Kinetics and mechanisms of creep crack growth in a creep-resisting steel
Vainshtok, V.A.; Baumshtein, M.V.; Makovetskaya, I.A.; Man'ko, V.D.
1986-02-01
This paper discusses the nature of kinetic diagrams of growth of fatigue cracks in the temperature range typical of operation of important components of power equipment and examines the proportion of the incubation period of crack growth in the total life. The relationship of the kinetic diagrams of crack growth with the fracture mechanisms are examined and the effect of running life on creep crack propagation is reviewed.
Yuen, J.L.; Roy, P.; Nix, W.D.
1984-09-01
The influence of oxidation kinetics on the near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior of a nickel base precipitation hardened superalloy was studied in air from 427 to 649 C. The tests were conducted at 100 Hz and at load ratios of 0.1 and 0.5. The threshold values of the alternating stress intensity factor were found to increase with temperature. This behavior is attributed to oxide deposits that form on the freshly created fracture surfaces which enhance crack closure. As determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry, the oxide thickness was uniform over the crack length and was of the order of the maximum crack tip opening displacement at threshold. Oxidation kinetics were important in thickening the oxide on the fracture surfaces at elevated temperatures, whereas at room temperature, the oxide deposits at near threshold fatigue crack growth rates and at low load ratios were thickened by an oxide fretting mechanism. The effect of fracture surface roughness-induced crack closure on the near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior is also discussed. 27 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, J. L.; Roy, P.; Nix, W. D.
1984-09-01
The influence of oxidation kinetics on the near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior of a nickel base precipitation hardened superalloy was studied in air from 427° to 649 °C. The tests were conducted at 100 Hz and at load ratios of 0.1 and 0.5. The threshold ΔK values were found to increase with temperature. This behavior is attributed to oxide deposits that form on the freshly created fracture surfaces which enhance crack closure. As determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry, the oxide thickness was uniform over the crack length and was of the order of the maximum crack tip opening displacement at threshold. Oxidation kinetics were important in thickening the oxide on the fracture surfaces at elevated temperatures, whereas at room temperature, the oxide deposits at near threshold fatigue crack growth rates and at low load ratios were thickened by an oxide fretting mechanism. The effect of fracture surface roughness-induced crack closure on the near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior is also discussed.
Crack propagation driven by crystal growth
A. Royne; Paul Meaking; A. Malthe-Sorenssen; B. Jamtveit; D. K. Dysthe
2011-10-01
Crystals that grow in confinement may exert a force on their surroundings and thereby drive crack propagation in rocks and other materials. We describe a model of crystal growth in an idealized crack geometry in which the crystal growth and crack propagation are coupled through the stress in the surrounding bulk solid. Subcritical crack propagation takes place during a transient period, which may be very long, during which the crack velocity is limited by the kinetics of crack propagation. When the crack is sufficiently large, the crack velocity becomes limited by the kinetics of crystal growth. The duration of the subcritical regime is determined by two non-dimensional parameters, which relate the kinetics of crack propagation and crystal growth to the supersaturation of the fluid and the elastic properties of the surrounding material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ro, Yunjo
The effect of environmental exposure [given by the ratio of water vapor pressure to the loading frequency (PH2O/f)] on fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) and damage mechanisms has been investigated for Al-Cu-Li/Mg alloys tested at constant stress intensity range (DeltaK = KMAX - KMIN). Different exposure dependences of the FCGR are explained by H-embrittlement and 3 rate-limiting processes that are similar for each alloy and aging condition. It is shown that the dislocation slip character (heterogeneous planar vs. wavy) controls FCGR at low to moderate exposures, rather than alloy composition and strengthening precipitate reactivity. However, the benefit of planar slip is significantly reduced at higher exposures. An SEM-based electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)/stereology method was used to successfully quantify changes in fatigue fracture surface crystallography as a function of exposure for a peak aged Al-Cu-Li alloy and an under-aged Al-Cu-Mg alloy. Near-{111} slip band cracking (SBC) observed under high vacuum conditions is gradually replaced by near-{001}/{011} and high index, {hkl}, cracking planes as PH2O/f is increased. The complete absence of near-{111} SBC at higher exposures suggests H enhanced decohesion rather than slip based damage process enhanced by H. This conclusion was substantiated by direct TEM observation. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling was used to produce thin foils for TEM, which successfully revealed the underlying dislocation structure at the crack surface and within surrounding materials in under-aged Al-Cu-Mg tested at exposure conditions of ˜10 -8 and 50 Pa·sec. Both conditions exhibit a similar layer of dislocation cells just below the fracture surface which abruptly changes to localized slip bands away from the fracture surface, confirming the presence of a strain gradient at the crack tip. However, the thickness of the substructure layer and slip band width observed at ˜10-8 Pa·sec was larger than those observed at 50 Pa
Crack tip deformation and fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H.-W.
1981-01-01
Recent research on fatigue crack growth is summarized. Topics discussed include the use of the differential stress intensity factor to characterize crack tip deformation, the use of the unzipping model to study the growth of microcracks and the fatigue crack growth in a ferritic-martensitic steel, and the development of a model of fatige crack growth threshold. It is shown that in the case of small yielding, the differential stress intensity factor provides an adequate description of cyclic plastic deformation at the crack tip and correlates well with the crack growth rate. The unzipping model based on crack tip shear decohesion process is found to be in good agreement with the measured crack growth and striation spacing measurements. The proposed model of crack growth threshold gives correct predictions of the crack growth behavior in the near-threshold region.
Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A.K.
1997-12-01
The authors have re-evaluated short crack growth behavior using concepts developed recently, and they show that these concepts provide a unified framework that can explain both short and long crack growth behavior without resorting to the crack closure effect. They consider that the behavior of long cracks, including the effects of load ratio, R, is fundamental. they had shown previously that, since fatigue is at least a two-parameter problem in that at least two load parameters are required for an unambiguous description, there are two critical driving forces required simultaneously for fatigue cracks to grow. In extending this analysis to the growth of short cracks, they reject the current notion of the lack of similitude for short cracks and express the similitude as a fundamental postulate that, for a given crack growth mechanism, equal crack tip driving forces result in equal crack growth rates. Short crack growth behavior confirms the concept that two parameters are required to define fatigue; consequently, for fatigue cracks to grow, two thresholds need to be satisfied simultaneously. The authors present examples from the literature to illustrate the concepts discussed.
Elevated temperature crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.
1992-01-01
The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bianca, C.; Creager, M.
1976-01-01
Flexible, adaptable, integrative routine, computer program incorporates Collipriest-Ehret and Paris-Forman equations. Calculates growth from initial defect size and terminates calculation when crack is sufficiently large for critical condition. Wheeler, Willenborg, and Grumman Closure models are available.
Elevated temperature crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Malik, S. N.; Laflen, J. H.
1988-01-01
A study was performed to examine the applicability of path-independent (P-I) integrals to crack growth problems in hot section components of gas turbine aircraft engines. Alloy 718 was used and the experimental parameters included combined temperature and strain cycling, thermal gradients, elastic-plastic strain levels, and mean strains. A literature review was conducted of proposed P-I integrals, and those capable of analyzing hot section component problems were selected and programmed into the postprocessor of a finite element code. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analyses were conducted to simulate crack growth and crack closure of the test specimen, and to evaluate the P-I integrals. It was shown that the selected P-I integrals are very effective for predicting crack growth for isothermal conditions.
Effect of aging on the fatigue crack growth kinetics of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy in two directions
Alpay, S.P.; Guerbuez, R. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)
1994-02-15
There have been investigations discussing the effect of aging condition, and thereby the microstructure, on the fatigue crack growth characteristics of precipitation hardening alloys. Lindigkeit et al.., testing an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy of composition corresponding to the commercial alloy 7075 concluded that the crack propagation resistance of underaged microstructures with shearable precipitates is significantly higher than overaged samples of same strength containing non-shearable particles. They reported that this behavior cannot be explained on the basis of slip reversibility alone. A similar conclusion is drawn by Zaiken and Ritchie from investigations on the effect of microstructure on the fatigue crack growth rate of an 7150 aluminum alloy, which is a somewhat high-purity version of the alloy 7050, with lower Fe and Si contents. It is also interesting that aging conditions showing high resistance to fatigue crack growth at low [Delta]K regimes, do not necessarily retain their superiority at medium and high stress intensity ranges.
Elevated temperature crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.
1985-01-01
The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.
Subcritical crack growth in marble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nara, Yoshitaka; Nishida, Yuki; Toshinori, Ii; Harui, Tomoki; Tanaka, Mayu; Kashiwaya, Koki
2016-04-01
It is essential to study time-dependent deformation and fracturing in various rock materials to prevent natural hazards related to the failure of a rock mass. In addition, information of time-dependent fracturing is essential to ensure the long-term stability of a rock mass surrounding various structures. Subcritical crack growth is one of the main causes of time-dependent fracturing in rock. It is known that subcritical crack growth is influenced by not only stress but also surrounding environment. Studies of subcritical crack growth have been widely conducted for silicate rocks such as igneous rocks and sandstones. By contrast, information of subcritical crack growth in carbonate rocks is not enough. Specifically, influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in carbonate rock should be clarified to ensure the long-term stability of a rock mass. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated. Especially, the influence of the temperature, relative humidity and water on subcritical crack growth in marble is investigated. As rock samples, marbles obtained in Skopje-City in Macedonia and Carrara-City in Italy were used. To measure subcritical crack growth, we used the load relaxation method of the double-torsion (DT) test. All measurements by DT test were conducted under controlled temperature and relative humidity. For both marbles, it was shown that the crack velocity in marble in air increased with increasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. Additionally, the crack velocity in water was much higher than that in air. It was also found that the crack velocity increased with increasing temperature. It is considered that temperature and water have significant influences on subcritical crack growth in marble. For Carrara marble in air, it was recognized that the value of subcritical crack growth index became low when the crack velocity was higher than 10-4 m/s. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Shoji, Tetsuo; Meng, Fanjiang
2015-03-01
Stress corrosion cracking growth rates of Alloy 182 weld metals in T-S and T-L orientations in 288 °C pure water with various dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations were measured. Extensive inter-dendritic stress corrosion cracking paths on the side surfaces and fracture surfaces were observed. The crack growth path in the T-S orientation specimen was perpendicular to the applied loading direction, and parallel to the loading direction in the T-L specimen. Crack growth rates of the T-S specimen were significantly higher than those of the T-L specimen under the same test conditions. The crack growth rate decreased significantly with decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration. Adding dissolved hydrogen in water caused an apparent decrease of the alternating current potential drop signal during crack growth monitoring.
Grain boundary oxidation and fatigue crack growth at elevated temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.; Oshida, Y.
1986-01-01
Fatigue crack growth rate at elevated temperatures can be accelerated by grain boundary oxidation. Grain boundary oxidation kinetics and the statistical distribution of grain boundary oxide penetration depth were studied. At a constant delta K-level and at a constant test temperature, fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, is a function of cyclic frequency, nu. A fatigue crack growth model of intermittent micro-ruptures of grain boundary oxide is constructed. The model is consistent with the experimental observations that, in the low frequency region, da/dN is inversely proportional to nu, and fatigue crack growth is intergranular.
Shear fatigue crack growth - A literature survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.
1985-01-01
Recent studies of shear crack growth are reviewed, emphasizing test methods and data analyses. The combined mode I and mode II elastic crack tip stress fields are considered. The development and design of the compact shear specimen are described, and the results of fatigue crack growth tests using compact shear specimens are reviewed. The fatigue crack growth tests are discussed and the results of inclined cracks in tensile panels, center cracks in plates under biaxial loading, cracked beam specimens with combined bending and shear loading, center-cracked panels and double edge-cracked plates under cyclic shear loading are examined and analyzed in detail.
Kinetic studies of stress-corrosion cracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noronha, P. J.
1977-01-01
Use of time-to-failure curves for stress-corrosion cracking processes may lead to incorrect estimates of structural life, if material is strongly dependent upon prestress levels. Technique characterizes kinetics of crackgrowth rates and intermediate arrest times by load-level changes.
Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring
Welch, Donald E.; Hively, Lee M.; Holdaway, Ray F.
2002-01-01
A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.
Slow Crack Growth of Germanium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, Jon
2016-01-01
The fracture toughness and slow crack growth parameters of germanium supplied as single crystal beams and coarse grain disks were measured. Although germanium is anisotropic (A=1.7), it is not as anisotropic as SiC, NiAl, or Cu, as evidence by consistent fracture toughness on the 100, 110, and 111 planes. Germanium does not exhibit significant slow crack growth in distilled water. (n=100). Practical values for engineering design are a fracture toughness of 0.7 MPam and a Weibull modulus of m=6+/-2. For well ground and reasonable handled coupons, fracture strength should be greater than 30 MPa.
Hydrogen enhanced crack growth in 18 Ni maraging steels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Wei, R. P.
1976-01-01
The kinetics of sustained-load subcritical crack growth for 18 Ni maraging steels in high-purity hydrogen are examined using the crack-tip stress intensity factor K as a measure of crack driving force. Crack growth rate as a function of stress intensity exhibited a clearly defined K-independent stage (Stage II). Crack growth rates in an 18 Ni (grade 250) maraging steel are examined for temperatures from -6 to +100 C. A critical temperature was observed above which crack growth rates became diminishingly small. At lower temperatures the activation energy for Stage II crack growth was found to be 16.7 plus or minus 3.3 kJ/mole. Temperature and hydrogen partial pressure are shown to interact in a complex manner to determine the apparent Kth (stress intensity level below which no observable crack growth occurs) and the crack growth behavior. Comparison of results on '250' and '300' grades of 18 Ni maraging steel indicate a significant influence of alloy composition and/or strength level on the crack growth behavior.
Random loading fatigue crack growth: Crack closure considerations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ortiz, Keith
1987-01-01
The prediction of fatigue crack growth is an important element of effective fracture control for metallic structures and mechanical components, especially in the aerospace industry. The prediction techniques available and applied today are mostly based on fatigue crack growth measurements determined in constant amplitude testing. However, while many service loadings are constant amplitude, many more loadings are random amplitude. An investigation to determine which statistics of random loadings are relevant to fatigue crack closure was conducted. The fundamentals of random processes and crack closure are briefly reviewed, then the relevance of certain random process parameters to the crack closure calculation are discussed qualitatively. A course for further research is outlined.
Crack growth in single-crystal silicon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.
1986-01-01
Crack growth in single-crystal silicon at room temperature in air was evaluated by double torsion (DT) load-relaxation method and monitored by acoustic emission (AE) technique. Both DT and AE methods indicated lack of subcritical crack growth in silicon. At the critical stress intensity factor, the crack front was found to be jumping several times in a 'mirror' region and then followed by fast crack growth in a 'hackle' region. Hackle marks were found to be associated with plastic deformation at the tip of the fast moving crack. No dislocation etch pits were found in the 'mirror' region, in which crack growth may result from interatomic bonds broken at the crack tip under stress without any plastic deformation. Acoustic emission appears to be spontaneously generated from both interatomic bonds broken and dislocation generation at the moving crack tip during the crack growth in single-crystal silicon.
A review of fatigue crack growth analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.
1991-01-01
Stress intensity factor range, Delta K, has been shown to correlate well with fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN. A number of fatigue crack growth theories have been developed for such correlations. Often, conjectory theories of fatigue crack growth are constructed from experimental data. On the other hand, fatigue crack growth theories can also be derived rigorously with deductive logic. Four such deductive theories are reviewed: (1) that for the growth of a small crack in a very wide homogeneous plate, (2) the theory of similitude for the correlation of da/dN with Delta K, (3) a theory of crack growth in homogeneous materials in small-scale yielding, and (4) the unzipping theory of fatigue crack growth. This paper synthesizes these four theories into a logic framework useful for fatigue crack growth analysis. The deductive theories and the conjectory theories complement each other in the advances of the understanding of fatigue crack growth. The applications of logic framework to formulating an overview of fatigue crack growth behavior and to defining the complex issues of the growth of small cracks and crack growth in composites are illustrated.
On the Crack Bifurcation and Fanning of Crack Growth Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce G.; Zanganeh, Mohammad
2015-01-01
Crack growth data obtained from ASTM load shedding method for different R values show some fanning especially for aluminum alloys. It is believed by the authors and it has been shown before that the observed fanning is due to the crack bifurcation occurs in the near threshold region which is a function of intrinsic properties of the alloy. Therefore, validity of the ASTM load shedding test procedure and results is confirmed. However, this position has been argued by some experimentalists who believe the fanning is an artifact of the test procedure and thus the obtained results are invalid. It has been shown that using a special test procedure such as using compressively pre-cracked specimens will eliminate the fanning effect. Since not using the fanned data fit can result in a significantly lower calculated cyclic life, design of a component, particularly for rotorcraft and propeller systems will considerably be impacted and therefore this study is of paramount importance. In this effort both test procedures i.e. ASTM load shedding and the proposed compressive pre-cracking have been used to study the fatigue crack growth behavior of compact tension specimens made of aluminum alloy 2524-T3. Fatigue crack growth paths have been closely observed using SEM machines to investigate the effects of compression pre-cracking on the crack bifurcation behavior. The results of this study will shed a light on resolving the existing argument by better understanding of near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior.
Visual simulation of fatigue crack growth
Wang, S.; Margolin, H.; Lin, F.B.
1998-07-01
An attempt has been made to visually simulate fatigue crack propagation from a precrack. An integrated program was developed for this purpose. The crack-tip shape was determined at four load positions in the first load cycle. The final shape was a blunt front with an ear profile at the precrack tip. A more general model, schematically illustrating the mechanism of fatigue crack growth and striation formation in a ductile material, was proposed based on this simulation. According to the present model, fatigue crack growth is an intermittent process; cyclic plastic shear strain is the driving force applied to both state 1 and 2 crack growth. No fracture mode transition occurs between the two stages in the present study. The crack growth direction alternates, moving up and down successively, producing fatigue striations. A brief examination has been made of the crack growth path in a ductile two-phase material.
Jumplike fatigue crack growth in compressor blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limar', L. V.; Demina, Yu. A.; Botvina, L. R.
2014-04-01
It is shown that power relations between the two main fractographic characteristics of fracture surfaces forming during jumplike fatigue crack growth, namely, the crack depth and the corresponding crack front length, can be used to estimate the fracture stress during vibration tests of the compressor blades of an aviation gas turbine engine, which are made of VT3-1 titanium alloy.
On Generating Fatigue Crack Growth Thresholds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Newman, James, Jr.; Forman, Royce G.
2003-01-01
The fatigue crack growth threshold, defining crack growth as either very slow or nonexistent, has been traditionally determined with standardized load reduction methodologies. These experimental procedures can induce load history effects that result in crack closure. This history can affect the crack driving force, i.e. during the unloading process the crack will close first at some point along the wake or blunt at the crack tip, reducing the effective load at the crack tip. One way to reduce the effects of load history is to propagate a crack under constant amplitude loading. As a crack propagates under constant amplitude loading, the stress intensity factor range, Delta K, will increase, as will the crack growth rate. da/dN. A fatigue crack growth threshold test procedure is experimentally validated that does not produce load history effects and can be conducted at a specified stress ratio, R. The authors have chosen to study a ductile aluminum alloy where the plastic deformations generated during testing may be of the magnitude to impact the crack opening.
Fatigue-Crack-Growth Structural Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1986-01-01
Elastic and plastic deformations calculated under variety of loading conditions. Prediction of fatigue-crack-growth lives made with FatigueCrack-Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to initial crack configuration, FASTRAN predicts crack length and other parameters until complete break occurs. Loads are tensile or compressive and of variable or constant amplitude. FASTRAN incorporates linear-elastic fracture mechanics with modifications of load-interaction effects caused by crack closure. FASTRAN considered research tool, because of lengthy calculation times. FASTRAN written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.
Fracture toughness and crack growth of Zerodur
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viens, Michael J.
1990-01-01
The fracture toughness and crack growth parameters of Zerodur, a low expansion glass ceramic material, were determined. The fracture toughness was determined using indentation techniques and was found to be 0.9 MPa x m(sup 1/2). The crack growth parameters were determined using indented biaxial specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading in an aqueous environment. The crack growth parameters n and 1n(B) were found to be 30.7 and -6.837, respectively. The crack growth parameters were also determined using indented biaxial specimens subjected to dynamic loading in an ambient 50 percent relative humidity environment. The crack growth parameters n and 1n(B) at 50 percent relative humidity were found to be 59.3 and -17.51, respectively.
Prediction of fatigue crack-growth patterns and lives in three-dimensional cracked bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Raju, I. S.
1984-01-01
Fatigue crack growth patterns and lives for surface cracks, surface cracks at holes, and corner cracks at holes in three dimensional bodies were predicted using linear-elastic fracture mechanics concepts that were modified to account for crack-closure behavior. The predictions were made by using stress intensity factor equations for these crack configurations and the fatigue crack-growth (delta K against rate) relationship for the material of interest. The crack configurations were subjected to constant-amplitude fatigue loading under either remote tension or bending loads. The predicted crack growth patterns and crack growth lives for aluminum alloys agreed well with test data from the literature.
Fatigue life and crack growth prediction methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.; Everett, R. A., Jr.
1993-01-01
The capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model and life-prediction code to predict fatigue crack growth and fatigue lives of metallic materials are reviewed. Crack-tip constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective-stress-intensity factor range (delta(K(sub eff))) under constant-amplitude loading. Some modifications to the delta(K(sub eff))-rate relations were needed in the near threshold regime to fit small-crack growth rate behavior and endurance limits. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and in some cases total fatigue lives, for several aluminum and titanium alloys under constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude, and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were calculated using the crack growth relations and microstructural features like those that initiated cracks. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.
Fatigue crack growth automated testing method
Hatch, P.W.; VanDenAvyle, J.A.; Laing, J.
1989-06-01
A computer controlled servo-hydraulic mechanical test system has been configured to conduct automated fatigue crack growth testing. This provides two major benefits: it allows continuous cycling of specimens without operator attention over evenings and weekends; and complex load histories, including random loading and spectrum loading, can be applied to the specimens to simulate cyclic loading of engineering structures. The software is written in MTS Multi-User Basic to control test machine output and acquire data at predetermined intervals. Compact tension specimens are cycled according to ASTM specification E647-86. Fatigue crack growth is measured via specimen compliance during the test using a compliance/crack length calibration determined earlier by visual crack length measurements. This setup was used to measure crack growth rates in 6063 aluminum alloy for a variety of cyclic loadings, including spectrum loads. Data collected compared well with tests run manually. 13 figs.
Crack growth resistance of textured alumina
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, Jonathan A.; Shannon, John L., Jr.; Bradt, Richard C.
1989-01-01
The crack growth resistance of a textured, extruded alumina body was compared with that of anisotropic, isopressed body of similar grain size, density, and chemistry. R-curve levels reflected the preferred orientation; however, R-curve slopes were the same in all instances, implying a similar crack growth-resistive mechanism. Three orthogonal orientations of crack growth in the two structures exhibited similar forms of K(IR) versus Delta-a curves, for which a schematic diagram for polycrystalline ceramics is proposed.
Fatigue-Crack-Growth Computer Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce G.; Shivakumar, V.; Newman, James C., Jr.
1991-01-01
Fatigue Crack Growth (NASA/FLAGRO) computer program developed as aid in predicting growth of preexisting flaws and cracks in structural components of space systems. Is enhanced version of FLAGRO4 and incorporates state-of-the-art improvements in both fracture mechanics and computer technology. Provides fracture-mechanics analyst with computerized method of evaluating "safe-crack-growth-life" capabilities of structural components. Also used to evaluate tolerance to damage of structure of given design. Designed modular to facilitate revisions and operation on minicomputers. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Subcritical crack growth in two titanium alloys.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, D. N.
1973-01-01
Measurement of subcritical crack growth during static loading of precracked titanium alloys in salt water using samples too thin for plane strain loading to predominate was examined as a method for determining the critical stress intensity for crack propagation in salt water. Significant internal crack growth followed by arrest was found at quite low stress intensities, but crack growth rates were relatively low. Assuming these techniques provided a reliable measurement of the critical stress intensity, the value for annealed Ti-4Al-1.5Mo-0.5V alloy was apparently about 35 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power, while that for annealed Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V was below 45 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power. Crack growth was also observed in tests conducted in both alloys in an air environment. At 65 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power, the extent of crack growth was greater in air than in salt water. Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V showed arrested crack growth in air at a stress intensity of 45 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power.
Controlled crack growth specimen for brittle systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calomino, Anthony M.; Brewer, David N.
1990-01-01
A pure Mode 1 fracture specimen and test procedure has been developed which provides extended, stable, through-thickness crack growth in ceramics and other brittle, nonmetallic materials. Fixed displacement loading, applied at the crack mouth, promotes stable crack extension by reducing the stored elastic strain energy. Extremely fine control of applied displacements is achieved by utilizing the Poisson's expansion of a compressively loaded cylindrical pin. Stable cracks were successfully grown in soda-lime glass and monolithic Al2O3 for lengths in excess of 20 mm without uncontrollable catastrophic failure.
Controlled crack growth specimen for brittle systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calomino, Anthony M.; Brewer, David N.
1992-01-01
A pure Mode 1 fracture specimen and test procedure has been developed which provides extended, stable, through-thickness crack growth in ceramics and other brittle, nonmetallic materials. Fixed displacement loading, applied at the crack mouth, promotes stable crack extension by reducing the stored elastic strain energy. Extremely fine control of applied displacements is achieved by utilizing the Poisson's expansion of a compressively loaded cylindrical pin. Stable cracks were successfully grown in soda-lime glass and monolithic Al2O3 for lengths in excess of 2O mm without uncontrollable catastrophic failure.
Modelling microstructurally sensitive fatigue short crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Los Rios, E. R.; Xin, X. J.; Navarro, A.
1994-10-01
Microstructurally sensitive fatigue short crack growth can occur in many engineering components devoid of large defects. Continuum mechanics principles, including linear elastic fracture mechanics, used in damage tolerance design and life prediction methods are not applicable in these situations and therefore new concepts need to be developed to characterize this type of growth. A microstructurally sensitive model of fatigue crack growth is presented in which the effect of microstructure is dominant in the early stage of growth but plays a negligible role after the crack has gone through the transition from structure-sensitive to structure-insensitive growth. The effect of both microstructure and structure sensitive variables on the transition from short cracks to continuum mechanics and the conditions for crack instability leading to final failure are examined. The microstructural variables incorporated in the equations that describe the model are those controlling the extent and intensity of crack tip plasticity such as grain size, precipitation and dispersion hardening, strain hardening and mis-orientation between grains. It is expected that the concepts developed within the model will form the basis for the design of new crack-resistant materials.
Crack Growth in Single-Crystal Silicon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.
1986-01-01
Report describes experiments on crack growth in single-crystal silicon at room temperature in air. Crack growth in (111) cleavage plane of wafers, 50 by 100 by 0.76 mm in dimension, cut from Czochralski singlecrystal silicon studied by double-torsion load-relaxation method and by acoustic-emission measurements. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray topography also employed. Results aid in design and fabrication of silicon photovoltaic and microelectronic devices.
The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, R. S.
2001-01-01
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (less than 35 microns) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500X) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% NaCl environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.
The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.
2015-01-01
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.
Crack Growth Properties of Sealing Glasses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, Jonathan A.; Tandon, R.
2008-01-01
The crack growth properties of several sealing glasses were measured using constant stress rate testing in 2% and 95% RH (relative humidity). Crack growth parameters measured in high humidity are systematically smaller (n and B) than those measured in low humidity, and velocities for dry environments are approx. 100x lower than for wet environments. The crack velocity is very sensitivity to small changes in RH at low RH. Confidence intervals on parameters that were estimated from propagation of errors were comparable to those from Monte Carlo simulation.
Slow crack growth in spinel in water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwantes, S.; Elber, W.
1983-01-01
Magnesium aluminate spinel was tested in a water environment at room temperature to establish its slow crack-growth behavior. Ring specimens with artificial flaws on the outside surface were loaded hydraulically on the inside surface. The time to failure was measured. Various precracking techniques were evaluated and multiple precracks were used to minimize the scatter in the static fatigue tests. Statistical analysis techniques were developed to determine the strength and crack velocities for a single flaw. Slow crack-growth rupture was observed at stress intensities as low as 70 percent of K sub c. A strengthening effect was observed in specimens that had survived long-time static fatigue tests.
On fatigue crack growth under random loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W. Q.; Lin, Y. K.; Lei, Y.
1992-09-01
A probabilistic analysis of the fatigue crack growth, fatigue life and reliability of a structural or mechanical component is presented on the basis of fracture mechanics and theory of random processes. The material resistance to fatigue crack growth and the time-history of the stress are assumed to be random. Analytical expressions are obtained for the special case in which the random stress is a stationary narrow-band Gaussian random process, and a randomized Paris-Erdogan law is applicable. As an example, the analytical method is applied to a plate with a central crack, and the results are compared with those obtained from digital Monte Carlo simulations.
Fatigue life and crack growth prediction methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.; Everett, Richard A., Jr.
1994-01-01
This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model and life-prediction code to predict fatigue crack growth and fatigue lives of metallic materials. Crack-tip constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective stress-intensity factor range (Delta K(sub eff)) under constant amplitude loading. Some modifications to the Delta K(sub eff)-rate relations were needed in the near threshold regime to fit small-crackgrowth rate behavior and endurance limits. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and in some cases total fatigue lives, for several aluminum and titanium alloys under constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude, and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were calculated using the crack-growth relations and microstructural features like those that initiated cracks. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.
Crack growth monitoring at CFRP bond lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahammer, M.; Adebahr, W.; Sachse, R.; Gröninger, S.; Kreutzbruck, M.
2016-02-01
With the growing need for lightweight technologies in aerospace and automotive industries, fibre-reinforced plastics, especially carbon-fibre (CFRP), are used with a continuously increasing annual growth rate. A promising joining technique for composites is adhesive bonding. While rivet holes destroy the fibres and cause stress concentration, adhesive bond lines distribute the load evenly. Today bonding is only used in secondary structures due to a lack of knowledge with regard to long-term predictability. In all industries, numerical simulation plays a critical part in the development process of new materials and structures, while it plays a vital role when it comes to CFRP adhesive bondings conducing the predictability of life time and damage tolerance. The critical issue with adhesive bondings is crack growth. In a dynamic tensile stress testing machine we dynamically load bonded CFRP coupon specimen and measure the growth rate of an artificially started crack in order to feed the models with the results. We also investigate the effect of mechanical crack stopping features. For observation of the bond line, we apply two non-contact NDT techniques: Air-coupled ultrasound in slanted transmission mode and active lockin-thermography evaluated at load frequencies. Both methods give promising results for detecting the current crack front location. While the ultrasonic technique provides a slightly higher accuracy, thermography has the advantage of true online monitoring, because the measurements are made while the cyclic load is being applied. The NDT methods are compared to visual inspection of the crack front at the specimen flanks and show high congruence. Furthermore, the effect of crack stopping features within the specimen on the crack growth is investigated. The results show, that not all crack fronts are perfectly horizontal, but all of them eventually come to a halt in the crack stopping feature vicinity.
Acoustic-emission inspection of the kinetics of fatigue cracks in turbomachinery disks
Banov, M.D.; Shanyavskii, A.A.; Urbakh, A.I.; Troenkin, D.A.; Konyaev, E.A.; Pykhtin, Yu.A.; Minatsevich, S.F.; Kashin, V.N.
1988-07-01
The kinetics of crack growth in turbomachinery disks under low-cycle fatigue conditions was investigated. The relationship between the change in acoustic emission parameters and the processes of loss of continuity of the disk material in cyclic loading was established on the basis of fratographic investigations. A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of traditional methods of nondestructive testing applicable to the problem of early detection of cracks in disks is given.
Fatigue crack growth in lithium hydride
Healy, T.E.
1993-09-01
Subcritical fatigue crack growth, from cyclic tensile loading, was demonstrated in warm pressed Polycrystalline lithium hydride. Experiments were performed with cyclic tension-tension crack opening (mode I) loads applied to a pre-cracked compact type specimen in an argon environment at a temperature of 21C (70F). The fatigue crack growth was found to occur between 7.56 {times} 10{sup {minus}ll} M/cycle (2.98 {times} l0{sup {minus}9} in/cycle) and 2.35 {times} l0{sup {minus}8} m/cycle (9.24{times}10{sup {minus}7} in/cycle) for a range of stress intensity factors between 1.04 MPa{center_dot}{radical}m (0.95 ksi{center_dot}{radical}in) and 1.49 MPa{center_dot}{radical}m (1.36 ksi{center_dot}{radical}in). The rate of fatigue crack growth from cyclic tensile loading was found to be in excess of crack growth from sustained loading at an equivalent stress intensity factor. Furthermore, a fatigue threshold was not evident from the acquired data.
The growth of small corrosion fatigue cracks in alloy 2024
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.
1993-01-01
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 2024 is established. The damaging effect of salt water on the early stages of small crack growth is characterized by crack initiation at constituent particle pits, intergranular microcracking for a less than 100 micrometers, and transgranular small crack growth for a micrometer. In aqueous 1 percent NaCl and at a constant anodic potential of -700 mV(sub SCE), small cracks exhibit a factor of three increase in fatigue crack growth rates compared to laboratory air. Small cracks exhibit accelerated corrosion fatigue crack growth rates at low levels of delta-K (less than 1 MPa square root of m) below long crack delta-K (sub th). When exposed to Paris regime levels of crack tip stress intensity, small corrosion fatigue cracks exhibit growth rates similar to that observed for long cracks. Results suggest that crack closure effects influence the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates of small cracks (a less than or equal to 100 micrometers). This is evidenced by similar small and long crack growth behavior at various levels of R. Contrary to the corrosion fatigue characteristics of small cracks in high strength steels, no pronounced chemical crack length effect is observed for Al by 2024 exposed to salt water.
On the stochastic fatigue crack growth problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enneking, Thomas Joseph
The research focuses on continuous and discrete stochastic models for fatigue crack growth which are based on Markov process theory. These models account for the random nature of fatigue crack growth which is not adequately explained by a deterministic approach. A hybrid finite element/finite difference solution methodology is developed and shown to be highly effective in determining the solution of the backward Kolmogorov equation and the Pontryagin-Vitt equation yielding the probabilistic description of the time to reach a critical crack size as a function of the initial crack size. Excellent comparisons are shown between this method, previous analytical studies, and experimental results. A significant reduction in computer processing time and storage is achieved with this approach. Alternatively, the forward Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation is formulated, and a two-dimensional initial boundary value problem developed, to determine the distribution of crack sizes as a function of time. A two-dimensional finite element solution approach is used for problem solution. A major advantage of this problem formulation is that the entire probability density function is obtained as a function of cycle number. Studies of discrete Markov process models are also considered for the characterization of fatigue crack growth. A cell-to-cell mapping approach, which has been effectively utilized for other two-state problems in stochastic dynamics, is developed for the stochastic fatigue crack growth problem. In this approach the transitional probability matrix for crack transition from cell i to any other cell is determined using simulation with a two-state lognormal random process model. Repeated matrix multiplication is then used to determine the distribution of crack lengths at other times for a given initial flow size distribution. The effect of varying the initial fatigue quality may be evaluated without repeating the simulation of the probability transition matrix
Fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidawi, Jihad A.
1994-09-01
Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on an Fe 510 E C-Mn steel and a submerged arc welded joint from the same material under constant, variable, and random loading amplitudes. Paris-Erdogan's crack growth rate law was tested for the evaluation of m and C using the stress intensity factor K, the J-integral, the effective stress intensity factor K(sub eff), and the root mean square stress intensity factor K(sub rms) fracture mechanics concepts. The effect of retardation and residual stresses resulting from welding was also considered. It was found that all concepts gave good life predictions in all cases.
Kinetics of fatigue cracks in iron in electrolytic hydrogen impregnation
Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Bilyi, L.M.
1985-05-01
Fatigue failure of metals is localized in the zone of plastic deformation at the tip of the developing crack. Crack development depends to a large extent upon the parameters of the deformed volume, the loading conditions, and features of the material microstructure. It may be assumed that the medium, especially a hydrogen-impregnating medium, leads to a change in the zone of plastic deformation and thereby influences the rate of fatigue crack growth. This work is devoted to a study of cyclic crack resistance and determination of the zone of plastic deformation of failure specimens of Armco iron under conditions of the action of a hydrogen-impregnating medium.
Modelling and measurement of crack closure and crack growth following overloads and underloads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dexter, R. J.; Hudak, S. J.; Davidson, D. L.
1989-01-01
Ignoring crack growth retardation following overloads can result in overly conservative life predictions in structures subjected to variable amplitude fatigue loading. Crack closure is believed to contribute to the crack growth retardation, although the specific closure mechanism is dabatable. The delay period and corresponding crack growth rate transients following overload and overload/underload cycles were systematically measured as a function of load ratio and overload magnitude. These responses are correlated in terms of the local 'driving force' for crack growth, i.e. the effective stress intensity factor range. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of a Dugdale-type (1960) crack closure model, and improvements in the model are suggested.
Generating Fatigue Crack Growth Thresholds with Constant Amplitude Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Newman, James C., J.; Forman, Royce G.
2002-01-01
The fatigue crack growth threshold, defining crack growth as either very slow or nonexistent, has been traditionally determined with standardized load reduction methodologies. Some experimental procedures tend to induce load history effects that result in remote crack closure from plasticity. This history can affect the crack driving force, i.e. during the unloading process the crack will close first at some point along the wake, reducing the effective load at the crack tip. One way to reduce the effects of load history is to propagate a crack under constant amplitude loading. As a crack propagates under constant amplitude loading, the stress intensity factor, K, will increase, as will the crack growth rate, da/dN. A fatigue crack growth threshold test procedure is developed and experimentally validated that does not produce load history effects and can be conducted at a specified stress ratio, R.
Surface crack growth in fiber composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Im, J.; Mandell, J. F.; Wang, S. S.; Mcgarry, F. J.
1976-01-01
The results of an experimental study of damage extension and failure in glass and graphite/epoxy laminates containing partially through-thickness surface cracks are presented. The laminates studied are divided between those containing four plies, 90/0/0/90, 15/-15/-15/15, and 45/-45/-45/45, and those containing 12-16 plies of the general configurations 0/90, + or - 45, and 0/+ or - 60. Most of the results are for surface cracks of various lengths and several depths. Stable damage extension in laminates containing surface cracks is predominantly delamination between plies, and tends to be much more extensive prior to failure than is the case with through-thickness cracks, resulting in approximately notch-insensitive behavior in most cases. A greater tendency for notch-sensitive behavior is found for 0/90 graphite/epoxy laminates for which stable damage extension is more limited. The rate of damage extension with increasing applied stress depends upon the composite system and ply configuration as well as the crack length and depth. An approximate semiempirical method is presented for estimating the growth rate of large damage-regions.
Environmental Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth in 7075 Aluminum Alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonakdar, A.; Wang, F.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, N.
2012-08-01
The fatigue behavior of aluminum alloys is greatly influenced by the environmental conditions. In this article, fatigue crack growth rates were measured for 7075-T651 Al alloy under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, ~10-10 Torr), dry air, and water vapor. Standard compact tension (CT) specimens were tested along the L-T orientation under various load ratios of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.8. Fracture surfaces and crack morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy and crack deflection analysis. The crack growth behavior under vacuum was affected by friction and possible rewelding of crack surfaces, causing an asymmetry in the crack growth behavior, from load shedding to constant load. The enhancement of crack growth at higher moisture levels was observed and is discussed in terms of moisture decreasing friction between the crack faces. The effect of crack deflection as a function of R ratio and environment is also presented.
A crack-closure model for predicting fatigue-crack growth under aircraft spectrum loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1981-01-01
The development and application of an analytical model of cycle crack growth is presented that includes the effects of crack closure. The model was used to correlate crack growth rates under constant amplitude loading and to predict crack growth under aircraft spectrum loading on 2219-T851 aluminum alloy sheet material. The predicted crack growth lives agreed well with experimental data. The ratio of predicted to experimental lives ranged from 0.66 to 1.48. These predictions were made using data from an ASTM E24.06.01 Round Robin.
Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Models for Functionally Graded Materials
Dag, Serkan; Yildirim, Bora; Sabuncuoglu, Baris
2008-02-15
The objective of this study is to develop crack growth analysis methods for functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to mode I cyclic loading. The study presents finite elements based computational procedures for both two and three dimensional problems to examine fatigue crack growth in functionally graded materials. Developed methods allow the computation of crack length and generation of crack front profile for a graded medium subjected to fluctuating stresses. The results presented for an elliptical crack embedded in a functionally graded medium, illustrate the competing effects of ellipse aspect ratio and material property gradation on the fatigue crack growth behavior.
Short-crack growth behaviour in various aircraft materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, P. R. (Compiler); Newman, James C., Jr. (Compiler)
1990-01-01
The results of the first phase of an AGARD Cooperative Test Program on the behavior and growth of short fatigue cracks are reviewed. The establishment of a common test method, means of data collection/analysis and crack growth modeling in an aircraft alloy AA 2024-T3 are described. The second phase allowed testing of various materials and loading conditions. The results of this second phase are described. All materials exhibited a short-crack effect to some extent. The effect was much less evident in 4340 steel than in the other materials. For the aluminum, aluminum-lithium, and titanium alloys, short cracks grew at stress-intensity factor ranges lower, in some cases much lower, than the thresholds obtained from long crack tests. Several laboratories used the same crack growth model to analyze the growth of short cracks. Reasonable agreement was found between measured and predicted short-crack growth rates and fatigue lives.
Automatic crack growth tracking of bimaterial interface cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yehia, Nabil A. B.; Shephard, Mark S.
1988-01-01
The propagation process of an interfacial crack in composite material is studied using the modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion, NT-criterion. Some necessary assumptions have been adopted to facilitate the use of the NT-criterion in this case. The stress intensity factors at the crack tip are extracted from the complex displacement field and finite element results. A simple algorithm for automatic crack propagation is presented with an illustrative example.
Modelling short crack growth behaviour in nickel-base superalloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabowski, L.; King, J. E.
1992-06-01
This paper provides a description of the features and mechanisms of facetted short crack growth in Ni-base superalloys and briefly reviews existing short crack growth models in terms of their application to Ni-base alloys. The concept of soft barriers is introduced to produce a new two-phase model for local microstructural effects on short crack growth in Waspaloy. This is derived from detailed observations of crack growth through individual grains. The model differs from all previous approaches in highlighting the importance of crack path perturbations within grains. Potential applications of the model in alloy development are discussed.
Crack growth direction in unidirectional off-axis graphite epoxy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herakovich, C. T.; Gregory, M. A.; Beuth, J. L., Jr.
1984-01-01
An anisotropic elasticity crack tip stress analysis is implemented using three crack extension direction criteria (the normal stress ratio, the tensor polynominal and the strain energy density) to predict the direction of crack extension in unidirectional off axis graphite-epoxy. The theoretical predictions of crack extension direction are then compared with experimental results for 15 deg off axis tensile coupons with center cracks. Specimens of various aspect ratios and crack orientations are analyzed. It is shown that only the normal stress ratio criterion predicts the correct direction of crack growth.
Fatigue crack initiation and small crack growth in several airframe alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swain, M. H.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.; Everett, R. A.
1990-01-01
The growth of naturally-initiated small cracks under a variety of constant amplitude and variable amplitude load sequences is examined for several airframe materials: the conventional aluminum alloys, 2024-T3 and 7075-T6, the aluminum-lithium alloy, 2090-T8E41 and 4340 steel. Loading conditions investigated include constant amplitude loading at R = 0.5, 0, -1 and -2 and the variable amplitude sequences FALSTAFF, Mini-TWIST, and FELIX/28. Crack growth was measured at the root of semicircular edge notches using acetate replicas. Crack growth rates are compared on a stress intensity factor basis, to those for large cracks to evaluate the extent of the small crack effect in each alloy. In addition, the various alloys are compared on a crack initiation and crack growth morphology basis.
Fatigue crack initiation and small crack growth in several airframe alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swain, M. H.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.; Everett, R. A., Jr.
1990-01-01
The growth of naturally-initiated small cracks under a variety of constant amplitude and variable amplitude load sequences is examined for several airframe materials: the conventional aluminum alloys, 2024-T3 and 7075-T6, the aluminum-lithium alloy, 2090-T8E41, and 4340 steel. Loading conditions investigated include constant amplitude loading at R = 0.5, 0, -1 and -2 and the variable amplitude sequences FALSTAFF, Mini-TWIST and FELIX/28. Crack growth was measured at the root of semicircular edge notches using acetate replicas. Crack growth rates are compared on a stress intensity factor basis, to those for large cracks to evaluate the extent of the small crack effect in each alloy. In addition, the various alloys are compared on a crack initiation and crack growth morphology basis.
An elastic-plastic finite element analysis of crack initiation, stable crack growth, and instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1984-01-01
Studies have been conducted to develop efficient techniques to simulate crack extension and to examine various local and global fracture criteria. Of the considered criteria, the crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) or displacement (CTOD) at a specified distance from the crack tip was shown to be most suited for modeling stable crack growth and instability during the fracture process. The results obtained in a number of studies show the necessity for studying different crack configurations when assessing the validity of any fracture criteria. One of the objectives of the present investigation is related to a critical evaluation of the CTOD growth criterion using an elastic-plastic finite element analysis under monotonic loading to failure. The analysis was found to predict three stages of crack growth behavior under monotonic loading to failure. Calculated CTOD values agreed well with experimental values for crack growth initiation.
Thermoelastic analysis of matrix crack growth in particulate composites
Sridhar, N.; Rickman, J.M.; Srolovitz, D.J.
1995-04-01
The authors examine the conditions under which differences in thermal expansion between a particle and the matrix lead to crack growth within the matrix. Using linear elasticity fracture mechanics, they obtain closed-form, analytical results for the case of a penny shaped crack present in the matrix interacting with a spherical inclusion which is misfitting with respect to the matrix. A simple and direct relationship is established between the strain energy release rate, the crack size, the crack orientation with respect to the inclusion, the crack/inclusion separation, the degree of thermal expansion mismatch and the elastic properties of the medium. The authors also analyze the size to which these cracks can grow and find that for a given misfit strain and material properties, crack growth is inhibited beyond a certain critical crack size. They find that beyond this critical size, the elastic strain energy released upon crack growth is no longer sufficient to compensate for the energy expended in extending the crack, since the crack is growing into the rapidly decreasing stress field. The modification of the above conditions for crack growth due to the superposition of an external stress field has also been analyzed. The preferred orientation of these cracks as a function of misfit strain is predicted. The implication of these results for thermal cycling are analyzed.
Measurement and analysis of critical crack tip processes during fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, D. L.; Hudak, S. J.; Dexter, R. J.
1985-01-01
The mechanics of fatigue crack growth under constant-amplitudes and variable-amplitude loading were examined. Critical loading histories involving relatively simple overload and overload/underload cycles were studied to provide a basic understanding of the underlying physical processes controlling crack growth. The material used for this study was 7091-T7E69, a powder metallurgy aluminum alloy. Local crack-tip parameters were measured at various times before, during, and after the overloads, these include crack-tip opening loads and displacements, and crack-tip strain fields. The latter were useed, in combination with the materials cyclic and monotonic stress-strain properties, to compute crack-tip residual stresses. The experimental results are also compared with analytical predictions obtained using the FAST-2 computer code. The sensitivity of the analytical model to constant-amplitude fatigue crack growth rate properties and to through-thickness constrain are studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahishi, J. M.; Adams, D. F.
1982-01-01
An elastoplastic, axisymmetric finite element model has been used to predict the initiation and propagation of a crack in a composite model consisting of a single broken boron fiber embedded in an annular sheath of aluminum matrix. The accuracy of the axisymmetric finite element model for crack problems has been established by solving the classical problem of a penny-shaped crack in a thick cylindrical rod under axial tension. Also, the stress intensity factors predicted by the present numerical model are compared with continuum results. A constant displacement boundary condition applied during an increment of crack growth permits a substantial amount of stable crack growth in the matrix material. The concept of Crack Growth Resistance Curves (KR-curves) has been used to determine the point of crack instability
An analysis of creep crack growth of interface cracks in layered/graded materials
Biner, S.B.
1997-07-01
In this study, the growth behavior of interface cracks in bimaterials and in layered materials resulting from the creep cavitation was studied. The growth model includes the effects of material deposition resulting from the growth of creep cavities on the crack tip stress fields. The results indicate that in layered materials under identical applied loading, the location of the interface crack strongly influence the amplitude of the stress field at steady-state. Due to large variation in the distribution of the stresses ahead of the interface cracks at creep regime, depending upon the crack location, the creep crack growth rates will be significantly different from each other under identical loading for a given layered material.
Data base for crack growth properties of materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce G.; Lawrence, Victor B.; Nguy, Henry L.
1988-01-01
A computerized data base of crack growth properties of materials was developed for use in fracture control analysis of rocket engine components and other NASA space hardware. The software system has files of basic crack growth rate data, other fracture mechanics material properties such as fracture toughness and environmental crack growth threshold values, and plotting and fitting routines for deriving material properties for use in fracture control analysis. An extensive amount of data was collected and entered, and work is continuing on compiling additional data. The data base and software codes are useful both for fracture control analysis and for evaluation or development of improved crack growth theories.
Nonclassical nucleation and growth of cohesive tensile cracks
Rundle, J. B.; Klein, W.
1989-07-10
We analyze the nucleation and growth of cohesive tensile cracks using a field-theoretic formulation in which the free energy is written as a functional of the crack separation (offset field). Our results indicate that for certain materials, crack nucleation and growth proceed through the formation and extension of a diffuse ''halo'' surrounding the classical portion of the crack. This is similar to nonclassical nucleation in magnetic systems. Theoretical considerations and numerical calculations strongly suggest that the diffuse halo can be identified with the fracture ''process zone'' seen in laboratory studies of advancing cracks.
Considerations of crack growth and plasticity in finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, J. D.; Liebowitz, H.
1978-01-01
A finite-element analysis was made of crack growth in a center-cracked specimen subjected to monotonically increasing load until the point of fast fracture. Since part of the specimen experienced unloading, the boundary value problem which was formulated was based upon incremental theory of plasticity. Experimental load and crack size records were utilized. Linear relations between plastic energy and crack growth were observed. Fracture toughness parameters, which were evaluated at the onset of unstable crack propagation from finite-element analysis, were in good agreement with those determined experimentally.
Fatigue crack growth with single overload - Measurement and modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, D. L.; Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Dexter, R. J.
1987-01-01
This paper compares experiments with an analytical model of fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude. The stereoimaging technique was used to measure displacements near the tips of fatigue cracks undergoing simple variations in load amplitude-single overloads and overload/underload combinations. Measured displacements were used to compute strains, and stresses were determined from the strains. Local values of crack driving force (Delta-K effective) were determined using both locally measured opening loads and crack tip opening displacements. Experimental results were compared with simulations made for the same load variation conditions using Newman's FAST-2 model. Residual stresses caused by overloads, crack opening loads, and growth retardation periods were compared.
Crack tip field and fatigue crack growth in general yielding and low cycle fatigue
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.
1984-01-01
Fatigue life consists of crack nucleation and crack propagation periods. Fatigue crack nucleation period is shorter relative to the propagation period at higher stresses. Crack nucleation period of low cycle fatigue might even be shortened by material and fabrication defects and by environmental attack. In these cases, fatigue life is largely crack propagation period. The characteristic crack tip field was studied by the finite element method, and the crack tip field is related to the far field parameters: the deformation work density, and the product of applied stress and applied strain. The cyclic carck growth rates in specimens in general yielding as measured by Solomon are analyzed in terms of J-integral. A generalized crack behavior in terms of delta is developed. The relations between J and the far field parameters and the relation for the general cyclic crack growth behavior are used to analyze fatigue lives of specimens under general-yielding cyclic-load. Fatigue life is related to the applied stress and strain ranges, the deformation work density, crack nucleus size, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth threshold, Young's modulus, and the cyclic yield stress and strain. The fatigue lives of two aluminum alloys correlate well with the deformation work density as depicted by the derived theory. The general relation is reduced to Coffin-Manson low cycle fatigue law in the high strain region.
On the location of crack closure and the threshold condition for fatigue crack growth
Zaiken, E.; Ritchie, R.O.
1984-08-01
These experiments on ingot aluminum alloys provide further confirmation that the development of a threshold for the growth of long fatigue cracks is primarily associated with a reduction in local crack driving force due to crack closure in the wake of the crack tip. Moreover, based on studies of the change in K /SUB c1/ during progressive removal of the wake at threshold levels, it appears that although such closure is fairly evenly distributed over most of the crack length, more than 40% of the closure is confined to the near-tip region.
Updated Fatigue-Crack-Growth And Fracture-Mechanics Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce G.; Shivakumar, Venkataraman; Newman, James C., Jr.
1995-01-01
NASA/FLAGRO 2.0 developed as analytical aid in predicting growth and stability of preexisting flaws and cracks in structural components of aerospace systems. Used for fracture-control analysis of space hardware. Organized into three modules to maximize efficiency in operation. Useful in: (1) crack-instability/crack-growth analysis, (2) processing raw crack-growth data from laboratory tests, and (3) boundary-element analysis to determine stresses and stress-intensity factors. Written in FORTRAN 77 and ANSI C.
Aircraft fatigue and crack growth considering loads by structural component
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yost, J. D.
1994-01-01
The indisputable 1968 C-130 fatigue/crack growth data is reviewed to obtain additional useful information on fatigue and crack growth. The proven Load Environment Model concept derived empirically from F-105D multichannel recorder data is refined to a simpler method by going from 8 to 5 variables in the spectra without a decrease in accuracy. This approach provides the true fatigue/crack growth and load environment by structural component for both fatigue and strength design. Methods are presented for defining fatigue scatter and damage at crack initiation. These design tools and criteria may be used for both metal and composite aircraft structure.
Nucleation and growth transformation kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erukhimovitch, V.; Baram, J.
1995-03-01
As a result of the reassessment of the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) theory for the kinetics of nucleation and growth transformations, an integral-equation formulation has been developed instead of the well-known and widely used Avrami equation. The presented formulation considers interfacial and diffusional growths, in one, two, and three dimensions, with both time-dependent and time-invariant nucleation and growth rates. The integral-equation model corrects reported inadequacies of the KJMA theory when applied in numerous experiments and various solid-state transformations. It is shown that in the example cases examined in this paper, crystallization from the amorphous state in melt-spun ribbons, isothermal aging of CuAlZn, pearlitic transition in an eutectoid steel, and crystallization in a PEKK polymer, the thermodynamic and kinetic interpretation and parameters extracted from best fits of the Avrami equations to the experimental data are erroneous. The KJMA formulation is a simplification of the real physical conditions. The main limitation of the new model is that almost all the integral equations representing the kinetics of solid-state transformations have no analytical solutions.
Creep crack growth behavior of several structural alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadananda, K.; Shahinian, P.
1983-07-01
Creep crack growth behavior of several high temperature alloys, Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Hastelloy X, Nimonic PE-16, Incoloy 800, and Haynes 25 (HS-25) was examined at 540, 650, 760, and 870 °C. Crack growth rates were analyzed in terms of both linear elastic stress intensity factor and J*-integral parameter. Among the alloys Inconel 600 and Hastelloy X did not show any observable crack growth. Instead, they deformed at a rapid rate resulting in severe blunting of the crack tip. The other alloys, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Incoloy 800, HS-25, and PE-16 showed crack growth at one or two temperatures and deformed continuously at other temperatures. Crack growth rates of the above alloys in terms ofJ* parameter were compared with the growth rates of other alloys published in the literature. Alloys such as Inconel X-750, Alloy 718, and IN-100 show very high growth rates as a result of their sensitivity to an air environment. Based on detailed fracture surface analysis, it is proposed that creep crack growth occurs by the nucleation and growth of wedge-type cracks at triple point junctions due to grain boundary sliding or by the formation and growth of cavities at the boundaries. Crack growth in the above alloys occurs only in some critical range of strain rates or temperatures. Since the service conditions for these alloys usually fall within this critical range, knowledge and understanding of creep crack growth behavior of the structural alloys are important.
Crack-closure and crack-growth measurements in surface-flawed titanium alloy Ti6Al-4V
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elber, W.
1975-01-01
The crack-closure and crack-growth characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were determined experimentally on surface-flawed plate specimens. Under cyclic loading from zero to tension, cracks deeper than 1 mm opened at approximately 50 percent of the maximum load. Cracks shallower than 1 mm opened at higher loads. The correlation between crack-growth rate and the total stress-intensity range showed a lower threshold behavior. This behavior was attributed to the high crack-opening loads at short cracks because the lower threshold was much less evident in correlations between the crack-growth rates and the effective stress-intensity range.
Stress Ratio Effects on Crack Opening Loads and Crack Growth Rates in Aluminum Alloy 2024
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.
1998-01-01
The effects of stress ratio (R) and crack opening behavior on fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for aluminum alloy (AA) 2024-T3 were investigated using constant-delta K testing, closure measurements, and fractography. Fatigue crack growth rates were obtained for a range of delta K and stress ratios. Results show that constant delta K fatigue crack growth for R ranging from near 0 to 1 is divided into three regions. In Region 1, at low R, da/dN increases with increasing R. In Region 2, at intermediate R, fatigue crack growth rates are relatively independent of R. In Region 3, at high R, further increases in da/dN are observed with increasing R.
Precision compliance techniques for slow crack growth measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noronha, P. J.
1975-01-01
A method is presented for using simple electronic components to obtain the high sensitivity needed to measure very slow crack growth rates. The technique presented can reduce the experimental time considerably and also yield a greater amount of data more accurately than optical techniques for measuring crack growth rates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Davidson, D. L.; Chan, K. S.
1983-01-01
Crack growth retardation following overloads can result in overly conservative life predictions in structures subjected to variable amplitude fatigue loading when linear damage accumulation procedures are employed. Crack closure is believed to control the crack growth retardation, although the specific closure mechanism is debatable. Information on the relative contributions to crack closure from: (1) plasticity left in the wake of the advancing crack and (2) crack tip residual stresses is provided. The delay period and corresponding crack growth rate transients following overloads are systematically measured as a function of load ratio (R) and overload magnitude. These responses are correlated in terms of the local 'driving force' for crack growth as measured by crack tip opening loads and delta K sub eff. The latter measurements are obtained using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a cyclic loading stage; measurements are quantified using a relatively new stereoimaging technique. Combining experimental results with analytical predictions suggests that both plastic wake and residual stress mechanism are operative, the latter becoming predominate as R increases.
The threshold stress intensity for hydrogen-induced crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhurst, K. N.; Baker, T. J.
1981-06-01
The crack growth rates and threshold stress intensities, K TH, for a 3 1/2 NiCrMoV steel (0.2 pct proof stress 1200 MPa) have been measured in a hydrogen environment at various temperatures and hydrogen pressures. Fractographic evidence and the observation of alternating fast and slow crack growth near K TH suggests that the crack advances by the repeated nucleation of microcracks at microstructural features ahead of the main crack. Transient crack growth is observed following load increases just below K TH. Using the idea, from unstable cleavage fracture theory, that for fracture a critical stress must be exceeded over a critical distance ahead of the crack, and assuming that this critical stress is reduced in proportion to the local hydrogen concentration (in equilibrium with the external hydrogen at K TH), a theoretical dependence of K TH on hydrogen pressure is derived which compares well with the experimental evidence.
Fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, G. Q.; Garbatov, Y.; Guedes Soares, C.
2013-12-01
The objective of this work is to analyse fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth. The stress intensity factors of the correlated cracks are obtained by finite element analysis and based on which the geometry correction functions are derived. The Monte Carlo simulations are applied to predict the statistical descriptors of correlated cracks based on the Paris-Erdogan equation. A probabilistic model of crack growth as a function of time is used to analyse the fatigue reliability of deck structures accounting for the crack propagation correlation. A deck structure is modelled as a series system of stiffened panels, where a stiffened panel is regarded as a parallel system composed of plates and are longitudinal. It has been proven that the method developed here can be conveniently applied to perform the fatigue reliability assessment of structures subjected to correlated crack growth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kitamura, Takayuki; Ghosn, Louis J.; Ohtani, Ryuichi
1992-01-01
A simplified stochastic model is proposed for crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. Material inhomogeneity provides the random nature of crack initiation and early growth. In the model, the influence of microstructure is introduced by the variability of: (1) damage accumulation along grain boundaries, (2) critical damage required for crack initiation or growth, and (3) the grain-boundary length. The probabilities of crack initiation and growth are derived by using convolution integrals. The model is calibrated and used to predict the crack density and crack-growth rate of short cracks of 304 stainless steel under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. The mean-crack initiation lives are predicted to be within an average deviation of about 10 percent from the experimental results. The predicted comulative distributions of crack-growth rate follow the experimental data closely. The applicability of the simplified stochastic model is discussed and the future research direction is outlined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kitamura, Takayuki; Ghosn, Louis J.; Ohtani, Ryuichi
1989-01-01
A simplified stochastic model is proposed for crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. Material inhomogeneity provides the random nature of crack initiation and early growth. In the model, the influence of microstructure is introduced by the variability of: (1) damage accumulation along grain boundaries, (2) critical damage required for crack initiation or growth, and (3) the grain-boundary length. The probabilities of crack initiation and growth are derived by using convolution integrals. The model is calibrated and used to predict the crack density and crack-growth rate of short cracks of 304 stainless steel under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. The mean-crack initiation lives are predicted to be within an average deviation of about 10 percent from the experimental results. The predicted cumulative distributions of crack-growth rate follow the experimental data closely. The applicability of the simplified stochastic model is discussed and the future research direction is outlined.
Anomalous mechanical behavior and crack growth of oxide glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seaman, Jared Hilliard
This thesis is concerned with analytically describing anomalous mechanical behaviors of glass. A new slow crack growth model is presented that considers a semi-elliptical crack in a cylindrical glass rod subjected to 4-point bending that is both loaded statically and under a time-dependent load. This model is used to explain a suppression of the loading-rate dependency of ion-exchanged strengthened glass. The stress relaxation behavior of an ion-exchanged strengthened glass is then analyzed in view of a newly observed water-assisted surface stress relaxation mechanism. By making refinements to a time-dependent Maxwell material model for stress buildup and relaxation, the anomalous subsurface compressive stress peak in ion-exchanged strengthened glass is explained. The notion of water-assisted stress relaxation is extended to the crack tip, where high tensile stresses exist. A toughening effect has historically been observed for cracks aged at subcritical stress intensity factors, where crack tip stress relaxation is hypothesized. A simple fracture mechanics model is developed that estimates a shielding stress intensity factor that is then superimposed with the far-field stress intensity factor. The model is used to estimate anomalous "restart" times for aged cracks. The same model predicts a non-linear crack growth rate for cracks loaded near the static fatigue limit. Double cantilever beam slow crack growth experiments were performed and new slow crack growth data for soda-lime silicate glass was collected. Interpretation of this new experimental slow crack growth data suggests that the origin of the static fatigue limit in glass is due to water-assisted stress relaxation. This thesis combines a number of studies that offer a new unified understanding of historical anomalous mechanical behaviors of glass. These anomalies are interpreted as simply the consequence of slow crack growth and water-assisted surface stress relaxation.
Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth
Turnbull, Alan
2014-01-01
In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249
Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth.
Turnbull, Alan
2014-09-01
In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249
Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature
Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.
1995-12-31
Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.
Discrete crack growth analysis methodology for through cracks in pressurized fuselage structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potyondy, David O.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.
1995-05-01
A methodology for simulating the growth of long through cracks in the skin of pressurized aircraft fuselage structures is described. Crack trajectories are allowed to be arbitrary and are computed as part of the simulation. The interaction between the mechanical loads acting on the superstructure and the local structural response near the crack tips is accounted for by employing a hierarchical modelling strategy. The structural response for each cracked configuration is obtained using a geometrically non-linear shell finite element analysis procedure. Four stress intensity factors, two for membrane behavior and two for bending using Kirchhoff plate theory, are computed using an extension of the modified crack closure integral method. Crack trajectories are determined by applying the maximum tangential stress criterion. Crack growth results in localized mesh deletion, and the deletion regions are remeshed automatically using a newly developed all-quadrilateral meshing algorithm. The effectiveness of the methodology, and its applicability to performing practical analyses of realistic structures, is demonstrated by simulating curvilinear crack growth in a fuselage panel that is representative of a typical narrow-body aircraft. The predicted crack trajectory and fatigue life compare well with measurements of these same quantities from a full-scale pressurized panel test.
Discrete crack growth analysis methodology for through cracks in pressurized fuselage structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potyondy, David O.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.
1994-09-01
A methodology for simulating the growth of long through cracks in the skin of pressurized aircraft fuselage structures is described. Crack trajectories are allowed to be arbitrary and are computed as part of the simulation. The interaction between the mechanical loads acting on the superstructure and the local structural response near the crack tips is accounted for by employing a hierarchical modeling strategy. The structural response for each cracked configuration is obtained using a geometrically nonlinear shell finite element analysis procedure. Four stress intensity factors, two for membrane behavior and two for bending using Kirchhoff plate theory, are computed using an extension of the modified crack closure integral method. Crack trajectories are determined by applying the maximum tangential stress criterion. Crack growth results in localized mesh deletion, and the deletion regions are remeshed automatically using a newly developed all-quadrilateral meshing algorithm. The effectiveness of the methodology and its applicability to performing practical analyses of realistic structures is demonstrated by simulating curvilinear crack growth in a fuselage panel that is representative of a typical narrow-body aircraft. The predicted crack trajectory and fatigue life compare well with measurements of these same quantities from a full-scale pressurized panel test.
Discrete crack growth analysis methodology for through cracks in pressurized fuselage structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potyondy, David O.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.
1994-01-01
A methodology for simulating the growth of long through cracks in the skin of pressurized aircraft fuselage structures is described. Crack trajectories are allowed to be arbitrary and are computed as part of the simulation. The interaction between the mechanical loads acting on the superstructure and the local structural response near the crack tips is accounted for by employing a hierarchical modeling strategy. The structural response for each cracked configuration is obtained using a geometrically nonlinear shell finite element analysis procedure. Four stress intensity factors, two for membrane behavior and two for bending using Kirchhoff plate theory, are computed using an extension of the modified crack closure integral method. Crack trajectories are determined by applying the maximum tangential stress criterion. Crack growth results in localized mesh deletion, and the deletion regions are remeshed automatically using a newly developed all-quadrilateral meshing algorithm. The effectiveness of the methodology and its applicability to performing practical analyses of realistic structures is demonstrated by simulating curvilinear crack growth in a fuselage panel that is representative of a typical narrow-body aircraft. The predicted crack trajectory and fatigue life compare well with measurements of these same quantities from a full-scale pressurized panel test.
Fatigue Crack Growth in Peened Friction Stir Welds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Hatamleh, Omar
2008-01-01
Friction stir welding induces residual stresses that accelerates fatigue crack growth in the weld nugget. Shot peening over the weld had little effect on growth rate. Laser peening over the weld retarded the growth rate: Final crack growth rate was comparable to the base, un-welded material. Crack tunneling evident from residual compressive stresses. 2195-T8 fracture surfaces were highly textured. Texturing makes comparisons difficult as the material system is affecting the data as much as the processing. Material usage becoming more common in space applications requiring additional work to develop useful datasets for damage tolerance analyses.
Fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for reformulated gasolines: Kinetic modeling
Gianetto, A. ); Farag, H.I. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Blasetti, A.P. . Dept. de Procesos); Lasa, H.I. de . Faculty of Engineering Science)
1994-12-01
Changes of the relative importance of intradiffusion on USY zeolite crystals were studied as a way of affecting selectivity of catalytic cracking reactions. Zeolite crystals were synthesized (Si/Al = 2.4), activated and stabilized using ion exchange and steam calcination to obtain USSY (Ultra Stable Submicron Y) zeolites. After the activation the zeolites were pelletized (45--60 [mu]m particles). USSYs were tested in a novel Riser Simulator. Results obtained show that total aromatics (BTX), benzene, C[sub 4] olefins, and coke were significantly affected with the change of zeolite crystal sizes. Gasolines produced with USSY zeolites contain less aromatics and particularly lower benzene levels. Experimental results were analyzed with a model including several lumps: unconverted gas oil, gasoline, light gases, and coke. This model also accounts for catalyst deactivation as a function of coke on catalyst. Various kinetic parameters were determined with their corresponding spans for the 95% level of confidence.
Nonclassical Nucleation and Growth of Cohesive Tensile Cracks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gran, Joseph; Rundle, John; Klein, William
2011-03-01
We analyze the nucleation and growth of cohesive tensile cracks using a Hamiltonian which is written as a functional of the crack separation (offset field). We simulate the nucleation events on a square lattice using a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. Several modes of crack propagation are seen in the simulations. Our results indicate that for certain materials, crack nucleation and growth proceed through the formation and extension of a diffuse ``halo'' surrounding the classical portion of the crack. This is similar to nonclassical nucleation near the spinodal in magnetic systems. Theoretical considerations and numerical calculations strongly suggest that the diffuse halo can be identified with the fracture ``process zone'' seen in laboratory studies of advancing cracks. We are investigating scaling exponents associated with this apparent phase transition.
Fatigue crack growth behavior in equine cortical bone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shelton, Debbie Renee
2001-07-01
Objectives for this research were to experimentally determine crack growth rates, da/dN, as a function of alternating stress intensity factor, DeltaK, for specimens from lateral and dorsal regions of equine third metacarpal cortical bone tissue, and to determine if the results were described by the Paris law. In one set of experiments, specimens were oriented for crack propagation in the circumferential direction with the crack plane transverse to the long axis of the bone. In the second set of experiments, specimens were oriented for radial crack growth with the crack plane parallel to the long axis of the bone. Results of fatigue tests from the latter specimens were used to evaluate the hypothesis that crack growth rates differ regionally. The final experiments were designed to determine if crack resistance was dependent on region, proportion of hooped osteons (those with circumferentially oriented collagen fibers in the outer lamellae) or number of osteons penetrated by the crack, and to address the hypothesis that hooped osteons resist invasion by cracks better than other osteonal types. The transverse crack growth data for dorsal specimens were described by the Paris law with an exponent of 10.4 and suggested a threshold stress intensity factor, DeltaKth, of 2.0 MPa·m1/2 and fracture toughness of 4.38 MPa·m 1/2. Similar results were not obtained for lateral specimens because the crack always deviated from the intended path and ran parallel to the loading direction. Crack growth for the dorsal and lateral specimens in the radial orientation was described by the Paris law with exponents of 8.7 and 10.2, respectively, and there were no regional differences in the apparent DeltaK th (0.5 MPa·m1/2) or fracture toughness (1.2 MPa·m 1/2). Crack resistance was not associated with cortical region, proportion of hooped osteons or the number of osteons penetrated by the crack. The extent to which cracks penetrate osteons was influenced by whether the collagen fiber
Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.
1999-01-01
The objectives were to create a capability to simulate curvilinear crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage and to validate with tests. Analysis methodology and software program (FRANC3D/STAGS) developed herein allows engineers to maintain aging aircraft economically, while insuring continuous airworthiness, and to design more damage-tolerant aircraft for the next generation. Simulations of crack growth in fuselages were described. The crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained from laboratory tests, was used to predict fracture behavior of fuselage panel tests. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element crack growth analyses were conducted. Comparisons of stress distributions, multiple stable crack growth history, and residual strength between measured and predicted results were made to assess the validity of the methodology. Incorporation of residual plastic deformations and tear strap failure was essential for accurate residual strength predictions. Issue related to predicting crack trajectory in fuselages were also discussed. A directional criterion, including T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy, was developed. Curvilinear crack growth was simulated in coupon and fuselage panel tests. Both T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy were essential to predict the observed crack paths. Flapping of fuselages were predicted. Measured and predicted results agreed reasonable well.
Mechanisms of time-dependent crack growth at elevated temperature
Saxena, A.; Stock, S.R.
1990-04-15
Objective of this 3-y study was to conduct creep and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments and to characterize the crack tip damage mechanisms in a model material (Cu-1wt%Sb), which is known to cavitate at grain boundaries under creep deformation. Results were: In presence of large scale cavitation damage and crack branching, time rate of creep crack growth da/dt does not correlate with C[sub t] or C[sup *]. When cavitation damage is constrained, da/dt is characterized by C[sub t]. Area fraction of grain boundary cavitated is the single damage parameter for the extent of cavitation damage ahead of crack tips. C[sub t] is used for the creep-fatigue crack growth behavior. In materials prone to rapid cavity nucleation, creep cracks grow faster initially and then reach a steady state whose growth rate is determined by C[sub t]. Percent creep life exhausted correlates with average cavity diameter and fraction of grain boundary area occupied by cavities. Synchrotron x-ray tomographic microscopy was used to image individual cavities in Cu-1wt% Sb. A methodology was developed for predicting the remaining life of elevated temperature power plant components; (C[sub t])[sub avg] was used to correlate creep-fatigue crack growth in Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steel and weldments.
Fatigue crack growth theory and experiment: A comparative analysis
Sananda, K.
1983-12-01
A number of theoretical models have been proposed in the literature which explain the second or the fourth power dependence of fatigue crack growth rate on ..delta..K, the stress intensity factor range in the Paris-Erdogan relation da/dN = C ..delta..K /SUP m/ . All of these models pertain to the intermediate range of crack growth rates where the m values are relatively low in the range of 2 to 4. The values of m for many metals and alloys can be much larger than 4 at near threshold crack growth rates or at stress intensities close to the fast fracture, and in some cases throughout the range of ..delta..K when the faceted mode of crack growth occurs. For such cases, the models appear to have no relevance. In this report predictions of different theoretical models are critically examined in comparison to experimentally determined crack growth rates in a MA 956, oxide dispersion strengthened alloy. Cumulative damage models predict crack growth rates reasonably well except in the range where ductile striations are observed. Lack of agreement with any particular model in this range is related to the fact that at different regions across the specimen thickness different mechanisms, either plastic blunting or cumulative damage, control the crack growth.
Modeling growth paths of interacting crack pairs in elastic media.
Ghelichi, Ramin; Kamrin, Ken
2015-10-28
The problem of predicting the growth of a system of cracks, each crack influencing the growth of the others, arises in multiple fields. We develop an analytical framework toward this aim, which we apply to the 'En-Passant' family of crack growth problems, in which a pair of initially parallel, offset cracks propagate nontrivially toward each other under far-field opening stress. We utilize boundary integral and perturbation methods of linear elasticity, linear elastic fracture mechanics, and common crack opening criteria to calculate the first analytical model for curved En-Passant crack paths. The integral system is reduced under a hierarchy of approximations, producing three methods of increasing simplicity for computing crack paths. The last such method is a major highlight of this work, using an asymptotic matching argument to predict crack paths based on superposition of simple, single-crack fields. Within the corresponding limits of the three methods, all three are shown to agree with each other. We provide comparisons to exact results and existing experimental data to verify certain approximation steps. PMID:26330342
Predicting crack growth in continuous-fiber composite materials
Cordes, J.A.; Yazici, R.
1995-12-31
Pre-notched composite lamina with unidirectional fibers were studied experimentally and using finite element analysis. Experiments were conducted on notched graphite/aluminum and glass/epoxy panels and the results were compared to a finite element method. Under remote tensile loading, cracks in the graphite/aluminum panels propagated perpendicular to the applied load without stable crack growth. In the glass/epoxy panels, crack propagation was initially stable and parallel to the fibers. A nonlinear damage zone method (DZM) was used to predict the crack growth directions, estimate damages, model stable and unstable crack growths, and predict the loads at failure. For both materials, the predicted loads at failure were within 20% of experimental loads.
Fatigue crack growth under general-yielding cyclic-loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.
1986-01-01
In low cycle fatigue, cracks are initiated and propagated under general yielding cyclic loading. For general yielding cyclic loading, Dowling and Begley have shown that fatigue crack growth rate correlates well with the measured delta J. The correlation of da/dN with delta J was also studied by a number of other investigators. However, none of thse studies have correlated da/dN with delta J calculated specifically for the test specimens. Solomon measured fatigue crack growth in specimens in general yielding cyclic loading. The crack tips fields for Solomon's specimens are calculated using the finite element method and the J values of Solomon's tests are evaluated. The measured crack growth rate in Solomon's specimens correlates very well with the calculated delta J.
A study of creep crack growth in 2219-T851
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bensussan, Philippe L.; Jablonski, David A.; Pelloux, Regis M.
1984-01-01
Creep crack growth rates were measured in high strength 2219-T851 aluminum alloy with a computerized fully automated test procedure. Crack growth tests were performed on CT specimens with side grooves. The experimental set-up is described. During a test, the specimen is cyclically loaded on a servohydraulic testing machine under computer control, maintained at maximum load for a given hold time at each cycle, unloaded, and then reloaded. Crack lengths are obtained from compliance measurements recorded during each unloading. It is shown that the measured crack growth rates per cycle do represent creep crack growth rates per unit time for hold times longer than 10 seconds. The validity of LEFM concepts for side-grooved specimens is reviewed, and compliance and stress intensity factor calibrations for such specimens are reported. For the range of testing conditions of this study, 2219-T851 is shown to be creep brittle in terms of concepts of fracture mechanics of creeping solids. It is found that, under these testing conditions, a correlation exists between the creep crack growth rates under plane strain conditions and the stress intensity factor ( da/dt = A K 3.8 at 175 °C) for simple K histories in a regime of steady or quasi-steady state crack growth. The micromechanisms of fracture are determined to be of complex nature. The fracture mode is observed to be mixed inter- and transgranular, the relative amount of intergranular fracture decreasing as K and da/dt increase.
Simulating Fatigue Crack Growth in Spiral Bevel Pinion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ural, Ani; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffe, Anthony R.
2003-01-01
This project investigates computational modeling of fatigue crack growth in spiral bevel gears. Current work is a continuation of the previous efforts made to use the Boundary Element Method (BEM) to simulate tooth-bending fatigue failure in spiral bevel gears. This report summarizes new results predicting crack trajectory and fatigue life for a spiral bevel pinion using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Predicting crack trajectories is important in determining the failure mode of a gear. Cracks propagating through the rim may result in catastrophic failure, whereas the gear may remain intact if one tooth fails and this may allow for early detection of failure. Being able to predict crack trajectories is insightful for the designer. However, predicting growth of three-dimensional arbitrary cracks is complicated due to the difficulty of creating three-dimensional models, the computing power required, and absence of closed- form solutions of the problem. Another focus of this project was performing three-dimensional contact analysis of a spiral bevel gear set incorporating cracks. These analyses were significant in determining the influence of change of tooth flexibility due to crack growth on the magnitude and location of contact loads. This is an important concern since change in contact loads might lead to differences in SIFs and therefore result in alteration of the crack trajectory. Contact analyses performed in this report showed the expected trend of decreasing tooth loads carried by the cracked tooth with increasing crack length. Decrease in tooth loads lead to differences between SIFs extracted from finite element contact analysis and finite element analysis with Hertz contact loads. This effect became more pronounced as the crack grew.
Effects of constraint on crack growth under aircraft spectrum loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1992-01-01
The objective is to study the effects of constraint on fatigue crack growth under aircraft spectrum loading. A plasticity-induced crack-closure model that accounts for constraint variations during the transition from flat-to-slant crack growth was used to correlate crack-growth rate data under constant-amplitude loading and to calculate crack growth under simulated aircraft spectrum loading. The model was applied to several thin-sheet aluminum alloy materials. Under laboratory air conditions, the transition was shown to be related to the size of the cyclic plastic zone based on the effective stress-intensity factor range for several sheet materials and thicknesses. Results from three-dimensional, elastic-plastic, finite-element analyses of a flat, straight-through crack in a thin-sheet aluminum alloy specimen showed a constraint loss similar to that assumed in the model. Using test data and the closure model, the location of the constraint-loss regime in terms of growth rate and the value of the constraint factor at these rates were determined by trial and error. The model was then used to calculate crack growth under the TWIST spectrum. The calculated results agreed reasonably well with test data. In general, the model predicted shorter crack-growth lives than tests under the TWIST spectrum by about 40 percent. For the TWIST spectrum clipped at Level 3, the calculated lives were within about 20 percent. The results demonstrated that constraint variations, especially for thin-sheet alloys, should be accounted for to predict crack growth under typical aircraft spectra.
Cohesive models of fatigue crack growth and stress-corrosion cracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Olivier T.
The aim of this dissertation was to develop models of fatigue crack growth and stress-corrosion cracking by investigating cohesive theories of fracture. These models were integrated in a finite-element framework embedding a contact algorithm and techniques of remeshing and adaptive meshing.For the fatigue model, we developed a phenomenological cohesive law which exhibits unloading-reloading hysteresis. This model qualitatively predicts fatigue crack growth rates in metals under constant amplitude regime for short and long cracks, as well as growth retardation due to overload. Quantitative predictions were obtained in the case of long cracks.We developed a chemistry-dependent cohesive law which serves as a basis for the stress-corrosion cracking model. In order to determine this cohesive law, two approaches, based on energy relaxation and the renormalization group, were used for coarse-graining interplanar potentials. We analyzed the cohesive behavior of a large--but finite--number of interatomic planes and found that the macroscopic cohesive law adopts a universal asymptotic form. The resulting stress-corrosion crack growth rates agreed well with those observed experimentally in 'static' fatigue tests given in the literature.
Crack initiation and crack growth behavior of carbon and low-alloy steels
Gavenda, D.J.; Luebbers, P.R.; Chopra, O.K.
1997-01-01
Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. These curves were based on tests of smooth polished specimens at room temperature in air. The effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves, but recent test data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of carbon and low-alloy steels. Under certain loading and environmental conditions, fatigue lives of test specimens may be a factor of {approx}70 shorter than in air. Results of fatigue tests that examine the influence of reactor environment on crack imitation and crack growth of carbon and low-alloy steels are presented. Crack lengths as a function of fatigue cycles were determined in air by a surface replication technique, and in water by block loading that leaves marks on the fracture surface. Decreases in fatigue life of low-alloy steels in high-dissolved-oxygen (DO) water are primarily caused by the effects of environment during early stages of fatigue damage, i.e., growth of short cracks <100 {micro}m in depth. For crack sizes of >100 {micro}m, crack growth rates in high-DO water are higher than in air by one order of magnitude. The effects of LWR environments on growth of short cracks are discussed.
Fatigue crack growth in unidirectional metal matrix composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosn, Louis J.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter
1990-01-01
The weight function method was used to determine the effective stress intensity factor and the crack opening profile for a fatigue tested composite which exhibited fiber bridging. The bridging mechanism was modeled using two approaches; the crack closure approach and the shear lag approach. The numerically determined stress intensity factor values from both methods were compared and correlated with the experimentally obtained crack growth rates for SiC/Ti-15-3 (0)(sub 8) oriented composites. The near crack tip opening profile was also determined for both methods and compared with the experimentally obtained measurements.
Effects of frequency and temperature on short fatigue crack growth in aqueous environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakai, Y.; Alavi, A.; Wei, R. P.
1988-03-01
The growth of short fatigue cracks in a NiCrMoV steel forging was examined, under constant applied stress intensity range (ΔK = 31 MPa-m1/2) in deaerated deionized water and 0.3 M Na2SO4 solution, as a function of frequency and temperature. Measurements were also made of the kinetics of electrochemical reactions of bare steel surfaces with the deaerated 0.3 M Na2SO4 solution, under free corrosion, to provide for comparison and correlation. Fatigue crack growth rate increased with reductions in frequency and with increases in temperature. The maximum amount of crack growth enhancement by the different environments appeared to be equal, although the crack growth response in deionized water appeared to be consistent with a faster reaction rate. The temperature and frequency dependence for corrosion fatigue crack growth corresponded directly with that for charge transfer between the “bare” and “filmed” metal surfaces under free corrosion. The results showed that shortcrack growth in the aqueous environments is controlled by the rate of electrochemical reactions, and is thermally activated with an apparent activation energy of about 40 kJ/M.
Environmentally enhanced crack growth in nickel-based alloys at elevated temperatures
Gao, M.; Chen, S.F.; Chen, G.S.; Wei, R.P.
1997-12-31
A recent understanding of environmentally enhanced sustained-load crack growth in nickel-based superalloys at elevated temperatures is presented. This understanding is based on the results of coordinated studies of crack growth kinetics, surface chemistry, and microstructure in a commercial Inconel 718. The results suggest that environmental enhancement of sustained-load crack growth in Inconel 718 is associated with the formation and rupture of niobium oxides at grain boundary surfaces and is controlled mainly by the rate of oxidation and decomposition of niobium carbides at the grain boundaries. Data on other nickel-based alloys in the literature appear to support this suggested role of niobium. Initial results from a study of a niobium-free Ni-18Cr-18Fe alloy (its base composition is identical to Inconel 718) confirm the possible influence of niobium and the proposed mechanism. Some open issues for further investigation are discussed.
Sub-critical crack growth in a sheet of paper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanel, L.; Santucci, S.; Mallick, N.; Cortet, P.-P.; Roux, S. G.; Ciliberto, S.
2007-03-01
We present experiments on the slow growth of a single crack in a fax paper sheet submitted to a constant force F. The non-averaged crack growth curves present a stepwise growth dynamics. Modelling the material as a lattice where the crack is pinned by elastic traps and grows due to thermal noise, we find that, in agreement with experiments, the distribution of step sizes follows subcritical point statistics with a power law (exponent 3/2) and a stress-dependent exponential cutoff diverging at the critical rupture threshold [1]. Taking into account the microstructure of cellulose fibers, the model is able to reproduce the shape of the statistically averaged crack growth curves, the dependence of the characteristic growth length on F as well as the effect of temperature on the rupture time. Finally, roughness of the crack interface is shown to depend on whether the crack grows in the subcritical regime, or in the rapid regime, over the critical rupture threshold. We analyze this roughness difference using a new approach based on the cumulants of the statistical distribution of the crack front height variations. [1] S. Santucci, L. Vanel and S. Ciliberto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 095505 (2004).
Zhang, Z.; Shang, J.K.
1996-01-01
Fatigue crack growth along an Al/epoxy interface was examined under different combinations of mode-I and mode-II loadings using the flexural peel technique. Fatigue crack growth rates were obtained as a function of the total strain energy rate for G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratios of 0.3 to 1.4, achieved by varying the relative thickness of the outerlayers for the flexural peel specimen. Fatigue crack growth resistance of the interface was found to increase with increasing G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio. Such a shear-enhanced crack growth resistance of the interface resulted in a gradual transition of crack growth mechanism from interfacial at the low G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio to cohesive at the high G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio. Under predominantly mode-I loading, the damage in the polymer took the form of crazing and cavitation. In contrast, laminar shear occurred under highly shear loading, resulting in a larger amount of plastic dissipation at the crack tip and improved fatigue crack growth resistance.
Stable Crack Growth During Thermal Actuation of Shape Memory Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jape, S.; Baxevanis, T.; Lagoudas, D. C.
2016-03-01
A finite element analysis of crack growth is carried out in shape memory alloys subjected to thermal variations under plane strain, mode I, constant applied loading. The crack is assumed to propagate at a critical level of the crack-tip energy release rate which is modeled using the virtual crack closure technique. The load level, applied at a high temperature at which the austenite phase is stable, is assumed sufficiently low so that the resulting crack-tip energy release rate is smaller than the critical value but sufficiently high so that the critical value is reached during cooling, initiating crack growth (Baxevanis and Lagoudas in Int J Fract 191:191-213, 2015). Stable crack growth is observed, mainly associated with the shielding effect of the transformed material left in the wake of the advancing crack. Results pertaining to the near-tip mechanical fields and fracture toughness are presented and their sensitivity to phase transformation metrics and bias load levels is investigated.
Simulating Fatigue Crack Growth in Spiral Bevel Gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spievak, Lisa E.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.
2000-01-01
The majority of helicopter transmission systems utilize spiral bevel gears to convert the horizontal power from the engine into vertical power for the rotor. Due to the cyclical loading on a gear's tooth, fatigue crack propagation can occur. In rotorcraft applications, a crack's trajectory determines whether the gear failure will be benign or catastrophic for the aircraft. As a result, the capability to predict crack growth in gears is significant. A spiral bevel gear's complex shape requires a three dimensional model of the geometry and cracks. The boundary element method in conjunction with linear elastic fracture mechanics theories is used to predict arbitrarily shaped three dimensional fatigue crack trajectories in a spiral bevel pinion under moving load conditions. The predictions are validated by comparison to experimental results. The sensitivity of the predictions to variations in loading conditions and crack growth rate model parameters is explored. Critical areas that must be understood in greater detail prior to predicting more accurate crack trajectories and crack growth rates in three dimensions are identified.
Analyses of Fatigue Crack Growth and Closure Near Threshold Conditions for Large-Crack Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1999-01-01
A plasticity-induced crack-closure model was used to study fatigue crack growth and closure in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy under constant-R and constant-K(sub max) threshold testing procedures. Two methods of calculating crack-opening stresses were compared. One method was based on a contact-K analyses and the other on crack-opening-displacement (COD) analyses. These methods gave nearly identical results under constant-amplitude loading, but under threshold simulations the contact-K analyses gave lower opening stresses than the contact COD method. Crack-growth predictions tend to support the use of contact-K analyses. Crack-growth simulations showed that remote closure can cause a rapid rise in opening stresses in the near threshold regime for low-constraint and high applied stress levels. Under low applied stress levels and high constraint, a rise in opening stresses was not observed near threshold conditions. But crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) were of the order of measured oxide thicknesses in the 2024 alloy under constant-R simulations. In contrast, under constant-K(sub max) testing the CTOD near threshold conditions were an order-of-magnitude larger than measured oxide thicknesses. Residual-plastic deformations under both constant-R and constant-K(sub max) threshold simulations were several times larger than the expected oxide thicknesses. Thus, residual-plastic deformations, in addition to oxide and roughness, play an integral part in threshold development.
Stable crack growth during actuation in shape memory alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jape, Sameer; Baxevanis, Theocharis; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.
2014-03-01
A finite element analysis of crack growth is carried out in an in nite center-cracked shape memory alloy plate subjected to thermal variations under plane strain mode I constant applied loading. Crack is assumed to propagate when the energy release rate reaches a material specific critical value. The virtual crack growth technique is employed to calculate the energy release rate, which was shown to increase an order of magnitude at constant applied loading as a result of phase transformation induced by thermal variations.1 A fracture toughening is observed associated with the energy dissipated by the transformed material in the wake of the growing crack and its sensitivity over key thermomechanical parameters is presented.
Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth in Inconel X-750
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marchand, N.; Pelloux, R. M.
1984-01-01
Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth (TMFCG) was studied in a gamma-gamma' nickel base superalloy Inconel X-750 under controlled load amplitude in the temperature range from 300 to 650 C. In-phase (T sub max at sigma sub max), out-of-phase (T sub min at sigma sub max), and isothermal tests at 650 C were performed on single-edge notch bars under fully reversed cyclic conditions. A dc electrical potential method was used to measure crack length. The electrical potential response obtained for each cycle of a given wave form and R value yields information on crack closure and crack extension per cycle. The macroscopic crack growth rates are reported as a function of delta k and the relative magnitude of the TMFCG are discussed in the light of the potential drop information and of the fractographic observations.
The kinetics of crack healing in Sioux quartzite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, B.; Renner, J.; Takeshita, T.
2001-12-01
We investigated the kinetics of crack healing in untreated and thermally cracked Sioux quartzite samples at temperatures T between 300 and 600° C and a confining pressure pc of 300 MPa. Pore fluid was either argon or distilled water. Pore fluid pressure pf varied between 50 and 250 MPa yielding effective pressures peff between 250 and 50 MPa, respectively. Sample permeability k and storage capacity β s were continuously monitored using the oscillatory pore pressure method. The sinusoidal pore pressure oscillations imposed on one end of the sample had amplitudes of 1 MPa. Oscillation period had to be increased with decreasing permeability and ranged between 60 and 9000 s. Permeability can reliably evaluated using about 3 full oscillations limiting the time resolution of changes in transport properties. Both permeability and storage capacity decrease with time. The initial permeability of the quartzite with abut 1% porosity ranges between 10-20 and 10-19 m2. Transport properties change faster at higher temperature and effective pressure. For example, at about 400° C and peff=200 MPa permeability drops by almost an order of magnitude over one day. At the same temperature, but a lower effective pressure of 100 MPa, the permeability decreases only by about a factor of two over the same time span. The decrease in permeability accelerates notably after 3 days at T=400° C and peff=200 MPa. Permeabilities are then in the order of 1ṡ10-23 m2 indicating that the samples reach the percolation threshold. Cross correlation between k and β s allow to constrain the porosity evolution during the healing process beyond the density measurements before and after the experiments. We are analyzing geometrical distribution and fluid density of the fluid inclusions that formed during the healing.
Fracture mechanics and surface chemistry studies of fatigue crack growth in an aluminum alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, R. P.; Pao, P. S.; Hart, R. G.; Weir, T. W.; Simmons, G. W.
1980-12-01
Fracture mechanics and surface chemistry studies were carried out to develop further understanding of the influence of water vapor on fatigue crack growth in aluminum alloys. The room temperature fatigue crack growth response was determined for 2219-T851 aluminum alloy exposed to water vapor at pressures from 1 to 30 Pa over a range of stress intensity factors ( K). Data were also obtained in vacuum (at < 0.50 μPa), and dehumidified argon. The test results showed that, at a frequency of 5 Hz, the rate of crack growth is essentially unaffected by water vapor until a threshold pressure is reached. Above this threshold, the rates increased, reaching a maximum within one order of magnitude increase in vapor pressure. This maximum crack growth rate is equal to that obtained in air (40 to 60 pct relative humidity), distilled water and 3.5 pct NaCl solution on the same material. Parallel studies of the reactions of water vapor with fresh alloy surfaces (produced either by in situ impact fracture or by ion etching) were made by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The extent of surface reaction was monitored by changes in the oxygen AES and XPS signals. Correlation between the fatigue crack growth response and the surface reaction kinetics has been made, and is consistent with a transport-limited model for crack growth. The results also suggest that enhancement of fatigue crack growth by water vapor in the aluminum alloys occurs through a “hydrogen embrittle ment” mechanism.
Advanced Finite Element Modeling of Low Cycle Fatigue Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregg, Wayne; McGill, Preston; Swanson, Greg; Wells, Doug; Throckmorton, D. A. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This document (a viewgraph presentation) assumes a crack-like defect of a size which may be missed in inspection will exist in most critical location of any critical structure or component. Flaw existence assumption is usually, but not always, conservative based on past experiences in NASA and knowledge of manufacturing processes. Cyclic, environmental, and sustained loads used to generate stresses on models. Fracture Mechanics analysis used to predict crack growth and residual strength. Must show that defective structure will still provide four times required mission lifetime. Special exemptions cover redundant structures, low risk parts, etc. Assessments require specialized software tools, experienced analysts, and reliable material crack growth rate test database.
The growth of small cracks in 4340 steel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swain, M. H.; Everett, R. A., Jr.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.
1988-01-01
A semiempirical crack-growth model incorporating crack-closure effects has been used to predict crack growth rates and total fatigue life in notched specimens of 4340 steel having an initial defect typical of those previously noted in this steel upon subjection to both constant-amplitude and spectrum loadings. Model predictions for fatigue life are found to be in reasonable agreement with experiments and, in particular, the model was able to accurately predict total fatigue life for specimens subjected to the 'Felix/28' spectrum loading sequence on the sole basis of constant-amplitude test test results.
Anomolous Fatigue Crack Growth Phenomena in High-Strength Steel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; James, Mark A.; Johnston, William M., Jr.; Newman, James C., Jr.
2004-01-01
The growth of a fatigue crack through a material is the result of a complex interaction between the applied loading, component geometry, three-dimensional constraint, load history, environment, material microstructure and several other factors. Previous studies have developed experimental and computational methods to relate the fatigue crack growth rate to many of the above conditions, with the intent of discovering some fundamental material response, i.e. crack growth rate as a function of something. Currently, the technical community uses the stress intensity factor solution as a simplistic means to relate fatigue crack growth rate to loading, geometry and all other variables. The stress intensity factor solution is a very simple linear-elastic representation of the continuum mechanics portion of crack growth. In this paper, the authors present fatigue crack growth rate data for two different high strength steel alloys generated using standard methods. The steels exhibit behaviour that appears unexplainable, compared to an aluminium alloy presented as a baseline for comparison, using the stress intensity factor solution.
High Temperature Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Alloy 10
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gayda, John
2001-01-01
Methods to improve the high temperature, dwell crack growth resistance of Alloy 10, a high strength, nickel-base disk alloy, were studied. Two approaches, heat treat variations and composition modifications, were investigated. Under the heat treat approach, solution temperature, cooling rates, and stabilization, were studied. It was found that higher solution temperatures, which promote coarser grain sizes, coupled with a 1550 F stabilization treatment were found to significantly reduce dwell crack growth rates at 1300 F Changes in the niobium and tantalum content were found to have a much smaller impact on crack growth behavior. Lowering the niobium:tantalum ratio did improve crack growth resistance and this effect was most pronounced for coarse grain microstructures. Based on these findings, a coarse grain microstructure for Alloy 10 appears to be the best option for improving dwell crack growth resistance, especially in the rim of a disk where temperatures can reach or exceed 1300 T. Further, the use of advanced processing technologies, which can produce a coarse grain rim and fine grain bore, would be the preferred option for Alloy 10 to obtain the optimal balance between tensile, creep, and crack growth requirements for small gas turbine engines.
The application of Newman crack-closure model to predicting fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Si, Erjian
1994-01-01
Newman crack-closure model and the relevant crack growth program were applied to the analysis of crack growth under constant amplitude and aircraft spectrum loading on a number of aluminum alloy materials. The analysis was performed for available test data of 2219-T851, 2024-T3, 2024-T351, 7075-T651, 2324-T39, and 7150-T651 aluminum materials. The results showed that the constraint factor is a significant factor in the method. The determination of the constraint factor is discussed. For constant amplitude loading, satisfactory crack growth lives could be predicted. For the above aluminum specimens, the ratio of predicted to experimental lives, Np/Nt, ranged from 0.74 to 1.36. The mean value of Np/Nt was 0.97. For a specified complex spectrum loading, predicted crack growth lives are not in very good agreement with the test data. Further effort is needed to correctly simulate the transition between plane strain and plane stress conditions, existing near the crack tip.
The application of Newman crack-closure model to predicting fatigue crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, Erjian
1994-09-01
Newman crack-closure model and the relevant crack growth program were applied to the analysis of crack growth under constant amplitude and aircraft spectrum loading on a number of aluminum alloy materials. The analysis was performed for available test data of 2219-T851, 2024-T3, 2024-T351, 7075-T651, 2324-T39, and 7150-T651 aluminum materials. The results showed that the constraint factor is a significant factor in the method. The determination of the constraint factor is discussed. For constant amplitude loading, satisfactory crack growth lives could be predicted. For the above aluminum specimens, the ratio of predicted to experimental lives, Np/Nt, ranged from 0.74 to 1.36. The mean value of Np/Nt was 0.97. For a specified complex spectrum loading, predicted crack growth lives are not in very good agreement with the test data. Further effort is needed to correctly simulate the transition between plane strain and plane stress conditions, existing near the crack tip.
Subcritical crack-growth behavior in advanced silicon nitride ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatnagar, Ajay
Advanced silicon nitride ceramics (Sisb3Nsb4) are leading candidates for structural components in gas turbine and reciprocating engines. However, widespread use of these materials has been deterred due to their low fracture toughness under tensile loads. In the last decade, novel processing techniques have allowed extrinsic toughening of this material through grain bridging processes. The extrinsic toughening mechanisms, however, are prone to subcritical crack-growth processes through environmental, mechanical and high temperature degradation mechanisms. Understanding these failure mechanisms is critical for long term reliability and design. In the first part of this study, fracture and environmentally-assisted subcritical crack-growth processes were examined in bulk Y-Si-Al-O-N oxynitride glasses with compositions typical of the grain boundary phase of silicon nitride ceramics. Both long crack as well as short crack behavior were investigated to establish a reliable fracture toughness value and to elucidate the anomalous densification behavior of the oxynitride glass under indentation loads. Environmentally assisted subcritical crack-growth processes were studied in inert, moist and wet environments under both cyclic and static loading conditions and compared to commercial soda lime and borosilicate glasses. The second part of this study involved the effect of loading, microstructure and temperature on subcritical crack-growth behavior in silicon nitride ceramics. Crack-growth rates under an alternating applied stress intensity were compared to those under static loads. The effect of microstructure on fatigue crack-growth rates was determined in silicon nitrides sintered using different processing techniques and with different grain sizes. Unique experimental techniques were used to determine subcritical crack-growth behavior from room temperature to elevated temperatures of 1250sp°C. Frictional wear models were used to explain the trends in experimental data at
Alcala, J.; Anglada, M.
1997-11-01
The influence of precracking techniques in the crack growth behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) is investigated. Load-bridge and cyclic-compression precracking enhance subsequent tensile crack growth rates, in comparison to results that are found with precracks that are extended under four-point bending prior to testing. The actual influence of these precracking techniques in the near-threshold crack growth regime is remarkably different. Although load-bridge precracking produces a pattern of crack growth fluctuations for stress intensity factors, K, lower than the effective crack-growth threshold of the material, compression-fatigue precracks start to propagate under far-field tensile loads at very fast growth rates and for K values that are slightly higher than the effective threshold. Crack-tip shielding by tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation develops gradually, influencing the crack growth behavior in Y-TZP. Proposed fatigue crack growth micromechanisms involve damage accumulation at the crack-tip region. For K{sub max} > 3 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}, fatigue crack growth rates are strongly affected by environmental interactions at the crack tip, and postulated fatigue micromechanisms include the cyclic degradation of crack-tip shielding.
Fatigue crack growth simulations of interfacial cracks in bi-layered FGMs using XFEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, S.; Singh, I. V.; Mishra, B. K.; Bui, T. Q.
2013-10-01
An investigation of fatigue crack growth of interfacial cracks in bi-layered materials using the extended finite element method is presented. The bi-material consists of two layers of dissimilar materials. The bottom layer is made of aluminium alloy while the upper one is made of functionally graded material (FGM). The FGM layer consists of 100 % aluminium alloy on the left side and 100 % ceramic (alumina) on the right side. The gradation in material property of the FGM layer is assumed to be exponential from the alloy side to the ceramic side. The domain based interaction integral approach is extended to obtain the stress intensity factors for an interfacial crack under thermo-mechanical load. The edge and centre cracks are taken at the interface of bi-layered material. The fatigue life of the interface crack plate is obtained using the Paris law of fatigue crack growth under cyclic mode-I, mixed-mode and thermal loads. This study reveals that the crack propagates into the FGM layer under all types of loads.
Fatigue crack growth in metastable austenitic stainless steels
Mei, Z.; Chang, G.; Morris, J.W. Jr.
1988-06-01
The research reported here is an investigation of the influence of the mechanically induced martensitic transformation on the fatigue crack growth rate in 304-type steels. The alloys 304L and 304LN were used to test the influence of composition, the testing temperatures 298 K and 77 K were used to study the influence of test temperature, and various load ratios (R) were used to determine the influence of the load ratio. It was found that decreasing the mechanical stability of the austenite by changing composition or lowering temperature decreases the fatigue crack growth rate. The R-ratio effect is more subtle. The fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing R-ratio, even though this change increases the martensite transformation. Transformation-induced crack closure can explain the results in the threshold regime, but cannot explain the R-ratio effect at higher cyclic stress intensities. 26 refs., 6 figs.
Fracture and crack growth in orthotropic laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goree, J. G.; Gross, R. S.
1978-01-01
An approximate solution is developed for the determination of the interlaminar normal and shear stresses in the vicinity of a crack in a three dimensional composite containing unidirectional linearly elastic fibers in an infinite linearly elastic matrix. In order to reduce the complexity of the formulation, certain assumptions are made as to the physically significant stresses to be retained. These simplifications reduce the partial differential equations of elasticity to differential-difference equations which are tractable using Fourier transform techniques. The potential for damaged or debonded zones to be generated by an embedded crack is discussed, and stress concentration factors for fibers near the crack are given. Detailed comparisons are made between the present solution, the analogous two dimensional problem, and corresponding shear-lag models.
NASA/FLAGRO - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH COMPUTER PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, R. G.
1994-01-01
Structural flaws and cracks may grow under fatigue inducing loads and, upon reaching a critical size, cause structural failure to occur. The growth of these flaws and cracks may occur at load levels well below the ultimate load bearing capability of the structure. The Fatigue Crack Growth Computer Program, NASA/FLAGRO, was developed as an aid in predicting the growth of pre-existing flaws and cracks in structural components of space systems. The earlier version of the program, FLAGRO4, was the primary analysis tool used by Rockwell International and the Shuttle subcontractors for fracture control analysis on the Space Shuttle. NASA/FLAGRO is an enhanced version of the program and incorporates state-of-the-art improvements in both fracture mechanics and computer technology. NASA/FLAGRO provides the fracture mechanics analyst with a computerized method of evaluating the "safe crack growth life" capabilities of structural components. NASA/FLAGRO could also be used to evaluate the damage tolerance aspects of a given structural design. The propagation of an existing crack is governed by the stress field in the vicinity of the crack tip. The stress intensity factor is defined in terms of the relationship between the stress field magnitude and the crack size. The propagation of the crack becomes catastrophic when the local stress intensity factor reaches the fracture toughness of the material. NASA/FLAGRO predicts crack growth using a two-dimensional model which predicts growth independently in two directions based on the calculation of stress intensity factors. The analyst can choose to use either a crack growth rate equation or a nonlinear interpolation routine based on tabular data. The growth rate equation is a modified Forman equation which can be converted to a Paris or Walker equation by substituting different values into the exponent. This equation provides accuracy and versatility and can be fit to data using standard least squares methods. Stress
Direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangloff, Richard P.; Slavik, Donald C.; Piascik, Robert S.; Van Stone, Robert H.
1992-01-01
The analytical and experimental aspects of the direct-current electrical potential difference (dcEPD) method for continuous monitoring of the growth kinetics of short (50 to 500 microns) fatigue cracks are reviewed, and successful applications of the deEPD method to study fatigue crack propagation in a variety of metallic alloys exposed to various environments are described. Particular attention is given to the principle of the dcEPD method, the analytical electrical potential calibration relationships, and the experimental procedures and equipment.
Direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangloff, Richard P.; Slavik, Donald C.; Piascik, Robert S.; van Stone, Robert H.
The analytical and experimental aspects of the direct-current electrical potential difference (dcEPD) method for continuous monitoring of the growth kinetics of short (50 to 500 microns) fatigue cracks are reviewed, and successful applications of the deEPD method to study fatigue crack propagation in a variety of metallic alloys exposed to various environments are described. Particular attention is given to the principle of the dcEPD method, the analytical electrical potential calibration relationships, and the experimental procedures and equipment.
Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Stress-Intensity Factor Corrections for Out-of-Plane Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Herman, Dave J.; James, Mark A.
2003-01-01
Fatigue crack growth rate testing is performed by automated data collection systems that assume straight crack growth in the plane of symmetry and use standard polynomial solutions to compute crack length and stress-intensity factors from compliance or potential drop measurements. Visual measurements used to correct the collected data typically include only the horizontal crack length, which for cracks that propagate out-of-plane, under-estimates the crack growth rates and over-estimates the stress-intensity factors. The authors have devised an approach for correcting both the crack growth rates and stress-intensity factors based on two-dimensional mixed mode-I/II finite element analysis (FEA). The approach is used to correct out-of-plane data for 7050-T7451 and 2025-T6 aluminum alloys. Results indicate the correction process works well for high DeltaK levels but fails to capture the mixed-mode effects at DeltaK levels approaching threshold (da/dN approximately 10(exp -10) meter/cycle).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dicus, D. L.
1982-01-01
The effects of water vapor on fatigue crack growth in 7475-T651 aluminum alloy plate at frequencies of 1 Hz and 10 Hz were investigated. Twenty-five mm thick compact specimens were subjected to constant amplitude fatigue testing at a load ratio of 0.2. Fatigue crack growth rates were calculated from effective crack lengths determined using a compliance method. Tests were conducted in hard vacuum and at water vapor partial pressures ranging from 94 Pa to 3.8 kPa. Fatigue crack growth rates were frequency insensitive under all environment conditions tested. For constant stress intensity factor ranges crack growth rate transitions occurred at low and high water vapor pressures. Crack growth rates at intermediate pressures were relatively constant and showed reasonable agreement with published data for two Al-Cu-Mg alloys. The existence of two crack growth rate transitions suggests either a change in rate controlling kinetics or a change in corrosion fatigue mechanism as a function of water vapor pressure. Reduced residual deformation and transverse cracking specimens tested in water vapor versus vacuum may be evidence of embrittlement within the plastic zone due to environmental interaction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dicus, D. L.
1984-01-01
The effects of water vapor on fatigue crack growth in 7475-T651 aluminum alloy plate at frequencies of 1 Hz and 10 Hz were investigated. Twenty-five mm thick compact specimens were subjected to constant amplitude fatigue testing at a load ratio of 0.2. Fatigue crack growth rates were calculated from effective crack lengths determined using a compliance method. Tests were conducted in hard vacuum and at water vapor partial pressures ranging from 94 Pa to 3.8 kPa. Fatigue crack growth rates were frequency insensitive under all environment conditions tested. For constant stress intensity factor ranges crack growth rate transitions occurred at low and high water vapor pressures. Crack growth rates at intermediate pressures were relatively constant and showed reasonable agreement with published data for two Al-Cu-Mg alloys. The existence of two crack growth rate transitions suggests either a change in rate controlling kinetics or a change in corrosion fatigue mechanism as a function of water vapor pressure. Reduced residual deformation and transverse cracking specimens tested in water vapor versus vacuum may be evidence of embrittlement within the plastic zone due to environmental interaction.
FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (UNIX VERSION)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C.
1994-01-01
Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied
FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C.
1994-01-01
Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied
Estimating crack growth in temperature damaged concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Recalde, Juan Jose
2009-12-01
Evaluation of the structural condition of deteriorated concrete infrastructure and evaluation of new sustainable cementitious materials require an understanding of how the material will respond to applied loads and environmental exposures. A fundamental understanding of how microstructural changes in these materials relate to changes in mechanical properties and changes in fluid penetrability is needed. The ability to provide rapid, inexpensive assessment of material characteristics and relevant engineering properties is valuable for decision making and asset management purposes. In this investigation, the effects of changes in dynamic elastic properties with water content and fluid penetrability properties before and after a 300°C exposure were investigated based on estimates of the crack density parameter from dry and saturated cracked media. The experimental and analytical techniques described in this dissertation allow calculation of a value for the crack density parameter using nondestructive determination of wet and dry dynamic shear modulus of relatively thin disks. The techniques were used to compare a conventional concrete mixture to several mixtures with enhanced sustainability characteristics. The three enhanced sustainable materials investigated were a very high fly ash mixture, a magnesium phosphate cement based mortar, and a magnesium phosphate cement based concrete, and were compared to a conventional concrete mixture. The analysis provided both quantitative assessment of changes with high temperature damage and autogenous healing, and estimates of changes in mean crack trace lengths. The results showed that water interaction, deterioration due to damage, and autogenous healing recovery were different for the magnesium phosphate cement based mixtures than the portland cement based concrete mixtures. A strong correlation was found between log-transformed Air Permeability Index, dynamic shear modulus, and crack density parameter. The findings imply
Near-threshold fatigue crack growth in aluminum composite laminates
Hoffman, P.B.; Gibeling, J.C.
1995-03-15
One promising method for improving the mechanical properties of particulate MMCs is to laminate the brittle composite with a more ductile component. A system currently being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a multilayer laminate consisting of alternating layers of AA6090/SiC/25p and more ductile AA5182. In order to further examine the effects of lamination on fatigue crack propagation mechanics and mechanisms, the fatigue crack growth behavior of the aluminum composite laminate developed at LLNL was examined. The laminate and the AA6090/SiC/25p component were studied in the T6 heat treatment condition for subsequent comparison. Fatigue crack surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy for further insight into crack growth mechanisms.
Effect of Measured Welding Residual Stresses on Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hampton, Roy W.; Nelson, Drew; Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Welding residual stresses in thin plate A516-70 steel and 2219-T87 aluminum butt weldments were measured by the strain-gage hole drilling and X-ray diffraction methods. The residual stress data were used to construct 3D strain fields which were modeled as thermally induced strains. These 3D strain fields were then analyzed with the WARP31) FEM fracture analysis code in order to predict their effect on fatigue and on fracture. For analyses of fatigue crack advance and subsequent verification testing, fatigue crack growth increments were simulated by successive saw-cuts and incremental loading to generate, as a function of crack length, effects on crack growth of the interaction between residual stresses and load induced stresses. The specimen experimental response was characterized and compared to the WARM linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis predictions. To perform the fracture analysis, the plate material's crack tearing resistance was determined by tests of thin plate M(T) specimens. Fracture analyses of these specimen were performed using WARP31D to determine the critical Crack Tip Opening Angle [CTOA] of each material. These critical CTOA values were used to predict crack tearing and fracture in the weldments. To verify the fracture predictions, weldment M(T) specimen were tested in monotonic loading to fracture while characterizing the fracture process.
Microstructural mechanisms of cyclic deformation, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth.
Mughrabi, Haël
2015-03-28
In this survey, the origin of fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution in different metallic materials is discussed with emphasis on the responsible microstructural mechanisms. After a historical introduction, the stages of cyclic deformation which precede the onset of fatigue damage are reviewed. Different types of cyclic slip irreversibilities in the bulk that eventually lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks are discussed. Examples of trans- and intercrystalline fatigue damage evolution in the low cycle, high cycle and ultrahigh cycle fatigue regimes in mono- and polycrystalline face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic metals and alloys and in different engineering materials are presented, and some microstructural models of fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are discussed. The basic difficulties in defining the transition from the initiation to the growth of fatigue cracks are emphasized. In ultrahigh cycle fatigue at very low loading amplitudes, the initiation of fatigue cracks generally occupies a major fraction of fatigue life and is hence life controlling. PMID:25713457
Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441
Prakash, R.V.; Parida, B.K.
1995-12-31
Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441 having a marginally lower lithium content, compared to 80xx and 20xx series Al-Li alloys is presented in this paper. This investigation was conducted on single edge tension--SE(T)--specimens, under constant amplitude as well as under MiniLCA flight spectrum loading with the specific objective of determining the effects of stress ratio, orientation, thickness and cladding. Three thicknesses were considered: 1.2 mm(clad and unclad), 2.0 mm(clad and unclad) and 8.0 mm unclad. Constant amplitude fatigue tests were conducted at stress ratios of {minus}0.3, 0.1 and 0.7. Testing was performed under ambient conditions and along three orientations, namely L-T, T-L and L+45 degrees. Crack growth characteristics of this alloy are compared with that of BS:L73 (2014-T4 equivalent) for assessing the possibility of replacing BS:L73. Significant effect of stress ratio on crack growth rate was observed in all thicknesses. However, in case of 1.2 and 2.0 mm thick sheets, the effect was minimal at intermediate-crack growth regime. The orientation of the specimen does not adversely affect the fatigue crack growth behavior of 8.0 mm and 2.0 mm thick specimens. However, for 1.2 mm unclad sheet crack growth resistance in L-T direction was found to be superior to that along T-L direction. In majority of test cases considered, no significant effect was observed on crack growth rate due to thickness or cladding. Crack growth characteristics of Al-Li alloy 1441 and Al-Cu alloy BS:L73 under constant amplitude as well as MiniLCA spectrum loading are similar in the low and intermediate-crack growth rate regime. Based on these observations, it is felt that this Al-Li alloy has the potential for future aerospace applications.
Mode 2 fatigue crack growth specimen development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buzzard, R. J.; Gross, B.; Srawley, J. E.
1983-01-01
A Mode II test specimen was developed which has potential application in understanding phemonena associated with mixed mode fatigue failures in high performance aircraft engine bearing races. The attributes of the specimen are: it contains one single ended notch, which simplifiers data gathering and reduction; the fatigue crack grous in-line with the direction of load application; a single axis test machine is sufficient to perform testing; and the Mode I component is vanishingly small.
Atomistic simulations of brittle crack growth.
Hoyt, Jeffrey John
2007-04-01
Ceramic materials such as lead zirconium titanates (PZT), low temperature co-fired ceramics and silica glasses are used in several of Sandia's mission critical components. Brittle fracture, either during machining and processing or after many years in service, remains a serious reliability and cost issue. Despite its technological importance, brittle fracture remains poorly understand, especially the onset and propagation of sub-critical cracks. However, some insights into the onset of fracture can be gleaned from the atomic scale structure of the amorphous material. In silica for example, it is well known [1] that the Si-O-Si bonds are relatively weak and, in angle distribution functions determined from scattering experiments, the bonds exhibit a wide spread around a peak at 150. By contrast the O-Si-O bonds are strong with a narrow peak in the distribution around the 109 dictated by the SiO{sub 4} tetrahedron. In addition, slow energy release in silica, as deduced from dissolution experiments, depends on the distribution of 3-fold and higher rings in the amorphous structure. The purpose of this four month LDRD project was to investigate the atomic structure of silica in the bulk and in the vicinity of a crack tip using molecular dynamics simulations. Changes in the amorphous structure in the neighborhood of an atomically sharp tip may provide important clues as to the initiation sites and the stress intensity required to propagate a sub-critical crack.
Fatigue crack growth in the highly plastic regime
Kim, K.S.; Baik, Y.M.
1997-12-31
This paper evaluates the performance of {Delta}J{sup {star}}, {Delta}J[superscript karet] and {Delta}K as fracture parameters for center-cracked plate specimens of Alloy 718 under R{sub {sigma}} = 0, nominally elastic and plastic loading at elevated temperatures. The parameters {Delta}J{sup {star}} and {Delta}J[superscript caret] are computed from the results of an elastic-plastic finite element analysis of crack growth. At 538 C the results show, in contrast to the previous results of R{sup {var_epsilon}} = {minus}1 strain control tests, that the correlation of crack growth rates with {Delta}J{sup {star}} or {Delta}J[superscript caret] deviates from the relation of the Paris law type while {Delta}K gives a satisfactory correlation. The correlation at 649 C is poor for all three parameters. The finite element analysis shows that the crack closing behavior diminishes and eventually disappears as the crack tip plasticity increases due to crack growth or increased applied stress.
Fatigue crack growth testing of sub-clad defects
Jones, D.P.; Leax, T.R.
1998-04-01
Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on four point bend specimens with crack like defects intentionally placed in A302B low-alloy pressure vessel steel clad with 308/309L weld deposited stainless steel. The defects were placed in the base metal under the cladding by machining a cavity from the side opposite the cladding, electric-discharge machining a very sharp flaw, fatigue pre-cracking the flaw, and then filling up the cavity by a weld repair process. The specimens were stress relieved before fatigue testing. The specimens were fatigue cycled at positive load ratios until the defects broke through to the surface. The specimens were then fractured at liquid nitrogen temperatures to reveal the fracture surfaces. Seven different sub-clad flaw specimens were tested in room temperature air and each test provides a record of cycles to defect break-through. Changes in defect size and shape as a function of applied load cycles were obtained by benchmarking the crack at various stages of the load history. The results provide a set of embedded defect data which can be used for qualifying fatigue crack growth analysis procedures such as those in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A comparison between calculated and measured values shows that the ASME B and PV Section XI fatigue crack growth procedures conservatively predict cycles to defect break-through for small sub-clad defects.
Fatigue Crack Growth Database for Damage Tolerance Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, R. G.; Shivakumar, V.; Cardinal, J. W.; Williams, L. C.; McKeighan, P. C.
2005-01-01
The objective of this project was to begin the process of developing a fatigue crack growth database (FCGD) of metallic materials for use in damage tolerance analysis of aircraft structure. For this initial effort, crack growth rate data in the NASGRO (Registered trademark) database, the United States Air Force Damage Tolerant Design Handbook, and other publicly available sources were examined and used to develop a database that characterizes crack growth behavior for specific applications (materials). The focus of this effort was on materials for general commercial aircraft applications, including large transport airplanes, small transport commuter airplanes, general aviation airplanes, and rotorcraft. The end products of this project are the FCGD software and this report. The specific goal of this effort was to present fatigue crack growth data in three usable formats: (1) NASGRO equation parameters, (2) Walker equation parameters, and (3) tabular data points. The development of this FCGD will begin the process of developing a consistent set of standard fatigue crack growth material properties. It is envisioned that the end product of the process will be a general repository for credible and well-documented fracture properties that may be used as a default standard in damage tolerance analyses.
Crack growth in a welded microalloyed steel under sulfide stress cracking conditions
Albarran, J.L.; Martinez, L.; Lopez, H.F.
1998-12-01
In this work, the hydrogen sulfide stress-corrosion cracking (SSC) susceptibility of a welded API X-80 pipeline was investigated. For this purpose, steel welding was carried out normal to the rolling direction using a 60{degree} single V-joint design. After welding, compact modified-wedge opening loading (M-WOL) fracture mechanics specimens were machined and loaded to an applied stress intensity factor, K{sub 1}, of 27 to 53 MPa {radical}m. This was followed by specimen exposure to H{sub 2}S saturated synthetic seawater. Each of the M-WOL specimens contained the typical microstructures developed during welding, such as the weld metal (WM), base metal (BM), and heat affected zone (HAZ). No attempt was made to establish a unique K{sub ISCC} for crack arrest because its significance was not clear. Qualitatively, the experimental outcome indicated that in mode I loading under a K{sub 1} of 40.3 MPa {radical}m only the base metal region underwent SSC. Apparently, active anodic dissolution of the crack tip started the growth process, but it was followed by a transition to hydrogen induced cracking. At an applied K{sub 1} of 55 MPa {radical}m and under similar exposure times, crack growth in the base metal was discontinuous and tended to follow the grain boundaries. Moreover, the HAZ exhibited the least SSC susceptibility as inferred from the relatively short crack propagation lengths (0.829 mm). In this case, it was found that the crack lengths of up to 4.2 mm developed. In this case, the presence of a relatively coarse dendritic structure coupled with interdendritic segregation provided a weak path for crack propagation.
The effect of fatigue cracks on fastener flexibility, load distribution, and fatigue crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitman, Zachary Layne
Fatigue cracks typically occur at stress risers such as geometry changes and holes. This type of failure has serious safety and economic repercussions affecting structures such as aircraft. The need to prevent catastrophic failure due to fatigue cracks and other discontinuities has led to durability and damage tolerant methodologies influencing the design of aircraft structures. Holes in a plate or sheet filled with a fastener are common fatigue critical locations in aircraft structure requiring damage tolerance analysis (DTA). Often, the fastener is transferring load which leads to a loading condition involving both far-field stresses such as tension and bending, and localized bearing at the hole. The difference between the bearing stress and the tensile field at the hole is known as load transfer. The ratio of load transfer as well as the magnitude of the stresses plays a significant part in how quickly a crack will progress to failure. Unfortunately, the determination of load transfer in a complex joint is far from trivial. Many methods exist in the open literature regarding the analysis of splices, doublers and attachment joints to determine individual fastener loads. These methods work well for static analyses but greater refinement is needed for crack growth analysis. The first fastener in a splice or joint is typically the most critical but different fastener flexibility equations will all give different results. The constraint of the fastener head and shop end, along with the type of fastener, affects the stiffness or flexibility of the fastener. This in turn will determine the load that the fastener will transfer within a given fastener pattern. However, current methods do not account for the change in flexibility at a fastener as the crack develops. It is put forth that a crack does indeed reduce the stiffness of a fastener by changing its constraint, thus lessening the load transfer. A crack growth analysis utilizing reduced load transfer will result in
Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.
1999-01-01
This is the final report for the NASA funded project entitled "Crack Growth Prediction Methodology for Multi-Site Damage." The primary objective of the project was to create a capability to simulate curvilinear fatigue crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage. The second objective was to validate the capability by way of comparisons to experimental results. Both objectives have been achieved and the results are detailed herein. In the first part of the report, the crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained and correlated from coupon tests to predict fracture behavior and residual strength of built-up aircraft fuselages, is discussed. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element analyses are used to simulate stable crack growth and to predict residual strength. Both measured and predicted results of laboratory flat panel tests and full-scale fuselage panel tests show substantial reduction of residual strength due to the occurrence of multi-site damage (MSD). Detailed comparisons of n stable crack growth history, and residual strength between the predicted and experimental results are used to assess the validity of the analysis methodology. In the second part of the report, issues related to crack trajectory prediction in thin shells; an evolving methodology uses the crack turning phenomenon to improve the structural integrity of aircraft structures are discussed, A directional criterion is developed based on the maximum tangential stress theory, but taking into account the effect of T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy. Possible extensions of the current crack growth directional criterion to handle geometrically and materially nonlinear problems are discussed. The path independent contour integral method for T-stress evaluation is derived and its accuracy is assessed using a p- and hp-version adaptive finite element method. Curvilinear crack growth is simulated in
Deformation and crack growth response under cyclic creep conditions
Brust, F.W. Jr.
1995-12-31
To increase energy efficiency, new plants must operate at higher and higher temperatures. Moreover, power generation equipment continues to age and is being used far beyond its intended original design life. Some recent failures which unfortunately occurred with serious consequences have clearly illustrated that current methods for insuring safety and reliability of high temperature equipment is inadequate. Because of these concerns, an understanding of the high-temperature crack growth process is very important and has led to the following studies of the high temperature failure process. This effort summarizes the results of some recent studies which investigate the phenomenon of high temperature creep fatigue crack growth. Experimental results which detail the process of creep fatigue, analytical studies which investigate why current methods are ineffective, and finally, a new approach which is based on the T{sup *}-integral and its ability to characterize the creep-fatigue crack growth process are discussed. The potential validity of this new predictive methodology is illustrated.
Fatigue Crack Growth and Crack Bridging in SCS-6/Ti-24-11
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosn, Louis J.; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack
1995-01-01
Interfacial damage induced by relative fiber/matrix sliding was found to occur in the bridged zone of unidirectional SCS-6/Ti-24Al-11Nb intermetallic matrix composite specimens subjected to fatigue crack growth conditions. The degree of interfacial damage was not uniform along the bridged crack wake. Higher damage zones were observed near the machined notch in comparison to the crack tip. The interfacial friction shear strength tau(sub f) measured in the crack wake using pushout testing revealed lower values than the as-received interface. Interfacial wear also reduced the strength of the bridging fibers. The reduction in fiber strength is thought to be a function of the magnitude of relative fiber/matrix displacements ind the degree of interfacial damage. Furthermore, two different fiber bridging models were used to predict the influence of bridging on the fatigue crack driving force. The shear lag model required a variable tau(sub f) in the crack wake (reflecting the degradation of the interface) before its predictions agreed with trends exhibited by the experimental data. The fiber pressure model did an excellent job in predicting both the FCG data and the DeltaCOD in the bridged zone even though it does not require a knowledge of tau(sub f).
Slow crack growth measurement using an electrical grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, D. J.; Davido, K. W.; Scott, W. D.
1986-01-01
Photolithography was used to produce a resistance grid on the surface of a DCB fracture specimen. The grid line spacings were 10 microns over a distance of 2 cm. Slow crack growth was measured on soda-lime-silica glass. At low values of K(I) (0.3 to 0.4 MPa.sq r + m, increased. Equations are given for the design of grids. The grid technique could be used to measure very slow crack growth at high temperature with appropriate compatible metal-ceramic materials.
R-Curve Instability Calculations Of Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orange, Thomas W.
1989-01-01
Report discusses use of instability method of calculation and R-curve mathematical models to analyze growth of cracks in fracture-mechanics specimens. In case of single material and structure, such analysis sometimes simple enough to be done on pocket calculator. Where microcomputer or larger computer available, comprehensive program includes libraries of driving-force equations for various configurations and R-curve mathematical models for different materials. Author concludes instability method simple and effective and model equations studied all viable in sense at lease one of them should fit almost any applicable set of crack-growth data. Method and models constitute powerful mathematical tools for analysis of fractures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1982-01-01
An elastic-plastic (incremental and small strain) finite element analysis was used with a crack growth criterion to study crack initiation, stable crack growth, and instability under monotonic loading to failure of metallic materials. The crack growth criterion was a critical crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) at a specified distance from the crack tip, or equivalently, a critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA). Whenever the CTOD (or CTOA) equaled or exceeded a critical value, the crack was assumed to grow. Single values of critical CTOD were used in the analysis to model crack initiation, stable crack growth, and instability for 7075-T651 and 2024-T351 aluminum alloy compact specimens. Calculated and experimentally measured CTOD values at initiation agreed well for both aluminum alloys. These critical CTOD values were also used to predict failure loads on center-crack tension specimens and a specially-designed three-hole-crack tension specimen made of the two aluminum alloys and of 304 stainless steel. All specimens were 12.7 mm thick. Predicted failure loads for 7075-T651 aluminum alloy and 304 stainless steel specimens were generally within + or - 15 percent of experimental failure loads, whereas the predicted failure loads for 2024-T351 aluminum alloy specimens were generally within + or - 5 percent of the experimental loads.
Accelerated fatigue crack growth behavior of PWA 1480
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Telesman, Jack; Ghosn, Louis J.
1988-01-01
An investigation of the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of PWA 1480 single crystal nickel base superalloy was conducted. Typical Paris region behavior was observed above a delta K of 8 MPa sq rt of m. However, below that stress intensity range, the alloy exhibited highly unusual behavior. This behavior consisted of a region where the crack growth rate became essentially independent of the applied stress intensity. The transition in the FCG behavior was related to a change in the observed crack growth mechanisms. In the Paris region, fatigue failure occurred along (111) facets; however, at the lower stress intensities, (001) fatigue failure was observed. A mechanism was proposed, based on barriers to dislocation motion, to explain the changes in the observed FCG behavior. The FCG data were also evaluated in terms of a recently proposed stress intensity parameter, K sub rss. This parameter, based on the resolved shear stresses on the slip planes, quantified the crack driving force as well as the mode I delta K, and at the same time was also able to predict the microscopic crack path under different stress states.
Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 1; Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
2002-01-01
Extensive slow-crack-growth (SCG) analysis was made using a primary exponential crack-velocity formulation under three widely used load configurations: constant stress rate, constant stress, and cyclic stress. Although the use of the exponential formulation in determining SCG parameters of a material requires somewhat inconvenient numerical procedures, the resulting solutions presented gave almost the same degree of simplicity in both data analysis and experiments as did the power-law formulation. However, the fact that the inert strength of a material should be known in advance to determine the corresponding SCG parameters was a major drawback of the exponential formulation as compared with the power-law formulation.
Simulation of Crack Growth Rate in Martensitic Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odukwe, A. O.; Ajayi, O. O.; Oluwadare, G. O.
This research used the stress intensity factor with rate of crack growth per cycle of loading to model and simulates the crack growth in Martensitic steel in air environment. The basic parameters used were da/dN and ΔK, log (da/dN) was analyzed against log (ΔK) and a regression analysis using data from log (da/dN) vs log (ΔK) was carried out and the outcome employed to develop a model and simulation which gave rise to interactive software that can be used to predict the behavior of a structural member under conditions of certain loading. Additionally, it can be employed to have quick access to data and design considerations, when input data are supplied. This became useful in monitoring the point at which crack can initiate and the rate at which it would grow in a particular structural member of interest. The software has been tested with theoretical and experimental data.
Accelerated crack growth, residual stress, and a cracked zinc coated pressure shell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dittman, Daniel L.; Hampton, Roy W.; Nelson, Howard G.
1987-01-01
During a partial inspection of a 42 year old, operating, pressurized wind tunnel at NASA-Ames Research Center, a surface connected defect 114 in. long having an indicated depth of a 0.7 in. was detected. The pressure shell, constructed of a medium carbon steel, contains approximately 10 miles of welds and is cooled by flowing water over its zinc coated external surface. Metallurgical and fractographic analysis showed that the actual detect was 1.7 in. deep, and originated from an area of lack of weld penetration. Crack growth studies were performed on the shell material in the laboratory under various loading rates, hold times, and R-ratios with a simulated shell environment. The combination of zinc, water with electrolyte, and steel formed an electrolytic cell which resulted in an increase in cyclic crack growth rate by as much as 500 times over that observed in air. It was concluded that slow crack growth occurred in the pressure shell by a combination of stress corrosion cracking due to the welding residual stress and corrosion fatigue due to the cyclic operating stress.
Growth kinetics and morphology of polymer crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toda, Akihiko
2007-03-01
Originating from the nature of chain folding, polymer single crystals are quite unique in the growth kinetics and morphology. The developments of the understanding in the past 50 years are discussed and the unsolved important issues will be suggested. Polymer single crystals are thin lamellae with the thickness in the order of 10nm determined by the period of chain folding, which keeps a constant value for the isothermal crystallization. The growth of polymer single crystals is modeled by the kinetics of creation and annihilation of growth steps on a rectangular substrate with the pre-determined thickness. The growth face is therefore regarded as a one-dimensional substrate and the kinks and anti-kinks on the substrate correspond to the growth steps propagating in the opposite directions. The kinetic equations of those kinks proposed by Seto and Frank well describe the transition of growth regime as a crossover from single nucleation to multi-nucleation on the basis of the standard model of chain-folded polymer crystallization with surface nucleation proposed by Lauritzen and Hoffman. However, the analysis of the growth kinetics and morphology of single crystals having curved growth front suggests an unusual behavior of the step propagation velocity. The anomaly can be accounted for by a self-poisoning of the growth step interrupted by polymer chains with folding shorter than required. An entropic barrier of pinning proposed by Sadler and Gilmer is a possible candidate of the self-poisoning and is in accordance with recent computer simulation results suggesting the kinetics on a rugged free energy landscape having a resemblance to protein folding. Therefore, the quantitative evaluation of the kinetic barriers of surface nucleation and pinning has been an important issue. In addition, examination of the kinetics of melting will have valuable information because melting of a crystal must be free from nucleation but can still be limited by the entropic barrier.
Brittle-tough transitions during crack growth in toughened adhesives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoules, Michael
2008-03-01
The use of structural adhesives in automotive applications relies on an effective understanding of their performance under crash conditions. In particular, there is considerable potential for mechanics-based modeling of the interaction between an adhesive layer and the adherends, to replace current empirical approaches to design. Since energy dissipation during a crash, mediated by plastic deformation of the structure, is a primary consideration for automotive applications, traditional approaches of fracture mechanics are not appropriate. Cohesive-zone models that use two fracture parameters - cohesive strength and toughness - have been shown to provide a method for quantitative mechanics analysis. Combined numerical and experimental techniques have been developed to deduce the toughness and strength parameters of adhesive layers, allowing qualitative modeling of the performance of adhesive joints. These techniques have been used to study the failure of joints, formed from a toughened adhesive and sheet metal, over a wide range of loading rates. Two fracture modes are observed: quasi-static crack growth and dynamic crack growth. The quasi-static crack growth is associated with a toughened mode of failure; the dynamic crack growth is associated with a more brittle mode of failure. The results of the experiments and analyses indicate that the fracture parameters for quasi-static crack growth in this toughened system are essentially rate independent, and that quasi-static crack growth can occur even at the highest crack velocities. Effects of rate appear to be limited to the ease with which a transition to dynamic fracture could be triggered. This transition appears to be stochastic in nature, and it does not appear to be associated with the attainment of any critical value for crack velocity or loading rate. Fracture-mechanics models exist in the literature for brittle-ductile transitions in rate-dependent polymers, which rely on rate dependent values of toughness
Surface Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior from Small Notch in Waspaloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Seon-Gab
We investigated the surface fatigue crack behaviors including initial surface crack appearances depend on three artificial notch lengths applied with the axle load level of the maximum load, 1,103 MPa and minimum load 55.3 MPa at the stress ratio of 0.05. This load level is the F100 engine's maximum operation condition of Waspaloy. The initial cracking site in depth is started from multi-origin. The effectiveness of crack growth rate by ductile striation space measurement on the fractured surface is confirmed by the working load and the stress intensity factor range. The surface cracks of Waspaloy at room temperature in air follow the ΔK vs da/dN and db/dN relation, even though the crack length initiated early in notch size 1 mm and initiated very late in notch size 4 mm. And the ΔK vs da/dN and db/dN relation have similar slope at 3 kinds of notches.
A computational study of the time dependent crack growth process
Brust, F.W.; Krishnaswamy, P.
1992-01-01
Universal studies of creep crack growth for (1) constant load and (2) variable load cases are presented. Results of the constant load cases is compared to experiment. The behavior of displacements and integral creep for fracture parameters are discussed for both load cases. The need for using a constitutive law which can handle cyclic creep is discussed.
Modeling fatigue crack growth in cross ply titanium matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.
1993-01-01
In this study, the fatigue crack growth behavior of fiber bridging matrix cracks in cross-ply SCS-6/Ti-15-3 and SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates containing center holes was investigated. Experimental observations revealed that matrix cracking was far more extensive and wide spread in the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates compared to that in the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates. In addition, the fatigue life of the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates was significantly longer than that of the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates. The matrix cracking observed in both material systems was analyzed using a fiber bridging (FB) model which was formulated using the boundary correction factors and weight functions for center hole specimen configurations. A frictional shear stress is assumed in the FB model and was used as a curve fitting parameter to model matrix crack growth data. The higher frictional shear stresses calculated in the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates resulted in lower stress intensity factors in the matrix and higher axial stresses in the fibers compared to those in the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates at the same applied stress levels.
Nanometer voids prevent crack growth in polymer thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, Hideaki; Dutriez, Cedric; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami
2007-03-01
Macroscopic voids initiate cracks and cause catastrophic failure in brittle materials. The effect of micrometer voids in the mechanical properties of polymeric materials was studied in 1980's and 90's with the expectation that such small voids may initiate crazing, the toughening mechanism in polymer solids, similar to dispersed rubber particles widely used in industry. However, the micrometer voids showed only limited resistance against crack growth, and it was concluded that much smaller voids are necessary for the drastic change in mechanical properties. We have recently succeeded the nondestructive introduction of nanometer voids (30--70 nm) in polymeric materials using block copolymer template and carbon dioxide (CO2) by partitioning CO2 in CO2-philic nanodomains of block copolymers. The reduction of Young's modulus with such nanometer voids was minimal (2 to 1 GPa) due to the (short-range) ordered spherical voids. While the unprocessed copolymer films failed in brittle manner at around 2 % of tensile strain, the processed copolymer films with nanometer voids did not break up to at least 60 %. A microscopic observation under strain of the crack tip revealed that the nanometer voids were deformed under strain and directly converted into the networked fibrils near the crack tip similar to crazing and thus prevented the crack growth.
Fracture mechanics and surface chemistry investigations of environment-assisted crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, R. P.; Klier, K.; Simmons, G. W.; Chou, Y. T.
1984-01-01
It is pointed out that environment-assisted subcritical crack growth in high-strength steels and other high-strength alloys (particularly in hydrogen and in hydrogenous environments) is an important technological problem of long standing. This problem is directly related to issues of structural integrity, durability, and reliability. The terms 'hydrogen embrittlement' and 'stress corrosion cracking' have been employed to describe the considered phenomenon. This paper provides a summary of contributions made during the past ten years toward the understanding of environmentally assisted crack growth. The processes involved in crack growth are examined, and details regarding crack growth and chemical reactions are discussed, taking into account crack growth in steels exposed to water/water vapor, the effect of hydrogen, reactions involving hydrogen sulfide, and aspects of fracture surface morphology and composition. Attention is also given to the modeling of crack growth response, crack growth in gas mixtures, and the interaction of solute atoms with the crack-tip stress field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, R. P.; Klier, K.; Simmons, G. W.
1974-01-01
Coordinated studies of the kinetics of crack growth and of hydrogen adsorption and diffusion were initiated to develop information that is needed for a clearer determination of the rate controlling process and possible mechanism for hydrogen enhanced crack growth, and for estimating behavior over a range of temperatures and pressures. Inconel 718 alloy and 18Ni(200) maraging steel were selected for these studies. 18Ni(250) maraging steel, 316 stainless steel, and iron single crystal of (111) orientation were also included in the chemistry studies. Crack growth data on 18Ni(250) maraging steel from another program are included for comparison. No sustained-load crack growth was observed for the Inconel 718 alloy in gaseous hydrogen. Gaseous hydrogen assisted crack growth in the 18Ni maraging steels were characterized by K-independent (Stage 2) extension over a wide range of hydrogen pressures (86 to 2000 torr or 12 kN/m2 to 266 kN/m2) and test temperatures (-60 C to +100 C). The higher strength 18Ni(250) maraging steel was more susceptible than the lower strength 200 grade. A transition temperature was observed, above which crack growth rates became diminishingly small.
The influence of crack closure on fatigue crack growth thresholds in 2024-T3 aluminum alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Edward P.
1988-01-01
Crack opening loads were determined in load-shedding fatigue crack growth threshold tests on 2024-T3 aluminum alloy at stress ratios R of -2, -1, 0, 0.33, 0.5, and 0.7. The effects of load-shedding procedure and rate were investigated. Values of threshold Delta-K were found to vary significantly with R, whereas values of threshold effective Delta-K did not. That is, the variation of threshold Delta-K with R was almost completely explained by accounting for the measured variation in crack opening load behavior with R. The load-shedding guidelines of ASTM Test Method for Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth (E 647) produced a threshold Delta-K value for R = 0.7 that was in agreement with the value determined using a procedure that should minimize closure effects. At both R = 0 and R = 0.7, high load-shedding rates produced high values of threshold Delta-K caused by large closure effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morishita, Yoshihiro; Tsunoda, Katsuhiko; Urayama, Kenji
2016-04-01
The crack growth dynamics of the carbon-black (CB) filled elastomers is studied experimentally and analyzed while focusing on both kinetics and crack tip profiles. The CB amounts are varied to change the mechanical properties of the elastomers. Static crack growth measurements simultaneously reveal the discontinuous-like transition of the crack growth rate v between the "slow mode" (v ≈10-5-10-3 m/s) and "fast mode" (v ≈10-1-102 m/s) in a narrow range of the input tearing energy Γ and the accompanying changes in the crack tip profiles from blunt to sharp shapes. The crack tip profiles are characterized by two specific parameters, i.e., the deviation δ from the parabolic profile and the opening displacement a in the loading direction. The analysis based on the linear and weakly nonlinear elasticity theories of fracture dynamics demonstrates that the Γ dependence of δ and a is simply classified into three groups depending on the mode (slow or fast) and the magnitudes of δ , independent of CB volume fractions. The theories well explain the results in the slow and fast modes with small magnitudes of δ , while they fail to describe the data in the fast mode with large magnitudes of δ , where the contributions of the strong nonlinearity and/or energy dissipation become significant. The correlation between a power-law relationship Γ ˜vα observed in the fast mode and the linear viscoelasticity spectrum is also discussed. The correlation in elastomers with low CB volume fractions is quantitatively explained by the theory of Persson and Brener [Phys. Rev. E 71, 036123 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036123], whereas the deviation from the theory becomes appreciable for elastomers with higher CB volume fractions which exhibit strong nonlinear viscoelasticity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, R. P.; Klier, K.; Simmons, G. W.; Chornet, E.
1973-01-01
Embrittlement, or the enhancement of crack growth by gaseous hydrogen in high strength alloys, is of primary interest in selecting alloys for various components in the space shuttle. Embrittlement is known to occur at hydrogen gas pressures ranging from fractions to several hundred atmospheres, and is most severe in the case of martensitic high strength steels. Kinetic information on subcritical crack growth in gaseous hydrogen is sparse at this time. Corroborative information on hydrogen adsorption and diffusion is inadequate to permit a clear determination of the rate controlling process and possible mechanism in hydrogen enhanced crack growth, and for estimating behavior over a range of temperatures and pressures. Therefore, coordinated studies of the kinetics of crack growth, and adsorption and diffusion of hydrogen, using identical materials, have been initiated. Comparable conditions of temperature and pressure will be used in the chemical and mechanical experiments. Inconel 718 alloy and 18Ni(200) maraging steel have been selected for these studies. Results from these studies are expected to provide not only a better understanding of the gaseous hydrogen embrittlement phenomenon itself, but also fundamental information on hydrogen adsorption and diffusion, and crack growth information that can be used directly for design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Wenzhong
1994-12-01
Guided by the Schapery's theory on the viscoelastic fracture, a model crack growth experiment was conducted with the HTPB composite propellant. An analysis on the crack growth behavior was made which shows that at the beginning of crack growth, there exists a critical stress intensity factor K(sub IC) (beyond this threshold value, the crack expansion begins). The functional relationship between the crack growth rate da/dt and the stress intensity factor K(sub I) was determined to be of power type. In addition, the relationship between the fracture energy of this propellant and its crack growth rate was also discussed.
Characterization of Cracking and Crack Growth Properties of the C5A Aircraft Tie-Box Forging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.
2003-01-01
Detailed destructive examinations were conducted to characterize the integrity and material properties of two aluminum alloy (7075-T6) horizontal stabilizer tie box forgings removed.from US. Air Force C5A and C5B transport aircraft. The C5B tie box forging was,found to contain no evidence of cracking. Thirteen cracks were found in the CSA,forging. All but one of the cracks observed in the C5A component were located along the top cap region (one crack was located in the bottom cap region). The cracks in the C5A component initiated at fastener holes and propagated along a highly tunneled intergranular crack path. The tunneled crack growth configuration is a likelv result of surface compressive stress produced during peening of the .forging suijace. The tie box forging ,fatigue crack growth, fracture and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties were characterized. Reported herein are the results of laboratory air ,fatigue crack growth tests and 95% relative humidity SCC tests conducted using specimens machined from the C5A ,forging. SCC test results revealed that the C5A ,forging material was susceptible to intergranular environmental assisted cracking: the C5A forging material exhibited a SCC crack-tip stress-intensity factor threshold of less than 6 MPadn. Fracture toughness tests revealed that the C5A forging material exhibited a fracture toughness that was 25% less than the C5B forging. The C5A forging exhibited rapid laboratory air fatigue crack growth rates having a threshold crack-tip stress-intensity factor range of less than 0.8 MPa sup m. Detailed fractographic examinations revealed that the ,fatigue crack intergranular growth crack path was similar to the cracking observed in the C5A tie box forging. Because both fatigue crack propagation and SCC exhibit similar intergranular crack path behavior, the damage mechanism resulting in multi-site cracking of tie box forgings cannot be determined unless local cyclic stresses can be quantified.
Creep crack growth behavior of aluminum alloy 2519. Part 2: Numerical analysis
Hall, D.E.; Hamilton, B.C.; McDowell, D.L.; Saxena, A.
1997-12-31
The experimental analysis of high temperature fracture in Aluminum Alloy 2519-T87 presented in Part 1 of this paper highlighted the creep-brittle fracture characteristics of the material and showed reasonable correlation of crack growth rates with the stress intensity factor K. Part 2 continues this investigation numerically using growing crack finite element analyses. Experimentally observed crack growth histories of four aluminum 2519-T87 compact specimens are enforced by controlling the rate of release of finite element nodes along the crack growth path to gain insight into the relation of the crack tip fields to far field fracture parameters and to crack growth rates. A variable time-step, nodal-release algorithm is presented to model the high strain rates that occur during the initial stages of crack growth. The numerical results indicate an initial transient period of crack growth followed by a quasi-steady-state crack growth regime in which the crack tip fields change slowly with increasing crack length. Transition of crack growth to the quasi-steady-state regime, where similitude and small-scale creep conditions roughly exist, is given by a transition time t{sub g} that depends on the crack growth history and material properties. Excellent correlation of the stress intensity factor K with the crack growth rates is observed after time t{sub g}. Experimental difficulties in measuring the creep component of the load-line deflection rate are also discussed.
Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels
Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.
2015-09-10
Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impeded hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.
Analysis and prediction of Multiple-Site Damage (MSD) fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawicke, D. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1992-01-01
A technique was developed to calculate the stress intensity factor for multiple interacting cracks. The analysis was verified through comparison with accepted methods of calculating stress intensity factors. The technique was incorporated into a fatigue crack growth prediction model and used to predict the fatigue crack growth life for multiple-site damage (MSD). The analysis was verified through comparison with experiments conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with multiple cracks. Configuration with nearly equal and unequal crack distribution were examined. The fatigue crack growth predictions agreed within 20 percent of the experimental lives for all crack configurations considered.
Modeling crack growth processes in fusion reactor materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Russell H.; Wolfer, Wilhelm G.
1984-05-01
Models for the effect of the chemical environment on crack growth processes in austenitic and ferritic stainless were evaluated. The effect of impurity segregation, yield strength, and hydrogen on crack growth of HT-9 and radiation induced phosphorus segregation on the intergranular stress corrosion of 316SS have been evaluated. Moderate increases in impurity segregation and/or yield strength caused significant decreases in the K IC and K TH of HT-9, while less than a 10 fold increase in the intergranular stress corrosion crack growth rate of 316SS was predicted for a fluence of 100 dpa using the radiation induced phosphorus segregation data of Brimhall et al. and the stress corrosion model of Parkins. Therefore, while radiation induced impurity segregation is greater in 316SS than HT-9, the effect of impurity segregation may be more pronounced in HT-9. The effect of hydrogen on fatigue crack thresholds was evaluated using a model by Tien which describes the threshold as a function of surface energy. A reduction in the surface energy by hydrogen adsorption was found to cause a decrease in the fatigue threshold a small but comparable amount to that observed for 2-1/4Cr-lMo steel.
The growth of short cracks in 4340 steel and aluminum-lithium 2090
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swain, M. H.; Everett, R. A.; Newman, James C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.
1990-01-01
The objectives were to investigate crack initiation characteristics and short crack growth behavior for Al-Li 2090 and for 4340 steel and to evaluate the ability of a closure-based crack-growth model to predict fatigue crack growth rates and total fatigue lives for the steel. Single-edge-notched tension specimens of each alloy were used to obtain the short crack growth rate information via an acetate replica technique. In addition to constant amplitude loading, tests on the steel were conducted using the Felix/28 variable amplitude spectrum (a shortened form of a standard loading sequence for fixed or semi-rigid helicopter rotors). The short crack growth rates were compared to those for long cracks grown under similar loading conditions. Metallurgical features associated with crack initiation are discussed. For Al-Li 2090 under R = -1 loading, the short cracks grew well below the long crack threshold and grew at acute angles to the loading axis. For 4340 steel under constant amplitude loading at R = 0.5 and 0 and for the Felix/28 spectrum loading, short-crack growth rates agreed well with long-crack growth rates, even near the long-crack threshold. A slight short-crack effect, growth below the long-crack threshold, was observed at R = -1. Fatigue lives were found to depend on the size and type of initiation site, especially for the Felix/28 loading sequence. A semi-empirical crack-growth model incorporating crack-closure effects was used to predict crack growth rates and total fatigue lives of notched 4340 steel specimens. An initial defect size and shape typical of those identified in this steel was assumed for the life predictions. For all loading conditions, reasonable agreement was found between measured and predicted values for both crack growth rates and fatigue lives.
Crack growth measured on flat and curved surfaces at cryogenic temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orange, T. W.; Sullivan, T. L.
1967-01-01
Multiple element continuity gage measures plane stress crack growth plus surface crack growth under plane strain conditions. The gage measures flat and curved surfaces and operates at cryogenic temperatures.
Steady crack growth through ductile metals: Computational studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobotka, James C.
This thesis examines the crack-front response during sustained ductile tearing in structural metals at quasistatic rates using high resolution finite element computations. At load levels approaching the steady-growth regime, well-established computational methods that model material damage break down numerically as vanishingly small load increments produce increasingly large amounts of crack extension. The computational model adopted here determines the deformation history of a steadily advancing crack directly without the need for a priori (transient) analysis that considers blunting of the pre-existing stationary crack and subsequent growth through the associated initial plastic zone. Crack extension occurs at the remotely applied, fixed loading without the need for a local growth criteria. This numerical scheme utilizes a streamline integration technique to determine the elastic-plastic fields, generalized from a two-dimensional to a fully three-dimensional setting and implemented within mixed Matlab/C++/F-90 based software. Modifications of the conventional finite element formulation lead to an efficient procedure -- readily parallelized -- and determine the invariant near-front fields, representative of steady-state growth, on a fixed mesh in a boundary-layer framework. In the small-scale yielding regime, the crack front does not sense the existence of remote boundaries, and computational results retain a strong transferability among various geometric configurations where near-front, plastic deformation remains entirely enclosed by the surrounding linear-elastic material. The global stress intensity factor (KI ) and imposed T-stress fully specify displacement constraints along the far-field boundary, and in a three-dimensional setting, the panel thickness reflects the only natural length scale. The initial studies in this work consider steady crack advance within the small-scale yielding context under plane-strain conditions and mode I loading. These analyses
Crack Growth in First Wall by Cyclic Thermal Stress
Nishimura, T.; Hatano, T.; Honda, T.; Saito, M.
2003-07-15
The long pulse operation is assumed in ITER and future reactors. If the first wall has a defect, the crack may be propagated by cyclic thermal loads. In addition, flattop of more than 300 sec during plasma burning is expected, therefore, an effect of transient creep must be included. In order to simulate a severe temperature gradient in the first wall, an experimental facility was designed using an electron beam (EB) as a heat source, which has a distinct feature that the various plasma burning scenarios can be simulated by controlling the beam power so as to make surface temperature of the specimen to be fixed. To clarify the crack growth mechanism and the effects of transient creep, elastic-plastic stress analysis and creep analysis were performed. It is concluded that the creep effect during the operation duration period enlarges the residual tensile stress in the cooling period, and that consequently the crack propagation length increases.
G.A. Young, Jr.; J.R. Scully
2000-09-17
The hydrogen embrittlement controlled stage II crack growth rate of AA 7050 (6.09 wt.% Zn, 2.14 wt% Mg, 2.19 wt.% Cu) was investigated as a function of temper and alloyed copper level in a humid air environment at various temperatures. Three tempers representing the underaged, peak aged, and overaged conditions were tested in 90% relative humidity (RH) air at temperatures between 25 and 90 C. At all test temperatures, an increased degree of aging (from underaged to overaged) produced slower stage II crack growth rates. The stage II crack growth rate of each alloy and temper displayed Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with activation energies between 58 and 99 kJ/mol. For both the normal copper and low copper alloys, the fracture path was predominantly intergranular at all test temperatures (25-90 C) in each temper investigated. Comparison of the stage II crack growth rates for normal (2.19 wt.%) and low (0.06 wt.%) copper alloys in the peak aged and overaged tempers showed the beneficial effect of copper additions on stage II crack growth rate in humid air. In the 2.19 wt.% copper alloy, the significant decrease ({approx} 10 times at 25 C) in stage II crack growth rate upon overaging is attributed to an increase in the apparent activation energy for crack growth. IN the 0.06 wt.% copper alloy, overaging did not increase the activation energy for crack growth but did lower the pre-exponential factor, {nu}{sub 0}, resulting in a modest ({approx} 2.5 times at 25 C) decrease in crack growth rate. These results indicate that alloyed copper and thermal aging affect the kinetic factors that govern stage II crack growth rate. Overaged, copper bearing alloys are not intrinsically immune to hydrogen environment assisted cracking but are more resistant due to an increased apparent activation energy for stage II crack growth.
The effect of material heterogeneity and random loading on the mechanics of fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivatsan, T. S.; Sambandham, M.; Bharucha-Reid, A. T.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews experimental work on the influence of variable amplitude or random loads on the mechanics and micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth. Implications are discussed in terms of the crack driving force, local plasticity, crack closure, crack blunting, and microstructure. Due to heterogeneity in the material's microstructure, the crack growth rate varies with crack tip position. Using the weakest link theory, an expression for crack growth rate is obtained as the expectation of a random variable. This expression is used to predict the crack growth rates for aluminum alloys, a titanium alloy, and a nickel steel in the mid-range region. It is observed, using the present theory, that the crack growth rate obeys the power law for small stress intensity factor range, and that the power is a function of a material constant.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark Anthony
1999-01-01
A finite element program has been developed to perform quasi-static, elastic-plastic crack growth simulations. The model provides a general framework for mixed-mode I/II elastic-plastic fracture analysis using small strain assumptions and plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric finite elements. Cracks are modeled explicitly in the mesh. As the cracks propagate, automatic remeshing algorithms delete the mesh local to the crack tip, extend the crack, and build a new mesh around the new tip. State variable mapping algorithms transfer stresses and displacements from the old mesh to the new mesh. The von Mises material model is implemented in the context of a non-linear Newton solution scheme. The fracture criterion is the critical crack tip opening displacement, and crack direction is predicted by the maximum tensile stress criterion at the crack tip. The implementation can accommodate multiple curving and interacting cracks. An additional fracture algorithm based on nodal release can be used to simulate fracture along a horizontal plane of symmetry. A core of plane strain elements can be used with the nodal release algorithm to simulate the triaxial state of stress near the crack tip. Verification and validation studies compare analysis results with experimental data and published three-dimensional analysis results. Fracture predictions using nodal release for compact tension, middle-crack tension, and multi-site damage test specimens produced accurate results for residual strength and link-up loads. Curving crack predictions using remeshing/mapping were compared with experimental data for an Arcan mixed-mode specimen. Loading angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were analyzed. The maximum tensile stress criterion was able to predict the crack direction and path for all loading angles in which the material failed in tension. Residual strength was also accurately predicted for these cases.
A method for the analysis of the growth of short fatigue cracks
McEvily, A.J.; Shin, Y.S.
1995-10-01
A method for the analysis of the fatigue crack growth rate for short cracks has been developed and is applied to the case of fatigue crack growth of short surface cracks in a 1045 carbon steel. The method entails three modifications to standard LEFM procedures. These modifications include the use of a material constant to bridge between smooth and cracked specimen behavior, consideration of the plastic zone size to crack length ratio, and incorporation of the development of crack closure. Comparisons are made between calculations based upon this approach and experimental data.
A nonlinear fracture mechanics approach to the growth of small cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1983-01-01
An analytical model of crack closure is used to study the crack growth and closure behavior of small cracks in plates and at notches. The calculated crack opening stresses for small and large cracks, together with elastic and elastic plastic fracture mechanics analyses, are used to correlate crack growth rate data. At equivalent elastic stress intensity factor levels, calculations predict that small cracks in plates and at notches should grow faster than large cracks because the applied stress needed to open a small crack is less than that needed to open a large crack. These predictions agree with observed trends in test data. The calculations from the model also imply that many of the stress intensity factor thresholds that are developed in tests with large cracks and with load reduction schemes do not apply to the growth of small cracks. The current calculations are based upon continuum mechanics principles and, thus, some crack size and grain structure exist where the underlying fracture mechanics assumptions become invalid because of material inhomogeneity (grains, inclusions, etc.). Admittedly, much more effort is needed to develop the mechanics of a noncontinuum. Nevertheless, these results indicate the importance of crack closure in predicting the growth of small cracks from large crack data.
The application of a logic framework for fatigue crack growth analyses to microstructural effects
Xu, J.G.; Liu, H.W.
1995-12-31
{Delta}K has been widely used to correlate da/dN data. The relation between da/dN and {Delta}K is usually found empirically. However, fatigue crack growth relations can also be derived theoretically. Three fatigue crack growth theories are derived for the state of small scale yielding and plane strain. These three theories constitute a logic framework useful for fatigue crack growth analyses. The application of the logic framework to the analyses of microstructural effects on fatigue crack growth is illustrated. The fatigue crack growth curve of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy has five distinct regions. A fatigue crack grows by crack-tip shear decohesion forming striations and by brittle fractures of particles followed by localized shear decohesion at these microcracks forming dimples. The logic framework helps to relate the fatigue crack growth behaviors in these five regions to the fractures of inclusions and to the resistance of grain boundaries and dispersoids to shear decohesion.
Microscopic image analysis of slow crack growth in vitreous materials
Smith, W.L.
1986-04-01
Automated computer control, advanced video techniques, and digital image processing have been integrated into a servo-hydraulic testing system to produce a state-of-the-art testing environment. This system, in combination with an ultra high vacuum controlled environmental chamber, is used to produce high accuracy, subcritical slow crack growth data in vitreous materials. This video presentation is a review of the technologies used to extract data from the double cleavage drilled compression (DCDC) sample geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, Kartik; Kumar, Vikas; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Sundararaman, M.
2016-04-01
In this study, closure corrected in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) thermomechanical fatigue crack growth rates at two temperature intervals viz. 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) and 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) of Timetal 834 near α titanium alloy are presented. It is found that closure mechanisms significantly influence the stage I crack growth behavior. Surface roughness-induced crack closure (RICC) predominantly modifies the crack growth rate of near-threshold region at 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) test conditions. However, oxide-induced crack closure further strengthens RICC at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) TMF loading. In stage II crack growth behavior, the alloy shows higher crack growth rates at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) OP-TMF loading which is attributed to the combined effect of cyclic hardening occurring at the crack tip and weakening of interlamellar regions due to oxidation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, Kartik; Kumar, Vikas; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Sundararaman, M.
2016-07-01
In this study, closure corrected in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) thermomechanical fatigue crack growth rates at two temperature intervals viz. 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) and 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) of Timetal 834 near α titanium alloy are presented. It is found that closure mechanisms significantly influence the stage I crack growth behavior. Surface roughness-induced crack closure (RICC) predominantly modifies the crack growth rate of near-threshold region at 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) test conditions. However, oxide-induced crack closure further strengthens RICC at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) TMF loading. In stage II crack growth behavior, the alloy shows higher crack growth rates at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) OP-TMF loading which is attributed to the combined effect of cyclic hardening occurring at the crack tip and weakening of interlamellar regions due to oxidation.
Transport and Growth Kinetics in Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Otalora, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Carotenuto, L.; Castagnolo, D.; Novella, M. L.; Chernov, A. A.
2002-01-01
The dynamic coupling between mass transport and incorporation of growth units into the surface of a crystal growing from solution in microgravity is used to derive quantitative information on the crystal growth kinetics. To this end, new procedures for experiment preparation, interferometric data processing and model fitting have been developed. The use of experimental data from the bulk diffusive maw transport together with a model for steady state stagnant crystal growth allows the detailed quantitative understanding of the kinetics of both the concentration depletion zone around the crystal and the growth of the crystal interface. The protein crystal used in the experiment is shown to be growing in the mixed kinetic regime (0.2 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second less than beta R/D less than 0.9 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second).
NASGRO(registered trademark): Fracture Mechanics and Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce; Shivakumar, V.; Mettu, Sambi; Beek, Joachim; Williams, Leonard; Yeh, Feng; McClung, Craig; Cardinal, Joe
2004-01-01
This viewgraph presentation describes NASGRO, which is a fracture mechanics and fatigue crack growth analysis software package that is used to reduce risk of fracture in Space Shuttles. The contents include: 1) Consequences of Fracture; 2) NASA Fracture Control Requirements; 3) NASGRO Reduces Risk; 4) NASGRO Use Inside NASA; 5) NASGRO Components: Crack Growth Module; 6) NASGRO Components:Material Property Module; 7) Typical NASGRO analysis: Crack growth or component life calculation; and 8) NASGRO Sample Application: Orbiter feedline flowliner crack analysis.
Computer modeling the fatigue crack growth rate behavior of metals in corrosive environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richey, Edward, III; Wilson, Allen W.; Pope, Jonathan M.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1994-01-01
The objective of this task was to develop a method to digitize FCP (fatigue crack propagation) kinetics data, generally presented in terms of extensive da/dN-Delta K pairs, to produce a file for subsequent linear superposition or curve-fitting analysis. The method that was developed is specific to the Numonics 2400 Digitablet and is comparable to commercially available software products as Digimatic(sup TM 4). Experiments demonstrated that the errors introduced by the photocopying of literature data, and digitization, are small compared to those inherent in laboratory methods to characterize FCP in benign and aggressive environments. The digitizing procedure was employed to obtain fifteen crack growth rate data sets for several aerospace alloys in aggressive environments.
Subcritical crack growth of selected aerospace pressure vessel materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, L. R.; Bixler, W. D.
1972-01-01
This experimental program was undertaken to determine the effects of combined cyclic/sustained loads, stress level, and crack shape on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior of cracks subjected to plane strain conditions. Material/environment combinations tested included: 2219-T87 aluminum plate in gaseous helium, room air, and 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen; 5Al-2.5 Sn (ELI) titanium plate in liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen and 6AL-4V (ELI) STA titanium plate in gaseous helium and methanol at room temperature. Most testing was accomplished using surface flawed specimens instrumented with a clip gage to continuously monitor crack opening displacements at the specimen surface. Tapered double cantilever beam specimens were also tested. Static fracture and ten hour sustained load tests were conducted to determine fracture toughness and apparent threshold stress intensity values. Cyclic tests were performed using sinusoidal loading profiles at 333 MHz (20 cpm) and trapezoidal loading profiles at both 8.3 MHz (0.5 cpm) and 3.3 MHz (0.2 cpm). Data were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.
Fatigue Crack Growth Fundamentals in Shape Memory Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Y.; Ojha, A.; Patriarca, L.; Sehitoglu, H.
2015-03-01
In this study, based on a regression of the crack tip displacements, the stress intensity range in fatigue is quantitatively determined for the shape memory alloy Ni2FeGa. The results are compared to the calculated stress intensity ranges with a micro-mechanical analysis accounting for the transformation-induced tractions. The effective stress intensity ranges obtained with both methods are in close agreement. Also, the fatigue crack closure levels were measured as 30 % of the maximum load using virtual extensometers along the crack flanks. This result is also in close agreement with the regression and micro-mechanical modeling findings. The current work pointed to the importance of elastic moduli changes and the residual transformation strains playing a role in the fatigue crack growth behavior. Additional simulations are conducted for two other important shape memory alloys, NiTi and CuZnAl, where the reductions in stress intensity range were found to be lower than Ni2FeGa.
Crack growth sparse pursuit for wind turbine blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiang; Yang, Zhibo; Zhang, Han; Du, Zhaohui; Chen, Xuefeng
2015-01-01
One critical challenge to achieving reliable wind turbine blade structural health monitoring (SHM) is mainly caused by composite laminates with an anisotropy nature and a hard-to-access property. The typical pitch-catch PZTs approach generally detects structural damage with both measured and baseline signals. However, the accuracy of imaging or tomography by delay-and-sum approaches based on these signals requires improvement in practice. Via the model of Lamb wave propagation and the establishment of a dictionary that corresponds to scatters, a robust sparse reconstruction approach for structural health monitoring comes into view for its promising performance. This paper proposes a neighbor dictionary that identifies the first crack location through sparse reconstruction and then presents a growth sparse pursuit algorithm that can precisely pursue the extension of the crack. An experiment with the goal of diagnosing a composite wind turbine blade with an artificial crack is performed, and it validates the proposed approach. The results give competitively accurate crack detection with the correct locations and extension length.
Finite-element analysis of crack growth under monotonic and cyclic loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1977-01-01
An elastic-plastic (incremental) finite-element analysis, in conjunction with a crack-growth criterion, was used to study crack-growth behavior under monotonic and cyclic loading. The crack-growth criterion was based on crack-tip strain. Whenever the crack-tip strain equals or exceeds a critical strain value, the crack grows. The effects of element-mesh size, critical strain, strain hardening, and specimen type (tension or bending) on crack growth under monotonic loading were investigated. Crack growth under cyclic loading (constant amplitude and simple variable amplitude) were also studied. A combined hardening theory, which incorporates features of both isotropic and kinematic hardening under cyclic loading, was also developed for smooth yield surfaces and was used in the analysis.
Comparison of experiment and theory for elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth
Hermann, L; Rice, J R
1980-02-01
Recent theoretical results on elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth, and experimental results for crack growth in a 4140 steel in terms of the theoretical concepts are reviewed. The theory is based on a recent asymptotic analysis of crack surface opening and strain distributions at a quasi-statically advancing crack tip in an ideally-plastic solid. The analysis is incomplete in that some of the parameters which appear in it are known only approximately, especially at large scale yielding. Nevertheless, it suffices to derive a relation between the imposed loading and amount of crack growth, prior to general yielding, based on the assumption that a geometrically similar near-tip crack profile is maintained during growth. The resulting predictions for the variation of J with crack growth are found to fit well to the experimental results obtained on deeply cracked compact specimens.
Growth rate models for short surface cracks in AI 2219-T851
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, W. L.; James, M. R.; Buck, O.
1981-01-01
Rates of fatigue propagation of short Mode I surface cracks in Al 2219-T851 are measured as a function of crack length and of the location of the surface crack tips relative to the grain boundaries. The measured rates are then compared to values predicted from crack growth models. The crack growth rate is modeled with an underlying assumption that slip responsible for early propagation does not extend in significant amounts beyond the next grain boundary in the direction of crack propagation. Two models that contain this assumption are combined: 1) cessation of propagation into a new grain until a mature plastic zone is developed; 2) retardation of propagation by crack closure stress, with closure stress calculated from the location of a crack tip relative to the grain boundary. The transition from short to long crack growth behavior is also discussed.
Three-dimensional crack growth with hp-generalized finite element and face offsetting methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, J. P.; Duarte, C. A.; Jiao, X.
2010-08-01
A coupling between the hp-version of the generalized finite element method ( hp-GFEM) and the face offsetting method (FOM) for crack growth simulations is presented. In the proposed GFEM, adaptive surface meshes composed of triangles are utilized to explicitly represent complex three-dimensional (3-D) crack surfaces. By applying the hp-GFEM at each crack growth step, high-order approximations on locally refined meshes are automatically created in complex 3-D domains while preserving the aspect ratio of elements, regardless of crack geometry. The FOM is applied to track the evolution of the crack front in the explicit crack surface representation. The FOM provides geometrically feasible crack front descriptions based on hp-GFEM solutions. The coupling of hp-GFEM and FOM allows the simulation of arbitrary crack growth with concave crack fronts independent of the volume mesh. Numerical simulations illustrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed methodology.
Micromechanical model of crack growth in fiber reinforced brittle materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Asher A.; Xu, Kang
1990-01-01
A model based on the micromechanical mechanism of crack growth resistance in fiber reinforced ceramics is presented. The formulation of the model is based on a small scale geometry of a macrocrack with a bridging zone, the process zone, which governs the resistance mechanism. The effect of high toughness of the fibers in retardation of the crack advance, and the significance of the fiber pullout mechanism on the crack growth resistance, are reflected in this model. The model allows one to address issues such as influence of fiber spacing, fiber flexibility, and fiber matrix friction. Two approaches were used. One represents the fracture initiation and concentrated on the development of the first microcracks between fibers. An exact closed form solution was obtained for this case. The second case deals with the development of an array of microcracks between fibers forming the bridging zone. An implicit exact solution is formed for this case. In both cases, a discrete fiber distribution is incorporated into the solution.
Micromechanical model of crack growth in fiber reinforced ceramics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Asher A.; Xu, Kang
1990-01-01
A model based on the micromechanical mechanism of crack growth resistance in fiber reinforced ceramics is presented. The formulation of the model is based on a small scale geometry of a macrocrack with a bridging zone, the process zone, which governs the resistance mechanism. The effect of high toughness of the fibers in retardation of the crack advance, and the significance of the fiber pullout mechanism on the crack growth resistance, are reflected in this model. The model allows one to address issues such as influence of fiber spacing, fiber flexibility, and fiber matrix friction. Two approaches were used. One represents the fracture initiation and concentrated on the development of the first microcracks between fibers. An exact closed form solution was obtained for this case. The second case deals with the development of an array of microcracks between fibers forming the bridging zone. An implicit exact solution is formed for this case. In both cases, a discrete fiber distribution is incorporated into the solution.
Kinetic studies of the stress corrosion cracking of D6AC steel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noronha, P. J.
1975-01-01
The effect of load interactions on the crack growth velocity of D6AC steel under stress corrosion cracking conditions was determined. The environment was a 3.5 percent salt solution. The modified-wedge opening load specimens were fatigue precracked and subjected to a deadweight loading in creep machines. The effects of load shedding on incubation times and crack growth rates were measured using high-sensitivity compliance measurement techniques. Load shedding results in an incubation time, the length of which depends on the amount of load shed and the baseline stress intensity. The sequence of unloading the specimen also controls the subsequent incubation period. The incubation period is shorter when load shedding passes through zero load than when it does not if the specimen initially had the same baseline stress intensity. The crack growth rates following the incubation period are also different from the steady-state crack growth rate at the operating stress intensity. These data show that the susceptibility of this alloy system to stress corrosion cracking depends on the plane-strain fracture toughness and on the yield strength of the material.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kang, T. S.; Liu, H. W.
1974-01-01
Cyclic prestress increases subsequent fatigue crack growth rate in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. This increase in growth rate, caused by the prestress, and the increased rate, caused by temper embrittlement as observed by Ritchie and Knott (1973), cannot be explained by the crack tip blunting model alone. Each fatigue crack increment consists of two components, a brittle and a ductile component. They are controlled by the ductility of the material and its cyclic yield strength, respectively.
Fatigue Crack Growth Threshold Testing of Metallic Rotorcraft Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, John A.; James, Mark A.; Johnson, William M.; Le, Dy D.
2008-01-01
Results are presented for a program to determine the near-threshold fatigue crack growth behavior appropriate for metallic rotorcraft alloys. Four alloys, all commonly used in the manufacture of rotorcraft, were selected for study: Aluminum alloy 7050, 4340 steel, AZ91E Magnesium, and Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (beta-STOA). The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) sponsored this research to advance efforts to incorporate damage tolerance design and analysis as requirements for rotorcraft certification. Rotorcraft components are subjected to high cycle fatigue and are typically subjected to higher stresses and more stress cycles per flight hour than fixed-wing aircraft components. Fatigue lives of rotorcraft components are generally spent initiating small fatigue cracks that propagate slowly under near-threshold cracktip loading conditions. For these components, the fatigue life is very sensitive to the near-threshold characteristics of the material.
Application of constraint modelling to evaluation of crack growth experiments
Faleskog, J.; Nilsson, F.; Shehu, S.; Oeberg, H.
1997-12-01
A large number of fracture mechanics experiments were carried out using a variety of specimens in order to investigate the applicability of the J-Q approach to initiation and growth of cracks. The study was performed at different temperatures spanning the transition interval of a pressure vessel steel. A comparison of the cleavage initiation levels with the model by Ritchie et al. (RKR) was also conducted. The experiments did not show, although the scatter was large, any systematic geometry effects that could not be explained within the framework of the J-Q concept. This was also the case for surface-cracked plates subjected to nonproportional loading. The trends of the dependence of the initiation on constraint are in qualitative agreement with the RKR model, although this model seems to underestimate this dependence for the current material. The ductile initiation level seems to be fairly independent of constraint but showed a tendency of variation with temperature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willard, S. A.
1997-01-01
Groups of striations called marker bands generated on a fatigue fracture surface can be used to mark the position of an advancing fatigue crack at known intervals. A technique has been developed that uses the distance between multiple sets of marker bands to obtain a vs. N, crack front shape, and fatigue crack growth rate data for small cracks. This technique is particularly usefull for specimens that require crack length measurements during testing that cannot be obtained because corrosion obscures the surface of the specimen. It is also useful for specimens with unusual or non-symmetric shapes where it is difficult to obtain accurate crack lengths using traditional methods such as compliance or electric potential difference in the early stages of testing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Jian Ku; Ritchie, R. O.
1989-05-01
Micro-mechanisms of crack-tip shielding associated with the growth of fatigue cracks in metalmatrix composites are examined with specific emphasis on the role of crack bridging by uncracked ligaments. Simple analytical models are developed for such bridging induced by both overlapping cracks and by coplanar ligaments in the wake of the crack tip; the models are based on respective notions of a critical tensile strain or critical crack-opening displacement in the ligament. The predicted degree of shielding derived from these mechanisms is not large, but is found to be consistent with experimental observations in high-strength P/M aluminum alloys reinforced with 15 to 20 vol pct of SiC particulate.
A preliminary study of crack initiation and growth at stress concentration sites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawicke, D. S.; Gallagher, J. P.; Hartman, G. A.; Rajendran, A. M.
1982-01-01
Crack initiation and propagation models for notches are examined. The Dowling crack initiation model and the E1 Haddad et al. crack propagation model were chosen for additional study. Existing data was used to make a preliminary evaluation of the crack propagation model. The results indicate that for the crack sizes in the test, the elastic parameter K gave good correlation for the crack growth rate data. Additional testing, directed specifically toward the problem of small cracks initiating and propagating from notches is necessary to make a full evaluation of these initiation and propagation models.
Fatigue crack growth at elevated temperature 316 stainless steel and H-13 steel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, W. C.; Liu, H. W.
1976-01-01
Crack growths were measured at elevated temperatures under four types of loading: pp, pc, cp, and cc. In H-13 steel, all these four types of loading gave nearly the same crack growth rates, and the length of hold time had negligible effects. In AISI 316 stainless steel, the hold time effects on crack growth rate were negligible if the loading was tension-tension type; however, these effects were significant in reversed bending load, and the crack growth rates under these four types of loading varied considerably. Both tensile and compressive hold times caused increased crack growth rate, but the compressive hold period was more deleterious than the tensile one. Metallographic examination showed that all the crack paths under different types of loading were largely transgranular for both CTS tension-tension specimens and SEN reversed cantilever bending specimens. In addition, an electric potential technique was used to monitor crack growth at elevated temperature.
Recent advances in the modelling of crack growth under fatigue loading conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dekoning, A. U.; Tenhoeve, H. J.; Henriksen, T. K.
1994-01-01
Fatigue crack growth associated with cyclic (secondary) plastic flow near a crack front is modelled using an incremental formulation. A new description of threshold behaviour under small load cycles is included. Quasi-static crack extension under high load excursions is described using an incremental formulation of the R-(crack growth resistance)- curve concept. The integration of the equations is discussed. For constant amplitude load cycles the results will be compared with existing crack growth laws. It will be shown that the model also properly describes interaction effects of fatigue crack growth and quasi-static crack extension. To evaluate the more general applicability the model is included in the NASGRO computer code for damage tolerance analysis. For this purpose the NASGRO program was provided with the CORPUS and the STRIP-YIELD models for computation of the crack opening load levels. The implementation is discussed and recent results of the verification are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keanini, Russell; Eppes, Martha-Cary
2016-04-01
Paris's law connects fatigue-induced subcritical crack growth and fatigue loading. Environmentally-driven subcritical crack growth, while a random process, can be decomposed into a spectrum of cyclic processes, where each spectral component is governed by Paris's law. Unfortunately, almost no data exists concerning the Paris law exponent, m; rather, the great majority of existing sub-critical crack growth measurements on rock have been carried out via Mode I tensile tests, where corresponding data are generally correlated using Charles' law, and where the latter, similar to Paris's law, exposes a power law relationship between crack growth rate and stress intensity. In this study, a statistical argument is used to derive a simple, rigorous relationship between the all-important Paris law and Charles law exponents, m and n. This result has a significant practical implication: subcritical fatigue crack growth in rock, driven by various random environmental weathering processes can now be predicted using available Mode I stress corrosion indices, n.
Microscopic kinetic model for polymer crystal growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Wenbing
2011-03-01
Linear crystal growth rates characterize the net result of competition between growth and melting at the liquid-solid interfaces. The rate equation for polymer crystal growth can be derived with a barrier term for crystal growth and with a driving force term of excess lamellar thickness, provided that growth and melting share the same rate-determining steps at the growth front. Such an ansatz can be verified by the kinetic symmetry between growth and melting around the melting point of lamellar crystals, as made in our recent dynamic Monte Carlo simulations. The profile of the growth/melting front appears as wedge-shaped, with the free energy barrier for intramolecular secondary crystal nucleation at its top, and with the driving force gained via instant thickening at its bottom. Such a scenario explains unique phenomena on polymer crystal growth, such as chain folding, regime transitions, molecular segregation of polydisperse polymers, self-poisoning with integer-number chain-folding of short chains, and colligative growth rates of binary mixtures of two chain lengths. Financial support from NNSFC No. 20825415 and NBRPC No. 2011CB606100 is acknowledged.
High temperature corrosion and crack growth of SiC/SiC at variable oxygen partial pressures
Jones, R.H.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Windisch, C.F. Jr.
1994-06-01
Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and subcritical crack growth (SCG) measurements of chemical-vapor-infiltrated (CVI)-SiC matrix, reinforced with Nicalon fibers and with a 1-{mu}m-thick C fiber/matrix interface, have been conducted at 1100 C over O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures ranging from 0.25% to 20.0% O{sub 2}. The TGA and interface recession measurements both gave linear reaction kinetics for O{sub 2} concentrations of 2.0% or less and a reaction order of unity. Subcritical crack-growth measurements demonstrated that crack velocity in the stress intensity-independent Stage 2 regime increases with increasing O{sub 2}/Ar ratio. Also, The transition from Stage 2 to the stress intensity-dependent Stage 3 regime is shifted to lower stress intensities with increasing O{sub 2}/Ar ratio. A time-dependent crack-growth model that incorporates creep of the bridging SiC fibers and the removal of the C interfacial layer by oxidation successfully explains the subcritical crack-growth characteristics.
A Mixed-Mode I/II Fracture Criterion and Its Application in Crack Growth Predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sutton, Michael A.; Deng, Xiaomin; Ma, Fashang; Newman, James S., Jr.
1999-01-01
A crack tip opening displacement (CTOD)-based, mixed mode fracture criterion is developed for predicting the onset and direction of crack growth. The criterion postulates that crack growth occurs in either the Mode I or Mode II direction, depending on whether the maximum in either the opening or the shear component of CTOD, measured at a specified distance behind the crack tip, attains a critical value. For crack growth direction prediction, the proposed CTOD criterion is shown to be equivalent to seven commonly used crack growth criteria under linearly elastic and asymptotic conditions. Under elastic-plastic conditions the CTOD criterion's prediction of the dependence of the crack growth direction on the crack-up mode mixity is in excellent agreement with the Arcan test results. Furthermore, the CTOD criterion correctly predicts the existence of a crack growth transition from mode I to mode II as the mode mixity approaches the mode II loading condition. The proposed CTOD criterion has been implemented in finite element crack growth simulation codes Z1P2DL and FRANC2DL to predict the crack growth paths in (a) a modified Arcan test specimen and fixture made of AL 2024-T34 and (b) a double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen made of AL 7050. A series of crack growth simulations have been carried out for the crack growth tests in the Arcan and DCB specimens and the results further demonstrate the applicability of the mixed mode CTOD fracture criterion crack growth predictions and residual strength analyses for airframe materials.
Fracture processes and mechanisms of crack growth resistance in human enamel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajaj, Devendra; Park, Saejin; Quinn, George D.; Arola, Dwayne
2010-07-01
Human enamel has a complex micro-structure that varies with distance from the tooth’s outer surface. But contributions from the microstructure to the fracture toughness and the mechanisms of crack growth resistance have not been explored in detail. In this investigation the apparent fracture toughness of human enamel and the mechanisms of crack growth resistance were evaluated using the indentation fracture approach and an incremental crack growth technique. Indentation cracks were introduced on polished surfaces of enamel at selected distances from the occlusal surface. In addition, an incremental crack growth approach using compact tension specimens was used to quantify the crack growth resistance as a Junction of distance from the occlusal surface. There were significant differences in the apparent toughness estimated using the two approaches, which was attributed to the active crack length and corresponding scale of the toughening mechanisms.
Protein crystal growth - Growth kinetics for tetragonal lysozyme crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pusey, M. L.; Snyder, R. S.; Naumann, R.
1986-01-01
Results are reported from theoretical and experimental studies of the growth rate of lysozyme as a function of diffusion in earth-gravity conditions. The investigations were carried out to form a comparison database for future studies of protein crystal growth in the microgravity environment of space. A diffusion-convection model is presented for predicting crystal growth rates in the presence of solutal concentration gradients. Techniques used to grow and monitor the growth of hen egg white lysozyme are detailed. The model calculations and experiment data are employed to discuss the effects of transport and interfacial kinetics in the growth of the crystals, which gradually diminished the free energy in the growth solution. Density gradient-driven convection, caused by presence of the gravity field, was a limiting factor in the growth rate.
Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements
Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael
1999-09-01
Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.
Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements
W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg
1999-09-19
Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.
MSFC crack growth analysis computer program, version 2 (users manual)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Creager, M.
1976-01-01
An updated version of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center Crack Growth Analysis Program is described. The updated computer program has significantly expanded capabilities over the original one. This increased capability includes an extensive expansion of the library of stress intensity factors, plotting capability, increased design iteration capability, and the capability of performing proof test logic analysis. The technical approaches used within the computer program are presented, and the input and output formats and options are described. Details of the stress intensity equations, example data, and example problems are presented.
Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth Using Regularized Numerical Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meade, Andrew J.
1999-01-01
Though it is known in the engineering community that successful analyses rest upon the proper balance of (1) theoretical analysis of mathematical models, (2) physical experimentation and (3) computational simulation, this balance is currently handled in sometimes unwieldy and inefficient manner. It is proposed to investigate and develop rigorous and computationally efficient method to effectively combine all available information, from both experimental measurements and mathematical models, in the emulation of physical systems. This will be specifically applied to fatigue crack growth in metallic structures of interest to NASA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelestemur, Mehmet Halidun
1998-12-01
AISI 304 stainless steel shows strain induced martensitic transformation at the crack tip. Such transformation may have effects on crack closure during fatigue crack propagation. Due to importance of AISI 304 in structural applications, the fatigue crack propagation and martensitic transformation in this material have to be investigated thoroughly. Fatigue crack growth behavior, overload retardation and characterization of martensitic transformation at the crack tip upon fatigue loading were investigated in 304 stainless steel at three different atmospheres, namely dry argon, moist air (75% relative humidity) and hydrogen. Comparison in various atmospheres showed that moist air did not influence that fatigue crack growth rate. However, in hydrogen atmosphere the material did not show threshold behavior and the crack growth rate was considerably higher. It was found that roughness-induced crack closure was the primary mechanism in the threshold region. Fractographic pictures taken by SEM and direct observation of crack profile showed that crack deflection and branching occurred during the fatigue crack propagation and plasticity-induced crack closure was not the primary closure mechanism. The influence of fatigue crack propagation on the rate and size of martensitic transformation at the crack tip was investigated. The overload retardation of the material was lower at hydrogen atmosphere. This low degree of retardation was explained by hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. Fractographic observations show striations at the overload zone in argon atmosphere indicating ductile fracture. In hydrogen atmosphere, overload area shows secondary cracks which represent brittle fracture. Crack closure measurements and modified Paris law did not show evidence for different retardation mechanisms at different atmospheres. It is found that primary retardation mechanisms were crack deflection, crack blunting and roughness-induced crack closure after application of overload(s). An
The role of cyclic plastic zone size on fatigue crack growth behavior in high strength steels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korda, Akhmad A.; Miyashita, Y.; Mutoh, Y.
2015-09-01
The role of cyclic plastic zone in front of the crack tip was studied in high strength steels. Estimated plastic zone size would be compared with actual observation. Strain controlled fatigue tests of the steels were carried out to obtain cyclic stress-strain curves for plastic zone estimation. Observations of plastic zone were carried out using in situ SEM fatigue crack growth tests under a constant-ΔK. Hard microstructures in structural steels showed to inhibit the extent of plastic deformation around the crack tip. The rate of crack growth can be correlated with the size of plastic zone. The smaller the plastic zone size, the slower the fatigue crack growth.
Short-Crack Growth Behaviour in an Aluminum Alloy: An AGARD Cooperative Test Programme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Edwards, P. R.
1988-01-01
An AGARD test program on the growth of short fatigue cracks was conducted to define the significance of the short-crack effect, to compare test results from various laboratories and to evaluate an existing analytical model to predict the growth of such cracks. The first phase of this program, the Core Program was aimed at test procedure and specimen standardization and calibration of the various laboratories. A detailed working document has been prepared and is included in this report. It describes the testing fundamentals and procedures and includes the analysis procedures used for handling the test data. The results from the test program showed good agreement among the participants on short-crack growth rates, on fatigue life to various crack sizes and breakthrough (surface- or corner-crack became a through crack), and on crack shapes.
Energy-release rate associated with diffusional crack growth
Chuang, T.
1982-12-01
A general expression for the energy release rates (G) that arise during steady state crack propagation by diffusion is derived from the standpoint of irreversible thermodynamics. Three contributing components of G are identified: (1) the Griffith energy (G/sub Gr/); (2) heat generated in the process of surface diffusion; and (3) grain-boundary diffusion. Further, the total G is shown to be directly related to the well-known J-integral if formulated in the framework of finite deformation elasticity. This expression for G is valid in general even if the response of the material is not linear and the mass transport kinetics does not follow Fick's law. Quantitative evaluations of each component are made for the linear case where field solutions are available. The results show that component (2) is approximately equal to G/sub Gr/ and is independent of the crack velocity (nu) whereas component (3) is a monotonically increasing function with G starting from 0.85 G/sub Gr/ when nu is at threshold value; and that strain energy contributions can be neglected leading to G = J = (1-..nu../sup 2/)K/sup 2//E. This means that G is not primarily associated with the release of the strain energy; rather, it stems mostly from the negative work done by the normal stresses on the thickening of the grain boundary due to nonuniform deposition of matter along it.
Contributions of aging to the fatigue crack growth resistance of human dentin.
Ivancik, Juliana; Majd, Hessam; Bajaj, Devendra; Romberg, Elaine; Arola, Dwayne
2012-07-01
An evaluation of the fatigue crack resistance of human dentin was conducted to identify the degree of degradation that arises with aging and the dependency on tubule orientation. Fatigue crack growth was achieved in specimens of coronal dentin through application of Mode I cyclic loading and over clinically relevant lengths (0 ≤ a ≤ 2 mm). The study considered two directions of cyclic crack growth in which the crack was either in-plane (0°) or perpendicular (90°) to the dentin tubules. Results showed that regardless of tubule orientation, aging of dentin is accompanied by a significant reduction in the resistance to the initiation of fatigue crack growth, as well as a significant increase in the rate of incremental extension. Perpendicular to the tubules, the fatigue crack exponent increased significantly (from m=14.2 ± 1.5 to 24.1 ± 5.0), suggesting an increase in brittleness of the tissue with age. For cracks extending in-plane with the tubules, the fatigue crack growth exponent does not change significantly with patient age (from m=25.4 ± 3.03 to 22.9 ± 5.3), but there is a significant increase in the incremental crack growth rate. Regardless of age, coronal dentin exhibits the lowest resistance to fatigue crack growth perpendicular to the tubules. While there are changes in the cyclic crack growth rate and mechanisms of cyclic extension with aging, this tissue maintains its anisotropy. PMID:22484693
Contributions of Aging to the Fatigue Crack Growth Resistance of Human Dentin
Ivancik, Juliana; Majd, Hessam; Bajaj, Devendra; Romberg, Elaine; Arola, Dwayne
2012-01-01
An evaluation of the fatigue crack resistance of human dentin was conducted to identify the degree of degradation that arises with aging and the dependency on tubule orientation. Fatigue crack growth was achieved in specimens of coronal dentin through application of Mode I cyclic loading and over clinically relevant lengths (0 ≤ a ≤ 2 mm). The study considered two directions of cyclic crack growth in which the crack was either in-plane (0°) or perpendicular (90°) to the dentin tubules. Results showed that regardless of tubule orientation, aging of dentin is accompanied by a significant reduction in the resistance to the initiation of fatigue crack growth, as well as a significant increase in the rate of incremental extension. Perpendicular to the tubules, the fatigue crack exponent increased significantly (from m=14.2±1.5 to 24.1±5.0), suggesting an increase in brittleness of the tissue with age. For cracks extending in plane with the tubules, the fatigue crack growth exponent does not change significantly with patient age (from m=25.4±3.03 to 22.9±5.3), but there is a significant increase in the incremental crack growth rate. Regardless of age, coronal dentin exhibits the lowest resistance to fatigue crack growth perpendicular to the tubules. While there are changes in the cyclic crack growth rate and mechanisms of cyclic extension with aging, this tissue maintains its anisotropy. PMID:22484693
Growth kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219
Worden, R.M.; Subramanian, R.; Bly, M.J.; Winter, S.; Aronson, C.L.
1991-12-31
Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219, a phenol-resistant thermophile, can convert phenol to the specialty chemical catechol. The growth kinetics of this organism were studied in batch, continuous, and immobilized-cell culture. Batch growth was insensitive to pH between 6.0 and 8.0, but little growth occurred at 5.5. In continuous culture on a dilute medium supplemented with 10 mM phenol, several steady states were achieved between dilution rates of 0.25 and 1.3 h{sup -1}. Phenol degradation was found to be uncoupled from growth. Immobilized cells grew rapidly in a rich medium, but cell viability plummeted following a switch to a dilute medium supplemented with 5 mM phenol.
Morphological stability and kinetics in crystal growth from vapors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenberger, Franz
1990-01-01
The following topics are discussed: (1) microscopy image storage and processing system; (2) growth kinetics and morphology study with carbon tetrabromide; (3) photothermal deflection vapor growth setup; (4) bridgman growth of iodine single crystals; (5) vapor concentration distribution measurement during growth; and (6) Monte Carlo modeling of anisotropic growth kinetics and morphology. A collection of presentations and publications of these results are presented.
Role of Prism Decussation on Fatigue Crack Growth and Fracture of Human Enamel
Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne
2009-01-01
The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset Compact Tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Regardless of the growth direction, the near threshold region of cyclic extension was typical of ‘short crack’ behavior (i.e. deceleration of growth with an increase in crack length). Cyclic crack growth was more stable in the forward direction and occurred over twice the spatial distance achieved in the reverse direction. In response to the monotonic loads, a rising R-curve response was exhibited by growth in the forward direction only. The total energy absorbed in fracture for the forward direction was more than three times that in the reverse. The rise in crack growth resistance was largely attributed to a combination of mechanisms that included crack bridging, crack bifurcation and crack curving, which were induced by decussation in the inner enamel. An analysis of the responses distinguished that the microstructure of enamel appears optimized for resisting crack growth initiating from damage at the tooth’s surface. PMID:19433137
Effects of loading on the growth rates of deep stress-corrosion cracks
Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.
1990-08-01
The goal of this research program was to determine the effects of loading on growth of stress-corrosion cracks (SCC) in line pipe steel and whether special loading procedures could actually inhibit crack growth. Of particular interest was the effect of hydrostatic retesting on the subsequent growth of existing cracks. The growth rate experiments showed that the slow-strain rate loading could successfully nucleate a group of fine cracks with depths up to 0.025 inches (0.64 mm). However, the subsequent cyclic loading at typical operating stress levels (lower than experienced during the slow- strain rate loading) produced minimal crack growth and stopped soon after the test was started. The limited growth is believed to be a real phenomenon which means this is not a suitable procedure for the measurement of average crack growth rates. These experiments indicate that cracks grown at high stress (as in the slow-strain rate phase) do not readily propagate at lower stress levels. This may be because of crack closure (compressive crack tip residual stress) induced by the initial higher stress level. If that is true, then hydrostatic retests could inhibit the growth of existing stress-corrosion cracks, especially if the hydrostatic tests are conducted at high stress levels. 15 figures, 3 tabs.
Crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade 2 steel in hydrogen at ambient temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walter, R. J.
1975-01-01
Cyclic-load crack growth measurements were performed on ASME SA-105 Grade 2 steel specimens exposed to 10,000- and 15,000-psi hydrogen and to 5000-psi helium, all at ambient temperatures. The cyclic-load crack growth rate was found to be faster in high-pressure hydrogen than in helium. Cyclic-load crack growth rates in this steel were not reduced by preloading in air to a stress intensity of 1.5 times the cyclic K sub max in hydrogen. There are indications that holding under load in hydrogen, and loading and unloading in helium retards hydrogen-accelerated cyclic-load crack growth. Cyclic frequency and R (ratio of K sub min/k sub max) were important variables determining crack growth rate. The crack growth rate increased as a logarithm of the cycle duration and decreased with increasing R.
The Regularities of Fatigue Crack Growth in Airframes Elements at Real Operation Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavelko, Igors; Pavelko, Vitalijs
The results of analytical and experimental researches concerning predicting of fatigue crack growth in the operating conditions are presented. First of all the main factors causing a fatigue damage initiation and growth are analyzed and divided to two groups. Common conditions of fatigue damage precise predicting are established. The problem of fatigue crack growth at the stresses of variable amplitude was analyzed and an approach of description of this process is performed. Two examples present the efficiency of this approach. Theory of fatigue crack growth indication and the crack growth indicator (CGI) are developed. There is planned and executed a flight experiment using CGI located on two aircraft An-24 and An-26. Results of crack growth in CGI at operational load allowed to evaluate the parameters of generalized Paris-Erdogan law and statistical properties of crack increment per flight.
Short-crack growth behaviour in an aluminum alloy: An AGARD cooperative test program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Edwards, P. R.
1988-01-01
An AGARD Cooperative Test Program on the growth of short fatigue cracks was conducted to define the significance of the short-crack effect, to compare test results from various laboratories, and to evaluate an existing analytical crack-growth prediction model. The initiation and growth of short fatigue cracks (5 micrometer to 2 mm) from the surface of a semi-circular notch in 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet material were monitored under various load histories. The cracks initiated from inclusion particle clusters or voids on the notch surface and generally grew as surface cracks. Tests were conducted under several constant-amplitude (stress ratios of -2, -1, 0, and 0.5) and spectrum (FALSTAFF and Gaussian) loading conditions at 3 stress levels each. Short crack growth was recorded using a plastic-replica technique. Over 250 edge-notched specimens were fatigue tested and nearly 950 cracks monitored by 12 participants from 9 countries. Long crack-growth rate data for cracks greater than 2 mm in length were obtained over a wide range in rates (10 to the -8 to 10 to the -1 mm/cycle) for all constant-amplitude loading conditions. Long crack-growth rate data for the FALSTAFF and Gaussian load sequences were also obtained.
Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Under Spectrum Loading in Various Environmental Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikheevskiy, S.; Glinka, G.; Lee, E.
2013-03-01
The fatigue process consists, from the engineering point of view, of three stages: crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, and the final failure. It is also known that the fatigue process near notches and cracks is governed by local strains and stresses in the regions of maximum stress and strain concentrations. Therefore, the fatigue crack growth can be considered as a process of successive crack increments, and the fatigue crack initiation and subsequent growth can be modeled as one repetitive process. The assumptions mentioned above were used to derive a fatigue crack growth model based, called later as the UniGrow model, on the analysis of cyclic elastic-plastic stresses-strains near the crack tip. The fatigue crack growth rate was determined by simulating the cyclic stress-strain response in the material volume adjacent to the crack tip and calculating the accumulated fatigue damage in a manner similar to fatigue analysis of stationary notches. The fatigue crack growth driving force was derived on the basis of the stress and strain history at the crack tip and the Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) fatigue damage parameter, D = σmaxΔɛ/2. It was subsequently found that the fatigue crack growth was controlled by a two-parameter driving force in the form of a weighted product of the stress intensity range and the maximum stress intensity factor, Δ K p K {max/1- p }. The effect of the internal (residual) stress induced by the reversed cyclic plasticity has been accounted for and therefore the two-parameter driving force made it possible to predict the effect of the mean stress including the influence of the applied compressive stress, tensile overloads, and variable amplitude spectrum loading. It allows estimating the fatigue life under variable amplitude loading without using crack closure concepts. Several experimental fatigue crack growth datasets obtained for the Al 7075 aluminum alloy were used for the verification of the proposed unified fatigue crack growth
Growth of Crack-Free 3-Inch-Diameter Lithium Tetraborate Single Crystals by Czochralski Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komatsu, Ryuichi; Sugihara, Tadashi; Uda, Satoshi
1994-09-01
The growth of crack-free 3-inch-diameter lithium tetraborate ( Li2B4O7) single crystals by the Czochralski method has been studied. The relationships between crystal cracking rate during growth and the crystal rotation rate and the position of the work-coil have been examined. It is concluded that crystal cracking at a later stage of growth is related to the temperature fluctuation in melt.
Effects of Different R ratios on Fatigue Crack Growth in Laser Peened Friction Stir Welds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hatamleh, Omar; Hackel, Lloyd; Forth, Scott
2007-01-01
The influence of laser peening on the fatigue crack growth behavior of friction stir welded (FSW) Aluminum Alloy (AA) 7075-T7351 sheets was investigated. The surface modification resulting from the peening process on the fatigue crack growth of FSW was assessed for two different R ratios. The investigation indicated a significant decrease in fatigue crack growth rates resulting from using laser shock peening compared with unpeened, welded and unwelded specimens. The slower fatigue crack growth rate was attributed to the compressive residual stresses induced by the peening.
Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Fine-Grain Nickel-Based Alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.
2003-01-01
Constant-Kmax fatigue crack growth tests were performed on two finegrain nickel-base alloys Inconel 718 (DA) and Ren 95 to determine if these alloys exhibit near-threshold time-dependent crack growth behavior observed for fine-grain aluminum alloys in room-temperature laboratory air. Test results showed that increases in K(sub max) values resulted in increased crack growth rates, but no evidence of time-dependent crack growth was observed for either nickel-base alloy at room temperature.
Micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth in a single crystal Inconel 718 nickel-based superalloy
Mercer, C.; Soboyejo, A.B.O.; Soboyejo, W.O. )
1999-07-09
The fatigue crack growth behavior of an experimental, single crystal alloy, of equivalent nominal chemical composition to Inconel 718 is presented. Fracture modes under cyclic loading were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The results of the fractographic analyses are presented on a fracture mechanism map that shows the dependence of the fatigue fracture mechanisms on the maximum stress intensity factor, K[sub max], and the stress intensity factor range, [Delta]K. Crack-tip deformation mechanisms associated with fatigue crack growth were studied using transmission electron microscopy. The relative effects of [Delta]K and K[sub max] on the fatigue crack growth behavior of this material are discussed within the context of a two-parameter crack growth law. The influence of grain boundaries on the fatigue crack growth resistance of materials such as Inconel 718 is also discussed in light of the results of this investigation.
The effect of environment on the sustained load crack growth rates of forged WASPALOY
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasatis, Ioannis P.; Pelloux, Regis M.
1985-08-01
The sustained load crack growth rates of wrought WASPALOY* were measured in air and in high purity argon at 650 °C using single edge notched (SEN) and compact tension (CT) specimens machined out of a turbine disk. The crack growth rates measured in air exhibited great variability across the WASPALOY disk, while the crack growth rates measured in purified argon were of the same order of magnitude. This difference in crack growth rates is attributed to local variations in oxidation resistance at the tip of the growing crack. The density and the distribution of carbides in different locations of the WASPALOY disk accounts for the variability in crack growth resistance in air.
Comparison of two computer codes for crack growth analysis: NASCRAC Versus NASA/FLAGRO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallworth, R.; Meyers, C. A.; Stinson, H. C.
1989-01-01
Results are presented from the comparison study of two computer codes for crack growth analysis - NASCRAC and NASA/FLAGRO. The two computer codes gave compatible conservative results when the part through crack analysis solutions were analyzed versus experimental test data. Results showed good correlation between the codes for the through crack at a lug solution. For the through crack at a lug solution, NASA/FLAGRO gave the most conservative results.
Interlaminar crack growth in fiber reinforced composites during fatigue, part 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, S. S.; Wang, H. T.
1981-01-01
Interlaminar crack growth behavior in fiber-reinforced composites subjected to fatigue loading was investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the experimental phase, inter-laminar crack propagation rates and mechanisms were determined for the cases of various geometries, laminate parameters and cyclic stress levels. A singular hybrid-stress finite element method was used in conjuction with the experimental results to examine the local crack-tip behavior and to characterize the crack propagation during fatigue. Results elucidate the basic nature of the cyclic delamination damage, and relate the interlaminar crack growth rate to the range of mixed-mode crack-tip stress intensity factors. The results show that crack growth rates are directly related to the range of the mixed-mode cyclic stress intensity factors by a power law relationship.
Fatigue crack growth in 2024-T3 aluminum under tensile and transverse shear stresses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viz, Mark J.; Zehnder, Alan T.
1994-01-01
The influence of transverse shear stresses on the fatigue crack growth rate in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheets is investigated experimentally. The tests are performed on double-edge cracked sheets in cyclic tensile and torsional loading. This loading generates crack tip stress intensity factors in the same ratio as the values computed for a crack lying along a lap joint in a pressurized aircraft fuselage. The relevant fracture mechanics of cracks in thin plates along with the details of the geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses used for the test specimen calibration are developed and discussed. Preliminary fatigue crack growth data correlated using the fully coupled stress intensity factor calibration are presented and compared with fatigue crack growth data from pure delta K(sub I)fatigue tests.
Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels
Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.
2015-09-10
Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impededmore » hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.« less
Droplet Growth Kinetics in Various Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raatikainen, T. E.; Lathem, T. L.; Moore, R.; Lin, J. J.; Cerully, K. M.; Padro, L.; Lance, S.; Cozic, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Nenes, A.
2012-12-01
The largest uncertainties in the effects of atmospherics aerosols on the global radiation budget are related to their indirect effects on cloud properties (IPCC, the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Cloud formation is a kinetic process where the resulting cloud properties depend on aerosol properties and meteorological parameters such as updraft velocity (e.g. McFiggans et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 2593-2649, 2006). Droplet growth rates are limited by the water vapor diffusion, but additional kinetic limitations, e.g., due to organic surface films, slow solute dissociation or highly viscous or glassy aerosol states have been hypothesized. Significant additional kinetic limitations can lead to increased cloud droplet number concentration, thus the effect is similar to those of increased aerosol number concentration or changes in vertical velocity (e.g. Nenes et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1848, 2002). There are a few studies where slow droplet growth has been observed (e.g. Ruehl et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15814, 2009), however, little is currently known about their global occurrence and magnitude. Cloud micro-physics models often describe kinetic limitations by an effective water vapor uptake coefficient or similar parameter. Typically, determining aerosol water vapor uptake coefficients requires experimental observations of droplet growth which are interpreted by a numerical droplet growth model where the uptake coefficient is an adjustable parameter (e.g. Kolb et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10561-10605, 2010). Such methods have not been practical for high time-resolution or long term field measurements, until a model was recently developed for analyzing Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter data (Raatikainen et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4227-4243, 2012). Model verification experiments showed that the calibration aerosol droplet size can be predicted accurately
Volume Diffusion Growth Kinetics and Step Geometry in Crystal Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan
1998-01-01
The role of step geometry in two-dimensional stationary volume diff4sion process used in crystal growth kinetics models is investigated. Three different interface shapes: a) a planar interface, b) an equidistant hemispherical bumps train tAx interface, and c) a train of right angled steps, are used in this comparative study. The ratio of the super-saturation to the diffusive flux at the step position is used as a control parameter. The value of this parameter can vary as much as 50% for different geometries. An approximate analytical formula is derived for the right angled steps geometry. In addition to the kinetic models, this formula can be utilized in macrostep growth models. Finally, numerical modeling of the diffusive and convective transport for equidistant steps is conducted. In particular, the role of fluid flow resulting from the advancement of steps and its contribution to the transport of species to the steps is investigated.
Creep crack growth behavior of aluminum alloy 2519. Part 1: Experimental analysis
Hamilton, B.C.; Saxena, A.; McDowell, D.L.; Hall, D.E.
1997-12-31
The discipline of time-dependent fracture mechanics has traditionally focused on the creep crack growth behavior of high-temperature materials that display creep-ductile behavior, such as stainless steels and chromium-molybdenum steels. Elevated temperature aluminum alloys, however, have been developed that exhibit creep-brittle behavior; in this case, the creep crack growth rate correlates with the stress intensity factor, K. The fracture characteristics of aluminum alloy 2519-T87 were studied at 135 C, and the creep and creep crack growth behavior were characterized utilizing experimental and numerical methods. The strain to failure for creep deformation specimens was limited to only 1.2 to 2.0%. Creep crack growth tests revealed a unique correlation between the creep crack growth rate and K, a result consistent with creep-brittle behavior. No experimental correlation was found between the creep crack growth rate and the C{sub t} parameter. Microscopy of fracture surfaces revealed distinct regions of intergranular and transgranular fracture, and the transition between the fracture regions was found to occur at a critical K-level. Experimental results also appeared to show that initiation of crack growth (incubation) is controlled by the accumulation of a critical amount of damage ahead of the crack tip and that a correlation exists between the incubation time and K. Total time to failure is viewed as a summation of the incubation period and the crack growth period, and the design importance of incubation time is discussed.
Amyloid growth: combining experiment and kinetic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knowles, Tuomas; Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Christopher
2012-02-01
The conversion of proteins from their soluble forms into fibrillar amyloid nanostructures is a general type of behaviour encountered for many different proteins in the context of disease as well as for the generation of a select class of functional materials in nature. This talk focuses on the problem of defining the rates of the individual molecular level processes involved in the overall conversion reaction. A master equation approach is discussedootnotetextCohen et al, J Chem Phys 2011, 135, 065106 ootnotetextKnowles et al, Science, 2009, 326, 1533-1537 and used in combination with kinetic measurements to yield mechanistic insights into the amyloid growth phenomenon.
Test Method Variability in Slow Crack Growth Properties of Sealing Glasses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, J. A.; Tandon, R.
2010-01-01
The crack growth properties of several sealing glasses were measured by using constant stress rate testing in 2 and 95 percent RH (relative humidity). Crack growth parameters measured in high humidity are systematically smaller (n and B) than those measured in low humidity, and crack velocities for dry environments are 100x lower than for wet environments. The crack velocity is very sensitive to small changes in RH at low RH. Biaxial and uniaxial stress states produced similar parameters. Confidence intervals on crack growth parameters that were estimated from propagation of errors solutions were comparable to those from Monte Carlo simulation. Use of scratch-like and indentation flaws produced similar crack growth parameters when residual stresses were considered.
Subcritical crack growth in soda-lime glass in combined mode I and mode II loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Dileep; Shetty, Dinesh K.
1990-01-01
Subcritical crack growth under mixed-mode loading was studied in soda-lime glass. Pure mode I, combined mode I and mode II, and pure mode II loadings were achieved in precracked disk specimens by loading in diametral compression at selected angles with respect to the symmetric radial crack. Crack growth was monitored by measuring the resistance changes in a microcircuit grid consisting of parallel, electrically conducting grid lines deposited on the surface of the disk specimens by photolithography. Subcritical crack growth rates in pure mode I, pure mode II, and combined mode I and mode II loading could be described by an exponential relationship between crack growth rate and an effective crack driving force derived from a mode I-mode II fracture toughness envelope. The effective crack driving force was based on an empirical representation of the noncoplanar strain energy release rate. Stress intensities for kinked cracks were assessed using the method of caustics and an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in the subcritical crack growth rates of kinked cracks were shown to correlate with the variations of the mode I and the mode II stress intensities.
Rubber Characterization with Fatigue and Crack Growth Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perier, Laurent; Favier, Arnaud
2010-06-01
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis brings advanced capabilities to generate quantitative dynamic property data of rubber compounds for modelers and end users. Additionally to the recognized DMA testing benefits, a new METRAVIB Analyzer DMA+300 includes new testing solutions for analyzing rubbers mechanical property data under extended testing conditions closer to the real product's life conditions. The DMA+300 is specifically designed and dimensioned for fatigue tests on elastomers and crack growth tests. Combined with new MULTITEST software, DMA+300 makes possible to generate multi harmonics excitation and to control the application of a specific wave form to the specimen of rubber. This paper presents the main benefits available with this machine in the domain of rubber and elastomer applications.
Fracture mechanics applied to nonisothermal fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, E. H.; Meyers, G. J.
1986-01-01
Twelve nonisothermal fatigue crack growth tests were performed on Hastelloy-X tubular specimens in which strain and temperature varied simultaneously. Conditions were selected to include nominally elastic and nominally plastic conditions and temperatures up to 982 C. A number of parameters, including the stress intensity factor, strain intensity factor, and J-integral, were examined for their ability to correlate the data. There was no decisive difference between the success of the three parameters. Each parameter correlated data from different strain ranges to within no worse than a factor of 2.1 on da/dn. The effect of strain temperature cycle shape was investigated and found to be moderate, while a strain hold of 1 min had very little effect. An attempt was made to predict nonisothermal test results from isothermal data. These predictions were better than those made by using peak test temperature isothermal data but still not within scatter.
Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Behavior in HSCT Structural Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saxena, Ashok
1998-01-01
Structures in super-sonic aircraft are subjected to conditions of high temperature and cyclic and sustained loading for extended periods of time. The durability of structures fabricated from aluminum and certain titanium alloys in such demanding conditions is of primary concern to the designers and manufacturers of futuristic transport aircraft. Accordingly, the major goal of this project was to evaluate the performance and durability of high temperature aluminum and titanium alloys for use in high speed civil transport (HSCT) structures. Additional goals were to develop time-dependent fracture mechanics methodology and test methods for characterizing and predicting elevated temperature crack growth behavior in creep-brittle materials such as ones being considered for use in HSCT structures and to explore accelerated methods of simulating microstructural degradation during service and measuring degraded properties in these materials.
Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.
2002-01-01
Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.
CRACK GROWTH ANALYSIS OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELECTROLYTES
S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana
2003-10-01
Defects and Flaws control the structural and functional property of ceramics. In determining the reliability and lifetime of ceramics structures it is very important to quantify the crack growth behavior of the ceramics. In addition, because of the high variability of the strength and the relatively low toughness of ceramics, a statistical design approach is necessary. The statistical nature of the strength of ceramics is currently well recognized, and is usually accounted for by utilizing Weibull or similar statistical distributions. Design tools such as CARES using a combination of strength measurements, stress analysis, and statistics are available and reasonably well developed. These design codes also incorporate material data such as elastic constants as well as flaw distributions and time-dependent properties. The fast fracture reliability for ceramics is often different from their time-dependent reliability. Further confounding the design complexity, the time-dependent reliability varies with the environment/temperature/stress combination. Therefore, it becomes important to be able to accurately determine the behavior of ceramics under simulated application conditions to provide a better prediction of the lifetime and reliability for a given component. In the present study, Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) of 9.6 mol% Yttria composition was procured in the form of tubes of length 100 mm. The composition is of interest as tubular electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Rings cut from the tubes were characterized for microstructure, phase stability, mechanical strength (Weibull modulus) and fracture mechanisms. The strength at operating condition of SOFCs (1000 C) decreased to 95 MPa as compared to room temperature strength of 230 MPa. However, the Weibull modulus remains relatively unchanged. Slow crack growth (SCG) parameter, n = 17 evaluated at room temperature in air was representative of well studied brittle materials. Based on the results, further work
The NT-criterion for predicting crack growth increments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yehia, Nabil A. B.; Shephard, Mark S.
1987-01-01
A new approach is presented to determine the crack propagation increment after the direction of crack propagation has been predicted. The maximum dilatational strain energy density (NT-criterion) is employed in the derivation for predicting both direction and increment of the propagating crack. The crack propagation path predicted by the NT-criterion is compared to the one predicted by the S-criterion and to some available experimental data.
Resolved shear stress intensity coefficient and fatigue crack growth in large crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, QI; Liu, Hao-Wen
1988-01-01
Fatigue crack growth in large grain Al alloy was studied. Fatigue crack growth is caused primarily by shear decohesion due to dislocation motion in the crack tip region. The crack paths in the large crystals are very irregular and zigzag. The crack planes are often inclined to the loading axis both in the inplane direction and the thickness direction. The stress intensity factors of such inclined cracks are approximated from the two dimensional finite element calculations. The plastic deformation in a large crystal is highly anisotropic, and dislocation motion in such crystals are driven by the resolved shear stress. The resolved shear stress intensity coefficient in a crack solid, RSSIC, is defined, and the coefficients for the slip systems at a crack tip are evaluated from the calculated stress intensity factors. The orientations of the crack planes are closely related to the slip planes with the high RSSIC values. If a single slip system has a much higher RSSIC than all the others, the crack will follow the slip plane, and the slip plane becomes the crack plane. If two or more slip systems have a high RSSIC, the crack plane is the result of the decohesion processes on these active slip planes.
Prediction of stable crack growth and instability using the V sub R-curve method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1985-01-01
A methodology is presented for predicting stable crack growth and instability of cracked structural components from results of laboratory tests on metallic materials under plane-stress conditions. The methodology is based on the displacement V sub R at the tip of a stably tearing crack. Basically, the V sub R-curve method is a resistance curve approach, such as K sub R and J sub R, except that the 'crack drive' is written in terms of crack-tip displacement instead of K or J. The relationship between crack-tip-opening displacement, crack length, specimen type, and tensile properties is derived from the Dugdale model for the cracked structure of interest. This report describes the laboratory test procedure and calculations used to obtain the V sub R resistance curve from fracture tests of compact or of middle-crack tension (formally center-crack) specimens. The analysis procedure used to predict stable crack growth and instability of any through-the-thickness crack configuration made of the same material and thickness, and tested under the same environmental conditions, is presented. The various limitations of the present V sub R curve method are given. Four example calculations and predictions are shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
2002-01-01
The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress rate and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation of strength versus the log of the stress rate was very reasonable for most of the materials. Also, the preloading technique was determined equally applicable to the case of slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n greater than 30 for both the power-law and exponential formulations. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
2002-01-01
The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on advanced structural ceramics tested under constant stress and cyclic stress loading at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation between the time to failure and applied stress (or maximum applied stress in cyclic loading) was very reasonable for most of the materials studied. It was also found that life prediction for cyclic stress loading from data of constant stress loading in the exponential formulation was in good agreement with the experimental data, resulting in a similar degree of accuracy as compared with the power-law formulation. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.
On the driving force for crack growth during thermal actuation of shape memory alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baxevanis, T.; Parrinello, A. F.; Lagoudas, D. C.
2016-04-01
The effect of thermomechanically induced phase transformation on the driving force for crack growth in polycrystalline shape memory alloys is analyzed in an infinite center-cracked plate subjected to a thermal actuation cycle under mechanical load in plain strain. Finite element calculations are carried out to determine the mechanical fields near the static crack and the crack-tip energy release rate using the virtual crack closure technique. A substantial increase of the energy release rate - an order of magnitude for some material systems - is observed during the thermal cycle due to the stress redistribution induced by large scale phase transformation. Thus, phase transformation occurring due to thermal variations under mechanical load may result in crack growth if the crack-tip energy release rate reaches a material specific critical value.
Fatigue crack layer propagation in silicon-iron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birol, Y.; Welsch, G.; Chudnovsky, A.
1986-01-01
Fatigue crack propagation in metal is almost always accompanied by plastic deformation unless conditions strongly favor brittle fracture. The analysis of the plastic zone is crucial to the understanding of crack propagation behavior as it governs the crack growth kinetics. This research was undertaken to study the fatigue crack propagation in a silicon iron alloy. Kinetic and plasticity aspects of fatigue crack propagation in the alloy were obtained, including the characterization of damage evolution.
Subcritical crack growth under mode I, II, and III loading for Coconino sandstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Tae Young
In systems subjected to long-term loading, subcritical crack growth is the principal mechanism causing the time-dependent deformation and failure of rocks. Subcritical crack growth is environmentally-assisted crack growth, which can allow cracks to grow over a long period of time at stresses far smaller than their failure strength and at tectonic strain rates. The characteristics of subcritical crack growth can be described by a relationship between the stress intensity factor and the crack velocity. This study presents the results of studies conducted to validate the constant stress-rate test for determining subcritical crack growth parameters in Coconino sandstone, compared with the conventional testing method, the double torsion test. The results of the constant stress-rate test are in good agreement with the results of double torsion test. More importantly, the stress-rate tests can determine the parameter A with a much smaller standard deviation than the double torsion test. Thus the constant stress-rate test seems to be both a valid and preferred test method for determining the subcritical crack growth parameters in rocks. We investigated statistical aspects of the constant stress-rate test. The effects of the number of tests conducted on the subcritical crack growth parameters were examined and minimum specimen numbers were determined. The mean and standard deviation of the subcritical crack growth parameters were obtained by randomly selecting subsets from the original strength data. In addition, the distribution form of the subcritical crack growth parameters and the relation between the parameter n and A were determined. We extended the constant stress-rate test technique to modes II and III subcritical crack growth in rocks. The experimental results of the modes I, II and III tests show that the values of the subcritical crack growth parameters are similar to each other. The subcritical crack growth parameter n value for Coconino sandstone has the range
Growth kinetics of Si and Ge nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kodambaka, S.; Tersoff, J.; Reuter, M. C.; Ross, F. M.
2009-02-01
Si and Ge nanowires have potential applications in a wide variety of areas including thermoelectrics, optoelectronics, and sensors. Nanowires are most commonly grown via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. In this method, a vapor phase containing the material of interest preferentially dissociates at a liquid catalyst and is incorporated as a solid at the solid-liquid interface. However, despite 40 years of research in this area, several aspects of nanowire growth remain unclear, even for relatively simple elemental Si and Ge wires. Here, we will review our in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations of Si and Ge nanowire growth kinetics. The observations are carried out in an ultra-high vacuum TEM (the IBM UHV-TEM) equipped with facilities for deposition during observation. Using Au as the catalyst, we study the VLS growth of Si and Ge nanowires as a function of disilane or digermane pressure and substrate temperature. We find surprisingly different growth mechanisms for the two materials. The insights gained from in situ results may help devise methods for large-scale fabrication of wires with controlled architecture.
... sound the drug makes as it heats up. Short-Term Effects Crack is a stimulant that is absorbed through ... quickly, after about 5 or 10 minutes. Other short-term effects include: higher heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure , ...
Fracture of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Sheet under Through-Thickness Crack Growth Conditions
Raynaud, P.A.; Koss, D.A.; Motta, A.T.; Chan, K.S.
2007-07-01
The failure of thin-wall components such as fuel cladding may be caused by crack initiation on the component surface and subsequent crack growth through its thickness. This study has determined the fracture toughness of hydrided cold-worked stress relieved Zircaloy-4 sheet subject to through-thickness crack growth at 25 deg. C. The experimental approach utilizes a novel procedure in which a narrow linear strip of brittle hydride blister across the specimen width creates a well-defined pre-crack upon initial loading. The subsequent crack growth resistance is then characterized by four-point bending of the specimen and an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. At room temperature, the through-thickness fracture toughness (K{sub Q}) is sensitive to the orientation of the hydride platelets, and K{sub Q} {approx_equal} 25 MPavm for crack growth through a mixed in-plane/out-of-plane hydride field. In contrast, K{sub Q} is much higher ({approx_equal} 75 MPavm) when the hydride platelets are oriented predominantly in the plane of the sheet (and therefore normal to both the crack plane and the crack growth direction). The implication of these fracture toughness values to the fracture strain behavior of hydrided Zircaloy-4 under through-thickness crack growth conditions is illustrated. (authors)
Analyses of Fatigue and Fatigue-Crack Growth under Constant- and Variable-Amplitude Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1999-01-01
Studies on the growth of small cracks have led to the observation that fatigue life of many engineering materials is primarily crack growth from micro-structural features, such as inclusion particles, voids, slip-bands or from manufacturing defects. This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model to predict fatigue lives of metallic materials using small-crack theory under various loading conditions. Constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective stress-intensity factor range (delta K(sub eff)) under constant-amplitude loading. Modifications to the delta K(sub eff)-rate relations in the near-threshold regime were needed to fit measured small-crack growth rate behavior. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and to predict total fatigue lives, for notched and un-notched specimens under constant-amplitude and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were predicted using crack-growth relations and micro-structural features like those that initiated cracks in the fatigue specimens for most of the materials analyzed. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.
1988-01-01
Two quantitative models based on experimentally observed fatigue damage processes have been made: (1) a model of low cycle fatigue life based on fatigue crack growth under general-yielding cyclic loading; and (2) a model of accelerated fatigue crack growth at elevated temperatures based on grain boundary oxidation. These two quantitative models agree very well with the experimental observations.
Analysis of fatigue crack growth from countersunk fastener hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suh, Jungjun
This research dealt with fatigue cracks that form at countersunk open holes and mainly focused on obtaining stress intensity factor solutions for countersunk holes employing both experimental and computational approaches. Cracks developing from countersunk holes are an extremely important issue for ensuring the structural integrity of many types of aircraft components, and are crucial to aircraft safety. Four different crack shapes (single knee crack, single corner crack, two non-symmetric knee cracks and two non-symmetric corner cracks) were studied in this research. The locations of the cracks were chosen to represent the previous numerical and experimental study by C. Y. Park. A stress ratio (R = sigmamin/sigmamax), 0.3 was used for all the specimens tested to minimize the crack closure effect. The use of transparent PMMA polymer specimens allowed for direct observation of changes in crack size and shape. The stress intensity factor ranges along the crack front were determined using the back calculation method proposed by James and Anderson. Then, the stress intensity factor ranges were normalized as geometric factors to obtain non-dimensional stress intensity factors. The geometric factors for a total of 36 crack fronts are determined for the single crack experiments, and the geometric factors for a total of 76 crack fronts are obtained for the two non-symmetric experiments. The geometric factors obtained in this research can apply to structural metals since the geometric factors only depend on crack geometry and not on material properties. One of the objectives of this research was to assess the validity of finite element predictions of stress intensity factors. Thus, computational approach was conducted with StressCheck. Generally, StressCheck results agree reasonably well with the experimental results. The average percent differences in geometric factor are within 9.1% compared to the experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heeter, Ann E.
Gas turbine engines are an important part of power generation in modern society, especially in the field of aerospace. Aerospace engines are design to last approximately 30 years and the engine components must be designed to survive for the life of the engine or to be replaced at regular intervals to ensure consumer safety. Fatigue crack growth analysis is a vital component of design for an aerospace component. Crack growth modeling and design methods date back to an origin around 1950 with a high rate of accuracy. The new generation of aerospace engines is designed to be efficient as possible and require higher operating temperatures than ever seen before in previous generations. These higher temperatures place more stringent requirements on the material crack growth performance under creep and time dependent conditions. Typically the types of components which are subject to these requirements are rotating disk components which are made from advanced materials such as nickel base superalloys. Traditionally crack growth models have looked at high temperature crack growth purely as a function of temperature and assumed that all crack growth was either controlled by a cycle dependent or time dependent mechanism. This new analysis is trying to evaluate the transition between cycle-dependent and time-dependent mechanism and the microstructural markers that characterize this transitional behavior. The physical indications include both the fracture surface morphology as well as the shape of the crack front. The research will evaluate whether crack tunneling occurs and whether it consistently predicts a transition from cycle-dependent crack growth to time-dependent crack growth. The study is part of a larger research program trying to include the effects of geometry, mission profile and environmental effects, in addition to temperature effects, as a part of the overall crack growth system. The outcome will provide evidence for various transition types and correlate those
Effects of stress ratio and fiber orientation on fatigue crack growth behavior in APAL
Oh, S.W.; Park, W.J.; Yoon, H.K.; Lee, K.G.; Cho, J.M.; Lee, K.B.
1993-12-31
A new hybrid composite (APAL; Aramid Patched Aluminum Alloy), consisting of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy plate sandwiched between aramid/epoxy prepregs (HK 285/RS 1222), was developed. Fatigue crack growth behavior was examined at stress ratios of R = 0.2, 0.5 using two kinds of APAL with different fiber orientation (0{degree}/90{degree} and {+-} 45{degree} for crack direction). The APAL showed superior fatigue crack growth resistance, which may be attributed to the crack bridging effect imposed by the intact fibers in the crack wave. The magnitude of crack bridging was estimated quantitatively and determined by a new technique on the basis of the compliances of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy and APAL specimens. The crack growth rate of the APAL specimens was reduced significantly as comparison to the monolithic aluminum alloy and was not adequately correlated with the conventional stress intensity factor range ({Delta}K). It was found that the crack growth rate was successfully correlated with the effective stress intensity factor range ( {Delta}K{sub eff} = K{sub br} {minus} K{sub cl}) allowing for the crack closure and the crack bridging. The relation between da/dN and {Delta}K{sub eff} was plotted within a narrow scatter band regardless at loading line of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, two kinds of the APAL (APAL 0{degree}/90{degree}, APAL {+-} 45{degree}) and two kinds of stress ratios (R = 0.2, 0.5).
Oxidation Kinetics and Strength Degradation of Carbon Fibers in a Cracked Ceramic Matrix Composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halbig, Michael C.
2003-01-01
Experimental results and oxidation modeling will be presented to discuss carbon fiber susceptibility to oxidation, the oxidation kinetics regimes and composite strength degradation and failure due to oxidation. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation rates of carbon fiber and of a pyro-carbon interphase. The analysis was used to separately obtain activation energies for the carbon constituents within a C/SiC composite. TGA was also conducted on C/SiC composite material to study carbon oxidation and crack closure as a function of temperature. In order to more closely match applications conditions C/SiC tensile coupons were also tested under stressed oxidation conditions. The stressed oxidation tests show that C/SiC is much more susceptible to oxidation when the material is under an applied load where the cracks are open and allow for oxygen ingress. The results help correlate carbon oxidation with composite strength reduction and failure.
Morphological study of near threshold fatigue crack growth in a coarse grain aluminum alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maurer, Gerhard; Liu, H. W.
1984-01-01
Fatigue crack propagation in the near-threshold region has been studied in coarse grain Al 7029 alloy. Over eighty percent of the crack surfaces are planar areas parallel to either 100-oriented or 111-oriented planes. The 100-plane crack surfaces show 'pine tree' morphological features formed by slip on two sets of intersecting planes. The 111-plane crack surfaces were planar and shiny. They were formed primarily by slip on a single dominant 111-oriented slip plane with sparse and very light secondary slip markings. Crack growth rates were measured and correlated with Delta-K.
Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cyclic Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, R.; Figert, J.; Beek, J.; Ventura, J.; Martinez, J.; Samonski, F.
2011-01-01
The present studies show that fanning in the threshold regime is likely caused by other factors than a plastic wake developed during load shedding. The cause of fanning at low R-values is a result of localized roughness, mainly formation of a faceted crack surface morphology , plus crack bifurcations which alters the crack closure at low R-values. The crack growth behavior in the threshold regime involves both crack closure theory and the dislocation theory of metals. Research will continue in studying numerous other metal alloys and performing more extensive analysis, such as the variation in dislocation properties (e.g., stacking fault energy) and its effects in different materials.
Proof test and fatigue crack growth modeling on 2024-T3 aluminum alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Poe, C. C., Jr.; Dawicke, D. S.
1990-01-01
Pressure proof testing of aircraft fuselage structures has been suggested as a means of screening critical crack sizes and of extending their useful life. The objective of this paper is to study the proof-test concept and to model the crack-growth process on a ductile material. Simulated proof and operational fatigue life tests have been conducted on cracked panels made of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet material. A fatigue crack-closure model was modified to simulate the proof test and operational fatigue cycling. Using crack-growth rate and resistance-curve data, the model was able to predict crack growth during and after the proof load. These tests and analyses indicate that the proof test increases fatigue life; but the beneficial life, after a 1.33 or 1.5 proof, was less than a few hundred cycles.
Finite element models for predicting crack growth characteristics in composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buczek, M. B.; Herakovich, C. T.
1982-01-01
Two dimensional and quasi-three dimensional, linear elastic finite element models for the prediction of crack growth characteristics, including crack growth direction, in laminated composite materials are presented. Mixed mode crack growth in isotropic materials, unidirectional and laminated composites is considered. The modified crack closure method is used to predict the applied load level for crack extension and two failure theories, modifications of the point stress and the Hashin failure criteria, are proposed to predict the direction of crack extension in composites. Comparisons are made with the Tsai-Wu failure criterion and the Sih strain energy density criterion as well as with experimental results. It is shown that the modified versions of point stress and Hashin criteria compare well with experiment.
Slow crack growth in glass in combined mode I and mode II loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shetty, D. K.; Rosenfield, A. R.
1991-01-01
Slow crack growth in soda-lime glass under combined mode I and mode II loading was investigated in precracked disk specimens in which pure mode I, pure mode II, and various combinations of mode I and mode II were achieved by loading in diametral compression at selected angles with respect to symmetric radial cracks. It is shown that slow crack growth under these conditions can be described by a simple exponential relationship with elastic strain energy release rate as the effective crack-driving force parameter. It is possible to interpret this equation in terms of theoretical models that treat subcritical crack growth as a thermally activated bond-rupture process with an activation energy dependent on the environment, and the elastic energy release rate as the crack-driving force parameter.
Creep crack growth predictions in INCO 718 using a continuum damage model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, K. P.; Wilson, D. A.
1985-01-01
Creep crack growth tests have been carried out in compact type specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C). Theoretical creep crack growth predictions have been carried out by incorporating a unified viscoplastic constitutive model and a continuum damage model into the ARAQUS nonlinear finite element program. Material constants for both the viscoplastic model and the creep continuum damage model were determined from tests carried out on uniaxial bar specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C). A comparison of the theoretical creep crack growth rates obtained from the finite element predictions with the experimentally observed creep crack growth rates indicates that the viscoplastic/continuum damage model can be used to successfully predict creep crack growth in compact type specimens using material constants obtained from uniaxial bar specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C).
The characterization of small fatigue crack growth in PH13-8 molybdenum stainless steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Ohchang
The rotor hubs of Navy CH-46 helicopters have been made of 4340 steel and had extensive corrosion fatigue problems. Since these helicopters have to be used until the year 2020, the Navy decided to replace 4340 steel with PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel. Because the rotors are exposed to high frequency high cycle fatigue, small fatigue cracks are important in estimating remaining lifetime of the components. The objective of this study was to characterize the small crack growth behavior in the PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel under various loading conditions. Constant amplitude loading was conducted at the stress ratios, R, 0.1 and 0.4. The crack growth rate was affected by the microstructures in early stage of the growth, mainly by the size of the martensite packets and oscillated up to the crack length of 200 mum. It was found that the crack growth rate was little influenced by the stress amplitudes and stress ratios. In addition, the small crack growth rate was found to be similar to the long crack growth rate at R = 0.1 and 0.4. Overload tests and simple block loading were performed to understand load interaction effects on the small crack growth rate. The overload tests indicated that the crack growth rate was little affected by the overload. This might result from the fact that the overload ratio used in this study was low (<1.3). However, the results of the simple block loading showed overall crack growth retardation. The compressive residual stress present at the notch root of the specimen tested at R = 0.1 may lower the effective stress ratio, Reff, from 0.1 to negative R, and may result in the crack growth retardation. The small crack growth behavior was also examined under the saltwater. There was no difference in the crack growth rate between under air and under saltwater. In addition, the crack growth rate of the specimens tested under the saltwater was not affected by the test frequencies of 10, 1 and 0.1 Hz. It was shown that under the saltwater the PH 13-8 Mo
Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1990-01-01
Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging
Preloading To Accelerate Slow-Crack-Growth Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gyekenyesi, John P.; Choi, Sung R.; Pawlik, Ralph J.
2004-01-01
An accelerated-testing methodology has been developed for measuring the slow-crack-growth (SCG) behavior of brittle materials. Like the prior methodology, the accelerated-testing methodology involves dynamic fatigue ( constant stress-rate) testing, in which a load or a displacement is applied to a specimen at a constant rate. SCG parameters or life prediction parameters needed for designing components made of the same material as that of the specimen are calculated from the relationship between (1) the strength of the material as measured in the test and (2) the applied stress rate used in the test. Despite its simplicity and convenience, dynamic fatigue testing as practiced heretofore has one major drawback: it is extremely time-consuming, especially at low stress rates. The present accelerated methodology reduces the time needed to test a specimen at a given rate of applied load, stress, or displacement. Instead of starting the test from zero applied load or displacement as in the prior methodology, one preloads the specimen and increases the applied load at the specified rate (see Figure 1). One might expect the preload to alter the results of the test and indeed it does, but fortunately, it is possible to account for the effect of the preload in interpreting the results. The accounting is done by calculating the normalized strength (defined as the strength in the presence of preload the strength in the absence of preload) as a function of (1) the preloading factor (defined as the preload stress the strength in the absence of preload) and (2) a SCG parameter, denoted n, that is used in a power-law crack-speed formulation. Figure 2 presents numerical results from this theoretical calculation.
Numerical simulation of out-of-plane distortion fatigue crack growth in bridge girders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MIller, Paula A.
Aging of the United States infrastructure systems has resulted in the degradation of many operational bridge structures throughout the country. Structural deficiencies can result from material fatigue caused by cyclical loadings leading to localized structural damage. While fatigue crack growth is viewed as a serviceability problem, unstable crack growth can compromise the integrity of the structure. Multi-girder bridges designed with transverse cross bracing systems can be prone to distortion fatigue at unstiffened web gaps. Cracking is exhibited within this fatigue prone region from the application of cyclical multi-mode loadings. Focus of fatigue analysis has largely been directed at pure Mode I loading through the development of AASHTO fatigue classifications for crack initiation and the Paris Law for crack propagation. Numerical modeling approaches through the ABAQUS Extended Finite Element Method offers a unique avenue in which this detail can be assessed. Finite element simulations were developed to first evaluate the applicability of the Paris Law crack propagation under multi-mode loading against experimental data. Following the validation, fatigue crack growth in plate girders with various web gap sizes was assessed due to mixed-mode loadings. Modeling results showed enlargement of horizontal initial crack lengths within stiffer web gap regions arrested crack development. Crack directionality was also seen to change as initial crack lengths were increased. From this research it is hypothesized that deterioration of the transverse stiffener connection can be minimized by increasing the horizontal length of initial fatigue cracks. Enlargement of the crack plane away from regions of localized stress concentrations within the web gap may result in arrestment of the out-of-plane distortion induced cracking.
The structure of the near-tip field during transient elastodynamic crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freund, L. B.; Rosakis, A. J.
T HE PROCESS of dynamic crack growth in a nominally elastic malerial under conditions of plane strain or plane stress is considered. Of particular concern is the influence of the transient nature of the process on the stress field in the immediate vicinity of the crack tip during nonsteady growth. Asymptotically, the crack tip stress field is square root singular at the crack tip, with the angular variation of the singular field depending weakly on the instantaneous crack tip speed and with the instantaneous stress intensity factor being a scalar multiplier of the singular field. However, for a material particle at a small distance from the moving crack, the local stress field depends not only on instantaneous values of crack speed and stress intensity factor, but also on the past history of these lime-dependent quantities. A representation of the crack tip field is obtained in the form of an expansion about the crack up in powers of radial coordinate, with the coefficients depending on the time rates of change of crack tip speed and stress intensity factor. This representation is used to interpret some experimental observations, with the conclusion that the higher-order expansion provides an accurate description of crack tip fields under fairly severe transient conditions. In addition, some estimates are made of the practical limits of using a stress intensity factor field alone to characterize the local fields.
Kwon, H.S.; Cho, E.A.; Yeom, K.A.
2000-01-01
Repassivation kinetics of rapidly scratched scars on the surface of type 304 (UNS S30400) stainless steel (SS) in a chloride solution was examined using an ampero-chronometric method. Its relationship to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility measured by slow strain rate tests (SSRT) was explored. The repassivation kinetics was analyzed in terms of the current density flowing from the scratch (i[t]) as a function of the charge density that flowed from the scratch (1[t]). The log i(t) has a linear relationship with 1/1(t) in which the slope, determined from the linear relationship was very effective as a measure of repassivation kinetics. The alloy/environment system with a lower value of the slope showed a faster repassivation rate with formation of a thinner and more protective passive film during repassivation. With an increase in applied potential, the slope increased gradually and reached asymptotically a limiting value beyond which an inflection point appeared in the log i(t) vs. 1/q(t) plots. The change in the slope with applied potential was correlated with the SCC susceptibility. Based on this correlation, a new method was proposed for the prediction of SCC susceptibility in terms of repassivation kinetics. The validity of this method was confirmed by applying the relationship between changes in the slope and SCC susceptibility to effects of solution temperature and Cl{sup {minus}} concentration on repassivation kinetics and SCC susceptibility of type 304 SS.
Domain Growth Kinetics in Stratifying Foam Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek
2015-03-01
Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are μ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. We experimentally elucidate the influence of these different driving forces, and confinement on drainage kinetics of horizontal stratifying foam films. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. Quantitative characterization of domain growth visualized in a using Scheludko-type thin film cell and a theoretical model based on lubrication analysis, provide critical insights into hydrodynamics of thin foam films, and the strength and nature of surface forces, including supramolecular oscillatory structural forces.
Crack-growth behavior in thick welded plates of Inconel 718 at room and cryogenic temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, R. G.
1974-01-01
Results of mechanical-properties and axial-load fatigue and fracture tests performed on thick welded plates of Inconel 718 superalloy are presented. The test objectives were to determine the tensile strength properties and the crack-growth behavior in electron-beam, plasma-arc, and gas tungsten are welds for plates 1.90 cm (0.75 in) thick. Base-metal specimens were also tested to determine the flaw-growth behavior. The tests were performed in room-temperature-air and liquid nitrogen environments. The experimental crack-growth-rate data are correlated with theoretical crack-growth-rate predictions for semielliptical surface flaws.
The reduction in fatigue crack growth resistance of dentin with depth.
Ivancik, J; Neerchal, N K; Romberg, E; Arola, D
2011-08-01
The fatigue crack growth resistance of dentin was characterized as a function of depth from the dentino-enamel junction. Compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from the crowns of third molars in the deep, middle, and peripheral dentin. The microstructure was quantified in terms of the average tubule dimensions and density. Fatigue cracks were grown in-plane with the tubules and characterized in terms of the initiation and growth responses. Deep dentin exhibited the lowest resistance to the initiation of fatigue crack growth, as indicated by the stress intensity threshold (ΔK(th) ≈ 0.8 MPa•m(0.5)) and the highest incremental fatigue crack growth rate (over 1000 times that in peripheral dentin). Cracks in deep dentin underwent incremental extension under cyclic stresses that were 40% lower than those required in peripheral dentin. The average fatigue crack growth rates increased significantly with tubule density, indicating the importance of microstructure on the potential for tooth fracture. Molars with deep restorations are more likely to suffer from the cracked-tooth syndrome, because of the lower fatigue crack growth resistance of deep dentin. PMID:21628640
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farley, Gary L.; Newman, John A.; James, Mark A.
2004-01-01
Experimental and analytical investigations of the fatigue crack growth and fracture response of aluminum selectively reinforced compact tension specimens were performed. It was shown that selective reinforcement significantly improved these responses primarily through load sharing by the reinforcement. With the appropriate combination of reinforcement architecture and mechanical properties, as well as reinforcement to base aluminum interface properties, fatigue cracks can be arrested using selective reinforcement. Maximum load associated with fracture increased up to 20 percent for the cases investigated and crack growth at maximum load increased as much as 150 percent. For both fatigue crack growth and fracture, the three most influential properties identified within the bounds of this investigation that influence this response are reinforcement width, reinforcement stiffness and interface stiffness. Considerable coupling occurs between the different fiber architecture and material properties and how they influence fatigue crack growth and fracture responses.
Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Gas Metal Arc Welded AISI 409 Grade Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Shanmugam, K.; Balasubramanian, V.
2009-10-01
The effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, and duplex stainless steel on fatigue crack growth behavior of the gas metal arc welded ferritic stainless steel joints was investigated. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single ‘V’ butt welded joints. Center cracked tensile specimens were prepared to evaluate fatigue crack growth behavior. Servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine with a capacity of 100 kN was used to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behavior of the welded joints. From this investigation, it was found that the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal showed superior fatigue crack growth resistance compared to the joints fabricated by austenitic and ferritic stainless steel filler metals. Higher yield strength and relatively higher toughness may be the reasons for superior fatigue performance of the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal.
Yi, K.S.; Dill, S.J.; Dauskardt, R.H.
1997-07-01
The effect of hydrodynamic pressure developed in the wake of a crack growing in a brittle material under cyclic loads in an aqueous environment is considered. The pressure acts in opposition to the movement of the crack faces, thus shielding the crack up from the applied loads. A general hydrodynamic fluid pressure relation based on a one-dimensional Reynolds equation, which applicable to a crack with an arbitrary crack opening profile, is developed. The model is modified to account for side flow through the thickness of the sample and cavitation near the crack tip. Both effects significantly modify the hydrodynamic pressure distribution. Finally, the resulting hydrodynamic pressure relations are combined with a fracture mechanics model to account for the change in the near-tip stress intensity. Resulting predictions of the cyclic crack-growth rate are found to be in good agreement with measured values for a borosilicate glass tested at various frequencies in a water environment.
Transient and intermittent crack growth during embrittlement of 7075-T651 aluminum by mercury
Liu, Y.; Hoagland, R.G.
1989-03-01
This paper presents some results which show intermittent and transient crack growth behavior of a high strength aluminum alloy embrittled by liquid mercury. Run-arrest-run type of cracking behavior resulted in ''n'' and ''m''-shaped curves on the crack velocity (da/dt) vs. stress intensity (K) diagram. While variations in oxygen activity in the crack tip environment may play a role in producing non-unique /nu/-K behavior, the results reported here suggest that formation and rupture of ligaments during crack extension may also be at work in a way that causes the stress intensity associated with the field local to the crack tip (K/sub tip/) to vary stochastically as the crack extends.
Modelling of fatigue crack growth in flat plate weldments and tubular welded joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glinka, Grzegorz; Lambert, S.
1992-07-01
Modeling of fatigue crack growth in T-butt plate weldments and tubular joints is discussed. Some of the available stress infinity factor solutions based on the finite element method and the weight function approach are analyzed. It is shown that simultaneous modeling of the fatigue growth of several multiple cracks provides a better simulation of crack shape development than do single crack models; single crack models may be unconservative. The results show that in the case of tubular joints it was necessary to supplement the methodology developed for plate weldments by an additional effect called 'load shedding'. It is believed that the load shedding effect arises due to varying boundary conditions caused by the growing crack.
Noncontact monitoring of fatigue crack growth using high frequency guided waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masserey, B.; Fromme, P.
2014-03-01
The development of fatigue cracks at fastener holes due to stress concentration is a common problem in aircraft maintenance. This contribution investigates the use of high frequency guided waves for the non-contact monitoring of fatigue crack growth in tensile, aluminium specimens. High frequency guided ultrasonic waves have a good sensitivity for defect detection and can propagate along the structure, thus having the potential for the inspection of difficult to access parts by means of non-contact measurements. Experimentally the required guided wave modes are excited using standard wedge transducers and measured using a laser interferometer. The growth of fatigue cracks during cyclic loading was monitored optically and the resulting changes in the signal caused by crack growth are quantified. Full three-dimensional simulation of the scattering of the high frequency guided ultrasonic waves at the fastener hole and crack has been implemented using the Finite Difference (FD) method. The comparison of the results shows a good agreement of the measured and predicted scattered field of the guided wave at quarter-elliptical and through-thickness fatigue cracks. The measurements show a good sensitivity for the early detection of fatigue damage and for the monitoring of fatigue crack growth at a fastener hole. The sensitivity and repeatability are ascertained, and the robustness of the methodology for practical in-situ ultrasonic monitoring of fatigue crack growth is discussed.
Monitoring of fatigue crack growth at fastener holes using guided Lamb waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fromme, P.; Sayir, M. B.
2002-05-01
An experimental method for the detection of fatigue cracks at holes in aluminum specimens is investigated. The first anti-symmetric Lamb wave mode A0 is excited. Using a heterodyne laser interferometer, the scattered field close to the hole during crack growth is monitored. The fatigue crack is initiated and propagated by cyclic tensile loading of the test specimen in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The measurements are compared to finite difference calculations. Good qualitative agreement is found.
Behr, R.; Wanner, A.; Clemens, H.; Glatz, W.
1995-07-01
Room temperature tension-tension fatigue crack growth experiments were performed on single edge notch specimens of Ti-48Al-2Cr sheet materials produced on industrial scale with different microstructures ranging from near gamma to fully lamellar. Crack extension was monitored using a travelling optical microscope and a DC potential method. Crack paths and fracture surfaces were investigated by SEM. Fracture toughness data were determined by monotonic loading of previously fatigued samples.
Application of the cracked pipe element to creep crack growth prediction
Brochard, J.; Charras, T.
1997-04-01
The modification of a computer code for leak before break analysis is very briefly described. The CASTEM2000 code was developed for ductile fracture assessment of piping systems with postulated circumferential through-wall cracks under static or dynamic loading. The modification extends the capabilities of the cracked pipe element to the determination of fracture parameters under creep conditions (C*, {phi}c and {Delta}c). The model has the advantage of evaluating significant secondary effects, such as those from thermal loading.
On the interaction of ultrasound with cracks: Applications to fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buck, O.; Thompson, R. B.; Rehbein, D. K.
1986-01-01
Partial contact of two rough fatigue crack surfaces leads to transmission and diffraction of an acoustic signal at those contacts. Recent experimental and theoretical efforts to understand and quantify such contact in greater detail are discussed. The objective is to develop an understanding of the closure phenomenon and its application to the interpretation of fatigue data, in particular the R-ratio, spike overload/underload and threshold effects on crack propagation.
Influence of load interactions on crack growth as related to state of stress and crack closure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Telesman, J.
1985-01-01
Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) after an application of a low-high loading sequence was investigated as a function of specimen thickness and crack closure. No load interaction effects were detected for specimens in a predominant plane strain state. However, for the plane stress specimens, initially high FCP rates after transition to a higher stress intensity range were observed. The difference in observed behavior was explained by examining the effect of the resulting closure stress intensity values on the effective stress intensity range.
Fatigue Crack Growth in Bodies with Thermally Sprayed Coating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovářík, O.; Haušild, P.; Medřický, J.; Tomek, L.; Siegl, J.; Mušálek, R.; Curry, N.; Björklund, S.
2016-01-01
Many applications of thermally sprayed coatings call for increased fatigue resistance of coated parts. Despite the intensive research in this area, the influence of coating on fatigue is still not completely understood. In this paper, the localization of crack initiation sites and the dynamics of crack propagation are studied. The resonance bending fatigue test was employed to test flat specimens with both sides coated. Hastelloy-X substrates coated with classical thermal barrier coating consisting of yttria stabilized zirconia and NiCoCrAlY layers. The strain distribution on the coating surface was evaluated by the Digital Image Correlation method through the whole duration of the fatigue test. Localization of crack initiation sites and the mode of crack propagation in the coated specimen are related to the observed resonance frequency. The individual phases of specimen degradation, i.e., the changes of material properties, crack initiation, and crack propagation, were identified. The tested coatings strongly influenced the first two phases, and the influence on the crack propagation was less significant. In general, the presented crack detection method can be used as a sensitive nondestructive testing method well suited for coated parts.
Fatigue crack growth monitoring of idealized gearbox spline component using acoustic emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lu; Ozevin, Didem; Hardman, William; Kessler, Seth; Timmons, Alan
2016-04-01
The spline component of gearbox structure is a non-redundant element that requires early detection of flaws for preventing catastrophic failures. The acoustic emission (AE) method is a direct way of detecting active flaws; however, the method suffers from the influence of background noise and location/sensor based pattern recognition method. It is important to identify the source mechanism and adapt it to different test conditions and sensors. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth of a notched and flattened gearbox spline component is monitored using the AE method in a laboratory environment. The test sample has the major details of the spline component on a flattened geometry. The AE data is continuously collected together with strain gauges strategically positions on the structure. The fatigue test characteristics are 4 Hz frequency and 0.1 as the ratio of minimum to maximum loading in tensile regime. It is observed that there are significant amount of continuous emissions released from the notch tip due to the formation of plastic deformation and slow crack growth. The frequency spectra of continuous emissions and burst emissions are compared to understand the difference of sudden crack growth and gradual crack growth. The predicted crack growth rate is compared with the AE data using the cumulative AE events at the notch tip. The source mechanism of sudden crack growth is obtained solving the inverse mathematical problem from output signal to input signal. The spline component of gearbox structure is a non-redundant element that requires early detection of flaws for preventing catastrophic failures. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth of a notched and flattened gearbox spline component is monitored using the AE method The AE data is continuously collected together with strain gauges. There are significant amount of continuous emissions released from the notch tip due to the formation of plastic deformation and slow crack growth. The source mechanism of
T{sub {epsilon}}{sup *} integral under plane stress crack growth
Omori, Yoshika; Ma, Leong; Kobayashi, A.S.; Okada, Hiroshi; Atluri, S.N.
1997-12-01
The T{sub {epsilon}}{sup *} integral values associated with stable crack growth in A606 HSLA steel single-edge-notched (SEN) specimens were determined experimentally and numerically. The displacement fields obtained through Moire interferometry and elastic-plastic finite element analysis were used to evaluate T{sub {epsilon}}{sup *} associated with the moving crack tip. T{sub {epsilon}}{sup *} decreased with the reduction in the size of the integration contour, {Gamma}{sub {epsilon}}, and continually increased with stable crack growth in this specimen. The measured and computed crack-tip opening angle (CTOA), on the other hand, was a constant 15{degree} during stable crack growth after dropping from the measured and computed initial high values of 35 and 57{degree}, respectively.
The effect of texture on the crack growth resistance of alumina
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, Jonathan A.; Shannon, John L., Jr.; Bradt, Richard C.
1987-01-01
The crack growth resistance of a textured, extruded alumina body was compared with that of an isotropic, isopressed body of similar grain size, density, and chemistry. R-curve levels reflected the preferred orientation; however, R-curve slopes (dK sub IR/d Delta a) were the same in all instances, implying a similar crack growth resistive mechanism. Three orthogonal orientations of crack growth in the two structures exhibited similar forms of K sub IR versus Delta-a curves, for which a schematic diagram for polycrystalline ceramics is proposed.
7075-T6 and 2024-T351 Aluminum Alloy Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Wright, Christopher W.; Johnston, William M., Jr.
2005-01-01
Experimental test procedures for the development of fatigue crack growth rate data has been standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Over the past 30 years several gradual changes have been made to the standard without rigorous assessment of the affect these changes have on the precision or variability of the data generated. Therefore, the ASTM committee on fatigue crack growth has initiated an international round robin test program to assess the precision and variability of test results generated using the standard E647-00. Crack growth rate data presented in this report, in support of the ASTM roundrobin, shows excellent precision and repeatability.
Fatigue crack growth in a unidirectional SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kantzos, Peter; Telesman, Jack; Ghosn, Louis
1989-01-01
An investigation was conducted to characterize and model the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite. Part of the study was conducted using a fatigue loading stage mounted inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This unique facility allowed high magnification viewing of the composite fatigue processes and measurement of the near crack tip displacements. The unidirectional composite was tested in the (0)8 (i.e., longitudinal) and (90)8 (i.e., transverse) orientations. For comparison purposes unreinforced matrix material produced by the identical process as the reinforced material was also tested. The results of the study reveal that the fatigue crack growth behavior of the composite is a function of specimen geometry, fiber orientation and the interaction of local stress fields with the highly anisotropic composite. In the case of (0)8 oriented single edge notch (SEN) specimens and (90)8 oriented compact tension (CT) specimens, the crack growth was normal to the loading direction. However, for the (0)8 CT specimens the crack grew mostly parallel to the loading and the fiber direction. The unusual fatigue behavior of the (0)8 CT specimens was attributed to the specimen geometry and the associated high tensile bending stresses perpendicular to the fiber direction. These stresses resulted in preferential cracking in the weak interface region perpendicular to the fiber direction. The interface region, and in particular the carbon coating surrounding the fiber proved to be the composites weakest link. In the (0)8 SEN the crack growth was confined to the matrix leaving behind unbroken fibers which bridged the cracked surfaces. As the crack grew longer, more fibers bridged the crack resulting in a progressive decrease in the crack growth rates and eventual crack arrest. The actual near crack tip displacement measurements were used in a proposed formulation for a bridging-corrected effective crack driving force, delta K(sub eff
SCC crack growth rate of cold worked 316L stainless steel in PWR environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; lu, Hui; Zhang, Lefu; Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian
2015-01-01
Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high growth rate of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack growth rates of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack growth rates more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack growth rate exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack growth rate increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack growth rate followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.
1992-01-01
Several fiber bridging models were reviewed and applied to study the matrix fatigue crack growth behavior in center notched (0)(sub 8) SCS-6/Ti-15-3 and (0)(sub 4) SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V laminates. Observations revealed that fatigue damage consisted primarily of matrix cracks and fiber matrix interfacial failure in the (0)(sub 8) SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates. Fiber-matrix interface failure included fracture of the brittle reaction zone and cracking between the two carbon rich fiber coatings. Intact fibers in the wake of the matrix cracks reduce the stress intensity factor range. Thus, an applied stress intensity factor range is inappropriate to characterize matrix crack growth behavior. Fiber bridging models were used to determine the matrix stress intensity factor range in titanium metal matrix composites. In these models, the fibers in the wake of the crack are idealized as a closure pressure. An unknown constant frictional shear stress is assumed to act along the debond or slip length of the bridging fibers. The frictional shear stress was used as a curve fitting parameter to available data (crack growth data, crack opening displacement data, and debond length data). Large variations in the frictional shear stress required to fit the experimental data indicate that the fiber bridging models in their present form lack predictive capabilities. However, these models provide an efficient and relatively simple engineering method for conducting parametric studies of the matrix growth behavior based on constituent properties.
Influence of cyclic to mean load ratio on creep/fatigue crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimopulos, V.; Nikbin, K. M.; Webster, G. A.
1988-04-01
Crack growth data under combined creep and fatigue loading conditions are presented on a nickel base superalloy and a brittle and ductile low alloy steel. The main variables that have been examined are minimum to maximum load ratio R and frequency. It is shown that at high frequencies transgranular fatigue failure dominates and at low frequencies time dependent mechanisms govern. Where fatigue processes control, it is demonstrated that crack growth/cycle can be described by the Paris law and that the influence of R ratio can be accounted for by crack closure caused by fracture surface roughness, oxidation, and creep and plastic strain developed at the crack tip. At the low frequencies where time dependent processes dominate, it is shown that crack growth can be characterized satisfactorily in terms of the creep fracture mechanics parameter C * using a model of crack extension based on ductility exhaustion in a creep damage zone at the crack tip. This model leads to enhanced resistance to creep/fatigue crack growth with increase in material creep ductility.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leng, Yang; Gangloff, Richard P.
1990-01-01
Understanding the damage tolerance of aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures is essential for safe applications of advanced materials. The objective of this project is to investigate the time dependent subcritical cracking behavior of powder metallurgy FVS0812 and ingot metallurgy 2618 aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures. The fracture mechanics approach was applied. Sidegrooved compact tension specimens were tested at 175, 250, and 316 C under constant load. Subcritical crack growth occurred in each alloy at applied stress intensity levels (K) of between about 14 and 25 MPa/m, well below K (sub IC). Measured load, crack opening displacement and displacement rate, and crack length and growth rate (da/dt) were analyzed with several continuum fracture parameters including, the C-integral, C (sub t), and K. Elevated temperature growth rate data suggest that K is a controlling parameter during time dependent cracking. For FVS0812, da/dt is highest at 175 C when rates are expressed as a function of K. While crack growth rate is not controlled by C (sub t) at 175 C, da/dt appears to better correlate with C (sub t) at higher temperatures. Creep brittle cracking at intermediate temperatures, and perhaps related to strain aging, is augmented by time dependent transient creep plasticity at higher temperatures. The C (sub t) analysis is, however, complicated by the necessity to measure small differences in the elastic crack growth and creep contributions to the crack opening displacement rate. A microstructural study indicates that 2618 and FVS0812 are likely to be creep brittle materials, consistent with the results obtained from the fracture mechanics study. Time dependent crack growth of 2618 at 175 C is characterized by mixed transgranular and intergranular fracture. Delamination along the ribbon powder particle boundaries occurs in FVS0812 at all temperatures. The fracture mode of FVS0812 changes with temperature. At 175 C, it is characterized as dimpled rupture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Rhys; Peng, Daren; Singh Raman, R. K.; Huang, Pu; Tamboli, Dinaz; Matthews, Neil
2015-06-01
This paper focuses on problems associated with aircraft sustainment-related issues and illustrates how cracks, that grow from small naturally occurring material and manufacturing discontinuities in operational aircraft, behave. It also explains how, in accordance with the US Damage Tolerant Design Handbook, the size of the initiating flaw is mandated, e.g. a 1.27-mm-deep semi-circular surface crack for a crack emanating from a cut out in a thick structure, a 3.175-mm-deep semi-circular surface crack in thick structure, etc. It is subsequently shown that, for cracks in (two) full-scale aircraft tests that arose from either small manufacturing defects or etch pits, the use of d a/d N versus ∆ K data obtained from ASTM E647 tests on long cracks to determine the number of cycles to failure from the mandated initial crack size can lead to the life being significantly under-estimated and therefore to an unnecessarily significant increase in the number of inspections, and, hence, a significant cost burden and an unnecessary reduction in aircraft availability. In contrast it is shown that, for the examples analysed, the use of the Hartman-Schijve crack growth equation representation of the small crack d a/d N versus ∆ K data results in computed crack depth versus flight loads histories that are in good agreement with measured data. It is also shown that, for the examples considered, crack growth from corrosion pits and the associated scatter can also be captured by the Hartman-Schijve crack growth equation.
Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.
2011-06-15
Microstructure evolution kinetics in irradiated materials has strongly spatial correlation. For example, void and second phases prefer to nucleate and grow at pre-existing defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and cracks. Inhomogeneous microstructure evolution results in inhomogeneity of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. Therefore, the simulation capability for predicting three dimensional (3-D) microstructure evolution kinetics and its subsequent impact on material properties and performance is crucial for scientific design of advanced nuclear materials and optimal operation conditions in order to reduce uncertainty in operational and safety margins. Very recently the meso-scale phase-field (PF) method has been used to predict gas bubble evolution, void swelling, void lattice formation and void migration in irradiated materials,. Although most results of phase-field simulations are qualitative due to the lake of accurate thermodynamic and kinetic properties of defects, possible missing of important kinetic properties and processes, and the capability of current codes and computers for large time and length scale modeling, the simulations demonstrate that PF method is a promising simulation tool for predicting 3-D heterogeneous microstructure and property evolution, and providing microstructure evolution kinetics for higher scale level simulations of microstructure and property evolution such as mean field methods. This report consists of two parts. In part I, we will present a new phase-field model for predicting interstitial loop growth kinetics in irradiated materials. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) generation, diffusion and recombination, sink strength, long-range elastic interaction, inhomogeneous and anisotropic mobility on microstructure evolution kinetics is taken into account in the model. The model is used to study the effect of elastic interaction on interstitial loop growth kinetics, the interstitial flux, and sink
Three-dimensional crack growth assessment by microtopographic examination
Lloyd, W.R.; Piascik, R.S.
1995-12-31
The initial stage of the stable tearing process in two 2.3 mm sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy M(T) specimens are analyzed using fracture surface microtopography reconstruction techniques. The local crack tip opening angles (CTOA) in the interior of the specimens are determined relative to both crack extension and through-thickness position. The microtopographic analysis of cracks grown in the L-T and T-L orientations reveal that interior CTOA is comparable to those measured on the surface using standard optical analysis methods. Similar to surface CTOA results, interior (mid-thickness) CTOA exhibit a transient behavior; CTOA transitions from high angles, at near crack initiation, to a lower steady-state value of 5 deg. and 4.2 deg. for L-T and T-L, respectively, at crack lengths greater than 1.5mm. Fracture surface topographic projection maps are used to study the evolution of crack front tunneling during the initial stage of the fracture process. Stable tearing initiates at mid-thickness followed by a crack front tunneling process to a depth of approximately 2mm. A brief discussion of the basis of the fracture process reconstruction method is provided and comments on the general utility of microtopographic fracture surface examination for general assessment of elastic-plastic and fully-plastic fracture processes are made.
Effect of fracture surface roughness on shear crack growth
Gross, T.S.; Watt, D.W. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Mendelsohn, D.A. . Dept. of Engineering Mechanics)
1992-12-01
A model of fracture surface interference for Mode I fatigue crack profiles was developed and evaluated. Force required to open the crack faces is estimated from point contact expressions for Mode I stress intensity factor. Force transfer across contacting asperities is estimated and used to calculate Mode II resistance stress intensity factor (applied factor is sum of effective and resistance factors). Electro-optic holographic interferometry was used to measure 3-D displacement field around a Mode I fatigue pre-crack in Al loaded in Mode II shear. Induced Mode I crack face displacements were greater than Mode II displacements. Plane stress shear lip caused displacement normal to surface as the crack faces are displaced. Algorithms are being developed to track the displacements associated with the original coordinate system in the camera. A 2-D boundary element method code for mixed mode I and II loading of a rough crack (sawtooth asperity model) has been completed. Addition of small-scale crack tip yielding and a wear model are completed and underway, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuter, Walter G. (Editor); Underwood, John H. (Editor); Newman, James C., Jr. (Editor)
1990-01-01
The present volume on surface-crack growth modeling, experimental methods, and structures, discusses elastoplastic behavior, the fracture analysis of three-dimensional bodies with surface cracks, optical measurements of free-surface effects on natural surfaces and through cracks, an optical and finite-element investigation of a plastically deformed surface flaw under tension, fracture behavior prediction for rapidly loaded surface-cracked specimens, and surface cracks in thick laminated fiber composite plates. Also discussed are a novel study procedure for crack initiation and growth in thermal fatigue testing, the growth of surface cracks under fatigue and monotonically increasing load, the subcritical growth of a surface flaw, surface crack propagation in notched and unnotched rods, and theoretical and experimental analyses of surface cracks in weldments.
Growth behavior of surface cracks in the circumferential plane of solid and hollow cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, R. G.; Shivakumar, V.
1986-01-01
Experiments were conducted to study the growth behavior of surface fatigue cracks in the circumferential plane of solid and hollow cylinders. In the solid cylinders, the fatigue cracks were found to have a circular arc crack front with specific upper and lower limits to the arc radius. In the hollow cylinders, the fatigue cracks were found to agree accurately with the shape of a transformed semiellipse. A modification to the usual nondimensionalization expression used for surface flaws in flat plates was found to give correct trends for the hollow cylinder problem.
Constant amplitude and post-overload fatigue crack growth behavior in PM aluminum alloy AA 8009
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, A. P.
1991-01-01
A recently developed, rapidly solidified, powder metallurgy, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy, AA 8009, was fatigue tested at room temperature in lab air. Constant amplitude/constant delta kappa and single spike overload conditions were examined. High fatigue crack growth rates and low crack closure levels compared to typical ingot metallurgy aluminum alloys were observed. It was proposed that minimal crack roughness, crack path deflection, and limited slip reversibility, resulting from ultra-fine microstructure, were responsible for the relatively poor da/dN-delta kappa performance of AA 8009 as compared to that of typical IM aluminum alloys.
Constant amplitude and post-overload fatigue crack growth behavior in PM aluminum alloy AA 8009
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, A. P.
1992-01-01
A recently developed, rapidly solidified, powder metallurgy, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy, AA 8009, was fatigue tested at room temperature in lab air. Constant amplitude/constant delta kappa and single spike overload conditions were examined. High fatigue crack growth rates and low crack closure levels compared to typical ingot metallurgy aluminum alloys were observed. It was proposed that minimal crack roughness, crack path delection, and limited slip reversibility, resulting from ultra-fine microstructure, were responsible for the relatively poor da/dN-delta kappa performance of AA 8009 as compared to that of typical IM aluminum alloys.
Domain growth kinetics in stratifying foam films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek
2015-11-01
Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification, which results in a thickness-dependent variation in reflected light intensity, visualized as progressively darker shades of gray. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. We show that the domain expansion dynamics exhibit two distinct growth regimes with characteristic scaling laws. Though several studies have focused on the expansion dynamics of isolated domains that exhibit a diffusion-like scaling, the change in expansion kinetics observed after domains contact with the Plateau border has not been reported and analyzed before.
Nonlinear finite element analysis of crack growth at the interface of rubber-like bimaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaoxiang; Fu, Mingwang; Wang, Xiurong; Liu, Xiaoying
2011-10-01
This paper presents the characteristics of the crack growth at the interface of rubber-rubber and rubber-steel bimaterials under tensile deformation using the non-linear finite element method. By using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS, the J integral calculations are carried out for the initial interface crack in the interfaces in-between two Neo-Hookean materials, two Mooney-Rivlin materials, Neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin rubbers, Neo-Hookean and Polynomial, Mooney-Rivlin and Polynomial, and the Mooney-Rivlin and steel bi-materials. The computational results of the maximum J integral direction around the crack tip illustrate the possible direction of crack growth initiation. Furthermore, it is found that the crack bends to the softer rubber material at a certain angle with the initial crack direction if the crack depth is relatively small. For the crack with a larger depth, the crack propagates to grow along the interface in-between the bimaterials.
Crack healing during molecular-beam-epitaxy growth of GaP/GaAs thin films
Li, Y.; Weatherly, G.C.; Niewczas, M.
2005-07-01
A crack-healing phenomenon occurring during epitaxial growth of GaP films on a GaAs substrate was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The process is driven by a decrease in the surface energy of the cracked film. The results indicate that the fundamental mechanism operating during healing is the deposition and diffusion of Ga and P atoms onto the crack surface in the GaP lattice, combined with self-diffusion of GaAs within the crack tip in the GaAs substrate. This process is not fully completed in the GaP/GaAs system; unhealed crack tips located in the GaAs substrate always remain in the structure. Development of cracks and subsequent crack healing during film growth lead to a decrease in residual stress in the film. New cracks are formed at an equilibrium spacing which increases with increasing film thickness. A modified expression for predicting the relation between crack spacing and film thickness in epitaxial films is proposed.
The Effect of the Laboratory Specimen on Fatigue Crack Growth Rate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, S. C.; Johnston, W. M.; Seshadri, B. R.
2006-01-01
Over the past thirty years, laboratory experiments have been devised to develop fatigue crack growth rate data that is representative of the material response. The crack growth rate data generated in the laboratory is then used to predict the safe operating envelope of a structure. The ability to interrelate laboratory data and structural response is called similitude. In essence, a nondimensional term, called the stress intensity factor, was developed that includes the applied stresses, crack size and geometric configuration. The stress intensity factor is then directly related to the rate at which cracks propagate in a material, resulting in the material property of fatigue crack growth response. Standardized specimen configurations and experimental procedures have been developed for laboratory testing to generate crack growth rate data that supports similitude of the stress intensity factor solution. In this paper, the authors present laboratory fatigue crack growth rate test data and finite element analyses that show similitude between standard specimen configurations tested using the constant stress ratio test method is unobtainable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Z.; Ahmed, M.
1996-04-01
This paper addresses the influence of cyclic stress-induced martensitic transformation on fatigue crack growth rates in metastable austenitic stainless steels. At low applied stress and mean stress values in AISI type 301 stainless steel, fatigue crack growth rate is substantially retarded due to a cyclic stress-induced γ-α' and γ-ɛ martensitic transformation occurring at the crack-tip plastic zone. It is suggested that the transformation products produce a compressive residual stress at the tip of the fatigue crack, which essentially lowers the effective stress intensity and hence retards the fatigue crack growth rate. At high applied stress or mean stress values, fatigue crack growth rates in AISI type 301 steels become almost equal to those of stable AISI type 302 alloy. As the amount of transformed products increases (with an increase in applied or mean stress), the strain-hardening effect brought about by the transformed martensite phase appears to accelerate fatigue crack growth, offsetting the contribution from the compressive residual stress produced by the positive volume change of γ → α' or ɛ transformation.
Modeling and simulation of crack initiation and growth in particulate composites
Kwon, Y.W.; Lee, J.H.; Liu, C.T.
1997-08-01
A micro/macromechanical approach was used to model and simulate crack initiation and crack propagation in particulate composite structures. The approach used both the micromechanical and macromechanical analyses in tandem. The micromechanical analysis was based on a simplified micromechanical model and damage mechanics at the micro-level, and the macromechanical analysis utilized the finite element method. In using these methods, crack initiation and growth in a general shape of composite structure were investigated with an efficient computational effort. It was assumed that a crack initiates and/or propagates when localized damage is saturated. As a result, the crack length was assumed to be the size of the saturated damage zone. Matrix crack initiation and propagation at circular notch tips were simulated using this approach. Modeling and simulation were also conducted for cases of nonuniform particle distribution in particulate composite structures. Predicted results showed a good agreement with the experimental data.
Edge crack growth of thermally aged graphite/polyimide composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, J. B.
1984-01-01
Laminates of Celion 6000/LARC-160 and Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite materials were aged in air at temperatures of 202, 232, 260 and 288 C for various times up to 15,000 hours. Three unidirectional specimen types were studied: short beam shear (SBS), flexure, and 153 mm square panels. The interior region of the square panels exhibited little or no property degradation, whereas both laminate materials degraded and cracked preferentially at the specimen edge perpendicular to the fibers. Using a dye penetrant, the specimens were X-rayed and the crack depth measured as a function of time and temperature. A time temperature superposition of the crack data was successfully performed using an Arrhenius form for the shift factor. A direct correlation was found for edge crack depth and SBS strength for the LARC-160 laminates but the correlation for PMR-15 laminates was more complex.
Crack growth rate in core shroud horizontal welds using two models for a BWR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arganis Juárez, C. R.; Hernández Callejas, R.; Medina Almazán, A. L.
2015-05-01
An empirical crack growth rate correlation model and a predictive model based on the slip-oxidation mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) were used to calculate the crack growth rate in a BWR core shroud. In this study, the crack growth rate was calculated by accounting for the environmental factors related to aqueous environment, neutron irradiation to high fluence and the complex residual stress conditions resulting from welding. In estimating the SCC behavior the crack growth measurements data from a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant are referred to, and the stress intensity factor vs crack depth throughout thickness is calculated using a generic weld residual stress distribution for a core shroud, with a 30% stress relaxation induced by neutron irradiation. Quantitative agreement is shown between the measurements of SCC growth rate and the predictions of the slip-oxidation mechanism model for relatively low fluences (5 × 1024 n/m2), and the empirical model predicted better the SCC growth rate than the slip-oxidation model for high fluences (>1 × 1025 n/m2). The relevance of the models predictions for SCC growth rate behavior depends on knowing the model parameters.
Application of the cracked pipe element to creep crack growth prediction
Brochard, J.; Charras, T.
1997-04-01
Modifications to a computer code for ductile fracture assessment of piping systems with postulated circumferential through-wall cracks under static or dynamic loading are very briefly described. The modifications extend the capabilities of the CASTEM2000 code to the determination of fracture parameters under creep conditions. The main advantage of the approach is that thermal loads can be evaluated as secondary stresses. The code is applicable to piping systems for which crack propagation predictions differ significantly depending on whether thermal stresses are considered as primary or secondary stresses.
Intrinsic fatigue crack growth rates for Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys in vacuum
Slavik, D.C.; Gangloff, R.P.; Starke, E.A. Jr ); Blankenship, C.P. Jr )
1993-08-01
The influences of microstructure and deformation mode on inert environment intrinsic fatigue crack propagation were investigated for Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys AA2090, AA8090, and X2095 compared to AA2024. The amount of coherent shearable [delta][prime] (Al[sub 3]Li) precipitates and extent of localized planar slip deformation were reduced by composition (increased Cu/Li in X2095) and heat treatment (double aging of AA8090). Intrinsic growth rates, obtained at high constant K[sub max] to minimize crack closure and in vacuum to eliminate any environmental effect, were alloy dependent; da/dN varied up to tenfold based on applied [Delta]K or [Delta]K/E. When compared based on a crack tip cyclic strain or opening displacement parameter ([Delta]K/([sigma][sub ys]E)[sup 1/2]), growth rates were equivalent for alloys except X2095-T8 which exhibited unique fatigue crack growth resistance. Tortuous fatigue crack profiles and large fracture surface facets were observed for each Al-Li alloy independent of the precipitates present, particularly [sigma][prime], and the localized slip deformation structure. Reduced fatigue crack propagation rates for X2095 in vacuum are not explained by either residual crack closure or slip reversibility arguments; the origin of apparent slip band facets in a homogeneous slip alloy is unclear. Better understanding of crack tip damage accumulation and fracture surface facet crystallography is required for Al-Li alloys with varying slip localization.
An ultrasonic method for dynamic monitoring of fatigue crack initiation and growth.
Mi, Bao; Michaels, Jennifer E; Michaels, Thomas E
2006-01-01
Attached ultrasonic sensors can detect changes caused by crack initiation and growth if the wave path is directed through the area of critical crack formation. Dynamics of cracks opening and closing under load cause nonlinear modulation of received ultrasonic signals, enabling small cracks to be detected by stationary sensors. A methodology is presented based upon the behavior of ultrasonic signals versus applied load to detect and monitor formation and growth of cracks originating from fastener holes. Shear wave angle beam transducers operating in through transmission mode are mounted on either side of the hole such that the transmitted wave travels through the area of expected cracking. Time shift is linear with respect to load, and is well explained by path changes due to strain combined with wave speed changes due to acoustoelasticity. During subsequent in situ monitoring with unknown loads, the measured time of flight is used to estimate the load, and behavior of the received energy as a function of load is the basis for crack detection. Results are presented from low cycle fatigue tests of several aluminum specimens and illustrate the efficacy of the method in both determining the applied load and monitoring crack initiation and growth. PMID:16454266
Research on fatigue cracking growth parameters in asphaltic mixtures using computed tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braz, D.; Lopes, R. T.; Motta, L. M. G.
2004-01-01
Distress of asphalt concrete pavement due to repeated bending from traffic loads has been a well-recognized problem in Brazil. If it is assumed that fatigue cracking growth is governed by the conditions at the crack tip, and that the crack tip conditions can be characterized by the stress intensity factor, then fatigue cracking growth as a function of stress intensity range Δ K can be determined. Computed tomography technique is used to detect crack evolution in asphaltic mixtures which were submitted to fatigue tests. Fatigue tests under conditions of controlled stress were carried out using diametral compression equipment and repeat loading. The aim of this work is imaging several specimens at different stages of the fatigue tests. In preliminary studies it was noted that the trajectory of a crack was influenced by the existence of voids in the originally unloaded specimens. Cracks would first be observed in the central region of a specimen, propagating in the direction of the extremities. Analyzing the graphics, that represent the fatigue cracking growth (d c/d N) as a function of stress intensity factor (Δ K), it is noticed that the curve has practically shown the same behavior for all specimens at the same level of the static tension rupture stress. The experimental values obtained for the constants A and n (of the Paris-Erdogan Law) present good agreement with the results obtained by Liang and Zhou.
Effect of band-overload on fatigue crack growth rate of HSLA steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abhinay, S. V.; Tenduwe, Om Prakash; Kumar, Ajit; Dutta, K.; Verma, B. B.; Ray, P. K.
2015-02-01
Fatigue crack growth behavior is important parameter of structural materials. This parameters can be used to predict their life, service reliability and operational safety in different conditions. The material used in this investigation is an HSLA steel. In this investigation effect of single overload and band-overload on fatigue crack growth of same steel are studied using compact tension (CT) specimens under mode-I condition and R=0.3. It is observed that overload and band-overload applications resulted retardation on the fatigue crack growth rate in most of the cases. It is also noticed that maximum retardation took place on application of seven successive overload cycles. Application of ten and more overload cycles caused no crack growth retardation.
Chuang, T J; Fuller, Jr, E R; Fields, R J; Chuck, L
1982-05-01
A critical evaluation of the feasibility of obtaining crack growth parameters from bend tests is presented. First derived are the governing differential equations which characterize the time-history of bend test parameters for a given elastic material exhibiting power law crack growth behavior. A numerical solution scheme is then developed which is capable of solving the initial value problem, thus quantitatively assessing the influence of crack growth on the load-displacement output. The results of this analysis indicate that for high N materials (where N is the exponent in the power law crack growth equation) the flexural test method gives a broad error band in N prediction and hence is not a reliable technique. However, it can be used by a designer to quickly screen the new materials with high N values which are potential candidates fot structural application.
Transient Elastodynamic Crack Growth in Functionally Graded Materials
Chalivendra, Vijaya B.
2008-02-15
A generalized elastic solution for an arbitrarily propagating transient crack in Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) is obtained through an asymptotic analysis. The shear modulus and mass density of the FGM are assumed to vary exponentially along the gradation direction. The mode-mixity due to the inclination of property gradient with respect to the propagating crack tip is accommodated in the analysis through superposition of the opening and shear modes. First three terms of out of plane displacement field and its gradients about the crack tip are obtained in powers of radial coordinates, with the coefficients depending on the time rate of change of crack tip speed and stress intensity factors. Using these displacement fields, the effect of transient stress intensity factors and acceleration on synthetic contours of constant out of plane displacement under both opening and mixed mode loading conditions has been studied. These contours show that the transient terms cause significant spatial variation on out of plane displacements around the crack tip. Therefore, in studying dynamic fracture of FGMs, it is appropriate to include the transient terms in the field equations for the situations of sudden variation of stress intensity factor or crack tip velocity.
Effect of thermal aging on the fatigue crack growth behavior of cast duplex stainless steels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Xu-ming; Li, Shi-lei; Zhang, Hai-long; Wang, Yan-li; Wang, Xi-tao
2015-11-01
The effect of thermal aging on the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of Z3CN20?09M cast duplex stainless steel with low ferrite content was investigated in this study. The crack surfaces and crack growth paths were analyzed to clarify the FCG mechanisms. The microstructure and micromechanical properties before and after thermal aging were also studied. Spinodal decomposition in the aged ferrite phase led to an increase in the hardness and a decrease in the plastic deformation capacity, whereas the hardness and plastic deformation capacity of the austenite phase were almost unchanged after thermal aging. The aged material exhibited a better FCG resistance than the unaged material in the near-threshold regime because of the increased roughness-induced crack closure associated with the tortuous crack path and rougher fracture surface; however, the tendency was reversed in the Paris regime because of the cleavage fracture in the aged ferrite phases.
Evaluation of fatigue-crack growth rates by polynomial curve fitting. [Ti alloy plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davies, K. B.; Feddersen, C. E.
1973-01-01
Fundamental characterization of the constant-amplitude fatigue crack propagation is achieved by an analysis of the rate of change of crack length with change in number of applied loading cycles, defining the rate values such that they are consistent with the basic assumption of smoothness and continuity in the fatigue crack growth process. The technique used to satisfy the analytical conditions and minimize the effects of local material anomalies and experimental errors is that of fitting a smooth curve to the entire set of basic data by least square regression. This yields a well-behaved function relating the number of cycles to the crack length. By taking the first derivative of the function, the crack growth rate is obtained for each point. The class of curve fitting functions used in the analysis is the polynomial of degree n.
Corrosion fatigue crack propagation in metals
Gangloff, R.P.
1990-06-01
This review assesses fracture mechanics data and mechanistic models for corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural alloys exposed to ambient temperature gases and electrolytes. Extensive stress intensity-crack growth rate data exist for ferrous, aluminum and nickel based alloys in a variety of environments. Interactive variables (viz., stress intensity range, mean stress, alloy composition and microstructure, loading frequency, temperature, gas pressure and electrode potential) strongly affect crack growth kinetics and complicate fatigue control. Mechanistic models to predict crack growth rates were formulated by coupling crack tip mechanics with occluded crack chemistry, and from both the hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution/film rupture perspectives. Research is required to better define: (1) environmental effects near threshold and on crack closure; (2) damage tolerant life prediction codes and the validity of similitude; (3) the behavior of microcrack; (4) probes and improved models of crack tip damage; and (5) the cracking performance of advanced alloys and composites.
Corrosion fatigue crack propagation in metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangloff, Richard P.
1990-01-01
This review assesses fracture mechanics data and mechanistic models for corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural alloys exposed to ambient temperature gases and electrolytes. Extensive stress intensity-crack growth rate data exist for ferrous, aluminum and nickel based alloys in a variety of environments. Interactive variables (viz., stress intensity range, mean stress, alloy composition and microstructure, loading frequency, temperature, gas pressure and electrode potential) strongly affect crack growth kinetics and complicate fatigue control. Mechanistic models to predict crack growth rates were formulated by coupling crack tip mechanics with occluded crack chemistry, and from both the hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution/film rupture perspectives. Research is required to better define: (1) environmental effects near threshold and on crack closure; (2) damage tolerant life prediction codes and the validity of similitude; (3) the behavior of microcrack; (4) probes and improved models of crack tip damage; and (5) the cracking performance of advanced alloys and composites.
A plane stress finite element model for elastic-plastic mode I/II crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, Mark Anthony
A finite element program has been developed to perform quasi-static, elastic-plastic crack growth simulations. The model provides a general framework for mixed-mode I/II elastic-plastic fracture analysis using small strain assumptions and plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric finite elements. Cracks are modeled explicitly in the mesh. As the cracks propagate, automatic remeshing algorithms delete the mesh local to the crack tip, extend the crack, and build a new mesh around the new tip. State variable mapping algorithms transfer stresses and displacements from the old mesh to the new mesh. The von Mises material model is implemented in the context of a non-linear Newton solution scheme. The fracture criterion is the critical crack tip opening displacement, and crack direction is predicted by the maximum tensile stress criterion at the crack tip. The implementation can accommodate multiple curving and interacting cracks. An additional fracture algorithm based on nodal release can be used to simulate fracture along a horizontal plane of symmetry. A core of plane strain elements can be used with the nodal release algorithm to simulate the triaxial state of stress near the crack tip. Verification and validation studies compare analysis results with experimental data and published three-dimensional analysis results. Fracture predictions using nodal release for compact tension, middle-crack tension, and multi-site damage test specimens produced accurate results for residual strength and link-up loads. Curving crack predictions using remeshing/mapping were compared with experimental data for an Arcan mixed-mode specimen. Loading angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were analyzed. The maximum tensile stress criterion was able to predict the crack direction and path for all loading angles in which the material failed in tension. Residual strength was also accurately predicted for these cases.
Environmental enhancement of creep crack growth in Inconel 718 by oxygen and water vapor
Valerio, P.; Gao, M.; Wei, R.P. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics)
1994-05-15
Inconel 718 alloy is widely used in high temperature applications. Because of its sensitivity to environmentally enhanced crack growth at high temperatures, its use has been limited to modest temperatures (i.e., below 973 K). To improve its performance and to better predict its service life, it is important to develop a better understanding of the processes of crack growth at high temperatures in this alloy. It has been shown that the creep crack growth rates (CCGR) in air are at least two orders of magnitude faster than those in vacuum or inert environments. CCGR were also found to depend strongly on temperature. Fractographic studies showed that crack growth was intergranular in air and in vacuum with brittle appearing grain boundary separation in air and extensive cavity formation in vacuum. The increased CCGR in air has been attributed to the enhancement by oxygen; principally through enhanced cavity nucleation and growth by high-pressure carbon monoxide/dioxide formed by the reactions of oxygen that diffused into the material with the grain boundary carbides. The appropriateness of this mechanism, however, may be questioned by the absence of cavitation on the crack surfaces produced in air. As such the mechanism for crack growth needs to be re-examined. Because of the presence of moisture in air, the possible influence of hydrogen needs to be considered as well. In this study, preliminary experiments were conducted to examine the process of environmentally enhanced creep crack growth in Inconel 718 alloy in terms of possible mechanisms and rate controlling processes. Creep crack growth experiments were carried out in air, oxygen (from 2.67 to 100 kPa), moist argon (water vapor) and pure argon at temperatures from 873 to 973 K.
Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of Inconel 718 Sheet at Cryogenic Temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, Douglas; Wright, Jonathan; Hastings, Keith
2005-01-01
Inconel 718 sheet material was tested to determine fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) at cryogenic conditions representative of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) environment at -423 degree F. Tests utilized M(T) and ESE(T) specimen geometries and environments were either cold gaseous helium or submersion in LH2. The test results support a significant improvement in the fatigue crack growth threshold at -423 degree F compared to -320 degree F or 70 degree F.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raj, Baldev; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Jayakumar, T.
2003-03-01
Acoustic emission (AE) during tensile deformation and fatigue crack growth (FCG) of austenitic stainless steels has been studied. In AISI type 316 stainless steel (SS), AE has been used to detect micro plastic yielding occurring during macroscopic plastic deformation. In AISI type 304 SS, relation of AE with stress intensity factor and plastic zone size has been studied. In AISI type 316 SS, fatigue crack growth has been characterised using acoustic emission.
Statistical modeling of crack growth and reliability assessment of high-density polyethylene
Qureshi, F.S.; Sheikh, A.K.; Khan, Z.; Ahmad, M.
1999-06-01
In this work, a statistical evaluation of the crack-growth process in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was carried out. The specimens were compression molded from virgin, molding-grade HDPE. Edge-notched specimens for replicate fatigue testing were prepared from compression-molded sheets. Fatigue test results were then analyzed, and it is shown that if the crack-growth process can be characterized as a random process following a power-law-type behavior, then the time to reach a critical crack length will be distributed according to an inverted lognormal model.
Large-scale epitaxial growth kinetics of graphene: A kinetic Monte Carlo study
Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai
2015-08-28
Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be C{sub 1}-attachment for concave growth-front segments and C{sub 5}-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.
Influence of high pressure hydrogen on cyclic load crack growth in metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jewett, R. P.; Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.
1978-01-01
The effect of high pressure hydrogen on the crack growth rate of various nickel-base alloys was studied at ambient temperature. Considerable enhancement of the cyclic flaw growth rate was observed for Inconel 718, wrought and cast, and Waspaloy, a nickel-base alloy similar to Inconel 718. Only slight enhancement of the flaw growth rate for Alloy 903 was observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Jin, Hyung-Ha; Kwon, Junhyun; Choi, Min-Jae; Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Ji Hyun
2016-08-01
To investigate the effects of warm rolling on the crack growth of 316L austenitic stainless steel, the crack growth rate was measured and the oxide structure was characterized in high-temperature hydrogenated water. The warm-rolled specimens showed a higher crack growth rate compared to the as-received specimens because the slip bands and dislocations produced during warm rolling served as paths for corrosion and cracking. The crack growth rate increased with the dissolved hydrogen concentration. This may be attributed to the decrease in performance and stability of the protective oxide layer formed on the surface of stainless steel in high-temperature water.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Junhong; Yang, Shuo; Lin, Jiewei
2015-03-01
Fatigue fracture is one of the main failure modes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fracture toughness and crack closure have strong effects on the fatigue crack growth(FCG) rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The FCG rate of Ti-6Al-4V is investigated by using experimental and analytical methods. The effects of stress ratio, crack closure and fracture toughness on the FCG rate are studied and discussed. A modified prediction model of the FCG rate is proposed, and the relationship between the fracture toughness and the stress intensity factor(SIF) range is redefined by introducing a correcting coefficient. Notched plate fatigue tests (including the fracture toughness test and the FCG rate test) are conducted to investigate the influence of affecting factors on the FCG rate. Comparisons between the predicted results of the proposed model, the Paris model, the Walker model, the Sadananda model, and the experimental data show that the proposed model gives the best agreement with the test data particularly in the near-threshold region and the Paris region, and the corresponding calculated fatigue life is also accurate in the same regions. By considering the effects of fracture toughness and crack closure, the novel FCG rate prediction model not only improves the estimating accuracy, but also extends the adaptability of the FCG rate prediction model in engineering.
The influence of stress ratio and temperature on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior of ARALL
Salivar, G.C.; Gardini, C.A. Pratt Whitney Group, West Palm Beach, FL )
1993-01-01
The fatigue crack growth rate behavior of ARALL (aramid-reinforced aluminum laminate) was investigated as a function of stress ratio and temperature. The particular material was ARALL-3, a 7475-T76 aluminum alloy laminate. Tests were conducted for stress ratios of 0.1 and 0.5 at temperatures of 21, 82, and 93 C (70, 180, and 200 F) using a center-cracked panel geometry (measurements were made in English units and converted to SI units). The objective was to examine the contributions of the effects of crack closure and fiber bridging of the crack on the material behavior. Crack closure was monitored throughout the tests using compliance measurements. Fractography was used to investigate the influence of temperature on the integrity of the aluminum to epoxy/fiber bond to try to identify the effects of fiber bridging. Some crack closure, in the traditional metallic material sense, was evident through compliance measurements. However, the crack tip bridging by the fibers appears to be the dominant mechanism influencing the fatigue crack growth rate behavior in this material under these test conditions. Fractography indicates a considerable difference in fiber-bridging behavior between the room temperature and the elevated temperature tests. 19 refs.
Effect of Microstructure on Time Dependent Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior In a P/M Turbine Disk Alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Telesman, Ignacy J.; Gabb, T. P.; Bonacuse, P.; Gayda, J.
2008-01-01
A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern hold time crack growth behavior in the LSHR disk P/M superalloy. Nineteen different heat treatments of this alloy were evaluated by systematically controlling the cooling rate from the supersolvus solutioning step and applying various single and double step aging treatments. The resulting hold time crack growth rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude. It was shown that the associated stress relaxation behavior for these heat treatments was closely correlated with the crack growth behavior. As stress relaxation increased, the hold time crack growth resistance was also increased. The size of the tertiary gamma' in the general microstructure was found to be the key microstructural variable controlling both the hold time crack growth behavior and stress relaxation. No relationship between the presence of grain boundary M23C6 carbides and hold time crack growth was identified which further brings into question the importance of the grain boundary phases in determining hold time crack growth behavior. The linear elastic fracture mechanics parameter, Kmax, is unable to account for visco-plastic redistribution of the crack tip stress field during hold times and thus is inadequate for correlating time dependent crack growth data. A novel methodology was developed which captures the intrinsic crack driving force and was able to collapse hold time crack growth data onto a single curve.
Fracture resistance and fatigue crack growth characteristics of two Al-Cu-Mg-Zr alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, Bhaskar; Lisagor, W. B.
1992-01-01
The dependence of strength, fracture resistance, and fatigue crack growth rate on the aging conditions of two alloy compositions based on Al-3.7Cu-1.85Mg-0.2Mn is investigated. Mechanical properties were evaluated in two heat treatment conditions and in two orientations (longitudinal and transverse). Compact tension specimens were used to determine fatigue crack growth characteristics and fracture resistance. The aging response was monitored on coupons using hardness measurements determined with a standard Rockwell hardness tester. Fracture resistance is found to increase with increasing yield strength during artificial aging of age-hardenable 2124-Zr alloys processed by powder metallurgy techniques. Fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing strength. It is argued that these changes are related to deformation modes of the alloys; a homogeneous deformation mode tends to increase fracture resistance and to decrease the resistance to the fatigue crack propagation rate.
Accelerated Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Effect-Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, R. S.; Newman, J. A.
2002-01-01
Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low (Delta) K, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = K(sub min)/K(sub max)). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of K(sub max) (K(sub max) = 0.4 K(sub IC)). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and K(sub max) influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.
A SMALL-SCALE DAMAGE APPROACH TO PREDICT FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN CERAMIC MATERIALS
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.
2006-05-19
This paper proposes a small-scale damage modeling approach to predict fatigue crack growth in ceramic materials. A fatigue damage model is formulated that uses two variables. One variable is the scalar damage variable governing the reduction of stiffness, and the other is the number of cycles. The damage evolution law is obtained based on thermodynamics of continuous media and a damage criterion containing a damage threshold function that depends on the damage variable and the cyclic loading parameters. The model has been implemented into the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in a modified boundary layer (MBL) modeling approach to analyze fatigue crack growth in a small fracture process zone situated at an initial crack tip. The model application is illustrated through an analysis of fatigue crack growth in an yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia material.
Ye, L.; Afaghi-Khatibi, A.; Mai, Y.W.
1997-12-31
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the residual strength of fiber reinforced metal laminates (FRMLs) and polymer matrix composite laminates (PMCLs) with a circular hole or sharp notch using an effective crack growth model (ECGM). Damage is assumed to initiate when the local normal stress at the hole edge/notch tip reaches the tensile strength or yield strength of the composite and metal layers, respectively. The damage in the constituent materials was modelled by fictitious cracks with cohesive stress acting on the crack surfaces, and the damage growth was simulated by extension of the fictitious cracks step by step and reduction of the cohesive stress with crack opening. The apparent fracture energy of composite layers and fracture toughness of metal layers were used to define the relationships between the tensile/yield strength and the critical crack opening. Based on the global equilibrium, an iterative technique was developed to evaluate the applied load required to produce the damage growth. The residual strength of notched composite laminates was defined by instability of the applied load and damage growth. The effect of hole/notch size on the residual strength was studied and the stress redistribution with damage growth was discussed. The residual strength simulated from ECGM correlated well with experimental data in the open literature.
Determining crystal growth kinetic parameters using optical fibre sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boerkamp, M.; Lamb, D. W.; Lye, P. G.
2012-12-01
The capability of an 'intrinsic exposed core optical fibre sensor' (IECOFS) as a monitoring device of scale formation has been evaluated. The IECOFS has been used to measure kinetics parameters of calcium carbonate heterogeneous crystal growth such as the activation energy, the crystal growth rate and the induction time. The IECOFS was able to evaluate crystal growth inhibition through the use of chemical inhibitors.
Tests and analyses for fully plastic fracture mechanics of plane strain mode I crack growth
McClintock, F.A.; Parks, D.M.; Kim, Y.J.
1995-12-31
Under monotonic loading, structures should ideally be ductile enough to provide continued resistance during crack growth. For fully plastic crack growth in low strength alloys, existing asymptotic solutions for elastic-plastic growing cracks are not applicable because they reach the fracture strain only in regions small compared to the inhomogeneities of the actual fracture process. For the limiting case of non-hardening fully-plastic plane strain crack growth, in a number of geometries and loadings the near-tip fields are characterized in terms of three parameters: an effective angle 2{theta}{sub s} between a pair of slip planes, and the normal stress {sigma}{sub s} and the increment of displacement {delta}u{sub s} across the planes. This three-parameter characterization is in contrast to the one- or two-parameter (K or J and T or Q) characterization in linear or non-linear elastic fracture mechanics. These {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and {delta}u{sub s} parameters are found form the far-field geometries and loadings through slip line fields or least upper bound analyses based on circular arcs. The resulting crack growth, in terms of the crack tip opening angle (CTOA), is a function of {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and the material. The geometry of the crack growing between two moving slip planes emanating from its tip reduces this function to the critical fracture shear strain left behind the slip planes, {gamma}f, as a function of {sigma}{sub s}. {gamma}f({sigma}{sub s}) is found theoretically from a hole initiation and growth model. It is also found from preliminary fully plastic crack growth experiments on unequally grooved specimens with fixed-grip extension or 4-point bending of a 1018 CF steel.
Intrinsic fatigue crack growth rates for Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys in vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slavik, D. C.; Blankenship, C. P., Jr.; Starke, E. A., Jr.; Gangloff, R. P.
1993-01-01
The influences of microstructure and deformation mode on inert environment intrinsic fatigue crack propagation were investigated for Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys AA2090, AA8090, and X2095 compared to AA2024. The amount of coherent shearable delta-prime (Al3Li) precipitates and extent of localized planar slip deformation were reduced by composition (increased Cu/Li in X2095) and heat treatment (double aging of AA8090). Intrinsic growth rates, obtained at high constant K(max) to minimize crack closure and in vacuum to eliminate any environmental effect, were alloy dependent; da/dN varied up to tenfold based on applied Delta-K or Delta-K/E. When compared based on a crack tip cyclic strain or opening displacement parameter, growth rates were equivalent for all alloys except X2095-T8, which exhibited unique fatigue crack growth resistance. Tortuous fatigue crack profiles and large fracture surface facets were observed for each Al-Li alloy independent of the precipitates present, particularly delta-prime, and the localized slip deformation structure. Reduced fatigue crack propagation rates for X2095 in vacuum are not explained by either residual crack closure or slip reversibility arguments; the origin of apparent slip band facets in a homogeneous slip alloy is unclear.
Time-dependent crack growth behavior of alloy 617 and alloy 230 at elevated temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Shawoon Kumar
2011-12-01
Two Ni-base solid-solution-strengthened superalloys: INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230 were studied to check sustained loading crack growth (SLCG) behavior at elevated temperatures appropriate for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) applictaions with constant stress intensity factor (Kmax= 27.75 MPa✓m) in air. The results indicate a time-dependent rate controlling process which can be characterized by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter -- stress intensity factor (K). At elevated temperatures, the crack growth mechanism was best described using a damage zone concept. Based on results and study, SAGBOE (stress accelerated grain boundary oxidation embrittlement) is considered the primary reason for time-dependent SLCG. A thermodynamic equation was considered to correlate all the SLCG results to determine the thermal activation energy in the process. A phenomenological model based on a time-dependent factor was developed considering the previous researcher's time-dependent fatigue crack propagation (FCP) results and current SLCG results to relate cycle-dependent and time-dependent FCP for both alloys. Further study includes hold time (3+300s) fatigue testing and no hold (1s) fatigue testing with various load ratios (R) at 700°C with a Kmax of 27.75 MPa✓m. Study results suggest an interesting point: crack growth behavior is significantly affected with the change in R value in cycle-dependent process whereas in time-dependent process, change in R does not have any significant effect. Fractography study showed intergranular cracking mode for all time-dependent processes and transgranular cracking mode for cycle-dependent processes. In Alloy 230, SEM images display intergranular cracking with carbide particles, dense oxides and dimple mixed secondary cracks for time-dependent 3+300s FCP and SLCG test. In all cases, Alloy 230 shows better crack growth resistance compared to Alloy 617.
Kovárová-Kovar, Karin; Egli, Thomas
1998-01-01
Growth kinetics, i.e., the relationship between specific growth rate and the concentration of a substrate, is one of the basic tools in microbiology. However, despite more than half a century of research, many fundamental questions about the validity and application of growth kinetics as observed in the laboratory to environmental growth conditions are still unanswered. For pure cultures growing with single substrates, enormous inconsistencies exist in the growth kinetic data reported. The low quality of experimental data has so far hampered the comparison and validation of the different growth models proposed, and only recently have data collected from nutrient-controlled chemostat cultures allowed us to compare different kinetic models on a statistical basis. The problems are mainly due to (i) the analytical difficulty in measuring substrates at growth-controlling concentrations and (ii) the fact that during a kinetic experiment, particularly in batch systems, microorganisms alter their kinetic properties because of adaptation to the changing environment. For example, for Escherichia coli growing with glucose, a physiological long-term adaptation results in a change in KS for glucose from some 5 mg liter−1 to ca. 30 μg liter−1. The data suggest that a dilemma exists, namely, that either “intrinsic” KS (under substrate-controlled conditions in chemostat culture) or μmax (under substrate-excess conditions in batch culture) can be measured but both cannot be determined at the same time. The above-described conventional growth kinetics derived from single-substrate-controlled laboratory experiments have invariably been used for describing both growth and substrate utilization in ecosystems. However, in nature, microbial cells are exposed to a wide spectrum of potential substrates, many of which they utilize simultaneously (in particular carbon sources). The kinetic data available to date for growth of pure cultures in carbon-controlled continuous culture
Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar
2010-01-01
The fatigue crack growth process involves damage accumulation and crack extension. The two sub-processes that lead to fatigue crack extension were quantified separately in a recent model for small fatigue crack growth applicable to engineering alloys. Here, we report the results of an experimental investigation to assess the assumptions of that model. The fatigue striation formation in an aluminum alloy is modeled and it is verified that the number of cycles required for striation formation is related to the cyclic crack tip opening displacement and that the striation spacing is related to the monotonic crack tip displacement. It is demonstrated that extensive cyclic crack tip plasticity in the aluminum alloy causes a reduction in the magnitude of the slope of the fatigue crack propagation curves. The implications of these results on the fatigue crack propagation lifetime calculations are identified.
Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Nickel-base Superalloy Haynes 282 at 550-750 °C
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozman, K. A.; Kruzic, J. J.; Hawk, J. A.
2015-08-01
The fatigue crack growth rates for nickel-based superalloy Haynes 282 were measured at temperatures of 550, 650, and 750 °C using compact tension specimens with a load ratio of 0.1 and cyclic loading frequencies of 25 Hz and 0.25 Hz. Increasing the temperature from 550 to 750 °C caused the fatigue crack growth rates to increase from ~20 to 60% depending upon the applied stress intensity level. The effect of reducing the applied loading frequency increased the fatigue crack growth rates from ~20 to 70%, also depending upon the applied stress intensity range. The crack path was observed to be transgranular for the temperatures and frequencies used during fatigue crack growth rate testing. At 750 °C, there were some indications of limited intergranular cracking excursions at both loading frequencies; however, the extent of intergranular crack growth was limited and the cause is not understood at this time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd-Lee, Ashley; King, Julia
1992-07-01
A discrete statistical model of fatigue crack growth in a nickel base superalloy Waspaloy, which is quantitative from the start of the short crack regime to failure, is presented. Instantaneous crack growth rate distributions and persistence of arrest distributions are used to compute fatigue lives and worst case scenarios without extrapolation. The basis of the model is non-material specific, it provides an improved method of analyzing crack growth rate data. For Waspaloy, the model shows the importance of good bulk fatigue crack growth resistance to resist early short fatigue crack growth and the importance of maximizing crack arrest both by the presence of a proportion of small grains and by maximizing grain boundary corrugation.
James, L.A.; Moshier, W.C.
1997-04-01
Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II.
Fatigue crack growth behavior of a solid solution-strengthened nickel-base superalloy (Incoloy 825)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartosiewicz, L.; Krause, A. R.; Spis, A.; Raghavan, J.; Putatunda, S. K.
1992-02-01
Fatigue crack growth behavior of a solid solution-strengthened nickel-base superalloy (Incoloy 825)* was investigated. The investigation also examined the influence of heat treatment on resultant microstructures and the near-threshold fatigue crack growth behavior. In addition, the influence of load ratios (R), material strength, and grain size on fatigue threshold was studied. Compact tension specimens prepared from Incoloy 825 with transverse-longitudinal (TL) orientation in the as-received, as well as two different heat treated conditions, were used. The heat treatment studies revealed a peak hardness condition after solution treatment at 1200 °C for 1/2 hr, followed by aging at 600 °C for 434 hr. Among all the heat treated conditions, the fatigue threshold was the highest and the near-threshold crack growth rate was lowest in this peak aged condition. Fatigue threshold values were observed to decrease with an increase in load ratio, whereas an increased grain diameter resulted in a higher fatigue threshold. An earlier mathematical model was found applicable to characterize the relationship between load ratio and fatigue threshold. Preferential etching of grain boundary suggests formation of a thin film of carbide precipitation along the grain boundary region in the aged specimens. This carbide precipitation facilitated intergranular crack growth in these samples, resulting in higher roughness-induced crack closure. The highest fatigue threshold in the peak aged condition can be attributed to this large roughness-induced crack closure process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckson, R. A.; Ojo, O. A.
2015-01-01
The influence of laser welding on fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a newly developed nickel-base superalloy, Haynes 282 was studied. Laser welding resulted in cracking in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the alloy during welding and FCG test results show that this produces deleterious effect on the fatigue crack growth behavior of Haynes 282. However, two post weld heat treatments, including a new thermal treatment schedule developed in this work, are used to significantly improve the resistance of the Haynes 282 fatigue crack growth after laser welding. The effects of laser welding and thermal treatments are discussed in terms of HAZ cracking and heterogeneity of slip, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzgerald, Alissa Mirella
The creation of micron-sized mechanisms using semiconductor processing technology is known collectively as MEMS, or Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. Many MEMS devices, such as accelerometers and switches, have mechanical structures fabricated from single crystal silicon, a brittle material. The reliability and longevity of these devices depends on minimizing the probability of fracture, and therefore requires a thorough understanding of crack growth phenomena in silicon. In this study, a special micro-machined fracture specimen, the compression-loaded double cantilever beam, was developed to study fracture phenomena in single crystal silicon on a size scale relevant to MEMS. The decreasing stress intensity geometry of this sample provided stable, controllable crack propagation in test sections as thin as 100 mum. Several common MEMS fabrication methods (plasma and chemical etch) were used to achieve a range of surface finishes. A 650 A thick titanium crack gage was used to directly measure crack extension as a function of time using the potential drop technique. High speed (100 MHz) data acquisition techniques were employed to capture fracture events on the sub-microsecond time scale. The stability of the sample design and the micron-scale resolution of the crack gage facilitated investigation into the existence of a stress corrosion effect in silicon. No evidence of sub-critical crack growth due to exposure to humid air was found in carefully controlled tests lasting up to 24 hours. Rapid crack propagation velocities (>1 km/s) during quasi-static loading were recorded using high speed data acquisition techniques. Unique evidence was found of reflected stress waves causing multiple, momentary arrests during rapid fracture events. These measurements, along with atomic force microscope scans of the fracture surfaces, offer new insight into the kinetics of the fracture process in silicon. Over 100 micro-machined samples were fractured in this research. Weibull
Growth model for large branched three-dimensional hydraulic crack system in gas or oil shale.
Chau, Viet T; Bažant, Zdeněk P; Su, Yewang
2016-10-13
Recent analysis of gas outflow histories at wellheads shows that the hydraulic crack spacing must be of the order of 0.1 m (rather than 1 m or 10 m). Consequently, the existing models, limited to one or several cracks, are unrealistic. The reality is 10(5)-10(6) almost vertical hydraulic cracks per fracking stage. Here, we study the growth of two intersecting near-orthogonal systems of parallel hydraulic cracks spaced at 0.1 m, preferably following pre-existing rock joints. One key idea is that, to model lateral cracks branching from a primary crack wall, crack pressurization, by viscous Poiseuille-type flow, of compressible (proppant-laden) frac water must be complemented with the pressurization of a sufficient volume of micropores and microcracks by Darcy-type water diffusion into the shale, to generate tension along existing crack walls, overcoming the strength limit of the cohesive-crack or crack-band model. A second key idea is that enforcing the equilibrium of stresses in cracks, pores and water, with the generation of tension in the solid phase, requires a new three-phase medium concept, which is transitional between Biot's two-phase medium and Terzaghi's effective stress and introduces the loading of the solid by pressure gradients of diffusing pore water. A computer program, combining finite elements for deformation and fracture with volume elements for water flow, is developed to validate the new model.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597791
Crack growth rates of nickel alloy welds in a PWR environment.
Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology
2006-05-31
In light water reactors (LWRs), vessel internal components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. A better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of this cracking may permit less conservative estimates of damage accumulation and requirements on inspection intervals. A program is being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the resistance of Ni alloys and their welds to environmentally assisted cracking in simulated LWR coolant environments. This report presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for Alloy 182 shielded-metal-arc weld metal in a simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment at 320 C. Crack growth tests were conducted on 1-T compact tension specimens with different weld orientations from both double-J and deep-groove welds. The results indicate little or no environmental enhancement of fatigue CGRs of Alloy 182 weld metal in the PWR environment. The CGRs of Alloy 182 in the PWR environment are a factor of {approx}5 higher than those of Alloy 600 in air under the same loading conditions. The stress corrosion cracking for the Alloy 182 weld is close to the average behavior of Alloy 600 in the PWR environment. The weld orientation was found to have a profound effect on the magnitude of crack growth: cracking was found to propagate faster along the dendrites than across them. The existing CGR data for Ni-alloy weld metals have been compiled and evaluated to establish the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on CGRs in PWR environments. The results from the present study are compared with the existing CGR data for Ni-alloy welds to determine the relative susceptibility of the specific Ni-alloy weld to environmentally enhanced cracking.
Silva, V.F. da; Canale, L.F.; Spinelli, D.P.; Bose-Filho, W.W.; Crnkovic, O.R.
1999-10-01
The influence of the amount of retained austenite on short fatigue crack growth and wear resistance in carburized SAE 8620 steel was studied in this article. Different amounts of retained austenite in the microstructure of the carburized case were obtained through different heat treatment routes applied after the carburizing process. The wear tests were carried out using pin on disk equipment. After every 200 turns the weight loss was registered. Four point bend fatigue tests were carried out at room temperature, using three different levels of stress and R = 0.1. Crack length versus number of cycles and crack growth rate versus mean crack length curves were analyzed. In both tests the results showed that the test pieces with higher levels of retained austenite in the carburized case exhibited longer fatigue life and better wear resistance.
CRACK GROWTH RESPONSE OF ALLOY 690 IN SIMULATED PWR PRIMARY WATER
Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.
2009-12-01
The stress corrosion crack growth response of three extruded alloy 690 CRDM tube heats was investigated in several thermomechanical conditions. Extremely low propagation rates (< 1 x 10{sup -9} mm/s) were observed under constant stress intensity factor (K) loading at 325-350 C in the as-received, thermally treated (TT) materials despite using a variety of transitioning techniques. Post-test observation of the crack-growth surfaces revealed only isolated intergranular (IG) cracking. One-dimensional cold rolling to 17% reduction and testing in the S-L orientation did not promote enhanced stress corrosion rates. However, somewhat higher propagation rates were observed in a 30% cold-rolled alloy 690TT specimen tested in the T-L orientation. Cracking of the cold-rolled material was promoted on grain boundaries oriented parallel to the rolling plane with the % IG increasing with the amount of cold rolling.
A novel enriched CB shell element method for simulating arbitrary crack growth in pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuang, Zhuo; Cheng, Binbin
2011-08-01
In this work, a novel numerical method is developed for simulating arbitrary crack growth in pipes with the idea of enriched shape functions which can represent the discontinuity independent of the mesh. The concept of the enriched shape functions is introduced into the continuum-based (CB) shell element. Due to the advantage of CB shell element, the shell thickness variation and surface connection can be concerned during the deformation. The stress intensity factors of the crack in the CB shell element are calculated by using the `equivalent domain integral' method for 3D arbitrary non-planar crack. The maximum energy release rate is used as a propagation criterion. This method is proved able to capture arbitrary crack growth path in pipes which is independent of the element mesh. Numerical examples of different fracture patterns in pipes are presented here.
The influence of blunting on crack growth at oxide/metal interfaces
Mao, S.X.; Evans, A.G.
1997-10-01
The propagation of cracks at certain metal/ceramic interfaces appears to be preceded by tip blunting, caused by the activation of slip in the metal. In such cases, a plausible criterion for crack growth is that the tensile stress on the interface ahead of the crack should reach the strength of the interface bonds. A dislocation model based on this criterion is implemented and extended and then used to compare with experimental results obtained for the Au/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. The comparison proceeds with experimental measurements of the tip blunting, {Delta}, as the parameter that connects to the theory. Simulations of the crack growth resistance achieved using the model are in good accordance with experimental determinations of the steady-state toughness. Moreover, the inferred interface bond strength has reasonable magnitude ({approximately}10 GPa). The model has implications for the effects of segregants and of the environment, through their influence on the bond rupture strength.
Influence of environment on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steel.
Schönbauer, Bernd M; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E
2013-12-01
In the present work, the influence of different environments on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steam turbine blade steel is investigated. Fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) in the near threshold regime are measured with ultrasonic fatigue testing technique. Fatigue tests are performed in vacuum, air and different aqueous environments with defined chloride and oxygen content. Furthermore, the influence of different stress ratios is investigated. It is found that crack propagation is not necessarily enhanced with increasing corrosiveness. In the aqueous environments, the FCGRs below 10⁻⁸ m/cycle are lower than in air. The threshold stress intensity factor ranges are higher or equal. Observation of the fracture surfaces shows oxide formation and partly intergranular fracture for specimens tested in aqueous environments. Crack closure effects seem to be responsible for this unexpected behaviour. PMID:23490013
Development of a Fatigue Crack Growth Coupon for Highly Plastic Stress Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, Phillip A.; Aggarwal, Pravin K.; Swanson, Gregory R.
2003-01-01
The analytical approach used to develop a novel fatigue crack growth coupon for highly plastic stress field condition is presented in this paper. The flight hardware investigated is a large separation bolt that has a deep notch, which produces a large plastic zone at the notch root when highly loaded. Four test specimen configurations are analyzed in an attempt to match the elastic-plastic stress field and crack constraint conditions present in the separation bolt. Elastic-plastic finite element analysis is used to compare the stress fields and critical fracture parameters. Of the four test specimens analyzed, the modified double-edge notch tension - 3 (MDENT-3) most closely approximates the stress field, J values, and crack constraint conditions found in the flight hardware. The MDENT-3 is also most insensitive to load misalignment and/or load redistribution during crack growth.
Numerical investigation on the geometry dependence of the crack growth resistance in CT specimens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shan, G. X.; Kolednik, O.; Fischer, F. D.
1994-03-01
The influence of the specimen thickness B and the ligament length b on the J(sub R)-curves is numerically investigated for CT specimens. The thickness effect is taken into account with 2-D analyses by dividing a plain sided specimen into a plane stress part and a plane strain part. The fracture process is controlled by experimentally determined critical values of the crack tip opening displacement for crack growth initiation (CTOD(sub i)) and the crack tip opening angle for stable crack growth (CTOA(sub C)). It is shown that for the global behavior of a plain sided specimen, the B/b ratio is essential. The difference between the geometry dependence of the initiation value of the J-integral and the geometry dependence of the slope of the J(sub R)-curves is also shown.
Modeling crack growth during Li insertion in storage particles using a fracture phase field approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinsmann, Markus; Rosato, Daniele; Kamlah, Marc; McMeeking, Robert M.
2016-07-01
Fracture of storage particles is considered to be one of the major reasons for capacity fade and increasing power loss in many commercial lithium ion batteries. The appearance of fracture and cracks in the particles is commonly ascribed to mechanical stress, which evolves from inhomogeneous swelling and shrinkage of the material when lithium is inserted or extracted. Here, a coupled model of lithium diffusion, mechanical stress and crack growth using a phase field method is applied to investigate how the formation of cracks depends on the size of the particle and the presence or absence of an initial crack, as well as the applied flux at the boundary. The model shows great versatility in that it is free of constraints with respect to particle geometry, dimension or crack path and allows simultaneous observation of the evolution of lithium diffusion and crack growth. In this work, we focus on the insertion process. In particular, we demonstrate the presence of intricate fracture phenomena, such as, crack branching or complete breakage of storage particles within just a single half cycle of lithium insertion, a phenomenon that was only speculated about before.
Lee, S. Y.; Choo, Hahn; Liaw, Peter K; An, Ke; Hubbard, Camden R
2011-01-01
The combined effects of overload-induced enlarged compressive residual stresses and crack tip blunting with secondary cracks are suggested to be responsible for the observed changes in the crack opening load and resultant post-overload transient crack growth behavior [Lee SY, Liaw PK, Choo H, Rogge RB, Acta Mater 2010;59:485-94]. In this article, in situ neutron diffraction experiments were performed to quantify the influence of the combined effects by investigating the internal-stress evolution at various locations away from the crack tip. In the overload-retardation period, stress concentration occurs in the crack blunting region (an overload point) until a maximum crack arrest load is reached. The stress concentration is then transferred from the blunting region to the propagating crack tip (following the overload), requiring a higher applied load, as the closed crack is gradually opened. The transfer phenomena of the stress concentration associated with a crack opening process account for the nonlinearity of strain response in the vicinity of the crack tip. The delaying action of stress concentration at the crack tip is understood in conjunction with the concept of a critical stress (i.e. the stress required to open the closed crack behind the crack tip). A linear relationship between {Delta}{var_epsilon}{sub eff} and {Delta}K{sub eff} provides experimental support for the hypothesis that {Delta}K{sub eff} can be considered as the fatigue crack tip driving force.
Cancer Progression and Tumor Growth Kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blagoev, Krastan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wilkerson, Julia; Sprinkhuizen, Sara; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bates, Susan; Rosen, Bruce; Fojo, Tito
2013-03-01
We present and analyze tumor growth data from prostate and brain cancer. Scaling the data from different patients shows that early stage prostate tumors show non-exponential growth while advanced prostate and brain tumors enter a stage of exponential growth. The scaling analysis points to the existence of cancer stem cells and/or massive apoptosis in early stage prostate cancer and that late stage cancer growth is not dominated by cancer stem cells. Statistical models of these two growth modes are discussed. Work supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health
Prediction of Crack Growth under Variable-Amplitude Loading in Thin-Sheet 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1997-01-01
The present paper is concerned with the application of a "plasticity-induced" crack closure model to study fatigue crack growth under various load histories. The model was based on the Dugdale model but modified to leave plastically deformed material in the wake of the advancing crack. The model was used to correlate crack growth rates under constant-amplitude loading and then used to predict crack growth under variable-amplitude and spectrum loading on thin-sheet 2024- T3 aluminum alloys. Predicted crack-opening stresses agreed well with test data from the literature. The crack-growth lives agreed within a factor of two for single and repeated spike overloads/underloads and within 20 percent for spectrum loading. Differences were attributed to fretting-product-debris-induced closure and three-dimensional affects not included in the model.
Fatigue crack growth analyses and experimental verification of aerospace threaded fasteners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, Kirk William
Because fatigue crack growth in a threaded fastener can cause the loss of an aircraft, damage tolerant analyses are required. Therefore, aerospace designers must be able to perform accurate crack growth analyses on fasteners. However, threaded fasteners are difficult to analyze and fastener fatigue crack growth data is scant, especially for non-dimensionalized crack depths of (a/d) < 0.1. The objective of this research is to determine the stress intensity multiplication factor (Y), as a function of a/d, in the threads of a nut loaded, aerospace, roll-threaded bolt under tensile fatigue conditions as a/d approaches zero. Y(a/d) can then be used to improve the accuracy of fatigue crack growth life estimations. The research objectives were achieved through bolt material characterization, cyclic testing, and numeric modeling. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the residual stress within the thread root of the test bolts. Unflawed and flawed aerospace bolts were fatigue tested at a maximum stress (S) ranging from the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) to the surface endurance limit of the test bolt and loading ratios of 0.1 < R < 0.9. The following data was collected: cycles to failure (N f), fracture surface striation spacing, and crack front shape. The numeric studies accounted for residual stress. The fracture analysis code, FRANC3D, was used because it could predict crack front shape and stress intensity factor (K). The thread root, residual compressive stress reached 65% of the material UTS. The S-Nf plots showed test bolt fatigue strength decreased as R decreased and 10% reduction in allowable fatigue stress due to flaws. The shape of the crack front in the unflawed and flawed stainless steel, test bolts were different and both changed as the crack grew. The developed numeric models also predicted a changing crack front and the stress intensity factor. By curve fitting the numeric and experimental data, a new Y(a/d) solution was determined. The use of this Y
Caton, M.J.; Jones, J.W.; Boileau, J.M.; Allison, J.E.
1999-12-01
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of solidification rate on the growth behavior of small fatigue cracks in a 319-type aluminum alloy, a common Al-Si-Cu alloy used in automotive castings. Fatigue specimens were taken from cast material that underwent a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process in order to eliminate shrinkage pores and to facilitate the observation of surface-initiated cracks by replication. Naturally initiated surface cracks ranging in length from 17 {micro}m to 2 mm were measured using a replication technique. Growth rates of the small cracks were calculated as a function of the elastic stress-intensity-factor range ({Delta}K). Long-crack growth-rate data (10 mm {le} length {le} 25 mm) were obtained from compact-tension (CT) specimens, and comparison to the small-crack data indicates the existence of a significant small-crack effect in this alloy. The solidification rate is shown to have a significant influence on small-crack growth behavior, with faster solidification rates resulting in slower growth rates at equivalent {Delta}K levels. A stress-level effect is also observed for both solidification rates, with faster growth rates occurring at higher applied-stress amplitudes at a given {Delta}K. A crack-growth relation proposed by Nisitani and others is modified to give reasonable correlation of small-crack growth data to different solidification rates and stress levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caton, M. J.; Jones, J. Wayne; Boileau, J. M.; Allison, J. E.
1999-12-01
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of solidification rate on the growth behavior of small fatigue cracks in a 319-type aluminum alloy, a common Al-Si-Cu alloy used in automotive castings. Fatigue specimens were taken from cast material that underwent a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process in order to eliminate shrinkage pores and to facilitate the observation of surface-initiated cracks by replication. Naturally initiated surface cracks ranging in length from 17 µm to 2 mm were measured using a replication technique. Growth rates of the small cracks were calculated as a function of the elastic stress-intensity-factor range (Δ K). Long-crack growth-rate data (10 mm≤length≤25 mm) were obtained from compact-tension (CT) specimens, and comparison to the small-crack data indicates the existence of a significant small-crack effect in this alloy. The solidification rate is shown to have a significant influence on small-crack growth behavior, with faster solidification rates resulting in slower growth rates at equivalent Δ K levels. A stress-level effect is also observed for both solidification rates, with faster growth rates occurring at higher applied-stress amplitudes at a given Δ K. A crack-growth relation proposed by Nisitani and others is modified to give reasonable correlation of small-crack growth data to different solidification rates and stress levels.
Stress-corrosion fatigue-crack growth in a Zr-based bulk amorphousmetal
Schroeder, V.; Ritchie, R.O.
2005-09-21
Electrochemical and mechanical experiments were conducted to analyze the environmentally-influenced cracking behavior of a bulk amorphous metal, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5. This study was motivated by a scientific interest in mechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation in an amorphous metal, and by a practical interest in the use of this amorphous metal in applications that take advantage of its unique properties, including high specific strength, large elastic strains and low damping. The objective of the work was to determine the rate and mechanisms of subcritical crack growth in this metallic glass in an aggressive environment. Specifically, fatigue-crack propagation behavior was investigated at a range of stress intensities in air and aqueous salt solutions by examining the effects of loading cycle, stress-intensity range, solution concentration, anion identity, solution de-aeration, and bulk electrochemical potential. Results indicate that crack growth in aqueous solution in this alloy is driven by a stress-assisted anodic reaction at the crack tip. Rate-determining steps for such behavior are reasoned to be electrochemical, stress-dependent reaction at near-threshold levels, and mass transport at higher (steady-state) growth rates.
Richey, E. III; Wilson, A.W.; Pope, J.M.; Gangloff, R.P.
1994-09-01
The emphasis of the second phase of this research project has been to develop a single computer program that would establish the foundation to incorporate deleterious environmental effects on fatigue crack propagation laws into NASA FLAGRO. The program was the result of team research projects conducted by three undergraduates in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at University of Virginia. Known methods to interpolate and potentially extrapolate environmental fatigue crack propagation (FCP) data were emphasized, including linear superposition and empirical curve-fitting descriptions of fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) versus applied or effective stress intensity range (delta K). This program contains elements that were extracted from the NASA FLAGRO source code, particularly library data on material fatigue and fracture properties, as well as the Forman equations for calculations on fatigue crack growth rate versus stress intensity relationships, including the effect of crack closure. The program was written in Fortran and is executed by entering MENU from the DOS prompt on an IBM-compatible personal computer. The user can then select one of the following three options that resulted from each undergraduate project. The projects are as follows: Digitization of Crack Growth Rate Data, Interpolation Modeling of Environmental FCP Data, and Linear Superposition Modeling of Environmental FCP Data. Example calculations demonstrating each element of the program are presented in several appendices to this report.
Effects of hydrogen on electropotential monitoring of stress corrosion crack growth
Thompson, C.D.; Carey, D.M.; Perazzo, N.L.
1997-08-01
Electropotential monitoring (EPM) has a crack growth measurement resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than methods that rely on crack mouth opening displacement. However, two phenomena have been identified that compromise the accuracy of the EPM technique. Coolant hydrogen concentrations above those needed to chemically reduce nickel oxide to metallic nickel cause EPM to underestimate the true crack length. The metallic nickel provides an electrical conduction path at contact points across the irregular crack surface thereby lowering the EPM potential. The coolant hydrogen concentration at which this reduction occurs is temperature dependent and correlates with an abrupt decrease in the rate of SCC crack growth. It was also found that EPM can indicate large crack growth when none actually exists. At temperatures > 315 C (600 F) the electrical resistivity of mill annealed Alloy 600 increased by as much as 5% in a period of weeks or months. Each 1% increase in resistivity results in a bias in the EPM indicated cracklength of about 0.2 mm (0.008 inches). Smaller changes in the electrical resistivity of other alloys have been measured which rank as EN52> X-750> 304SS> nickel. It has been shown that these resistivity changes occur during exposure to high temperature water or inert gas. Strategies to minimize the effects of these two phenomena on EPM measurement are discussed.
Sustained load crack growth design data for Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy tanks containing hydrazine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, J. C.; Kenny, J. T.
1976-01-01
Sustained load crack growth data for Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy in hydrazine per MIL-P-26536 and refined hydrazine are presented. Fracture mechanics data on crack growth thresholds for heat-treated forgings, aged and unaged welds, and aged and unaged heat-affected zones are reported. Fracture mechanics design curves of crack growth threshold stress intensity versus temperature are generated from 40 to 71 C.
Goel, V.S.
1986-01-01
Various papers on corrosion cracking are presented. The topics addressed include: unique case studies on hydrogen embrittlement failures in components used in aeronautical industry; analysis of subcritical cracking in a Ti-5Al-2.5Sn liquid hydrogen control valve; corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy; effects of salt water environment and loading frequency on crack initiation in 7075-T7651 aluminum alloy and Ti-6Al-4V; stress corrosion cracking of 4340 steel in aircraft ignition starter residues. Also discussed are: stress corrosion cracking of a titanium alloy in a hydrogen-free environment; automation in corrosion fatigue crack growth rate measurements; the breaking load method, a new approach for assessing resistance to growth of early stage stress corrosion cracks; stress corrosion cracking properties of 2090 Al-Li alloy; repair welding of cracked free machining Invar 36; radial bore cracks in rotating disks.
Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce G.; Zanganehgheshlaghi, Mohannad
2014-01-01
The research results described in this paper presents a new understanding of the behavior of fatigue crack growth in the threshold region. It is believed by some crack growth experts that the ASTM load shedding test method does not produce true or valid threshold properties. The concern involves the observed fanning of threshold region da/dN data plots for some materials in which the low R-ratio data fans out or away from the high R-ratio data. This data fanning or elevation of threshold values is obviously caused by an increase in crack closure in the low R-ratio tested specimens. This increase in crack closure is assumed by some investigators to be caused by a plastic wake on the crack surfaces that was created during the load shedding test phase. This study shows that the increase in crack closure is the result of an extensive occurrence of crack bifurcation behavior in some materials, particularly in aluminum alloys, when the crack tip cyclic yield zone size becomes less than the grain size of the alloy. This behavior is related to the high stacking fault energy (SFE) property of aluminum alloys which results in easier slip characteristics. Therefore, the particular fanning behavior in aluminum alloys is a function of intrinsic dislocation property of the materials and that the fanned data represents valid material properties. However, for corrosion sensitive steel alloys used in this study the fanning was caused by a build-up of iron oxide at the crack tip from fretting corrosion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, L. R.; Finger, R. W.
1972-01-01
This experimental program was divided into two parts. The first part evaluated stress corrosion cracking in 2219-T87 aluminum and 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI) titanium alloy plate and weld metal. Both uniform height double cantilever beam and surface flawed specimens were tested in environments normally encountered during the fabrication and operation of pressure vessels in spacecraft and booster systems. The second part studied compatibility of material-environment combinations suitable for high energy upper stage propulsion systems. Surface flawed specimens having thicknesses representative of minimum gage fuel and oxidizer tanks were tested. Titanium alloys 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI), 6Al-4V annealed, and 6Al-4V STA were tested in both liquid and gaseous methane. Aluminum alloy 2219 in the T87 and T6E46 condition was tested in fluorine, a fluorine-oxygen mixture, and methane. Results were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.
Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe - a kinetic analysis
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in unsalted and salted (3%) salmon roe. Growth curves, developed using inoculated samples incubated at constant temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C, were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baran...
Kinetic Analysis of Spontaneous Whisker Growth on Pre-treated Surfaces with Weak Oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Chien-Hao; Chen, Hao; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Cheng Yi; Ku, Ching-Shun; Wu, Albert T.
2014-09-01
This study sought to clarify the relationship between cracks in surface oxide layers and the growth behavior of tin whiskers. The number, length, and total volume of extrusions were precisely calculated and residual stress was measured using synchrotron radiation x-ray diffractometry. The aim was to elucidate the influence of stress on the driving force and flux involved in atomic diffusion. The distance between weak spots was shown to be the most significant factor involved in the growth of whiskers. The results could explain why increasing the density of the surface weak spots could reduce the number of long whiskers. Measuring the dimensions of whiskers yielded a precise kinetic model capable of describing the migration of atoms to the root of whiskers, resulting in their spontaneous growth.
The influence of temperature on fatigue crack growth in a mill annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, R. P.; Ritter, D. L.
1972-01-01
To study the influence of temperature on the rate of fatigue crack growth in high strength metal alloys, constant load amplitude fatigue crack growth experiments were carried out using a .25-in.-thick mill annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate. The rates of fatigue crack growth were determined as a function of temperature, ranging from room temperature to about 290 C, and as a function of the crack tip stress intensity factor in a dehumidified high purity argon environment. Limited correlative experiments were carried out in distilled water, dehumidified oxygen and hydrogen, and in vacuum. The results indicate that the rate of fatigue crack growth is essentially independent of test temperature in this alloy, and is affected by residual moisture in very small concentrations. Companion fractographic examinations suggest that the mechanims for fatigue crack growth in the various environments are essentially the same.
The influence of temperature on fatigue-crack growth in a mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, R. P.; Ritter, D. L.
1971-01-01
To understand the influence of temperature on the rate of fatigue crack growth in high strength metal alloys, constant load amplitude fatigue crack growth experiments were carried out using a 1/4 inch thick (6.35 mm) mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate as a model material. The rates of fatigue crack growth were determined as a function of temperature, ranging from room temperature to about 290 C and as a function of the crack tip, stress intensity factor K, in dehumidified high purity argon environment. The dependence of the rate of fatigue crack growth on K appears to be separable into two regions. The transition correlates with changes in both the microscopic and macroscopic appearances of the fracture surfaces, and suggests a change in the mechanism and the influence of microstructure on fatigue crack growth.
Somerday, Brian P.; Barney, Monica
2014-12-04
We measured the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for SA516 Grade 70 steel as a function of stress-intensity factor range (ΔK) and load-cycle frequency to provide life-prediction data relevant to pressure swing adsorber (PSA) vessels. For ΔK values up to 18.5 MPa m^{1/2}, the baseline da/dN versus ΔK relationship measured at 1Hz in 2.8 MPa hydrogen gas represents an upper bound with respect to crack growth rates measured at lower frequency. However, at higher ΔK values, we found that the baseline da/dN data had to be corrected to account for modestly higher crack growth rates at the lower frequencies relevant to PSA vessel operation.
Somerday, Brian P.; Barney, Monica
2014-12-04
We measured the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for SA516 Grade 70 steel as a function of stress-intensity factor range (ΔK) and load-cycle frequency to provide life-prediction data relevant to pressure swing adsorber (PSA) vessels. For ΔK values up to 18.5 MPa m1/2, the baseline da/dN versus ΔK relationship measured at 1Hz in 2.8 MPa hydrogen gas represents an upper bound with respect to crack growth rates measured at lower frequency. However, at higher ΔK values, we found that the baseline da/dN data had to be corrected to account for modestly higher crack growth rates at the lower frequenciesmore » relevant to PSA vessel operation.« less
Comparison of two computer codes for crack growth analysis: NASCRAC versus NASA/FLAGRO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallworth, Roderick; Meyers, Charles A.; Stinson, Helen C.
1988-01-01
The service life calculations of two computer codes, NASCRAC and NASA/FLAGRO, are compared. The analysis technique is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), in which stresses remain below the yield strength of an elastic/plastic material. To perform service life calculations, a relationship expressing incremental crack growth, DA/DN, as a function of loading, geometry, and material properties is necessary. Load and geometry are expressed in terms of the cyclic stress intensity factor, delta K. The crack growth rate as a function of delta K is then determined by material tests, plotting DA/DN versus delta K for the given material, loading condition, and environment. Crack growth rate equations such as the Paris, Walker, and modified Forman equations are used to obtain a best fit curve to the laboratory DA/DN versus delta K data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fusheng; Pzinz, R.; Zichy, J. H.
1993-04-01
The heat-moisture effect on interlaminar fracture toughness of T300/914C graphite/epoxy unidirectional composite laminates is investigated under mode I opening loading witb DCB specimen. The fracture toughness in moisture-heat conditioning increases, and the glass transition temperature decreases. SEM fractographs revealed no discernible difference in the fracture surface morphology of moisture-heat and dry conditioned specimens. No fiber bridging occurs in the testing. Delamination fatigue crack growth experiments are carried out on T300/914C graphite/epoxy unidirectional laminates. It is found that the mode I cyclic crack growth rate yields a power low relationship between da/dN and the maximum cyclic strain energy release rate. The crack growth rate of the moisture-heat conditioned specimen is lower than that of the dry conditioned. The environmental effects are explained on the basis of fractography and fracture mechanisms and fracture mechanics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, D. L.; Poulose, P. K.; Liebowitz, H.
1976-01-01
The effect of subcritical crack growth on the geometry dependence of nonlinear fracture toughness parameters was studied by comparing the toughness values for different specimen geometries at the onset of subcritical crack growth and at the initiation of unstable crack propagation. Center-cracked thin sheet specimens of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloys were tested by varying the specimen length L, width w, and crack length-to-width ratio c/w. When the onset of unstable crack propagation was selected as the critical point, the nonlinear energy toughness and the R curve toughness increased with increasing w and decreasing L and c/w. However, when the onset of subcritical crack growth was taken as the critical point, energy toughness and the linear toughness values were independent of these geometrical variables.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikishkov, G. P.; Park, J. H.; Atluri, S. N.
2001-01-01
The highly accurate and efficient Symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method (SGBEM), a Finite Element Method (FEM)-based alternating method, is proposed for analyzing three-dimensional non-planar cracks and their growth. The cracks are modeled using the symmetric Galerkin boundary element method as a distribution of displacement discontinuities, simulating an infinite medium. The finite element method only analyzes the stress for the uncracked body. The solution for the cracked structural component is determined by an iteration procedure. This process alternates between an FEM solution for the uncracked body and the SGBEM solution for a crack in an infinite body. Numerical analysis, and the Java code used, evaluate stress intensity factors and model fatigue crack growth. Examples of non-planar cracks in infinite media and planar cracks in finite bodies, as well as growth under fatigue, show the accuracy of the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duran, Jorge Alberto Rodriguez; Boloy, Ronney Mancebo; Leoni, Rafael Raider
2015-09-01
The well-known fatigue crack growth (FCG) curves are two-parameter dependents. The range of the stress intensity factor Δ K and the load ratio R are the parameters normally used for describing these curves. For engineering purposes, the mathematical representation of these curves should be integrated between the initial and final crack sizes in order to obtain the safety factors for stresses and life. First of all, it is necessary to reduce the dependence of the FCG curves to only one parameter. Δ K is almost always selected and, in these conditions, considered as the crack driving force. Using experimental data from literature, the present paper shows how to perform multiple regression analyses using the traditional Walker approach and the more recent unified approach. The correlations so obtained are graphically analyzed in three dimensions. Numerical examples of crack growth analysis for cracks growing under nominal stresses of constant amplitude in smooth and notched geometries are performed, assuming an identical material component as that of the available experimental data. The resulting curves of crack size versus number of cycles ( a vs. N) are then compared. The two models give approximately the same ( a vs. N) curves in both geometries. Differences between the behaviors of the ( a vs. N) curves in smooth and notched geometries are highlighted, and the reasons for these particular behaviors are discussed.
Observations of fatigue crack initiation and damage growth in notched titanium matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naik, Rajiv A.; Johnson, W. S.
1991-01-01
The purpose was to characterize damage initiation and growth in notched titanium matrix composites at room temperature. Double edge notched or center open hole SCS-6/Ti-15-3 specimens containing 0 deg plies or containing both 0 and 90 deg plies were fatigued. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated (ASF) and in heat-treated conditions. A local strain criterion using unnotched specimen fatigue data was successful in predicting fatigue damage initiation. The initiation stress level was accurately predicted for both a double edge notched unidirectional specimen and a cross-plied center hole specimen. The fatigue produced long multiple cracks growing from the notches. These fatigue cracks were only in the matrix material and did not break the fibers in their path. The combination of matrix cracking and fiber/matrix debonding appears to greatly reduce the stress concentration around the notches. The laminates that were heat treated showed a different crack growth pattern. In the ASF specimens, matrix cracks had a more tortuous path and showed considerable more crack branching. For the same specimen geometry and cyclic stress, the (0/90/0) laminate with a hole had far superior fatigue resistance than the matrix only specimen with a hole.
Observations of fatigue crack initiation and damage growth in notched titanium matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naik, R. A.; Johnson, W. S.
1990-01-01
The purpose was to characterize damage initiation and growth in notched titanium matrix composites at room temperature. Double edge notched or center open hole SCS-6/Ti-15-3 specimens containing 0 deg plies or containing both 0 and 90 deg plies were fatigued. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated (ASF) and in heat-treated conditions. A local strain criterion using unnotched specimen fatigue data was successful in predicting fatigue damage initiation. The initiation stress level was accurately predicted for both a double edge notched unidirectional specimen and a cross-plied center hole specimen. The fatigue produced long multiple cracks growing from the notches. These fatigue cracks were only in the matrix material and did not break the fibers in their path. The combination of matrix cracking and fiber/matrix debonding appears to greatly reduce the stress concentration around the notches. The laminates that were heat treated showed a different crack growth pattern. In the ASF specimens, matrix cracks had a more tortuous path and showed considerable more crack branching. For the same specimen geometry and cyclic stress, the (0/90/0) laminate with a hole had far superior fatigue resistance than the matrix only specimen with a hole.
Crack Initiation and Growth in Rigid Polymeric Closed-Cell Foam Cryogenic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sayyah, Tarek; Steeve, Brian; Wells, Doug
2006-01-01
Cryogenic vessels, such as the Space Shuttle External Tank, are often insulated with closed-cell foam because of its low thermal conductivity. The coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the foam and metallic substrate places the foam under a biaxial tension gradient through the foam thickness. The total foam thickness affects the slope of the stress gradient and is considered a significant contributor to the initiation of subsurface cracks. Rigid polymeric foams are brittle in nature and any subsurface cracks tend to propagate a finite distance toward the surface. This presentation investigates the relationship between foam thickness and crack initiation and subsequent crack growth, using linear elastic fracture mechanics, in a rigid polymeric closed-cell foam through analysis and comparison with experimental results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
2002-01-01
The life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the strength versus In (stress rate) relation was found to be very reasonable for most of the materials. It was also found that preloading technique was equally applicable for the case of slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n > 30. The major limitation in the exponential crack velocity formulation, however, was that an inert strength of a material must be known priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared to the conventional power-law crack velocity formulation.
Review of environmental effects on fatigue crack growth of austenitic stainless steels
Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.
1994-05-01
Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessel cladding, and core components in light water reactors are potential concerns to the nuclear industry and regulatory agencies. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or stress corrosion cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Crack growth data for wrought and cast austenitic SSs in simulated BWR water, developed at Argonne National Laboratory under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship over the past 10 years, have been compiled into a data base along with similar data obtained from the open literature. The data were analyzed to develop corrosion-fatigue curves for austenitic SSs in aqueous environments corresponding to normal BWR water chemistries, for BWRs that add hydrogen to the feedwater, and for pressurized water reactor primary-system-coolant chemistry.
Effects of Aqueous Solutions on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.
2016-01-01
The slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of soda-lime-silicate were measured in distilled and saltwater of various concentrations in order to determine if the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film affects stress corrosion susceptibility. Past research indicates that solvents affect the rate of crack growth; however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the SCG parameters A and n at high concentrations; however, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.
CRACK GROWTH RESPONSE OF ALLOY 152 AND 52 WELD METALS IN SIMULATED PWR PRIMARY WATER
Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.
2009-12-01
The crack growth response of alloy 152 and 52 weld metals has been measured in simulated PWR primary water at both high (325-350 C) and low (50 C) temperatures. Tests were performed on samples machined from alloy 152 or 52 mockup welds. Propagation rates under cycle + hold and constant K conditions at high temperatures show stable, but extremely low SCC growth rates. The most significant intergranular cracking occurred during cycling at 50 C, particularly for the alloy 152 weld metal at high stress intensity.
Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce G.; Figert, J.; Beek, J.; Ventura, J.; Martinez, J.; Samonski, F.
2011-01-01
This presentation describes results obtained from a research project conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) that was jointly supported by the FAA Technical Center and JSC. The JSC effort was part of a multi-task FAA program involving several U.S. laboratories and initiated for the purpose of developing enhanced analysis tools to assess damage tolerance of rotorcraft and aircraft propeller systems. The research results to be covered in this presentation include a new understanding of the behavior of fatigue crack growth in the threshold region. This behavior is important for structural life analysis of aircraft propeller systems and certain rotorcraft structural components (e.g., the mast). These components are often designed to not allow fatigue crack propagation to exceed an experimentally determined fatigue crack growth threshold value. During the FAA review meetings for the program, disagreements occurred between the researchers regarding the observed fanning (spread between the da/dN curves of constant R) in the threshold region at low stress ratios, R. Some participants believed that the fanning was a result of the ASTM load shedding test method for threshold testing, and thus did not represent the true characteristics of the material. If the fanning portion of the threshold value is deleted or not included in a life analysis, a significant penalty in the calculated life and design of the component would occur. The crack growth threshold behavior was previously studied and reported by several research investigators in the time period: 1970-1980. Those investigators used electron microscopes to view the crack morphology of the fatigue fracture surfaces. Their results showed that just before reaching threshold, the crack morphology often changed from a striated to a faceted or cleavage-like morphology. This change was reported to have been caused by particular dislocation properties of the material. Based on the results of these early investigations, a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radhakrishnan, B.; Thompson, R. G.
1993-06-01
A delay in grain boundary liquation was observed in the subsolidus portion of the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) of alloy 718 for the solution-treated material. However, for the homogenized or the homogenized and aged alloy, an instantaneous liquation of the grain boundaries occurred in the subsolidus HAZ. The above difference in the grain boundary liquation kinetics may account for the greater hot-cracking susceptibility of the homogenized or the homogenized and aged alloy compared to that of the solution-treated alloy. Existing models of grain boundary liquation are used to explain the observed kinetic effects associated with liquation in the subsolidus HAZ of alloy 718.
Radhakrishnan, B.; Thompson, R.G. . Department of Materials Science and Engineering)
1993-06-01
A delay in grain boundary liquation was observed in the subsolidus portion of the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) of alloy 718 for the solution-treated material. However, for the homogenized and aged alloy, an instantaneous liquation of the grain boundaries occurred in the subsolidus HAZ. The above difference in the grain boundary liquation kinetics may account for the greater hot-cracking susceptibility of the homogenized or the homogenized and aged alloy compared to that of the solution-treated alloy. Existing models of grain boundary liquation are used to explain the observed kinetic effects associated with liquation in the subsolidus HAZ of alloy 718.
STRESS CORROSION CRACK GROWTH RESPONSE FOR ALLOY 152/52 DISSIMILAR METAL WELDS IN PWR PRIMARY WATER
Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Overman, Nicole R.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.
2015-08-15
As part of ongoing research into primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) susceptibility of alloy 690 and its welds, SCC tests have been conducted on alloy 152/52 dissimilar metal (DM) welds with cracks positioned with the goal to assess weld dilution and fusion line effects on SCC susceptibility. No increased crack growth rate was found when evaluating a 20% Cr dilution zone in alloy 152M joined to carbon steel (CS) that had not undergone a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). However, high SCC crack growth rates were observed when the crack reached the fusion line of that material where it propagated both on the fusion line and in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the carbon steel. Crack surface and crack profile examinations of the specimen revealed that cracking in the weld region was transgranular (TG) with weld grain boundaries not aligned with the geometric crack growth plane of the specimen. The application of a typical pressure vessel PWHT on a second set of alloy 152/52 – carbon steel DM weld specimens was found to eliminate the high SCC susceptibility in the fusion line and carbon steel HAZ regions. PWSCC tests were also performed on alloy 152-304SS DM weld specimens. Constant K crack growth rates did not exceed 5x10-9 mm/s in this material with post-test examinations revealing cracking primarily on the fusion line and slightly into the 304SS HAZ.
Analysis of Delamination Growth from Matrix Cracks in Laminates Subjected to Bending Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murri, G. B.; Guynn, E. G.
1986-01-01
A major source of delamination damage in laminated composite materials is from low-velocity impact. In thin composite laminates under point loads, matrix cracks develop first in the plies, and delaminations then grow from these cracks at the ply interfaces. The purpose of this study was to quantify the combined effects of bending and transverse shear loads on delamination initiation from matrix cracks. Graphite-epoxy laminates with 90 deg. plies on the outside were used to provide a two-dimensional simulation of the damage due to low-velocity impact. Three plate bending problems were considered: a 4-point bending, 3-point bending, and an end-clamped center-loaded plate. Under bending, a matrix crack will form on the tension side of the laminate, through the outer 90 deg. plies and parallel to the fibers. Delaminations will then grow in the interface between the cracked 90 deg. ply and the next adjacent ply. Laminate plate theory was used to derive simple equations relating the total strain energy release rate, G, associated with the delamination growth from a 90 deg. ply crack to the applied bending load and laminate stiffness properties. Three different lay-ups were tested and results compared. Test results verified that the delamination always formed at the interface between the cracked 90 deg. ply and the next adjacent ply. Calculated values for total G sub c from the analysis showed good agreement for all configurations. The analysis was able to predict the delamination onset load for the cases considered. The result indicated that the opening mode component (Mode I) for delamination growth from a matrix crack may be much larger than the component due to interlaminar shear (Mode II).
Analysis of delamination growth from matrix cracks in laminates subjected to bending loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murri, Gretchen Bostaph; Guynn, E. Gail
1988-01-01
A major source of delamination damage in laminated composite materials is from low-velocity impact. In thin composite laminates under point loads, matrix cracks develop first in the plies, and delaminations then grow from these cracks at the ply interfaces. The purpose of this study was to quantify the combined effects of bending and transverse shear loads on delamination initiation from matrix cracks. Graphite-epoxy laminates with 90 deg plies on the outside were used to provide a two-dimensional simulation of the damage due to low-velocity impact. Three plate bending problems were considered: a 4-point bending, 3-point bending, and an end-clamped center-loaded plate. Under bending, a matrix crack will form on the tension side of the laminate, through the outer 90 deg plies and parallel to the fibers. Delaminations will then grow in the interface between the cracked 90 deg ply and the next adjacent ply. Laminate plate theory was used to derive simple equations relating the total strain energy release rate, G, associated with the delamination growth from a 90 deg ply crack to the applied bending load and laminate stiffness properties. Three different lay-ups were tested and results compared. Test results verified that the delamination always formed at the interface between the cracked 90 deg ply and the next adjacent ply. Calculated values for total G sub c from the analysis showed good agreement for all configurations. The analysis was able to predict the delamination onset load for the cases considered. The result indicated that the opening mode component (Mode I) for delamination growth from a matrix crack may be much larger than the component due to interlaminar shear (Mode II).
Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Chien-Hao; Chen, Hao; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Albert T.
2011-09-01
This study achieved controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers. We surmounted the unpredictable growing nature of such whiskers and performed accurately quantitative analyses of the growth kinetics and yielded precise measurement of the growth rate. Furthermore, using synchrotron radiation x-ray, this study determined the stress variations in conjunction with whisker growth that fitted appropriately to the model. Accordingly, the results could address the debate held for decades and prove that forming a surface oxide layer is one of the required and necessary conditions for controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers.
NASCRAC - A computer code for fracture mechanics analysis of crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, D. O.; Eason, E. D.; Thomas, J. M.; Bianca, C. J.; Salter, L. D.
1987-01-01
NASCRAC - a computer code for fracture mechanics analysis of crack growth - is described in this paper. The need for such a code is increasing as requirements grow for high reliability and low weight in aerospace components. The code is comprehensive and versatile, as well as user friendly. The major purpose of the code is calculation of fatigue, corrosion fatigue, or stress corrosion crack growth, and a variety of crack growth relations can be selected by the user. Additionally, crack retardation models are included. A very wide variety of stress intensity factor solutions are contained in the code, and extensive use is made of influence functions. This allows complex stress gradients in three-dimensional crack problems to be treated easily and economically. In cases where previous stress intensity factor solutions are not adequate, new influence functions can be calculated by the code. Additional features include incorporation of J-integral solutions from the literature and a capability for estimating elastic-plastic stress redistribution from the results of a corresponding elastic analysis. An example problem is presented which shows typical outputs from the code.
Designing of a Testing Machine for Shear-Mode Fatigue Crack Growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusaba, A.; Okazaki, S.; Endo, M.; Yanase, K.
As recognized, flaking-type failure is one of the serious problems for railroad tracks and bearings. In essence, flaking-type failure is closely related to the growth of the shear-mode (Mode-II and Mode-III) fatigue crack. In our research group, it is demonstrated that a shear-mode fatigue crack can be reproduced for cylindrical specimens by applying the cyclic torsion in the presence of the static axial compressive stress. However, a biaxial servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine is quite expensive to purchase and costly to maintain. The low testing speed (about 10Hz) of the testing machine further aggravates the situation. As a result, study on shear-mode fatigue crack growth is still in the nascent stage. To overcome the difficulties mentioned above, in this research activity, we developed a high-performance and cost-effective testing machine to reproduce the shear-mode fatigue crack growth by improving the available resonance-type torsion fatigue testing machine. The primary advantage of using the resonance-type torsion fatigue testing machine is cost-efficiency. In addition, the testing speed effectively can be improved, in comparison with that of a biaxial servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine. By utilizing the newly-designed testing machine, we have demonstrated that we can successfully reproduce the shear-mode fatigue crack.
Fatigue crack growth study of SCS6/Ti-15-3 composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kantzos, Peter; Telesman, Jack
1989-01-01
A study was performed to determine the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior and the associated fatigue damage processes in a (0)(8) and (90)(8) oriented SCS(6)/Ti-15-3 composite. Companion testing (CT) was also done on identically processed Ti-15-3 unreinforced material. The active fatigue crack growth failure processes were very similar for both composite orientations tested. For both orientations, fatigue crack growth was along the fiber direction. It was found that the composite constituent most susceptible to fatigue damage was the interface region and in particular the carbon coating surrounding the fiber. The failure of the interface region lead to crack initiation and also strongly influenced the FCG behavior in this composite. The failure of the interface region was apparently driven by normal stresses perpendicular to the fiber direction. The FCG rates were considerably higher for the (90)(8) oriented CT specimens in comparison to the unreinforced material. This is consistent with the scenario in which the interface has lower fatigue resistance than the matrix, causing lower composite fatigue resistance. The FCG rates of the (0)(8) composite could not be directly compared to the (90)(8) composite but were shown to increase with an increase in the crack length.
Multiple substrate growth kinetics of Leptothrix discophora SP-6.
Yurt, Nurdan; Sears, John; Lewandowski, Zbigniew
2002-01-01
The growth parameters of Leptothrix discophora SP-6 were quantified on the basis of the steady-state concentrations and utilization rates of pyruvate, dissolved oxygen, and concentration of microorganisms in a chemostat operated at 25 degrees C, pH 7.2, and an agitation rate of 350 rpm. The results showed that the microbial growth was limited by both pyruvate and dissolved oxygen. A combined growth kinetics model using Monod growth kinetics for pyruvate and Tessier growth kinetics for oxygen showed the best correlation with the experimental data when analyzed using an interactive multiple substrate model. The growth kinetics parameters and the respective confidence limits, estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation, were mu(max) = 0.576 +/- 0.021 h(-1), K(sMp) = 38.81 +/- 4.24 mg L(-1), K(sTo) = 0.39 +/- 0.04 mg L(-1), Y(X/p) = 0.150 (mg microorganism mg(-1) pyruvate), Y(X/o) = 1.24 (mg microorganism mg(-1) oxygen), the maintenance factors for pyruvate and oxygen were m(p) = 0.129 (mg pyruvate consumed mg(-1) microorganism h(-1)) and m(o) = 0.076 (mg oxygen consumed mg(-1) microorganism h(-1)), respectively. PMID:12363350
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eppes, Martha-Cary; Keanini, Russell; Hancock, Gregory S.
2016-04-01
The contributions of moisture to the mechanical aspects of rock weathering and regolith production are poorly quantified. In particular, geomorphologists have largely overlooked the role of subcritical crack growth processes in physical weathering and the fact that moisture strongly influences the rates of those processes. This influence is irrespective of the function that moisture plays in stress loading mechanisms like freezing or hydration. Here we present a simple numerical model that explores the efficacy of subcritical crack growth in granite rock subaerially exposed under a range of moisture conditions. Because most weathering-related stress loading for rocks found at, or near, Earth's surface (hereafter surface rocks) is cyclic, we modeled crack growth using a novel combination of Paris' Law and Charles' Law. This combination allowed us to apply existing empirically-derived data for the stress corrosion index of Charles' Law to fatigue cracking. For stress, we focused on the relatively straightforward case of intergranular stresses that arise during solar-induced thermal cycling by conductive heat transfer, making the assumption that such stresses represent a universal minimum weathering stress experienced by all surface rocks. Because all other tensile weathering-related stresses would be additive in the context of crack growth, however, our model can be adapted to include other stress loading mechanisms. We validated our calculations using recently published thermal-stress-induced cracking rates. Our results demonstrate that 1) weathering-induced stresses as modeled herein, and as published by others, are sufficient to propagate fractures subcritically over long timescales with or without the presence of water 2) fracture propagation rates increase exponentially with respect to moisture, specifically relative humidity 3) fracture propagation rates driven by thermal cycling are strongly dependent on the magnitude of diurnal temperature ranges and the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Dawicke, D. S.
1989-01-01
The present paper is concerned with the application of an analytical crack-closure model to study crack growth under various load histories. The model was based on a crack-tip plasticity concept like the Dugdale model, but modified to leave plastically deformed material in the wake of the advancing crack tip. The effect of material thickness on plasticity was accounted for by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack tip. The model was used to correlate crack-growth rates under constant-amplitude loading, and to predict crack growth under variable-amplitude loading on a high-strength aluminum alloy (7475-T7351) sheet material. The experimental data were obtained from Zhang et al. Predicted crack-growth lives agreed well with experimental data. For ten crack-growth tests subjected to various variable-amplitude load histories, the ratio of predicted-to-experimental lives ranged from 0.54 to 1.19. The mean value of the ratio of predicted-to-experimental lives was 0.95 and the standard error was 0.2 using a constraint factor of 1.9 in the model. Crack-opening stresses calculated from the model were significantly different from those determined by Zhang et al. using a striation-based experimental method.
Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H.
1995-09-01
Since beryllium is considered as one of the best neutron multiplier materials in the blanket of the next generation fusion reactors, several studies have been started to evaluate its behaviour under irradiation during both operating and accidental conditions. Based on safety considerations, tritium produced in beryllium during neutron irradiation represents one important issue, therefore it is necessary to investigate tritium transport processes by using a comprehensive mathematical model and comparing its predictions with well characterized experimental tests. Because of the difficulties in extrapolating the short-time tritium release tests to a longer time scale, also long-time annealing experiments with beryllium samples from the SIBELIUS irradiation. have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Samples were annealed up to 12 months at temperatures up to 650{degrees}C. The inventory after annealing was determined by heating the samples up to 1050{degrees}C with a He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2} purge gas. Furthermore, in order to investigate the likely effects of cracks formation eventually causing a faster tritium release from beryllium, the behaviour of samples irradiated at low temperature (40-50{degrees}C) but up to very high fast neutron fluences (0.8-3.9{center_dot}10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, E{sub n}{ge}1 MeV) in the BR2 reactor has been investigated. Tritium was released by heating the beryllium samples up to 1050{degrees}C and purging them with He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2}. Tritium release from high-irradiated beryllium samples showed a much faster kinetics than from the low-irradiated ones, probably because of crack formation caused by thermal stresses in the brittle material and/or by helium bubbles migration. The obtained experimental data have been compared with predictions of the code ANFIBE with the goal to better understand the physical mechanisms governing tritium behaviour in beryllium and to assess the prediction capabilities of the code.
Overload and Underload Effects on the Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of the 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawicke, David S.
1997-01-01
Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on 0.09 inch thick, 3.0 inch wide middle-crack tension specimens cut from sheets of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy. The tests were conducted using a load sequence that consisted of a single block of 2,500 cycles of constant amplitude loading followed by an overload/underload combination. The largest fatigue crack growth life occurred for the tests with the overload stress equal to 2 times the constant amplitude stress and the underload stress equal to the constant amplitude minimum stress. For the tests with compressive underloads, the fatigue crack growth life decreased with increasing compressive underload stress.
Fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue of two nickel base superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoloff, N. S.; Duquette, D. J.; Choe, S. J.; Golwalkar, S.
1983-01-01
The fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue behavior of two P/M superalloys, Rene 95 and Astroloy, in the hot isostatically pressed (HIP) condition, was determined. Test variables included frequency, temperature, environment, and hold times at peak tensile loads (or strains). Crack initiation sites were identified in both alloys. Crack growth rates were shown to increase in argon with decreasing frequency or with the imposition of hold times. This behavior was attributed to the effect of oxygen in the argon. Auger analyses were performed on oxide films formed in argon. Low cycle fatigue lives also were degraded by tensile hold, contrary to previous reports in the literature. The role of environment in low cycle fatigue behavior is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, X. R.; Newman, J. C.; Zhao, W.; Swain, M. H.; Ding, C. F.; Phillips, E. P.
1998-01-01
The small crack effect was investigated in two high-strength aluminium alloys: 7075-T6 bare and LC9cs clad alloy. Both experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to study crack initiation and growth of small cracks. In the experimental program, fatigue tests, small crack and large crack tests A,ere conducted under constant amplitude and Mini-TWIST spectrum loading conditions. A pronounced small crack effect was observed in both materials, especially for the negative stress ratios. For all loading conditions, most of the fatigue life of the SENT specimens was shown to be crack propagation from initial material defects or from the cladding layer. In the analysis program, three-dimensional finite element and A weight function methods were used to determine stress intensity factors and to develop SIF equations for surface and corner cracks at the notch in the SENT specimens. A plastisity-induced crack-closure model was used to correlate small and large crack data, and to make fatigue life predictions, Predicted crack-growth rates and fatigue lives agreed well with experiments. A total fatigue life prediction method for the aluminum alloys was developed and demonstrated using the crack-closure model.
Strength characteristics and crack growth behavior of a composite with well aligned fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Botsis, John; Beldica, C.; Caliskan, Ari G.; Zhao, D.
1994-01-01
Continuous fiber composites have shown tremendous promise in industrial applications. Their microstructures, however, are very complex and in many instances difficult to characterize. In this project, the fracture characteristics of a specially made fiber reinforced composite with different fiber spacing are investigated. The experimental results so far have shown that after an initial transient phase the crack speed reaches a steady phase, i.e., independent of the crack length. Within the steady crack growth phase debonding along the fibers in the bridging zone grows in a self-similar manner. During the steady phase the energy dissipation per cycle is constant. Afterwards, an increase of the energy dissipation is observed that is accompanied by a decrease in crack speed. This latter trend is presumed to be the result of relatively large amounts of energy dissipated in the bulk of the specimen. Using appropriate Green's function and computer simulations, the stress intensity factor at the crack tip is evaluated for various cases of bridging stresses. In this way the effects of specimen size and fiber spacing on the overall fracture behavior of the composite system are analyzed. The steady crack speed and the steady rate of debonding have a similar power dependence on stress level. Dimensional analysis demonstrates that the particular fracture process is not governed by dimensional invariance but on the detailed micromechanisms in the bridging zone.
Parker, A.P.; Underwood, J.H.
1995-11-01
The geometry analyzed consists of a thick-walled cylinder having a small diameter evacuator hole penetrating radially through the wall. The loading involves pressure acting on the ID of the tube and all or part of this pressure acting on the evacuator hole. In addition the tube may be fully or partially autofrettaged. Total hoop stress concentrations are determined for a range of radial locations along the evacuator, as are stress intensity factors along a crack emanating from the evacuator hole. Fatigue crack growth rates, and hence crack profiles, are predicted at each of the radial locations. These predictions indicate that the critical location for the crack in a non-autofrettaged tube is at the ID whereas in a fully autofrettaged tube it is located approximately half way through the wall thickness. Taking account of the influence of stress ratio, minimum value of direct stress/maximum value of direct stress has a significantly influence on crack shape in autofrettaged tubes, but a limited effect upon lifetime. The effect upon fatigue lifetime of axial residual stresses due to the autofrettage process is described and it is demonstrated that an insignificant reduction in lifetime results from the presence of such stresses. Finally the predicted profiles are compared with experimental observations of fatigue cracked evacuators and a limited comparison of predicted and actual lifetimes is presented. Agreement is considered good.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, A. P.; Underwood, J. H.
1994-12-01
A stress analysis has been conducted on a pressurized, fully or partially autofrettaged cylinder with a small diameter evacuator hole penetrating radially through the wall. Pressure was applied on the inside diameter (ID) of the tube, and all or part of this pressure was applied on the evacuator hole surfaces. Total hoop stress concentrations have been determined for a range of radial locations along the evacuator and stress intensity factors have been determined along a crack emanating from the evacuator hole. Fatigue crack growth rates. and hence crack profiles, were predicted at each of the radial locations. These predictions indicate that the critical location for the crack in a non-autofrettaged tube is at the ID, whereas in a fully autofrettaged tube, it is located approximately halfway through the wall thickness. Stress ratio has a significant influence on crack shape in autofrettaged tubes, however, it has a limited effect upon lifetime. The effect of axial residual stresses upon fatigue lifetime due to the autofrettage process has been described and an insignificant reduction in lifetime was a result of such stresses. Finally, the predicted profiles are compared with experimental observations of fatigue crack evacuators, and a limited comparison of predicted and actual lifetimes is presented. Good agreement has been observed in both comparisons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1991-01-01
Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness of aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl; and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1991-01-01
Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness by aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl, and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.
Growth and Nitrogen Uptake Kinetics in Cultured Prorocentrum donghaiense
Hu, Zhangxi; Duan, Shunshan; Xu, Ning; Mulholland, Margaret R.
2014-01-01
We compared growth kinetics of Prorocentrum donghaiense cultures on different nitrogen (N) compounds including nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), urea, glutamic acid (glu), dialanine (diala) and cyanate. P. donghaiense exhibited standard Monod-type growth kinetics over a range of N concentraions (0.5–500 μmol N L−1 for NO3− and NH4+, 0.5–50 μmol N L−1 for urea, 0.5–100 μmol N L−1 for glu and cyanate, and 0.5–200 μmol N L−1 for diala) for all of the N compounds tested. Cultures grown on glu and urea had the highest maximum growth rates (μm, 1.51±0.06 d−1 and 1.50±0.05 d−1, respectively). However, cultures grown on cyanate, NO3−, and NH4+ had lower half saturation constants (Kμ, 0.28–0.51 μmol N L−1). N uptake kinetics were measured in NO3−-deplete and -replete batch cultures of P. donghaiense. In NO3−-deplete batch cultures, P. donghaiense exhibited Michaelis-Menten type uptake kinetics for NO3−, NH4+, urea and algal amino acids; uptake was saturated at or below 50 μmol N L−1. In NO3−-replete batch cultures, NH4+, urea, and algal amino acid uptake kinetics were similar to those measured in NO3−-deplete batch cultures. Together, our results demonstrate that P. donghaiense can grow well on a variety of N sources, and exhibits similar uptake kinetics under both nutrient replete and deplete conditions. This may be an important factor facilitating their growth during bloom initiation and development in N-enriched estuaries where many algae compete for bioavailable N and the nutrient environment changes as a result of algal growth. PMID:24710151
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahyazadehfar, Mobin
The enamel of human teeth is generally regarded as a brittle material with low fracture toughness. Consequently, the contributions of this tissue in resisting tooth fracture and the importance of its complex microstructure have been largely overlooked. The primary objective of this dissertation is to characterize the role of enamel's microstructure and degree of decussation on the fracture behavior of human enamel. The importance of the protein content and aging on the fracture toughness of enamel were also explored. Incremental crack growth in sections of human enamel was achieved using a special inset Compact Tension (CT) specimen configuration. Crack extension was achieved in two orthogonal directions, i.e. longitudinal and transverse to the prism axes. Fracture surfaces and the path of crack growth path were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the fundamental mechanisms of crack growth extension. Furthermore, a hybrid approach was adopted to quantify the contribution of toughening mechanisms to the overall toughness. Results of this investigations showed that human enamel exhibits rising R-curve for both directions of crack extension. Cracks extending transverse to the rods in the outer enamel achieved lower rise in toughness with crack extension, and significantly lower toughness (1.23 +/- 0.20 MPa·m 0.5) than in the inner enamel (1.96 +/- 0.28 MPa· 0.5) and in the longitudinal direction (2.01 +/- 0.21 MPa· 0.5). The crack growth resistance exhibited both anisotropy and inhomogeneity, which arise from the complex hierarchical microstructure and the decussated prism structure. Decussation causes deflection of cracks extending from the enamel surface inwards, and facilitates a continuation of transverse crack extension within the outer enamel. This process dissipates fracture energy and averts cracks from extending toward the dentin and vital pulp. This study is the first to investigate the importance of proteins and the effect of
Applications of ASTM Standard E 1457 - The high temperature crack growth standard
Saxena, A. )
1993-03-01
The ASTM Committee on Fracture Testing has developed Standard E 1457, 'Method for the Measurement of Creep Crack Growth Rates in Metals'. This Standard gives attention to the effect of elevated-temperature service life, and is pertinent to such materials as the high temperature Al alloys being contemplated for the High Speed Civil Transport and the NASP structure's intermetallics. 8 refs.
Numerical modeling and experiments of creep crack growth under cyclic loading
Brust, F.W.
1995-12-31
This paper presents a summary of some recent studies of creep crack growth under history dependent load conditions. The effect of a proper constitutive law is illustrated. Moreover, the asymptotic fields are reconsidered under cyclic creep conditions. In addition, several experiments are modeled and the behavior of integral parameters is discussed.
Estimation and Simulation of Slow Crack Growth Parameters from Constant Stress Rate Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, Jonathan A.; Weaver, Aaron S.
2003-01-01
Closed form, approximate functions for estimating the variances and degrees-of-freedom associated with the slow crack growth parameters n, D, B, and A(sup *) as measured using constant stress rate ('dynamic fatigue') testing were derived by using propagation of errors. Estimates made with the resulting functions and slow crack growth data for a sapphire window were compared to the results of Monte Carlo simulations. The functions for estimation of the variances of the parameters were derived both with and without logarithmic transformation of the initial slow crack growth equations. The transformation was performed to make the functions both more linear and more normal. Comparison of the Monte Carlo results and the closed form expressions derived with propagation of errors indicated that linearization is not required for good estimates of the variances of parameters n and D by the propagation of errors method. However, good estimates variances of the parameters B and A(sup *) could only be made when the starting slow crack growth equation was transformed and the coefficients of variation of the input parameters were not too large. This was partially a result of the skewered distributions of B and A(sup *). Parametric variation of the input parameters was used to determine an acceptable range for using closed form approximate equations derived from propagation of errors.
Hydrogen Isotope Effect on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Pipeline Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connolly, Matthew; Slifka, Andrew; Drexler, Elizabeth; Hydrogen Pipeline Safety Team
Hydrogen (H2) is desirable for energy storage as it is cleaner burning and can store a larger amount of energy than an equal mass of gasoline. One problem in the development of a hydrogen economy is to find or develop materials that ensure the safe, reliable, and cost-effective flow of energy from the source to the user. It is expected steels will be needed to serve this function. However, the existing network of natural gas pipeline, for example, is constructed of ferrous materials which are susceptible to embrittlement and subsequent increased fatigue crack growth rates after exposure to hydrogen. It is expected that diffusion rates play an important role on fatigue crack growth rates. We report the measurement of the fatigue crack growth rate in a high strength pipeline steel in a gaseous deuterium (D2) environment, in an effort to determine the role of diffusion rate on FCGR, because D2 is chemically identical to H2, but with twice the mass. We found that the D2 fatigue crack growth rate was not enhanced compared to air as is seen in an H2 environment; in fact our D2 rate measurement was slightly slower than in air, a result which is not expected to be due to diffusion rates alone. NIST Materials Measurement Laboratory, Applied Chemicals and Materials Division.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergsaker, Anne Schad; Røyne, Anja; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Aubry, Jérôme; Renard, François
2016-03-01
Chemically activated processes of subcritical cracking in calcite control the time-dependent strength of this mineral, which is a major constituent of the Earth's brittle upper crust. Here experimental data on subcritical crack growth are acquired with a double torsion apparatus to characterize the influence of fluid pH (range 5-7.5) and ionic strength and species (Na2SO4, NaCl, MgSO4, and MgCl2) on the propagation of microcracks in calcite single crystals. The effect of different ions on crack healing has also been investigated by decreasing the load on the crack for durations up to 30 min and allowing it to relax and close. All solutions were saturated with CaCO3. The crack velocities reached during the experiments are in the range 10-9-10-2 m/s and cover the range of subcritical to close to dynamic rupture propagation velocities. Results show that for calcite saturated solutions, the energy necessary to fracture calcite is independent of pH. As a consequence, the effects of fluid salinity, measured through its ionic strength, or the variation of water activity have stronger effects on subcritical crack propagation in calcite than pH. Consequently, when considering the geological sequestration of CO2 into carbonate reservoirs, the decrease of pH within the range of 5-7.5 due to CO2 dissolution into water should not significantly alter the rate of fracturing of calcite. Increase in salinity caused by drying may lead to further reduction in cracking and consequently a decrease in brittle creep. The healing of cracks is found to vary with the specific ions present.
Impact of hydraulic suction history on crack growth mechanics in soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, S.; Hallett, P. D.
2008-05-01
The mechanics of crack formation and the influence of soil stress history were described using the crack tip opening angle (CTOA) measured with fractography. Two soils were studied: a model soil consisting of 40% Ca-bentonite and 60% fine silica sand and a remolded paddy soil with similar clay content and mineralogy. Fracture testing used deep-notch bend specimens formed by molding soils at the liquid limit into rectangular bars, equilibrating to soil water suction ranging from 5 kPa to 50 kPa (with some 50 kPa specimens wetted to 5 kPa), and inserting a crack 0.4× specimen thickness. Bend tests at a constant displacement rate of 1 mm min-1 provided data on applied force and load point displacement. The growth and geometry of the cracks were quantified from a series of images to determine the CTOA. Modulus of rupture, evaluated from the peak force, increased as water suction increased. However, rewetting did not alter the peak stress from the 50 kPa value, indicating that shrinkage-induced consolidation was more important than the soil water suction at the onset of testing. CTOA measured during stable crack growth decreased with drying. CTOA decreased even further when specimens equilibrated initially to 50 kPa were rewetted to 5 kPa. These results suggested that CTOA was primarily governed by the stiffness, although rewetting probably altered the capillary stresses in advance of the crack tip. Our future work will combine CTOA with a model that couples hydrological and mechanical processes to take into account the dependency of CTOA on the soil water regime so that crack propagation in soil can be predicted.
Creep-Environment Interactions in Dwell-Fatigue Crack Growth of Nickel Based Superalloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejewski, Kimberly; Dahal, Jinesh; Sun, Yaofeng; Ghonem, Hamouda
2014-05-01
A multi-scale, mechanistic model is developed to describe and predict the dwell-fatigue crack growth rate in the P/M disk superalloy, ME3, as a function of creep-environment interactions. In this model, the time-dependent cracking mechanisms involve grain boundary sliding and dynamic embrittlement, which are identified by the grain boundary activation energy, as well as, the slip/grain boundary interactions in both air and vacuum. Modeling of the damage events is achieved by adapting a cohesive zone (CZ) approach which considers the deformation behavior of the grain boundary element at the crack tip. The deformation response of this element is controlled by the surrounding continuum in both far field (internal state variable model) and near field (crystal plasticity model) regions and the intrinsic grain boundary viscosity which defines the mobility of the element by scaling up the motion of dislocations into a mesoscopic scale. This intergranular cracking process is characterized by the rate at which the grain boundary sliding reaches a critical displacement. A damage criterion is introduced by considering the grain boundary mobility limit in the tangential direction leading to strain incompatibility and failure. Results of simulated intergranular crack growth rate using the CZ model are generated for temperatures ranging from 923 K to 1073 K (650 °C to 800 °C), in both air and vacuum. These results are compared with those experimentally obtained and analysis of the model sensitivity to loading conditions, particularly temperature and oxygen partial pressure, are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Guoliang; Santare, Michael H.; Karlsson, Anette M.; Kusoglu, Ahmet
2016-06-01
Understanding the mechanisms of growth of defects in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is essential for improving cell longevity. Characterizing the crack growth in PEM fuel cell membrane under relative humidity (RH) cycling is an important step towards establishing strategies essential for developing more durable membrane electrode assemblies (MEA). In this study, a crack propagation criterion based on plastically dissipated energy is investigated numerically. The accumulation of plastically dissipated energy under cyclical RH loading ahead of the crack tip is calculated and compared to a critical value, presumed to be a material parameter. Once the accumulation reaches the critical value, the crack propagates via a node release algorithm. From the literature, it is well established experimentally that membranes reinforced with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) reinforced perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) have better durability than unreinforced membranes, and through-thickness cracks are generally found under the flow channel regions but not land regions in unreinforced PFSA membranes. We show that the proposed plastically dissipated energy criterion captures these experimental observations and provides a framework for investigating failure mechanisms in ionomer membranes subjected to similar environmental loads.
Magma-driven subcritical crack growth and implications for dike initiation from a magma chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zuan; Jin, Z.-H.
2006-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to explore a viscoelastic energy dissipation theory for subcritical dike growth from a magma chamber. The theoretical relationship between the dike growth velocity and dike length is established using the viscoelastic subcritical crack growth theory proposed by the first author and the solutions of stress intensity factor at the crack tip derived by a perturbation method. Effects of magma chamber over-pressure, buoyancy and viscoelastic properties of the host rock on the subcritical growth rate are included in the model. The numerical results indicate that the viscous energy dissipation of the host rock could allow a short dike to slowly grow on the order of 10-7-10-5 m/s under modest over-pressure and to accelerate when the stress intensity factor increases close to the fracture toughness, followed by the unstable dike propagation. The proposed theory provides a reasonable understanding of dike initiation process from a magma chamber.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.
1998-01-01
The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM
A structural health monitoring fastener for tracking fatigue crack growth in bolted metallic joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakow, Alexi Schroder
Fatigue cracks initiating at fastener hole locations in metallic components are among the most common form of airframe damage. The fastener hole site has been surveyed as the second leading initiation site for fatigue related accidents of fixed wing aircraft. Current methods for inspecting airframes for these cracks are manual, whereby inspectors rely on non-destructive inspection equipment or hand-held probes to scan over areas of a structure. Use of this equipment often demands disassembly of the vehicle to search appropriate hole locations for cracks, which elevates the complexity and cost of these maintenance inspections. Improved reliability, safety, and reduced cost of such maintenance can be realized by the permanent integration of sensors with a structure to detect this damage. Such an integrated system of sensors would form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. In this study, an Additive, Interleaved, Multi-layer Electromagnetic (AIME) sensor was developed and integrated with the shank of a fastener to form a SHM Fastener, a new SHM technology targeted at detection of fastener hole cracks. The major advantages of the SHM Fastener are its installation, which does not require joint layer disassembly, its capability to detect inner layer cracks, and its capability to operate in a continuous autonomous mode. Two methods for fabricating the proposed SHM Fastener were studied. The first option consisted of a thin flexible printed circuit film that was bonded around a thin metallic sleeve placed around the fastener shank. The second option consisted of coating sensor materials directly to the shank of a part in an effort to increase the durability of the sensor under severe loading conditions. Both analytical and numerical models were developed to characterize the capability of the sensors and provide a design tool for the sensor layout. A diagnostic technique for crack growth monitoring was developed to complete the SHM system, which consists of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Lisa Marie
This goal of this research was to explain the effects of heat treatment, Cu content, and electrode potential (EApp) on short-transverse aqueous environment assisted cracking (EAC) in a precipitation hardened Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) alloy. Substantial intergranular EAC susceptibility was observed in several underaged (UA) and peak aged (PA) tempers of AA 7050, where increasing E App produced a slow crack growth rate (da/dt) incubation and transition to fast da/dt. Above the transition potential, da/dt was dramatically increased by further increases in EApp. In contrast the overaged (OA) condition was highly EAC resistant, exhibiting transgranular da/dt ≤2 x 10-8 mm/sec or ≈ 10,000 times slower than PA. Crack growth rates in the low Cu alloy were several orders of magnitude higher than those exhibited by the high Cu material at similar EApp and were only slightly reduced on overaging. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) results showed enhanced hydrogen uptake in fast-cracking EAC regions compared to as-received hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen analyses were complicated by the dependence of H-production and uptake on wake exposure time and a pH gradient in the occluded crack environment. Trends between applied anodic potential, crack wake H concentration (normalized by the wake exposure time), and aqueous da/dt were observed. Nuclear reaction analysis revealed unexpectedly high near-surface H concentrations ( ≈ 2000 wppm). The H-concentration profiles indicate that the observed da/dt can be rate-limited by bulk H-diffusion into the crack tip process zone, where EAC is promoted by a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. The transition potential to fast da/dt increased in the anodic direction with increased isothermal aging time. Additionally, the presence of large Cu-containing second phase particles (S-phase) on high angle grain boundaries partially negated the beneficial effect of overaging on EAC in the Cu-containing alloy, an effect not observed in humid air cracking
How fatigue cracks grow, interact with microstructure, and lose similitude
Davidson, D.L.
1997-12-01
This paper reviews the processes by which fatigue cracks grow and interact with applied load and microstructure. Fatigue crack growth processes are remarkably similar irrespective of microstructure, crack size, or nature of the loading. Large strains at fatigue crack tips applied over repeated cycles severely alter, or homogenize, microstructures, followed by crack advance. Microstructure affects fatigue crack growth kinetics more than growth processes. But, under marginal conditions, fatigue crack growth rates are also affected by microstructural features. Examples are small cracks growing under low stresses or large cracks growing near threshold. The prediction of safe lifetimes for machine parts, such as gas turbine components, requires that laboratory-generated fatigue crack growth rate data be transferred to field-operating conditions. This transfer depends on the maintenance of similitude: microstructurely, mechanically, and environmentally. However, for many industrially important conditions, similitude with large fatigue crack growth is lost, partially because of changes in fatigue crack closure. The effect of closure on similitude is discussed. New data are presented to illustrate the loss of similitude between applied loading and crack tip strain response. The resulting strain rates of material within the process zone are unexpected. Environmentally influenced fatigue crack growth rates are likely to be influenced by these strain rates.
Dill, S.J.; Dauskardt, R.H.; Bennison, S.J.
1997-03-01
Amorphous glasses are generally considered immune to mechanical fatigue effects associated with cyclic loading. In this study surprising new evidence is presented for a mechanical fatigue effect in borosilicate glass, in both moist air and dry nitrogen environments. The fatigue effect occurs at near threshold subcritical crack-growth rates (da/dt < 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s) as the crack extension per cycle approaches the dimensions of the borosilicate glass network. While subcritical crack growth under cyclic loads at higher load levels is entirely consistent with environmentally assisted crack growth, lower growth rates actually exceed those measured under monotonic loads. This suggests a mechanical fatigue effect which accelerates subcritical crack-growth rates. Likely mechanisms for the mechanical fatigue effect are presented.
Kinetic model of particle-inhibited grain growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Gary Scott
The effects of second phase particles on matrix grain growth kinetics were investigated using Al2O3-SiC as a model system. In particular, the validity of the conclusion drawn from a previous kinetic analysis that the kinetics of particle-inhibited grain growth in Al2 O3-SiC samples with an intermediate volume fraction of second phase could be well quantified by a modified-Zener model was investigated. A critical analysis of assumptions made during the previous kinetic analysis revealed oversimplifications which affect the validity of the conclusion. Specifically, the degree of interaction between particles and grain boundaries was assumed to be independent of the mean second phase particle size and size distribution. In contrast, current measurements indicate that the degree of interaction in Al2O3-SiC is dependent on these parameters. An improved kinetic model for particle-inhibited grain growth in Al 2O3-SiC was developed using a modified-Zener approach. The comparison of model predictions with experimental grain growth data indicated that significant discrepancies (as much as 4--5 orders of magnitude) existed. Based on this, it was concluded that particles had a much more significant effect on grain growth kinetics than that caused by a simple reduction of the boundary driving force due to the removal of boundary area. Consequently, it was also concluded that the conclusion drawn from the earlier kinetic analysis regarding the validity of a modified-Zener model was incorrect. Discrepancies between model and experiment were found to be the result of a significant decrease in experimental growth rate constant not predicted by the model. Possible physical mechanisms for such a decrease were investigated. The investigation of a small amount of SiO2 on grain growth in Al2O3 indicated that the decrease was not the result of a decrease in grain boundary mobility due to impurity contamination by particles. By process of elimination and based on previous observations
Influence of dissolved hydrogen on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of AISI 4140 steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramasagara Nagarajan, Varun
Many metallic structural components come into contact with hydrogen during manufacturing processes or forming operations such as hot stamping of auto body frames and while in service. This interaction of metallic parts with hydrogen can occur due to various reasons such as water molecule dissociation during plating operations, interaction with atmospheric hydrogen due to the moisture present in air during stamping operations or due to prevailing conditions in service (e.g.: acidic or marine environments). Hydrogen, being much smaller in size compared to other metallic elements such as Iron in steels, can enter the material and become dissolved in the matrix. It can lodge itself in interstitials locations of the metal atoms, at vacancies or dislocations in the metallic matrix or at grain boundaries or inclusions (impurities) in the alloy. This dissolved hydrogen can affect the functional life of these structural components leading to catastrophic failures in mission critical applications resulting in loss of lives and structural component. Therefore, it is very important to understand the influence of the dissolved hydrogen on the failure of these structural materials due to cyclic loading (fatigue). For the next generation of hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles and energy systems, it is very crucial to develop structural materials for hydrogen storage and containment which are highly resistant to hydrogen embrittlement. These materials should also be able to provide good long term life in cyclic loading, without undergoing degradation, even when exposed to hydrogen rich environments for extended periods of time. The primary focus of this investigation was to examine the influence of dissolved hydrogen on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of a commercially available high strength medium carbon low alloy (AISI 4140) steel. The secondary objective was to examine the influence of microstructure on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of this material and to determine the
Metastable Solution Thermodynamic Properties and Crystal Growth Kinetics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Soojin; Myerson, Allan S.
1996-01-01
The crystal growth rates of NH4H2PO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, KAl(SO4)2 central dot 12H2O, NaCl, and glycine and the nucleation rates of KBr, KCl, NaBr central dot 2H2O, (NH4)2Cl, and (NH4)2SO4 were expressed in terms of the fundamental driving force of crystallization calculated from the activity of supersaturated solutions. The kinetic parameters were compared with those from the commonly used kinetic expression based on the concentration difference. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, rate expressions based on the chemical potential difference provide accurate kinetic representation over a broad range of supersaturation. The rates estimated using the expression based on the concentration difference coincide with the true rates of crystallization only in the concentration range of low supersaturation and deviate from the true kinetics as the supersaturation increases.
Kinetics of laser-assisted carbon nanotube growth.
van de Burgt, Y; Bellouard, Y; Mandamparambil, R
2014-03-21
Laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth is an attractive mask-less process for growing locally aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in selected places on temperature sensitive substrates. The nature of the localized process results in fast carbon nanotube growth with high experimental throughput. Here, we report on the detailed investigation of growth kinetics related to physical and chemical process characteristics. Specifically, the growth kinetics is investigated by monitoring the dynamical changes in reflected laser beam intensity during growth. Benefiting from the fast growth and high experimental throughput, we investigate a wide range of experimental conditions and propose several growth regimes. Rate-limiting steps are determined using rate equations linked to the proposed growth regimes, which are further characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), therefore directly linking growth regimes to the structural quality of the CNTs. Activation energies for the different regimes are found to be in the range of 0.3-0.8 eV. PMID:24481313
Effect of Oxygen on the Crack Growth Behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti at 600C
Kurtz, Richard J.
2000-09-01
Exploratory experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of oxygen on the crack growth response of V-4Cr-4Ti at 600C under constant load. Tests were run in gettered argon, argon containing 2000 ppm oxygen, and laboratory air using fatigue pre-cracked compact tension specimens. Crack growth was measured primarily by post-test fracture surface examination, but also by in-test compliance measurements. Crack growth rates measured in air and gettered argon were about 2-3x10-3 mm/h at a stress intensity factor of about 40 MPavm. The crack growth rate in argon with 2000 ppm oxygen was about 7x10-2 mm/h at the same stress intensity level. The crack growth rates were very sensitive to the stress intensity factor. Over a limited range of stress intensity values the crack growth rate in argon plus 2000 ppm oxygen appears to be power-law dependent on stress intensity with an exponent of about 8.9. The fracture mode in air and gettered argon was transgranular cleavage with 20 to 30% intergranular fracture. In the oxygenated argon environment crack growth occurred predominantly by transgranular cleavage.
Effects of a Hydrogen Gas Environment on Fatigue Crack Growth of a Stable Austenitic Stainless Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawamoto, Kyohei; Oda, Yasuji; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Higashida, Kenji
In order to clarify the effects of a hydrogen gas environment on the fatigue crack growth characteristics of stable austenitic stainless steels, bending fatigue tests were carried out in a hydrogen gas, in a nitrogen gas at 1.0 MPa and in air on a SUS316L using the Japanese Industrial Standards (type 316L). Also, in order to discuss the difference in the hydrogen sensitivity between austenitic stainless steels, the fatigue tests were also carried out on a SUS304 using the Japanese Industrial Standards (type 304) metastable austenitic stainless steel as a material for comparison. The main results obtained are as follows. Hydrogen gas accelerates the fatigue crack growth rate of type 316L. The degree of the fatigue crack growth acceleration is low compared to that in type 304. The fracture surfaces of both the materials practically consist of two parts; the faceted area seemed to be brittle and the remaining area occupying a greater part of the fracture surface and seemed to be ductile. The faceted area does not significantly contribute to the fatigue crack growth rate in both austenitic stainless steels. The slip-off mechanism seems to be valid not only in air and in nitrogen, but also in hydrogen. Also, the main cause of the fatigue crack growth acceleration of both materials occurs by variation of the slip behaviour. The difference in the degree of the acceleration, which in type 316L is lower than in type 304, seems to be caused by the difference in the stability of the γ phase.
Grain boundary curvature and grain growth kinetics with particle pinning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahandeh, Sina; Militzer, Matthias
2013-08-01
Second-phase particles are used extensively in design of polycrystalline materials to control the grain size. According to Zener's theory, a distribution of particles creates a pinning pressure on a moving grain boundary. As a result, a limiting grain size is observed, but the effect of pinning on the detail of grain growth kinetics is less known. The influence of the particles on the microstructure occurs in multiple length scales, established by particle radius and the grain size. In this article, we use a meso-scale phase-field model that simulates grain growth in the presence of a uniform pinning pressure. The curvature of the grain boundary network is measured to determine the driving pressure of grain growth in 2D and 3D systems. It was observed that the grain growth continues, even under conditions where the average driving pressure is smaller than the pinning pressure. The limiting grain size is reached when the maximum of driving pressure distribution in the structure is equal to the pinning pressure. This results in a limiting grain size, larger than the one predicted by conventional models, and further analysis shows consistency with experimental observations. A physical model is proposed for the kinetics of grain growth using parameters based on the curvature analysis of the grain boundaries. This model can describe the simulated grain growth kinetics.
Kinetics of bacterial growth on chlorinated aliphatic compounds
Wijngaard, A.J. van den; Wind, R.E.; Janssen, D.B. )
1993-07-01
Halogenated aliphatic compounds are frequent constituents of industrial waste gases. Because of the environmental and biological toxic effects of these compounds, there is a growing interest in technologies for their removal. Biological waste gas purification is an option if specialized bacterial strains that use halogenated aliphatics as sole carbon and energy sources can be used. Elimination efficiency of the compounds depends not only on the process technology but on the degradation properties of the bacterial strains. Important aspects of bacterial growth are the Monod half-saturation constant and the maximum growth rate. In this study the kinetic properties of the organisms (Ancylobacter aquaticus AD20 and AD25, Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10, Pseudomonas sp. strain AD1) weree measured during growth in continuous cultures and wer compared with the kinetic properties of the first catabolic enzyme involved in the degradation of the growth substrate. The results indicate that the growth of the strains examined followed Monod kinetics. Stains AD20 and GJ10 showed growth rates on DCE somewhat higher than predicted from the amount of haloalkane dehalogenase present in the cells, while strain AD25 was much lower. 33 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.
Subdiffusion kinetics of nanoprecipitate growth and destruction in solid solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sibatov, R. T.; Svetukhin, V. V.
2015-06-01
Based on fractional differential generalizations of the Ham and Aaron-Kotler precipitation models, we study the kinetics of subdiffusion-limited growth and dissolution of new-phase precipitates. We obtain the time dependence of the number of impurities and dimensions of new-phase precipitates. The solutions agree with the Monte Carlo simulation results.
Growth Kinetics and Modeling of ZnO Nanoparticles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hale, Penny S.; Maddox, Leone M.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H.; Ford, Michael J.; Waclawik, Eric R.
2005-01-01
The technique for producing quantum-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles is much safer than a technique that used hydrogen sulfide gas to produce cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide nanoparticles. A further advantage of this method is the ability to sample the solution over time and hence determine the growth kinetics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stonesifer, R. B.; Atluri, S. N.
1982-01-01
The physical meaning of (Delta T)c and its applicability to creep crack growth are reviewed. Numerical evaluation of (Delta T)c and C(asterisk) is discussed with results being given for compact specimen and strip geometries. A moving crack-tip singularity, creep crack growth simulation procedure is described and demonstrated. The results of several crack growth simulation analyses indicate that creep crack growth in 304 stainless steel occurs under essentially steady-state conditions. Based on this result, a simple methodology for predicting creep crack growth behavior is summarized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Kang N.; Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.; Barrett, Charles A.
1996-01-01
Sapphire fiber-reinforced MA956 composites hold promise for significant weight savings and increased high-temperature structural capability, as compared to unreinforced MA956. As part of an overall assessment of the high-temperature characteristics of this material system, cyclic oxidation behavior was studied at 1093 C and 1204 C. Initially, both sets of coupons exhibited parabolic oxidation kinetics. Later, monolithic MA956 exhibited spallation and a linear weight loss, whereas the composite showed a linear weight gain without spallation. Weight loss of the monolithic MA956 resulted from the linking of a multiplicity of randomly oriented and closely spaced surface cracks that facilitated ready spallation. By contrast, cracking of the composite's oxide layer was nonintersecting and aligned nominally parallel with the orientation of the subsurface reinforcing fibers. Oxidative lifetime of monolithic MA956 was projected from the observed oxidation kinetics. Linear elastic, finite element continuum, and micromechanics analyses were performed on coupons of the monolithic and composite materials. Results of the analyses qualitatively agreed well with the observed oxide cracking and spallation behavior of both the MA956 and the Sapphire/MA956 composite coupons.
Analysis of crack initiation and growth in the high level vibration test at Tadotsu
Kassir, M.K.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Shteyngart, S.
1993-08-01
The High Level Vibration Test data are used to assess the accuracy and usefulness of current engineering methodologies for predicting crack initiation and growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow under complex, large amplitude loading. The data were obtained by testing at room temperature a large scale modified model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. Fatigue crack initiation time is reasonably predicted by applying a modified local strain approach (Coffin-Mason-Goodman equation) in conjunction with Miner`s rule of cumulative damage. Three fracture mechanics methodologies are applied to investigate the crack growth behavior observed in the hot leg of the model. These are: the {Delta}K methodology (Paris law), {Delta}J concepts and a recently developed limit load stress-range criterion. The report includes a discussion on the pros and cons of the analysis involved in each of the methods, the role played by the key parameters influencing the formulation and a comparison of the results with the actual crack growth behavior observed in the vibration test program. Some conclusions and recommendations for improvement of the methodologies are also provided.
Crack-Growth Behavior of Laser Surface-Alloyed Low-Carbon Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šturm, Roman; Žnidaršič, Matjaž; Grum, Janez
2013-09-01
Crack-growth behavior of Nd:YAG laser surface-alloyed as-received low-carbon steel Fe360B was evaluated. Thin surface layer was alloyed with silicon carbide SiC. During laser surface alloying process SiC powder dissolved in the melted pool. The surface-alloyed layer had as-solidified structure composed mainly of dendrites of ferrite, fine martensite needles, and retained austenite. The micro-hardness of the laser surface-alloyed layer was about 850 HV0.1. In laser surface-alloyed layer compressive residual stresses of average amount of σ RS = -100 MPa were obtained. In crack-growth tests comparison between specimens of as-received low-carbon steel Fe360B and the same steel with laser-alloyed surface was made. As the crack propagation was perpendicular to the interface between the laser-alloyed layers and the base metal, laser surface-alloyed specimens exhibited higher crack-growth resistance in the low stress intensity factor range Δ K th than as-received steel specimens.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seshadri, Banavara R.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.
2013-01-01
Friction stir welding (FSW) fabrication technology is being adopted in aerospace applications. The use of this technology can reduce production cost, lead-times, reduce structural weight and need for fasteners and lap joints, which are typically the primary locations of crack initiation and multi-site fatigue damage in aerospace structures. FSW is a solid state welding process that is well-suited for joining aluminum alloy components; however, the process introduces residual stresses (both tensile and compressive) in joined components. The propagation of fatigue cracks in a residual stress field and the resulting redistribution of the residual stress field and its effect on crack closure have to be estimated. To insure the safe insertion of complex integral structures, an accurate understanding of the fatigue crack growth behavior and the complex crack path process must be understood. A life prediction methodology for fatigue crack growth through the weld under the influence of residual stresses in aluminum alloy structures fabricated using FSW will be detailed. The effects and significance of the magnitude of residual stress at a crack tip on the estimated crack tip driving force are highlighted. The location of the crack tip relative to the FSW and the effect of microstructure on fatigue crack growth are considered. A damage tolerant life prediction methodology accounting for microstructural variation in the weld zone and residual stress field will lead to the design of lighter and more reliable aerospace structures
Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of Thin Sheet Titanium Alloy Ti 6-2-2-2-2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Stephen W.; Piascik, Robert S.
2001-01-01
Fatigue crack growth rates of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 as a function of stress ratio, temperature (24 or 177 C), tensile orientation and environment (laboratory air or ultrahigh vacuum) are presented. Fatigue crack growth rates of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 are also compared with two more widely used titanium alloys (Timetal 21S and Ti 6Al-4V). The fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 in laboratory air is dependent upon stress ratio (R), particularly in the near-threshold and lower-Paris regimes. For low R (less than approximately 0.5), da/dN is influenced by crack closure behavior. At higher R (> 0.5), a maximum stress-intensity factor (K(sub max)) dependence is observed. Fatigue crack growth behavior is affected by test temperature between 24 and 177 C. For moderate to high applied cyclic-stress-intensity factors (delta-K), the slope of the log da/dN versus log delta-K curve is lower in 177 C laboratory air than 24 C laboratory air. The difference in slope results in lower values of da/dN for exposure to 177 C laboratory air compared to room temperature laboratory air. The onset of this temperature effect is dependent upon the applied R. This temperature effect has not been observed in ultrahigh vacuum. Specimen orientation has been shown to affect the slope of the log da/dN versus log delta-K curve in the Paris regime.
Crack Growth Mechanisms under Anti-Plane Shear in Composite Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horner, Allison Lynne
The research conducted for this dissertation focuses on determining the mechanisms associated with crack growth in polymer matrix composite laminates subjected to anti-plane shear (mode III) loading. For mode III split-beam test methods were proposed, and initial evaluations were conducted. A single test method was selected for further evaluation. Using this test method, it was determined that the apparent mode III delamination toughness, GIIIc , depended on geometry, which indicated a true material property was not being measured. Transverse sectioning and optical microscopy revealed an array of transverse matrix cracks, or echelon cracks, oriented at approximately 45° and intersecting the plane of the delamination. Subsequent investigations found the echelon array formed prior to the onset of planar delamination advance and that growth of the planar delamination is always coupled to echelon array formation in these specimens. The evolution of the fracture surfaces formed by the echelon array and planar delamination were studied, and it was found that the development was similar to crack growth in homogenous materials subjected to mode III or mixed mode I-III loading, although the composite laminate architecture constrained the fracture surface development differently than homogenous materials. It was also found that, for split-beam specimens such as those used herein, applying an anti-plane shear load results in twisting of the specimen's uncracked region which gives rise to a mixed-mode I-III load condition. This twisting has been related to the apparent mode III toughness as well as the orientation of the transverse matrix cracks. A finite element model was then developed to study the mechanisms of initial echelon array formation. From this, it is shown that an echelon array will develop, but will become self-limiting prior to the onset of planar delamination growth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; Newman, John A.
2015-01-01
The experimental methods to determine near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate data are prescribed in ASTM standard E647. To produce near-threshold data at a constant stress ratio (R), the applied stress-intensity factor (K) is decreased as the crack grows based on a specified K-gradient. Consequently, as the fatigue crack growth rate threshold is approached and the crack tip opening displacement decreases, remote crack wake contact may occur due to the plastically deformed crack wake surfaces and shield the growing crack tip resulting in a reduced crack tip driving force and non-representative crack growth rate data. If such data are used to life a component, the evaluation could yield highly non-conservative predictions. Although this anomalous behavior has been shown to be affected by K-gradient, starting K level, residual stresses, environmental assisted cracking, specimen geometry, and material type, the specifications within the standard to avoid this effect are limited to a maximum fatigue crack growth rate and a suggestion for the K-gradient value. This paper provides parallel experimental and computational simulations for the K-decreasing method for two materials (an aluminum alloy, AA 2024-T3 and a titanium alloy, Ti 6-2-2-2-2) to aid in establishing clear understanding of appropriate testing requirements. These simulations investigate the effect of K-gradient, the maximum value of stress-intensity factor applied, and material type. A material independent term is developed to guide in the selection of appropriate test conditions for most engineering alloys. With the use of such a term, near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate tests can be performed at accelerated rates, near-threshold data can be acquired in days instead of weeks without having to establish testing criteria through trial and error, and these data can be acquired for most engineering materials, even those that are produced in relatively small product forms.
The effect of microstructure on 650 C fatigue crack growth in P/M Astroloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gayda, J.; Miner, R. V.
1983-01-01
The effect of microstructure on fatigue crack propagation at 650 C has been studied in a P/M nickel-base superalloy, Astroloy. Crack propagation data were obtained in air and vacuum at 20 cpm with a modified compact tension specimen. The rate of crack growth, da/dn, was correlated with the stress intensity range. Key microstructural variables examined were grain size and the distribution and size of the strengthening gamma prime phase. A fine grain size less than 20 microns always promoted rapid, intergranular failure, while a large grain size promoted slower, transgranular failure which decreased as the size and volume fraction of aging gamma prime was manipulated so as to increase alloy strength. The rapid, intergranular mode of failure of the fine grain microstructures was suppressed in vacuum.
Growth kinetics of sulfur nanoparticles in aqueous surfactant solutions.
Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh; Paria, Santanu
2011-02-15
Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications when present as nanoparticles. Despite the practicable applications, limited studies are available in the literature related to synthesis of sulfur nanoparticles. Growth kinetics of colloidal sulfur particles synthesized from aqueous solutions using different surfactants have been studied here. The effects of different parameters such as reactant concentration, temperature, sonication, types of acids, types of surfactants, and even surfactant concentration are studied on the growth kinetics. Since the reaction rate is fast, particle growth depends on the parameters which affect diffusion of sulfur molecules. There is a linear relationship found among the reactant concentration and the particle coarsening rate constant. The growth kinetics was studied in the presence of different surfactants such as nonionic (poly(oxyethylene) p-tert-octylphenyl ether, TX-100), anionic (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDBS), cationic (cetyltrimethyammonium bromide, CTAB) and results show the coarsening constant changes according to the following order: water>TX-100>SDBS>CTAB. The particle growth rate also depends on the surfactant concentration, coarsening rate constant decreases with the increase in surfactant concentration and become constant close to the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The coarsening rate constant also highly depends on the types of acid used as catalyst. PMID:21147482
Hale, D A; Heald, J D; Horn, R M; Jewett, C W; Kass, J N; Mehta, H S; Ranganath, S; Sharma, S R
1982-07-01
This report presents the results of a research program conducted to evaluate the behavior of hypothetical stress corrosion cracks in large diameter austenitic piping. The program included major tasks, a design margin assessment, an evaluation of crack growth and crack arrest, and development of a predictive model. As part of the margin assessment, the program developed diagrams which predicted net section collapse as a function of crack size. In addition, plasticity and dynamic load effects were also considered in evaluating collapse. Analytical methods for evaluating these effects were developed and were benchmarked by dynamic tests of 4-in.-diameter piping. The task of evaluating the growth behavior of stress corrosion cracks focused on developing constant load and cyclic growth rate data that could be used with the predictive model. Secondly, laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the conditions under which growing stress corrosion cracks would arrest when they intersected stress corrosion resistant weld metal. The third task successfully developed a model to predict the behavior of cracks in austenitic piping. This model relies on crack growth data and the critical crack size predicted by the net section collapse approach.
Multiscale approach to micro/macro fatigue crack growth in 2024-T3 aluminum panel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sih, G. C.
2014-01-01
When two contacting solid surfaces are tightly closed and invisible to the naked eye, the discontinuity is said to be microscopic regardless of whether its length is short or long. By this definition, it is not sufficient to distinguish the difference between a micro- and macro-crack by using the length parameter. Microcracks in high strength metal alloys have been known to be several centimeters or longer. Considered in this work is a dual scale fatigue crack growth model where the main crack can be micro or macro but there prevails an inherent microscopic tip region that is damaged depending on the irregularities of the microstructure. This region is referred to as the "micro-tip" and can be simulated by a sharp wedge with different angles in addition to mixed boundary conditions. The combination is sufficient to model microscopic entities in the form of voids, inclusions, precipitations, interfaces, in addition to subgrain imperfections, or cluster of dislocations. This is accomplished by using the method of "singularity representation" such that closed form asymptotic solutions can be obtained for the development of fatigue crack growth rate relations with three parameters. They include: (1) the crack surface tightness σ* represented by σ o/ σ ∞ = 0.3-0.5 for short cracks in region I, and 0.1-0.2 for long cracks in region II, (2) the micro/macro material properties reflected by the shear modulus ratio µ* (=µmicro/µmacro varying between 2 and 5) and (3) the most sensitive parameter d* being the micro-tip characteristic length d* (= d/ d o) whose magnitude decreases in the direction of region I→II. The existing fatigue crack growth data for 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum sheets are used to reinterpret the two-parameter d a/d N= C(Δ K) n relation where Δ K has now been re-derived for a microcrack with surfaces tightly in contact. The contact force will depend on the mean stress σm or mean stress ratio R as the primary parameter and on the stress
Rosenberger, A.H.
1993-01-01
Two transient crack growth phenomena are investigated in high temperature structural alloys. The first phenomenon examined is the growth behavior of small cracks under elastic-plastic conditions in Alloy 718 at 650 C. The second phenomenon to be investigated is the mechanism of the creep-fatigue crack growth in a new near-alpha titanium alloy, Ti-1100. Understanding these phenomena is essential for accurate fracture mechanics based residual life component management techniques. The first part of the dissertation is an experimental study of the elastic-plastic fatigue behavior of small surface cracks in Alloy 718 at 650 C conducted under conditions of total strain control. During cycling, the crack growth was continuously monitored using a direct current potential drop technique while the influence of crack closure was monitored using a laser interferometry technique measuring the crack mouth opening displacement. The crack tip plastic zone size was also measured using a post-test delta phase decoration technique. Results show that the growth rates of the small cracks correlate well with long crack data when using an appropriate elastic-plastic driving force parameter. The anomalous crack growth rates observed in some experiments were found to be experimental transients dominated by the crack initiation fracture and do not represent an intrinsic behavior of Alloy 718. The second part of this document deals with a series of crack growth experiments performed on the near-alpha titanium alloy, Ti-1100, to determine the mechanism of the creep-fatigue interaction. Based on pure creep crack growth results, the increase in the creep-fatigue crack growth rate is not amenable to separate contributions of creep crack growth and fatigue crack growth. A mechanism has been proposed to account for the increase in creep-fatigue crack growth rate based on the planar slip of titanium alloys which results in the formation of dislocation pileups at the prior beta grain boundaries.
Is Frost Cracking By Segregation Ice Growth One of the Mechanisms That Erode Bedrock River Margins?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alden, L. L.; Sklar, L. S.
2014-12-01
Rivers cut vertically and laterally into bedrock. However, control on the width of bedrock rivers is an unsolved problem. In alpine settings, frost cracking is one of the mechanisms that break down bedrock. Segregation ice drives growth of ice lenses within rock masses. When the temperature of the rock is within the "frost cracking window" of -3 to -8 °C, ice lenses can attract liquid water. Expanding ice lenses can exert sufficient pressure to fracture the rock. We hypothesize that alpine rivers may promote segregation ice growth at the river margin by supplying water, but also may inhibit frost cracking by supplying heat. We find support for this hypothesis in data collected along the Tuolumne and Mokelumne rivers in the Sierra Nevada, California. A 1D heat flow model predicts that frost cracking should occur above 2325 masl in this area. To test for a river effect, we measured fracture density along the Tuolumne River at ~2600 masl, finding that density at the river margin is significantly greater than on adjacent hillslopes in the Cathedral Peak granodiorite. We then deployed data loggers on the Mokelumne River (at 2486 masl) over the winter of 2013/2014 to record water, surface and subsurface rock temperatures at varying depths and distances from the river. Temperatures within the frost cracking window were only recorded at a distance of ~5 m from the river, suggesting an insulating effect from the river and snow cover. Rock temperatures 1 m deep equilibrated at ~ 2 °C, significantly colder than predicted by the 1D model. Ongoing work includes terrestrial LIDAR scans to detect erosion of the river bank at the Mokelumne site, and development of a 2D heat flow model to predict subsurface rock temperatures for varying surface boundary conditions and channel morphology. We expect that further analysis will reveal systematic relationships between the surface boundary conditions and rock temperature at depth, enabling predictive modeling of frost cracking
Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.
Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Soomin; Han, Minkyung; Yoon, Yohan
2014-05-01
In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacterial and Staph. aureus cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of Staph. aureus to calculate kinetic parameters such as the maximum growth rate in log CFU units (r max; log CFU/g/h) and the lag phase duration (λ; h). The effects of temperature on the square root of r max and on the natural logarithm of λ were modelled in the second stage (secondary model). Independent experimental data (observed data) were compared with prediction and the respective root mean square error compared with the RMSE of the fit on the original data, as a measure of model performance. The total growth of bacteria was observed at 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C on both cheeses. The r max values increased with storage temperature (P<0·05), but a significant effect of storage temperature on λ values was only observed between 4 and 15 °C (P<0·05). The square root model and linear equation were found to be appropriate for description of the effect of storage temperature on growth kinetics (R 2=0·894-0·983). Our results indicate that the models developed in this study should be useful for describing the growth kinetics of Staph. aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses. PMID:24731395
Lee, S. Y.; Sun, Yinan; An, Ke; Choo, Hahn; Hubbard, Camden R; Liaw, Peter K
2010-01-01
Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the crack-growth retardation phenomenon after a single tensile overload by mapping both one-dimensional and two-dimensional residual-strain distributions around the crack tip in a series of compact-tension specimens representing various crack-growth stages through an overload-induced retardation period. The results clearly show a large compressive residual-strain field near the crack tip immediately after the overload. As the fatigue crack propagates through the overload-induced plastic zone, the compressive residual strains are gradually relaxed, and a new compressive residual-strain field is developed around the propagating crack tip, illustrating that the subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone grows out of the large plastic zone caused by the overloading. The relationship between the overload-induced plastic zone and subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone, and its influence on the residual-strain distributions in the perturbed plastic zone are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Yansong; Li, Xin; Chen, Gang; Mei, Yunhui; Chen, Xu
2015-02-01
Evolution of creep damage in nano-silver sintered lap shear joints was investigated at 325°C. Non-destructive x-ray three-dimensional (3D) visualization clearly revealed the crack-growth behavior of the joint; this could be divided into three stages. In the initial stage, little development of cracks occurred. In the second stage, cracks propagated at a consistent rate. In the final stage, rapid extension of the cracks led directly to fracture of the joint. Three-dimensional volume-rendered images and fractographic analysis showed that the growth of macroscopic initial cracks at the interfaces dominated the creep fracture process. Initial failure of nano-silver sintered lap shear joints often occurred at interfacial nano-silver paste layers. Both the size and position of the initial interfacial cracks had significant effects on the final creep failure of the joints, and higher stresses led to greater porosity and earlier failure.
The Growth of Naturally-Generated Small Fatigue Cracks in a Nickel-Base Single-Crystal Superalloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yandt, Scott A.
An experimental and analytical study on the formation and growth small fatigue cracks embedded in a notch in single-crystal superalloy has been investigated. The experimental program consisted of 12 constant amplitude fatigue tests performed on single-edge notch (SEN) fatigue specimens oriented with the loading axis along [010] and with a notch factor of 2.7. The fatigue tests concentrated on one temperature (650°C) and loading condition with the secondary crystallographic orientation---the notch orientation---being the primary variable. Two secondary crystallographic orientations were considered in the present study, [101] and [100]. In the analytical study, the distribution of stresses and strains in the notch region and the stress-intensity factors and the elastic-plastic J-integral for Mode-I semi-elliptical surface cracks embedded at the notch root were investigated using the finite element method (FEM). The anisotropic material properties were shown to have a significant effect on both the stress and strain distribution in the notch region and the crack-tip parameters. The results of the experimental study have shown that fatigue cracks formation occurs via expansion of elliptical subsurface interdendritic pores located at high stress regions in the notch. Once the subsurface crack intersected the notch surface, subsequent crack growth occurred as semi-elliptical surface cracks. The secondary crystallographic orientation had a marked effect on crack-initiation life (the number of cycles to form a crack with a surface length of 760 mum) but no effect on small crack propagation behaviour. Crack initiation life predictions were made using a holistic lifing approach that considers the size, distribution and local stresses acting at the subsurface pores and utilizes the small fatigue crack growth data obtained from the experimental study. The predictions were found to agree reasonably well with the experimental test results and to account for the crack initiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, D. L.; Chaturvedi, M. C.
2000-06-01
Tensile properties and fatigue crack propagation behavior of a 2195-T8 Al-Li alloy were investigated at different stress ratios, with particular emphasis on their dependence on specimen orientation. Specimens with orientations of 0, 15, 30, 45, and 90 deg to the rolling direction were tested. The alloy contained a strong brass-type texture and a profuse distribution of platelike precipitates of T 1 (Al2CuLi) phase on {111} matrix planes. Both tensile strength and fatigue thresholds were found to be strongly dependent on the specimen orientation, with the lowest values observed along the direction at 45 deg to the rolling direction. The effect of stress ratio on fatigue threshold could generally be explained by a modified crack closure concept. The growth of fatigue crack in this alloy was found to exhibit a significant crystallographic cracking and especially macroscopic crack deflection. The specimens oriented in the L-T + 45 deg had the smallest deflection angle, while the specimens in the L-T and T-L orientations exhibited a large deflection angle. The dependence of the fatigue threshold on the specimen orientation could be rationalized by considering an equivalent fatigue threshold calculated from both mode I and mode II values due to the crack deflection. A four-step approach on the basis of Schmid’s law combined with specific crystallographic textures is proposed to predict the fatigue crack deflection angle. Good agreement between the theoretical prediction and experimental results was observed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Dawicke, D. S.
1989-01-01
The present paper is concerned with the application of an analytical crack-closure model to study crack growth under various load histories. The model was based on a concept like the Dugdale model, but modified to leave plastically deformed material in the wake of the advancing crack tip. The thickness effect was accounted for by using a 'constraint' factor on tensile yielding at the crack tip. The model was used to correlate crack-growth rates under constant-amplitude loading, and to predict crack growth under variable-amplitude loading on a high-strength aluminum alloy (7475-T7351) sheet material. The experimental data was obtained from Zhang et al. Predicted crack-growth lives agreed well with experimental data. For ten crack-growth tests subjected to various variable-amplitude load histories, the ratio of predicted-to-experimental lives ranged from 0.54 to 1.19. The mean value of predicted-to-experimental lives was 0.95 with a standard error of 0.2 for a constraint factor of 1.9.
Saxena, A.; Stock, S.R.
1990-04-15
Objective of this 3-y study was to conduct creep and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments and to characterize the crack tip damage mechanisms in a model material (Cu-1wt%Sb), which is known to cavitate at grain boundaries under creep deformation. Results were: In presence of large scale cavitation damage and crack branching, time rate of creep crack growth da/dt does not correlate with C{sub t} or C{sup *}. When cavitation damage is constrained, da/dt is characterized by C{sub t}. Area fraction of grain boundary cavitated is the single damage parameter for the extent of cavitation damage ahead of crack tips. C{sub t} is used for the creep-fatigue crack growth behavior. In materials prone to rapid cavity nucleation, creep cracks grow faster initially and then reach a steady state whose growth rate is determined by C{sub t}. Percent creep life exhausted correlates with average cavity diameter and fraction of grain boundary area occupied by cavities. Synchrotron x-ray tomographic microscopy was used to image individual cavities in Cu-1wt% Sb. A methodology was developed for predicting the remaining life of elevated temperature power plant components; (C{sub t}){sub avg} was used to correlate creep-fatigue crack growth in Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steel and weldments.
Swelling and Time-Dependent Crack Growth in SiC/SiC Composites
Henager, Charles H.
2007-08-01
SiC continuous-fiber composites are considered for nuclear applications but concern has centered on the differential materials response of the fiber, fiber/matrix interphase (fiber coating), and matrix. In our study, a continuous-fiber composite is simulated by four concentric cylinders to explore the magnitude of radial stresses when irradiation swelling of the various components is incorporated. The outputs of this model were input into a time-dependent crack-bridging model to predict crack growth rates in an environment where thermal and irradiation creep of SiC-based fibers is considered. Under assumed Coulomb friction the fiber-matrix sliding stress decreases with increasing dose and then increases once the pyrocarbon swelling reaches “turn around.” This causes an initial increase in crack growth rate and higher stresses in crack bridging fibers at higher doses. An assumed irradiation creep law for fine-grained SiC fibers is shown to dominate the radiation response.
Crack growth behavior of encapsulation processed SiC-PMMA particulate composites
Sheu, C.H.
1990-05-01
The effect of processing on the fatigue crack propagation and fracture toughness of ceramic-polymer composites was investigated. A new process for composite production was developed with homogeneous particle distribution and low residual stress levels in mind. PMMA was uniformly distributed by encapsulating the SiC substrate by means of precipitation polymerization. The encapsulation processed powders were then compacted at temperatures above T{sub g} to form the composite. The encapsulation process was optimized by varying the initial concentrations of the reactants until homogeneous nucleation was suppressed. The coatings were found to be continuous at the SiC-PMMA interface, with particle agglomeration occurring between coated particles. Polymer loadings equivalent to 30 vol % SiC were achieved. Composites of several particle size ranges were tested under cyclic fatigue and static loading conditions. Fatigue growth rates and fracture toughness data display a trend of increasing crack growth resistance with increasing particle size, with encapsulation processed composites outperforming conventionally cast composites in both cyclic fatigue and fracture resistance. The largest K{sub Ic} value was found to be 2.95 MPa(m){sup 1/2}, a factor of 3 increase over un-reinforced PMMA. The roles of crack deflection, shielding, bridging, and pinning in enhancing toughness were discussed in light of crack profile fracture surface details. 65 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.
Prediction of fatique crack growth under flight-simulation loading with the modified CORPUS model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padmadinata, U. H.; Schijve, J.
1994-01-01
The CORPUS (Computation Of Retarded Propagation Under Spectrum loading) crack growth prediction model for variable-amplitude loading, as introduced by De Koning, was based on crack closure. It includes a multiple-overload effect and a transition from plane strain to plane stress. In the modified CORPUS model an underload affected zone (ULZ) is introduced, which is significant for flight-simulation loading in view of the once per flight compressive ground load. The ULZ is associated with reversed plastic deformation induced by the underloads after crack closure has already occurred. Predictions of the crack growth fatigue life are presented for a large variety of flight-simulation test series on 2024-T3 sheet specimens in order to reveal the effects of a number of variables: the design stress level, the gust spectrum severity, the truncation level (clipping), omission of small cycles, and the ground stress level. Tests with different load sequences are also included. The trends of the effects induced by the variables are correctly predicted. The quantitative agreement between the predictions and the test results is also satisfactory.
Development of a Practical Methodology for Elastic-Plastic and Fully Plastic Fatigue Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Lee, Y.-D.; Russell, D. A.; Orient, G. E.
1999-01-01
A practical engineering methodology has been developed to analyze and predict fatigue crack growth rates under elastic-plastic and fully plastic conditions. The methodology employs the closure-corrected effective range of the J-integral, (Delta)J(sub eff), as the governing parameter. The methodology contains original and literature J and (Delta)J solutions for specific geometries, along with general methods for estimating J for other geometries and other loading conditions, including combined mechanical loading and combined primary and secondary loading. The methodology also contains specific practical algorithms that translate a J solution into a prediction of fatigue crack growth rate or life, including methods for determining crack opening levels, crack instability conditions, and material properties. A critical core subset of the J solutions and the practical algorithms has been implemented into independent elastic-plastic NASGRO modules. All components of the entire methodology, including the NASGRO modules, have been verified through analysis and experiment, and limits of applicability have been identified.
Development of a Practical Methodology for Elastic-Plastic and Fully Plastic Fatigue Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Lee, Y. -D.; Russell, D. A.; Orient, G. E.
1999-01-01
A practical engineering methodology has been developed to analyze and predict fatigue crack growth rates under elastic-plastic and fully plastic conditions. The methodology employs the closure-corrected effective range of the J-integral, delta J(sub eff) as the governing parameter. The methodology contains original and literature J and delta J solutions for specific geometries, along with general methods for estimating J for other geometries and other loading conditions, including combined mechanical loading and combined primary and secondary loading. The methodology also contains specific practical algorithms that translate a J solution into a prediction of fatigue crack growth rate or life, including methods for determining crack opening levels, crack instability conditions, and material properties. A critical core subset of the J solutions and the practical algorithms has been implemented into independent elastic-plastic NASGRO modules. All components of the entire methodology, including the NASGRO modules, have been verified through analysis and experiment, and limits of applicability have been identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popelyukh, A. I.; Popelyukh, P. A.; Bataev, A. A.; Nikulina, A. A.; Smirnov, A. I.
2016-03-01
The processes of the fracture of 40Kh and U8 steels under cyclic dynamic compression are studied. It has been found that the main cause for the fracture of the cyclically compressed specimens is the propagation of cracks due to the effect of residual tensile stresses, which arise near the tips of the cracks at the stage of the unloading of the specimens. The growth rate of a crack has the maximum value at the initial stage of its propagation in the vicinity of the stress concentrator. As the crack propagates deep into the specimen, its growth rate decreases and depends only slightly on the real cross section of the specimen. The model of the process of the fatigue fracture of the steels under dynamic loading by a cyclically varied compressive force is proposed. It has been found that the high fatigue endurance is provided by tempering at 200°C for the 40Kh steel and at 300°C for the U8 steel.
Growth Morphologies of Wax in the Presence Kinetic Inhibitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tetervak, Alexander; Hutter, Jeffrey
2004-03-01
Kinetic inhibitors are molecules that alter crystal growth rates and morphologies by adsorbing to growth faces. Such species are used in many commercial processes to control microsctructure, and in other cases to prevent crystallization altogether. Despite their importance, the details of their mechanisms are largely unverified. We are studying the effects of such inhibitors on the crystallization of normal alkanes from solution. We find that inhibitors drastically alter the crystal morphology. As in similar systems, we see ``burst growth,'' in which newly formed solid is able to grow faster due to lower inhibitor coverage. Our experiments show several growth morphologies as a function of conditions: a tree-like structure that in some cases forms bands, and spherulites with characteristics very similar to those seen in polymers. Here, we characterize the front morphology as a function of these conditions and compare the results to numerical models that capture the essential growth behavior.
Creep and Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth at Structural Discontinuities and Welds
Dr. F. W. Brust; Dr. G. M. Wilkowski; Dr. P. Krishnaswamy; Mr. Keith Wichman
2010-01-27
The subsection ASME NH high temperature design procedure does not admit crack-like defects into the structural components. The US NRC identified the lack of treatment of crack growth within NH as a limitation of the code and thus this effort was undertaken. This effort is broken into two parts. Part 1, summarized here, involved examining all high temperature creep-fatigue crack growth codes being used today and from these, the task objective was to choose a methodology that is appropriate for possible implementation within NH. The second part of this task, which has just started, is to develop design rules for possible implementation within NH. This second part is a challenge since all codes require step-by-step analysis procedures to be undertaken in order to assess the crack growth and life of the component. Simple rules for design do not exist in any code at present. The codes examined in this effort included R5, RCC-MR (A16), BS 7910, API 579, and ATK (and some lesser known codes). There are several reasons that the capability for assessing cracks in high temperature nuclear components is desirable. These include: (1) Some components that are part of GEN IV reactors may have geometries that have sharp corners - which are essentially cracks. Design of these components within the traditional ASME NH procedure is quite challenging. It is natural to ensure adequate life design by modeling these features as cracks within a creep-fatigue crack growth procedure. (2) Workmanship flaws in welds sometimes occur and are accepted in some ASME code sections. It can be convenient to consider these as flaws when making a design life assessment. (3) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and inspection methods after fabrication are limited in the size of the crack or flaw that can be detected. It is often convenient to perform a life assessment using a flaw of a size that represents the maximum size that can elude detection. (4) Flaws that are observed using in-service detection
Kinetic Roughening Transition and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.
2004-01-01
Interpretation of lysozyme crystal growth rates using well-established physical theories enabled the discovery of a phenomenon possibly indicative of kinetic roughening. For example, lysozyme crystals grown above a critical supersaturation sigma, (where supersaturation sigma = ln c/c(sub eq), c = the protein concentration and c(sub eq) = the solubility concentration) exhibit microscopically rough surfaces due to the continuous addition of growth units anywhere on the surface of a crystal. The rate of crystal growth, V(sub c), for the continuous growth process is determined by the continuous flux of macromolecules onto a unit area of the crystal surface, a, from a distance, xi, per unit time due to diffusion, and a probability of attachment onto the crystal surface, expressed. Based upon models applied, the energetics of lysozyme crystal growth was determined. The magnitudes of the energy barriers of crystal growth for both the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals are compared. Finally, evidence supportive of the kinetic roughening hypothesis is presented.
Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Overman, Nicole R.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.
2013-08-15
Significant intergranular (IG) crack growth during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests has been documented during tests in simulated PWR primary water on two alloy 152 specimens cut from a weldment produced by ANL. The cracking morphology was observed to change from transgranular (TG) to mixed mode (up to ~60% IG) during gentle cycling and cycle + hold loading conditions. Measured crack growth rates under these conditions often suggested a moderate degree of environmental enhancement consistent with faster growth on grain boundaries. However, overall SCC propagation rates at constant stress intensity (K) or constant load were very low in all cases. Initial SCC rates up to 6x10-9 mm/s were occasionally measured, but constant K/load growth rates dropped below ~1x10-9 mm/s with time even when significant IG engagement existed. Direct comparisons were made among loading conditions, measured crack growth response and cracking morphology during each test to assess IGSCC susceptibility of the alloy 152 specimens. These results were analyzed with respect to our previous SCC crack growth rate measurements on alloy 152/52 welds.
Periodic Overload and Transport Spectrum Fatigue Crack Growth Tests of Ti62222STA and Al2024T3 Sheet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Edward P.
1999-01-01
Variable amplitude loading crack growth tests have been conducted to provide data that can be used to evaluate crack growth prediction codes. Tests with periodic overloads or overloads followed by underloads were conducted on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo-2Cr solution treated and aged (Ti62222STA) material at room temperature and at 350 F. Spectrum fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on two materials (Ti62222STA and aluminum alloy 2024-T3) using two transport lower-wing test spectra at two temperatures (room temperature and 350 F (Ti only)). Test lives (growth from an initial crack half-length of 0.15 in. to failure) were recorded in all tests and the crack length against cycles (or flights) data were recorded in many of the tests. The following observations were made regarding the test results: (1) in tests of the Ti62222STA material, the tests at 350 F had longer lives than those at room temperature, (2) in tests to the MiniTwist spectrum, the Al2024T3 material showed much greater crack growth retardations due to the highest stresses in the spectrum than did the Ti62222STA material, and (3) comparisons of material crack growth performances on an "equal weight" basis were spectrum dependent.
Effect of chloride contamination in MON-1 propellant on crack growth properties of metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moran, C. M.; Toth, L. R.
1981-01-01
The effect of a high level of chloride content (800 ppm) in MON-1 propellant on the crack growth properties of seven materials was investigated. Sustained load tests were conducted at 49 C (120 F) temperature with thin gauge tensile specimens having a semi-elliptical surface flaw. Alloys included aluminum 1100, 3003, 5086 and 6061; corrosion resistant steel types A286 and 347; and titanium 6Al-4V. The configurations tested with precracked flaws exposed to MON-1 were: parent or base metal, center weld, and heat affected zone. It was concluded that this chloride level in MON-1 does not affect the stress corrosion, crack growth properties of these alloys after 1000 hour exposure duration under high stresses.
A Review of Fatigue Crack Growth for Pipeline Steels Exposed to Hydrogen
Nanninga, N.; Slifka, A.; Levy, Y.; White, C.
2010-01-01
Hydrogen pipeline systems offer an economical means of storing and transporting energy in the form of hydrogen gas. Pipelines can be used to transport hydrogen that has been generated at solar and wind farms to and from salt cavern storage locations. In addition, pipeline transportation systems will be essential before widespread hydrogen fuel cell vehicle technology becomes a reality. Since hydrogen pipeline use is expected to grow, the mechanical integrity of these pipelines will need to be validated under the presence of pressurized hydrogen. This paper focuses on a review of the fatigue crack growth response of pipeline steels when exposed to gaseous hydrogen environments. Because of defect-tolerant design principles in pipeline structures, it is essential that designers consider hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth behavior in these applications. PMID:27134796
Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.
2015-09-16
Fatigue crack initiation in the high cycle fatigue regime is strongly influenced by microstructural features. Research efforts have usually focused on predicting fatigue resistance against crack incubation without considering the early fatigue crack growth after encountering the first grain boundary. However, a significant fraction of the variability of the total fatigue life can be attributed to growth of small cracks as they encounter the first few grain boundaries, rather than crack formation within the first grain. Our paper builds on the framework previously developed by the authors to assess microstructure-sensitive small fatigue crack formation and early growth under complex loading conditions. Moreover, the scheme employs finite element simulations that explicitly render grains and crystallographic directions along with simulation of microstructurally small fatigue crack growth from grain to grain. The methodology employs a crystal plasticity algorithm in ABAQUS that was previously calibrated to study fatigue crack initiation in RR1000 Ni-base superalloy. Our work present simulations with non-zero applied mean strains and geometric discontinuities that were not previously considered for calibration. Results exhibit trends similar to those found in experiments for multiple metallic materials, conveying a consistent physical description of fatigue damage phenomena.
Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.
2015-09-16
Fatigue crack initiation in the high cycle fatigue regime is strongly influenced by microstructural features. Research efforts have usually focused on predicting fatigue resistance against crack incubation without considering the early fatigue crack growth after encountering the first grain boundary. However, a significant fraction of the variability of the total fatigue life can be attributed to growth of small cracks as they encounter the first few grain boundaries, rather than crack formation within the first grain. Our paper builds on the framework previously developed by the authors to assess microstructure-sensitive small fatigue crack formation and early growth under complex loadingmore » conditions. Moreover, the scheme employs finite element simulations that explicitly render grains and crystallographic directions along with simulation of microstructurally small fatigue crack growth from grain to grain. The methodology employs a crystal plasticity algorithm in ABAQUS that was previously calibrated to study fatigue crack initiation in RR1000 Ni-base superalloy. Our work present simulations with non-zero applied mean strains and geometric discontinuities that were not previously considered for calibration. Results exhibit trends similar to those found in experiments for multiple metallic materials, conveying a consistent physical description of fatigue damage phenomena.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everett, R. A., Jr.; Matthews, W. T.; Prabhakaran, R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Dubberly, M. J.
2001-01-01
Fatigue and crack growth tests have been conducted on 4340 steel and 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, respectively, to assess the effects of shot peening on fatigue life and the effects of shot and laser peening on crack growth. Two current programs involving fixed and rotary-wing aircraft will not be using shot peened structures. Since the shot peening compressive residual stress depth is usually less than the 0.05-inch initial damage tolerance crack size, it is believed by some that shot peening should have no beneficial effects toward retarding crack growth. In this study cracks were initiated from an electronic-discharged machining flaw which was cycled to produce a fatigue crack of approximately 0.05-inches in length and then the specimens were peened. Test results showed that after peening the crack growth rates were noticeably slower when the cracks were fairly short for both the shot and laser peened specimens resulting in a crack growth life that was a factor of 2 to 4 times greater than the results of the average unpeened test. Once the cracks reached a length of approximately 0.1-inches the growth rates were about the same for the peened and unpeened specimens. Fatigue tests on 4340 steel showed that the endurance limit of a test specimen with a 0.002-inch-deep machining-like scratch was reduced by approximately 40 percent. However, if the "scratched" specimen was shot peened after inserting the scratch, the fatigue life returned to almost 100 percent of the unflawed specimens original fatigue life.
Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen
Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J
2014-01-01
A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels. PMID:26601024
Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior of nicalon/SiC composites
Miriyala, N.; Liaw, P.K.; Yu, N.
1995-04-01
The objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of fatigue crack growth phenomenon in Nicalon/SiC composites. Ultrasonic measurements were continued on the Nicalon/SiC composite specimens to correlate elastic moduli with percentage porosity in the in-plane as well as through-thickness directions. A micromechanics model based on periodic microstructure was developed to predict the elastic stiffness constants of the Nicalon/SiC composites. The predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental results.
Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen.
Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J
2014-01-01
A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels. PMID:26601024
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Nemeth, Noel; Gyekenyesi, John P.
1994-01-01
The slow crack growth parameters of a hot-pressed silicon nitride were determined at 1200 and 1300 C in air by statically, dynamically and cyclicly loading bend specimens. The fatigue parameters were estimated using the recently developed CARES/Life computer code. Good agreement exists between the flexural results. However, fatigue susceptibility under static uniaxial tensile loading, reported elsewhere, was greater than in flexure. Cyclic flexural loading resulted in the lowest apparent flexural fatigue susceptibility.
Limitations to leading-order asymptotic solutions for ELASTIC PLASTIC crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drugan, W. J.
1998-12-01
Previous work has shown that there are significant discrepancies between leading-order asymptotic analytical solutions for the elastic-plastic fields near growing crack tips and detailed numerical finite element solutions of the same problems. The evidence is clearest in the simplest physically realistic case : quasi-static anti-plane shear crack growth in homogeneous, isotropic elastic-ideally plastic material. There, the sole extant asymptotic analytical solution involves a plastic loading sector of radial stress characteristics extending about 20° from ahead of the crack, followed by elastic unloading, whereas detailed numerical finite element solutions show the presence of an additional sector of plastic loading, extending from about 20 to about 50°, that is comprised of non-radial characteristics. To explore how the asymptotic analysis can completely miss this important solution feature, we derive an exact representation for the stress and deformation fields in such a propagating region of non-radial characteristics, as well as in the other allowable solution regions. These exact solutions contain arbitrary functions, which are determined by applying asymptotic analysis to the solutions and assembling a complete near-tip solution, valid through second order, that is in agreement with the numerical finite element results. In so doing, we prove that the angular extent of the sector of non-radial characteristics, while substantial until extremely close to the crack tip, vanishes in the limit as the tip is approached, and that the solution in this sector is not of variable-separable form. Beyond resolving the analytical-numerical discrepancies in this specific anti-plane shear problem, the analysis serves to caution, by explicit example, that purely leading-order asymptotic solutions to nonlinear crack growth problems cannot in general capture all essential physical features of the near-tip fields, and that the often-invoked assumption of variable
Coalescence kinetics under the action of alternative grain growth mechanisms
Gubanov, P. Yu. Maksimov, I. L.
2008-01-15
The coalescence process is considered for the case where the prevailing grain growth mechanism is block-to-block diffusion, during which the motion of atoms in a solution occurs in the form of diffusion flux along the block boundaries. Numerical and analytical investigation of the coalescence kinetics in a homogeneous supersaturated solution is performed with allowance for the finite maximum grain size, and the time evolution of the size distribution function of new-phase grains is theoretically described. Possible transition regimes arising during coalescence at a change in the dominant grain growth mechanism are considered.
Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology
2006-01-31
Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.
Influence of pre-strain on fracture toughness and stable crack growth in low carbon steels
Miyata, Takashi; Tagawa, Tetsuya; Aihara, Syuji
1997-12-31
Experimental investigations demonstrate a significant effect of pre-strain on fracture toughness and stable crack growth resistance of a low carbon structural steel. Fracture toughness, Ji for the onset of stable ductile crack growth is decreased to one half with a 9% pre-strain due to cold rolling. The characteristic distance model for ductile crack initiation was applied to analyze parameters affecting the degradation of fracture resistance. The model predicts that value of Ji is given as a linear function of yield strength and ductility of the material. In order to confirm the theoretical prediction, notched round bar tensile tests were performed and ductility under a high triaxial stress state was measured. Critical plastic strain for micro-void coalescence is significantly decreased with increasing pre-strain. Degradation in Ji due to pre-strain can be well explained by the characteristic distance model. To clarify micro-mechanisms of degradation in ductility due to pre-strain, fracture process in notched round bar specimens was investigated emphasizing the role of micro-void nucleation and growth. Experimental observation indicates that the significant decrease of the critical strain due to pre-strain is attributed to the increase of void nucleation sites under a high triaxial stress state.
Creep crack growth in boiler and steam pipe steels: Topical report
Saxena, A.; Han, J.; Banerji, K.
1988-01-01
One of the important ingredients in remaining creep crack growth life assessment of heavy section elevated temperature power plant components is the material creep crack growth rate data. This report summarizes the currently available data on Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steels most commonly used in steam pipes and boilers. All data are correlated with the crack tip parameter, C/sub t/. The accompanying creep deformation data and tensile properties are also included. The influence of in-service degradation, test temperature and the welding parameters such as impurity level and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the creep growth behavior were examined. It was shown that the influence of nominal material chemistry, service degradation and test temperature can be normalized into a single da/dt versus C/cub t/ trend for the base materials. It was also shown that the level of impurities and the PWHT can significantly influence the da/dt versus C/sub t/ behavior in weldments. 17 refs., 10 figs.
Growth morphologies of wax in the presence of kinetic inhibitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tetervak, Alexander A.
Driven by the need to prevent crystallization of normal alkanes from diesel fuels in cold climates, the petroleum industry has developed additives to slow the growth of these crystals and alter their morphologies. Although the utility of these kinetic inhibitors has been well demonstrated in the field, few studies have directly monitored their effect at microscopic morphology, and the mechanisms by which they act remain poorly understood. Here we present a study of the effects of such additives on the crystallization of long-chain n-alkanes from solution. The additives change the growth morphology from plate-like crystals to a microcrystalline mesh. When we impose a front velocity by moving the sample through a temperature gradient, the mesh growth may form a macroscopic banded pattern and also exhibit a burst-crystallization behavior. In this study, we characterize these crystallization phenomena and also two growth models: a continuum model that demonstrates the essential behavior of the banded crystallization, and a simple qualitative cellular automata model that captures basics of the burst-crystallization process. Keywords: solidification; mesh crystallization; kinetic inhibitor; burst growth.