMC. A composite supernova remnant with a pulsar wind nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberl, F.; Filipović, M. D.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Crawford, E. J.; Points, S. D.; Pietsch, W.; De Horta, A. Y.; Tothill, N.; Payne, J. L.; Sasaki, M.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is rich in supernova remnants (SNRs), which can be investigated in detail with radio, optical, and X-ray observations. SNR J0453-6829 is an X-ray and radio-bright remnant in the LMC, within which previous studies revealed the presence of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN), making it one of the most interesting SNRs in the Local Group of galaxies. Aims: We study the emission of SNR J0453-6829 to improve our understanding of its morphology, spectrum, and thus the emission mechanisms in the shell and the PWN of the remnant. Methods: We obtained new radio data with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and analysed archival XMM-Newton observations of SNR J0453-6829. We studied the morphology of SNR J0453-6829 from radio, optical, and X-ray images and investigated the energy spectra in the different parts of the remnant. Results: Our radio results confirm that this LMC SNR hosts a typical PWN. The prominent central core of the PWN exhibits a radio spectral index αCore of -0.04 ± 0.04, while in the rest of the SNR shell the spectral slope is somewhat steeper with αShell = -0.43 ± 0.01. We detect regions with a mean polarisation of P ≅ (12 ± 4)% at 6 cm and (9 ± 2)% at 3 cm. The full remnant is of roughly circular shape with dimensions of (31 ± 1) pc × (29 ± 1) pc. The spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC and RGS spectra allowed us to derive physical parameters for the SNR. Somewhat depending on the spectral model, we obtain for the remnant a shock temperature of around 0.2 keV and estimate the dynamical age to 12 000-15 000 years. Using a Sedov model we further derive an electron density in the X-ray emitting material of 1.56 cm-3, typical for LMC remnants, a large swept-up mass of 830 M⊙, and an explosion energy of 7.6 × 1050 erg. These parameters indicate a well evolved SNR with an X-ray spectrum dominated by emission from the swept-up material.

  13. Good Crab, Bad Crab

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are crabs friends or foes of marsh grass, benefit or detriment to the salt marsh system? We examined Uca pugilator (sand fiddler) and Sesarma reticulatum (purple marsh crab) with Spartina patens (salt marsh hay) at two elevations (10 cm below MHW and 10 cm above MHW) in mesocosms...

  14. Tachyonic Cherenkov radiation from supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2015-12-01

    The subexponential decay observed in the γ-ray spectral maps of supernova remnants is explained in terms of tachyonic Cherenkov emission from a relativistic electron population. The tachyonic radiation densities of an electronic spinor current are derived, the total density as well as the transversal and longitudinal polarization components, taking account of electron recoil. Tachyonic flux quantization subject to dispersive and dissipative permeabilities is discussed, the matrix elements of the transversal and longitudinal Poynting vectors of the Maxwell-Proca field are obtained, Cherenkov emission angles and radiation conditions are derived. The spectral energy flux of an ultra-relativistic electron plasma is calculated, a tachyonic Cherenkov fit to the high-energy (1 GeV to 30 TeV) γ-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula is performed, and estimates of the linear polarization degree are given. The spectral tail shows subexponential Weibull decay, which can be modeled with a frequency-dependent tachyon mass in the dispersion relations. Tachyonic flux densities interpolate between exponential and power-law spectral decay, which is further illustrated by Cherenkov fits to the γ-ray spectra of the supernova remnants IC 443 and W44. Subexponential spectral decay is manifested in double-logarithmic spectral maps as curved Weibull or straight power-law slope.

  15. Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchio, Marco; Marassi, Stefania; Schneider, Raffaella; Bianchi, Simone; Limongi, Marco; Chieffi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. We have developed a new code (GRASH_Rev) which follows the newly-formed dust evolution throughout the supernova explosion until the merging of the forward shock with the circumstellar ISM. We have considered four well studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN1987A, CasA, the Crab Nebula, and N49. For all the simulated models, we find good agreement with observations and estimate that between 1 and 8% of the observed mass will survive, leading to a SN dust production rate of (3.9± 3.7)×10^(‑4) MM_{⊙})/yr in the Milky Way. This value is one order of magnitude larger than the dust production rate by AGB stars but insufficient to counterbalance the dust destruction by SNe, therefore requiring dust accretion in the gas phase.

  16. Trifid Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni; Reach, William

    2004-09-01

    The Trifid Nebula (M20) is a double-nebula, with a blue reflection nebula above a red ionized nebula, the latter being trisected by dark lanes. This observing program iamges the reflection and ionized nebulae and the dark lanes. The mid-infrared emission will trace the reflection nebula via aromatic hydrocarbon emissions and the dark lane via hot, small grains. Massive protostars have been detected in the dark lanes using submillimeter observations; the new mid-infrared observations will fully sample the lower-mass protostars. The Trifid is one of the youngest known HII regions, and the interaciton of its young, massive O-type star with its surrounding placental material is clearly affecting its ability to form new stars.

  17. The size and shape of Gum's nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ionizing light of the supernova which produced the Gum nebula is now fossilized in the still live, though failing, H II region. The main body of the nebula suggests a hollow center or shell form, with a characteristic radius of about half the distance to the outlying fragments. The edges of the main body patches are typically sharp and often bright. The structure of the Gum nebula appears to be dependent on the event of ionization and possibly on the details of heating. It is not now an unstructured ambient medium, as it may have been before the recent ionization. Several hypotheses are presented for a structured ambient medium.

  18. Observations of high energy emission from pulsar wind nebulae using VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, John P.

    2008-09-01

    Broadband emission has been detected from several pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), however the physical processes that govern the dynamics and mechanisms for the emission are not well understood. Theoretical models have been developed to attempt to explain the emission seen from these objects, and they make specific predictions about the spectrum and luminosity that we can expect to see in various wavelengths. Apparently, PWNe are thought to be strong gamma ray emitters, and this is reinforced by the strong emission seen from the Crab nebula. However, observations of other PWNe in high energy gamma rays has only recently been undertaken. VERITAS (the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) recently observed several of these sources in an attempt to detect very high energy gamma rays created in their nebulae. Results of observations of the Crab nebula, the standard source of observation for ground based gamma ray observatories and the most studied of all PWNe, are reported here as a comparison for 4 other northern hemisphere PWNe that were observed. This work will describe the nature of these objects while outlining the work being done to describe the emission detected from various sources. The technical details of the analysis techniques employed to search for high energy gamma rays using the VERITAS array is also presented. Ultimately only the Crab Nebula was detected at high significance. However the best integral flux upper- limits above 250 GeV to date are determined for 3C 58 (1.6% Crab Nebula flux), the Boomerang Nebula (1.5% Crab Nebula flux), PSR J0631+1036 (2.1% Crab Nebula flux) and PSR J1930+1852 (3.7 % Crab Nebula flux).

  19. CHANGES IN THE CRAB PULSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are learning more about how pulsars work by studying a series of Hubble Space Telescope images of the heart of the Crab Nebula. The images, taken over a period of several months, show that the Crab is a far more dynamic object than previously understood. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar. The pulsar is a tiny object by astronomical standards -- only about six miles across -- but has a mass greater than that of the Sun and rotates at a rate of 30 times a second. As the pulsar spins its intense magnetic field whips around, acting like a sling shot, accelerating subatomic particles and sending them hurtling them into space at close to the speed of light. The tiny pulsar and its wind are the powerhouse for the entire Crab Nebula, which is 10 light-years across -- a feat comparable to an object the size of a hydrogen atom illuminating a volume of space a kilometer across. The three pictures shown here, taken from the series of Hubble images, show dramatic changes in the appearance of the central regions of the nebula. These include wisp-like structures that move outward away from the pulsar at half the speed of light, as well as a mysterious 'halo' which remains stationary, but grows brighter then fainter over time. Also seen are the effects of two polar jets that move out along the rotation axis of the pulsar. The most dynamic feature seen -- a small knot that 'dances around' so much that astronomers have been calling it a 'sprite' -- is actually a shock front (where fast-moving material runs into slower-moving material)in one of these polar jets. The telescope captured the images with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 using a filter that passes light of wavelength around 550 nanometers, near the middle of the visible part of the spectrum. The Crab Nebula is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  20. Butterfly Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this image of the 'butterfly wing'- shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, 1997 as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA shuttle astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles.

  1. Horsehead nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Rising from a sea of dust and gas like a giant seahorse, the Horsehead nebula is one of the most photographed objects in the sky. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope took a close-up look at this heavenly icon, revealing the cloud's intricate structure. This detailed view of the horse's head is being released to celebrate the orbiting observatory's eleventh anniversary. Produced by the Hubble Heritage Project, this picture is a testament to the Horsehead's popularity. Internet voters selected this object for the orbiting telescope to view.

    The Horsehead, also known as Barnard 33, is a cold, dark cloud of gas and dust, silhouetted against the bright nebula, IC 434. The bright area at the top left edge is a young star still embedded in its nursery of gas and dust. But radiation from this hot star is eroding the stellar nursery. The top of the nebula also is being sculpted by radiation from a massive star located out of Hubble's field of view.

    Only by chance does the nebula roughly resemble the head of a horse. Its unusual shape was first discovered on a photographic plate in the late 1800s. Located in the constellation Orion, the Horsehead is a cousin of the famous pillars of dust and gas known as the Eagle nebula. Both tower-like nebulas are cocoons of young stars.

    The Horsehead nebula lies just south of the bright star Zeta Orionis, which is easily visible to the unaided eye as the left-hand star in the line of three that form Orion's Belt. Amateur astronomers often use the Horsehead as a test of their observing skills; it is known as one of the more difficult objects to see visually in an amateur-sized telescope.

    The magnificent extent of the Horsehead is best appreciated in a new wide-field image of the nebula being released today by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, taken by Travis Rector with the National Science Foundation's 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, AZ.

    This popular celestial target was the clear

  2. Stars in the Tarantula Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the most active starburst region in the local universe lies a cluster of brilliant, massive stars, known to astronomers as Hodge 301. Hodge 301, seen in the lower right hand corner of this image, lives inside the Tarantula Nebula in our galactic neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This star cluster is not the brightest, or youngest, or most populous star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula, that honor goes to the spectacular R136. In fact, Hodge 301 is almost 10 times older than the young cluster R136. But age has its advantages; many of the stars in Hodge 301 are so old that they have exploded as supernovae. These exploded stars are blasting material out into the surrounding region at speeds of almost 200 miles per second. This high speed ejecta are plowing into the surrounding Tarantula Nebula, shocking and compressing the gas into a multitude of sheets and filaments, seen in the upper left portion of the picture. Hodge 301 contains three red supergiants - stars that are close to the end of their evolution and are about to go supernova, exploding and sending more shocks into the Tarantula. Also present near the center of the image are small, dense gas globules and dust columns where new stars are being formed today, as part of the overall ongoing star formation throughout the Tarantula region.

  3. PARTICLE TRANSPORT IN YOUNG PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Xiaping; Chevalier, Roger A. E-mail: rac5x@virginia.edu

    2012-06-20

    The model for pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) as a result of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) downstream flow from a shocked, relativistic pulsar wind has been successful in reproducing many features of the nebulae observed close to central pulsars. However, observations of well-studied young nebulae like the Crab Nebula, 3C 58, and G21.5-0.9 do not show the toroidal magnetic field on a larger scale that might be expected in the MHD flow model; in addition, the radial variation of spectral index due to synchrotron losses is smoother than expected in the MHD flow model. We find that pure diffusion models can reproduce the basic data on nebular size and spectral index variation for the Crab, 3C 58, and G21.5-0.9. Most of our models use an energy-independent diffusion coefficient; power-law variations of the coefficient with energy are degenerate with variation in the input particle energy distribution index in the steady state, transmitting boundary case. Energy-dependent diffusion is a possible reason for the smaller diffusion coefficient inferred for the Crab. Monte Carlo simulations of the particle transport allowing for advection and diffusion of particles suggest that diffusion dominates over much of the total nebular volume of the Crab. Advection dominates close to the pulsar and is likely to play a role in the X-ray half-light radius. The source of diffusion and mixing of particles is uncertain, but may be related to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the outer boundary of a young PWN or to instabilities in the toroidal magnetic field structure.

  4. Orion Nebula and Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the research performed at Rice University related to NASA-Ames University consortium grant NCC2-5199 during the two year period 1996 September 1 through 1998 August 31. The research program, titled Orion Nebula and Planetary Nebulae, involved the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imagery and spectroscopy of the Orion Nebula and of the planetary nebulae NGC 6818 and NGC 6210. In addition, we analyzed infrared spectra of the Orion Nebula taken with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) The primary collaborators at NASA-Ames were Drs. R. H. Rubin, A. G. C. M. Tielens, S. W. J. Colgan, and S. D. Lord (Tielens & Lord has since changed institutions). Other collaborators include Drs. P. G. Martin (CITA, Toronto), G. J. Ferland (U. KY), J. A. Baldwin (CTIO, Chile), J. J. Hester (ASU), D. K. Walter (SCSU), and P. Harrington (U. MD). In addition to the Principal Investigator, Professor Reginald J. Dufour of the Department of Space Physics & Astronomy, the research also involved two students, Mr. Matthew Browning and Mr. Brent Buckalew. Mr. Browning will be graduating from Rice in 1999 May with a B.A. degree in Physics and Mr. Buckalew continues as a graduate student in our department, having recently received a NASA GSRP research fellowship (sponsored by Ames). The collaboration was very productive, with two refereed papers already appearing in the literature, several others in preparation, numerous meeting presentations and two press releases. Some of our research accomplishments are highlighted below. Attached to the report are copies of the two major publications. Note that this research continues to date and related extensions of it recently has been awarded time with the HST for 1999-2000.

  5. An X-ray View of the Zoo of Compact Objects and Associated Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi-Harb, Samar

    2015-08-01

    Core-collapse explosions of massive stars leave behind some of the most exotic compact objects in the Universe. These include: rotation-powered pulsars like the Crab, powering pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) observed across the electromagnetic spectrum; highly magnetized neutron stars ("magnetars") shining or bursting at high-energies; and X-ray emitting “Central Compact Objects” (CCOs) with intrinsic properties and emission mechanism that remain largely unknown. I will highlight this observed diversity of compact stellar remnants from an X-ray perspective, and address the connection between their properties and those of their hosting supernova remnants (SNRs). In particular I will highlight topics related to their formation and evolution, including: 1) which supernovae make magnetars and the shell-less PWNe?, 2) what can we learn from the apparent age discrepancy between SNRs and their associated pulsars? I will conclude with prospects for observations of SNRs with the upcoming ASTRO-H X-ray mission. The unprecedented spectral resolution on board of ASTRO-H’s micro-calorimeter will particularly open a new discovery window for supernova progenitors' science.

  6. Numerical nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijkhorst, Erik-Jan

    2005-12-01

    The late stages of evolution of stars like our Sun are dominated by several episodes of violent mass loss. Space based observations of the resulting objects, known as Planetary Nebulae, show a bewildering array of highly symmetric shapes. The interplay between gasdynamics and radiative processes determines the morphological outcome of these objects, and numerical models for astrophysical gasdynamics have to incorporate these effects. This thesis presents new numerical techniques for carrying out high-resolution three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations. Such calculations require parallelization of computer codes, and the use of state-of-the-art supercomputer technology. Numerical models in the context of the shaping of Planetary Nebulae are presented, providing insight into their origin and fate.

  7. Stingray Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image captures the infancy of the Stingray nebula (Hen-1357), the youngest known planetary nebula. In this image, the bright central star is in the middle of the green ring of gas. Its companion star is diagonally above it at 10 o'clock. A spur of gas (green) is forming a faint bridge to the companion star due to gravitational attraction. The image also shows a ring of gas (green) surrounding the central star, with bubbles of gas to the lower left and upper right of the ring. The wind of material propelled by radiation from the hot central star has created enough pressure to blow open holes in the ends of the bubbles, allowing gas to escape. The red curved lines represent bright gas that is heated by a 'shock' caused when the central star's wind hits the walls of the bubbles. The nebula is as large as 130 solar systems, but, at its distance of 18,000 light-years, it appears only as big as a dime viewed a mile away. The Stingray is located in the direction of the southern constellation Ara (the Altar). The colors shown are actual colors emitted by nitrogen (red), oxygen (green), and hydrogen (blue).

  8. Twisted Crab fingers revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlqvist, Per

    2015-05-01

    Narrowband images of the Crab Nebula captured by the Hubble Space Telescope have earlier shown that the nebula does not only present a network of broad, bright filaments crossing the nebula but also numerous so-called fingers mostly pointing inwards. Using archival Hubble images we have in some detail studied the morphology of a great number of such fingers. This scrutiny has revealed that practically all the fingers are made up of filaments. Most of the larger fingers show overall shapes that are similar to either of the two letters V and Y. In many of these fingers it is also possible to see internal details. Interestingly, a number of the larger, Y-shaped fingers turn out to have a stem that consists of intertwined filaments. By contrast with this, the smaller fingers usually appear only as diffuse and sometimes incomplete pegs. In none of the smaller fingers is it possible to find any plain, internal structure. The observational results obtained are compared with the properties of a previously proposed model of the fingers. The model suggests that the fingers have evolved out of magnetized filaments. The evolution should lead to fingers with overall shapes that are similar to either a V or a Y, very much in agreement with the observations. In addition to this, the model prescribes that the stems of the Y-shaped fingers should be made up of intertwined filaments. From all these points of agreement we conclude that the properties of the fingers observed lend strong support to the model.

  9. A MODEL OF THE SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shuta J.; Takahara, Fumio

    2010-06-01

    We study the spectral evolution of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) taking into account the energy injected when they are young. We model the evolution of the magnetic field inside a uniformly expanding PWN. Considering time-dependent injection from the pulsar and coolings by radiative and adiabatic losses, we solve the evolution of the particle distribution function. The model is calibrated by fitting the calculated spectrum to the observations of the Crab Nebula at an age of a thousand years. The spectral evolution of the Crab Nebula in our model shows that the flux ratio of TeV {gamma}-rays to X-rays increases with time, which implies that old PWNe are faint in X-rays, but not in TeV {gamma}-rays. The increase of this ratio is because the magnetic field decreases with time and is not because the X-ray emitting particles are cooled more rapidly than the TeV {gamma}-ray emitting particles. Our spectral evolution model matches the observed rate of the radio flux decrease of the Crab Nebula. This result implies that our magnetic field evolution model is close to the reality. Finally, from the viewpoint of the spectral evolution, only a small fraction of the injected energy from the Crab Pulsar needs to go to the magnetic field, which is consistent with previous studies.

  10. Supernova Debris in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2000-03-01

    Meteorites contain clear evidence that isotopes with short half lives (as short as 100,000 years) were present in the cloud of gas and dust (the called solar nebula) from which the Sun and planets formed. Supernovae, the powerful explosions of spent stars, produce elements, including short-lived radioactive isotopes. Given the short lifetimes, these elements must have been added immediately before solids formed in the Solar System, and it is possible that a supernova triggered the collapse of the vast interstellar cloud in which the Solar System formed. However, there is some evidence that two isotopes, aluminum-26 and manganese-53, were not distributed uniformly in the solar nebula. If correct, does this mean that the supernova debris was not mixed thoroughly into the collapsing interstellar cloud? This possibility was tested by Robert H. Nichols, Frank Podosek, and Cristine Jennings (Washington University in St. Louis) and Brad Meyer (Clemson University). They evaluated how thoroughly supernova products were mixed into the solar nebula by searching for the effects on the isotopic make up of other elements. They conclude that the explosive products of a supernova would have been mixed uniformly into the nebula. Thus, either the evidence of heterogeneous distribution of short-lived isotopes is incorrect, or some isotopes were not formed in a supernova, but came from somewhere else. This research project is one of many that link studies of meteorites, astronomical observations, and astrophysical calculations.

  11. Chandra Associates Pulsar and Historic Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    SAN DIEGO -- Scientists using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory have found new evidence that a pulsar in the constellation of Sagittarius was created when a massive star exploded, witnessed by Chinese astronomers in the year 386 AD. If confirmed, this will be only the second pulsar to be clearly associated with a historic event. These results were presented today by Victoria Kaspi and Mallory Roberts of McGill University at the American Astronomical Society meeting. Also participating in the research were Gautum Vasisht from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Eric Gotthelf from Columbia University, Michael Pivovaroff from Therma-Wave, Inc., and Nobuyuki Kawai from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan. The scientists used Chandra to locate the pulsar exactly at the geometric center of the supernova remnant known as G11.2-0.3. This location provides very strong evidence that the pulsar, a neutron star that is rotating 14 times a second, was formed in the supernova of 386 AD, and therefore has an age of 1615 years. "Determining the true ages of astronomical objects is notoriously difficult, and for this reason, historical records of supernovas are of great importance,"said Kaspi."In roughly the past 2,000 years, fewer than 10 reports of probable supernovae have been archived mostly by Asian astronomers. Of those handful, the remnant of 1054 AD, the Crab Nebula, was until now the only pulsar whose birth could be associated with a historic event - and, hence, the only neutron star that has a firm age." Between mid-April and mid-May in the year 386 AD, a young "guest star", presumably a supernova, was recorded by Chinese observers in the direction of the sky now known as the constellation of Sagittarius. In the 1970s, radio astronomers discovered an expanding nebula of gas and high-energy particles, called G11.2-0.3, that is believed to be the remnant of that explosion. In 1997, a team of X-ray astronomers used Japan’s ASCA satellite to discover a pulsar

  12. A Possible Rock Art Depiction Of The A.D. 1006 Supernova Event In The American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, John C.

    2006-06-01

    Accounts of a Type Ia supernova (SN), appearing in the constellation Lupus during the northern hemisphere spring of A.D. 1006, were recordedby observers in Europe, the Middle East and East Asia but no known records appear in the Americas. A petroglyph found at a Hohokam rock art site in White Tanks Regional Park near Phoenix, Arizona, occupied from A.D. 500-1100 may depict this event in context with recognizable asterisms. We compare the iconography of the glyph with the observable sky from the latitude of the site as well as the widely-recognized pictograph showing the A.D. 1054 Crab Nebula SN event at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Neighboring glyphs on the same rock face may represent constellations in the Hohokam sky, unknown from other sources.

  13. Ant nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A new Hubble Space Telescope image of a celestial object called the Ant Nebula may shed new light on the future demise of our Sun. The image is available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc .

    The nebula, imaged on July 20, 1997, and June 30, 1998, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, was observed by Drs. Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Bruce Balick of the University of Washington in Seattle; and Vincent Icke of Leiden University in the Netherlands. JPL designed and built the camera.

    The Ant Nebula, whose technical name is Mz3, resembles the head and thorax of an ant when observed with ground-based telescopes. The new Hubble image, with 10 times the resolution revealing 100 times more detail, shows the 'ant's' body as a pair of fiery lobes protruding from a dying, Sun- like star. The Ant Nebula is located between 3,000 and 6,000 light years from Earth in the southern constellation Norma.

    The image challenges old ideas about what happens to dying stars. This observation, along with other pictures of various remnants of dying stars called planetary nebulae, shows that our Sun's fate will probably be much more interesting, complex and dramatic than astronomers previously believed.

    Although the ejection of gas from the dying star in the Ant Nebula is violent, it does not show the chaos one might expect from an ordinary explosion, but instead shows symmetrical patterns. One possibility is that the central star has a closely orbiting companion whose gravitational tidal forces shape the outflowing gas. A second possibility is that as the dying star spins, its strong magnetic fields are wound up into complex shapes like spaghetti in an eggbeater. Electrically charged winds, much like those in our Sun's solar wind but millions of times denser and moving at speeds up to 1,000 kilometers per second (more than 600 miles per second) from the star, follow the twisted field lines on their way

  14. Newest insights from MHD numerical modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.; Amato, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical MHD models are considered very successful in accounting for many of the observed properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), especially those concerning the high energy emission morphology and the inner nebula dynamics. Although PWNe are known to be among the most powerful accelerators in nature, producing particles up to PeV energies, the mechanisms responsible of such an efficient acceleration are still a deep mystery. Indeed, these processes take place in one of the most hostile environment for particle acceleration: the relativistic and highly magnetized termination shock of the pulsar wind. The newest results from numerical simulations of the Crab Nebula, the PWN prototype, will be presented, with special attention to the problem of particle acceleration. In particular it will be shown how a multi-wavelengths analysis of the wisps properties can be used to constrain the particle acceleration mechanisms working at the Crab's termination shock, by identifying the particle acceleration site at the shock front.

  15. Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58 by MAGIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is one of the historical very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray source candidates. It has been compared to the Crab Nebula due to their morphological similarities. This object was detected by Fermi-LAT with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. We analyzed 81 hours of 3C 58 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes and we detected VHE gamma-ray emission for the first time at TeV energies with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. According to our results 3C 58 is the least luminous PWN ever detected at VHE and the one with the lowest flux at VHE to date. We compare our results with the expectations of time-dependent models in which electrons up-scatter photon fields. The best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and Far Infrared (FIR) comparable to CMB photon fields. Hadronic contribution from the hosting supernova remnant (SNR) requires unrealistic energy budget given the density of the medium, disfavoring cosmic ray acceleration in the SNR as origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission.

  16. The Gum Nebula and Related Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Proceedings of a symposium concerning the Gum Nebula (GN) and related topics are reported. Papers presented include: Colin Gum and the discovery of the GN; identification of the GN as the fossil Stromgren sphere of Vela X Supernova; size and shape of GN; formation of giant H-2 regions following supernova explosions; radio astronomy Explorer 1 observations of GN; cosmic ray effects in the GN; low intensity H beta emission from the interstellar medium; and how to recognize and analyze GN. Astronomical charts and diagrams are included.

  17. Trifid Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 14.8' x 20.0' on the sky, of the Trifid Nebula, aka Messier 20 and NGC 6514. The Trifid is only about 1.5 degrees northwest on the sky of the larger Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) in the constellation Sagittarius, and is at a distance from us of 1.68 kpc (or 5477 light years), near the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy. It gets its name from its optical appearance, from three dark dust lanes that divide it. Like the Lagoon, much of the optical emission is dominated by the red light from hydrogen, forming an 'H II region' of ionized gas around the bright small cluster of hot stars just to the southeast of the image center; the rest of the emission is reflected blue light from these hot stars, primarily from the brightest one, HD 164492A. In the near-infrared we can see through much of the obscuring dust in the Trifid, including the name-giving dust lanes, but still see much of the bluish light reflected by the dust. In the 2MASS image, much of the dark dust is still seen, but also many more stars than are seen optically. The Trifid is less than 1 million years old, and young, massive still-forming stellar objects can be seen as well. Visit the Trifid and other Messier objects in the 2MASSier Object Gallery. Image mosaic by E. Kopan (IPAC).

  18. Horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Botton, Mark L

    2002-10-01

    Horseshoe crabs are one of evolution's success stories. These living fossils have contributed immensely to biomedical research, and their eggs are a critical link in the migration cycle of New World waders (shorebirds) Can they endure threats posed by a growing commercial fishery and the loss of essential spawning habitats?

  19. Early drawings of Messier 1: pineapple or crab?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhirst, D. W.

    1983-06-01

    Articles on the history of the Crab Nebula frequently reproduce an enigmatical drawing of it by Lord Rosse. This drawing was quickly repudiated by him and replaced by a more recognizable one which is less well known. Both drawings are discussed.

  20. N44C nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Resembling the hair in Botticelli's famous portrait of the birth of Venus, an image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured softly glowing filaments streaming from hot young stars in a nearby nebula.

    The image, presented by the Hubble Heritage Project, was taken in 1996 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The image is available online at

    http://heritage.stsci.edu , http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/12 orhttp://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    On the top right of the image is a source of its artistic likeness, a network of nebulous filaments surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star. This type of rare star is characterized by an exceptionally vigorous 'wind' of charged particles. The shock of the wind colliding with the surrounding gas causes the gas to glow.

    The Wolf-Rayet star is part of N44C, a nebula of glowing hydrogen gas surrounding young stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Visible from the Southern Hemisphere, the Large Magellanic Cloud is a small companion galaxy to the Milky Way.

    What makes N44C peculiar is the temperature of the star that illuminates it. The most massive stars -- those that are 10 to 50 times more massive than the Sun -- have maximum temperatures of 30,000 to 50,000 degrees Celsius (54,000 to 90,000 degrees Fahrenheit). The temperature of this star is about 75,000 degrees Celsius (135,000 degrees Fahrenheit). This unusually high temperature may be due to a neutron star or black hole that occasionally produces X-rays but is now inactive.

    N44C is part of a larger complex that includes young, hot, massive stars, nebulae, and a 'superbubble' blown out by multiple supernova explosions. Part of the superbubble is seen in red at the very bottom left of the Hubble image.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard

  1. Doradus Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A panoramic view of a vast, sculpted area of gas and dust where thousands of stars are being born has been captured by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/21 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The photo offers an unprecedented, detailed view of the entire inner region of the fertile, star-forming 30 Doradus Nebula. The mosaic picture shows that ultraviolet radiation and high-speed material unleashed by the stars in the cluster, called R136 (the large blue blob left of center), are weaving a tapestry of creation and destruction, triggering the collapse of looming gas and dust clouds and forming pillar-like structures that incubate newborn stars.

    The 30 Doradus Nebula is in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way located 170,000 light-years from Earth. Nebulas like 30 Doradus are signposts of recent star birth. High-energy ultraviolet radiation from young, hot, massive stars in R136 causes surrounding gaseous material to glow. Previous Hubble telescope observations showed that R136 contains several dozen of the most massive stars known, each about 100 times the mass of the Sun and about 10 times as hot. These stellar behemoths formed about 2 million years ago.

    The stars in R136 produce intense 'stellar winds,' streams of material traveling at several million miles an hour. These winds push the gas away from the cluster and compress the inner regions of the surrounding gas and dust clouds (seen in the image as the pinkish material). The intense pressure triggers the collapse of parts of the clouds, producing a new star formation around the central cluster. Most stars in the nursery are not visible because they are still encased in cocoons of gas and dust.

    This mosaic image of 30 Doradus consists of five overlapping

  2. A Smoking Gun in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Townsley, Leisa; Broos, Patrick; Gruendl, Robert A.; Vaidya, Kaushar; White, Stephen M.; Strohmayer, Tod; Petre, Rob; Chu, You-Hua

    2010-07-01

    Massive stars are born from giant molecular clouds along with many lower mass stars, forming a stellar cluster or association. They dominate the pressure of the interstellar gas through their strong UV radiation, stellar winds and, ultimately, supernova explosions at the end of their life. These processes help the formation of the next generation of stars, but this trigger of star formation is not yet well understood. The Carina Nebula is one of the youngest, most active sites of massive star formation in our Galaxy. In this nebula, we have discovered a bright X-ray source that has persisted for ~30 years. The soft X-ray spectrum, consistent with a kT~128 eV lackbody with mild extinction, and no counterpart in the optical and infrared wavelengths indicate that it is a 106 year-old neutron star. Current star formation theory does not allow the progenitor of the neutron star and the other massive stars in the Carina Nebula (in particular η Carinae) to be coeval. This result suggests that the Carina Nebula experienced at least two episodes of massive star formation. The neutron star may be responsible for part or all of the diffuse X-ray emission which permeates the Nebula.

  3. A Smoking Gun in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, M. F.; Ezoe, Y.; Townsley, L.; Broos, P.; Gruendl, R.; Vaidya, K.; White, S. M.; Strohmayer, T.; Petre, R.; Chu, Y.-H.

    2009-09-01

    Massive stars are born from giant molecular clouds along with many lower mass stars, forming a stellar cluster or association. They dominate the pressure of the interstellar gas through their strong UV radiation, stellar winds and, ultimately, supernova explosions at the end of their life. These processes help the formation of the next generation of stars, but this trigger of star formation is not yet well understood. The Carina Nebula is one of the youngest, most active sites of massive star formation in our Galaxy. In this nebula, we have discovered a bright X-ray source that has persisted for ˜30 years. The soft X-ray spectrum, consistent with a kT ˜128 eV blackbody with mild extinction, and no counterpart in the optical and infrared wavelengths indicate that it is a 106 year-old neutron star. Current star formation theory does not allow the progenitor of the neutron star and the other massive stars in the Carina Nebula (in particular Eta Carinae) to be coeval. This result suggests that the Carina Nebula experienced at least two episodes of massive star formation. The neutron star may be responsible for part or all of the diffuse X-ray emission which permeates the Nebula.

  4. Expectation on Observation of Supernova Remnants with the LHAASO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye; Cao, Zhen; Chen, Songzhan; Chen, Yang; Cui, Shuwang; He, Huihai; Huang, Xingtao; Ma, Xinhua; Yuan, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao; LHAASO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the most important acceleration sites for cosmic rays (CRs) below ˜1015 eV in the Galaxy. High-energy photons, either directly from the shocks of the SNRs or indirectly from the interaction between SNRs and the nearby clouds, are crucial probes for the CR acceleration. Big progresses on observations of SNRs have been achieved by space- and ground-based γ-ray facilities. However, whether γ-rays come from accelerated hadrons or not, as well as their connection with the CRs observed at Earth, remains in debate. Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), a next-generation experiment, is designed to survey the northern part of the very high energy γ-ray sky from ˜0.3 TeV to PeV with the sensitivity of ≲1% of the Crab Nebula flux. In this paper, we indicate that LHAASO will be dedicated to enlarging the γ-ray SNR samples and improving the spectral and morphological measurements. These measurements, especially at energies above 30 TeV, will be important for us to finally understand the CR acceleration in SNRs.

  5. Gamma-rays from pulsar wind nebulae in starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannheim, Karl; Elsässer, Dominik; Tibolla, Omar

    2012-07-01

    Recently, gamma-ray emission at TeV energies has been detected from the starburst galaxies NGC253 (Acero et al., 2009) [1] and M82 (Acciari et al., 2009) [2]. It has been claimed that pion production due to cosmic rays accelerated in supernova remnants interacting with the interstellar gas is responsible for the observed gamma rays. Here, we show that the gamma-ray pulsar wind nebulae left behind by the supernovae contribute to the TeV luminosity in a major way. A single pulsar wind nebula produces about ten times the total luminosity of the Sun at energies above 1 TeV during a lifetime of 105 years. A large number of 3 × 104 pulsar wind nebulae expected in a typical starburst galaxy at a distance of 4 Mpc can readily produce the observed TeV gamma rays.

  6. The Cygnus Loop: An Older Supernova Remnant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, William

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Cygnus Loop, one of brightest and most easily studied of the older "remnant nebulae" of supernova outbursts. Discusses some of the historical events surrounding the discovery and measurement of the Cygnus Loop and makes some projections on its future. (TW)

  7. Wolf-Rayet nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, You-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of nebulae around Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the 1960s, it has been established that WR stars are massive stars at advanced evolutionary stages and that their surrounding nebulae result from the interactions between the stellar mass loss and the ambient interstellar medium. Surveys of WR nebulae have been made in the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds, and other nearby galaxies in the Local Group. Some WR nebulae exhibit He II λ4686 line emission, indicating stellar effective temperatures of 90 — 100 x 103 K. The shocked fast stellar winds from WR nebulae have been detected in soft X-rays, but theoretical models have not been able to reproduce the observed X-ray spectral properties. Elemental abundances of WR nebulae consisting of synthesized stellar material can constrain stellar evolution models, but high-dispersion spectra are needed to kinematically separate the expanding shell of a WR nebula and the background interstellar medium for accurate abundance analyses.

  8. Shell nebulae around luminous evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1989-01-01

    Shell nebulae around luminous Population I Wolf-Rayet, Of, and P-Cygni stars are astrophysically interesting since they are indicators of pre-supernova mass loss and how such massive stars prepare their surrounding interstellar medium prior to explosion. Some twenty-odd such nebulae are known, for which detailed study of their morphological and spectroscopic characteristics have only begun in this decade. In this paper, some of these characteristics are reviewed in general, and new observations are reported. Emphasis has been placed on several 'prototype 'objects (NGC 7635, NGC 2359, NGC 6888, and the Eta Carinae condensations) to illustrate the varied massive-star mass-loss, the physics of their winds and shell ejecta, and related nucleosynthesis effects in the compositions of the winds and shells.

  9. Direct photography of the Gum Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Roosen, R. G.; Thompson, J.; Ludden, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses a series of wide-angle photographs taken of the Gum Nebula in the traditional region including H-alpha with the aid of a 40-cm and an 80-cm lens in both the red and the green. The photographs support the large dimensions (75 deg in galactic longitude by 40 deg in galactic latitude) of the Gum Nebula suggested earlier, and the appearance is consistent with an origin due to photons from a supernova outburst. The relatively high-density gas has cooled and is visible on the red plates. The low-density gas has remained at a high temperature and may be visible as diffuse emission on the green plates.

  10. The Galactic Bulge: the stellar and planetary nebulae populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisinier, F.; Koppen, J.; Acker, A.; Maciel, W. J.

    2000-11-01

    How the Galactic Bulge formed, what was the duration of this episode, are qu ite controversary subjects. It is even unclear wether stars are still forming there. These questions are generaly adressed with stars, but planetary nebulae are very apropriate tools to trace the Bulge history as well, due to the great variety of their progenitor lifetimes. In particular, because diferent elements are detectable in planetary nebulae and in stars, a combined analysis of the abundances patterns detected in stars and in planetary nebulae offers new insight in this problem. In long lived stars, most elements have their abundances unmodified and keep the fingerprints of the ISM when it was born. Analysing element abundances both in planetary nebulae and in stars allow thus to have a very good idea of the chemical enrichment of the ISM. We will see how we can understand these patterns in terms of supernovae of type II and type Ia explosions. Because the lifetimes of the progenitors of type II and type Ia supernovae are quite different, they offer very good chronometers for the Bulge evolution. As well, we will see how the abundances of elements synthetised in planetary nebulae progenitors can be unterstood in terms of recent star formation.

  11. Non-thermal emission from relativistic MHD simulations of pulsar wind nebulae: from synchrotron to inverse Compton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, D.; Del Zanna, L.; Amato, E.; Bucciantini, N.

    2008-07-01

    Aims: We develop a set of diagnostic tools for synchrotron-emitting sources, presented in a previous paper, to include a computation of inverse-Compton radiation from the same relativistic particles that give rise to the synchrotron emission. For the first time, we then study the gamma-ray emission properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae, in the context of the axisymmetric jet-torus scenario. Methods: We evolve the relativistic MHD equations and the maximum energy of the emitting particles, including adiabatic and synchrotron losses along streamlines. The particle energy distribution function is split into two components: one corresponds to radio-emitting electrons, which are interpreted to be a relic population that is born at the outburst of the supernova, and the other is associated with a wind population that is continuously accelerated at the termination shock and emits up to the gamma-ray band. The inverse Compton emissivity is calculated using the general Klein-Nishina differential cross-section and three different photon targets for the relativistic particles are considered: the nebular synchrotron photons, photons associated with the far-infrared thermal excess, and the cosmic microwave background. Results: When the method is applied to the simulations that match the optical and X-ray morphology of the Crab Nebula, the overall synchrotron spectrum can only be fitted assuming an excess of injected particles and a steeper power law (E-2.7) with respect to previous models. The resulting TeV emission has then the correct shape but is in excess of the data. This is related to the magnetic-field structure in the nebula, derived using simulations: in particular, the field is strongly compressed close to the termination shock, but with a lower than expected volume average. The jet-torus structure is also found to be visible clearly in high-resolution gamma-ray synthetic maps. We present a preliminary exploration of time variability in X- and gamma-rays. We find

  12. Chandra Reveals a Compact Nebula Created by a Shooting Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    In one of its most bizarre images yet, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory shows the details of a compact nebula that resembles a gigantic cosmic crossbow. The nebula, located in the Vela supernova remnant, is created as a rapidly rotating neutron star, or pulsar, spins out rings and jets of high-energy particles while shooting through space. "What is fascinating is that the jets from the pulsar are directed exactly along the direction of the pulsar's motion," said Dr. George Pavlov of Penn State University, University Park today at the 196th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Rochester, New York. "The southern jet looks like a rocket exhaust!" The X-ray jet can be traced all the way in to the neutron star, and an inner ring is seen for the first time. This ring is thought to represent a shock wave due to matter rushing away from the neutron star. More focused flows at the neutron star's polar regions produce jets of particles that blast away at near the speed of light. Pavlov explained that shortly after the star exploded, jets with unequal thrust along the poles of the neutron star could have accelerated it like a rocket. The neutron star is enveloped in a cloud of high-energy particles emitting X rays as they spiral around magnetic field lines. This cloud, or nebula, is embedded in a much larger cloud produced by the supernova and has a swept-back, cometary shape because of its motion through the larger cloud. The dramatic bow-like structure at the leading edge of the nebula is perpendicular to the jets and has the appearance of a cosmic crossbow with the jets as the arrows. This bow and the smaller one inside it, are thought to be the near edges of tilted rings of X-ray emission from high-energy particles produced by the central neutron star. The neutron star-ring-jet system, which resulted from an explosion in the constellation Vela ten thousand or more years ago, is similar to the remarkable structure observed by Chandra in the Crab Nebula

  13. Aspherical supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel Nathan

    2004-05-21

    Although we know that many supernovae are aspherical, the exact nature of their geometry is undetermined. Because all the supernovae we observe are too distant to be resolved, the ejecta structure can't be directly imaged, and asymmetry must be inferred from signatures in the spectral features and polarization of the supernova light. The empirical interpretation of this data, however, is rather limited--to learn more about the detailed supernova geometry, theoretical modeling must been undertaken. One expects the geometry to be closely tied to the explosion mechanism and the progenitor star system, both of which are still under debate. Studying the 3-dimensional structure of supernovae should therefore provide new break throughs in our understanding. The goal of this thesis is to advance new techniques for calculating radiative transfer in 3-dimensional expanding atmospheres, and use them to study the flux and polarization signatures of aspherical supernovae. We develop a 3-D Monte Carlo transfer code and use it to directly fit recent spectropolarimetric observations, as well as calculate the observable properties of detailed multi-dimensional hydrodynamical explosion simulations. While previous theoretical efforts have been restricted to ellipsoidal models, we study several more complicated configurations that are tied to specific physical scenarios. We explore clumpy and toroidal geometries in fitting the spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia supernova SN 2001el. We then calculate the observable consequences of a supernova that has been rendered asymmetric by crashing into a nearby companion star. Finally, we fit the spectrum of a peculiar and extraordinarily luminous Type Ic supernova. The results are brought to bear on three broader astrophysical questions: (1) What are the progenitors and the explosion processes of Type Ia supernovae? (2) What effect does asymmetry have on the observational diversity of Type Ia supernovae, and hence their use in cosmology? (3) And

  14. Aspherical supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, Daniel Nathan

    Although we know that many supernovae are aspherical, the exact nature of their geometry is undetermined. Because all the supernovae we observe are too distant to be resolved, the ejecta structure can't be directly imaged, and asymmetry must be inferred from signatures in the spectral features and polarization of the supernova light. The empirical interpretation of this data, however, is rather limited--to learn more about the detailed supernova geometry, theoretical modeling must be undertaken. One expects the geometry to be closely tied to the explosion mechanism and the progenitor star system, both of which are still under debate. Studying the 3-dimensional structure of supernovae should therefore provide new breakthroughs in our understanding. The goal of this thesis is to advance new techniques for calculating radiative transfer in 3-dimensional expanding atmospheres, and use them to study the flux and polarization signatures of aspherical supernovae. We develop a 3-D Monte Carlo transfer code and use it to directly fit recent spectropolarimetric observations, as well as calculate the observable properties of detailed multi- dimensional hydrodynamical explosion simulations. While previous theoretical efforts have been restricted to ellipsoidal models, we study several more complicated configurations that are tied to specific physical scenarios. We explore clumpy and toroidal geometries in fitting the spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia supernova SN 2001el. We then calculate the observable consequences of a supernova that has been rendered asymmetric by crashing into a nearby companion star. Finally we fit the spectrum of a peculiar and extraordinarily luminous Type Ic supernova. The results are brought to bear on three broader astrophysical questions: (1) What are the progenitors and the explosion processes of Type Ia supernovae? (2) What effect does asymmetry have on the observational diversity of Type Ia supernovae, and hence their use in cosmology? (3) And

  15. SN 1054: A pulsar-powered supernova?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shao-Ze; Yu, Yun-Wei; Huang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    The famous ancient supernova SN 1054 could have been too bright to be explained in the “standard” radioactive-powered supernova scenario. As an alternative attempt, we demonstrate that the spin-down of the newly born Crab pulsar could provide a sufficient energy supply to make SN 1054 visible at daytime for 23 days and at night for 653 days, where a one-zone semi-analytical model is employed. Our results indicate that SN 1054 could be a “normal” cousin of magnetar-powered superluminous supernovae. Therefore, SN 1054-like supernovae could be a probe to uncover the properties of newly born neutron stars, which provide initial conditions for studies on neutron star evolutions.

  16. G29.7-0.3: another supernova remnant with an identity crisis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Helfand, D. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.

    1983-01-01

    New radio and X-ray observations of the galactic supernova remnant G29.7-0.3 show that it is composed of two spectrally distinct components: a steep-spectrum, incomplete shell 3 arcmin in extent enclosing a flat-spectrum, X-ray emitting region 30 arcsec across. Thus, G29.7-0.3 joins the ranks of supernova remnants which exhibit a combination of Crab-like and shell remnant attributes. The Crab-like core has the highest ratio of X-ray radio luminosity of all the Crab-like remnants observed to date, suggesting that it is an extremely young object.

  17. Chandra Observations of the Crab: A Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Recently there have been two important findings concerning the Crab both of which are highlighted in this workshop. One finding was the discovery, using the AGILE and Fermi satellites, of gamma-ray flares from the direction of the Crab Nebula. The other finding was the variability, up to 7%, with time scales of the order of a year of the integrated hard X-ray emission. We have been using the Chandra X-Ray observatory to monitor the Crab on a monthly cadence since just after the 2010 September gamma-ray flare. We were also fortunate to trigger series of preplanned target of opportunity observations during the 2011 April flare. Our monitoring observations are on-going and will extend, at a minimum until the fall of 2012. We present an update and overview of these observations.

  18. A discussion of the H-alpha filamentary nebulae and galactic structure in the Cygnus region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, T. A.; Simonson, S. C., III

    1971-01-01

    From observation of the galactic structure in Cygnus, the system of filamentary nebulae was found to lie at a distance of roughly 1.5 kpc, in the same region as about half the thermal radio sources in Cygnus X, the supernova remnant near gamma Cygni, and the association Cygnus OB2, in the direction of which the X-ray source Cygnus XR-3 is observed. The source of excitation was probably the pulse of radiation from a supernova explosion, as proposed in the case of Gum nebula. However continuing excitation by early stars in the region of Cygnus X cannot be excluded.

  19. Supernova Flashback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    The Cassiopeia A supernova's first flash of radiation makes six clumps of dust (circled in annotated version) unusually hot. The supernova remnant is the large white ball in the center. This infrared picture was taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  20. Space Movie Reveals Shocking Secrets Of The Crab Pulsa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Just when it seemed like the summer movie season had ended, two of NASA's Great Observatories have produced their own action movie. Multiple observations made over several months with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope captured the spectacle of matter and antimatter propelled to near the speed of light by the Crab pulsar, a rapidly rotating neutron star the size of Manhattan. "Through this movie, the Crab Nebula has come to life," said Jeff Hester of Arizona State University in Tempe, lead author of a paper in the September 20th issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We can see how this awesome cosmic generator actually works." The Crab was first observed by Chinese astronomers in 1054 A.D. and has since become one of the most studied objects in the sky. By combining the power of both Chandra and Hubble, the movie reveals features never seen in still images. By understanding the Crab, astronomers hope to unlock the secrets of how similar objects across the universe are powered. Crab Nebula Composite Image Crab Nebula Composite Image Bright wisps can be seen moving outward at half the speed of light to form an expanding ring that is visible in both X-ray and optical images. These wisps appear to originate from a shock wave that shows up as an inner X-ray ring. This ring consists of about two dozen knots that form, brighten and fade, jitter around, and occasionally undergo outbursts that give rise to expanding clouds of particles, but remain in roughly the same location. "These data leave little doubt that the inner X-ray ring is the location of the shock wave that turns the high-speed wind from the pulsar into extremely energetic particles," said Koji Mori of Penn State University in University Park, a coauthor of the paper. Another dramatic feature of the movie is a turbulent jet that lies perpendicular to the inner and outer rings. Violent internal motions are obvious, as is a slow motion outward into the surrounding nebula of

  1. The Trifid Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of the Trifid Nebula reveals a stellar nursery being torn apart by a nearby massive star. Embryonic stars are forming within an ill-fated cloud of dust and gas, which is destined to be eaten away by the glare from the massive neighbor. The cloud is about 8 light years away from the nebula' s central star. This stellar activity is a beautiful example of how the life cycle of stars like our Sun is intimately cornected with their more powerful siblings. Residing in the constellation Sagittarius, the Trifid Nebula is about 9,000 light years from Earth.

  2. Image of the Vela Supernova Remnant Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Like the Crab Nebula, the Vela Supernova Remnant has a radio pulsar at its center. In this image taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory, the pulsar appears as a point source surrounded by weak and diffused emissions of x-rays. HEAO-2's computer processing system was able to record and display the total number of x-ray photons (a tiny bundle of radiant energy used as the fundamental unit of electromagnetic radiation) on a scale along the margin of the picture. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  3. Discovery of TeV Gamma-ray Emission from Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, J. P.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Park, N. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Slane, P.; Smith, A. W.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

    2011-04-01

    We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4, known as Tycho's SNR. Observations performed in the period 2008-2010 with the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory reveal weak emission coming from the direction of the remnant, compatible with a point source located at 00h25m27.s0, + 64°10'50'' (J2000). The TeV photon spectrum measured by VERITAS can be described with a power law dN/dE = C(E/3.42 TeV)-Γ with Γ = 1.95 ± 0.51stat ± 0.30sys and C = (1.55 ± 0.43stat ± 0.47sys) × 10-14 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to ~0.9% of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy, making it one of the weakest sources yet detected in TeV gamma rays. We present both leptonic and hadronic models that can describe the data. The lowest magnetic field allowed in these models is ~80 μG, which may be interpreted as evidence for magnetic field amplification.

  4. Triggered star formation around the G54.1+0.3 supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Moon, Dae-Sik; Kurtz, Stanley; McKee, Christopher F.

    G54.1+0.3 is a young, Crab-like supernova remnant (SNR) at a distance of 8 kpc. Recently, an infrared loop with embedded stellar sources surrounding the SNR was discovered by the Spitzer Space Telescope and the AKARI infrared telescope. The stellar sources are bright in the mid-infrared with significant excess emission. Koo et al. (2008) showed that the broadband near-infrared properties are consistent with OB stars at the same distance as the SNR, and concluded that they are young (≤2 Myr) stellar objects, whose formation was possibly triggered by the progenitor of G54.1+0.3. We present near-infrared (1-2.4 µm) spectra of six sources obtained with the TripleSpec spectrograph on the Palomar 5-m Hale telescope. Strong hydrogen and moderate He I absorption lines in the spectra confirm that the stellar sources are late-O and early-B stars, while no emission lines such as Br γ indicates the absence of circumstellar disks near the central stars, as Koo et al. suggested. We have also analyzed archival VLA data at 4, 6 and 20 cm, and present continuum images of the pulsar wind nebula and a surrounding shell. A spectral index analysis suggests the presence of free-free emission associated with the massive stars. We discuss the relation between the stellar sources, the infrared loop, and the SNR.

  5. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Finnegan, G. E-mail: wakely@uchicago.edu

    2011-04-01

    We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4, known as Tycho's SNR. Observations performed in the period 2008-2010 with the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory reveal weak emission coming from the direction of the remnant, compatible with a point source located at 00{sup h}25{sup m}27.{sup s}0, + 64{sup 0}10'50'' (J2000). The TeV photon spectrum measured by VERITAS can be described with a power law dN/dE = C(E/3.42 TeV){sup -}{Gamma} with {Gamma} = 1.95 {+-} 0.51{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and C = (1.55 {+-} 0.43{sub stat} {+-} 0.47{sub sys}) x 10{sup -14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to {approx}0.9% of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy, making it one of the weakest sources yet detected in TeV gamma rays. We present both leptonic and hadronic models that can describe the data. The lowest magnetic field allowed in these models is {approx}80 {mu}G, which may be interpreted as evidence for magnetic field amplification.

  6. Supernova Remnants and Nucleosynthesis (fos 30): Augmentation Cycle 2 Observations - Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Arthur

    1991-07-01

    Overall program: UV and optical spectra of four supernova remnants (SNRs) will be used to study a number of problems related to abundances, grain destruction, interstellar medium properties and physical conditions in SNR shocks. Representatives of three of the main classes of SNRs (Crab-nebula like, Balmer-line and "normal") will be studied in the LMC, where reasonably low reddening permits UV observations. An oxygen-rich SNR in NGC 4449 will be observed, taking advantage of the small FOS slits to isolate the SNR from surrounding H II emission. Two M33 SNRs that were previously part of this proposal have been dropped due to time limitations. This proposal is augmented time to obtain early acq images of two LMC remnants and spectra of N49, which had early acq images in Cy. 0. NOTE: SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING ORIGINALLY IN THIS CYCLE 2 PROPOSAL HAVE BEEN SPLIT BY STSCI INTO TWO SEPARATE PROPOSALS TO ALLOW FOR SCHEDULING OF CYCLE 2 EARLY ACQ IMAGING ( FOR LATER CYCLES ) SINCE CYCLE 2 SPECTROSCOPY DEPENDS ON MEASUREMENT OF EARLY ACQ IMAGING OF OTHER TARGETS FROM EARLIER CYCLES.

  7. Supernova Remnants and Nucleosynthesis (fos 30): Augmentation Cycle 2 Observations - Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Arthur

    1991-07-01

    Overall program: UV and optical spectra of four supernova remnants (SNRs) will be used to study a number of problems related to abundances, grain destruction, interstellar medium properties and physical conditions in SNR shocks. Representatives of three of the main classes of SNRs (Crab-nebula like, Balmer-line and "normal") will be studied in the LMC, where reasonably low reddening permits UV observations. An oxygen-rich SNR in NGC 4449 will be observed, taking advantage of the small FOS slits to isolate the SNR from surrounding H II emission. Two M33 SNRs that were previously part of this proposal have been dropped due to time limitations. This proposal is augmented time to obtain early acq images of two LMC remnants and spectra of N49, which had early acq images in Cy. 0. NOTE: SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING ORIGINALLY IN THE CYCLE 2 PROPOSAL 4108 HAVE BEEN SPLIT BY STSCI INTO TWO SEPARATE PROPOSALS TO ALLOW FOR SCHEDULING OF CYCLE 2 EARLY ACQ IMAGING ( THIS PROPOSAL ) SINCE CYCLE 2 SPECTROSCOPY DEPENDS ON MEASUREMENT OF EARLY ACQ IMAGING OF OTHER TARGETS FROM EARLIER CYCLES.

  8. Supernova models

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the /sup 56/Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed.

  9. Supernova Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knödlseder, J.

    This lecture gives an introduction to the topic of supernova nucleosynthesis which is at the origin of almost all nuclear species that we encounter in the Universe. It starts with an overview over the relevant nuclear physics, with some emphasise on nuclear stability and nuclear reactions. The central part of the lecture is devoted to the synthesis of new elements in the interiors of stars, either during their quiescent live or during their violent explosion as supernova. The different types of supernova explosions are exposed and their key nucleosynthesis products are summarised. The lecture closes with an overview over gamma-ray line diagnostics which provides a modern tool to study supernova nucleosynthesis by the measurement of freshly produced radioactive isotopes.

  10. The young pulsar PSR B0540-69.3 and its synchrotron nebula in the optical and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafimovich, N. I.; Shibanov, Yu. A.; Lundqvist, P.; Sollerman, J.

    2004-10-01

    The young PSR B0540-69.3 in the LMC is the only pulsar (except the Crab pulsar) for which a near-UV spectrum has been obtained. However, the absolute flux and spectral index of the HST/FOS spectrum are significantly higher than suggested by previous broad-band time-resolved groundbased UBVRI photometry. To investigate this difference, observations with ESO/VLT/FORS1 and analysis of HST/WFPC2 archival data were done. We show that the HST and VLT spectral data for the pulsar have ⪆50% nebular contamination and that this is the reason for the above-mentioned difference. The broadband HST spectrum for the range 3300-8000 Å is clearly nonthermal and has a negative spectral index, Fν ∝ ν-α with αν = 1.07+0.20-0.19. This is different from the almost flat spectrum of the Crab pulsar, and also steeper than for the previously published broadband photometry of PSR B0540-69.3. We have also studied the spatial variations of the brightness and spectral index of the Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN) around the pulsar, and find no significant spectral index variation over the PWN. The HST data show a clear asymmetry of the surface brightness distribution along the major axis of the torus-like structure of the PWN with respect to the pulsar position, also seen in Chandra/HRC X-ray images. This is different from the Crab PWN and likely linked to the asymmetry of the surrounding SN ejecta. The HST/WFPC2 archival data have an epoch separation of 4 years, and this allows us to estimate the proper motion of the pulsar. We find a motion of 4.9±2.3 mas yr-1 (corresponding to a transverse velocity of 1190±560 km s-1) along the southern jet of the PWN. If this is confirmed at a higher significance level by future observations, this makes PSR B0540-69.3 the third pulsar with a proper motion aligned with the jet axis of its PWN, which poses constraints on pulsar kick models. To establish the multiwavelength spectrum of the pulsar and its PWN, we have included recent Chandra X-ray data, and

  11. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Safi-Harb, S.; Landecker, T.L.; Kothes, R.; Camilo, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nontherma1 nebula 40" in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.63, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. Morphologically, the nebula appears to be slightly extended along a direction, in projection on the sky, previously demonstrated to be of significance in radio and ASCA observations; we argue that this represents the orientation of the pulsar spin axis. At smaller scales, a narrow X-ray feature is seen extending out 5" from the point source, but energetic arguments suggest that it is not the resolved termination shock of the pulsar wind against the ambient medium. Finally, we argue based on synchrotron lifetimes in the nebular magnetic field that DA 495 represents the first example of a pulsar wind nebula in which electromagnetic flux makes up a significant part, together with particle flux, of the neutron star's wind.

  12. THE CHANDRA ACIS SURVEY OF M33: X-RAY, OPTICAL, AND RADIO PROPERTIES OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Knox S.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Kuntz, Kip D.; Winkler, P. Frank; McNeil, Emily K.; Becker, Robert H.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Tuellmann, Ralph; Helfand, David J.; Saul, Destry; Hughes, John P.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Williams, Benjamin E-mail: wpb@pha.jhu.edu

    2010-04-01

    M33 contains a large number of emission nebulae identified as supernova remnants (SNRs) based on the high [S II]:H{alpha} ratios characteristic of shocked gas. Using Chandra data from the ChASeM33 survey with a 0.35-2 keV sensitivity of {approx}2 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}, we have detected 82 of 137 SNR candidates, yielding confirmation of (or at least strongly support for) their SNR identifications. This provides the largest sample of remnants detected at optical and X-ray wavelengths in any galaxy, including the Milky Way. A spectral analysis of the seven X-ray brightest SNRs reveals that two, G98-31 and G98-35, have spectra that appear to indicate enrichment by ejecta from core-collapse supernova explosions. In general, the X-ray-detected SNRs have soft X-ray spectra compared to the vast majority of sources detected along the line of sight to M33. It is unlikely that there are any other undiscovered thermally dominated X-ray SNRs with luminosities in excess of {approx}4 x 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} in the portions of M33 covered by the ChASeM33 survey. We have used a combination of new and archival optical and radio observations to attempt to better understand why some objects are detected as X-ray sources and others are not. We have also developed a morphological classification scheme for the optically identified SNRs and discussed the efficacy of this scheme as a predictor of X-ray detectability. Finally, we have compared the SNRs found in M33 to those that have been observed in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. There are no close analogs of Cas A, Kepler's SNR, Tycho's SNR, or the Crab Nebula in the regions of M33 surveyed, but we have found an X-ray source with a power-law spectrum coincident with a small-diameter radio source that may be the first pulsar-wind nebula recognized in M33.

  13. The Chandra ACIS Survey of M33: X-ray, Optical, and Radio Properties of the Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Winkler, P. Frank; Becker, Robert H.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Helfand, David J.; Hughes, John P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Kuntz, Kip D.; McNeil, Emily K.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Saul, Destry; Tüllmann, Ralph; Williams, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    M33 contains a large number of emission nebulae identified as supernova remnants (SNRs) based on the high [S II]:Hα ratios characteristic of shocked gas. Using Chandra data from the ChASeM33 survey with a 0.35-2 keV sensitivity of ~2 × 1034 erg s-1, we have detected 82 of 137 SNR candidates, yielding confirmation of (or at least strongly support for) their SNR identifications. This provides the largest sample of remnants detected at optical and X-ray wavelengths in any galaxy, including the Milky Way. A spectral analysis of the seven X-ray brightest SNRs reveals that two, G98-31 and G98-35, have spectra that appear to indicate enrichment by ejecta from core-collapse supernova explosions. In general, the X-ray-detected SNRs have soft X-ray spectra compared to the vast majority of sources detected along the line of sight to M33. It is unlikely that there are any other undiscovered thermally dominated X-ray SNRs with luminosities in excess of ~4 × 1035 erg s-1 in the portions of M33 covered by the ChASeM33 survey. We have used a combination of new and archival optical and radio observations to attempt to better understand why some objects are detected as X-ray sources and others are not. We have also developed a morphological classification scheme for the optically identified SNRs and discussed the efficacy of this scheme as a predictor of X-ray detectability. Finally, we have compared the SNRs found in M33 to those that have been observed in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. There are no close analogs of Cas A, Kepler's SNR, Tycho's SNR, or the Crab Nebula in the regions of M33 surveyed, but we have found an X-ray source with a power-law spectrum coincident with a small-diameter radio source that may be the first pulsar-wind nebula recognized in M33.

  14. Lightning in the Protoplanetary Nebula?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.

    1997-01-01

    Lightning in the protoplanetary nebula has been proposed as a mechanism for creating meteoritic chondrules: enigmatic mm-sized silicate spheres formed in the nebula by the brief melting of cold precursors.

  15. A Tactile Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Noreen A.; Mutchler, M.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy was once considered a science restricted to fully sighted participants. But in the past two decades, accessible books with large print/Braille and touchable pictures have brought astronomy and space science to the hands and mind's eye of students, regardless of their visual ability. A new universally-designed tactile image featuring the Hubble mosaic of the Carina Nebula is being presented at this conference. The original dataset was obtained with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) hydrogen-alpha filter in 2005. It became an instant icon after being infused with additional color information from ground-based CTIO data, and released as Hubble's 17th anniversary image. Our tactile Carina Nebula promotes multi-mode learning about the entire life-cycle of stars, which is dramatically illustrated in this Hubble mosaic. When combined with descriptive text in print and Braille, the visual and tactile components seamlessly reach both sighted and blind populations. Specific touchable features of the tactile image identify the shapes and orientations of objects in the Carina Nebula that include star-forming regions, jets, pillars, dark and light globules, star clusters, shocks/bubbles, the Keyhole Nebula, and stellar death (Eta Carinae). Visit our poster paper to touch the Carina Nebula!

  16. Constraining the Turbulence Scale and Mixing of a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chi Yung; Ma, Y. K.; Bucciantini, Niccolo; Slane, Patrick O.; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Temim, Tea

    2016-04-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are synchrotron-emitting nebulae resulting from the interaction between pulsars' relativistic particle outflows and the ambient medium. The Snail PWN in supernova remnant G327.1-1.1 is a rare system that has recently been crushed by supernova reverse shock. We carried out radio polarization observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and found highly ordered magnetic field structure in the nebula. This result is surprising, given the turbulent environment expected from hydrodynamical simulations. We developed a toymodel and compared simple simulations with observations to constrain the characteristic turbulence scale in the PWN and the mixing with supernova ejecta. We estimate that the turbulence scale is about one-eighth to one-sixth of the nebula radius and a pulsar wind filling factor of 50-75%. The latter implies substantial mixing of the pulsar wind with the surrounding supernova ejecta.This work is supported by an ECS grant of the Hong Kong Government under HKU 709713P. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

  17. Clown Face Nebula (NGC 2392)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A planetary nebula, also known as the Eskimo Nebula, in the constellation Gemini, position RA 07 h 29.2 m, dec. +20° 55'. It is bluish, 13'' in diameter, and of ninth magnitude, with a tenth-magnitude central star. The blue-green nebula's hazy outer regions are thought to resemble an Eskimo's hood or clown's ruff....

  18. Solution to the Sigma Problem of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porth, Oliver; Komissarov, Serguei S.; Keppens, Rony

    2014-03-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) provide a unique test-bed for the study of highly relativistic processes right at our astronomical doorstep. In this contribution we will show results from the first 3D RMHD simulations of PWN. Of key interest to our study is the long standing "sigma-problem" that challenges MHD models of Pulsars and their nebulae now for 3 decades. Earlier 2D MHD models were very successful in reproducing the morphology of the inner Crab nebula showing a jet, torus, concentric wisps and a variable knot. However, these models are limited to a purely toroidal field geometry which leads to an exaggerated compression of the termination shock and polar jet — in contrast to the observations. In three dimensions, the toroidal field structure is susceptible to current driven instabilities; hence kink instability and magnetic dissipation govern the dynamics of the nebula flow. This leads to a resolution of the sigma-problem once also the pulsar's obliqueness (striped wind) is taken into account. In addition, we present polarized synchrotron maps constructed from the 3D simulations, showing the wealth of morphological features reproduced in 2D is preserved in the 3D case.

  19. A Plasma Prism Model for an Anomalous Dispersion Event in the Crab Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backer, D. C.; Wong, T.; Valanju, J.

    2000-11-01

    In 1997 October, daily monitoring observations of the Crab pulsar at 327 MHz and 610 MHz with an 85 ft telescope in Green Bank, WV, showed a jump in the dispersion measure by 0.1 cm-3 pc. Pulses were seen simultaneously at both old and new dispersions over the course of several days. During the dispersion jump, the pulsed flux diminished by an order of magnitude. In the months before this event, the average pulse profiles contained faint ``ghost'' pulse components offset in phase from the regular main pulse and interpulse components by a nearly frequency-independent time delay that quadratically diminished to zero over a month. After the dispersion event, there was an order of magnitude increase in the level of scattering, as measured by pulse broadening at 327 MHz. There was also a curious shift in the rotational phase, a slowing down, at both frequencies at the time of the dispersion jump, which we associate with intrinsic timing noise. All of the observed phenomena except this slowing down can be explained by the variable perturbing optics of a triangular plasma prism located in the filamentary interface between the synchrotron nebula and the supernova ejecta which crosses the line of sight over a period of months. The required density, scale length, and velocity are reasonable given previous observations and analysis of these filaments. Our study thus provides a probe of the plasma column on scales of 30 μas to 3 mas (1012-14 cm), which complements scales accessible to optical emission line studies with HST resolution (1016-18 cm). In combination, both observations provide a detailed look at a sample of the interface region that can be matched statistically to the results of numerical simulations.

  20. The 1997 event in the Crab Pulsar in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanand, M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. In October 1997, radio pulses from the Crab Pulsar underwent abnormal delay. This was reported by two radio observatories, both of which explained this frequency dependent and time varying delay as being due to refractive effects of ionized shells in the Crab Nebula. Both groups also noted that, curiously and confusingly coincident with the frequency dependent delay, the Crab Pulsar also underwent an unusual slowing down, which they believed to be unrelated to the Crab Nebula and instead intrinsic to the Crab Pulsar, resulting in an additional delay that was frequency independent. However, it now appears that one of the groups attributes the frequency independent delay also to refractive effects. Aims: This work aims to verify whether at least a part of the frequency independent delay is indeed due to intrinsic slowing down of the Crab Pulsar. Methods: Timing analysis of the Crab Pulsar's October 1997 event has been done in X-rays, which are not delayed by the refractive and diffractive effects that affect radio waves; at X-rays only the intrinsic slowing down should contribute to any observed delay. Data mainly from the PCA instrument aboard the RXTE satellite have been used, along with a small amount of data from the PDS instrument aboard the BeppoSAX satellite. Results: Analysis of the X-ray data, using the very accurate reference timing model derived at radio frequencies, strongly supports the intrinsic slowing down hypothesis. Analysis using the reference timing model derived self-consistently from the limited X-ray data, which is less accurate, is not completely unambiguous regarding the above two hypotheses, but provides reasonable support for the intrinsic slowing down hypothesis. Conclusions: A significant fraction of the frequency independent delay during the October 1997 event is indeed due to intrinsic slowing down of the Crab Pulsar.

  1. Observations of The Crab Pulsar in The Far-Ultraviolet and in The Optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, P.; Sollerman, J.; Gull, T. R.; Lindler, D.; Pun, C. S. J.; Sonneborn, G.; Chevalier, R. A.; Fesen, R. A.; Fransson, C.

    1999-05-01

    We present observations of the Crab pulsar taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The new observations cover the region 1140-1720 Angstroms, which is further into the ultraviolet than has previously been obtained. Using the time-tag mode of the spectrograph we obtain the pulse profile in this spectral regime. The profile is similar to the profile previously obtained by us in the near-UV (Gull et al. 1998), although the primary peak appears somewhat narrower. Together with the near-UV data, and new optical data from the Nordic Optical Telescope, our spectrum of the Crab pulsar covers the entire region from 1140 - 9200 Angstroms. Preliminary analysis shows that a flat spectrum can be obtained by a standard extinction curve. With E(B-V)=0.51, R=3.1 the dereddened spectrum of the Crab pulsar can be fitted by a power law with spectral index alpha_ ν = 0.10. The main uncertainty in determining the spectral index of the pulsar is the extinction correction. In the optical we do not see the absorption feature claimed by Nasuti et al. (1996). In the extended emission covered by our 26 arcsec x 0farcs5 slit in the far-UV, we detect emission from C IV lambda 1550 and He II lambda 1640 from the Crab nebula. Several interstellar absorption lines are detected along the line of sight to the nebula. Also, absorption from the nebula itself is seen in C IV. The strength and velocity structure of this line can constrain the mass of the proposed fast outer shell around the Crab nebula.

  2. Supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decourchelle, A.

    2016-06-01

    Supernova remnants result from the explosion of a star and keep trace, in their young ejecta-dominated phase, both of the explosion mechanism and to a lesser extent of the nature of the progenitor. They inject a large amount of energy into their surroundings, which impacts significantly the interstellar medium and to a larger extent the working of the galaxy by distributing heavy elements, heating to tens of million degrees large fractions of gas, accelerating high-energy particles, generating turbulence and amplification of the magnetic field. I will review the observational results on supernova remnants and their related scientific issues before suggesting directions for future ambitious XMM-Newton observations.

  3. Catalogues of planetary nebulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, A.

    Firstly, the general requirements concerning catalogues are studied for planetary nebulae, in particular concerning the objects to be included in a catalogue of PN, their denominations, followed by reflexions about the afterlife and comuterized versions of a catalogue. Then, the basic elements constituting a catalogue of PN are analyzed, and the available data are looked at each time.

  4. The Twin Jet Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    M2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue.

  5. MULTIPLE GENERATIONS OF STARS IN THE TARANTULA NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the most active starburst region in the local universe lies a cluster of brilliant, massive stars, known to astronomers as Hodge 301. Hodge 301, seen in the lower right hand corner of this image, lives inside the Tarantula Nebula in our galactic neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This star cluster is not the brightest, or youngest, or most populous star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula -- that honor goes to the spectacular R136. In fact, Hodge 301 is almost 10 times older than the young cluster R136. But age has its advantages; many of the stars in Hodge 301 are so old that they have exploded as supernovae. These exploded stars are blasting material out into the surrounding region at speeds of almost 200 miles per second. This high speed ejecta are plowing into the surrounding Tarantula Nebula, shocking and compressing the gas into a multitude of sheets and filaments, seen in the upper left portion of the picture. Note for your calendar; Hodge 301 contains three red supergiants - stars that are close to the end of their evolution and are about to go supernova, exploding and sending more shocks into the Tarantula. Also present near the center of the image are small, dense gas globules and dust columns where new stars are being formed today, as part of the overall ongoing star formation throughout the Tarantula region. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF THE SHELL-TYPE SUPERNOVA REMNANT CASSIOPEIA A AT TeV ENERGIES WITH VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Chow, Y. C.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.

    2010-05-01

    We report on observations of very high energy {gamma} rays from the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) Cassiopeia A with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System stereoscopic array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes in Arizona. The total exposure time for these observations is 22 hr, accumulated between September and November of 2007. The {gamma}-ray source associated with the SNR Cassiopeia A was detected above 200 GeV with a statistical significance of 8.3{sigma}. The estimated integral flux for this {gamma}-ray source is about 3% of the Crab-Nebula flux. The photon spectrum is compatible with a power law dN/dE {proportional_to} E {sup -{Gamma}} with an index {Gamma} = 2.61 {+-} 0.24{sub stat} {+-} 0.2{sub sys}. The data are consistent with a point-like source. We provide a detailed description of the analysis results and discuss physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed {gamma}-ray emission.

  7. Si isotope homogeneity of the solar nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, Emily A.; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric; Jackson, Matthew G.; Barrat, Jean-Alix E-mail: savage@levee.wustl.edu E-mail: moynier@ipgp.fr E-mail: Jean-Alix.Barrat@univ-brest.fr

    2013-12-20

    The presence or absence of variations in the mass-independent abundances of Si isotopes in bulk meteorites provides important clues concerning the evolution of the early solar system. No Si isotopic anomalies have been found within the level of analytical precision of 15 ppm in {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si across a wide range of inner solar system materials, including terrestrial basalts, chondrites, and achondrites. A possible exception is the angrites, which may exhibit small excesses of {sup 29}Si. However, the general absence of anomalies suggests that primitive meteorites and differentiated planetesimals formed in a reservoir that was isotopically homogenous with respect to Si. Furthermore, the lack of resolvable anomalies in the calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion measured here suggests that any nucleosynthetic anomalies in Si isotopes were erased through mixing in the solar nebula prior to the formation of refractory solids. The homogeneity exhibited by Si isotopes may have implications for the distribution of Mg isotopes in the solar nebula. Based on supernova nucleosynthetic yield calculations, the expected magnitude of heavy-isotope overabundance is larger for Si than for Mg, suggesting that any potential Mg heterogeneity, if present, exists below the 15 ppm level.

  8. First supernova companion star found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    , 2100 seconds and 330W, 1200 seconds) shown in purple and blue, a deep blue filter (435W, 1000 seconds) shown in green and a green filter (555W, 1120 seconds) shown in red. The quarter-circle around the supernova companion is a so-called light echo originating from sheets of dust in the galaxy reflecting light from the original supernova explosion. The timing of the appearance of these echoes can be used to map out the dust structure around the supernova. The light echo was detected in late 2002 and early 2003 by two competing groups of scientists. Messier 81 spiral arm (WFPC2 image) hi-res Size hi-res: 1502 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Messier 81 spiral arm (WFPC2 image) This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a small portion of one of Messier 81’s spiral arms. It extends about 0.03 x 0.03 degrees. The supernova companion is the bluish star in the upper right hand corner. Dust lanes in the spiral arms of the galaxy are seen, as well as many other stars and a few star forming nebulae. The image is composed of four separate exposures from the ESO/ST-ECF Archive through a blue filter, a green filter, a red filter and a near-infrared filter. The image was taken with Hubble’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Acknowledgement: Bob Kirshner (Harvard University, USA) Grand Spiral Messier 81 (ground-based) hi-res Size hi-res: 1502 kb Credits: ESA/INT/DSS2 Grand Spiral Messier 81 (ground-based) This ground-based image shows the spiral galaxy Messier 81 in its entirety. The image is a combination of exposures from the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma (courtesy of Jonathan Irwin) and Digitized Sky Survey 2 images. The dynamic duo, Messier 81 and 82 (ground-based) hi-res Size hi-res: 1502 kb Credits: Robert Gendler (http://www.robgendlerastropics.com) The dynamic duo, Messier 81 and 82 (ground-based) This wide-angle image taken by astrophotographer Robert Gendler shows the amazing duo of Messier 81 (right) and Messier 82 (left

  9. Astronomical Resources: Supernovae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Contains a partially annotated, nontechnical bibliography of recent materials about supernovae, including some about the discovery of a supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Includes citations of general books and articles about supernovae, articles about Supernova 1987A, and a few science fiction stories using supernovae. (TW)

  10. SHORT-LIVED RADIO BURSTS FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, J. H.; Eilek, J. A.; Hankins, T. H.; Kern, J. S.

    2010-10-20

    Our high-time-resolution observations reveal that individual main pulses from the Crab pulsar contain one or more short-lived microbursts. Both the energy and duration of bursts measured above 1 GHz can vary dramatically in less than a millisecond. These fluctuations are too rapid to be caused by propagation through turbulence in the Crab Nebula or in the interstellar medium; they must be intrinsic to the radio emission process in the pulsar. The mean duration of a burst varies with frequency as {nu}{sup -2}, significantly different from the broadening caused by interstellar scattering. We compare the properties of the bursts to some simple models of microstructure in the radio emission region.

  11. THE CRAB PULSAR AT CENTIMETER WAVELENGTHS. I. ENSEMBLE CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, T. H.; Eilek, J. A.; Jones, G.

    2015-04-01

    We have observed the pulsar in the Crab Nebula at high radio frequencies and high time resolution. We present continuously sampled data at 640 ns time resolution and individual bright pulses recorded at down to 0.25 ns time resolution. Combining our new data with previous data from our group and from the literature shows the dramatic changes in the pulsar’s radio emission between low and high radio frequencies. Below about 5 GHz the mean profile is dominated by the bright Main Pulse and Low-Frequency Interpulse. Everything changes, however, above about 5 GHz; the Main Pulse disappears and the mean profile of the Crab pulsar is dominated by the High-Frequency Interpulse (which is quite different from its low-frequency counterpart) and the two High-Frequency Components. We present detailed observational characteristics of these different components which future models of the pulsar’s magnetosphere must explain.

  12. The Multipupil Fiber Spectroscopy of the Crab-pulsar Neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharikov, S.; Shibanov, Y.; Koptsevich, A.; Afanas'ev, V.; Dodonov, S.

    2001-03-01

    We present the spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of the 12 arcsec × 24 arcsec Crab pulsar neighbourhood in the range λ λ 4600 - 5700 Å made with the Multipupil Fiber Spectrograph at the 6 m telescope of the SAO RAS. The spectra exhibit blue- and red-shifted strong [O III] and weaker Hβ and He II emission lines with the shifts and intensities varying with the position in the field. They hint the presence of a cone-like rotating structure centered at the pulsar position and oriented along the symmetry axis of the compact, torus-like pulsar nebula seen in optical continuum and soft X-rays. The kinematic structure is most likely associated with the pulsar nebula. If so, the compact nebular rotates counter-clockwise with respect to its symmetry axis, or the pulsar spin axis, and the estimated rotational velocity within cylindrical radii of several thousand AU from the pulsar is ~ 2000-3000 km/s.

  13. Uncovering The Properties of Young Neutron Stars and Their Surrounding Supernova A Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick O.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In the third year of this program, the following studies have been undertaken in support of this effort: G292.0+1.8: In our previous work on this SNR, we discovered a young neutron star and its associated pulsar wind nebula. Radio observations by Camilo et al. (2002) have identified a young 136 ms pulsar in the direction of G292.0+1.8. We have used Chandra HRC observations of the central source to identify X-ray pulsations at the same period, thus establishing the neutron star as the radio pulsar counterpart. We have also set limits on the cooling of this young neutron star based on the unpulsed component of the X-ray emission. We find that the limit falls slightly below standard cooling models in which the modified Urca process is responsible for the bulk of the interior neutrino emission. A paper summarizing these results is currently being circulated amongst co-authors for review prior to publication. 3c 58: Our Chandra observations of this Crab-like SNR revealed the presence of a young, rapidly rotating pulsar as well as a central compact nebula which we interpret as a toroidal structure associated with the pulsar wind termination shock. Our modeling of this structure has allowed us to establish a temperature upper limit for the neutron star which falls well below predictions from standard cooling models, and implies the presence of exotic particles (such as pion condensates) or other processes that increase the neutrino production rate in the interior. A paper summarizing this work has been published in the Astrophysical Journal (Slane, Helfand, & Murray 2002, ApJ, 571, L45), and the results were the subject of a NASA Space Science Update (4/10/2002) which led to extensive media coverage. Based upon our initial observations, we submitted a successful Chandra Large Project proposal for a 350 ks observation of this young neutron star and its wind nebula. Kes 79: Our Chandra observations of this SNR reveal a compact central source which appears to be the neutron

  14. Non-thermal emission in astrophysical environments: From pulsars to supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomiashvili, David

    -thermal emission from pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). Theoretically, synchrotron cooling should cause a gradual change in particle spectrum downstream. This effect is indeed observed in the X-ray spectra of The Crab Nebula , 3C 58, and G21.5.0.9. However, current theoretical models of PWNe that only account for the bulk motion in the pulsar outflow overestimate the steepening of the resulted emission spectrum. This implies that there is an additional mechanism of particle transport which would supply energetic particles to the outer layers of the PWN. Our model solves the lack of high-energy electrons in the outer regions of the nebula by taking the diffusion of particles into account. The resulting multi-wavelength spectra exhibits multiple breaks, which is in agreement with observations. Thin non-thermal X-ray filaments are often seen near shock fronts in young supernova remnants (SNRs), often spatially coincident with the high energy gamma-ray emission. The formation of such discrete features is likely influenced by the combined effects of radiative cooling, advection, and diffusion. Spatially-resolved spectral studies of the filaments may, therefore, provide significant insights into the relative importance of main physical processes involved in young SNRs. Using 1 Ms Chandra observation of Cassiopeia A, we perform advection-diffusion modeling of synchrotron emission of filaments to measure the magnetic field, shock obliquity, the diffusion strength and the plasma turbulence level.

  15. Eagle Nebula Flaunts its Infrared Feathers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 Figure 3

    This set of images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the Eagle nebula in different hues of infrared light. Each view tells a different tale. The left picture shows lots of stars and dusty structures with clarity. Dusty molecules found on Earth called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produce most of the red; gas is green and stars are blue.

    The middle view is packed with drama, because it tells astronomers that a star in this region violently erupted, or went supernova, heating surrounding dust (orange). This view also reveals that the hot dust is shell shaped, another indication that a star exploded.

    The final picture highlights the contrast between the hot, supernova-heated dust (green) and the cooler dust making up the region's dusty star-forming clouds and towers (red, blue and purple).

    The left image is a composite of infrared light with the following wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue); 4.5 microns (green); 5.8 microns (orange); and 8 microns (red). The right image includes longer infrared wavelengths, and is a composite of light of 4.5 to 8.0 microns (blue); 24 microns (green); and 70 microns (red). The middle image is made up solely of 24-micron light.

  16. The violent interstellar medium associated with the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, C.; Paul, J. A.; Pettini, M.

    1982-06-01

    The physical conditions and chemical composition of the interstellar medium in line to HD 93205, an O3V star in the Great Carina Nebula, were studied, using UV spectra. The two main high velocity components show different relative abundance patterns. The red shifted component shows no depletion. For the blue shifted component, the relative abundance pattern seems difficult to explain in terms of elements locked into grains. Its composition is attributed to mixing with freshly synthetized material ejected by a recent supernova explosion. One low velocity component is identified with the normal interstellar gas in the disk of the Galaxy. In this component, column densities of interstellar CIV and SiIV, free from contamination by circumstellar material, were measured. The other low velocity component is identified with the approaching part of the expanding ionized nebula around the Carina OB associations. It consists of a dense HII region in which the two conspicuous OI fine structure lines originate.

  17. Trifid reflection nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Lynds, B.T.; Oneil, E.J. Jr.

    1986-11-01

    CCD frames of reflected starlight in the blue continuum, 4693 A, associated with the Trifid emission nebulae have been used to deduce the optical depth, albedo, and phase function of the dust grains. The northern component of the Trifid, centered on the supergiant HD 164514, apparently has grains of higher albedo than those associated with the southern O star HD 164492A. IRAS data add further arguments to the assumption that the northern reflection nebula is illuminated by the supergiant, and that the dust grains surrounding the O star have a higher grain temperature. The entire complex is probably part of the Sgr OB I association and the short lifetime of the association puts constraints on the manner in which the properties of the grains can be modified by associated young stars. 26 references.

  18. The Trifid reflection nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, Beverly T.; Oneil, Earl J., Jr.

    1986-11-01

    CCD frames of reflected starlight in the blue continuum, λ 4693, associated with the Trifid emission nebulae have been used to deduce the optical depth, albedo, and phase function of the dust grains. The northern component of the Trifid, centered on the supergiant HD 164514, apparently has grains of higher albedo than those associated with the southern O star HD 164492A. IRAS data add further arguments to the assumption that the northern reflection nebula is illuminated by the supergiant and that the dust grains surrounding the O star have a higher grain temperature. The entire complex is probably part of the Sgr OB I association and the short lifetime of the association puts constraints on the manner in which the properties of the grains can be modified by associated young stars.

  19. Supernova hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgate, S. A.

    1981-11-01

    The physics as well as astrophysics of the supernova (SN) phenomenon are illustrated with the appropriate numbers. The explosion of a star, a supernova, occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN, or it may collapse, type I and type II SN, leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor is thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 interior mass, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star, 6 to 10 interior mass. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to model, being the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe.

  20. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  1. Discovery of TeV γ-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58 by MAGIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Zanin, R.

    2014-07-01

    Context. The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is one of the historical very high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray source candidates. It is energized by one of the highest spin-down power pulsars known (5% of Crab pulsar) and it has been compared with the Crab nebula because of their morphological similarities. This object was previously observed by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (Whipple, VERITAS and MAGIC), although it was not detected, with an upper limit of 2.3% Crab unit (C.U.) at VHE. It was detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. Aims: We aim to extend the spectrum of 3C 58 beyond the energies reported by the Fermi Collaboration and probe acceleration of particles in the PWN up to energies of a few tens of TeV. Methods: We analyzed 81 h of 3C 58 data taken in the period between August 2013 and January 2014 with the MAGIC telescopes. Results: We detected VHE γ-ray emission from 3C 58 with a significance of 5.7σ and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. According to our results, 3C 58 is the least luminous VHE γ-ray PWN ever detected at VHE and has the lowest flux at VHE to date. The differential energy spectrum between 400 GeV and 10 TeV is well described by a power-law function dφ/dE = f0(E/1 TeV)-Γ with f0 = (2.0 ± 0.4stat ± 0.6sys) × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 and Γ = 2.4 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2sys. The skymap is compatible with an unresolved source. Conclusions: We report the first significant detection of PWN 3C 58 at TeV energies. We compare our results with the expectations of time-dependent models in which electrons upscatter photon fields. The best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and far-infrared (FIR) values similar to cosmic microwave background photon fields. If we consider an unexpectedly high FIR density, the data can also be reproduced by models assuming a 3.2 kpc distance. A low magnetic field, far from equipartition, is required to explain the VHE data. Hadronic

  2. The imprint of pulsar parameters on the morphology of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Rolf; Giomi, Matteo

    2016-11-01

    The morphology of young Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) is largely determined by the properties of the wind injected by the pulsar. We have used a recent parametrization of the wind obtained from force-free electrodynamics simulations of pulsar magnetospheres to simulate nebulae for different sets of pulsar parameters. We performed axisymmetric relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations to test the morphology dependence of the nebula on the obliquity of the pulsar and on the magnetization of the pulsar wind. We compare these simulations to the morphology of the Vela and Crab PWN. We find that the morphology of Vela can be reproduced qualitatively if the pulsar obliquity angle is α ≈ 45° and the magnetization of the wind is high (σ0 ≈ 3.0). A morphology similar to the one of the Crab nebula is only obtained for low-magnetization simulations with α ≳ 45°. Interestingly, we find that Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities produce small-scale turbulences downstream of the reverse shock of the pulsar wind.

  3. Discovery of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Candidate in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    We report on a discovery of a diffuse nebula containing a point-like source in the southern blowout region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. The X-ray spectra from the nebula and the point-like source are well represented by an absorbed power-law model with photon indices of 2.2+/-0.1 and 1.6+/-0.2, respectively. The photon indices as well as the flux ratio of F(sub nebula)/F(sub point-like) approx. 4 lead us to propose that the system is a pulsar wind nebula, although pulsations have not yet been detected. If we attribute its origin to the Cygnus Loop supernova, then the 0.5-8 keV luminosity of the nebula is computed to be 2.1x10(exp 31)(d/540pc)(exp 2)ergss/2, where d is the distance to the Loop. This implies a spin-down loss-energy E approx. 2.6x10(exp 35)(d/540pc)(exp 2)ergs/s. The location of the neutron star candidate, approx.2deg away from the geometric center of the Loop, implies a high transverse velocity of approx.1850(theta/2deg)(d/540pc)(t/10kyr)/k/s assuming the currently accepted age of the Cygnus Loop.

  4. THE 'SPIROGRAPH' NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    THE 'SPIROGRAPH' NEBULA Glowing like a multi-faceted jewel, the planetary nebula IC 418 lies about 2,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Lepus. This photograph is one of the latest from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. A planetary nebula represents the final stage in the evolution of a star similar to our Sun. The star at the center of IC 418 was a red giant a few thousand years ago, but then ejected its outer layers into space to form the nebula, which has now expanded to a diameter of about 0.1 light-year. The stellar remnant at the center is the hot core of the red giant, from which ultraviolet radiation floods out into the surrounding gas, causing it to fluoresce. Over the next several thousand years, the nebula will gradually disperse into space, and then the star will cool and fade away for billions of years as a white dwarf. Our own Sun is expected to undergo a similar fate, but fortunately this will not occur until some 5 billion years from now. The Hubble image of IC 418 is shown in a false-color representation, based on Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 exposures taken in February and September, 1999 through filters that isolate light from various chemical elements. Red shows emission from ionized nitrogen (the coolest gas in the nebula, located furthest from the hot nucleus), green shows emission from hydrogen, and blue traces the emission from ionized oxygen (the hottest gas, closest to the central star). The remarkable textures seen in the nebula are newly revealed by the Hubble telescope, and their origin is still uncertain. Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: Dr. Raghvendra Sahai (JPL) and Dr. Arsen R. Hajian (USNO). EDITOR'S NOTE: For additional information, please contact Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, (phone) 818-354-0452, (fax) 818-393-9088, (e-mail) sahai@bb8.jpl

  5. Pulsar Radio Emission Mechanisms: The Crab Enigmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The Crab pulsar, which resulted from a supernova explosion in year 1054 A. D., has been studied intensely over a wide range of wavelengths, yet it continues to reveal new phenomena that challenge explanation. The emission structures in the radio regime are complex and some may be unique among pulsars. The standard models for pulsar geometry and radio emission physics are reviewed briefly. Their predictions are then compared with observations of the Crab pulsar radio emission and the observations are used to critique the theoretical models from an observer's point of view. The models must explain the extremely short and bright nanopulses (0.4 ns duration implying an equivalent brightness temperature of 10^42 K), the wide bandwidths of radio emission (at least 0.02 to 46 GHz), the regular banded nature of the high frequency interpulse emission, the complex polarization structure, and the phases of pulsar rotation where emission occurs. So far no comprehensive model satisfies all of the observational discriminants.

  6. Revisiting the Orion Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Orion the Hunter is perhaps the best-known constellation in the sky, well placed in the winter for observers in both the northern and southern hemispheres, and instantly recognisable. Just below Orion's belt (three distinctive stars in a row), the hilt of his sword holds a great jewel in the sky, the beautiful Orion Nebula. Bright enough to be seen with the naked eye, the nebula, also known as Messier 42, is a wide complex of gas and dust, illuminated by several massive and hot stars at its core, the famous Trapezium stars. For astronomers, Orion is surely one of the most important constellations, as it contains one of the nearest and most active stellar nurseries in the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. Here tens of thousands of new stars have formed within the past ten million years or so - a very short span of time in astronomical terms. For comparison: our own Sun is now 4,600 million years old and has not yet reached half-age. Reduced to a human time-scale, star formation in Orion would have been going on for just one month as compared to the Sun's 40 years. In fact, located at a distance of 1500 light years, the Orion Nebula plays such an important role in astrophysics that it can be argued that our understanding of star formation is for a large part based on the Orion Nebula. It is thus no surprise that the Orion Nebula is one of the most studied objects in the night sky (see for example the various related ESO Press Photos and Releases: ESO Press Photo 03a/98, ESO Press Photos 03a-d/01, ESO Press Photos 12a-e/01, ESO Press Release 14/01,...). The richness of the stellar cluster inside the Orion Nebula makes it an ideal, and unique, target for high resolution and wide-field imaging. Following some pioneering work made a few years ago, an international team of astronomers [1], led by Massimo Robberto (European Space Agency and Space Telescope Science Institute), used the Wide Field Imager (WFI), a 67-million pixel digital camera that is installed at the

  7. The velocity and composition of supernova ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, S. A.

    1971-01-01

    In case of the Gum nebula, a pulsar - a presumed neutron star - is believed to be a relic of the supernova explosion. Regardless of the mechanism of the explosion, the velocity distribution and composition of the ejected matter will be roughly the same. The reimploding mass fraction is presumed to be neutron rich. The final composition is thought to be roughly 1/3 iron and 2/3 silicon, with many small fractions of elements from helium to iron. The termination of helium shell burning occurs because the shell is expanded and cooled by radiation stress. The mass fraction of the helium burning shell was calculated.

  8. Hubble's Variable Nebula (NGC 2261)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A reflection nebula in the constellation Monoceros, position RA 06 h 39.2 m, dec. +08° 44'. It is small (2' by 1') but of quite high surface brightness. The nebula's average magnitude is 10, but, as Edwin Hubble discovered in 1916, it varies in brightness, mirroring the variability of its illuminating star, R Monocerotis....

  9. JITTER RADIATION MODEL OF THE CRAB GAMMA-RAY FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Teraki, Yuto; Takahara, Fumio

    2013-02-15

    The gamma-ray flares of the Crab nebula detected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites challenge our understanding of the physics of pulsars and their nebulae. The central problem is that the peak energy of the flares exceeds the maximum energy E {sub c} determined by synchrotron radiation loss. However, when turbulent magnetic fields exist with scales {lambda}{sub B} smaller than 2{pi}mc {sup 2}/eB, jitter radiation can emit photons with energies higher than E {sub c}. The scale required for the Crab flares is about two orders of magnitude less than the wavelength of the striped wind. We discuss a model in which the flares are triggered by plunging the high-density blobs into the termination shock. The observed hard spectral shape may be explained by the jitter mechanism. We make three observational predictions: first, the polarization degree will become lower in flares; second, no counterpart will be seen in TeV-PeV range; and third, the flare spectrum will not be harder than {nu}F {sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 1}.

  10. Atomic hydrogen in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Silverglate, Peter R.; Altschuler, Daniel R.; Giovanardi, Carlo

    1987-01-01

    The authors searched for neutral atomic hydrogen associated with 22 planetary nebulae and three evolved stars in the 21 cm line at the Arecibo Observatory. Objects whose radial velocities permitted discrimination from Galactic H I were chosen for observation. Hydrogen was detected in absorption from IC 4997. From the measurements new low limits are derived to the mass of atomic hydrogen associated with the undetected nebulae. Radio continuum observations were also made of several of the nebulae at 12.6 cm. The authors reexamine previous measurements of H I in planetary nebulae, and present the data on a consistent footing. The question of planetary nebula distances is considered at length. Finally, implications of the H I measurements for nebular evolution are discussed and it is suggested that atomic hydrogen seen in absorption was expelled from the progenitor star during the final 1000 yr prior to the onset of ionization.

  11. Spectrometry of nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, A.

    2011-04-01

    Nebular emission lines are easy to observe, and their spectrum contains a lot of information. We explain the mechanisms of production of the emissions, and the relation between the intensity of the recombination and forbidden lines, and the physical parameters of the objects. A gallery of emission lines spectra is presented, and a rough analysis will clarify their differences. The case of Planetary Nebulae will be developed, in order to determine the extinction constant, the plasma parameters (electron density and temperature), the chemical abundances, and also the properties of the central star (temperature, mass, stellar wind velocity, age).

  12. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae.

    'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2.

    The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures.

    A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and

  13. Ghost Head Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth.

    The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas.

    NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000.

    The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas.

    In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center

  14. H.E.S.S. observations of the Crab during its March 2013 GeV gamma-ray flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. On March 4, 2013 the Fermi-LAT and AGILE reported a flare from the direction of the Crab nebula in which the high-energy (HE; E > 100 MeV) flux was six times above its quiescent level. Simultaneous observations in other energy bands give us hints about the emission processes during the flare episode and the physics of pulsar wind nebulae in general. Aims: We search for variability in the emission of the Crab nebula at very-high energies (VHE; E > 100 GeV), using contemporaneous data taken with the H.E.S.S. array of Cherenkov telescopes. Methods: Observational data taken with the H.E.S.S. instrument on five consecutive days during the flare were analysed for the flux and spectral shape of the emission from the Crab nebula. Night-wise light curves are presented with energy thresholds of 1 TeV and 5 TeV. Results: The observations conducted with H.E.S.S. on March 6 to March 10, 2013 show no significant changes in the flux. They limit the variation in the integral flux above 1 TeV to less than 63% and the integral flux above 5 TeV to less than 78% at a 95% confidence level.

  15. EXTENDED HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE VELA PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Mattana, F.; Terrier, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Goetz, D.; Caballero, I.; Soldi, S.; Schanne, S.; Ponti, G.; Falanga, M.; Renaud, M.

    2011-12-10

    The nebula powered by the Vela pulsar is one of the best examples of an evolved pulsar wind nebula, allowing access to the particle injection history and the interaction with the supernova ejecta. We report on the INTEGRAL discovery of extended emission above 18 keV from the Vela nebula. The northern side has no known counterparts and it appears larger and more significant than the southern one, which is in turn partially coincident with the cocoon, the soft X-ray, and TeV filament toward the center of the remnant. We also present the spectrum of the Vela nebula in the 18-400 keV energy range as measured by IBIS/ISGRI and SPI on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparent discrepancy between IBIS/ISGRI, SPI, and previous measurements is understood in terms of the point-spread function, supporting the hypothesis of a nebula more diffuse than previously thought. A break at {approx}25 keV is found in the spectrum within 6' from the pulsar after including the Suzaku XIS data. Interpreted as a cooling break, this points out that the inner nebula is composed of electrons injected in the last {approx}2000 years. Broadband modeling also implies a magnetic field higher than 10 {mu}G in this region. Finally, we discuss the nature of the northern emission, which might be due to fresh particles injected after the passage of the reverse shock.

  16. Infrared nebula in the Chamaeleon T association

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.D.; Henize, K.G.

    1983-11-01

    Data are tabulated for seven nebulae in the Chamaeleon T association. Three, which are large and clearly related to illuminating stars, appear to be typical reflection nebulae. Three are small wisps attached to stars and are probably cometary-type reflection nebulae. The remaining nebula is a triangular wisp having an unusually red spectral energy distribution and showing no illuminating star on visual wavelength photographs. The western tip of this nebula coincides closely with the position of a recently reported infrared source. The nebula is probably one lobe of a bipolar nebula.

  17. Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchio, M.; Marassi, S.; Schneider, R.; Bianchi, S.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.

    2016-03-01

    Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. With this aim, we have developed a new code, GRASH_Rev, that allows following the dynamics of dust grains in the shocked SN ejecta and computing the time evolution of the mass, composition, and size distribution of the grains. We considered four well-studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN 1987A, CasA, the Crab nebula, and N49. These sources have been observed with both Spitzer and Herschel, and the multiwavelength data allow a better assessment the mass of warm and cold dust associated with the ejecta. For each SN, we first identified the best explosion model, using the mass and metallicity of the progenitor star, the mass of 56Ni, the explosion energy, and the circumstellar medium density inferred from the data. We then ran a recently developed dust formation model to compute the properties of freshly formed dust. Starting from these input models, GRASH_Rev self-consistently follows the dynamics of the grains, considering the effects of the forward and reverse shock, and allows predicting the time evolution of the dust mass, composition, and size distribution in the shocked and unshocked regions of the ejecta. All the simulated models aagree well with observations. Our study suggests that SN 1987A is too young for the reverse shock to have affected the dust mass. Hence the observed dust mass of 0.7-0.9 M⊙ in this source can be safely considered as indicative of the mass of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta. Conversely, in the other three SNe, the reverse shock has already destroyed between 10-40% of the

  18. Radiation-driven winds of hot luminous stars. XVIII. The unreliability of stellar and wind parameter determinations from optical vs. UV spectral analysis of selected central stars of planetary nebulae and the possibility of some CSPNs as single-star supernova Ia progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Kaschinski, C. B.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The uncertainty in the degree to which radiation-driven winds of hot stars might be affected by small inhomogeneities in the density leads to a corresponding uncertainty in the determination of the atmospheric mass loss rates from the strength of optical recombination lines and - since the mass loss rate is not a free parameter but a function of the stellar parameters mass, radius, luminosity, and abundances - in principle also in the determination of these stellar parameters. Furthermore, the optical recombination lines also react sensitively to even small changes in the density structure resulting from the (often assumed instead of computed) velocity law of the outflow. This raises the question of how reliable the parameter determinations from such lines are. Aims: The currently existing severe discrepancy between central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) stellar and wind parameters derived from model fits to the optical spectra and those derived using hydrodynamically consistent model fits to the UV spectra is to be reassessed via a simultaneous optical/UV analysis using a state-of-the-art model atmosphere code. Methods: We have modified our hydrodynamically consistent model atmosphere code with an implementation of the usual ad hoc treatment of clumping (small inhomogeneities in the density) in the wind. This allows us to re-evaluate, with respect to their influence on the appearance of the UV spectra and their compatibility with the observations, the parameters determined in an earlier study that had employed clumping in its models to achieve a fit to the observed optical spectra. Results: The discrepancy between the optical and the UV analyses is confirmed to be the result of a missing consistency between stellar and wind parameters in the optical analysis. While clumping in the wind does significantly increase the emission in the optical hydrogen and helium recombination lines, the influence of the density (velocity field) is of the same order as

  19. Spatially-resolved Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, D. A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zavlin, V. E.; Bucciantini, N.; Clarke, T. E.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; O'Dell, S. L.; vanderHorst, A J.; Yukita, M.

    2013-01-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222117, in the supernova remnant IC443 reveal, for the first time, a ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar location. The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar interpretation, (2) the non-thermal surrounding nebula is likely powered by the pulsar wind, and (3) the thermal-dominated spectrum at greater distances is consistent with emission from the supernova remnant. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest (or, equivalently, flow of ambient medium to the northeast), appears to be subsonic; there is no evidence for a strong bow shock, and the circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium.

  20. Spatially-resolved Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zavlin, V.; Bucciantini, N.; Clarke, T. E.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; van der Horst, A.; Yukita, M.

    2013-04-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXO J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant IC443 confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar interpretation, (2) the non-thermal surrounding nebula is likely powered by a pulsar wind, and (3) the thermal-dominated spectrum at greater distances is consistent with emission from the supernova remnant. The observations further reveal, for the first time, a ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar location. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest, appears to be subsonic; there is no evidence for a strong bow shock and the ring, presumably formed at a wind termination shock, is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium.

  1. Discovery of a compact radio component in the center of supernova 1986J.

    PubMed

    Bietenholz, Michael F; Bartel, Norbert; Rupen, Michael P

    2004-06-25

    Very-long-baseline interferometry observations have revealed a bright, compact radio component near the center of the expanding shell of supernova 1986J. The component, not present in earlier images, has an inverted radio spectrum different from that of the shell. Such an inversion has not been seen in the spectrum of any other supernova. The new component is likely radio emission associated either with accretion onto a black hole or with the nebula formed around an energetic young neutron star in the center of SN 1986J, which would directly link either a black hole or a neutron star to a modern supernova.

  2. Crab allergen exposures aboard five crab-processing vessels.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Nancy; Brodkin, C Andrew; Stover, Bert; Daroowalla, Feroza; Flack, Joy; Doherty, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Aerosolized crab allergens are suspected etiologic agents for asthma among crab-processing workers. The objectives of this study were to characterize crab allergen concentrations and respiratory symptom prevalence among processing workers aboard crab-processing vessels. A cross-sectional survey of five crab-processing vessels was conducted near Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Crab allergen concentrations were quantified during specific work activities with 25 personal air samples collected on polytetrafluoroethylene filters and analyzed by a competitive IgE immunoassay technique. Two standardized respiratory questionnaires were used to assess respiratory symptoms suggestive of bronchitis or asthma in 82 workers. Aerosolized crab allergen concentrations ranged from 79 ng/m3 to 21,093 ng/m3 (mean = 2797 ng/m3, SD = 4576 ng/m3). The highest concentrations were measured at butchering/degilling work stations, which were combined on the smallest vessel. A significant percentage of workers reported development of respiratory symptoms during the crab-processing season. Cough developed in 28% of workers, phlegm in 11% of workers, and wheeze and other asthma-like symptoms developed in 4% of workers. Despite variations in crab allergen levels, respiratory symptom prevalence was similar across all job categories. Substantial concentrations of crab allergen exposure were measured, as well as the potential for wide variability in exposure during crab processing aboard vessels. The high prevalence of reported respiratory symptoms across all job categories suggests potential adverse respiratory effects that should be further characterized by prospective studies using pulmonary function and serology testing, and rigorous exposure characterization.

  3. The Rediscovery of the Antlia Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchard, Alexander; Benjamin, Robert A.; Gostisha, Martin; Haffner, L. Matthew; Hill, Alex S.; Barger, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    While undertaking a survey of velocity-resolved diffuse optical emission from the [S II] 6716 A line with the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper, we have rediscovered the Antlia Supernova remnant, a 26 degree diameter remmant near the Gum Nebula that was originally detected in SHASSA (Southern H-alpha Sky Survey Atlas) by P. McCullough in 2002. The original discovery showed this remnant was associated with ¼ keV X-ray emission in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and argued that Antlia was potentially the closest remnant to the Sun. We will present an analysis of the H-alpha and [S II] lines in this direction: the ratio of these lines indicate the shell is consistent with being a supernova remnant and the velocities allow us to constrain its age. We discuss this remnant in the context of the evolution of the entire Gum Nebula region, noting that its proximity and age make it possible to search for geochemical evidence of this remnant on Earth. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881.

  4. Planetary nebulae. V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieseking, F.

    1984-01-01

    The characterization of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) using observations of their shells (SPN), is discussed. The observability, from earth and space, of the emission spectrum of a typical CSPN (represented by a 50,000-K blackbody) at a distance of several kpc is illustrated graphically. It is shown that the most important and intense portion of this spectrum, the Lyman quanta below 912 A, is absorbed by the interstellar medium, and specifically by the SPN itself. The method developed by Zanstra in 1927 to estimate the Lyman emission of the CSPN from the Balmer emission (or the optical He-recombination spectrum) of the SPN is explained. Recent satellite observations in the 100-300-nm range have confirmed the accuracy of the H and/or He Zanstra temperature as an estimate of CSPN effective temperature.

  5. The Tarantula Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's new Spitzer Space Telescope, formerly known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, has captured in stunning detail the spidery filaments and newborn stars of the Tarantula Nebula, a rich star-forming region also known as 30 Doradus. This cloud of glowing dust and gas is located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, the nearest galaxy to our own Milky Way, and is visible primarily from the Southern Hemisphere. This image of an interstellar cauldron provides a snapshot of the complex physical processes and chemistry that govern the birth - and death - of stars.

    At the heart of the nebula is a compact cluster of stars, known as R136, which contains very massive and young stars. The brightest of these blue supergiant stars are up to 100 times more massive than the Sun, and are at least 100,000 times more luminous. These stars will live fast and die young, at least by astronomical standards, exhausting their nuclear fuel in a few million years.

    The Spitzer Space Telescope image was obtained with an infrared array camera that is sensitive to invisible infrared light at wavelengths that are about ten times longer than visible light. In this four-color composite, emission at 3.6 microns is depicted in blue, 4.5 microns in green, 5.8 microns in orange, and 8.0 microns in red. The image covers a region that is three-quarters the size of the full moon.

    The Spitzer observations penetrate the dust clouds throughout the Tarantula to reveal previously hidden sites of star formation. Within the luminescent nebula, many holes are also apparent. These voids are produced by highly energetic winds originating from the massive stars in the central star cluster. The structures at the edges of these voids are particularly interesting. Dense pillars of gas and dust, sculpted by the stellar radiation, denote the birthplace of future generations of stars.

    The Spitzer image provides information about the composition of the material at the edges of the voids. The surface layers

  6. Video Zoom into Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video opens with a backyard view of the nighttime sky centered on the constellation Cygnus, the Swan. We zoom into a vast donut-shaped feature called the Veil Nebula. It is the tattered expand...

  7. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680..., Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab Size Codes Size code Description 1 Standard or large sized crab or crab sections. 2 Smaller size crab or crab sections, e.g., snow crab less than 4 inches....

  8. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680..., Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab Size Codes Size code Description 1 Standard or large sized crab or crab sections. 2 Smaller size crab or crab sections, e.g., snow crab less than 4 inches....

  9. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680..., Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab Size Codes Size code Description 1 Standard or large sized crab or crab sections. 2 Smaller size crab or crab sections, e.g., snow crab less than 4 inches....

  10. Echoes of Historical Supernovae in the Milky Way Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, Armin; Badenes, Carles; Blondin, Stephane; Challis, Peter; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Filippenko, Alex; Foley, Ryan; Huber, Mark E.; Matheson, Thomas; Mazzali, Paolo; Olsen, Knut; Sauer, Daniel; Sinnott, Brendan; Smith, R. Chris; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Welch, Doug; Bergmann, Marcel

    2010-08-01

    We propose to discover the first light echoes (LEs) associated with the historical Galactic supernovae SN 1181 (3C 58) and SN 1054 (Crab), and to locate additional LE complexes from SN 1680 (Cas A) and SN 1572 (Tycho). Using other facilities, we will obtain spectra of the LEs to determine the nature and properties of these important events. This is a continuation of a previously approved NOAO program to obtain images of regions of significant dust concentration near these Galactic supernova remnants. With data from previous semesters, we found LEs from the Cas A and Tycho supernovae teRest08b. We then used the rich set of LEs from Cas A to examine the Cas A SN from different viewing angles teRest10_casaspec, Rest10_leprofile, finding that in one direction the He I (lambda) 5876 and H(alpha) features are blue-shifted by an additional about 4000 km/s relative to the other directions teRest10_casaspec, which is direct evidence that the SN was asymmetric. The study of scattered-light echoes from Galactic supernovae provides a host of newly-recognized observational benefits which have only just begun to be exploited including (1) a direct comparison of a supernova and its remnant, (2) a three-dimensional view of a supernova, and (3) a Galactic network of absolute distance differences.

  11. Supernova neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Scholberg, K.

    2015-07-15

    In this presentation I summarize the main detection channels for neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae, and describe current status of and future prospects for supernova-neutrino-sensitive detectors worldwide.

  12. Supernova frequency estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, D.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of the frequency of type I and II supernovae occurring in galaxies of different types are derived from observational material acquired by the supernova patrol of the Shternberg Astronomical Institute.

  13. Planetary nebulae and their mimics: The MASH-MEN Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissay, Rozenn; Parker, Quentin A.; Frew, David J.; Bojicic, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The total number of true, likely and possible planetary nebulae (PN) now known in the Milky Way is about 3000, approximately twice the number known a decade ago. The new discoveries are a legacy of the recent availability of wide-field, narrowband imaging surveys, primarily in the light of Hα. The two most important are the AAO/UKST SuperCOSMOS Hα survey SHS and the Isaac Newton photometric Hα survey IPHAS, which are responsible for most of the new discoveries. A serious problem with previous PN catalogs is that several different kinds of astrophysical objects are able to mimic PN in some of their observed properties leading to significant contamination. These objects include H~II regions and Strömgren zones around young O/B stars, reflection nebulae, Wolf-Rayet ejecta, supernova remnants, Herbig-Haro objects, young stellar objects, B[e] stars, symbiotic stars and outflows, late-type stars, cataclysmic variables, low redshift emission-line galaxies, and even image/detector flaws. PN catalogs such as the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg Hα Planetary Nebula catalog (MASH) have been carefully vetted to remove these mimics using the wealth of new wide-field multi-wavelength data and our 100% follow-up spectroscopy to produce a compilation of new PN discoveries of high purity. During this process significant numbers of PN mimics have been identified. The aim of this project is to compile these MASH rejects into a catalog of Miscellaneous Emission Nebulae (MEN) and to highlight the most unusual and interesting examples. A new global analysis of these MEN objects is underway before publishing the MEN catalog online categorizing objects by type together with their spectra and multi-wavelength images.

  14. CRAB Cavity in CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Beam collisions with a crossing angle at the interaction point are often necessary in colliders to reduce the effects of parasitic collisions which induce emittance growth and decrease beam lifetime. The crossing angle reduces the geometrical overlap of the beams and hence the luminosity. Crab cavity offer a promising way to compensate the crossing angle and to realize effective head-on collisions. Moreover, the crab crossing mitigates the synchro-betatron resonances due to the crossing angle. A crab cavity experiment in SPS is proposed as a proof of principle before deciding on a full crab-cavity implementation in the LHC. In this paper, we investigate the effects of a single crab cavity on beam dynamics in the SPS and life time.

  15. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  16. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king crab Paralithodes platypus. 923 Golden (brown) king crab Lithodes aequispinus. 924 Scarlet king...

  17. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king crab Paralithodes platypus. 923 Golden (brown) king crab Lithodes aequispinus. 924 Scarlet king...

  18. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king crab Paralithodes platypus. 923 Golden (brown) king crab Lithodes aequispinus. 924 Scarlet king...

  19. Models for circumstellar nebulae around red and blue supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chita, S. M.

    2011-10-01

    In this thesis, we model the circumstellar medium of stars with initial masses of 8, 12, 18 and 20 solar masses, over their entire life from the main sequence until their supernova explosion. During the post-main-sequence stages, stars can evolve through several blue and red supergiant stages depending on their initial mass, composition and rotation rate. The models considered in the second Chapter have long-lasting RSG stages starting after the MS. In this phase, they develop shells of RSG wind material at the location where the free streaming RSG wind is stalled by the thermal pressure of the hot MS bubble, close to the central star. The RSG shells develop violent Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Once these start to grow non-linear, the RSG shell becomes highly structured as clumps form, and shell material mixes with material in the hot bubble. Later, the stars evolve to the BSG stage, during which the RSG shells are completely destroyed. These models return to the RSG stage, and build new RSG shells, which are more massive than those formed earlier. RSG shells are essential for our understanding of bipolar emission nebulae around BSGs. In the third Chapter are shown the results of the wind-wind interaction model of single star with 12 solar masses. On a time scale of a few 10000 yr, a BSG hour-glas shaped nebula expands into the sphere defined by the RSG shell. The faster polar parts of the hour glass hit the inner edge of the RSG shell first. The collision creates a pair of hot and dense polar caps. As time passes, the collision zone moves to lower latitudes of the RSG shell and becomes more confined in latitude. At the same time, the interaction of the BSG wind with the equatorial disk defines a second, ring shaped collision zone in the equatorial plane. These structures are reminiscent of the observed nebulae around the blue supergiant Sher 25. In the Chapter 3 we present calculations that predict the properties of the circumstellar medium for rapidly rotating

  20. HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [Top left] - IC 3568 lies in the constellation Camelopardalis at a distance of about 9,000 light-years, and has a diameter of about 0.4 light-years (or about 800 times the diameter of our solar system). It is an example of a round planetary nebula. Note the bright inner shell and fainter, smooth, circular outer envelope. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Top center] - NGC 6826's eye-like appearance is marred by two sets of blood-red 'fliers' that lie horizontally across the image. The surrounding faint green 'white' of the eye is believed to be gas that made up almost half of the star's mass for most of its life. The hot remnant star (in the center of the green oval) drives a fast wind into older material, forming a hot interior bubble which pushes the older gas ahead of it to form a bright rim. (The star is one of the brightest stars in any planetary.) NGC 6826 is 2,200 light- years away in the constellation Cygnus. The Hubble telescope observation was taken Jan. 27, 1996 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy) and NASA [Top right ] - NGC 3918 is in the constellation Centaurus and is about 3,000 light-years from us. Its diameter is about 0.3 light-year. It shows a roughly spherical outer envelope but an elongated inner balloon inflated by a fast wind from the hot central star, which is starting to break out of the spherical envelope at the top and bottom of the image. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Bottom left] - Hubble 5 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or bipolar (two-lobed) nebula. The heat generated by fast winds causes

  1. A corrugated termination shock in pulsar wind nebulae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Martin

    2016-08-01

    > Successful phenomenological models of pulsar wind nebulae assume efficient dissipation of the Poynting flux of the magnetized electron-positron wind as well as efficient acceleration of the pairs in the vicinity of the termination shock, but how this is realized is not yet well understood. This paper suggests that the corrugation of the termination shock, at the onset of nonlinearity, may lead towards the desired phenomenology. Nonlinear corrugation of the termination shock would convert a fraction of order unity of the incoming ordered magnetic field into downstream turbulence, slowing down the flow to sub-relativistic velocities. The dissipation of turbulence would further preheat the pair population on short length scales, close to equipartition with the magnetic field, thereby reducing the initial high magnetization to values of order unity. Furthermore, it is speculated that the turbulence generated by the corrugation pattern may sustain a relativistic Fermi process, accelerating particles close to the radiation reaction limit, as observed in the Crab nebula. The required corrugation could be induced by the fast magnetosonic modes of downstream nebular turbulence; but it could also be produced by upstream turbulence, either carried by the wind or seeded in the precursor by the accelerated particles themselves.

  2. The Reflection Nebula in Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Just weeks after NASA astronauts repaired the Hubble Space Telescope in December 1999, the Hubble Heritage Project snapped this picture of NGC 1999, a nebula in the constellation Orion. The Heritage astronomers, in collaboration with scientists in Texas and Ireland, used Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) to obtain the color image. NGC 1999 is an example of a reflection nebula. Like fog around a street lamp, a reflection nebula shines only because the light from an imbedded source illuminates its dust; the nebula does not emit any visible light of its own. NGC 1999 lies close to the famous Orion Nebula, about 1,500 light-years from Earth, in a region of our Milky Way galaxy where new stars are being formed actively. NGC 1999 was discovered some two centuries ago by Sir William Herschel and his sister Caroline, and was cataloged later in the 19th century as object 1999 in the New General Catalogue. This data was collected in January 2000 by the Hubble Heritage Team with the collaboration of star-formation experts C. Robert O'Dell (Rice University), Thomas P. Ray (Dublin Institute for Advanced Study), and David Corcoran (University of Limerick).

  3. Radio emission from supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, Gloria; Giacani, Elsa

    2015-09-01

    The explosion of a supernova releases almost instantaneously about 10^{51} ergs of mechanic energy, changing irreversibly the physical and chemical properties of large regions in the galaxies. The stellar ejecta, the nebula resulting from the powerful shock waves, and sometimes a compact stellar remnant, constitute a supernova remnant (SNR). They can radiate their energy across the whole electromagnetic spectrum, but the great majority are radio sources. Almost 70 years after the first detection of radio emission coming from an SNR, great progress has been achieved in the comprehension of their physical characteristics and evolution. We review the present knowledge of different aspects of radio remnants, focusing on sources of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds, where the SNRs can be spatially resolved. We present a brief overview of theoretical background, analyze morphology and polarization properties, and review and critically discuss different methods applied to determine the radio spectrum and distances. The consequences of the interaction between the SNR shocks and the surrounding medium are examined, including the question of whether SNRs can trigger the formation of new stars. Cases of multispectral comparison are presented. A section is devoted to reviewing recent results of radio SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds, with particular emphasis on the radio properties of SN 1987A, an ideal laboratory to investigate dynamical evolution of an SNR in near real time. The review concludes with a summary of issues on radio SNRs that deserve further study, and analysis of the prospects for future research with the latest-generation radio telescopes.

  4. Characterization of the Inner Knot of the Crab: The Site of the Gamma-Ray Flares?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Subsequent to the detections AGILE and Fermi/LAT of the gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula in the fall of 2010, this team has been monitoring the X-Ray emission from the Crab on a regular basis. Initially X-Ray observations took place once per month when viewing constraints allowed. More recently observations with Chandra and HST have taken place four times per year. There have been notable exceptions, e.g. in April of 2011 and March 2013 when we initiated a set of Chandra Target of opportunity observations in conjunction with bright gamma-ray flares. Often Keck observations were obtained. The aim of this program to characterize, in depth, the X-ray, optical, and infrared variations that take place in the nebula, and, by so doing, determine the regions which contribute to the harder X-ray variations and, if possible, determine the precise location within the Nebula of the origin of the gamma-ray flares. As part of this project members of the team have applied Singular Value Decomposition techniques to sequences of images in order to more accurately characterize features and their behavior. The current status of the project will be discussed highlighting studies of the inner knot and possible correlations with the gamma-ray flares.

  5. COMPARING SYMBIOTIC NEBULAE AND PLANETARY NEBULAE LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Frankowski, Adam; Soker, Noam E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.i

    2009-10-01

    We compare the observed symbiotic nebulae (SyN) luminosity function (SyNLF) in the [O III] lambda5007 A line to the planetary nebulae (PN) luminosity function (PNLF) and find that the intrinsic SyNLF (ISyNLF) of galactic SyNs has-within its uncertainty of 0.5-0.8 mag-very similar cutoff luminosity and general shape to those of the PNLF. The [O III]/(Halpha+[N II]) line ratios of SyNs and PNs are shown to be also related. Possible implications of these results for the universality of the PNLF are briefly outlined.

  6. SPERMIOGENESIS IN CANCER CRABS

    PubMed Central

    Langreth, Susan G.

    1969-01-01

    Spermiogenesis in Cancer crabs was studied by light and electron microscopy. The sperm are aflagellate, and when mature consist primarily of a spherical acrosome surrounded by the nucleus with its short radiating arms. The acrosome forms by a coalescence of periodic acid-Schiff-positive (PAS-positive) vesicles. During spermiogenesis one edge of the acrosomal vesicle invaginates to form a PAS-negative central core. The inner region of the acrosome bounding the core contains basic proteins which are not complexed to nucleic acid. The formation of an elaborate lattice-like complex of fused membranes, principally from membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, is described. These membranes are later taken into the nucleus and subsequently degenerate. In late spermatids, when most of the cytoplasm is sloughed, the nuclear envelope and the cell membrane apparently fuse to become the limiting boundary over most of the sperm cell. In the mature sperm the chromatin of the nucleus and arms, which is Feulgen-positive, contains no detectable protein. The chromatin filaments appear clumped, branched, and anastomosed; morphologically, they resemble the DNA of bacterial nuclei. Mitochondria are absent or degenerate in mature sperm of Cancer crabs, but the centrioles persist in the nucleoplasm at the base of the acrosome. PMID:4187136

  7. The Formation of a Planetary Nebula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz, Amos

    1991-01-01

    Proposes a scenario to describe the formation of a planetary nebula, a cloud of gas surrounding a very hot compact star. Describes the nature of a planetary nebula, the number observed to date in the Milky Way Galaxy, and the results of research on a specific nebula. (MDH)

  8. The Trifid Nebula: Stellar Sibling Rivalry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A zoom into the Trifid Nebula starts with ground-based observations and ends with a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. Another HST image shows star formation in the nebula and the video concludes with a ground-based image of the Trifid Nebula.

  9. Novel Crab Cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Sah, R.; Rimmer, B.; Wang, H.

    2011-03-01

    A 20-50 MV integrated transverse voltage is required for the Electron-Ion Collider. The most promising of the crab cavity designs that have been proposed in the last five years are the TEM type crab cavities because of the higher transverse impedance. The TEM design approach is extended here to a hybrid crab cavity that includes the input power coupler as an integral part of the design. A prototype was built with Phase I monies and tested at JLAB. The results reported on, and a system for achieving 20-50 MV is proposed.

  10. The Eagle Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These eerie, dark pillar-like structures are columns of cool interstellar hydrogen gas and dust that are also incubators for new stars. The pillars protrude from the interior wall of a dark molecular cloud like stalagmites from the floor of a cavern. They are part of the 'Eagle Nebula' (also called M16 -- the 16th object in Charles Messier's 18th century catalog of 'fuzzy' objects that aren't comets), a nearby star-forming region 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Serpens. Ultraviolet light is responsible for illuminating the convoluted surfaces of the columns and the ghostly streamers of gas boiling away from their surfaces, producing the dramatic visual effects that highlight the three dimensional nature of the clouds. The tallest pillar (left) is about a light-year long from base to tip. As the pillars themselves are slowly eroded away by the ultraviolet light, small globules of even denser gas buried within the pillars are uncovered. These globules have been dubbed 'EGGs.' EGGs is an acronym for 'Evaporating Gaseous Globules,' but it is also a word that describes what these objects are. Forming inside at least some of the EGGs are embryonic stars, stars that abruptly stop growing when the EGGs are uncovered and they are separated from the larger reservoir of gas from which they were drawing mass. Eventually, the stars themselves emerge from the EGGs as the EGGs themselves succumb to photoevaporation. The picture was taken on April 1, 1995 with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in the light of emission from different types of atoms. Red shows emission from singly-ionized sulfur atoms. Green shows emission from hydrogen. Blue shows light emitted by doubly- ionized oxygen atoms.

  11. Convective solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meirellesfilho, C.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzing turbulent flows with rotation, Dubrulle and Valdettaro have concluded that some new effects come into play and may modify the standard picture we have concerning turbulence. In that respect the value of the Rossby number is of crucial importance since it will determine the transition between regimes where rotation is or is not important. With rotation there will be a tendency to constrain the motion to the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis and as a consequence the horizontal scale will increase as compared to the longitudinal one, which means that the turnover time in this direction will increase. The net effect is that the energy cascade down process is hindered by rotation. As a matter of fact, when rotation is present one observes two cascades: an enstrophy (vorticity) cascade from large scales to small scales; and an inverse energy cascade from small scales to large scales. Since the first process is not efficient on transporting energy to the dissipation range, what we see is energy storage in the large structures at the expense of the small structures. This kind of behavior has been confirmed experimentally. For a very large gamma we obtain, in the inertial range, a spectrum of k(exp -3) instead of the usual Kilmogorov's k(exp -5/3) spectrum. In reality, when rotation is dominant, energy gets stored in inertial waves that propagate it essentially in the longitudinal direction. In that case, we can no longer assign just one viscosity to the fluid and, what is most important, the concept of viscosity loses its meaning since we no longer have local transport of energy. Such results, however, were derived considering a hot disk, in which opacity is mainly given by electron scattering. In the present work we have applied the formulation developed in the previous work for the description of the viscous-stage solar nebula.

  12. Molecular Hydrogen in Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela K.; Baldridge, Sean; Matsuura, Mikako

    2015-08-01

    Planetary Nebulae (PNe) have long played the role of laboratories for investigating atomic, molecular, dust and plasma physics, which have applications to diverse other astrophysical environments. In this presentation we will discuss clumpy structures within planetary nebulae that are the hosts to, and protectors of molecular gas in an otherwise forbidding ionized zone. We will present new observations of the molecular hydrogen emission from several PNe and discuss their implications for the formation, evolution and survival/demise of such molecular globules. The science behind dust and molecule formation and survival that apply to many other astronomical objects and places.

  13. Messier's nebulae and star clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. G.

    Charles Messier's Catalogue of nebulae and star clusters, published in 1784, marked the start of a new era of deep sky astronomy. Today, this tradition of observing galaxies and clusters is kept alive by serious amateur astronomers who study the objects of the deep sky. Nearly all the objects are visible in a small telescope. The author has revised his definitive version of Messier's Catalogue. His own observations and drawings, together with maps and diagrams, make this a valuable introduction to deep sky observing. Historical and astrophysical notes bring the science of these nebulae right up to date.

  14. What regulates crab predation on mangrove propagules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nedervelde, Fleur; Cannicci, Stefano; Koedam, Nico; Bosire, Jared; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2015-02-01

    Crabs play a major role in some ecosystems. To increase our knowledge about the factors that influence crab predation on propagules in mangrove forests, we performed experiments in Gazi Bay, Kenya in July 2009. We tested whether: (1) crab density influences propagule predation rate; (2) crab size influences food competition and predation rate; (3) crabs depredate at different rates according to propagule and canopy cover species; (4) vegetation density is correlated with crab density; (5) food preferences of herbivorous crabs are determined by size, shape and nutritional value. We found that (1) propagule predation rate was positively correlated to crab density. (2) Crab competitive abilities were unrelated to their size. (3) Avicennia marina propagules were consumed more quickly than Ceriops tagal except under C. tagal canopies. (4) Crab density was negatively correlated with the density of A. marina trees and pneumatophores. (5) Crabs prefer small items with a lower C:N ratio. Vegetation density influences crab density, and crab density affects propagule availability and hence vegetation recruitment rate. Consequently, the mutual relationships between vegetation and crab populations could be important for forest restoration success and management.

  15. Supernovae and mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbergh, S.

    1994-01-01

    Shklovsky and others have suggested that some of the major extinctions in the geological record might have been triggered by explosions of nearby supernovae. The frequency of such extinction events will depend on the galactic supernova frequency and on the distance up to which a supernova explosion will produce lethal effects upon terrestrial life. In the present note it will be assumed that a killer supernova has to occur so close to Earth that it will be embedded in a young, active, supernova remnant. Such young remnants typically have radii approximately less than 3 pc (1 x 10(exp 19) cm). Larger (more pessimistic?) killer radii have been adopted by Ruderman, Romig, and by Ellis and Schramm. From observations of historical supernovae, van den Bergh finds that core-collapse (types Ib and II) supernovae occur within 4 kpc of the Sun at a rate of 0.2 plus or minus 0.1 per century. Adopting a layer thickness of 0.3 kpc for the galacitc disk, this corresponds to a rate of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp -4) supernovae pc(exp -3) g.y.(exp -1). Including supernovae of type Ia will increase the total supernovae rate to approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4) supernovae pc(exp -3) g.y.(exp -1). For a lethal radius of R pc the rate of killer events will therefore be 1.7 (R/3)(exp 3) x 10(exp -2) supernovae per g.y. However, a frequency of a few extinctions per g.y. is required to account for the extinctions observed during the phanerozoic. With R (extinction) approximately 3 pc, the galactic supernova frequency is therefore too low by 2 orders of magnitude to account for the major extinctions in the geological record.

  16. Infrared imaging and polarimetric observations of the pulsar wind nebula in SNR G21.5-0.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajczyk, A.; Gallant, Y. A.; Slane, P.; Reynolds, S. P.; Bandiera, R.; Gouiffès, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Comerón, F.; Koch Miramond, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present infrared observations of the supernova remnant G21.5-0.9 with the Very Large Telescope, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Using the VLT/ISAAC camera equipped with a narrow-band [Fe II] 1.64 μm filter the entire pulsar wind nebula in SNR G21.5-0.9 was imaged. This led to detection of iron line-emitting material in the shape of a broken ring-like structure following the nebula's edge. The detected emission is limb-brightened. We also detect the compact nebula surrounding PSR J1833-1034, both through imaging with the CFHT/AOB-KIR instrument (K' band) and the IRAC camera (all bands) and also through polarimetric observations performed with VLT/ISAAC (Ks band). The emission from the compact nebula is highly polarised with an average value of the linear polarisation fraction PL^avg ≃ 0.47, and the swing of the electric vector across the nebula can be observed. The infrared spectrum of the compact nebula can be described as a power law of index αIR = 0.7 ± 0.3, and suggests that the spectrum flattens between the infrared and X-ray bands.

  17. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the

  18. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis

  19. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  20. The Eagle Nebula unveiled by the MIPSGAL survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagey, N.; Boulanger, F.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S.; Mizuno, D.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of structured diffuse infrared emission in MIPSGAL 24 μm Spitzer images of the Eagle Nebula that fills the wind-blown cavity of this massive star forming region. We combine the Spitzer data with ISO and MSX observations to present a spectral energy distribution of this emission. The SED peaks at 24 μm and is fit by emission from silicates and/or graphite grains at ˜90 K. We show that the emission cannot be powered by the NGC 6611 cluster radiation or winds. The spatial extent, the dust temperature and the infrared brightness can all be accounted for by collisional heating of interstellar dust swept by a supernova explosion.

  1. Imaging Polarimetry of Protoplanetary and Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarrott, S. M.; Scarrott, R. M. J.

    1995-11-01

    Imaging polarimetry maps are presented for a sample of bipolar proto-planetary and planetary nebulae (Frosty Leo, Roberts 22, Hen 401, MZ 3, NGC 2346, IC 4406 and J 320). Each of the highly polarized proto-planetary nebulae possesses a `polarization disc' which has been observed more frequently in nebulae associated with star forming regions. In order to account for the observed high levels of polarization in protoplanetary nebulae we consider the effects of a thin coating of a volatile material on refractory grains with an original size distribution typical of the interstellar medium. The planetary nebulae are seen in a mixture of reflected and emission light and their polarization patterns suggest that, in many instances, they are emission nebulae surrounded by an extensive envelope of reflection nebulosity. The origin of the skew-symmetry and ansae in the isophotal maps of proto-planetary and planetary nebulae are discussed in terms of binary stars and magnetic fields.

  2. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  3. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  4. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  5. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  6. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  7. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  8. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  9. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  10. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  11. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  12. Supernova 1987A: a Template to Link Supernovae to Their Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Bocchino, F.

    2015-09-01

    The emission of supernova remnants (SNRs) reflects the properties of both the progenitor supernovae (SNe) and the surrounding environment. The complex morphology of the remnants, however, hampers the disentanglement of the two contributions. Here, we aim at identifying the imprint of SN 1987A on the X-ray emission of its remnant and at constraining the structure of the environment surrounding the SN. We performed high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations describing SN 1987A soon after the core-collapse and the following three-dimensional expansion of its remnant between days 1 and 15,000 after the SN. We demonstrated that the physical model reproducing the main observables of SN 1987A during the first 250 days of evolution also reproduces the X-ray emission of the subsequent expanding remnant, thus bridging the gap between SNe and SNRs. By comparing model results with observations, we constrained the explosion energy in the range 1.2–1.4 × 1051 erg and the envelope mass in the range 15–17 M ⊙. We found that the shape of X-ray lightcurves and spectra at early epochs (<15 years) reflects the structure of outer ejecta: our model reproduces the observations if the outermost ejecta have a post-explosion radial profile of density approximated by a power law with index α = ‑8. At later epochs, the shapes of X-ray lightcurves and spectra reflect the density structure of the nebula around SN 1987A. This enabled us to ascertain the origin of the multi-thermal X-ray emission, disentangle the imprint of the SN on the remnant emission from the effects of the remnant interaction with the environment, and constrain the pre-supernova structure of the nebula.

  13. The Lighthouse nebula: a run-away pulsar, its PWN, jets and parent SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, L.; Bordas, P.; Puhlhofer, G.; et al.

    2016-06-01

    Some 10-20 kyr ago a pulsar was born from a core collapse event, receiving right away a strong kick. Nowadays this pulsar is powering the Lighthouse Nebula (IGR J11014-6103): a complex system of outflows comprising the bow-shock PWN, and two well collimated jets extending perpendicularly to the pulsar's direction of motion. Whereas sharing some clear commonalities with the well known Guitar Nebula, the Lighthouse nebula is the only such system where the parent supernova remnant is well visible and bright in X-rays. I will describe the results from our recent Chandra X-ray campaign, and follow-up optical and radio observations, analyse the properties of the PWN, and possible interpretations on the nature of the long helicoidal jets and of the other outflows that we identified. I will also discuss the link between this system and its parent supernova remnant MSH 11-61A, which could help shedding a light on the processes that give birth to such peculiar systems.

  14. Atomic and molecular supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Weihong

    1997-01-01

    Atomic and molecular physics of supernovae is discussed with an emphasis on the importance of detailed treatments of the critical atomic and molecular processes with the best available atomic and molecular data. The observations of molecules in SN 1987A are interpreted through a combination of spectral and chemical modelings, leading to strong constraints on the mixing and nucleosynthesis of the supernova. The non-equilibrium chemistry is used to argue that carbon dust can form in the oxygen-rich clumps where the efficient molecular cooling makes the nucleation of dust grains possible. For Type Ia supernovae, the analyses of their nebular spectra lead to strong constraints on the supernova explosion models.

  15. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on:(1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  16. Optical Spectrum of Main-, Inter-, and Off-Pulse Emission from the Crab Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carramiñana, Alberto; Čadež, Andrej; Zwitter, Tomaž

    2000-10-01

    A dedicated stroboscopic device was used to obtain optical spectra of the Crab pulsar main pulse and interpulse as well as the spectrum of the underlying nebula when the pulsar is turned off. Since the nebular emission is very inhomogeneous, our ability to effectively subtract the nebular background signal is crucial. No spectral lines intrinsic to the pulsar are detected. The main pulse and the interpulse behave as power laws, both with the same dereddened index α=+0.2+/-0.1. This value was obtained by subtracting the nebular spectrum at the exact position of the pulsar. The underlying nebula is redder, α=-0.4+/-0.1. Its emission lines are split into approaching (~-1200 km s-1) and receding (~+600 km s-1) components. The strength of the emission line components and the flux in the nebular continuum vary on an arcsecond scale. The nebular line and continuum intensities along the north-south slit are given.

  17. WHO PULLED THE TRIGGER: A SUPERNOVA OR AN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed

    2010-07-01

    The short-lived radioisotope (SLRI) {sup 60}Fe requires production in a core collapse supernova or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star immediately before its incorporation into the earliest solar system solids. Shock waves from a somewhat distant supernova, or a relatively nearby AGB star, have the right speeds to simultaneously trigger the collapse of a dense molecular cloud core and to inject shock wave material into the resulting protostar. A new set of FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic models shows that the injection efficiency depends sensitively on the assumed shock thickness and density. Supernova shock waves appear to be thin enough to inject the amount of shock wave material necessary to match the SLRI abundances measured for primitive meteorites. Planetary nebula shock waves from AGB stars, however, appear to be too thick to achieve the required injection efficiencies. These models imply that a supernova pulled the trigger that led to the formation of our solar system.

  18. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to Electron Cloud and Global Crabbing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Cai, Y.; /SLAC

    2008-08-01

    Crab cavities may be used improve the luminosity in colliding beam colliders with crab crossing. In a global crab crossing correction, only one crab cavity is installed in each ring and the crab cavities generate a horizontally titled bunch oscillating around the ring. The electron cloud in positively charged rings may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This paper briefly estimates the distortion of positron bunch due to the electron cloud with global crab and estimates the effect in the KEKB and possible LHC upgrades.

  19. The long helical jet of the Lighthouse nebula, IGR J11014-6103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, L.; Bordas, P.; Pühlhofer, G.; Filipović, M. D.; De Horta, A.; O'Brien, A.; Balbo, M.; Walter, R.; Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Crawford, E.; Stella, L.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Jets from rotation-powered pulsars so far have only been observed in systems moving subsonically through their ambient medium and/or embedded in their progenitor supernova remnant (SNR). Supersonic runaway pulsars are also expected to produce jets, but they have not been confirmed to so far. Aims: We investigated the nature of the jet-like structure associated with the INTEGRAL source IGR J11014-6103 (the "Lighthouse nebula"). The source is a neutron star escaping its parent SNR MSH 11-61A supersonically at a velocity exceeding 1000 km s-1. Methods: We observed the Lighthouse nebula and its jet-like X-ray structure through dedicated high spatial resolution observations in X-rays (with Chandra) and in the radio band (with ATCA). Results: Our results show that the feature is a true pulsar's jet. It extends highly collimated over ≳11pc, displays a clear precession-like modulation, and propagates nearly perpendicular to the system direction of motion, implying that the neutron star's spin axis in IGR J11014-6103 is almost perpendicular to the direction of the kick received during the supernova explosion. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that jets are common to rotation-powered pulsars, and demonstrate that supernovae can impart high kick velocities to misaligned spinning neutron stars, possibly through distinct, exotic, core-collapse mechanisms.

  20. Minkowski, Rudolph Leo Bernhard (1895-1976)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Strassburg, Germany, worked on atomic spectroscopy at Hamburg and had to flee the Nazi persecution, joined WALTER BAADE on the Mount Wilson Observatory staff, where he began to apply spectroscopy to astronomy. He investigated nebulae, including supernova remnants, especially the Crab nebula. He classified supernovae into Types I and II, leading to their identification as two similar implo...

  1. Chandra Imaging of the X-Ray Nebula Powered by Pulsar B1509-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaensler, B. M.; Arons, J.; Kaspi, V. M.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Kawai, N.; Tamura, K.

    2002-01-01

    We present observations with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) powered by the energetic young pulsar B1509-58. These data confirm the complicated morphology of the system indicated by previous observations, and in addition reveal several new components to the nebula. The overall PWN shows a clear symmetry axis oriented at a position angle 150" +- 5" (north through east), which we argue corresponds to the pulsar spin axis. We show that a previously identified radio feature matches well with the overall extent of the X-ray PWN, and propose the former as the long-sought radio nebula powered by the pulsar. We further identify a bright collimated feature, at least 4' long, lying along the nebula's main symmetry axis; we interpret this feature as a physical outflow from the pulsar, and infer a velocity for this jet of greater than 0.2c. The lack of any observed counterjet implies that the pulsar spin axis is inclined at -30" to the line of sight, contrary to previous estimates made from lower resolution data. We also identify a variety of compact features close to the pulsar. A pair of semicircular X-ray arcs lie 17" and 30" to the north of the pulsar; the latter arc shows a highly polarized radio counterpart. We show that these features can be interpreted as ion compression wisps in a particle-dominated equatorial flow, and use their properties to infer a ratio of electromagnetic to particle energy in pairs at the wind shock 0.005, similar to that seen in the Crab Nebula. We further identify several compact knots seen very close to the pulsar; we use these to infer cr < 0.003 at a separation from the pulsar of 0.1 pc.

  2. A Compact Central Object in the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, F. D.; Slane, P. O.; Smith, R. K.; Sun, M.

    2003-02-01

    A Chandra X-ray observation has detected an unresolved source at the center of the supernova remnant Kes 79. The best single-model fit to the source spectrum is a blackbody with an X-ray luminosity of LX(0.3-8.0keV)=7×1033 ergs s-1. There is no evidence for a surrounding pulsar wind nebula. There are no cataloged counterparts at other wavelengths, but the absorption is high. The source properties are similar to the central source in Cas A even though the Kes 79 remnant is considerably older.

  3. The planetary nebula NGC 6826

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Monochromatic photographs have established the NGC 6826 nebula as the third member of a group of very rare triple-shell planetaries (Feibelman, 1971, 1974). Kaler (1974) also characterized NGC 6826 as a giant halo planetary. Numerous errors and confusing statements regarding its size, structure and stratification are discussed, and the correct dimensions of the nebula are reported: the inner ring is 12.7 arcsec x 8.7 arcsec (Feibelman, 1971); the outer ring is 27 arcsec x 24 arcsec according to Curtis (1918), 25.7 arcsec x 24.4 arcsec according to Feibelman (1971), and 36 arcsec x 36 arcsec according to Coleman et al. (1975). The halo measurements range in diameter from 110 arcsec (Duncan, 1937) to 130 arcsec (Kaler, 1974) to 142 arcsec (Millikan, 1974). Values for the distance of NGC 6826 range from 0.75-1.16 kpc (Cahn and Kaler, 1971) to 2.265 kpc (Cudworth, 1974).

  4. Light echoes - supernovae 1987A and 1986G

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1987-12-01

    The sudden brilliance of a supernova (SN) eruption will be reflected on surrounding dust grains to create a phantom nebula. The paper presents a series of calculations in which the apparent brightness of this light echo is predicted for a variety of situations where the dust is part of the interstellar medium (ISM). It is found that the supernova 1987 A will have a very bright echo off the ISM that may perhaps be visible with binoculars for many years. At a time of 400 days past maximum, the SN 1986G is found to be 2.7 mag brighter than would be predicted by an extrapolation of its light curve. This unique property has an easy explanation as a light echo off the dust in the dust lane of Cen A. 24 references.

  5. The western Veil nebula (Image)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenny, M.

    2009-12-01

    The western Veil nebula in Cygnus. 15-part mosaic by Mike Glenny, Gloucestershire, taken over several months mostly in the autumn of 2008. 200mm LX90/f10 autoguided, Meade UHC filter, 0.3xFR/FF, Canon 20Da DSLR. Exposures each typically 10x360 secs at ISO1600, processed in Registax4, PixInsight (for flat field correction) & Photoshop CS.

  6. The Orion nebula star cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Photography through filters which suppress nebular light reveal a clustering of faint red stars centered on the Trapezium, this evidences a distinct cluster within the larger OB1 association. Stars within about 20 ft of trapezium comprise the Orion Nebula star cluster are considered. Topics discussed re: (1) extinction by dust grains; (2) photometric peculiarities; (3) spectroscopic peculiarities; (4) young variables; (5) the distribution and motion of gas within the cluster.

  7. Birth and early evolution of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    2000-06-01

    Birth and early evolution of planetary nebulae is described. The study of the young planetary nebula Hen 1357 (Stingray Nebula) with HST is discussed. The observed characteristics of few interesting PPNe and PNe are described. The presence of multiple arcs or rings, knots, jets, collimated and bipolar out flows and disks shows the complex nature of mass loss process during the AGB and post-AGB phases of evolution.

  8. Lyman Alpha Photochemistry in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the project "Lyman Alpha Photochemistry in the Solar Nebula" was to model photochemistry in the primitive solar nebula and the early solar systems. As part of the modeling, it was necessary to model the composition of the gas and dust accreted by the solar nebula. This final report contains a list of publications where the results of this project have been published.

  9. Are Crab nanoshots Schwinger sparks?

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, Albert; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-05-21

    The highest brightness temperature ever observed are from "nanoshots" from the Crab pulsar which we argue could be the signature of bursts of vacuum e± pair production. If so this would be the first time the astronomical Schwinger effect has been observed. These "Schwinger sparks" would be an intermittent but extremely powerful, ~103 L, 10 PeV e± accelerator in the heart of the Crab. These nanosecond duration sparks are generated in a volume less than 1 m3 and the existence of such sparks has implications for the small scale structure of the magnetic field of young pulsars such as the Crab. As a result, this mechanism may also play a role in producing other enigmatic bright short radio transients such as fast radio bursts.

  10. Multipolar structures in planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, S.

    2002-12-01

    In addition to the main nebular shells, planetary nebulae (PNe) are now known to possess secondary shell structures called crowns and haloes. These structures can be satisfactorily explained by coupled dynamical and stellar evolutionary models based on the interacting winds scenario. By introducing time-variability in the fast wind, these models also have some success in accounting for other microsctructures such as jets and FLIERs. A more surprising development has been the discovery of multipolar structures in PNe. A number of bipolar nebulae have been found to have 2 or 3 bipolar axes, sometimes superimposed with multiple 2-dimensional rings and concentric circular arcs. The existence of these features suggests that the fast wind may be changing in direction in addition to varying in magnitude. In this paper, we will summarize the current observations of multipolar nebulae and discuss their possible origins. This work is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and by a Killam Fellowship from the Canada Council for the Arts.

  11. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-05-23

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  12. Abundances of Planetary Nebula NGC 5315

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Beintema, D. A.; Koorneef, J.; Salas, J. Bernard; Feibelman, W. A.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebula NGC 5315 is presented. These spectra axe combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to previous determinations. The HST Nicmos observations of the nebula in 3 emission lines are also presented. These observations are used to determine the helium abundance as a function of position in the nebula. A discussion is given of possible evolutionary effects.

  13. HUBBLE PINPOINTS DISTANT SUPERNOVAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Hubble Space Telescope images pinpoint three distant supernovae, which exploded and died billions of years ago. Scientists are using these faraway light sources to estimate if the universe was expanding at a faster rate long ago and is now slowing down. Images of SN 1997cj are in the left hand column; SN 1997ce, in the middle; and SN 1997ck, on the right. All images were taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The top row of images are wider views of the supernovae. The supernovae were discovered in April 1997 in a ground-based survey at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Once the supernovae were discovered, the Hubble telescope was used to distinguish the supernovae from the light of their host galaxies. A series of Hubble telescope images were taken in May and June 1997 as the supernovae faded. Six Hubble telescope observations spanning five weeks were taken for each supernova. This time series enabled scientists to measure the brightness and create a light curve. Scientists then used the light curve to make an accurate estimate of the distances to the supernovae. Scientists combined the estimated distance with the measured velocity of the supernova's host galaxy to determine the expansion rate of the universe in the past (5 to 7 billion years ago) and compare it with the current rate. These supernovae belong to a class called Type Ia, which are considered reliable distance indicators. Looking at great distances also means looking back in time because of the finite velocity of light. SN 1997ck exploded when the universe was half its present age. It is the most distant supernova ever discovered (at a redshift of 0.97), erupting 7.7 billion years ago. The two other supernovae exploded about 5 billion years ago. SN 1997ce has a redshift of 0.44; SN 1997cj, 0.50. SN 1997ck is in the constellation Hercules, SN 1997ce is in Lynx, just north of Gemini; and SN 1997cj is in Ursa Major, near the Hubble Deep Field

  14. FERMI-LAT SEARCH FOR PULSAR WIND NEBULAE AROUND GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    The high sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) offers the first opportunity to study faint and extended GeV sources such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). After one year of observation the LAT detected and identified three PWNe: the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and the PWN inside MSH 15-52. In the meantime, the list of LAT detected pulsars increased steadily. These pulsars are characterized by high energy loss rates ( E-dot ) from {approx}3 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} to 5 x 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} and are therefore likely to power a PWN. This paper summarizes the search for PWNe in the off-pulse windows of 54 LAT-detected pulsars using 16 months of survey observations. Ten sources show significant emission, seven of these likely being of magnetospheric origin. The detection of significant emission in the off-pulse interval offers new constraints on the {gamma}-ray emitting regions in pulsar magnetospheres. The three other sources with significant emission are the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and a new PWN candidate associated with the LAT pulsar PSR J1023-5746, coincident with the TeV source HESS J1023-575. We further explore the association between the HESS and the Fermi source by modeling its spectral energy distribution. Flux upper limits derived for the 44 remaining sources are used to provide new constraints on famous PWNe that have been detected at keV and/or TeV energies.

  15. Constraints on particle acceleration sites in PWNe from multi-wavelength variability in the inner nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Elena; Del Zanna, Luca; Olmi, Barbara; Bucciantini, Niccolo'

    It is a commonly accepted idea that most of the emission properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae can be well reproduced within a MHD description of the dynamics of the pulsar wind, granted that the anisotropy of the outflow in terms of its energy flux is taken into account. Much of the structure observed in the high energy morphology of PWNe derives from shape of the termination shock, which is far from spherical and of different strength, magnetization and obliquity at different latitudes above and below the equatorial plane of the pulsar rotation. The wind termination shock is usually believed to be the primary particle acceleraton site in PWNe, although there is no general consensus on what the acceleration mechanism(s) at work is(are). Given the variation of the shock properties along its surface, it is reasonable to think that different acceleration processes might be at work in different places and accelerate particles in a different energy range or with a different spectrum. We investigate this possibility through 2D MHD simulations of the nebular dynamics and emission. In particular we study the dependence on the assumed acceleration site of the variability patterns that are found at different wavelengths in the inner region of the nebulae. Our results are compared with observations of "wisp" activity in the Crab Nebula at radio, optical and X-ray frequencies.

  16. A Magnetar Wind Nebula: the Spin-down-Powered Wind is not Enough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan; Baring, Matthew G.; Gelfand, Joseph; Younes, George A.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Kust Harding, Alice; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Magnetars are a small class of slowly-rotating (P~2-12 s) highly magnetized (surface dipole fields ~10^{14}-10^{15} G) that show a variety of bursting activity, powered by the decay of their super-strong magnetic field. While many rotation-powered pulsars are surrounded by a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) powered by their spin-down MHD wind (the prime example being the Crab nebula), only now has the first magnetar wind nebula (MWN) been discovered in X-rays, around Swift J1834.9-0846. We have analyzed this system in detail to see what can be learned from it. We find good evidence that unlike normal PWNe, this MWN cannot be powered by its spin-down MHD wind alone. A considerable contribution to the MWN energy should come from a different source, most likely sporadic outflows associated with the magnetar's bursting activity. This suggests that the MWN may serve as a calorimeter, and provide a new and robust estimate for the magnetar's long-term mean energy output rate in outflows. We also discuss other interesting aspects of this system.

  17. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  18. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  19. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  20. 50 CFR 253.30 - Crab IFQ loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 CFR Part 680, Table 8; and (4) Who, at the time of initial application, meets all other applicable... Island (BSAI) King and Tanner Crab. (2) Crab FMP means the Fishery Management Plan for BSAI King and Tanner Crab. (3) Crab quota share means a BSAI King and Tanner Crab permit, the base amount of which...

  1. Neutrino Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshio; Chiba, Satoshi; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Keiichi; Takamura, Akira; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    2009-05-04

    Neutrino nucleosynthesis is an important synthesis process for light elements in supernovae. One important physics input of neutrino nucleosynthesis is cross sections of neutrino-nucleus reactions. The cross sections of neutrino-{sup 12}C and {sup 4}He reactions are derived using new shell model Hamiltonians. With the new cross sections, light element synthesis of a supernova is investigated. The appropriate range of the neutrino temperature for supernovae is constrained to be between 4.3 MeV and 6.5 MeV from the {sup 11}B abundance in Galactic chemical evolution. Effects by neutrino oscillations are also discussed.

  2. Chronology of star formation and disk evolution in the Eagle Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarcello, M. G.; Micela, G.; Peres, G.; Prisinzano, L.; Sciortino, S.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Massive star-forming regions are characterized by intense ionizing fluxes, strong stellar winds and, occasionally, supernovae explosions, all of which have important effects on the surrounding media, on the star-formation process and on the evolution of young stars and their circumstellar disks. We present a multiband study of the massive young cluster NGC 6611 and its parental cloud (the Eagle Nebula) with the aim of studying how OB stars affect the early stellar evolution and the formation of other stars. Aims: We search for evidence of triggering of star formation by the massive stars inside NGC 6611 on a large spatial scale (~10 parsec) and ongoing disk photoevaporation in NGC 6611 and how its efficiency depends on the mass of the central stars. Methods: We assemble a multiband catalog of the Eagle Nebula with photometric data, ranging from B band to 8.0 μm, and X-ray data obtained with two new and one archival Chandra/ACIS-I observation. We select the stars with disks from infrared photometry and disk-less ones from X-ray emission, which are associated both with NGC 6611 and the outer region of the Eagle Nebula. We study induced photoevaporation searching for the spatial variation of disk frequency for distinct stellar mass ranges. The triggering of star formation by OB stars has been investigated by deriving the history of star formation across the nebula. Results: We find evidence of sequential star formation in the Eagle Nebula going from the southeast (2.6 Myears) to the northwest (0.3 Myears), with the median age of NGC 6611 members ~1 Myear. In NGC 6611, we observe a drop of the disk frequency close to massive stars (up to an average distance of 1 parsec), without observable effects at larger distances. Furthermore, disks are more frequent around low-mass stars (≤ 1 M⊙) than around high-mass stars, regardless of the distance from OB stars. Conclusions: The star-formation chronology we find in the Eagle Nebula does not support the hypothesis

  3. Three Dimensional Study of the Interaction of Supernova Ejecta with a Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, Beatrice

    2008-03-01

    Recent isotopic analysis of chondrites shows evidence for live 60Fe in the early Solar System. Only supernovae can produce this short-lived radionuclide, indicating that our Solar System formed in such proximity. Observations of the Orion Nebula, the Eta Carina Nebula and the Eagle Nebula show that young protoplanetary disks, in the stage of forming solids, exist in the vicinity of OB stars. Confirming that our Solar System was subjected to supernova ejecta requires proving that protoplanetary disks can survive the event. A first step has already been carried out by our research group using a two dimensional axisymmetric model. For the following step, we have developed a three dimensional model of protoplanetary disk that allows us to study, as the function of the ejecta incidence and the mass of the disk, the capture of supernova material and the stripping induced by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. I will be presenting that model, the computational implication of such work, as well as preliminary results.

  4. Physics of Rotation Powered Pulsars and Their Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arons, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    This letter is my progress report for the Astrophysics Theory grant. The first goal of the research supported by this grant is to produce a time dependent theory of the unsteady relativistic collisionless shock wave terminating the relativistic wind from a pulsar, and compare the predicted surface brightness fluctuations to Hubble Space Telescope observations of the wisps in the Crab Nebula. The second goal is to model the production of electron-positron pairs over the polar caps of rotation powered pulsars, and use the results to predict the heating of the surface due to particle trapping and bombardment of the atmosphere at the base of the polar field lines. We have succeeded in creating a one dimensional hybrid code, in which the electron-positron pairs incident on the shock structure are modeled as a relativistic, adiabatic, ideal MHD fluid, while the heavy ions are treated as particles using a particle-in-cell algorithm. The electromagnetic fields are evaluated from the currents and charge densities in the pairs and the ions, while the particles and the fluid accelerate in response to the computed self-consistent electromagnetic fields. The results are promising, in that the underlying ion cyclotron instability generates finite amplitude, propagating magnetosonic waves in the pairs, whose wavelengths and frequencies, when translated into physical units, are comparable to the observed running waves of brightness observed by HST near the Crab pulsar. The code is undergoing a number of tests, to assure us that this preliminary correspondence is not an artifact. In the coming year, the observational appearance of the models will be computed and compared to the HST observations of the Crab now in hand, and used to predict the HST results which will be obtained the year after next. WE also developed a one dimensional cascade theory for pair creation over pulsars' polar caps. A linear integral equation describing the synchrotron cascade has been derived and solved by

  5. Owl Nebula (M97, NGC 3587)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A planetary nebula in the constellation Ursa Major, position RA 11 h 14.8 m, dec. +55° 01'. The Owl is 3' across and gets its name from two adjacent dark patches that have the appearance of large eyes. The nebula is eleventh magnitude, and the central star is a faint magnitude 16....

  6. Trifid Nebula (M20, NGC 6514)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    An emission nebula in the constellation Sagittarius, position RA 18 h 02.6 m, dec. -23° 02'. It is of ninth magnitude, with quite a high surface brightness, and measures 29' by 27'. It surrounds the multiple star HN 40, the light of whose brightest members energize the nebula. The Trifid gets its name from dark lanes that trisect it....

  7. Using Planetary Nebulae to Teach Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwitter, Karen B.

    2011-05-01

    We have developed an interactive website, "Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra," (www.williams.edu/Astronomy/research/PN/nebulae/) that contains high-quality optical-to-near-infrared spectra, atlas information, and bibliographic references for more than 160 planetary nebulae that we have observed in the Milky Way Galaxy. To make the material more accessible to students, I have created three undergraduate-level exercises that explore physics-related aspects of planetary nebulae. "Emission Lines and Central Star Temperature” uses the presence or absence of emission lines from species with different ionization potentials to rank the temperatures of the exciting stars in a selection of nebulae. "Interstellar Reddening” uses the observed Balmer decrement in a sample of planetary nebulae at different Galactic latitudes to infer the distribution of interstellar dust in the Milky Way. Finally, "Determining the Gas Density in Planetary Nebulae,” which I will focus on here, uses the observed intensity ratio of the 6717 Å and 6731 Å emission lines from singly ionized sulfur to determine the electron density in the nebular gas. These exercises demonstrate that planetary nebula spectra are useful real-world examples illustrating a variety of physical principles, including the behavior of blackbodies, wavelength-dependent particle scattering, recombination-line ratios, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics.

  8. Berkeley automated supernova search

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

  9. Automated search for supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.

    1984-11-15

    This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion.

  10. Nucleosynthesis in Thermonuclear Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Claudia, Travaglio; Hix, William Raphael

    2013-01-01

    We review our understanding of the nucleosynthesis that occurs in thermonuclear supernovae and their contribution to Galactic Chemical evolution. We discuss the prospects to improve the modeling of the nucleosynthesis within simulations of these events.

  11. The Historical Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1982-11-01

    A survey was made of pretelescopic astronomical records from Europe, China, Korea, Japan, Babylon, and the Arab countries to search for historical evidence of supernovae. A Roman, Claudian, reported a new star in 393 AD, the same year that Chinese astronomers noted a new star, together with its location and duration. Most European records were made in monasteries after 1000 AD, and one supernova was sighted in 1006 AD. A similar sighting was made in the Arab world at the same time. A total of twenty candidate events were found in the nearly 2000 yr of Chinese records. An analysis of the recorded events characteristics indicates that in 185, 393, 1006, 1054, 1181, 1572, and 1604 AD supernovae were seen. The 1054 AD explosion was corroborated by Arab records, while all others (except for the 393 AD and 1006 AD supernovae) were confined to Oriental observations.

  12. Handbook of Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Since the discovery of pulsars in 1967, few celestial phenomena have fascinated amateur and professional astronomers, and the public, more than supernovae - dying stars that explode spectacularly and, in so doing, may outshine a whole galaxy. Thousands of research papers, reviews, monographs and books have been published on this subject. These publications are often written either for a highly specific level of expertise or education, or with respect to a particular aspect of supernovae research. However, the study of supernovae is a very broad topic involving many integral yet connected aspects, including physics, mathematics, computation, history, theoretical studies and observation. More specifically, areas of study include historical supernovae, the different types and light curves, nucleosynthesis, explosion mechanisms, formation of black holes, neutron stars, cosmic rays, neutrinos and gravitational waves. Related questions include how supernovae remnants interact with interstellar matter nearby and how do these events affect the formation of new stars or planetary systems? Could they affect existing planetary systems? Closer to home, did any supernovae affect life on earth in the past or could they do so in the future? And on the larger scale, how did supernovae observations help measure the size and expansion of the universe? All these topics, and more, are to be covered in a new reference work, consisting of more than 100 articles and more than 1700 pages. It is intended to cover all the main facets of current supernovae research. It will be pitched at or above the level of a new postgraduate student, who will have successfully studied physics (or a similar scientific subject) to Bachelor degree level. It will be available in both print and electronic (updatable) formats, with the exception of the first section, which will consist of a review of all the topics of the handbook at a level that allows anyone with basic scientific knowledge to grasp the

  13. Physics of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-12-13

    Presupernova models of massive stars are presented and their explosion by ''delayed neutrino transport'' examined. A new form of long duration Type II supernova model is also explored based upon repeated encounter with the electron-positron pair instability in stars heavier than about 60 Msub solar. Carbon deflagration in white dwarfs is discussed as the probable explanation of Type I supernovae and special attention is paid to the physical processes whereby a nuclear flame propagates through degenerate carbon. 89 refs., 12 figs.

  14. A model of Jupiter's sulfur nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    A simple model of Jupiter's S II emission nebula is developed on the basis of a complete treatment of electron-impact excitation of sulfur ions. Forbidden line emission from S II ions excited by electron collisions in the Jovian nebula is analyzed, and existing observations are interpreted using a simple model of an S II nebula which is uniform in depth. The results show that the depth of the nebula is 300,000 to 600,000 km, the electron density is about 3160 per cu cm, the electron temperature is approximately 25,000 K, and the S II concentration is roughly 79 ions per cu cm. It is noted that these plasma conditions are quite different from those reported for the same region on the basis of Pioneer 10 data, indicating that the S II nebula is a sporadic event. Io is suggested as the source of the sulfur.

  15. A Smoking Gun in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Townsley, Leisa; Broos, Patrick; Gruendl, Robert; Vaidya, Kaushar; White, Stephen M.; Petre, Rob; Chu, You-Hua

    2009-01-01

    The Carina Nebula is one of thc youngest, most active sites of massive star formation in our Galaxy. In this nebula, we have discovered a bright X-ray source that has persisted for approx.30 years. The soft X-ray spectrum. consistent with kT approx.130 eV blackbody radiation with mild extinction, and no counterpart in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths indicate that it is a, approx. 10(exp 6)-year-old neutron star housed in the Carina Nebula. Current star formation theory does not suggest that the progenitor of the neutron star and massive stars in the Carina Nebula, in particular (eta)Car, are coeval. This result demonstrates that the Carina Nebula experienced at least two major episodes of massive star formation. The neutron star would be responsible for remnants of high energy activity seen in multiple wavelengths.

  16. A Smoking Gun in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Townsley, Leisa; Broos, Patrick; Gruendl, Robert; Vaidya, Kaushar; White, Stephen M.; Strohmayer, Tod; Petre, Rob; Chu, You-Hua

    2009-04-01

    The Carina Nebula is one of the youngest, most active sites of massive star formation in our Galaxy. In this nebula, we have discovered a bright X-ray source that has persisted for ~30 years. The soft X-ray spectrum, consistent with kT ~ 128 eV blackbody radiation with mild extinction, and no counterpart in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths indicates that it is a ~106 year old neutron star housed in the Carina Nebula. Current star formation theory does not suggest that the progenitors of the neutron star and massive stars in the Carina Nebula, in particular η Car, are coeval. This result suggests that the Carina Nebula experienced at least two major episodes of massive star formation. The neutron star may be responsible for remnants of high-energy activity seen in multiple wavelengths.

  17. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  18. Observing Supernovae and Supernova Remnants with JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George; Temim, Tea; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable near- and mid-infrared studies of supernovae (SN) and supernova remnants (SNR) in the Milky Way and galaxies throughout the local universe and to high redshift. JWST's instrumentation provides imaging, coronography, and spectroscopy (R<3000) over the wavelength range 1-29 microns. The unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution will enable spectroscopic study of new and recent supernovae, including molecule and dust formation, in galaxies at least out to 30 Mpc, and imaging to much greater distances. The Target of Opportunity response time can be as short as 48 hours, enabling quick follow-up observations of important SN events. JWST will be ideal for the study of Galactic and Magellanic Clouds supernova remnants, particularly young remnants with hot dust. Its high angular resolution (0.07" at 2 microns, 0.7" at 20 microns) will allow direct comparison between the IR, optical, and X-ray morphologies, identifying sites of dust emission in both the ejecta and the shocked ISM unresolved by previous IR telescopes. There is a rich spectrum of atomic lines (H, He I, [Si I], [Fe II], [Ni I-III], [Co II-III], [S III-IV], [Ar II-III], [Ne II, III, V], [O IV]) and molecules (CO, SiO, H2) of importance for SN and SNR studies. JWST is a large aperture (6.5m), cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018. The JWST observatory will be placed in an Earth-Sun L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5-year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations. The first call for proposals for JWST observations will be released in 2017.

  19. PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  20. Progenitors of Recombining Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  1. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fisheries for any... Bristol Bay red king crab (BBR) 3 years of the 3-year QS base period beginning on: (1... king crab (EAG) 4 years of the 4-year base period beginning on: (1) September 1, 1996 through December... Bristol Bay red king crab fishery during the qualifying years established for that fishery....

  2. Science on NIF Eagle Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    For over fifteen years astronomers at the University of Maryland and scientists at LLNL have investigated the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. Eagle Nebula is one of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Science programs, and has been awarded two days of NIF shots to study the cometary model of pillar formation. The NIF shots will feature a new long-duration x-ray source prototyped at the Omega EP laser, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 ns each to create a 30 ns output x-ray pulse. The drive generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, which consists of a dense layered plastic and foam core embedded in lower-density background foam. The scaled Omega EP shots validated the multi-hohlraum concept, showing that earlier time hohlraums do not degrade later time hohlraums by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect the later beams. The Omega EP shots illuminated three 2.8 mm long by 1.4 mm diameter Cu hohlraums with 4.3 kJ per hohlraum. At NIF each hohlraum will be 4 mm long by 3 mm in diameter and will be driven with 80-100 kJ. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. TIME-DEPENDENT MODELING OF PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Vorster, M. J.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Tibolla, O.; Kaufmann, S. E-mail: omar.tibolla@gmail.com

    2013-08-20

    A spatially independent model that calculates the time evolution of the electron spectrum in a spherically expanding pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is presented, allowing one to make broadband predictions for the PWN's non-thermal radiation. The source spectrum of electrons injected at the termination shock of the PWN is chosen to be a broken power law. In contrast to previous PWN models of a similar nature, the source spectrum has a discontinuity in intensity at the transition between the low- and high-energy components. To test the model, it is applied to the young PWN G21.5-0.9, where it is found that a discontinuous source spectrum can model the emission at all wavelengths better than a continuous one. The model is also applied to the unidentified sources HESS J1427-608 and HESS J1507-622. Parameters are derived for these two candidate nebulae that are consistent with the values predicted for other PWNe. For HESS J1427-608, a present day magnetic field of B{sub age} = 0.4 {mu}G is derived. As a result of the small present day magnetic field, this source has a low synchrotron luminosity, while remaining bright at GeV/TeV energies. It is therefore possible to interpret HESS J1427-608 within the ancient PWN scenario. For the second candidate PWN HESS J1507-622, a present day magnetic field of B{sub age} = 1.7 {mu}G is derived. Furthermore, for this candidate PWN a scenario is favored in the present paper in which HESS J1507-622 has been compressed by the reverse shock of the supernova remnant.

  4. Time-dependent Modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorster, M. J.; Tibolla, O.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Kaufmann, S.

    2013-08-01

    A spatially independent model that calculates the time evolution of the electron spectrum in a spherically expanding pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is presented, allowing one to make broadband predictions for the PWN's non-thermal radiation. The source spectrum of electrons injected at the termination shock of the PWN is chosen to be a broken power law. In contrast to previous PWN models of a similar nature, the source spectrum has a discontinuity in intensity at the transition between the low- and high-energy components. To test the model, it is applied to the young PWN G21.5-0.9, where it is found that a discontinuous source spectrum can model the emission at all wavelengths better than a continuous one. The model is also applied to the unidentified sources HESS J1427-608 and HESS J1507-622. Parameters are derived for these two candidate nebulae that are consistent with the values predicted for other PWNe. For HESS J1427-608, a present day magnetic field of B age = 0.4 μG is derived. As a result of the small present day magnetic field, this source has a low synchrotron luminosity, while remaining bright at GeV/TeV energies. It is therefore possible to interpret HESS J1427-608 within the ancient PWN scenario. For the second candidate PWN HESS J1507-622, a present day magnetic field of B age = 1.7 μG is derived. Furthermore, for this candidate PWN a scenario is favored in the present paper in which HESS J1507-622 has been compressed by the reverse shock of the supernova remnant.

  5. So You Think the Crab is Described by a Power-Law Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray observations of the Crab Nebula and its pulsar have played a prominent role in the history of X-ray astronomy. Discoveries range from the detection of the X-ray Nebula and pulsar and the measurement of the Nebula-averaged X-ray polarization, to the observation of complex X-ray morphology, including jets emanating from the pulsar and the ring defining the shocked pulsar wind. The synchrotron origin of much of the radiation has been deduced by detailed studies across the electromagnetic spectrum, yet has fooled many X-ray astronomers into believing that the integrated spectrum from this system ought to be a power law. In many cases, this assumption has led observers to adjust the experiment response function(s) to guarantee such a result. We shall discuss why one should not observe a power-law spectrum, and present simulations using the latest available response matrices showing what should have been observed for a number of representative cases including the ROSAT IPC, XMM-Newton, and RXTE. We then discuss the implications, if any, for current calibrations.

  6. Stellar Evolution from AGB to Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun

    2008-10-01

    Planetary nebulae are formed by an interacting winds process where the remnant of the AGB wind is compressed and accelerated by a later-developed fast wind from the central star. One-dimensional dynamical models have successfully explained the multi-shell (bubble, shell, crown, haloes) structures and the kinematics of planetary nebulae. However, the origin of the diverse asymmetric morphology of planetary nebulae is still not understood. Recent observations in the visible, infrared, and the submillimeter have suggested that the AGB mass loss becomes aspherical in the very late stages, forming an expanding torus around the star. A fast, highly collimated wind then emerges in the polar directions and carves out a cavity in the AGB envelope to form a bipolar nebula. Newly discovered structures such as concentric arcs, 2-D rings, multiple lobes, and point-symmetric structures suggest that both the slow and fast winds may have temporal and directional variations, and precession can play a role in the shaping of planetary nebulae. In this paper, we review the latest observations of planetary nebulae and proto-planetary nebulae and discuss the various physical mechanisms (rotation, binary, magnetic field, etc) that could lead to the observed morphologies.

  7. Reconstruction and visualization of planetary nebulae.

    PubMed

    Magnor, Marcus; Kindlmann, Gordon; Hansen, Charles; Duric, Neb

    2005-01-01

    From our terrestrially confined viewpoint, the actual three-dimensional shape of distant astronomical objects is, in general, very challenging to determine. For one class of astronomical objects, however, spatial structure can be recovered from conventional 2D images alone. So-called planetary nebulae (PNe) exhibit pronounced symmetry characteristics that come about due to fundamental physical processes. Making use of this symmetry constraint, we present a technique to automatically recover the axisymmetric structure of many planetary nebulae from photographs. With GPU-based volume rendering driving a nonlinear optimization, we estimate the nebula's local emission density as a function of its radial and axial coordinates and we recover the orientation of the nebula relative to Earth. The optimization refines the nebula model and its orientation by minimizing the differences between the rendered image and the original astronomical image. The resulting model allows creating realistic 3D visualizations of these nebulae, for example, for planetarium shows and other educational purposes. In addition, the recovered spatial distribution of the emissive gas can help astrophysicists gain deeper insight into the formation processes of planetary nebulae.

  8. Reconstruction and visualization of planetary nebulae.

    PubMed

    Magnor, Marcus; Kindlmann, Gordon; Hansen, Charles; Duric, Neb

    2005-01-01

    From our terrestrially confined viewpoint, the actual three-dimensional shape of distant astronomical objects is, in general, very challenging to determine. For one class of astronomical objects, however, spatial structure can be recovered from conventional 2D images alone. So-called planetary nebulae (PNe) exhibit pronounced symmetry characteristics that come about due to fundamental physical processes. Making use of this symmetry constraint, we present a technique to automatically recover the axisymmetric structure of many planetary nebulae from photographs. With GPU-based volume rendering driving a nonlinear optimization, we estimate the nebula's local emission density as a function of its radial and axial coordinates and we recover the orientation of the nebula relative to Earth. The optimization refines the nebula model and its orientation by minimizing the differences between the rendered image and the original astronomical image. The resulting model allows creating realistic 3D visualizations of these nebulae, for example, for planetarium shows and other educational purposes. In addition, the recovered spatial distribution of the emissive gas can help astrophysicists gain deeper insight into the formation processes of planetary nebulae. PMID:16144246

  9. The double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar nucleus of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428.

    PubMed

    Santander-García, M; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Corradi, R L M; Jones, D; Miszalski, B; Boffin, H M J; Rubio-Díez, M M; Kotze, M M

    2015-03-01

    The planetary nebula stage is the ultimate fate of stars with masses one to eight times that of the Sun (M(⊙)). The origin of their complex morphologies is poorly understood, although several mechanisms involving binary interaction have been proposed. In close binary systems, the orbital separation is short enough for the primary star to overfill its Roche lobe as the star expands during the asymptotic giant branch phase. The excess gas eventually forms a common envelope surrounding both stars. Drag forces then result in the envelope being ejected into a bipolar planetary nebula whose equator is coincident with the orbital plane of the system. Systems in which both stars have ejected their envelopes and are evolving towards the white dwarf stage are said to be double degenerate. Here we report that Henize 2-428 has a double-degenerate core with a combined mass of ∼1.76M(⊙), which is above the Chandrasekhar limit (the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf) of 1.4M(⊙). This, together with its short orbital period (4.2 hours), suggests that the system should merge in 700 million years, triggering a type Ia supernova event. This supports the hypothesis of the double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar evolutionary pathway for the formation of type Ia supernovae. PMID:25686608

  10. The double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar nucleus of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santander-García, M.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Jones, D.; Miszalski, B.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Rubio-Díez, M. M.; Kotze, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    The planetary nebula stage is the ultimate fate of stars with masses one to eight times that of the Sun (). The origin of their complex morphologies is poorly understood, although several mechanisms involving binary interaction have been proposed. In close binary systems, the orbital separation is short enough for the primary star to overfill its Roche lobe as the star expands during the asymptotic giant branch phase. The excess gas eventually forms a common envelope surrounding both stars. Drag forces then result in the envelope being ejected into a bipolar planetary nebula whose equator is coincident with the orbital plane of the system. Systems in which both stars have ejected their envelopes and are evolving towards the white dwarf stage are said to be double degenerate. Here we report that Henize 2-428 has a double-degenerate core with a combined mass of ~1.76, which is above the Chandrasekhar limit (the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf) of 1.4. This, together with its short orbital period (4.2 hours), suggests that the system should merge in 700 million years, triggering a type Ia supernova event. This supports the hypothesis of the double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar evolutionary pathway for the formation of type Ia supernovae.

  11. High Spatial Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bucciantini, Niccolo; Clarke, Tracy E.; Karovska, Margarita; Pavlov, George G.; van der Horst, Alexander; Yukita, Mihoko; Zavlin, Vyacheslav

    2014-08-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar CXOU J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant IC443, reveal a ~5" radius ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar's location. The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar, (2) the non-thermal spectrum and morphology of the surrounding nebula are consistent with a pulsar wind, and (3) the spectrum at greater distances is consistent with thermal emission from the supernova remnant. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest, appears to be subsonic: There is no evidence for a strong bow shock; and the ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium. Comparing this observation with historical observations of the same target we set a 99-% confidence upper limit to the proper motion of CXOU J061705.3+222127 to be less than 310 km/s, with the best-fit (but not statistically significant) direction toward the west.

  12. The double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar nucleus of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428.

    PubMed

    Santander-García, M; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Corradi, R L M; Jones, D; Miszalski, B; Boffin, H M J; Rubio-Díez, M M; Kotze, M M

    2015-03-01

    The planetary nebula stage is the ultimate fate of stars with masses one to eight times that of the Sun (M(⊙)). The origin of their complex morphologies is poorly understood, although several mechanisms involving binary interaction have been proposed. In close binary systems, the orbital separation is short enough for the primary star to overfill its Roche lobe as the star expands during the asymptotic giant branch phase. The excess gas eventually forms a common envelope surrounding both stars. Drag forces then result in the envelope being ejected into a bipolar planetary nebula whose equator is coincident with the orbital plane of the system. Systems in which both stars have ejected their envelopes and are evolving towards the white dwarf stage are said to be double degenerate. Here we report that Henize 2-428 has a double-degenerate core with a combined mass of ∼1.76M(⊙), which is above the Chandrasekhar limit (the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf) of 1.4M(⊙). This, together with its short orbital period (4.2 hours), suggests that the system should merge in 700 million years, triggering a type Ia supernova event. This supports the hypothesis of the double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar evolutionary pathway for the formation of type Ia supernovae.

  13. Processing NASA Earth Science Data on Nebula Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Aijun; Pham, Long; Kempler, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three applications were successfully migrated to Nebula, including S4PM, AIRS L1/L2 algorithms, and Giovanni MAPSS. Nebula has some advantages compared with local machines (e.g. performance, cost, scalability, bundling, etc.). Nebula still faces some challenges (e.g. stability, object storage, networking, etc.). Migrating applications to Nebula is feasible but time consuming. Lessons learned from our Nebula experience will benefit future Cloud Computing efforts at GES DISC.

  14. THE ROTTEN EGG NEBULA A PLANETARY NEBULA IN THE MAKING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The object shown in these NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope images is a remarkable example of a star going through death throes just as it dramatically transforms itself from a normal red giant star into a planetary nebula. This process happens so quickly that such objects are quite rare, even though astronomers believe that most stars like the Sun will eventually go through such a phase. This star, with the prosaic name of OH231.8+4.2, is seen in these infrared pictures blowing out gas and dust in two opposite directions. So much dust has been cast off and now surrounds the star that it cannot be seen directly, only its starlight that is reflected off the dust. The flow of gas is very fast, with a velocity up to 450,000 mph (700,000 km/h). With extreme clarity, these Hubble Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) images reveal that the fast-moving gas and dust are being collimated into several thin streamers (on the right) and a jet-like structure (on the left), which can be seen extending away from the centers of both pictures. On the right, wisps of material in jet-like streamers appear to strike some dense blobs of gas. This interaction must produce strong shock waves in the gas. The pictures represent two views of the object. The color image is a composite of four images taken with different NICMOS infrared filters on March 28, 1998. It shows that the physical properties of the material, both composition and temperature, vary significantly throughout the outflowing material. The black-and-white image was taken with one NICMOS infrared filter. That image is able to show more clearly the faint detail and structure in the nebula than can be achieved with the color composites. Observations by radio astronomers have found many unusual molecules in the gas around this star, including many containing sulfur, such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. These sulfur compounds are believed to be produced in the shock waves passing through the gas

  15. The Texas Supernova Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quimby, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Supernovae (SNe) are popular tools to explore the cosmological expansion of the Universe owing to their bright peak magnitudes and reasonably high rates; however, even the relatively homogeneous Type Ia supernovae are not perfect standard candles intrinsically. Their absolute peak brightness must be established by corrections that have been largely empirical. Hundreds of SNe are now found every year, shrinking the statistical errors in the cosmological terms, but most of these distant discoveries do little to further the physical understanding of SNe, which may illuminate unknown systematics. This talk will describe recent results from the The Texas Supernova Search, a campaign designed to discover not the most SNe nor the most distant SNe, but instead to amass a small collection of well-observed nearby SNe with detailed, multi-epoch spectral observations beginning at the earliest possible phases. For the past two years, we have pointed ROTSE-IIIb's 1.85 x 1.85 degree field of view at nearby galaxy clusters and searched thousands of galaxies, covering hundreds of square degrees on the sky, for supernovae. With ToO time on the neighboring 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope, we have captured SNe spectra at some of the earliest phases ever. I will discuss the implications of these data on the physics of SNe explosions, including the propagation of the burning front and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  16. The Most Luminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Woosley, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Recent observations have revealed a stunning diversity of extremely luminous supernovae, seemingly increasing in radiant energy without bound. We consider simple approximate limits for what existing models can provide for the peak luminosity and total radiated energy for non-relativistic, isotropic stellar explosions. The brightest possible supernova is a Type I explosion powered by a sub-millisecond magnetar with field strength B ∼ few × {10}13 G. In extreme cases, such models might reach a peak luminosity of 2× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 and radiate a total energy of up to 4× {10}52 {erg}. Other less luminous models are also explored, including prompt hyper-energetic explosions in red supergiants, pulsational-pair instability supernovae, pair-instability supernovae, and colliding shells. Approximate analytic expressions and limits are given for each case. Excluding magnetars, the peak luminosity is near 3× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 for the brightest models and the corresponding limit on total radiated energy is 3× {10}51 {erg}. Barring new physics, supernovae with a light output over 3× {10}51 erg must be rotationally powered, either during the explosion itself or after, the most obvious candidate being a rapidly rotating magnetar. A magnetar-based model for the recent transient event, ASASSN-15lh is presented that strains, but does not exceed the limits of what the model can provide.

  17. Search for continuous fluorescence in reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, W. F.; Witt, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    Photometric and spectrophotometric observations have been made of the reflection nebulae NGC 1435, NGC 2068, NGC 7023, and IC 1287 in an attempt to detect continuous fluorescence by dust grains. Several effects of importance for observations of such faint objects are discussed, including instrumental light scattering, a photographic effect, and a time-delay effect which can occur if the illuminating star is a spectrum variable. It is found that continuous fluorescence by interstellar grains is not likely to exist and that it cannot account for more than 10% of the total surface brightness of these reflection nebulae. No evidence of diffuse interstellar features is found in the spectra of these nebulae.

  18. Quantization of an electromagnetic tornado and the origin of bands in the spectrum of giant pulses from the Crab pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontorovich, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    When electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies in the inner gap of a pulsar, their motion is quantized in an external magnetic field and the electric field of the space charge of a rotating electron beam, an electromagnetic tornado appearing during breakdown in the pulsar's polar gap. Quantization allows one to propose a natural explanation for the observed bands in the frequency spectrum of interpulse radiation from the pulsar PSR J0534+22 in the Crab Nebula and to determine the physical parameters of the tornado. The difference in the spectra of main pulses and interpulses is discussed.

  19. The youngest known X-ray binary: Circinus X-1 and its natal supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, S.; Sell, P.; Fender, R. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Calvelo-Santos, D. E.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Nowak, M. A.; Schulz, N. S.; Wijnands, R.; Van der Klis, M.

    2013-12-20

    Because supernova remnants are short-lived, studies of neutron star X-ray binaries within supernova remnants probe the earliest stages in the life of accreting neutron stars. However, such objects are exceedingly rare: none were known to exist in our Galaxy. We report the discovery of the natal supernova remnant of the accreting neutron star Circinus X-1, which places an upper limit of t < 4600 yr on its age, making it the youngest known X-ray binary and a unique tool to study accretion, neutron star evolution, and core-collapse supernovae. This discovery is based on a deep 2009 Chandra X-ray observation and new radio observations of Circinus X-1. Circinus X-1 produces type I X-ray bursts on the surface of the neutron star, indicating that the magnetic field of the neutron star is small. Thus, the young age implies either that neutron stars can be born with low magnetic fields or that they can rapidly become de-magnetized by accretion. Circinus X-1 is a microquasar, creating relativistic jets that were thought to power the arcminute-scale radio nebula surrounding the source. Instead, this nebula can now be attributed to non-thermal synchrotron emission from the forward shock of the supernova remnant. The young age is consistent with the observed rapid orbital evolution and the highly eccentric orbit of the system and offers the chance to test the physics of post-supernova orbital evolution in X-ray binaries in detail for the first time.

  20. The X-Ray Structure and Spectrum of the Pulsar Wind Nebula Surrounding PSR B1853+01 in W44

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Shelton, R. L.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present the result of a Chandra ACIS observation of the pulsar PSR B1853+01 and its associated pulsar wind nebula (PWN), embedded within the supernova remnant W44. A hard band ACIS map cleanly distinguishes the PWN from the thermal emission of W44. The nebula is extended in the north-south direction, with an extent about half that of the radio emission. Morphological differences between the X-ray and radio images are apparent. Spectral fitting reveals a clear difference in spectral index between the hard emission from PSR B1853+01 (Gamma approx. 1.4) and the extended nebula (Gamma approx. 2.2). The more accurate values for the X-ray flux and spectral index are used refine estimates for PWN parameters, including magnetic field strength, the average Lorentz factor gamma of the particles in the wind, the magnetization parameter sigma, and the ratio k of electrons to other particles.

  1. OT2_jsokolos_1: The Origin and Nature of the Emission Nebulae around Symbiotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloski, J.

    2011-09-01

    There is much controversy concerning the ionized nebula that produces the radio through FIR emission from symbiotic stars. The goal of the proposed Herschel observations is to test two popular models for this emission; whether it is produced by a wind from the red giant that is photoionized by Lyman continuum photons from the hot WD (STB) or it comes from plasma that is shock heated as the winds from the two stars collide by constraining the submm SED and measuring the free-free turnover frequency of the ionised component. These two models predict distinctly different shapes for the submm portion of the SED and different dependence of the turnover frequency on binary separation. Thus, submm photometry of a diverse sample of symbiotic stars with know binary parameters that only Herschel can perform is an ideal way to quantitatively test and discriminate between these models (as well as motivate new ones). In terms of astrophysical significance, determining the origin of the radio-through-FIR emission from symbiotic stars has implications for the nature and geometry of mass transfer in wide binaries, mass loss from accreting compact objects, the shaping of asymmetric nebulae around binary stars (including binary planetary nebulae), and the likelihood that symbiotic stars can explode as type Ia supernovae.

  2. High Spatial Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the IC 443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Pavlov, George G.; Clarke, Tracy; Castelletti, Gabriela; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Karovska, Margarita; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Yukita, Mihoko; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2015-07-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 reveal an ∼5″ radius ring-like structure surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like feature oriented roughly north–south across the ring and through the pulsar's location at 06h17m5.ˢ200 + 22°21‧27.″52 (J2000.0 coordinates). The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar, (2) the non-thermal spectrum and morphology of the surrounding nebula are consistent with a pulsar wind, and (3) the spectrum at greater distances is consistent with thermal emission from the SNR. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion toward the southwest, appears to be subsonic: There is no evidence either spectrally or morphologically for a bow shock or contact discontinuity; the nearly circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium; and the shape near the apex of the nebula is narrow. Comparing this observation with previous observations of the same target, we set a 99% confidence upper limit to the proper motion of CXOU J061705.3+222127 to be less than 44 mas yr‑1 (310 km s‑1 for a distance of 1.5 kpc), with the best-fit (but not statistically significant) projected direction toward the west.

  3. A Radio-Polarisation and Rotation Measure Study of the Gum Nebula and Its Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, C. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X. H.; Carretti, E.; Bernardi, G.; Haverkorn, M.; Kesteven, M. J.; Poppi, S.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Gum Nebula is 36°-wide shell-like emission nebula at a distance of only ˜450 pc. It has been hypothesized to be an old supernova remnant, fossil H ii region, wind-blown bubble, or combination of multiple objects. Here we investigate the magneto-ionic properties of the nebula using data from recent surveys: radio-continuum data from the NRAO VLA and S-band Parkes All Sky Surveys, and H α data from the Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas. We model the upper part of the nebula as a spherical shell of ionized gas expanding into the ambient medium. We perform a maximum-likelihood Markov chain Monte Carlo fit to the NVSS rotation measure data, using the H α data to constrain average electron density in the shell ne. Assuming a latitudinal background gradient in rotation measure, we find {{n}e}=1.3-0.4+0.4 c{{m}-3}, angular radius {{φ }outer}=22\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 7-0.1+0.1, shell thickness dr=18.5-1.4+1.5 pc, ambient magnetic field strength {{B}0}=3.9-2.2+4.9 μ G, and warm gas filling factor f=0.3-0.1+0.3. We constrain the local, small-scale (˜260 pc) pitch-angle of the ordered Galactic magnetic field to +7{}^\\circ ≲ \\wp ≲ +44{}^\\circ , which represents a significant deviation from the median field orientation on kiloparsec scales (˜-7.°2). The moderate compression factor X=6.0-2.5+5.1 at the edge of the H α shell implies that the “old supernova remnant” origin is unlikely. Our results support a model of the nebula as a H ii region around a wind-blown bubble. Analysis of depolarization in 2.3 GHz S-PASS data is consistent with this hypothesis and our best-fitting values agree well with previous studies of interstellar bubbles.

  4. Radio Continuum Emission from the Central Stars of M20, and the Detection of a New Supernova Remnant near M20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Shure, Mark; Wardle, Mark; Kassim, N.

    2000-09-01

    The Trifid Nebula (M20) is a well-known prominent optical H II region trisected by obscuring dust lanes. Radio continuum VLA observations of this nebula show free-free emission at λ=3.6 and 6 cm from three stellar sources lying close to the O7 V star at the center of the nebula. We argue that neutral material associated with these stars is photoionized externally by the UV radiation from the hot central star. We also report the discovery of a barrel-shaped supernova remnant, SNR G7.06-0.12, at the northwest rim of the nebula, and two shell-like features, G6.67-0.42 and G6.83-0.21, adjacent to W28 and M20. We discuss the nature of these features and their possible relationship to the pulsar PSR 1801-2306 and W28 OH (1720 MHz) masers.

  5. Physical nature of the [S II]-bright shell nebulae N70 and N185

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ning-Xiao; Jiang, Bing; Chen, Yang; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, R. A.; Williams, R. M.

    2014-09-01

    N70 and N185 are two large (≥100 pc in diameter) shell nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Their high [S II]/Hα ratios rival those of supernova remnants (SNRs), but they are not confirmed as SNRs. To study their physical nature, we have obtained XMM-Newton X-ray observations and high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectroscopic observations of these two nebulae. The X-ray spectra of both nebulae can be well interpreted with an optically thin thermal (∼0.2 keV) plasma with the average LMC abundance in a collisional ionization equilibrium. N70 encompasses the OB association LH114. Although N70 has a modest expansion velocity and essentially thermal radio emission, its diffuse X-ray luminosity (∼6.1 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1}) is higher than that from a quiescent superbubble with N70's density, size, and expansion velocity; thus, N70 is most likely a superbubble that is recently energized by an interior SNR. N185 does not contain any known OB association, and its X-ray luminosity is an order of magnitude lower than expected if it is a quiescent superbubble. N185 has nonthermal radio emission and has high-velocity material expanding at nearly 200 km s{sup –1}, similar to many known SNRs in the LMC. Its X-ray luminosity (∼1.9 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1}) is also consistent with that of an evolved SNR. We therefore suggest that N185 is energized by a recent supernova.

  6. The Eagle Nebula on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Jave; Cooper, Amy; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Pound, Marc

    2011-10-01

    In one of the eight Science on NIF campaigns, dynamics of molecular clouds such as the Eagle Nebula will be studied in scaled laboratory astrophysics experiments, focusing on new hydrodynamic stabilities of ablation fronts induced by strong directionality of a sustained radiation drive, and on the formation of cometary structures as a model for the famous Eagle Pillars. The NIF Radiation Transport Platform will be adapted to drive a foam target stood off several mm from the halfraum to simulate a molecular cloud illuminated by a distant O-type star, with the drive collimated by an aperture. Pulses of length 20-100 ns generating effective radiation temperatures of 100 eV are being sought. Design of the experiment, theory of the directional radiation instabilities, and supporting astrophysical modeling will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Planetary nebulae and stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Newly defined characteristics of planetary nebulae (PN) derived from analysis of a photometric survey of 57 PN are reported. The data were combined with measurements of 27 other PN made since 1918 and were found to indicate core masses ranging from 0.55-1.0 solar mass. N/O elemental abundance ratios observed were correlated with the planetary nuclei masses, and were in direct proportion. IUE data on PN that overlapped a large part of the survey indicated that the PN in the galactic disk are more massive than PN in the halo. It is suggested that PN evolve into white dwarfs, a hypothesis supported by astrometric solutions for three nearby visual binaries featuring white dwarfs with well-determined masses. It is noted, however, that PN with masses exceeding one solar mass have been sighted in the Magellanic Clouds.

  8. Neutrinos in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-10-01

    The role of neutrinos in Type II supernovae is discussed. An overall view of the neutrino luminosity as expected theoretically is presented. The different weak interactions involved are assessed from the standpoint of how they exchange energy, momentum, and lepton number. Particular attention is paid to entropy generation and the path to thermal and chemical equilibration, and to the phenomenon of trapping. Various methods used to calculate the neutrino flows are considered. These include trapping and leakage schemes, distribution-averaged transfer, and multi-energy group methods. The information obtained from the neutrinos caught from Supernova 1987a is briefly evaluated. 55 refs., 7 figs.

  9. What Shapes Supernova Remnants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has mounted that Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) supernovae (SNe) can have substantial deviations from spherical symmetry; one such piece of evidence is the complex morphologies of supernova remnants (SNRs). However, the relative role of the explosion geometry and the environment in shaping SNRs remains an outstanding question. Recently, we have developed techniques to quantify the morphologies of SNRs, and we have applied these methods to the extensive X-ray and infrared archival images available of Milky Way and Magellanic Cloud SNRs. In this proceeding, we highlight some results from these studies, with particular emphasis on SNR asymmetries and whether they arise from ``nature'' or ``nurture''.

  10. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  11. Non-cosmological FRBs from young supernova remnant pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Liam; Sievers, Jonathan; Pen, Ue-Li

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new extra but non-cosmological explanation for fast radio bursts (FRBs) based on very young pulsars in supernova remnants. Within a few hundred years of a core-collapse supernova, the ejecta is confined within ˜1 pc, providing a high enough column density of free electrons for the observed 375-1600 pc cm-3 of dispersion measure (DM). By extrapolating a Crab-like pulsar to its infancy in an environment like that of SN 1987A, we hypothesize such an object could emit supergiant pulses sporadically which would be bright enough to be seen at a few hundred megaparsecs. We hypothesize that such supergiant pulses would preferentially occur early in the pulsar's life when the free electron density is still high, which is why we do not see large numbers of moderate DM FRBs (≲300 pc cm-3). In this scenario, Faraday rotation at the source gives rotation measures (RMs) much larger than the expected cosmological contribution. If the emission were pulsar-like, then the polarization vector could swing over the duration of the burst, which is not expected from non-rotating objects. In this model, the scattering, large DM, and commensurate RM all come from one place which is not the case for the cosmological interpretation. The model also provides testable predictions of the flux distribution and repeat rate of FRBs, and could be furthermore verified by spatial coincidence with optical supernovae of the past several decades and cross-correlation with nearby galaxy maps.

  12. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    DOEpatents

    Delayen, Jean

    2011-02-08

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  13. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Smith, J. D.A.; Rimmer, R.; Wang, H.; Delayen, J.; Calaga, R.

    2009-05-01

    In 2017 the LHC is envisioned to increase its luminosity via an upgrade. This upgrade is likely to require a large crossing angle hence a crab cavity is required to align the bunches prior to collision. There are two possible schemes for crab cavity implementation, global and local. In a global crab cavity the crab cavity is far from the IP and the bunch rotates back and forward as it traverses around the accelerator in a closed orbit. For this scheme a two-cell elliptical squashed cavity at 800 MHz is preferred. To avoid any potential beam instabilities all the parasitic modes of the cavities must be damped strongly, however crab cavities have lower order and same order modes in addition to the usual higher order modes and hence a novel damping scheme must be used to provide sufficient damping of these modes. In the local scheme two crab cavities are placed at each side of the IP two start and stop rotation of the bunches. This would require crab cavities much smaller transversely than in the global scheme but the frequency cannot be increased any higher due to the long bunch length of the LHC beam. This will require a novel compact crab cavity design. A superconducting version of a two rod coaxial deflecting cavity as a suitable design is proposed in this paper.

  14. Several evolutionary channels for bright planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Michael G.; McCall, Marshall L.

    2016-08-01

    The populations of bright planetary nebulae in the discs of spirals appear to differ in their spectral properties from those in ellipticals and the bulges of spirals. The bright planetary nebulae from the bulge of the Milky Way are entirely compatible with those observed in the discs of spiral galaxies. The similarity might be explained if the bulge of the Milky Way evolved secularly from the disc, in which case the bulge should be regarded as a pseudo-bulge.

  15. Chemical composition of gaseous nebula NGC 6302.

    PubMed

    Aller, L H; Czyzak, S J

    1978-01-01

    The irregular emission nebula NGC 6302 exhibits a rich spectrum of lines ranging in excitation from [NI] to [FeVII]. An assessment of available spectroscopic data, covering a large intensity range, indicates excess of helium and nitrogen as compared with average planetary nebulae, but deficiencies in iron and calcium. These metals are presumably tied up in solid grains, as suggested by Shields for iron in NGC 7027. PMID:16592476

  16. Properties of young clusters near reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1983-01-01

    Near infrared observations in the reflection nebulae NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068 are used to study clusters of young stars found associated with these nebulae. At least 30% to 60% of these stars are pre-main sequence objects, as indicated by their infrared excesses, hydrogen line emission, or irregular variability. The spatial distributions and observed luminosity functions of these young open clusters are derived, and the inferred mass function and star formation efficiencies are discussed.

  17. Large scale processes in the solar nebula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, A. P.

    Most proposed chondrule formation mechanisms involve processes occurring inside the solar nebula, so the large scale (roughly 1 to 10 AU) structure of the nebula is of general interest for any chrondrule-forming mechanism. Chondrules and Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) might also have been formed as a direct result of the large scale structure of the nebula, such as passage of material through high temperature regions. While recent nebula models do predict the existence of relatively hot regions, the maximum temperatures in the inner planet region may not be high enough to account for chondrule or CAI thermal processing, unless the disk mass is considerably greater than the minimum mass necessary to restore the planets to solar composition. Furthermore, it does not seem to be possible to achieve both rapid heating and rapid cooling of grain assemblages in such a large scale furnace. However, if the accretion flow onto the nebula surface is clumpy, as suggested by observations of variability in young stars, then clump-disk impacts might be energetic enough to launch shock waves which could propagate through the nebula to the midplane, thermally processing any grain aggregates they encounter, and leaving behind a trail of chondrules.

  18. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). Persons participating in the CR crab fisheries are... complete. Use these tables to complete the EDRs described in this section: Table 1, Crab...

  19. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). Persons participating in the CR crab fisheries are... complete. Use these tables to complete the EDRs described in this section: Table 1, Crab...

  20. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). Persons participating in the CR crab fisheries are... complete. Use these tables to complete the EDRs described in this section: Table 1, Crab...

  1. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Landing golden crab intact. 622.247... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that golden crab on that vessel...

  2. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing golden crab intact. 622.247... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that golden crab on that vessel...

  3. VLT Images the Horsehead Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Summary A new, high-resolution colour image of one of the most photographed celestial objects, the famous "Horsehead Nebula" (IC 434) in Orion, has been produced from data stored in the VLT Science Archive. The original CCD frames were obtained in February 2000 with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope on Paranal (Chile). The comparatively large field-of-view of the FORS2 camera is optimally suited to show this extended object and its immediate surroundings in impressive detail. PR Photo 02a/02 : View of the full field around the Horsehead Nebula. PR Photo 02b/02 : Enlargement of a smaller area around the Horse's "mouth" A spectacular object ESO PR Photo 02a/02 ESO PR Photo 02a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 485 pix - 63k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 970 pix - 896k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1951 x 2366 pix - 4.7M] ESO PR Photo 02b/02 ESO PR Photo 02b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 501 pix - 91k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1002 pix - 888k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1139 x 1427 pix - 1.9M] Caption : PR Photo 02a/02 is a reproduction of a composite colour image of the Horsehead Nebula and its immediate surroundings. It is based on three exposures in the visual part of the spectrum with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m KUEYEN telescope at Paranal. PR Photo 02b/02 is an enlargement of a smaller area. Technical information about these photos is available below. PR Photo 02a/02 shows the famous "Horsehead Nebula" , which is situated in the Orion molecular cloud complex. Its official name is Barnard 33 and it is a dust protrusion in the southern region of the dense dust cloud Lynds 1630 , on the edge of the HII region IC 434 . The distance to the region is about 1400 light-years (430 pc). This beautiful colour image was produced from three images obtained with the multi-mode FORS2 instrument at the second VLT Unit Telescope ( KUEYEN ), some months after it had "First Light", cf. PR 17/99. The image files were extracted from the VLT Science Archive Facility and the

  4. Supernovae and Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, I.; Bravo, E.; Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Tornambé, A.

    2009-08-01

    A decade ago the observations of thermonuclear supernovae at high-redhifts showed that the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating and since then, the evidence for cosmic acceleration has gotten stronger. This acceleration requires that the Universe is dominated by dark energy, an exotic component characterized by its negative pressure. Nowadays all the available astronomical data (i.e. thermonuclear supernovae, cosmic microwave background, barionic acoustic oscillations, large scale structure, etc.) agree that our Universe is made of about 70% of dark energy, 25% of cold dark matter and only 5% of known, familiar matter. This Universe is geometrically flat, older than previously thought, its destiny is no longer linked to its geometry but to dark energy, and we ignore about 95% of its components. To understand the nature of dark energy is probably the most fundamental problem in physics today. Current astronomical observations are compatible with dark energy being the vacuum energy. Supernovae have played a fundamental role in modern Cosmology and it is expected that they will contribute to unveil the dark energy. In order to do that it is mandatory to understand the limits of supernovae as cosmological distance indicators, improving their precision by a factor 10.

  5. Core-collapse Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Hix, William Raphael; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, Mark L; Chertkow, Merek A; Lee, Ching-Tsai; Blondin, J. M.; Bruenn, S. W.; Messer, Bronson; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Marking the inevitable death of a massive star, and the birth of a neutron star or black hole, core-collapse supernovae bring together physics at a wide range in spatial scales, from kilometer-sized hydrodynamic motions (growing to gigameter scale) down to femtometer scale nuclear reactions. Carrying 10$^{51}$ ergs of kinetic energy and a rich-mix of newly synthesized atomic nuclei, core-collapse supernovae are the preeminent foundries of the nuclear species which make up ourselves and our solar system. We will discuss our emerging understanding of the convectively unstable, neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, based on increasingly realistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations that include progressively better nuclear and particle physics. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport from several research groups, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progress on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  6. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  7. Theoretical models for supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1981-09-21

    The results of recent numerical simulations of supernova explosions are presented and a variety of topics discussed. Particular emphasis is given to (i) the nucleosynthesis expected from intermediate mass (10sub solar less than or equal to M less than or equal to 100 Msub solar) Type II supernovae and detonating white dwarf models for Type I supernovae, (ii) a realistic estimate of the ..gamma..-line fluxes expected from this nucleosynthesis, (iii) the continued evolution, in one and two dimensions, of intermediate mass stars wherein iron core collapse does not lead to a strong, mass-ejecting shock wave, and (iv) the evolution and explosion of vary massive stars (M greater than or equal to 100 Msub solar of both Population I and III. In one dimension, nuclear burning following a failed core bounce does not appear likely to lead to a supernova explosion although, in two dimensions, a combination of rotation and nuclear burning may do so. Near solar proportions of elements from neon to calcium and very brilliant optical displays may be created by hypernovae, the explosions of stars in the mass range 100 M/sub solar/ to 300 M/sub solar/. Above approx. 300 M/sub solar/ a black hole is created by stellar collapse following carbon ignition. Still more massive stars may be copious producers of /sup 4/He and /sup 14/N prior to their collapse on the pair instability.

  8. Core-collapse supernova remnants and interactions with their surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantseg, Thomas Felton

    This thesis examines three core-collapse supernova remnants (SNR)---the Cygnus Loop in the Milky Way and 0453-68.5 and 0540-69.3 in the Large Magellanic Cloud---of varying ages and in varying states of interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM), using X-ray imaging spectroscopy with Chandra and supplemental data from other wavelengths. We use results from our analysis to address three main questions. First, we examine the applicability of the common Sedov-Taylor adiabatic blast wave model to core-collapse supernovae. Second, we determine the elemental abundances around the shell of these supernova remnants to determine if the use of SNRs as a gauge of abundances in the ISM is justified. Finally, we examine the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) in 0453-68.5 and 0540-69.3 and search for evidence of interaction between these PWNe and their immediate surroundings. We see highly inhomogeneous ISM surrounding all three surveyed SNRs, contrary to the key assumption in the Sedov-Taylor model of a uniform surrounding medium. In all three studied SNRs, we find that shock speeds are dependent on the density of the surrounding material. As subsidiary results, we also find depleted elemental abundances of oxygen, magnesium, and silicon, relative to typical ISM, around all three studied supernova remnants. Although this subsidiary result is not conclusive, we believe that it merits a followup study. In 0540-69.3 and 0453-68.5, which contain central pulsars, we find that the explosion directionality, which can be inferred from the pulsar's proper motion relative to the SNR, is not related to the morphology of the SNR itself. We conclude from this that the asymmetric shapes common in core-collapse supernova remnants can be more a function of the complex environments surrounding the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae than of the supernova explosions themselves. Finally, we see that the PWN in 0453-68.5 shows signs of having mixed with the surrounding thermal- emitting

  9. Double Engine for a Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    ESO has just released a stunning new image of a field of stars towards the constellation of Carina (the Keel). This striking view is ablaze with a flurry of stars of all colours and brightnesses, some of which are seen against a backdrop of clouds of dust and gas. One unusual star in the middle, HD 87643, has been extensively studied with several ESO telescopes, including the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Surrounded by a complex, extended nebula that is the result of previous violent ejections, the star has been shown to have a companion. Interactions in this double system, surrounded by a dusty disc, may be the engine fuelling the star's remarkable nebula. The new image, showing a very rich field of stars towards the Carina arm of the Milky Way, is centred on the star HD 87643, a member of the exotic class of B[e] stars [1]. It is part of a set of observations that provide astronomers with the best ever picture of a B[e] star. The image was obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the 2400-metre-high La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image shows beautifully the extended nebula of gas and dust that reflects the light from the star. The central star's wind appears to have shaped the nebula, leaving bright, ragged tendrils of gas and dust. A careful investigation of these features seems to indicate that there are regular ejections of matter from the star every 15 to 50 years. A team of astronomers, led by Florentin Millour, has studied the star HD 87643 in great detail, using several of ESO's telescopes. Apart from the WFI, the team also used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal. At the VLT, the astronomers used the NACO adaptive optics instrument, allowing them to obtain an image of the star free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. To probe the object further, the team then obtained an image with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The sheer range of this set of observations

  10. Three New Candidate Planetary Nebulae near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Sellgren, Kristen; Ramirez, Solange; Cotera, Angela; An, Deokkeun

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of three candidate planetary nebulae (PNe) detected in lines of sight close to our Galactic Center: G0.098-0.051, G0.399+0.208, and G359.963-0.120. These objects are identified by being compact continuum sources with exceptionally high excitation as seen in spectra of forbidden lines taken with Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph and downloaded from the Spitzer Heritage Archive. In particular, the high excitation lines include [Na III] 7.32 micron, [O IV] 25.9 micron, and [Ne V] 14.3 and 24.3 micron. Such lines are not seen in Galactic H II regions but only are found in PNe and supernova remnants; we exclude the last by the existance of the co-located continuum sources of size a few arcsec. We note that none of these sources has any significant associated emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which is otherwise common in the Galactic Center and in PNe. We will present spectra, abundance analyses, additional data from radio and near-infrared telescopes, and photoionization and shock models computed with Cloudy (Ferland et al. 2013) and MAPPINGS III (Allen et al. 2008).

  11. Discovery of TeV Gamma-Ray Emission toward Supernova Remnant SNR G78.2+2.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lee, K.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nelson, T.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Skole, C.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Welsing, R.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2013-06-01

    We report the discovery of an unidentified, extended source of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission, VER J2019+407, within the radio shell of the supernova remnant SNR G78.2+2.1, using 21.4 hr of data taken by the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory in 2009. These data confirm the preliminary indications of gamma-ray emission previously seen in a two-year (2007-2009) blind survey of the Cygnus region by VERITAS. VER J2019+407, which is detected at a post-trials significance of 7.5 standard deviations in the 2009 data, is localized to the northwestern rim of the remnant in a region of enhanced radio and X-ray emission. It has an intrinsic extent of 0{.\\!\\!^\\circ }23 +/- {0{.\\!\\!^\\circ }03_stat} {}^{+0{.\\!\\!^\\circ }04}_{-0{.\\!\\!^\\circ }02sys} and its spectrum is well-characterized by a differential power law (dN/dE = N 0 × (E/TeV)-Γ) with a photon index of Γ = 2.37 ± 0.14stat ± 0.20sys and a flux normalization of N 0 = 1.5 ± 0.2stat ± 0.4sys × 10-12 photon TeV-1 cm-2 s-1. This yields an integral flux of 5.2 ± 0.8stat ± 1.4sys × 10-12 photon cm-2 s-1 above 320 GeV, corresponding to 3.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. We consider the relationship of the TeV gamma-ray emission with the GeV gamma-ray emission seen from SNR G78.2+2.1 as well as that seen from a nearby cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays. Multiple scenarios are considered as possible origins for the TeV gamma-ray emission, including hadronic particle acceleration at the SNR shock.

  12. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION TOWARD SUPERNOVA REMNANT SNR G78.2+2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; and others

    2013-06-20

    We report the discovery of an unidentified, extended source of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission, VER J2019+407, within the radio shell of the supernova remnant SNR G78.2+2.1, using 21.4 hr of data taken by the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory in 2009. These data confirm the preliminary indications of gamma-ray emission previously seen in a two-year (2007-2009) blind survey of the Cygnus region by VERITAS. VER J2019+407, which is detected at a post-trials significance of 7.5 standard deviations in the 2009 data, is localized to the northwestern rim of the remnant in a region of enhanced radio and X-ray emission. It has an intrinsic extent of 0.23 Degree-Sign .23 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 03{sub stat-0 Degree-Sign .02sys}{sup +0 Degree-Sign .04} and its spectrum is well-characterized by a differential power law (dN/dE = N{sub 0} Multiplication-Sign (E/TeV){sup -{Gamma}}) with a photon index of {Gamma} = 2.37 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.20{sub sys} and a flux normalization of N{sub 0} = 1.5 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. This yields an integral flux of 5.2 {+-} 0.8{sub stat} {+-} 1.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 320 GeV, corresponding to 3.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. We consider the relationship of the TeV gamma-ray emission with the GeV gamma-ray emission seen from SNR G78.2+2.1 as well as that seen from a nearby cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays. Multiple scenarios are considered as possible origins for the TeV gamma-ray emission, including hadronic particle acceleration at the SNR shock.

  13. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  14. Probing the depths: Relativistic, hydrodynamic simulations and X-ray observations of pulsar wind nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Joseph P.

    2008-06-01

    I have undertaken a joint computational and observational study of the interaction of a light, relativistic pulsar wind with a dense, ambient medium. Such a scenario has been suggested as the origin of asymmetric pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). I present an analysis of Chandra X-ray Observatory data on the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11-6 2 . I show that the central region's spectrum above 2 keV is dominated by non-thermal emission consistent with that from a PWN. The spatial and spectral analyses strongly suggest that the nebula harbors a compact object with an inferred spin-down energy sufficient to rotationally power the nebula. Nebular asymmetry strongly suggests that the nebula has been crushed by the SNR reverse shock and the nebula and SNR are consistent with being in pressure equilibrium. Thus, this observation provides evidence that, in this case, the density distribution of the interstellar medium has had a dynamical effect on the morphology of the SNR/PWN system. Another scenario wherein the ambient medium influences PWNe morphology arises when the pulsar's space velocity is supersonic. In order to study such a system I have applied an existing adaptive-mesh, axisymmetric, relativistic hydrodynamic code to the simulation of the interaction of a relativistic pulsar wind with the ambient flow setup by the space motion of the pulsar. I discuss simulations showing that this interaction can give rise to asymmetry reminiscent of the Guitar nebula leading to the formation of a relativistic backflow harboring a series of internal shockwaves. The shockwaves provide thermalized energy that is available for the continued inflation of the PWN bubble. In turn, the bubble enhances the asymmetry, thereby providing positive feedback to the backflow. Further, I present the first results from an extension of the model to study the shock acceleration, and subsequent synchrotron cooling, of particles advected by the flow. The new module may be used to compute models of

  15. Accretion of Jupiter’s atmosphere from a supernova-contaminated molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.; Bally, John

    2010-07-01

    If Jupiter and the Sun both formed directly from the same well-mixed proto-solar nebula, then their atmospheric compositions should be similar. However, direct sampling of Jupiter's troposphere indicates that it is enriched in elements such as C, N, S, Ar, Kr, and Xe by 2-6× relative to the Sun (Wong, M.H., Lunine, J.I., Atreya, S.K., Johnson, T., Mahaffy, P.R., Owen, T.C., Encrenaz, T. [2008]. 219-246). Most existing models to explain this enrichment require an extremely cold proto-solar nebula which allows these heavy elements to condense, and cannot easily explain the observed variations between these species. We find that Jupiter's atmospheric composition may be explained if the Solar System's disk heterogeneously accretes small amounts of enriched material such as supernova ejecta from the interstellar medium during Jupiter's formation. Our results are similar to, but substantially larger than, isotopic anomalies in terrestrial material that indicate the Solar System formed from multiple distinct reservoirs of material simultaneously with one or more nearby supernovas (Trinquier, A., Birck, J.-L., Allegre, C.J. [2007]. Astrophys. J. 655, 1179-1185). Such temporal and spatial heterogeneities could have been common at the time of the Solar System's formation, rather than the cloud having a purely well-mixed 'solar nebula' composition.

  16. Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Grant J.

    2014-09-01

    Nucleosynthesis by rapid neutron capture (the r-process) could be an important diagnostic of the explosive deep interiors of supernovae. The early appearance of r-process elements in the Galaxy, along with energetic requirements, strongly argues in favor of a supernova origin for r-process isotopes. However there is a current conundrum as to the relative contributions from various supernovae environments, e.g. MHD jets or neutrino energized winds. There are also possible contributions from failed supernovae (collapsars) leading to a black hole (BH), or the ejection of material during the mergers of neutron stars in binary systems, i.e. NS+NS or NS+BH systems. In this talk we will review the theoretical underpinnings of each possibility in the quest to deduce the relative contribution of each process. In particular, each model for r-process nucleosynthesis invariably leads to systematic discrepancies with the observed solar-system r-process abundances. For example, although the location of the abundance peaks near nuclear mass numbers A = 130 and 195 identify an environment of rapid neutron capture near closed nuclear shells, the abundances of elements just above and below those peaks are often underproduced by more than an order of magnitude in model calculations. Similarly, most recent neutrino-driven wind simulations produce only the lighter r-process elements, while neutron-star mergers may miss the r-process peaks due to fission recycling. In this talk we demonstrate that the underproduction of elements above and below the r-process peaks can be supplemented via fission fragment distributions from the recycling of material synthesized during neutron star mergers, while the abundance peaks themselves are well reproduced in MHD jets in supernovae and collapsars. Moreover, we show that the relative contributions to the solar-system r-process yields from core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers required by this proposal are consistent with estimates of the

  17. Size distribution of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asvarov, Abdul; Allahverdiyev, Ahad

    2015-08-01

    Despite a very long history of investigations, the nature and origin of planetary nebulae (PNe) are not fully understood. It is obvious that the observational properties of PNe are influenced by the properties of the central star and the conditions in the environment. In this presentation in order to understand the effects of these components we have modeled the evolution of radio luminosity and the expansion of PNe in the framework of different hypothesis on the origin of these objects. In this we have used the observational data on the central stars and clustered this data into gourps with the similar parameters of the central stars. For the each of these groups of PNe we have built statistical dependences radio luminosity - diameter, number of PNe - diameter which are then compared to the modeled ones. Unfortunately, the comparison of simulations with observations did not allow us to choose between the known models of the evolution of the PN shell. However with the increase of statistics the approach considered in this presentation may become more productive.

  18. Zinc abundances of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Dinerstein, H. L.

    2014-07-01

    Zinc is a useful surrogate element for measuring Fe/H as, unlike iron, it is not depleted in the gas phase media. Zn/H and O/Zn ratios have been derived using the [Zn IV] emission line at 3.625 μm for a sample of nine Galactic planetary nebulae, seven of which are based upon new observations using the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Based on photoionization models, O/O++ is the most reliable ionization correction factor for zinc that can readily be determined from optical emission lines, with an estimated accuracy of 10 per cent or better for all targets in our sample. The majority of the sample is found to be subsolar in [Zn/H]. [O/Zn] in half of the sample is found to be consistent with solar within uncertainties, whereas the remaining half are enhanced in [O/Zn]. [Zn/H] and [O/Zn] as functions of Galactocentric distance have been investigated and there is little evidence to support a trend in either case.

  19. X-Ray Spectra of Young Pulsars and Their Wind Nebulae: Dependence on Spin-Down Energy Loss Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.

    2003-01-01

    An observational model is presented for the spectra of young rotation-powered pulsars and their nebulae based on a study of nine bright Crab-like pulsar systems observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory. A significant correlation is discovered between the X-ray spectra of these pulsars and that of their associated pulsar wind nebulae, both of which are observed to be a function of the spin-down energy loss rate, E. The 2-10 keV spectra of these objects are well characterized by an absorbed power-law model with photon indices, Gamma, in the range of 0.6 < Gamma (sub PSR) < 2.1 and 1.3 < Gamma(sub PWN) < 2.3, for the pulsars and their nebulae, respectively. A linear regression fit relating these two sets of indexes yields Gamma(sub PWN) = 0.91 +/- 0.18 + (0.66 +/- 0.11) Gamma (sub PSR), with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.97. The spectra of these pulsars are found to steepen as Gamma = Gamma(sub max) + alpha E (exp -1/2), with Gamma(sub max) providing an observational limit on the spectral slopes of young rotation-powered pulsars. These results reveal basic properties of young pulsar systems, allow new observational constraints on models of pulsar wind emission, and provide a means of predicting the energetics of pulsars lacking detected pulsations.

  20. Uncovering the Properties of Young Neutron Stars and their Surrounding Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick O.

    2004-01-01

    This five-year grant involves the study of young neutron stars, particularly those in supernova remnants.In the fourth year of this program, the following studies have been undertaken in support of this effort: 1.CTA 1: Following up on our ROSAT and ASCA studies of this SNR, we obtained observations with the XMM-Newton observatory to investigate the central compact source and surrounding nebula. 2. 3C 58: Based upon our earlier Chandra observations, we submitted a successful Chandra Large Project proposal for a 350 ks observation of this young neutron star and its wind nebula. 3. G347.3 - - 0.5: Our Chandra observations of portions of this SNR were aimed at studying the nonthermal X-ray emission from the remnant shell. 4. Chandra Survey for Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants: We have formed a collaboration to carry out an extensive search for young neutron stars in nearby supernova remnants. Using X-ray observations from an approved Chandra Large Project, as well as from additional approved XMM observations, we are investigating a volume-limited sample of SNRs for which there is currently no evidence of associated neutron stars.

  1. Crab Crossing Consideration for MEIC 2

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y.S. Derbenev, G.A. Krafft, Y. Zhang, A. Castilla, J.R. Delayen, S.D. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Crab crossing of colliding electron and ion beams is essential for accommodating the ultra high bunch repetition frequency in the conceptual design of MEIC – a high luminosity polarized electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. The scheme eliminates parasitic beam-beam interactions and avoids luminosity reduction by restoring head-on collisions at interaction points. In this paper, we report simulation studies of beam dynamics with crab cavities for MEIC design. The detailed study involves full 3-D simulations of particle tracking through the various configurations of crab cavities for evaluating the performance. To gain insight, beam and RF dominated fields with other parametric studies will be presented in the paper.

  2. Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Dexter, A.; Dykes, M.; Edwards, H.; Goudket, P; Jenkins, R.; Jones, R.M.; Kalinin, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ko, K.; Latina, A.; Li, Z.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Ng, C.; /SLAC /Daresbury /Fermilab /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /CERN

    2007-08-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.

  3. Properties of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, Kristin

    1988-01-01

    Observations of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae are the closest analog in the interstellar medium to studies of cometary dust in our solar system. The presence of a bright star near the reflection nebula dust provides the opportunity to study both the reflection and emission characteristics of interstellar dust. At 0.1 to 1 micrometer, the reflection nebula emission is due to starlight scattered by dust. The albedo and scattering phase function of the dust is determined from observations of the scattered light. At 50 to 200 micrometers, thermal emission from the dust in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field is observed. The derived dust temperature determines the relative values of the absorption coefficient of the dust at wavelengths where the stellar energy is absorbed and at far infrared wavelengths where the absorbed energy is reradiated. These emission mechanisms directly relate to those seen in the near and mid infrared spectra of comets. In a reflection nebula the dust is observed at much larger distances from the star than in our solar system, so that the equilibrium dust temperature is 50 K rather than 300 K. Thus, in reflection nebulae, thermal emission from dust is emitted at 50 to 200 micrometer.

  4. Hydroxyl Emission in the Westbrook Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, Angelica; Araya, Esteban; Ghosh, Tapasi; Arce, Hector G.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Salter, Christopher J.; Minchin, Robert F.; Pihlstrom, Ylva; Kurtz, Stan; Hofner, Peter; Olmi, Luca

    2016-06-01

    CRL 618, also known as the Westbrook Nebula, is a carbon-rich pre-planetary nebula. Hydroxyl (OH) transitions are typically not detected in carbon-rich late-type stellar objects, however observations conducted with the 305m Arecibo Telescope in 2008 resulted in the detection of 4765 MHz OH emission in CRL 618. We present results of observations carried out a few months after the original detection that confirm the line. This is the first detection of 4765 MHz OH emission (most likely a maser) in a pre-planetary nebula. Follow up observations conducted in 2015 resulted in non-detection of the 4765 MHz OH transition. This behavior is consistent with the high level of variability of excited OH lines that have been detected toward a handful of other pre-planetary nebulae. Our work supports that excited OH masers are short-lived during the pre-planetary nebula phase. We also conducted a search for other OH transitions from 1612 MHz to 8611 MHz with the Arecibo Telescope; we report no other detections at rms levels of ~5 mJy.This work has made use of the computational facilities donated by Frank Rodeffer to the WIU Astrophysics Research Laboratory. We also acknowledge support from M. & C. Wong RISE scholarships and a grant from the WIU College of Arts and Sciences.

  5. Molecular Content of the Helix Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, L. N.; Zeigler, N. R.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2012-06-01

    Multiple transitions of H_2CO, HCO^+, and CO were detected at nine positions across the planetary nebula NGC 7293, the Helix Nebula, using the 12m telescope and the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). A complete map of the nebula has also been made in the J = 1 → 0 transition of HCO^+ at 89 GHz. HCO^+ emission was found to be widespread across the Helix, and is coincident with the ionized gas as traced in optical images. A complex velocity structure is apparent in the HCO^+ spectra, as well. The CO and H_2CO data (J = 1 → 0, 2 → 1, and 3 → 2) were modeled using a radiative transfer code at the nine positions observed in the Helix. Kinetic temperatures were typically found to be in the range Tkin ≈ 20 - 45 K and the gas density on the order of n(H_2) ≈ 105 cm-3 at these positions. The column densities for CO, H_2CO, and HCO^+ were determined to be 1015, 1012, and 1011 cm-2 respectively, corresponding to fractional abundances, relative to H_2, of f ≈ 10-4, 10-7, and 10-8. The extended distribution of HCO^+ suggests that dense clumps may exist throughout the nebula. Hence, the chemistry of evolved planetary nebulae may be more active than previously thought.

  6. 78 FR 40696 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Crab Cost Recovery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Crab Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab includes the Crab Rationalization (CR) Program, a limited access system that allocates BSAI Crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities....

  7. Supernova Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Woosley

    2008-05-05

    The Supernova Science Center (SNSC) was founded in 2001 to carry out theoretical and computational research leading to a better understanding of supernovae and related transients. The SNSC, a four-institutional collaboration, included scientists from LANL, LLNL, the University of Arizona (UA), and the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC). Intitially, the SNSC was funded for three years of operation, but in 2004 an opportunity was provided to submit a renewal proposal for two years. That proposal was funded and subsequently, at UCSC, a one year no-cost extension was granted. The total operational time of the SNSC was thus July 15, 2001 - July 15, 2007. This document summarizes the research and findings of the SNSC and provides a cummulative publication list.

  8. Presupernova models and supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimoto, D.; Nomoto, K.

    1980-01-01

    The present status of theories of presupernova stellar evolution and the triggering mechanisms of supernova explosions are reviewed. The validity of the single-star approximation for stellar core evolution is considered, and the central density and temperature of the stellar core are discussed. Attention is then given to the results of numerical models of supernova explosions by carbon deflagration of an intermediate mass star, resulting in the total disruption of the star; the photodissociation of iron nuclei in a massive star, resulting in neutron star or black hole formation; and stellar core collapse triggered by electron capture in stars of mass ranging between those of the intermediate mass and massive stars, resulting in neutron star formation despite oxygen deflagration. Helium and carbon combustion and detonation in accreting white dwarfs and the gravitational collapse triggered by electron-pair creation in supermassive stars are also discussed, and problems requiring future investigation are indicated.

  9. The Stingray nebula: watching the rapid evolution of a newly born planetary nebula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, M.; Sahu, K. C.; Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, Pedro

    The formation and early evolution of planetary nebulae represent one of the most poorly understood phases of stellar evolution ( Kwok, 1987; Maddox, 1995). One of the youngest, the Stingray Nebula (He3-1357) ( Henize, 1967; Henize, 1976), shows all the tell-tale signs of a newly born planetary nebula: it has become ionized only within the past few decades ( Parthasarathy et al., 1993); the mass-loss from the central star has ceased within the past few years; and the central star is becoming hotter and fainter as expected from a star on its way to becoming a DA white dwarf ( Parthasarathy et al., 1995). The Stingray Nebula thus provides the ideal laboratory for examining the early structure and evolution of this class of objects. Images of the Stingray Nebula, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, show for the first time that its multiple expulsions of matter are focused by an equatorial ring and bubbles of gas located on opposite sides of the ring ( Bobrowsky et al., 1995). The position angle of the outflows has changed, possibly as a result of precessional motion induced by the presence of a companion star. This is consistent with the precessing jet model by Livio & Pringle (1996). Indeed, we have reported the discovery of a companion star in the Stingray Nebula ( Bobrowsky et al., 1998). Finally, we present evidence of the companion star dynamically distorting the gas in this newly-born planetary nebula.

  10. Crab Flares due to Turbulent Dissipation of the Pulsar Striped Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrake, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We interpret γ-ray flares from the Crab Nebula as the signature of turbulence in the pulsar’s electromagnetic outflow. Turbulence is triggered upstream by dynamical instability of the wind’s oscillating magnetic field and accelerates non-thermal particles. On impacting the wind-termination shock, these particles emit a distinct synchrotron component {F}ν ,{flare}, which is constantly modulated by intermittency of the upstream plasma flow. Flares are observed when the high-energy cutoff of {F}ν ,{flare} emerges above the fast-declining nebular emission around 0.1–1 GeV. Simulations carried out in the force-free electrodynamics approximation predict the striped wind to become fully turbulent well ahead of the wind-termination shock, provided its terminal Lorentz factor is ≲ {10}4.

  11. A Low frequency Survey of Giant Pulses from the Crab Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, T.; Stovall, K.; Dowell, J.; Schinzel, F. K.; Taylor, G. B.

    2016-10-01

    We present a large survey of giant pulses from the Crab Pulsar as observed with the first station of the Long Wavelength Array. Automated methods for detecting giant pulses at low frequencies where scattering becomes prevalent are also explored. More than 1400 pulses were detected across four frequency bands between 20 and 84 MHz over a seven-month period beginning in 2013, with additional followup observations in late 2014 and early 2015. A handful of these pulses were detected simultaneously across all four frequency bands. We examine pulse characteristics, including pulse broadening and power law indices for amplitude distributions. We find that the flux density increases toward shorter wavelengths, consistent with a spectral turnover at 100 MHz. Our observations uniquely span multiple scattering epochs, manifesting as a notable trend in the number of detections per observation. These results are characteristic of the variable interface between the synchrotron nebula and the surrounding interstellar medium.

  12. Crab Flares due to Turbulent Dissipation of the Pulsar Striped Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrake, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We interpret γ-ray flares from the Crab Nebula as the signature of turbulence in the pulsar’s electromagnetic outflow. Turbulence is triggered upstream by dynamical instability of the wind’s oscillating magnetic field and accelerates non-thermal particles. On impacting the wind-termination shock, these particles emit a distinct synchrotron component {F}ν ,{flare}, which is constantly modulated by intermittency of the upstream plasma flow. Flares are observed when the high-energy cutoff of {F}ν ,{flare} emerges above the fast-declining nebular emission around 0.1-1 GeV. Simulations carried out in the force-free electrodynamics approximation predict the striped wind to become fully turbulent well ahead of the wind-termination shock, provided its terminal Lorentz factor is ≲ {10}4.

  13. Radio emission from supernovae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, K. W.; Panagia, N.; Sramek, R. A.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Williams, C. L.

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 30 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. Along with reviewing these general properties of the radio emission from supernovae, we present our extensive observations of the radio emission from supernova (SN) 1993J in M 81 (NGC 3031) made with the Very Large Array and other radio telescopes. The SN 1993J radio emission evolves regularly in both time and frequency, and the usual interpretation in terms of shock interaction with a circumstellar medium (CSM) formed by a pre-supernova stellar wind describes the observations rather well considering the complexity of the phenomenon. However: 1) The highest frequency measurements at 85 - 110 GHz at early times (<40 days) are not well fitted by the parameterization which describes the cm wavelength measurements. 2) At a time ˜3100 days after shock breakout, the decline rate of the radio emission steepens from (t+beta ) beta ˜ -0.7 to beta ˜ -2.7 without change in the spectral index (nu +alpha ; alpha ˜ -0.81). This decline is best described not as a power-law, but as an exponential decay with an e-folding time of ˜ 1100 days. 3) The best overall fit to all of the data is a model including both non-thermal synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) and a thermal free-free absorbing (FFA) components at early times, evolving to a constant spectral index, optically thin decline rate, until a break in that decline rate at day ˜3100, as mentioned above.

  14. Are There Hidden Supernovae?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse; Harker, David; Dunham, E.; Rank, David; Temi, Pasquale

    1997-01-01

    Ames Research Center and UCSC have been working on the development of a Mid IR Camera for the KAO in order to search for extra galactic supernovae. The development of the camera and its associated data reduction software have been successfully completed. Spectral Imaging of the Orion Bar at 6.2 and 7.8 microns demonstrates the derotation and data reduction software which was developed.

  15. A Broadband Study of the Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 11-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick; Hughes, John P.; Temim, Tea; Rousseau, Romain; Castro, Daniel; Foight, Dillon; Gaensler, B. M.; Funk, Stefan; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Moffett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    MSH 11-62 (G29U)-Q.1) is a composite supernova remnant for which radio and X-ray observations have identified the remnant shell as well as its central pulsar wind nebula. The observations suggest a relatively young system expanding into a low-density region. Here, we present a study of MSH ll-62 using observations with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Fermi observatories, along with radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We identify a compact X-ray source that appears to be the putative pulsar that powers the nebula, and show that the X-ray spectrum of the nebula bears the signature of synchrotron losses as particles diffuse into the outer nebula. Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, we identify gamma-ray emission originating from MSH 11-62. With density constraints from the new X-ray measurements of the remnant, we model the evolution of the composite system in order to constrain the properties of the underlying pulsar and the origin of the gamma-ray emission.

  16. A BROADBAND STUDY OF THE EMISSION FROM THE COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH 11-62

    SciTech Connect

    Slane, Patrick; Castro, Daniel; Foight, Dillon; and others

    2012-04-20

    MSH 11-62 (G291.0-0.1) is a composite supernova remnant for which radio and X-ray observations have identified the remnant shell as well as its central pulsar wind nebula. The observations suggest a relatively young system expanding into a low-density region. Here, we present a study of MSH 11-62 using observations with the Chandra, XMM -Newton, and Fermi observatories, along with radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We identify a compact X-ray source that appears to be the putative pulsar that powers the nebula, and show that the X-ray spectrum of the nebula bears the signature of synchrotron losses as particles diffuse into the outer nebula. Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, we identify {gamma}-ray emission originating from MSH 11-62. With density constraints from the new X-ray measurements of the remnant, we model the evolution of the composite system in order to constrain the properties of the underlying pulsar and the origin of the {gamma}-ray emission.

  17. Type IA Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    1992-01-01

    Spectral calculations show that a model based on the thermonuclear explosion of a degenerate carbon/oxygen white dwarf provides excellent agreement with observations of Type Ia supernovae. Identification of suitable evolutionary progenitors remains a severe problem. General problems with estimation of supernova rates are outlined and the origin of Type Ia supernovae from double degenerate systems are discussed in the context of new rates of explosion per H band luminosity, the lack of observed candidates, and the likely presence of H in the vicinity of some SN Ia events. Re-examination of the problems of triggering Type Ia by accretion of hydrogen from a companion shows that there may be an avenue involving cataclysmic variables, especially if extreme hibernation occurs. Novae may channel accreting white dwarfs to a unique locus in accretion rate/mass space. Systems that undergo secular evolution to higher mass transfer rates could lead to just the conditions necessary for a Type Ia explosion. Tests involving fluorescence or absorption in a surrounding circumstellar medium and the detection of hydrogen stripped from a companion, which should appear at low velocity inside the white dwarf ejecta, are suggested. Possible observational confirmation of the former is described.

  18. Monitoring the Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo

    The VYSOS (Variable Young Stars Optical Survey) project has at its disposal five small telescopes: a 5-inch and a 20-inch robotic optical imaging telescope in Hawaii funded by the NSF, and a 6-inch robotic optical imaging telescope, a 32-inch robotic infrared imaging telescope, and a 60-inch optical spectroscopic telescope in Chile, funded and operated from Germany. Through an agreement between the leaders of the two sites (B. Reipurth and R. Chini), it has been decided to devote a significant fraction of time on these facilities to a large Key Project, conducting a massive monitoring survey of the Orion Nebula Cluster. The vast data streams are being reduced through automated customized pipelines. The applicant seeks funding to employ a postdoc and an undergraduate assistant to work at the University of Hawaii and collaborate on the analysis of the data. Virtually all young stars are variable, with a wide range of amplitudes and characteristic timescales. This is mainly due to accretion shocks as material from circumstellar disks fall onto the stars along magnetic funnel flows, but also giant star spots, magnetic flares, occultations by orbiting dust condensations, and eclipses by companions can modulate the light from the nascent star. It is increasingly recognized that the rather static view of pre-main sequence evolution that has prevailed for many years is misleading, and that time-dependent phenomena may hold the key to an understanding of the way young stars grow and their circumstellar environments evolve. The VYSOS project is designed to bring sophisticated modern techniques to bear on the long neglected problem of variability in young solar type stars. To interpret the observations they will be compared to sophisticated MHD models of circumstellar disks around young stars. The Orion Nebula Cluster is the nearest rich region of star formation, and numerous, albeit heterogeneous, studies exist of the cluster members. The present study will provide the first

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this sturning image provided by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Omega Nebula (M17) resembles the fury of a raging sea, showing a bubbly ocean of glowing hydrogen gas and small amounts of other elements such as oxygen and sulfur. The nebula, also known as the Swan Nebula, is a hotbed of newly born stars residing 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The wavelike patterns of gas have been sculpted and illuminated by a torrent of ultraviolet radiation from the young massive stars, which lie outside the picture to the upper left. The ultraviolet radiation is carving and heating the surfaces of cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed surfaces glow orange and red in this photograph. The green represents an even hotter gas that masks background structures. Various gases represented with color are: sulfur, represented in red; hydrogen, green; and oxygen blue.

  20. Barnard's Merope Nebula Revisited: New Observational Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, G. H.; Simon, Theodore

    2001-06-01

    IC 349 is a small, fan-shaped reflection nebula located only 30" from 23 Tau; its nucleus is, by a factor 15, the brightest area of the Pleiades nebulosity. We propose that IC 349 is a fragment of the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud that has been encountered by the Pleiades in that cluster's southward motion and is being illuminated and shaped by the radiation field of 23 Tau. New Hubble Space Telescope multicolor imagery and the structure, colors, and surface brightness of IC 349 are discussed in terms of that hypothesis. What is known of the proper motion of the nebula, what can be inferred of the properties of the nebula from its color, and what is expected from radiation pressure theory appear to be compatible with this cloudlet-encounter hypothesis.