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Sample records for crack identification part

  1. Identification of fatigue cracks through separating dynamic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guirong; Zhao, K.; Feng, R. Q.; Yi, J. R.

    2014-03-01

    During the service life of structures, fatigue cracks may occur in structural components due to dynamic loadings acting on them, such as wind loads, live loads and ground motion. If undetected timely, these fatigue cracks may lead to a catastrophic failure of the overall structure. Although a number of approaches to detecting fatigue cracks have been proposed, some of them appear rather sophisticated or expensive (requiring complicated equipment), and others suffer from a lack of sensitivity. In this study, a simple approach to detecting fatigue cracks is developed based on the bilinear behavior of fatigue cracks. First, a simple system identification method for bilinear systems is proposed by using the dynamic characteristics of bilinear systems. This method transfers nonlinear system identification into linear system identification by dividing impulse or free-vibration responses into different parts corresponding to each stiffness region according to the stiffness interface. In this way, the natural frequency of each region can be identified using any modal identification approach applicable to linear systems. Second, the procedure for identifying the existence of breathing fatigue cracks and quantifying the cracks qualitatively is proposed by looking for the difference in the identified natural frequency between regions. The proposed system identification method and crack detection procedure have been successfully validated by numerical simulations.

  2. Application of ac tomography to crack identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saguy, H.; Rittel, D.

    2007-08-01

    The depth of penetration of alternating currents in conductors depends on their frequency and material properties. A tomographiclike technique was proposed, in which the frequency is systematically varied to detect and size flaws (emerging and hidden) in electrical conductors, based on an analysis of the skin effect [Saguy and Rittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 094107 (2006); 87, 084103 (2005)]. Initial results were reported for notched specimens [Saguy and Rittel, NDT & E Int. 40, 505 (2007)] This letter presents experimental results on the detection of actual sharp fatigue cracks, differing from notches in terms of sharpness and partial conduction through the crack flanks. The results show that hidden cracks with arbitrary crack-front shape can be accurately identified.

  3. Crack identification for rotating machines based on a nonlinear approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalini, A. A., Jr.; Sanches, L.; Bachschmid, N.; Steffen, V., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    In a previous contribution, a crack identification methodology based on a nonlinear approach was proposed. The technique uses external applied diagnostic forces at certain frequencies attaining combinational resonances, together with a pseudo-random optimization code, known as Differential Evolution, in order to characterize the signatures of the crack in the spectral responses of the flexible rotor. The conditions under which combinational resonances appear were determined by using the method of multiple scales. In real conditions, the breathing phenomenon arises from the stress and strain distribution on the cross-sectional area of the crack. This mechanism behavior follows the static and dynamic loads acting on the rotor. Therefore, the breathing crack can be simulated according to the Mayes' model, in which the crack transition from fully opened to fully closed is described by a cosine function. However, many contributions try to represent the crack behavior by machining a small notch on the shaft instead of the fatigue process. In this paper, the open and breathing crack models are compared regarding their dynamic behavior and the efficiency of the proposed identification technique. The additional flexibility introduced by the crack is calculated by using the linear fracture mechanics theory (LFM). The open crack model is based on LFM and the breathing crack model corresponds to the Mayes' model, which combines LFM with a given breathing mechanism. For illustration purposes, a rotor composed by a horizontal flexible shaft, two rigid discs, and two self-aligning ball bearings is used to compose a finite element model of the system. Then, numerical simulation is performed to determine the dynamic behavior of the rotor. Finally, the results of the inverse problem conveyed show that the methodology is a reliable tool that is able to estimate satisfactorily the location and depth of the crack.

  4. Nonlinear damage identification of breathing cracks in Truss system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; DeSmidt, Hans

    2014-03-01

    The breathing cracks in truss system are detected by Frequency Response Function (FRF) based damage identification method. This method utilizes damage-induced changes of frequency response functions to estimate the severity and location of structural damage. This approach enables the possibility of arbitrary interrogation frequency and multiple inputs/outputs which greatly enrich the dataset for damage identification. The dynamical model of truss system is built using the finite element method and the crack model is based on fracture mechanics. Since the crack is driven by tensional and compressive forces of truss member, only one damage parameter is needed to represent the stiffness reduction of each truss member. Assuming that the crack constantly breathes with the exciting frequency, the linear damage detection algorithm is developed in frequency/time domain using Least Square and Newton Raphson methods. Then, the dynamic response of the truss system with breathing cracks is simulated in the time domain and meanwhile the crack breathing status for each member is determined by the feedback from real-time displacements of member's nodes. Harmonic Fourier Coefficients (HFCs) of dynamical response are computed by processing the data through convolution and moving average filters. Finally, the results show the effectiveness of linear damage detection algorithm in identifying the nonlinear breathing cracks using different combinations of HFCs and sensors.

  5. Investigation of the resonance frequency shift in parts with cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahariev, Krasimir; Kin, Yulian; Sutin, Alexander

    2005-09-01

    It is known that development of crack in various parts leads to resonance frequency variation and that phenomena can be used for crack detection and remaining lifetime prediction. We have investigated this effect on a steel specimen (25×150×6 mm). The crack was initiated at the root of preliminary machined notch and propagated under cycling loading on fatigue machine. The finite-element analysis was applied for calculation of frequency shift for three flexural modes of vibration and it was observed that the frequency shift increases with the increase of crack size. The maximum detected frequency shift was 3.8% for the crack size 23% of a sample width. The experimental measurements were conducted by measurements of sound produced by free vibration of the sample after impact excitation (impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy). The relative difference between acoustical measurements and FEA results did not exceed 1%. The conducted research provides a good basis for development of the remaining life prediction methods, for example, by Paris formulation. Parameters of the formulation for our case were determined experimentally. [Research supported by 21 Century Fund of Indiana.

  6. A wireless sensor network for online identification of rotor blade crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    Online identification of rotor blades’ crack can prevent serious faults in the rotor system. Current wired-based crack identification needs structure modifications to lay out lead wires, which is not suitable for online applications. To achieve the online identification of rotor blades’ crack, this note presents an innovative method based on a wireless sensor network (WSN). The WSN’s sensors distribution and system’s operation sequence are properly designed, and its effectiveness is verified by experimental tests.

  7. Fatigue cracks in Eurofer 97 steel: Part II. Comparison of small and long fatigue crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruml, T.; Hutař, P.; Náhlík, L.; Seitl, S.; Polák, J.

    2011-05-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate in the Eurofer 97 steel at room temperature was measured by two different methodologies. Small crack growth data were obtained using cylindrical specimens with a shallow notch and no artificial crack starters. The growth of semicircular cracks of length between 10-2000 μm was followed in symmetrical cycling with constant strain amplitude ( R ɛ = -1). Long crack data were measured using standard CT specimen and ASTM methodology, i.e. R = 0.1. The growth of cracks having the length in the range of 10-30 mm was measured. It is shown that the crack growth rates of both types of cracks are in a very good agreement if J-integral representation is used and usual assumptions of the crack closure effects are taken into account.

  8. The use of roving discs and orthogonal natural frequencies for crack identification and location in rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji, Zyad N.; Olutunde Oyadiji, S.

    2014-11-01

    A variety of approaches that have been developed for the identification and localisation of cracks in a rotor system, which exploit natural frequencies, require a finite element model to obtain the natural frequencies of the intact rotor as baseline data. In fact, such approaches can give erroneous results about the location and depth of a crack if an inaccurate finite element model is used to represent an uncracked model. A new approach for the identification and localisation of cracks in rotor systems, which does not require the use of the natural frequencies of an intact rotor as a baseline data, is presented in this paper. The approach, named orthogonal natural frequencies (ONFs), is based only on the natural frequencies of the non-rotating cracked rotor in the two lateral bending vibration x-z and y-z planes. The approach uses the cracked natural frequencies in the horizontal x-z plane as the reference data instead of the intact natural frequencies. Also, a roving disc is traversed along the rotor in order to enhance the dynamics of the rotor at the cracked locations. At each spatial location of the roving disc, the two ONFs of the rotor-disc system are determined from which the corresponding ONF ratio is computed. The ONF ratios are normalised by the maximum ONF ratio to obtain normalised orthogonal natural frequency curves (NONFCs). The non-rotating cracked rotor is simulated by the finite element method using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. The unique characteristics of the proposed approach are the sharp, notched peaks at the crack locations but rounded peaks at non-cracked locations. These features facilitate the unambiguous identification and locations of cracks in rotors. The effects of crack depth, crack location, and mass of a roving disc are investigated. The results show that the proposed method has a great potential in the identification and localisation of cracks in a non-rotating cracked rotor.

  9. Identification of breathing cracks in a beam structure with entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimarshana, Buddhi; Wu, Nan; Wu, Christine

    2016-04-01

    A cantilever beam with a breathing crack is studied to detect and evaluate the crack using entropy measures. Closed cracks in engineering structures lead to proportional complexities to their vibration responses due to weak bi-linearity imposed by the crack breathing phenomenon. Entropy is a measure of system complexity and has the potential in quantifying the complexity. The weak bi-linearity in vibration signals can be amplified using wavelet transformation to increase the sensitivity of the measurements. A mathematical model of harmonically excited unit length steel cantilever beam with a breathing crack located near the fixed end is established, and an iterative numerical method is applied to generate accurate time domain dynamic responses. The bi-linearity in time domain signals due to the crack breathing are amplified by wavelet transformation first, and then the complexities due to bi-linearity is quantified using sample entropy to detect the possible crack and estimate the crack depth. It is observed that the method is capable of identifying crack depths even at very early stages of 3% with the increase in the entropy values more than 10% compared with the healthy beam. The current study extends the entropy based damage detection of rotary machines to structural analysis and takes a step further in high-sensitivity structural health monitoring by combining wavelet transformation with entropy calculations. The proposed technique can also be applied to other types of structures, such as plates and shells.

  10. HHT-based crack identification method for start-up rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Chunlin; He, Zhengjia

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a crack identification method for start-up rotor based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). With this method, the instantaneous frequency (IF) of each intrinsic mode function is obtained through the Hilbert transform, and the spectrum of IF is calculated accordingly. The influence of acceleration and crack depth on the rotor is analyzed through experiments. HHT is employed to detect the shallower crack, and is then tested during the start-up process of the rotor. The results of the experiment show that HHT is a better tool for crack detection than fast Fourier transform.

  11. Crack

    MedlinePlus

    ... sound the drug makes as it heats up. Short-Term Effects Crack is a stimulant that is absorbed through ... quickly, after about 5 or 10 minutes. Other short-term effects include: higher heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure , ...

  12. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 1; Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive slow-crack-growth (SCG) analysis was made using a primary exponential crack-velocity formulation under three widely used load configurations: constant stress rate, constant stress, and cyclic stress. Although the use of the exponential formulation in determining SCG parameters of a material requires somewhat inconvenient numerical procedures, the resulting solutions presented gave almost the same degree of simplicity in both data analysis and experiments as did the power-law formulation. However, the fact that the inert strength of a material should be known in advance to determine the corresponding SCG parameters was a major drawback of the exponential formulation as compared with the power-law formulation.

  13. Effect of Voltage Measurement on the Quantitative Identification of Transverse Cracks by Electrical Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Electrical tomography can be used as a structural health monitoring technique to identify different damage mechanisms in composite laminates. Previous work has established the link between transverse cracking density and mesoscale conductivity of the ply. Through the mesoscale relationship, the conductivity obtained from electrical tomography can be used as a measure of the transverse cracking density. Interpretation of this measure will be accurate provided the assumptions made during homogenization are valid. One main assumption of mesoscale homogenization is that the electric field is in the plane. Here, we test the validity of this assumption for laminates with varying anisotropy ratios and for different distances between the cracked ply and surface that is instrumented with electrodes. We also show the equivalence in electrical response between measurements from cracked laminates and their equivalent mesoscale counterparts. Finally, we propose some general guidelines on the measurement strategy for maximizing the accuracy of transverse cracks identification. PMID:27023542

  14. Identification to oil cracking in east of Sichuan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian Ming; Xia Li, Yan

    2016-08-01

    In Sichuan basin the Lower Palaeozoic source rock has reached high to over-mature stage, but it is still considered that it has obvious genetic link with some gas reservoirs which were formed later. Therefore, the accumulation process between ancient high to over-mature source rock and the late formation of gas reservoirs has become one of the key factors to recognize the law of natural gas accumulation in Sichuan Basin. Based on some characteristics of Carboniferous gas reservoir in eastern basin, such as the gas compositions, stable carbon isotope, it is found that the gas reservoir is oil-cracking gas. The result reveals that the formation and evolution of present gas reservoir is that an ancient oil pool experienced the processes of forming, accumulating, destructing, and thermal maturating and cracking into gas reservoir.

  15. A methodology for cracks identification in large crankshafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra Villanueva, J. A.; Jiménez Espadafor, F.; Cruz-Peragón, F.; Torres García, M.

    2011-11-01

    Diesel engines used in power plants and marine propulsion are especially sensitive to outage events. Any advance in the early detection of failure will increase the reliability of the electricity supply and improve its productivity by reducing costly power outages. Fault detection and diagnosis is important technology in condition-based maintenance for diesel engines. This article presents a classifier based on neural networks for identifying failure risk level in crankshafts, the engine component of greatest cost concern. The authors have developed a finite element model for crack growth that fits well with fracture appearance and produces the evolution of crankshaft stiffness with crack depth. A lumped system model of the engine uses this evolution as input, giving the instantaneous speed at the engine flywheel as a function of crack depth. All the results shown in the paper come from outputs of the simulation models which have been built from real engine data. Measurements of the instantaneous flywheel speed were not available due to the crankshaft failure. All data are extracted from this speed and are then classified using a Radial Basis Function neural network.

  16. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble: Part 2—Microscopic Observations and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.

    2009-06-01

    Experimental uniaxial compression loading tests were conducted on molded gypsum and Carrara marble prismatic specimens to study the cracking and coalescence processes between pre-existing artificial flaws. The study showed that material had an influence on the cracking and coalescence processes (see the companion paper in this issue). As reported in the companion paper, one of the pronounced features as observed in the high-speed video recordings was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the development of observable cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. This paper (part 2) deals with the microscopic aspects of the study. Specifically, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) imaging techniques were used to study the microscopic development of white patches and their evolution into macroscopic tensile cracks and shear cracks in marble, and the microscopic initiation of hair-line tensile cracks and their evolution into macroscopic tensile cracks in gypsum. The microscopic imaging study in marble showed that the white patches were associated with extensive microcracking zones (process zones), while the extent of process zone development in gypsum was limited. The comparison of the macroscopic and microscopic results indicates that the different extent of microcracking zone development, related to the material textural properties, is a key factor leading to different macroscopic cracking behavior in gypsum and marble.

  17. Part Marking and Identification Materials on MISSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Roxby, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    Many different spacecraft materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including several materials used in part marking and identification. The experiment contained Data Matrix symbols applied using laser bonding, vacuum arc vapor deposition, gas assisted laser etch, chemical etch, mechanical dot peening, laser shot peening, and laser induced surface improvement. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on nickel acetate seal versus hot water seal on sulfuric acid anodized aluminum are discussed. These samples were exposed on the International Space Station to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was very limited for some samples. Results from the one-year exposure on MISSE-3 and MISSE-4 are compared to those from MISSE-1 and MISSE-2, which were exposed for four years. Part marking and identification materials on the current MISSE -6 experiment are also discussed.

  18. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 2: Microscopic hydrogen cracking processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a fractographic analysis of fatigue crack propagation (FCP) in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 stressed in a variety of inert and embrittling environments, microscopic crack paths are identified and correlated with intrinsic da/dN-delta K kinetics. FCP rates in 2090 are accelerated by hydrogen producing environments (pure water vapor, moist air, and aqueous NaCl), as defined in Part 1. For these cases, subgrain boundary fatigue cracking (SGC) dominates for delta K values where the crack tip process zone, a significant fraction of the cyclic plastic zone, is sufficiently large to envelop 5 micron subgrains in the unrecrystallized microstructure. SGC may be due to strong hydrogen trapping at T1 precipitates concentrated at sub-boundaries. At low delta K, the plastic zone diameter is smaller than the subgrain size and FCP progresses along (100) planes due to either local lattice decohesion or aluminum-lithium hydride cracking. For inert environments (vacuum, helium, and oxygen), or at high delta K where the hydrogen effect on da/dN is small, FCP is along (111) slip planes; this mode does not transition with increasing delta K and plastic zone size. The SGC and (100) crystallographic cracking modes, and the governing influence of the crack tip process zone volume (delta K), support hydrogen embrittlement rather than a surface film rupture and anodic dissolution mechanism for environmental FCP. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by changes in process zone hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and not by purely micromechanical-microstructure interactions, in contradiction to microstructural distance-based fatigue models.

  19. Subcritical crack growth at bimaterial interfaces. Part 3: Shear-enhanced fatigue crack growth resistance at polymer/metal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Shang, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth along an Al/epoxy interface was examined under different combinations of mode-I and mode-II loadings using the flexural peel technique. Fatigue crack growth rates were obtained as a function of the total strain energy rate for G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratios of 0.3 to 1.4, achieved by varying the relative thickness of the outerlayers for the flexural peel specimen. Fatigue crack growth resistance of the interface was found to increase with increasing G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio. Such a shear-enhanced crack growth resistance of the interface resulted in a gradual transition of crack growth mechanism from interfacial at the low G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio to cohesive at the high G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio. Under predominantly mode-I loading, the damage in the polymer took the form of crazing and cavitation. In contrast, laminar shear occurred under highly shear loading, resulting in a larger amount of plastic dissipation at the crack tip and improved fatigue crack growth resistance.

  20. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  1. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 3; Constant Stress and Cyclic Stress Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on advanced structural ceramics tested under constant stress and cyclic stress loading at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation between the time to failure and applied stress (or maximum applied stress in cyclic loading) was very reasonable for most of the materials studied. It was also found that life prediction for cyclic stress loading from data of constant stress loading in the exponential formulation was in good agreement with the experimental data, resulting in a similar degree of accuracy as compared with the power-law formulation. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.

  2. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 2; Constant Stress Rate Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress rate and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation of strength versus the log of the stress rate was very reasonable for most of the materials. Also, the preloading technique was determined equally applicable to the case of slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n greater than 30 for both the power-law and exponential formulations. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.

  3. Multivariable wavelet finite element-based vibration model for quantitative crack identification by using particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingwu; Gao, Robert X.; Yan, Ruqiang; Chen, Xuefeng; Sun, Chuang; Yang, Zhibo

    2016-08-01

    Crack is one of the crucial causes of structural failure. A methodology for quantitative crack identification is proposed in this paper based on multivariable wavelet finite element method and particle swarm optimization. First, the structure with crack is modeled by multivariable wavelet finite element method (MWFEM) so that the vibration parameters of the first three natural frequencies in arbitrary crack conditions can be obtained, which is named as the forward problem. Second, the structure with crack is tested to obtain the vibration parameters of first three natural frequencies by modal testing and advanced vibration signal processing method. Then, the analyzed and measured first three natural frequencies are combined together to obtain the location and size of the crack by using particle swarm optimization. Compared with traditional wavelet finite element method, MWFEM method can achieve more accurate vibration analysis results because it interpolates all the solving variables at one time, which makes the MWFEM-based method to improve the accuracy in quantitative crack identification. In the end, the validity and superiority of the proposed method are verified by experiments of both cantilever beam and simply supported beam.

  4. The effect of potential upon the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low-alloy steels. Part 1: Crack growth results

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Moshier, W.C.

    1997-04-01

    Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II.

  5. Line Spring Model and Its Applications to Part-Through Crack Problems in Plates and Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Aksel, B.

    1986-01-01

    The line spring model is described and extended to cover the problem of interaction of multiple internal and surface cracks in plates and shells. The shape functions for various related crack geometries obtained from the plane strain solution and the results of some multiple crack problems are presented. The problems considered include coplanar surface cracks on the same or opposite sides of a plate, nonsymmetrically located coplanar internal elliptic cracks, and in a very limited way the surface and corner cracks in a plate of finite width and a surface crack in a cylindrical shell with fixed end.

  6. White-Etching Matter in Bearing Steel. Part I: Controlled Cracking of 52100 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano-Alvarez, W.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2014-10-01

    Although most of the research performed in bearing steel metallurgy aims to prevent crack nucleation and propagation, some applications require the exact opposite in order to study the role that disconnected surfaces inside the bulk material play when load is applied, or when fluids entrapped in surface cracks propagate tensile stresses or exacerbate corrosion. Four heat treatments have been designed to create controlled arrays of crack types and distributions in quenched and untempered steel normally used in the manufacture of bearings. The varieties of cracks studied include sparsely distributed martensite-plate cracks, fine-grain-boundary cracks, abundant martensite-plate cracks, and surface cracks. The intention was to create samples which can then be subjected to appropriate mechanical testing so that phenomena such as the appearance of "white-etching areas" or "white-etching cracks," crack-lubricant interactions, or hydrogen trapping can be studied further.

  7. Quantitative Index and Abnormal Alarm Strategy Using Sensor-Dependent Vibration Data for Blade Crack Identification in Centrifugal Booster Fans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglong; Sun, Hailiang; Wang, Shuai; He, Zhengjia

    2016-01-01

    Centrifugal booster fans are important equipment used to recover blast furnace gas (BFG) for generating electricity, but blade crack faults (BCFs) in centrifugal booster fans can lead to unscheduled breakdowns and potentially serious accidents, so in this work quantitative fault identification and an abnormal alarm strategy based on acquired historical sensor-dependent vibration data is proposed for implementing condition-based maintenance for this type of equipment. Firstly, three group dependent sensors are installed to acquire running condition data. Then a discrete spectrum interpolation method and short time Fourier transform (STFT) are applied to preliminarily identify the running data in the sensor-dependent vibration data. As a result a quantitative identification and abnormal alarm strategy based on compound indexes including the largest Lyapunov exponent and relative energy ratio at the second harmonic frequency component is proposed. Then for validation the proposed blade crack quantitative identification and abnormality alarm strategy is applied to analyze acquired experimental data for centrifugal booster fans and it has successfully identified incipient blade crack faults. In addition, the related mathematical modelling work is also introduced to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection. PMID:27171083

  8. Quantitative Index and Abnormal Alarm Strategy Using Sensor-Dependent Vibration Data for Blade Crack Identification in Centrifugal Booster Fans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinglong; Sun, Hailiang; Wang, Shuai; He, Zhengjia

    2016-01-01

    Centrifugal booster fans are important equipment used to recover blast furnace gas (BFG) for generating electricity, but blade crack faults (BCFs) in centrifugal booster fans can lead to unscheduled breakdowns and potentially serious accidents, so in this work quantitative fault identification and an abnormal alarm strategy based on acquired historical sensor-dependent vibration data is proposed for implementing condition-based maintenance for this type of equipment. Firstly, three group dependent sensors are installed to acquire running condition data. Then a discrete spectrum interpolation method and short time Fourier transform (STFT) are applied to preliminarily identify the running data in the sensor-dependent vibration data. As a result a quantitative identification and abnormal alarm strategy based on compound indexes including the largest Lyapunov exponent and relative energy ratio at the second harmonic frequency component is proposed. Then for validation the proposed blade crack quantitative identification and abnormality alarm strategy is applied to analyze acquired experimental data for centrifugal booster fans and it has successfully identified incipient blade crack faults. In addition, the related mathematical modelling work is also introduced to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection. PMID:27171083

  9. Quantitative Index and Abnormal Alarm Strategy Using Sensor-Dependent Vibration Data for Blade Crack Identification in Centrifugal Booster Fans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglong; Sun, Hailiang; Wang, Shuai; He, Zhengjia

    2016-05-09

    Centrifugal booster fans are important equipment used to recover blast furnace gas (BFG) for generating electricity, but blade crack faults (BCFs) in centrifugal booster fans can lead to unscheduled breakdowns and potentially serious accidents, so in this work quantitative fault identification and an abnormal alarm strategy based on acquired historical sensor-dependent vibration data is proposed for implementing condition-based maintenance for this type of equipment. Firstly, three group dependent sensors are installed to acquire running condition data. Then a discrete spectrum interpolation method and short time Fourier transform (STFT) are applied to preliminarily identify the running data in the sensor-dependent vibration data. As a result a quantitative identification and abnormal alarm strategy based on compound indexes including the largest Lyapunov exponent and relative energy ratio at the second harmonic frequency component is proposed. Then for validation the proposed blade crack quantitative identification and abnormality alarm strategy is applied to analyze acquired experimental data for centrifugal booster fans and it has successfully identified incipient blade crack faults. In addition, the related mathematical modelling work is also introduced to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection.

  10. K-nearest neighbors based methods for identification of different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong

    2016-03-01

    Gears are the most commonly used components in mechanical transmission systems. Their failures may cause transmission system breakdown and result in economic loss. Identification of different gear crack levels is important to prevent any unexpected gear failure because gear cracks lead to gear tooth breakage. Signal processing based methods mainly require expertize to explain gear fault signatures which is usually not easy to be achieved by ordinary users. In order to automatically identify different gear crack levels, intelligent gear crack identification methods should be developed. The previous case studies experimentally proved that K-nearest neighbors based methods exhibit high prediction accuracies for identification of 3 different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads. In this short communication, to further enhance prediction accuracies of existing K-nearest neighbors based methods and extend identification of 3 different gear crack levels to identification of 5 different gear crack levels, redundant statistical features are constructed by using Daubechies 44 (db44) binary wavelet packet transform at different wavelet decomposition levels, prior to the use of a K-nearest neighbors method. The dimensionality of redundant statistical features is 620, which provides richer gear fault signatures. Since many of these statistical features are redundant and highly correlated with each other, dimensionality reduction of redundant statistical features is conducted to obtain new significant statistical features. At last, the K-nearest neighbors method is used to identify 5 different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads. A case study including 3 experiments is investigated to demonstrate that the developed method provides higher prediction accuracies than the existing K-nearest neighbors based methods for recognizing different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads. Based on the new significant statistical

  11. A pressurized cylindrical shell with a fixed end which contains an axial part-through or through crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical shell having a very stiff and plate or a flange is considered. It is assumed that near the end the cylinder contains an axial flaw which may be modeled as a part through surface crack or a through crack. The effect of the end constraining on the stress intensity factor which is the main fracture mechanics parameter is studied. The applied loads acting on the cylinder are assumed to be axisymmetric. Thus the crack problem under consideration is symmetric with respect to the plane of the crack and consequently only the Mode 1 stress intensity factors are nonzero. With this limitation, the general perturbation problem for a cylinder with a built in end containing an axial crack is considered. Reissner's shell theory is used to formulate the problem. The part through crack problem is treated by using a line spring model. In the case of a crack tip terminating at the fixed end it is shown that the integral equations of the shell problem has the same generalized Cauchy kernel as the corresponding plane stress elasticity problem.

  12. Scattering of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave by a part-thickness crack in an isotropic plate.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, P; Lowe, M J S

    2008-11-01

    The interaction of the fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) guided mode with part-thickness cracks in an isotropic plate is studied as an extension within the context and general framework of previous work ["Short range scattering of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave mode normally incident at a through thickness crack in an isotropic plate," J. Acoust Soc. Am. 122, 1527-1538 (2007); "Angular influence on scattering when the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave mode is incident at a through-thickness crack in an isotropic plate," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 2021-2030 (2008)] by the authors with through-cracks. The symmetric incidence case where the principal direction of the incident beam bisects the crack face at 90 degrees is studied using finite element simulations validated by experiments and analysis, and conclusions are inferred for general incidence angles using insights obtained with the through-thickness studies. The influence of the crack length and the monitoring distance on the specular reflection is first examined, followed by a study of the angular profile of the reflected field. With each crack length considered, the crack depth and operating frequencies are varied. For all crack depths studied, the trend of the results is identical to that for the corresponding through-thickness case and the values differ only by a frequency dependent scale factor. Theoretical analysis is used to understand the physical basis for such behavior and estimates are suggested for the scale factor--exact for the high-frequency scattering regime and empirical for the medium- and low-frequency regimes.

  13. A cylindrical shell with a stress-free end which contains an axial part-through or through crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Yahsi, O. S.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction problem of a through or a part through crack with a stress free boundary in a semi-infinite cylindrical shell is considered. It is assumed that the crack lies in a meridional plane which is a plane of symmetry with respect to the external loads as well as the geometry. The circular boundary of the semi-infinite cylinder is assumed to be stress free. By using a transverse shear theory the problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations. The line spring model is used to treat the part through crack problem. In the case of a through crack the interaction between the perturbed stress fields due to the crack and the free boundary is quite strong and there is a considerable increase in the stress intensity factors caused by the interaction. On the other hand in the problem of a surface crack the interaction appears to be much weaker and consequently the magnification in the stress intensity factors is much less significant.

  14. Forensic odontology, Part 1. Dental identification.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-03-12

    This series is based upon fact, experience, and some personal views of the author and gives a brief glimpse of forensic odontological issues with regard to the identification of human remains (to include mass fatality incidents), biting injuries and child abuse. The aim of the first paper is to give the reader greater understanding of the role of the forensic odontologist in the identification of human remains, and emphasise the importance of keeping good quality, accurate and comprehensive dental records. Identification of the deceased greatly assists families and friends at this difficult time, as well as aiding law enforcement agencies; getting it wrong is devastating to families and unacceptable. The dental identification process must be carefully undertaken and relies upon the comparison of information from the antemortem record with findings from the postmortem examination, and the efficiency of this process is dependent on the quality and availability of the dental record. As dental team members it is our responsibility to keep and maintain accurate records of our patients. The resilience of the dental structures to postmortem assault, denture labelling, and teeth as a source of DNA, all contribute to making identification successful. Dental identification is widely used, not only in the single fatality situation, but also in mass fatality incidents and cases of missing persons. PMID:21394152

  15. Vibration analysis of a rectangular thin isotropic plate with a part-through surface crack of arbitrary orientation and position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Tanmoy; Mohanty, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, vibration analysis of a rectangular thin isotropic plate with a part-through surface crack of arbitrary orientation and position is performed by using the Kirchhoff plate theory. Simply supported (SSSS), clamped (CCCC) and simply supported-clamped (SCSC) boundary conditions are considered for the analysis. First, the governing differential equation of a cracked plate is formulated. A modified line spring model is then used to formulate the crack terms in the governing equation. Next, by the application of Burger's formulation, the differential equation is transformed into the well-known Duffing equation with cubic and quadratic nonlinearities. The Duffing equation is then solved by the method of multiple scales (MMS) to extract the frequency response curve. Natural frequencies are evaluated for different values of length, angle and position of a part-through surface crack. Some results are compared with the published literature. Amplitude variation with different values of length, angle and position of a part-through surface crack are presented, for all three types of the plate boundary conditions.

  16. Local delamination in laminates with angle ply matrix cracks. Part 1: Tension tests and stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Hooper, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Quasi-static tension tests were conducted on AS4/3501-6 graphite epoxy laminates. Dye penetrant enhanced x-radiography was used to document the onset of matrix cracking and the onset of local delaminations at the intersection of the matrix cracks and the free edge. Edge micrographs taken after the onset of damage were used to verify the location of the matrix cracks and local delamination through the laminate thickness. A quasi-3D finite element analysis was conducted to calculate the stresses responsible for matrix cracking in the off-axis plies. Laminated plate theory indicated that the transverse normal stresses were compressive. However, the finite element analysis yielded tensile transverse normal stresses near the free edge. Matrix cracks formed in the off-axis plies near the free edge where in-plane transverse stresses were tensile and had their greatest magnitude. The influence of the matrix crack on interlaminar stresses is also discussed.

  17. The periglacial engine of mountain erosion - Part 1: Rates of frost cracking and frost creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. L.; Egholm, D. L.; Knudsen, M. F.; Jansen, J. D.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2015-10-01

    With accelerating climate cooling in the late Cenozoic, glacial and periglacial erosion became more widespread on the surface of the Earth. The resultant shift in erosion patterns significantly changed the large-scale morphology of many mountain ranges worldwide. Whereas the glacial fingerprint is easily distinguished by its characteristic fjords and U-shaped valleys, the periglacial fingerprint is more subtle but potentially prevails in some mid- to high-latitude landscapes. Previous models have advocated a frost-driven control on debris production at steep headwalls and glacial valley sides. Here we investigate the important role that periglacial processes also play in less steep parts of mountain landscapes. Understanding the influences of frost-driven processes in low-relief areas requires a focus on the consequences of an accreting soil mantle, which characterises such surfaces. We present a new model that quantifies two key physical processes: frost cracking and frost creep, as a function of both temperature and sediment thickness. Our results yield new insights into how climate and sediment transport properties combine to scale the intensity of periglacial processes. The thickness of the soil mantle strongly modulates the relation between climate and the intensity of mechanical weathering and sediment flux. Our results also point to an offset between the conditions that promote frost cracking and those that promote frost creep, indicating that a stable climate can provide optimal conditions for only one of those processes at a time. Finally, quantifying these relations also opens up the possibility of including periglacial processes in large-scale, long-term landscape evolution models, as demonstrated in a companion paper.

  18. The periglacial engine of mountain erosion - Part 1: Rates of frost cracking and frost creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. L.; Egholm, D. L.; Knudsen, M. F.; Jansen, J. D.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2015-04-01

    With accelerating climate cooling in the late Cenozoic, glacial and periglacial erosion became more widespread on the surface of the Earth. The resultant shift in erosion patterns significantly changed the large-scale morphology of many mountain ranges worldwide. Whereas the glacial fingerprint is easily distinguished by its characteristic fjords and U-shaped valleys, the periglacial fingerprint is more subtle but potentially prevailing in some landscape settings. Previous models have advocated a frost-driven control on debris production on steep headwalls and glacial valley sides. Here we investigate the important role that periglacial processes also play in less steep parts of mountain landscapes. Understanding the influences of frost-driven processes in low-relief areas requires a focus on the consequences of an accreting soil-mantle, which characterizes such surfaces. In this paper, we present a new model that quantifies two key physical processes: frost cracking and frost creep, as a function of both temperature and sediment thickness. Our results yield new insights to how climate and sediment transport properties combine to scale the intensity of periglacial processes. The thickness of the soil-mantle strongly modulates the relation between climate and the intensity of mechanical weathering and sediment flux. Our results also point to an offset between the conditions that promote frost cracking and those that promote frost creep, indicating that a stable climate can only provide optimal conditions for one of those processes at a time. Finally, quantifying these relations also opens the possibility of including periglacial processes in large-scale, long-term landscape evolution models, as demonstrated in a companion paper.

  19. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble: Part 1. Macroscopic Observations and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.

    2009-06-01

    Cracking and coalescence behavior has been studied experimentally with prismatic laboratory-molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens containing two parallel pre-existing open flaws. This was done at both the macroscopic and the microscopic scales, and the results are presented in two separate papers. This paper (the first of two) summarizes the macroscopic experimental results and investigates the influence of the different flaw geometries and material, on the cracking processes. In the companion paper (also in this issue), most of the macroscopic deformation and cracking processes shown in this present paper will be related to the underlying microscopic changes. In the present study, a high speed video system was used, which allowed us to precisely observe the cracking mechanisms. Nine crack coalescence categories with different crack types and trajectories were identified. The flaw inclination angle ( β), the ligament length ( L), that is, intact rock length between the flaws, and the bridging angle ( α), that is, the inclination of a line linking up the inner flaw tips, between two flaws, had different effects on the coalescence patterns. One of the pronounced differences observed between marble and gypsum during the compression loading test was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the initiation of macroscopic cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. Comparing the cracking and coalescence behaviors in the two tested materials, tensile cracking generally occurred more often in marble than in gypsum for the same flaw pair geometries.

  20. Crack: new directions in drug research. Part 2. Factors determining the current functioning of the crack economy--a program for ethnographic research.

    PubMed

    Hamid, A

    1991-09-01

    Factors which hypothetically influence rates, volumes, and methods of income generation in crack distribution, use, and misuse are indicated, and a research program to investigate them is suggested. This research will contribute significantly to the development of a theoretical framework which adequately relates substance using/abusing and trafficking populations to the wider community and will explain why crack use and distribution have had such different outcomes than marijuana. Factors to be researched include: polyethnicity, crack-related deculturation, gender differentiation in crack use and effects, neighborhood effects, vertically organized crack-distributing organizations, crack-related violence and crime, and replacement of previous drug markets by crack.

  1. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes. Part I: final-product assessment.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented to determine independently shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes based on photographic imaging of their top surface. An inverse correlation between cake shrinkage and cracking during freeze-drying is seen. Shrinkage relaxes the drying tension and gives little cracking, whereas if shrinkage is restrained then more cracking occurs. A lower shrinkage and greater cracking with higher disaccharide concentration correlates with change in cake hardness and brittleness. Adhesion of the cake to the inside vial wall could not be identified as a determining factor for shrinkage. Shrinkage is non-uniform across the cake's surface and is manifested largely in the peripheral region. A correlation between shrinkage and w(g)' for different disaccharides suggests that drying tension develops as non-frozen water is lost from the porous solid after sublimation of the ice phase has exposed the solid/gas interface.

  2. Crack identification for reinforced concrete using PZT based smart rebar active sensing diagnostic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, N. N.; Wu, F.

    2016-04-01

    An active sensing diagnostic system using PZT based smart rebar for SHM of RC structure has been currently under investigation. Previous test results showed that the system could detect the de-bond of concrete from reinforcement, and the diagnostic signals were increased exponentially with the de-bonding size. Previous study also showed that the smart rebar could function well like regular reinforcement to undertake tension stresses. In this study, a smart rebar network has been used to detect the crack damage of concrete based on guided waves. Experimental test has been carried out for the study. In the test, concrete beams with 2 reinforcements have been built. 8 sets of PZT elements were mounted onto the reinforcement bars in an optimized way to form an active sensing diagnostic system. A 90 kHz 5-cycle Hanning-windowed tone burst was used as input. Multiple cracks have been generated on the concrete structures. Through the guided bulk waves propagating in the structures from actuators and sensors mounted from different bars, crack damage could be detected clearly. Cases for both single and multiple cracks were tested. Different crack depths from the surface and different crack numbers have been studied. Test result shows that the amplitude of sensor output signals is deceased linearly with a propagating crack, and is decreased exponentially with increased crack numbers. From the study, the active sensing diagnostic system using PZT based smart rebar network shows a promising way to provide concrete crack damage information through the "talk" among sensors.

  3. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 1: Intrinsic crack propagation kinetics in hydrogenous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness by aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl, and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.

  4. Convergence rates for finite element problems with singularities. Part 1: Antiplane shear. [crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plunkett, R.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of a finite crack in an infinite medium under antiplane shear load is considered. It is shown that the nodal forces at the tip of the crack accurately gives the order of singularity, that n energy release methods can give the strength to better than 1 percent with element size 1/10 the crack length, and that nodal forces give a much better estimate of the stress field than do the elements themselves. The finite element formulation and the factoring of tridiagonal matrices are discussed.

  5. Developmental differences in part/whole identification.

    PubMed

    Prather, P A; Bacon, J

    1986-06-01

    At issue in the present research was whether or not preschoolers are able to simultaneously perceive multiple aspects of an object. This issue was examined in 2 experiments in which 3-5-year-olds were asked to describe part/whole pictures (e.g., a "house made of crayons"). Prior developmental research has suggested that preschoolers typically fail to name both part and whole aspects of such pictures. In the present study, parts and wholes ranged from relatively "simple" to relatively "difficult" for preschoolers to identify and label. The results showed that even 3-year-olds frequently named both part and whole aspects of our "simple" pictures but were significantly less likely to name both aspects of more "difficult" pictures. Overall, the results suggest that multiple-aspect perception is available as early as 3 years of age, and that preschoolers' failure in previous studies to explicitly identify both part and whole aspects of the same object may reflect failure in verbal or metacognitive skills rather than in children's ability to perceive multiple aspects of an object. PMID:3720392

  6. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes. Part IV: Effects of freezing protocol.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-11-10

    The shrinkage and cracking of pure trehalose cakes during lyophilization has been determined quantitatively using different protocols for the freezing step. The influences of shelf cooling rate and of a two-step freezing protocol with holding and annealing phases were investigated. A small change in the shelf cooling rate from 0.4°C to 0.2°C per minute produced surprisingly large increases in shrinkage and reductions in cracking over all trehalose concentrations up to 30% w/v. The two-step freezing protocol also increased shrinkage and reduced cracking in the final-product cakes, especially at trehalose concentrations ≥ 15% and with large vial fill height. A combination of two-step freezing with use of TopLyo vials produced less than 1.5% cracking even at high trehalose concentrations and large fill height. The results give further confirmation of the causal linkage of shrinkage and cracking during lyophilization, and also illustrate how cracking can be greatly reduced by manipulating the freezing protocol.

  7. Crack detection of beam-type structures following the bayesian system identification framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, H. F.; Leung, A. Y. T.

    2008-07-01

    This paper puts forward a method for the detection of crack locations and extents on a structural member utilizing measured dynamic responses following the Bayesian probabilistic framework. In the proposed crack detection method a beam with different number of cracks is modelled using different classes of models. The Bayesian model class selection method is then applied to select the 'most plausible' class of models in order to identify the number of cracks on the structural member. The objective of the proposed method is not to pinpoint the crack locations and extents but to calculate the posterior (updated) probability density function (PDF) of crack parameters (i.e., crack locations and extents). The method explicitly handles the uncertainties introduced by measurement noise and modelling error. This paper presents not only the theoretical development of the proposed method but also the numerical and experimental verifications. In the numerical case studies, noisy data generated by a Bernoulli-Euler beam with semi-rigid connections is used to demonstrate the procedures of the proposed method. The method is finally verified by measured dynamic responses of a cantilever beam utilizing laser Doppler vibrometer.

  8. Identification of resected root-end dentinal cracks: a comparative study of transillumination and dyes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Henry M; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman; Kimbrough, W Frank; Waller, Jennifer; Pashley, David H

    2004-10-01

    The dilemma of diagnosing and possibly treating dentinal cracks continues to present a challenge in endodontics. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effectiveness of transillumination and dyes in identifying root-end dentinal cracks. Fifty maxillary central incisors were decoronated, and the canals were instrumented to an ISO size 50 at the working length. The apical 3 mm of the roots was resected, and cracks were artificially created in the apical dentin. Four independent examiners evaluated the root ends at x8 magnification with a surgical operating microscope using transillumination (group 1), sodium fluorescein dye (group 2), caries detect dye (group 3), methylene blue dye (group 4), and methylene blue plus transillumination (group 5). The examiners' ability to identify root ends correctly with and without cracks was analyzed by comparing the data with the predetermined standard (cracked and noncracked) using logistic regression analysis. All techniques used were shown to be more effective than random chance at diagnosing cracks. The areas under the curve of the different techniques were as follows: transillumination, 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.93); sodium fluorescein, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58-0.86); caries detector, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89); methylene blue, 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.84); and methylene blue plus transillumination, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94). Thus, the crack assessment techniques that gave the best discrimination between cracked and noncracked specimens, regardless of rater, was methylene blue plus transillumination. This study emphasizes the usefulness of transillumination along with magnification in detecting dentinal cracks.

  9. Crack identification in a freely vibrating plate using Bayesian parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Edward Z.; Murphy, Kevin D.; Nichols, Jonathan M.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper a new approach is proposed for identifying the presence and location of a crack in a simply supported plate undergoing free vibration. Specifically, the approach uses a Markov-chain Monte-Carlo implementation of Bayes' Rule to estimate the crack parameters (i.e., its location, orientation, and size) and their probability distributions. Special attention is paid to developing a fast and accurate forward model for the response of the cracked plate. To generate the required time series, a semi-analytical free response is calculated using an FEM based eigen-solution. To speed up the simulations, modified elements are used at the crack tips; this permits a more course mesh without sacrificing accuracy. The approach is demonstrated to be effective at identifying all of the crack parameters. Furthermore, a natural by-product of this method is that it also provides a confidence (credible) interval for each of these parameters. The results show the utility and accuracy of this method in identifying cracks of various sizes, orientations, and locations.

  10. Part Marking and Identification Materials' for MISSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxby, Donald; Finckenor, Miria M.

    2008-01-01

    The Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is being conducted with funding from NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense, in order to evaluate candidate materials and processes for flight hardware. MISSE modules include test specimens used to validate NASA technical standards for part markings exposed to harsh environments in low-Earth orbit and space, including: atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal vacuum cycling, and meteoroid and orbital debris impact. Marked test specimens are evaluated and then mounted in a passive experiment container (PEC) that is affixed to an exterior surface on the International Space Station (ISS). They are exposed to atomic oxygen and/or ultraviolet radiation for a year or more before being retrieved and reevaluated. Criteria include percent contrast, axial uniformity, print growth, error correction, and overall grade. MISSE 1 and 2 (2001-2005), MISSE 3 and 4 (2006-2007), and MISSE 5 (2005-2006) have been completed to date. Acceptable results were found for test specimens marked with Data Matrix(TradeMark) symbols by Intermec Inc. and Robotic Vision Systems Inc using: laser bonding, vacuum arc vapor deposition, gas assisted laser etch, chemical etch, mechanical dot peening, laser shot peening, laser etching, and laser induced surface improvement. MISSE 6 (2008-2009) is exposing specimens marked by DataLase(Registed TradeMark), Chemico technologies Inc., Intermec Inc., and tesa with laser-markable paint, nanocode tags, DataLase and tesa laser markings, and anodized metal labels.

  11. Identification of Parts Failures. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This parts failures identification manual is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids covering theory of operation, diagnosis of trouble problems, and repair of automotive and off-the-road construction and agricultural equipment. Materials provide basic information with many illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers…

  12. Slow and fast motion of cracks in inelastic solids. Part 1: Slow growth of cracks in a rate sensitive tresca solid. Part 2: Dynamic crack represented by the Dugdale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnuk, M. P.; Sih, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    An extension is proposed of the classical theory of fracture to viscoelastic and elastic-plastic materials in which the plasticity effects are confined to a narrow band encompassing the crack front. It is suggested that the Griffith-Irwin criterion of fracture, which requires that the energy release rate computed for a given boundary value problem equals the critical threshold, ought to be replaced by a differential equation governing the slow growth of a crack prior to the onset of rapid propagation. A new term which enters the equation of motion in the dissipative media is proportional to the energy lost within the end sections of the crack, and thus reflects the extent of inelastic behavior of a solid. A concept of apparent surface energy is introduced to account for the geometry dependent and the rate dependent phenomena which influence toughness of an inelastic solid. Three hypotheses regarding the condition for fracture in the subcritical range of load are compared. These are: (1) constant fracture energy (Cherepanov), (2) constant opening displacement at instability (Morozov) and (3) final stretch criterion (Wnuk).

  13. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and Truncating Bank Identification Standards D Appendix D to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL... COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Indorsement, Reconverting Bank... sequence number; (C) A telephone number for receipt of notification of large-dollar returned checks; and...

  14. Vibration Based Crack Detection in a Rotating Disk. Part 1; An Analytical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the analytical results concerning the detection of a crack in a rotating disk. The concept of the approach is based on the fact that the development of a disk crack results in a distorted strain field within the component. As a result, a minute deformation in the disk's geometry as well as a change in the system s center of mass occurs. Finite element analyses were conducted concerning a notched disk in order to define the sensitivity of the method. The notch was used to simulate an actual crack and will be the method utilized for upcoming experiments. Various notch sizes were studied. The geometric deformations and shifts of center of mass were documented as a function of rotational speed. In addition, a rotordynamic analysis of a 2-bearing, disk and shaft system was conducted. The overall response of the system was required in order to design the experimental system for operation beyond the first critical. The results of the FE analyses of the disk indicated that the overall changes in the disk s geometry and center of mass were rather small. The difference between the maximum centrifugal radial displacements between the undamaged and damaged disks at 8000 RPM was 0.00014 in. for a 0.963 in. notch length. The shift in center of mass was also of this magnitude. The next step involves running experiments to verify the analysis.

  15. ERRATUM: Genetic identification of crack-tip parameters using thermoelastic isopachics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu-Barton, J. M.; Worden, K.

    2003-10-01

    There are a number of unfortunate mistakes in the paper. This is entirely the fault of the authors who regretfully failed to agree on the coordinate system used for the curve-fit. In some detail, the errors are: (1) Page 177, column 2, line 7: Should read tanphi = K2/K1 not tan-1phi = K2/K1 as stated in the thermoelastic data section. This is purely a typographical error and has no effect on the results presented in the paper. (2) Page 178, column 1, line 2: Should read 8 MPa not 12.5 MPa for the 30° crack. This is purely a typographical error and has no effect on the results presented in the paper. (3) The legend 2phi in tables 2, 4, 6 and 8 should simply be phi. The effect of this on the various mode 1 examples is minimal because the value of phi is not used in the SIF determination. Relevant errata are: (4) Page 180, column 1, line 21: Instead of 'The mean estimated angle of rotation is 0.008 rad corresponding to 0.17°.' this should read 'The mean estimated angle of rotation is 0.017 rad corresponding to 0.97°.' (5) Page 181, column 1, line 10: Instead of 'The orientation value obtained was 0.05 rad corresponding to 9.17°.' this should read 'The orientation value obtained was 0.16 rad corresponding to 9.17°.' (6) Page 181, column 2, last line: Instead of 'Here the average of the three phi values is 1.9°.' this should read 'Here the average of the three phi values is 3.7°.' The most serious effect of the phi/2phi confusion is felt on the mixed-mode results in section 7 because the value of phi is used in the calculation of the SIFs. (7) Table 9 should read: corrected table Because of the changes to table 9 the text in section 7 from: ''Once again the most accurate value of phi is derived...'' to the end of that section should be disregarded. The following commentary is applicable: Here the most accurate value of phi is derived from the cardioid furthest from the crack-tip. The computed SIFs are as shown in table 9, where only the cardioid furthest from the

  16. Identification of cracks in thin-walled structures by means of wavenumber filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Paweł; Radzieński, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    This research is related to a signal processing of full wavefield data as an effective tool for detection, localization and visualization of a crack growth in thin-walled structures. Full wavefield data of propagating Lamb waves in structures such as plates and shells made out of metallic alloys and composite laminates contain a wealth of information about wave pattern anomalies due to occurrence of a damage. The aim is to demonstrate a method for enhancing damage visualization in structures such that estimation of the length and orientation of the crack can be easily obtained. The proposed signal processing involves application of discrete fast Fourier transform, wavenumber domain filtering and inverse discrete Fourier transform. The method is further enhanced by a technique for compensation of the wave attenuation so that the effects of structural damage have the same influence regardless of the location. The concept is first illustrated on numerically simulated data, and then tested on experimental results. In the experiments, full wavefield measurements are obtained using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, which allows the measurement of displacements and/or velocities along three axes over a user-defined grid. In the proposed method only out-of-plane velocities are used. Tests performed on simple aluminum and composite plates with artificially introduced longitudinal cracks confirm the effectiveness of the method and its potential for application to the inspection of a variety of structural components.

  17. External characteristic determination of eggs and cracked eggs identification using spectral signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study was carried out to use hyperspectral imaging technique for determining color (L*, a* and b*) and eggshell strength and identifying cracked chicken eggs. Partial least squares (PLS) models based on full and selected wavelengths suggested by regression coefficient (RC) method were established to predict the four parameters, respectively. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and RC-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (RC-PLS-DA) models were applied to identify cracked eggs. PLS models performed well with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.788 for L*, 0.810 for a*, 0.766 for b* and 0.835 for eggshell strength. RC-PLS models also obtained the rp of 0.771 for L*, 0.806 for a*, 0.767 for b* and 0.841 for eggshell strength. The classification results were 97.06% in PLS-DA model and 88.24% in RC-PLS-DA model. It demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique has the potential to be used to detect color and eggshell strength values and identify cracked chicken eggs.

  18. External characteristic determination of eggs and cracked eggs identification using spectral signature

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to use hyperspectral imaging technique for determining color (L*, a* and b*) and eggshell strength and identifying cracked chicken eggs. Partial least squares (PLS) models based on full and selected wavelengths suggested by regression coefficient (RC) method were established to predict the four parameters, respectively. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and RC-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (RC-PLS-DA) models were applied to identify cracked eggs. PLS models performed well with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.788 for L*, 0.810 for a*, 0.766 for b* and 0.835 for eggshell strength. RC-PLS models also obtained the rp of 0.771 for L*, 0.806 for a*, 0.767 for b* and 0.841 for eggshell strength. The classification results were 97.06% in PLS-DA model and 88.24% in RC-PLS-DA model. It demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique has the potential to be used to detect color and eggshell strength values and identify cracked chicken eggs. PMID:26882990

  19. Identification of Micro-cracks to Define Nucleation Stage of Earthquake Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinawa, Y.; Noda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Takamatsu, K.; Natsumeda, J.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquakes are understood to be fracture of crustal rocks or stick slip of neighboring blocks. Preshocks are known to occur generally in the rupture preparatory stage of natural earthquake. And, microcracks are detected in the nucleation stage of accelerated deformation in almost all laboratory experiments. Preshock activity has been found to be less regular to be used for confident predictive purpose. Previous efforts to detect micro-cracks related with natural earthquakes have not succeeded to find particular phenomena to identify the nucleation stage. Here we show that a deep underground electric field measurement using special antenna could detect micro-cracks appearing in the nucleation stage of the Tohoku Earthquake. The measurement method has been proved to be robust to the natural and man-made noises. Whole large pulse-like variations were grouped into three by frequency and waveforms, and found to characterize different phases in the preparatory and after shock processes. Those variations are grouped by time constants: A -type with duration of several to several ten minutes just the same as the pulse-like signals detected previously at the time of volcanic eruption and seismic swarms, B of several hundred Herz, and C of several kiloherz. The B- type variations are sub-grouped into three by waveform: type B-1 of similar to the GUV except in the stepped decay in the relaxation phase after sharp rise, type B-2 of wave packet similar to acoustic emission, and type B-3 of superposition of B-1 and B-2 Different types of electric waveforms are suggested to correspond to crack rupture modes of tensile and shear, and to be generated by confined water movement through the electro-kinetic effects on the ground of previous investigations on laboratory experiments. The second kind of cracks (B-type) is suggested to define the nucleation period: activity increases sharply before the earthquake following the modified Ohmori's law (Figure 1). Field monitoring of micro-crack

  20. Identification of boundary conditions as a part of model correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabst, U.; Hagedorn, P.

    1995-05-01

    Experience shows that in mathematical models of elastic systems the boundary conditions, bearings and joints are those parts of the system which are generally much less well known than the main components. The influence of these local parts on the system's dynamic behavior is commonly underestimated. Thus, in model correction, they tend to be modelled in an oversimplified way. Taking this fact into account, the present paper gives a system identification approach that is limited (at least in a first step) to the estimation of boundary conditions by using measured modal data.

  1. From Ganja to crack: Caribbean participation in the underground economy in Brooklyn, 1976-1986. Part 2. Establishment of the cocaine (and crack) economy.

    PubMed

    Hamid, A

    1991-07-01

    Shortages in the supply of marijuana, which became acute around 1981, caused Rastafari marijuana distributors very reluctantly to disregard religious injunctions against the use of any psychoactive substance except marijuana, and to experiment with the use and distribution of cocaine hydrochloride powder for intranasal administration and, later, for smoking (freebase and crack). This experimentation proved ruinous, and many were retired ignominiously from drug distribution. In the crack era they have been succeeded by completely new social, cultural, and economic arrangements. PMID:1959997

  2. Identification of the Onset of Cracking in Gear Teeth Using Acoustic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullin, R.; Clarke, A.; Eaton, M. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Holford, K. M.

    2012-08-01

    The development of diagnostic methods for gear tooth faults in aerospace power transmission systems is an active research area being driven largely by the interests of military organisations or large aerospace organisations. In aerospace applications, the potential results of gear failure are serious, ranging from increased asset downtime to, at worst, catastrophic failure with life-threatening consequences. New monitoring techniques which can identify the onset of failure at earlier stages are in demand. Acoustic Emission (AE) is the most sensitive condition monitoring tool and is a passive technique that detects the stress wave emitted by a structure as cracks propagate. In this study a gear test rig that allows the fatigue loading of an individual gear tooth was utilised. The rig allows a full AE analysis of damage signatures in gear teeth without the presence of constant background noise due to rotational and frictional sources. Furthermore this approach allows validation of AE results using crack gauges or strain gauges. Utilising a new approach to AE monitoring a sensor was mounted on the gear and used to continuously capture AE data for a complete fatigue load cycle of data, rather than the traditional approach where discrete signals are captured on a threshold basis. Data was captured every 10th load cycle for the duration of the test. A developed fast fourier transform analysis technique was compared with traditional analytical methods. In this investigation the developed techniques were validated against visual inspection and were shown to be far superior to the traditional approach.

  3. A novel approach to detecting breathing-fatigue cracks based on dynamic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guirong; De Stefano, Alessandro; Matta, Emiliano; Feng, Ruoqiang

    2013-01-01

    During the service life of structures, breathing-fatigue cracks may occur in structural members due to dynamic loadings acting on them. These fatigue cracks, if undetected, might lead to a catastrophic failure of the whole structural system. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to detect breathing-fatigue cracks, some of them appear rather sophisticated or expensive (requiring complicated equipment), and others suffer from a lack of sensitivity. In this study, a simple and efficient approach to detecting breathing-fatigue cracks is developed based on dynamic characteristics of breathing cracks. First, considering that breathing cracks introduce bilinearity into structures, a simple system identification method for bilinear systems is proposed by taking best advantage of dynamic characteristics of bilinear systems. This method transfers nonlinear system identification into linear system identification by dividing impulse or free-vibration responses into different parts corresponding to each stiffness region according to the stiffness interface. In this way, the natural frequency of each region can be identified using any modal identification approach applicable to linear systems. Second, the procedure for identifying the existence of breathing fatigue cracks and quantifying the cracks qualitatively is proposed by looking for the difference in the identified natural frequency between regions. Third, through introducing Hilbert transform, the proposed procedure is extended to identify fatigue cracks in piecewise-nonlinear systems. The proposed system identification method and crack detection procedure have been successfully validated by numerical simulations and experimental tests.

  4. Improved Quick Disconnect (QD) Interface Through Fail Safe Parts Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanch-Payne, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    An extensive review of existing Quick Disconnects (QDs) mating and demating operations was performed to determine which shuttle part interface identifications and procedures contribute to human factor errors. The research methods used consisted of interviews with engineers and technicians, examination of incident reports, critiques of video and audio tapes of QD operations, and attendance of a Hyper QD operational course. The data strongly suggests that there are inherit human factor errors involved in QD operations. To promote fail-safe operations, QD interface problem areas and recommendations were outlined and reviewed. It is suggested that dialogue, investigations and recommendations continue.

  5. Small Crack Growth and Fatigue Life Predictions for High-Strength Aluminium Alloys. Part 1; Experimental and Fracture Mechanics Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, X. R.; Newman, J. C.; Zhao, W.; Swain, M. H.; Ding, C. F.; Phillips, E. P.

    1998-01-01

    The small crack effect was investigated in two high-strength aluminium alloys: 7075-T6 bare and LC9cs clad alloy. Both experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to study crack initiation and growth of small cracks. In the experimental program, fatigue tests, small crack and large crack tests A,ere conducted under constant amplitude and Mini-TWIST spectrum loading conditions. A pronounced small crack effect was observed in both materials, especially for the negative stress ratios. For all loading conditions, most of the fatigue life of the SENT specimens was shown to be crack propagation from initial material defects or from the cladding layer. In the analysis program, three-dimensional finite element and A weight function methods were used to determine stress intensity factors and to develop SIF equations for surface and corner cracks at the notch in the SENT specimens. A plastisity-induced crack-closure model was used to correlate small and large crack data, and to make fatigue life predictions, Predicted crack-growth rates and fatigue lives agreed well with experiments. A total fatigue life prediction method for the aluminum alloys was developed and demonstrated using the crack-closure model.

  6. Part identification in robotic assembly using vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabantaray, Bunil Kumar; Biswal, Bibhuti Bhusan

    2013-12-01

    Machine vision system acts an important role in making robotic assembly system autonomous. Identification of the correct part is an important task which needs to be carefully done by a vision system to feed the robot with correct information for further processing. This process consists of many sub-processes wherein, the image capturing, digitizing and enhancing, etc. do account for reconstructive the part for subsequent operations. Interest point detection of the grabbed image, therefore, plays an important role in the entire image processing activity. Thus it needs to choose the correct tool for the process with respect to the given environment. In this paper analysis of three major corner detection algorithms is performed on the basis of their accuracy, speed and robustness to noise. The work is performed on the Matlab R2012a. An attempt has been made to find the best algorithm for the problem.

  7. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steels: Part 1, medium-sulfur forging steel

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Poskie, T.J.; Auten, T.A; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a medium- sulfur ASTM A508-2 forging steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 30.3--38.3 mm, and depths of 13.1--16.8 mm. The experiments were conducted in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, and cyclic frequency) conductive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) in higher-sulfur steels under quasi-stagnant conditions. Earlier experiments on unclad compact tension specimens of this heat of steel did not exhibit EAC, and the present experiments on semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating cladding also did not exhibit EAC.

  8. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes, part 3: hydrophobic vials and the question of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-06-01

    The importance of cake adhesion to the inside vial wall during lyophilization of amorphous trehalose cakes was determined by using hydrophobized vials. The degrees of cake shrinkage and cracking were determined independently by photographic imaging of the cake top surface in a dark cell. Additionally, measurements with microcomputed tomography were performed. Adhesion is found to be a determining factor in both cake shrinkage and cracking. The correlation between cake detachment from the vial inner wall and trehalose concentration indicates that adhesion of the frozen solute phase is a determining factor in shrinkage. The hydrophobized vials give reduced cracking at trehalose concentrations of up to 15%. The reduced wetting of the hydrophobized inside vial wall gives a planar cake topography with a uniform distribution of cracks within the cake.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 512 - Vehicle Identification Number Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pursuant to the early warning information requirements of 49 CFR part 579 will constitute a clearly... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicle Identification Number Information D.... 512, App. D Appendix D to Part 512—Vehicle Identification Number Information The Chief Counsel...

  10. 36 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 801 - Identification of Properties: General

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Identification of Properties: General 1 Appendix 1 to Part 801 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 801, App. 1 Appendix 1 to Part 801—Identification...

  11. 10 CFR 72.156 - Identification and control of materials, parts, and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.156 Identification and control of materials, parts, and... must ensure that identification of the item is maintained by heat number, part number, serial...

  12. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Pericarp Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Mediating Fruit Cracking in Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Cai; Wu, Jian-Yang; Zhang, Hong-Na; Shi, Sheng-You; Liu, Li-Qin; Shu, Bo; Liang, Qing-Zhi; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Wei, Yong-Zan

    2014-01-01

    Fruit cracking has long been a topic of great concern for growers and researchers of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit cracking, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was first used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of cracking pericarp of litchi. Comparative transcriptomic analyses were performed on non-cracking and cracking fruits. A total of approximately 26 million and 29 million high quality reads were obtained from the two groups of samples, and were assembled into 46,641 unigenes with an average length of 993 bp. These unigenes can be useful resources for future molecular studies of the pericarp in litchi. Furthermore, four genes (LcAQP, 1; LcPIP, 1; LcNIP, 1; LcSIP, 1) involved in water transport, five genes (LcKS, 2; LcGA2ox, 2; LcGID1, 1) involved in GA metabolism, 21 genes (LcCYP707A, 2; LcGT, 9; Lcβ-Glu, 6; LcPP2C, 2; LcABI1, 1; LcABI5, 1) involved in ABA metabolism, 13 genes (LcTPC, 1; Ca2+/H+ exchanger, 3; Ca2+-ATPase, 4; LcCDPK, 2; LcCBL, 3) involved in Ca transport and 24 genes (LcPG, 5; LcEG, 1; LcPE, 3; LcEXP, 5; Lcβ-Gal, 9; LcXET, 1) involved in cell wall metabolism were identified as genes that are differentially expressed in cracked fruits compared to non-cracked fruits. Our results open new doors to further understand the molecular mechanisms behind fruit cracking in litchi and other fruits, especially Sapindaceae plants. PMID:25272225

  13. Local delamination in laminates with angle ply matrix cracks. Part 2: Delamination fracture analysis and fatigue characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin

    1991-01-01

    Constant amplitude tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted on AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy (02/ theta sub 2/ -(theta sub 2))sub s laminates, where theta was 15, 20, 25, or 30 degrees. Fatigue tests were conducted at a frequency of 5 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.1. Dye penetrant enhanced x-radiography was used to document the onset of matrix cracking in the central -(theta) degree plies, and the subsequent onset of local delaminations in the theta/ -(theta) interface at the intersection of the matrix cracks and the free edge, as a function of the number of fatigue cycles. Two strain energy release rate solutions for local delamination from matrix cracks were derived: one for a local delamination growing from an angle ply matrix crack with a uniform delamination growing from an angle ply matrix crack with a triangular shaped delamination area that extended only partially into the laminate width from the free edge. Plots of G(max) vs. N were generated to assess the accuracy of these G solutions. The influence of residual thermal and moisture stresses on G were also quantified. However, a detailed analysis of the G components and a mixed-mode fatigue failure criterion for this material may be needed to predict the fatigue behavior of these laminates.

  14. Determination of Granite Rock Massif Weathering and Cracking of Surface Layers in the Oldest Parts of Medieval Mine Depending on Used Mining Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the use of selected non-destructive testing methods for the purpose of specifying information on weathering and cracking of surface layers of granite rock massif in the medieval Jeroným Mine (the Czech Republic). This mine has been declared the National Heritage Site of the Czech Republic and its opening as a mining museum to the public is gradually prepared. Geological and geomechanical evaluation documents the possibility to find all kinds of weathering grades of rock massif in this mine. Two non-destructive methods have been tested, namely the measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity and the measurement of Schmidt hammer rebound value. Field measurements were performed in two selected galleries to verify the application of such methods in specific conditions of underground spaces. Used mining method is one of the parameters later influencing cracking of rock massif. In selected galleries, two different mining methods were used which means that a part of a gallery profile was mined out by hand tools in the Middle Ages and another part of the profile was later mined out by blasting. Measurements in these galleries have enabled to analyse the influence of used mining methods on cracking of rock massif in the impaired zone, and, consequently, on ongoing weathering processes in those zones.

  15. Identification of Damaged Wheat Kernels and Cracked-Shell Hazelnuts with Impact Acoustics Time-Frequency Patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new adaptive time-frequency (t-f) analysis and classification procedure is applied to impact acoustic signals for detecting hazelnuts with cracked shells and three types of damaged wheat kernels. Kernels were dropped onto a steel plate, and the resulting impact acoustic signals were recorded with ...

  16. Uncertainty law in ambient modal identification-Part I: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Siu-Kui

    2014-10-01

    Ambient vibration test has gained increasing popularity in practice as it provides an economical means for modal identification without artificial loading. Since the signal-to-noise ratio cannot be directly controlled, the uncertainty associated with the identified modal parameters is a primary concern. From a scientific point of view, it is of interest to know on what factors the uncertainty depends and what the relationship is. For planning or specification purposes, it is desirable to have an assessment of the test configuration required to achieve a specified accuracy in the modal parameters. For example, what is the minimum data duration to achieve a 30% coefficient of variation (c.o.v.) in the damping ratio? To address these questions, this work investigates the leading order behavior of the ‘posterior uncertainties’ (i.e., given data) of the modal parameters in a Bayesian identification framework. In the context of well-separated modes, small damping and sufficient data, it is shown rigorously that, among other results, the posterior c.o.v. of the natural frequency and damping ratio are asymptotically equal to ( and 1/(2, respectively; where ζ is the damping ratio; Nc is the data length as a multiple of the natural period; Bf and Bζ are data length factors that depend only on the bandwidth utilized for identification, for which explicit expressions have been derived. As the Bayesian approach allows full use of information contained in the data, the results are fundamental characteristics of the ambient modal identification problem. This paper develops the main theory. The companion paper investigates the implication of the results and verification with field test data.

  17. Fracture and crack growth in orthotropic laminates. Part 1: Analysis of a hybrid, unidirectional laminate with damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    The fracture behavior of unifirectional hybrid (buffer strip) composite laminates is studied. Three particular solutions are discussed: (1) broken fibers in a unidirectional half plane; (2) adjoined half planes of different fiber and matrix properties and (3) the solution of two half planes bounding a third distinct region of finite width. This finite width region represents a buffer strip and the potential of this strip to arrest a crack that originates in one of the half planes is investigated. The analysis is based on a materials modeling approach using the classical shear lag assumption to described the stress transfer between fibers. Explicit fiber and matrix properties of the three regions are retained and changes in the laminate behavior as a function of the relative material properties, buffer strip width and initial crack length are discussed.

  18. 10 CFR 72.156 - Identification and control of materials, parts, and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.156 Identification and control of materials, parts,...

  19. 10 CFR 72.156 - Identification and control of materials, parts, and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.156 Identification and control of materials, parts,...

  20. 10 CFR 72.156 - Identification and control of materials, parts, and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.156 Identification and control of materials, parts,...

  1. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  2. Part-template matching-based target detection and identification in UAV videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyuncheol; Im, Jaehyun; Kim, Taekyung; Bae, Jongsue; Lee, Sanghoon; Paik, Joonki

    2012-06-01

    Detecting and identifying targets in aerial images has been a challenging problem due to various types of image distortion factors, such as motion of a sensing device, weather variation, scale changes, and dynamic viewpoint. For accurate, robust recognition of objects in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) videos, we present a novel target detection and identification algorithm using part-template matching. The proposed method for target detection partitions the target into part-templates by efficient extraction method based on target part regions. We also propose distribution distance measurement-based target identification using the target part-template.

  3. A New Merit Function for Evaluating the Flaw Tolerance of Composite Laminates. Part 2; Arbitrary Size Holes and Center Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Mikulas M., Jr.; Sumpter, Rod

    2000-01-01

    In a previous paper, a new merit function for determining the strength performance of flawed composite laminates was presented. This previous analysis was restricted to circular hole flaws that were large enough that failure could be predicted using the laminate stress concentration factor. In this paper, the merit function is expanded to include the flaw cases of an arbitrary size circular hole or center crack. Failure prediction for these cases is determined using the point stress criterion. An example application of the merit function is included for a wide range of graphite/epoxy laminates.

  4. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  5. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  6. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  7. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  8. 9 CFR 310.23 - Identification of carcasses and parts of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of swine. 310.23 Section 310.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and parts of swine. (a) The identification of the carcasses and parts of swine identified in... throughout post-mortem inspection. (b) If the establishment fails to provide required swine...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 512 - Vehicle Identification Number Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pursuant to the early warning information requirements of 49 CFR part 579 will constitute a clearly... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vehicle Identification Number Information D Appendix D to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 512 - Vehicle Identification Number Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pursuant to the early warning information requirements of 49 CFR part 579 will constitute a clearly... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vehicle Identification Number Information D Appendix D to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  11. General Aviation Interior Noise. Part 1; Source/Path Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.; Till, Paul D.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There were two primary objectives of the research effort reported herein. The first objective was to identify and evaluate noise source/path identification technology applicable to single engine propeller driven aircraft that can be used to identify interior noise sources originating from structure-borne engine/propeller vibration, airborne propeller transmission, airborne engine exhaust noise, and engine case radiation. The approach taken to identify the contributions of each of these possible sources was first to conduct a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of an in-flight noise and vibration database acquired on a Cessna Model 182E aircraft. The second objective was to develop and evaluate advanced technology for noise source ranking of interior panel groups such as the aircraft windshield, instrument panel, firewall, and door/window panels within the cabin of a single engine propeller driven aircraft. The technology employed was that of Acoustic Holography (AH). AH was applied to the test aircraft by acquiring a series of in-flight microphone array measurements within the aircraft cabin and correlating the measurements via PCA. The source contributions of the various panel groups leading to the array measurements were then synthesized by solving the inverse problem using the boundary element model.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics and health monitoring of 6-DOF breathing cracked Jeffcott rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; DeSmidt, Hans; Yao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Jeffcott rotor is employed to study the nonlinear vibration characteristics of breathing cracked rotor system and explore the possibility of further damage identification. This paper is an extension work of prior study based on 4 degree-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor system. With consideration of disk tilting and gyroscopic effect, 6-dof EOM is derived and the crack model is established using SERR (strain energy release rate) in facture mechanics. Same as the prior work, the damaged stiffness matrix is updated by computing the instant crack closure line through Zero Stress Intensity Factor method. The breathing crack area is taken as a variable to analyze the breathing behavior in terms of eccentricity phase and shaft speed. Furthermore, the coupled vibration among lateral, torsional and longitudinal d.o.f is studied under torsional/axial excitation. The final part demonstrates the possibility of using vibration signal of damaged system for the crack diagnosis and health monitoring.

  13. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Indorsement, Reconverting Bank... bank shall comply with the following specifications when creating a substitute check: (i) If it is...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Indorsement, Reconverting Bank... bank shall comply with the following specifications when creating a substitute check: (i) If it is...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Indorsement, Reconverting Bank Identification, and Truncating Bank Identification Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Indorsement... the check. (3) A reconverting bank shall comply with the following specifications when creating...

  16. Knuckle Cracking

    MedlinePlus

    ... older obese people. Question: Can cracking knuckles / joints lead to arthritis? Answer: There is no evidence of ... or damaged joints due to arthritis could potentially lead more easily to ligament injury or acute trauma ...

  17. Preventing Cracking of Anodized Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Charles C.; Heslin, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Anodized coatings have been used as optical and thermal surfaces in spacecraft. Particulate contamination from cracked coatings is a concern for many applications. The major cause for the cracking is the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide coatings and the aluminum substrate. The loss of water when the coating is exposed to a vacuum also could induce cracking of the coating. Hot-water sealing was identified as the major cause for the cracking of the coatings because of the large temperature change when the parts were immersed in boiling water and the water was absorbed in the coating. when the hot-water sealing process was eliminated, the cracking resistance of the anodized coatings was greatly improved. Also, it was found that dyed black coatings were more susceptible than clear coatings to cracking during thermo-vacuum cyclings.

  18. Catalyst for cracking kerosene

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, C. H.

    1985-06-04

    A catalyst capable of cracking kerosene under lower pressure and temperature comprising kerosene; metal powder mixture of chromium powder, copper powder, lead powder, zinc powder, nickel powder, manganese powder in an amount of 12 to 13 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of said kerosene; sulfuric acid in an amount of 15 to 30 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of said kerosene; inorganic powder mixture of aluminum oxide powder, serpentine powder, alum powder, magnesium oxide powder, limestone powder, slake lime powder, silica powder, and granite powder in an amount of 150 to 170 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of said kerosene.

  19. Fundamental two-stage formulation for Bayesian system identification, Part II: Application to ambient vibration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-Liang; Au, Siu-Kui

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental theory has been developed for a general two-stage Bayesian system identification problem in the companion paper (Part I). This paper applies the theory to the particular case of structural system identification using ambient vibration data. In Stage I, the modal properties are identified using the Fast Bayesian FFT method. Given the data, their posterior distribution can be well approximated by a Gaussian distribution whose mean and covariance matrix can be computed efficiently. In Stage II, the structural model parameters (e.g., stiffness, mass) are identified incorporating the posterior distribution of the natural frequencies and mode shapes in Stage I and their conditional distribution based on the theoretical structural finite element model. Synthetic and experimental data are used to illustrate the proposed theory and applications. A number of factors commonly relevant to structural system identification are studied, including the number of measured degrees of freedom, the number of identifiable modes and sensor alignment error.

  20. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  1. Analysis of cracking in glass molds made of cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leushin, I. O.; Chistyakov, D. G.

    2014-09-01

    The cracking in the parts of cast iron molds intended for glass is considered, and this cracking substantially affects the operation of glass-blowing equipment, maintainability, and the replacement of mold sets. The processes that cause cracking in the parts of glass molds and initiate crack growth are studied.

  2. Crack growth resistance in nuclear graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouagne, Pierre; Neighbour, Gareth B.; McEnaney, Brian

    2002-05-01

    Crack growth resistance curves for the non-linear fracture parameters KR, JR and R were measured for unirradiated PGA and IM1-24 graphites that are used as moderators in British Magnox and AGR nuclear reactors respectively. All the curves show an initial rising part, followed by a plateau region where the measured parameter is independent of crack length. JR and R decreased at large crack lengths. The initial rising curves were attributed to development of crack bridges in the wake of the crack front, while, in the plateau region, the crack bridging zone and the frontal process zone, ahead of the crack tip, reached steady state values. The decreases at large crack lengths were attributed to interaction of the frontal zone with the specimen end face. Microscopical evidence for graphite fragments acting as crack bridges showed that they were much smaller than filler particles, indicating that the graphite fragments are broken down during crack propagation. There was also evidence for friction points in the crack wake zone and shear cracking of some larger fragments. Inspection of KR curves showed that crack bridging contributed ~0.4 MPa m0.5 to the fracture toughness of the graphites. An analysis of JR and R curves showed that the development of the crack bridging zone in the rising part of the curves contributed ~20% to the total work of fracture. Energies absorbed during development of crack bridges and steady state crack propagation were greater for PGA than for IM1-24 graphite. These differences reflect the greater extent of irreversible processes occurring during cracking in the coarser microtexture of PGA graphite.

  3. Analytical modeling and vibration analysis of internally cracked rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. V.; Jain, N. K.; Ramtekkar, G. D.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes an analytical model for nonlinear vibrations in a cracked rectangular isotropic plate containing a single and two perpendicular internal cracks located at the center of the plate. The two cracks are in the form of continuous line with each parallel to one of the edges of the plate. The equation of motion for isotropic cracked plate, based on classical plate theory is modified to accommodate the effect of internal cracks using the Line Spring Model. Berger's formulation for in-plane forces makes the model nonlinear. Galerkin's method used with three different boundary conditions transforms the equation into time dependent modal functions. The natural frequencies of the cracked plate are calculated for various crack lengths in case of a single crack and for various crack length ratio for the two cracks. The effect of the location of the part through crack(s) along the thickness of the plate on natural frequencies is studied considering appropriate crack compliance coefficients. It is thus deduced that the natural frequencies are maximally affected when the crack(s) are internal crack(s) symmetric about the mid-plane of the plate and are minimally affected when the crack(s) are surface crack(s), for all the three boundary conditions considered. It is also shown that crack parallel to the longer side of the plate affect the vibration characteristics more as compared to crack parallel to the shorter side. Further the application of method of multiple scales gives the nonlinear amplitudes for different aspect ratios of the cracked plate. The analytical results obtained for surface crack(s) are also assessed with FEM results. The FEM formulation is carried out in ANSYS.

  4. Concrete mechanics. Part A: Theory and experiments on the mechanical behavior of cracks in plain and reinforced concrete subjected to shear loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walraven, J. C.; Reinhardt, H. W.

    The mechanism or transmission of forces across cracks whose faces are subjected to shear displacements are investigated. This mechanism is achieved by interaction of several components: axial and transverse stiffness (dowel action) of the reinforcement and direct transfer of force between the rough concrete crack faces, generally denoted by the term 'aggregate interlock'. Experimental research and the derivation of a theoretical model gave insight into the phenomenon. Tests were carried out on precracked shear specimens. Variables in the tests were the type of reinforcement (embedded reinforcing bars, external restraint bars), the concrete strength, the type of the concrete (sand gravel concrete, lightweight concrete), the grading of the concrete (continuous discontinuous), the scale of the concrete, and the initial crack width. Measurements were carried for determining the shear force, the crack displacements and, for the specimens with external reinforcement, the force in the restraining bars.

  5. Fast Bayesian approach for modal identification using free vibration data, Part I - Most probable value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-Liang; Ni, Yan-Chun; Au, Siu-Kui; Lam, Heung-Fai

    2016-03-01

    , are addressed. Fast computational algorithms for determining the MPV are proposed so that the method can be practically implemented. In the companion paper (Part II), analytical formulae are derived for the posterior covariance matrix so that it can be evaluated without resorting to finite difference method. The proposed method is verified using synthetic data. It is also applied to modal identification of full-scale field structures.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 240 - Identification of State Agencies That Perform National Driver Register Checks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... National Driver Register Checks D Appendix D to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Pt. 240, App. D Appendix D to Part 240—Identification of State Agencies... employer or prospective employer. Under the provisions of paragraphs (d) and (e) of § 240.111, each...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 240 - Identification of State Agencies That Perform National Driver Register Checks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... National Driver Register Checks D Appendix D to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Pt. 240, App. D Appendix D to Part 240—Identification of State Agencies... employer or prospective employer. Under the provisions of paragraphs (d) and (e) of § 240.111, each...

  8. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  9. Fault zone identification in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf based on combined seismic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkamali, M. S.; Keshavarz FK, N.; Bakhtiari, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    Faults, as main pathways for fluids, play a critical role in creating regions of high porosity and permeability, in cutting cap rock and in the migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir. Therefore, accurate identification of fault zones is very important in maximizing production from petroleum traps. Image processing and modern visualization techniques are provided for better mapping of objects of interest. In this study, the application of fault mapping in the identification of fault zones within the Mishan and Aghajari formations above the Guri base unconformity surface in the eastern part of Persian Gulf is investigated. Seismic single- and multi-trace attribute analyses are employed separately to determine faults in a vertical section, but different kinds of geological objects cannot be identified using individual attributes only. A mapping model is utilized to improve the identification of the faults, giving more accurate results. This method is based on combinations of all individual relevant attributes using a neural network system to create combined attributes, which gives an optimal view of the object of interest. Firstly, a set of relevant attributes were separately calculated on the vertical section. Then, at interpreted positions, some example training locations were manually selected in each fault and non-fault class by an interpreter. A neural network was trained on combinations of the attributes extracted at the example training locations to generate an optimized fault cube. Finally, the results of the fault and nonfault probability cube were estimated, which the neural network applied to the entire data set. The fault probability cube was obtained with higher mapping accuracy and greater contrast, and with fewer disturbances in comparison with individual attributes. The computed results of this study can support better understanding of the data, providing fault zone mapping with reliable results.

  10. Stress-corrosion cracking in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices for preventing stress-corrosion cracking from impairing the structural integrity and flightworthiness of space vehicles are presented. The important variables affecting stress-corrosion cracking are considered to be the environment, including time and temperature; metal composition, and structure; and sustained tensile stress. For designing spacecraft structures that are free of stress-corrosion cracking for the service life of the vehicle the following rules apply: (1) identification and control of the environments to which the structure will be exposed during construction, storage, transportation, and use; (2) selection of alloy compositions and tempers which are resistant to stress-corrosion cracking in the identified environment; (3) control of fabrication and other processes which may introduce residual tensile stresses or damage the material; (4) limitation of the combined residual and applied tensile stresses to below the threshold stress level for the onset of cracking throughout the service life of the vehicle; and (5) establishment of a thorough inspection program.

  11. Forensic identification science evidence since Daubert: Part I--A quantitative analysis of the exclusion of forensic identification science evidence.

    PubMed

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Kumho Tire Co. Ltd. v. Carmichael transformed the way scientific expert evidence was reviewed in courts across the United States. To gauge the impact of these rulings on the admission of forensic identification evidence, the authors analyzed 548 judicial opinions from cases where admission of such evidence was challenged. Eighty-one cases (15%) involved exclusion or limitation of identification evidence, with 50 (65.7%) of these failing to meet the "reliability" threshold. This was largely because of a failure to demonstrate a sufficient scientific foundation for either the technique (27 cases) or the expert's conclusions (17 cases). The incidence of exclusion/limitation because of a lack of demonstrable reliability suggests that there is a continuing need for the forensic sciences to pursue research validating their underlying theories and techniques of identification to ensure their continued acceptance by the courts.

  12. Nuclear Technology. Course 31: Quality Assurance Practices. Module 31-4, Identification, Storage and Handling of Components, Parts and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasil, Ed; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Quality Assurance Practices describes the activities of identification, storage, and handling of components, parts, and materials. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to…

  13. Load interaction effects on fatigue crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoychev, Stoyan Ivanov

    The fatigue crack propagation rate can be either increased or decreased by the previous load history (overload, block loading, different load ratio, etc.). Currently, these load sequence effects can be explained either by using crack closure or internal stress concepts. They are studied in Part I and II of the dissertation accordingly. In Part I, the last 35 years of research in the crack closure area were carefully reviewed. A new Quadrature (Q) method for crack closure estimation, based on integration rather than differentiation of the load-displacement data, was developed and compared to the 'best' methods from the literature. The new method was able to reduce the scatter in the opening load estimations to a negligible level, but does not collapse the results for different load ratios (0.1 and 0.9). In Part II a general relationship between fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and the two-parameter (DeltaKtip and tipKmax) crack driving force was derived using fundamental fatigue (ε-N curve) properties. Based on this analysis, a new way of representing the da/dN data by means of the crack propagation (CP) table was proposed. In order to make the CP table sensitive to the load history effects, it was scaled using the applied and internal stresses and the corresponding stress intensity factors, characteristic for the crack tip. Two methods for calculating the internal stress intensity factors were developed, adopting the weight function and the new clamping force concepts accordingly. Finally, the CP table at the crack tip was successfully used together with the two-parameter crack driving force equation to predict da/dN for different load ratios, block loading and a single overload. Calculation of the crack closure was not needed in order to predict the experimental data accurately.

  14. Online stress corrosion crack and fatigue usages factor monitoring and prognostics in light water reactor components: Probabilistic modeling, system identification and data fusion based big data analytics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhasish M.; Jagielo, Bryan J.; Iverson, William I.; Bhan, Chi Bum; Soppet, William S.; Majumdar, Saurin M.; Natesan, Ken N.

    2014-12-10

    Nuclear reactors in the United States account for roughly 20% of the nation's total electric energy generation, and maintaining their safety in regards to key component structural integrity is critical not only for long term use of such plants but also for the safety of personnel and the public living around the plant. Early detection of damage signature such as of stress corrosion cracking, thermal-mechanical loading related material degradation in safety-critical components is a necessary requirement for long-term and safe operation of nuclear power plant systems.

  15. Small crack test program for helicopter materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annigeri, Bal; Schneider, George

    1994-01-01

    Crack propagation tests were conducted to determine crack growth behavior in five helicopter materials for surface cracks between 0.005 to 0.020 inches in depth. Constant amplitude tests were conducted at stress ratios R equals 0.1 and 0.5, and emphasis was placed on near threshold data (i.e., 10-8 to 10-6 inches/cycle). Spectrum tests were conducted using a helicopter spectrum. The test specimen was an unnotched tension specimen, and cracks were initiated from a small EDM notch. An optical/video system was used to monitor crack growth. The material for the test specimens was obtained from helicopter part forgings. Testing was conducted at stresses below yield to reflect actual stresses in helicopter parts.

  16. Small crack test program for helicopter materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annigeri, Bal; Schneider, George

    1994-09-01

    Crack propagation tests were conducted to determine crack growth behavior in five helicopter materials for surface cracks between 0.005 to 0.020 inches in depth. Constant amplitude tests were conducted at stress ratios R equals 0.1 and 0.5, and emphasis was placed on near threshold data (i.e., 10-8 to 10-6 inches/cycle). Spectrum tests were conducted using a helicopter spectrum. The test specimen was an unnotched tension specimen, and cracks were initiated from a small EDM notch. An optical/video system was used to monitor crack growth. The material for the test specimens was obtained from helicopter part forgings. Testing was conducted at stresses below yield to reflect actual stresses in helicopter parts.

  17. Crack spectra analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, M.

    1980-09-01

    Crack spectra derived from velocity data have been shown to exhibit systematics which reflect microstructural and textural differences between samples (Warren and Tiernan, 1980). Further research into both properties and information content of crack spectra have yielded the following: Spectral features are reproducible even at low pressures; certain observed spectral features may correspond to non-in-situ crack populations created during sample retrieval; the functional form of a crack spectra may be diagnostic of the sample's grain texture; hysteresis is observed in crack spectra between up and down pressure runs - it may be due to friction between the faces of closed crack populations.

  18. The Stress-Relief Cracking Susceptibility of a New Ferritic Steel - Part I: Single-Pass Heat-Affected Zone Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    NAWROCKI,J.G.; DUPONT,J.N.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; MARDER,A.R.

    1999-12-15

    The stress-relief cracking susceptibility of single-pass welds in a new ferritic steel, HCM2S, has been evaluated and compared to 2.25Cr-1Mo steel using Gleeble techniques. Simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zones (CGHAZ) were produced under a range of energy inputs and tested at various post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures. Both alloys were tested at a stress of 325 MPa. The 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel was also tested at 270 MPa to normalize for the difference in yield strength between the two materials. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the CGHAZ microstructure. The ''as-welded'' CGHAZ of each alloy consisted of lath martensite or bainite and had approximately equal prior austenite grain sizes. The as-welded hardness of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel CGHAZ was significantly higher than that of the HCM2S alloy. Over the range studied energy input had no effect on the as-welded microstructure or hardness of either alloy. The energy input also had no effect on the stress-relief cracking susceptibility of either material. Both alloys failed intergranularly along prior austenite grain boundaries under all test conditions. The 2.25Cr-1Mo steel samples experienced significant macroductility and some microductility when tested at 325 MPa. The ductility decreased significantly when tested at 270 MPa but was still higher that than of HCM2S at each test condition. The time to failure decreased with increasing PWHT Temperature for each material. There was no significant difference in the times to failure between the two materials. Varying energy input and stress had no effect on the time-to failure. The ductility, as measured by reduction in are% increased with increasing PWHT temperature for 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel tested at both stresses. However, PWHT temperature had no effect on the ductility of HCM2S. The hardness of the CGHAZ for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel decreased significantly after PWHT, but remained constant for HCM2S. The differences in stress

  19. Oral and Craniofacial Clinical Signs Associated to Genetic Conditions in Human Identification Part I: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Fouad; Aoun, Nicole; el Husseini, Hassan; Jassar, Houssam; Sayah, Fida; Salameh, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Forensic dentistry is one of the most reliable methods used in human identification when other technique as fingerprint, DNA, visual identification cannot be used. Genetic disorders have several manifestations that can target the intra-oral cavity, the cranio-facial area or any location in the human body. Materials and Methods: A literature search of the scientific database (Medline and Science Direct) for the years 1990 to 2014 was carried out to find out all the available papers that indicate oral, cranio-facial signs, genetic and human identification. Results: A table with 10 genetic conditions was described with oral and cranio-facial signs that can help forensic specialist in human identification. Conclusion: This review showed a correlation between genetics, facial and intra-oral signs that would help forensic ondontologist in the identification procedures. PMID:26028912

  20. Gear crack propagation investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Ballarini, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of gear rim thickness on crack propagation life. The FRANC (FRacture ANalysis Code) computer program was used to simulate crack propagation. The FRANC program used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, finite element modeling, and a unique re-meshing scheme to determine crack tip stress distributions, estimate stress intensity factors, and model crack propagation. Various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack propagation life based on the calculated stress intensity factors. Experimental tests were performed in a gear fatigue rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Test gears were installed with special crack propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending fatigue crack growth. Good correlation between predicted and measured crack growth was achieved when the fatigue crack closure concept was introduced into the analysis. As the gear rim thickness decreased, the compressive cyclic stress in the gear tooth fillet region increased. This retarded crack growth and increased the number of crack propagation cycles to failure.

  1. From Ganja to crack: Caribbean participation in the underground economy in Brooklyn, 1976-1986. Part 1. Establishment of the marijuana economy.

    PubMed

    Hamid, A

    1991-06-01

    The involvement of Caribbean youth in drug distribution (marijuana from the mid-1960s to 1981; cocaine hydrochloride powder and crack from 1981 to 1987, the time of writing) throughout the Circum-Caribbean area and in North America is described. Social, economic, and cultural outcomes of these engagements are highlighted, and the relationship between the underground economy of drugs and the corporate, capitalist economy is explored. Responding to high rates of unemployment and to other problems of migrant adaptation, young Caribbean African males established a multimillion dollar marijuana (ganja) trading network which linked cultivators on the islands with exporters/importers and street-level distributors in North American cities. By 1976, its participants had become Rastafarians, or followers of an ideology of self-reliance and indigenous development. Following its precepts, they reinvested marijuana revenues to revive cottage industry and agriculture. In Caribbean or minority neighborhoods, therefore, marijuana was a "positive vibration" and its distributors were lionized.

  2. Description of crack growth using the strip-yield model for computation of crack opening loads, crack tip stretch, and strain rates

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, A.U. de; Hoeve, H.J. ten; Henriksen, T.K.

    1999-07-01

    Nowadays, application of the strip-yield model for computation of crack opening load levels is well known. In this paper the incremental formulation of a fatigue crack growth law is used to demonstrate the role of the crack opening load level in time-independent fatigue crack growth. Less known is the ability of the strip-yield model to define the strain rate at the crack tip. A threshold level {dot {var{underscore}epsilon}}{sub th} of this strain rate is introduced and used to formulate a criterion for initiation of time-dependent accelerated fatigue crack growth. This process is called corrosion fatigue. To account for effects of environment and frequency on the crack growth rate a time-dependent part is added to the incremental fatigue crack growth law. The resulting incremental crack growth equation is integrated to obtain the crack growth rate for a load cycle. The model discussed in this paper is a mechanical model. Physical aspects other than strain rate, loading frequency and load wave shape are not modeled in an explicit way. Hence, the model is valid for specific environment/base metal combinations. However, in consideration of the effects of small variations of environment, temperature, and other variables on the crack growth rates, it can be used as a reference solution. The fatigue crack growth model has been implemented in the NASGRO (ESACRACK) software. The time-dependent part is still subject to further evaluation.

  3. Investigations of soil cracking and preferential flow in a weighing lysimeter filled with cracking clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, A.; Andersen, M. S.; Acworth, R. I.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryAn improved understanding of deep drainage processes in irrigated cracking soils is needed for sustainable irrigation management. To investigate the effect of crack dynamics and macropore flow on drainage in cracking soils, a series of irrigation experiments was carried out in a weighing lysimeter. Subsurface soil cracks of the initially very dry soil were investigated with a videoscope and changes in the surface expression of cracks in response to irrigation events were monitored by time-lapse photography. A bromide tracer was applied to one irrigation event. Variations in the combined soil and moisture mass and the volume of drainage out of the soil column was logged and the drainage EC and bromide content were determined. No drainage occurred out of the soil column during the first 3 out of 6 irrigation events, even though substantial surface runoff into the cracks occurred and, at least initially, soil cracks provided an uninterrupted flow path through the profile. The breakthrough of the bromide tracer, as well as an initially low EC of the drainage water indicate that preferential flow accounted for a substantial part of the first of the two drainage events, even though the soil cracks were sealed on the surface at the onset of the irrigation causing the drainage. The results show that lateral infiltration of macropore flow into the soil matrix can be substantial and should not be neglected while simulating macropore flow and deep drainage in cracking soils. The results also indicate that soil cracks can remain pathways for preferential flow even after they are closed at the soil surface. The type of water application appears to have an impact on the location of crack formation, with flood irrigation favouring reappearance of cracks at previous crack locations and simulated rainfall resulting in shifting crack locations.

  4. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  5. Fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, R.H.; Bartley, B.H.

    1984-05-01

    A fluid catalytic cracking process is disclosed for sulfur-containing petroleum charge stocks. Sulfur contained in coke deposited on the fluidized cracking catalyst in the reactor is converted to sulfur oxides in the regenerator and removed from regenerator off-gases by incorporating a composite of alumina and bismuth oxides in a particulate cracking catalyst. Sulfur oxides produced during regeneration of the catalyst by burning the coke with air in the regenerator are captured by the alumina-bismuth oxides composite and converted to hydrogen sulfide in the cracking reactor. The hydrogen sulfide so produced is readily separated from petroleum products of the catalytic cracking reaction process.

  6. Evaluation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility Using Fracture Mechanics Techniques, Part 1. [environmental tests of aluminum alloys, stainless steels, and titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprowls, D. O.; Shumaker, M. B.; Walsh, J. D.; Coursen, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SSC) tests were performed on 13 aluminum alloys, 13 precipitation hardening stainless steels, and two titanium 6Al-4V alloy forgings to compare fracture mechanics techniques with the conventional smooth specimen procedures. Commercially fabricated plate and rolled or forged bars 2 to 2.5-in. thick were tested. Exposures were conducted outdoors in a seacoast atmosphere and in an inland industrial atmosphere to relate the accelerated tests with service type environments. With the fracture mechanics technique tests were made chiefly on bolt loaded fatigue precracked compact tension specimens of the type used for plane-strain fracture toughness tests. Additional tests of the aluminum alloy were performed on ring loaded compact tension specimens and on bolt loaded double cantilever beams. For the smooth specimen procedure 0.125-in. dia. tensile specimens were loaded axially in constant deformation type frames. For both aluminum and steel alloys comparative SCC growth rates obtained from tests of precracked specimens provide an additional useful characterization of the SCC behavior of an alloy.

  7. A system identification technique based on the random decrement signatures. Part 2: Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedewi, Nabih E.; Yang, Jackson C. S.

    1987-01-01

    Identification of the system parameters of a randomly excited structure may be treated using a variety of statistical techniques. Of all these techniques, the Random Decrement is unique in that it provides the homogeneous component of the system response. Using this quality, a system identification technique was developed based on a least-squares fit of the signatures to estimate the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of a linear randomly excited system. The results of an experiment conducted on an offshore platform scale model to verify the validity of the technique and to demonstrate its application in damage detection are presented.

  8. Atomic scale origin of crack resistance in brittle fracture.

    PubMed

    Mattoni, A; Colombo, L; Cleri, F

    2005-09-01

    We investigate the physical meaning of the intrinsic crack resistance in the Griffith theory of brittle fracture by means of atomic-scale simulations. By taking cubic SiC as a typical brittle material, we show that the widely accepted identification of intrinsic crack resistance with the free surface energy underestimates the energy-release rate. The strain dependence of the Young modulus and surface energy, as well as allowance for lattice trapping, improve the estimate of the crack resistance. In the smallest scale limit, crack resistance can be fitted by an empirical elastoplastic model.

  9. Environmental Crack Driving Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of environment on the crack driving force is considered, first by assuming quasistatic extension of a stationary crack and second, by use of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack growth rate models developed previously by this author and developed further here. A quasistatic thermodynamic energy balance approach, of the Griffith-Irwin type, is used to develop stationary crack threshold expressions, tilde{J}_c , which represent the conjoint mechanical and electrochemical conditions, below which stationary cracks are stable. Expressions for the electrochemical crack driving force (CDF) were derived using an analysis that is analogous to that used by Irwin to derive his "strain energy release rate," G, which Rice showed as being equivalent to his mechanical CDF, J. The derivations show that electrochemical CDFs both for active path dissolution (APD) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) mechanisms of SCC are simply proportional to Tafel's electrochemical anodic and cathodic overpotentials, η a and η c, respectively. Phenomenological SCC models based on the kinetics of APD and HE crack growth are used to derive expressions for the kinetic threshold, J scc, below which crack growth cannot be sustained. These models show how independent mechanical and environmental CDFs may act together to drive SCC crack advance. Development of a user-friendly computational tool for calculating Tafel's overpotentials is advocated.

  10. Investigation of Helicopter Longeron Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James; Wallace, Terryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crack initiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurgical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crack initiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.

  11. Etiology of cracked teeth: a review and proposal.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, C B

    1994-10-01

    Factors in the etiology of the cracked or fractured tooth can be generally divided into three categories: tooth strength, magnitude of applied force, and control of applied force. Dental caries, restorations and endodontic procedures appear to play a major part in the etiology of most cracked or fractured teeth though sound teeth frequently are cracked or fractured. Tentative evidence indicates that females, who can apply less force, may crack more teeth than do males. Control of occlusal forces applied may be an overlooked factor. Drugs affecting proprioception and other sensory receptors modulating force and reflex should be evaluated as possible contributors to the etiology of cracked or fractured teeth.

  12. Effects of powder characteristics on injection molding and burnout cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, G.; French, K.W. )

    1994-03-01

    Silicon nitride particle size and size distributions were varied widely to determine their effects on burnout cracking of injection-molded test parts containing thick and thin sections. Elimination of internal cracking required significant burnout shrinkage, which did not occur by changes of particle size and size distribution. However, isopressing of test parts after burnout provided the dimensional shrinkage necessary for producing crack-free components.

  13. Discrete crack growth analysis methodology for through cracks in pressurized fuselage structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyondy, David O.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1995-05-01

    A methodology for simulating the growth of long through cracks in the skin of pressurized aircraft fuselage structures is described. Crack trajectories are allowed to be arbitrary and are computed as part of the simulation. The interaction between the mechanical loads acting on the superstructure and the local structural response near the crack tips is accounted for by employing a hierarchical modelling strategy. The structural response for each cracked configuration is obtained using a geometrically non-linear shell finite element analysis procedure. Four stress intensity factors, two for membrane behavior and two for bending using Kirchhoff plate theory, are computed using an extension of the modified crack closure integral method. Crack trajectories are determined by applying the maximum tangential stress criterion. Crack growth results in localized mesh deletion, and the deletion regions are remeshed automatically using a newly developed all-quadrilateral meshing algorithm. The effectiveness of the methodology, and its applicability to performing practical analyses of realistic structures, is demonstrated by simulating curvilinear crack growth in a fuselage panel that is representative of a typical narrow-body aircraft. The predicted crack trajectory and fatigue life compare well with measurements of these same quantities from a full-scale pressurized panel test.

  14. Discrete crack growth analysis methodology for through cracks in pressurized fuselage structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyondy, David O.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1994-09-01

    A methodology for simulating the growth of long through cracks in the skin of pressurized aircraft fuselage structures is described. Crack trajectories are allowed to be arbitrary and are computed as part of the simulation. The interaction between the mechanical loads acting on the superstructure and the local structural response near the crack tips is accounted for by employing a hierarchical modeling strategy. The structural response for each cracked configuration is obtained using a geometrically nonlinear shell finite element analysis procedure. Four stress intensity factors, two for membrane behavior and two for bending using Kirchhoff plate theory, are computed using an extension of the modified crack closure integral method. Crack trajectories are determined by applying the maximum tangential stress criterion. Crack growth results in localized mesh deletion, and the deletion regions are remeshed automatically using a newly developed all-quadrilateral meshing algorithm. The effectiveness of the methodology and its applicability to performing practical analyses of realistic structures is demonstrated by simulating curvilinear crack growth in a fuselage panel that is representative of a typical narrow-body aircraft. The predicted crack trajectory and fatigue life compare well with measurements of these same quantities from a full-scale pressurized panel test.

  15. Fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, B.H.; Petty, R.H.

    1982-08-17

    Gaseous sulfur compounds are removed from a sulfur-containing gas mixture by reacting sulfur oxides in the gas mixture with alumina in association with bismuth. The process is particularly useful in fluid catalytic cracking of sulfur-containing petroleum charge stocks wherein sulfur is contained in coke deposited on the fluidized cracking catalyst. By the process of this invention, sulfur oxides may be removed from regenerator off-gases from a fluidized catalytic cracking unit by incorporating particulate alumina impregnated with bismuth in particulate cracking catalyst whereby sulfur oxides generated in the regeneration of the catalyst are reacted with bismuth-impregnated alumina. Sulfur oxides produced during regeneration of the catalyst by burning the coke with air are captured and converted to hydrogen sulfide in the cracking reactor. The hydrogen sulfide so produced is readily separated from petroleum products of the catalytic cracking reaction process.

  16. Analyzing Leakage Through Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, William D.

    1993-01-01

    Two related computer programs written for use in analyzing leakage through cracks. Leakage flow laminar or turbulent. One program used to determine dimensions of crack under given flow conditions and given measured rate of leakage. Other used to determine rate of leakage of gas through crack of given dimensions under given flow conditions. Programs, written in BASIC language, accelerate and facilitate iterative calculations and parametric analyses. Solve equations of Fanno flow. Enables rapid solution of leakage problem.

  17. Crack Modelling for Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chady, T.; Napierała, L.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, possibility of creation of three-dimensional crack models, both random type and based on real-life radiographic images is discussed. Method for storing cracks in a number of two-dimensional matrices, as well algorithm for their reconstruction into three-dimensional objects is presented. Also the possibility of using iterative algorithm for matching simulated images of cracks to real-life radiographic images is discussed.

  18. Fundamental two-stage formulation for Bayesian system identification, Part I: General theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Siu-Kui; Zhang, Feng-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Structural system identification is concerned with the determination of structural model parameters (e.g., stiffness, mass) based on measured response data collected from the subject structure. For linear structures, one popular strategy is to adopt a 'two-stage' approach. That is, modal identification (e.g., frequency, mode shape) is performed in Stage I, whose information is used for inferring the structural parameters in Stage II. Different variants of Bayesian two-stage formulations have been proposed in the past. A prediction error model is commonly introduced to build a link between Stages I and II, treating the most probable values of the natural frequencies and mode shapes identified in Stage I as 'data' for Stage II. This type of formulation, which casts a prediction error model through descriptive statistics, involves heuristics that distort the fundamental nature of the Bayesian approach, although it has appeared to be inevitable. In this paper, a fundamental theory is developed for the Bayesian two-stage problem. The posterior distribution of structural parameters is derived rigorously in terms of the information available in the problem, namely the prior distribution of structural parameters, the posterior distribution of modal parameters in Stage I and the distribution of modal parameters conditional on the structural parameters that connects Stages I and II. The theory reveals a fundamental principle that ensures no double-counting of prior information in the two-stage identification process. Mathematical statements are also derived that provide insights into the role of the structural modeling error. Beyond the original structural model identification problem that motivated the work, the developed theory can be applied in more general settings. In the companion paper, examples with synthetic and real experimental data are provided to illustrate the proposed theory.

  19. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  20. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 512 - Vehicle Identification Number Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt... pursuant to the early warning information requirements of 49 CFR part 579 will constitute a...

  1. Closure of fatigue cracks at high strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyyer, N. S.; Dowling, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on smooth specimens to study the closure behavior of short cracks at high cyclic strains under completely reversed cycling. Testing procedures and methodology, and closure measurement techniques, are described in detail. The strain levels chosen for the study cover from predominantly elastic to grossly plastic strains. Crack closure measurements are made at different crack lengths. The study reveals that, at high strains, cracks close only as the lowest stress level in the cycle is approached. The crack opening is observed to occur in the compressive part of the loading cycle. The applied stress needed to open a short crack under high strain is found to be less than for cracks under small scale yielding. For increased plastic deformations, the value of sigma sub op/sigma sub max is observed to decrease and approaches the value of R. Comparison of the experimental results with existing analysis is made and indicates the limitations of the small scale yielding approach where gross plastic deformation behavior occurs.

  2. Radiofrequency identification and medical devices: the regulatory framework on electromagnetic compatibility. Part I: medical devices.

    PubMed

    Censi, Federica; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Bartolini, Pietro; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Radiofrequency identification (RFID) technology has acheived significant success and has penetrated into various areas of healthcare. Several RFID-based applications are used in various modalities with the ultimate aim of improving patient care. When a wireless technology is used in a healthcare environment, attention must be paid to the potential risks deriving from its use; one of the most important being electromagnetic interference with medical devices. In this paper, the regulatory framework concerning the electromagnetic compatibility between RFID and medical devices is analyzed to understand whether and how the application of the current standards allows for the effective control of the risks of electromagnetic interference.

  3. BWR internal cracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.E. Jr.; Lund, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    The regulatory issues associated with cracking of boiling water reactor (BWR) internals is being addressed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and is the subject of a voluntary industry initiative. The lessons learned from this effort will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) internals cracking issues.

  4. CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT AND ANGLE FOR A GROWING CRACK IN CARBON STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    LAM, POH-SANG

    2005-01-18

    The crack tip opening displacements and angles (CTOD/CTOA) are calculated with finite element method based on the test data of a set of constraint-dependent J-R curves for A285 carbon steel. The values of the CTOD/CTOA are initially high at initiation, but rapidly decrease to a nearly constant value. When the common practice is adopted by using only the constant part of CTOD/CTOA as the fracture criterion, the crack growth behavior is shown to be severely underestimated. However, with a bilinear form of CTOD/CTOA fracture criterion which approximates the initial non-constant portion, the experimental load vs. crack extension curves can be closely predicted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The values of CTOD/CTOA for specimens with various ratios of crack length to specimen width (a/W) are reflected by the J-R curves and their slopes.

  5. Crack layer theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1984-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  6. Round Table Part 1: Review of future manned missions and Identification key ECLSS requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Wheeler, Raymond; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Joshi, Jitendra; Dussap, Gilles; Godia, Francesc

    2016-07-01

    All forecast an end of ISS in 2024. What so ever will be the exact date date the main part of the space agencies are currently elaborating plans for future manned missions. So far mainly 3 destination are considered :" Moon, Mars and Lagrange point L2. Depending of the missions duration, crew size, safety .. the ECLSS will have major difference . In this first part of the round table it is proposed to review the main missions scenario and elaborate top level requirements.

  7. Crack growth monitoring at CFRP bond lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahammer, M.; Adebahr, W.; Sachse, R.; Gröninger, S.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2016-02-01

    With the growing need for lightweight technologies in aerospace and automotive industries, fibre-reinforced plastics, especially carbon-fibre (CFRP), are used with a continuously increasing annual growth rate. A promising joining technique for composites is adhesive bonding. While rivet holes destroy the fibres and cause stress concentration, adhesive bond lines distribute the load evenly. Today bonding is only used in secondary structures due to a lack of knowledge with regard to long-term predictability. In all industries, numerical simulation plays a critical part in the development process of new materials and structures, while it plays a vital role when it comes to CFRP adhesive bondings conducing the predictability of life time and damage tolerance. The critical issue with adhesive bondings is crack growth. In a dynamic tensile stress testing machine we dynamically load bonded CFRP coupon specimen and measure the growth rate of an artificially started crack in order to feed the models with the results. We also investigate the effect of mechanical crack stopping features. For observation of the bond line, we apply two non-contact NDT techniques: Air-coupled ultrasound in slanted transmission mode and active lockin-thermography evaluated at load frequencies. Both methods give promising results for detecting the current crack front location. While the ultrasonic technique provides a slightly higher accuracy, thermography has the advantage of true online monitoring, because the measurements are made while the cyclic load is being applied. The NDT methods are compared to visual inspection of the crack front at the specimen flanks and show high congruence. Furthermore, the effect of crack stopping features within the specimen on the crack growth is investigated. The results show, that not all crack fronts are perfectly horizontal, but all of them eventually come to a halt in the crack stopping feature vicinity.

  8. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba species from natural water sources in the northeastern part of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thammaratana, Thani; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Boonmars, Thidarut

    2016-04-01

    Acanthamoeba are found in the environment, particularly in water, all over the world. The genus is currently classified into 20 different genotypes, T1-T20. In this study, 63 natural water samples from 11 provinces in northeast Thailand were collected and cultured on non-nutrient agar plates. Positive samples by culture were subsequently analyzed by molecular methods. The identification of Acanthamoeba was based on morphological features and molecular techniques using PCR and DNA sequencing. The results showed that 10 samples out of 63 were positive (15.9 %). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that seven samples were T4, one sample was similar to T3, and the other two samples were similar to T5. This is the first report demonstrating the contamination of Acanthamoeba species in natural water sources in northeast Thailand. PMID:26779920

  9. Structural and resting state functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus: identification of motor STN parts and the hyperdirect pathway.

    PubMed

    Brunenberg, Ellen J L; Moeskops, Pim; Backes, Walter H; Pollo, Claudio; Cammoun, Leila; Vilanova, Anna; Janssen, Marcus L F; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle E R M; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Platel, Bram

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease often alleviates the motor symptoms, but causes cognitive and emotional side effects in a substantial number of cases. Identification of the motor part of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as part of the presurgical workup could minimize these adverse effects. In this study, we assessed the STN's connectivity to motor, associative, and limbic brain areas, based on structural and functional connectivity analysis of volunteer data. For the structural connectivity, we used streamline counts derived from HARDI fiber tracking. The resulting tracks supported the existence of the so-called "hyperdirect" pathway in humans. Furthermore, we determined the connectivity of each STN voxel with the motor cortical areas. Functional connectivity was calculated based on functional MRI, as the correlation of the signal within a given brain voxel with the signal in the STN. Also, the signal per STN voxel was explained in terms of the correlation with motor or limbic brain seed ROI areas. Both right and left STN ROIs appeared to be structurally and functionally connected to brain areas that are part of the motor, associative, and limbic circuit. Furthermore, this study enabled us to assess the level of segregation of the STN motor part, which is relevant for the planning of STN DBS procedures. PMID:22768059

  10. Shear cracks in thermoplastic and poroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craster, R. V.; Atkinson, C.

    1992-05-01

    T O UNDERSTAND the mechanism of quasi-static plane strain fracture in poro- and thermoelastic materials for arbitrary stress fields, it is necessary to consider not only tensile fracture but also shear fracture. An impulsively sheared semi-infinite crack is considered for the mathematically analogous cases of coupled quasi-static thermo- and poroelastic materials. The exact solution is obtained in Laplace and Fourier transform domains using the Wiener—Hopf technique. The crack tip behaviour is then analysed. The stress intensity factors as a function of the Laplace transform variable are identified for cracks with either permeable (conducting) or impermeable (insulating) crack faces, and are inverted numerically for all times and asymptotically for small times. The case of a steadily propagating shear crack with either permeable or impermeable crack faces is also examined; the crack tip behaviour is examined in detail and compared with the result for a permeable fault. Analytical results are found in the neighbourhood of the crack tip. The pore pressure fields are found explicitly for all x and y.The case where the entire fault is assumed impermeable is reworked and an analytical solution is given for the pore pressure. The relevance of the results for stabilising shear faults and earthquake mechanics is briefly discussed. For the most part, the solutions in this paper and an earlier one refer to situations involving a complete coupling of the poroelastic equations and boundary conditions. This occurs when the material ahead of the crack is continuous and is relevant to the fracture of "virgin" rock. In the other papers cited in this article and elsewhere this has not usually been the case; the interface along which the crack propagates has usually been assumed to have a particular property as far as the pore pressure is concerned. It is worth stressing that the most complete situation is considered here; the pore pressure condition ahead of the crack is set only

  11. 36 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 801 - Identification of Properties: General

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... “Criteria for Evaluation” (36 CFR 60.6). 2. An overview study will normally be needed to provide basic... eligibility to be made in accordance with 36 CFR part 60. Alternatively, the study may indicate that... PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 801, App....

  12. 36 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 801 - Identification of Properties: General

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... “Criteria for Evaluation” (36 CFR 60.6). 2. An overview study will normally be needed to provide basic... eligibility to be made in accordance with 36 CFR part 60. Alternatively, the study may indicate that potentially eligible properties exist in the area, but may not document them to the standards of 36 CFR...

  13. Modified pressure system for imaging egg cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Kurt C.; Yoon, Seung Chul; Jones, Deana R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2008-04-01

    One aspect of grading table eggs is shell checks or cracks. Currently, USDA voluntary regulations require that humans grade a representative sample of all eggs processed. However, as processing plants and packing facilities continue to increase their volume and throughput, human graders are having difficulty matching the pace of the machines. Additionally, some plants also have a problem with micro-cracks that the graders often miss because they are very small and hard to see immediately post-processing but grow and become readily apparent before they reach market. An imaging system was developed to help the grader detect these small micro-cracks. The imaging system utilized one image captured at atmospheric pressure and a second at a slight negative pressure to enhance the crack and make detection much easier. A simple image processing algorithm was then applied to the ratio of these two images and the resulting image, containing both cracked and/or intact eggs were color-coded to simplify identification. The imaging system was capable of imaging 15 eggs in about 3/4 second and the algorithm processing took about another 10 seconds. These times could easily be reduced with a dedicated, multi-threaded computer program. In analyzing 1000 eggs, the system was 99.6% accurate overall with only 0.3% false positives compared to 94.2% accurate overall for the human graders with 1.2% false positives. An international patent on the system was filed and further automation of the system is needed.

  14. Low resistivity, low contrast pays: Part I - concepts and methodology for identification and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, R.M. ); Kulha, J.T. )

    1994-07-01

    Major hydrocarbon accumulations have been found and produced in low resistivity, low contrast (LRLC) sands in the Gulf of Mexico Basin (GOM). In the past in the GOM, LRLC reservoirs were commonly considered wet, tight, misidentified as a shale, or overlooked. Examples of many offshore GOM producing wells are documented now in a joint publication of the Houston and New Orleans geological societies. These examples provide models for identification and evaluation of wells with similar geologic-petrophysical occurrence in the world, including southeast Asia. LRLC pays in the GOM are caused by one or more of the following: (1) thin beds or laminae of clean sands alternating with shales, silts, or shaly sands, (2) clay-coated sands, (3) glauconite-rich sands, (4) sands with interstitial dispersed clay, (5) sands with disseminated pyrite or other conductive minerals, (6) clay-lined burrows, (7) clay clasts in clean sand, (8) altered volcanic/feldspathic framework grains, and (9) very fine-grained sand with very saline water. Similar types of LRLC pay and potential pay sands are being recognized in Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, Philippines, and Korea. Common depositional systems containing LRLC production in the GOM are (1) deep-water fans, including levee-channel complexes, (2) delta front and toe deposits, (3) shingle turbidites, and (4) alluvial and deltaic channel fills. Similar depositional systems are found in southeast Asia.

  15. A robust approach to battery fuel gauging, part I: Real time model identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasingam, B.; Avvari, G. V.; Pattipati, B.; Pattipati, K. R.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the first of a series of papers on battery fuel gauge (BFG), we present a real time parameter estimation strategy for robust state of charge (SOC) tracking. The proposed parameter estimation scheme has the following novel features: it models hysteresis as an error in the open circuit voltage (OCV) and employs a combination of real time, linear parameter estimation and SOC tracking technique to compensate for it. This obviates the need for modeling of hysteresis as a function of SOC and load current. We identify the presence of correlated noise that has been so far ignored in the literature and use it to enhance the accuracy of model identification. As a departure from the conventional "one model fits all" strategy, we identify four different equivalent models of the battery that represent four modes of typical battery operation and develop the framework for seamless SOC tracking by switching. The proposed parameter approach enables a robust initialization/re-initialization strategy for continuous operation of the BFG. The performance of the online parameter estimation scheme was first evaluated through simulated data. Then, the proposed algorithm was validated using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) data collected from commercially available Li-ion batteries.

  16. Electroplated "cold patch" for critical parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cracks in metal parts are filled by electrodeposition in plating tank that conforms to part to be repaired. Principle is applicable to repair of cracks in components of chemical reactors and other critical structures.

  17. Round table part 2 : Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for air revitalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    The first metabolic needs in terms of urgency is of course oxygen and in terms of contaminants CO2. Over the years, many studies have been performed to recover oxygen from Co2 our from water. Within this part 2 of the roundtable it is proposed to perform a state te of the art of the main activities in the world and to identify overlap and synergies. Recommendation for potential collaboration or exchanges will be discussed.

  18. Round table part 3 : Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for water recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    The first metabolic needs in terms of mass is water. Among the years a large number of studies have been performed to recover condensate as well as from urine. Production of water is as well considered and demonstrated via Sabatier reactor. Within this part 3 of the roundtable it is proposed to perform a state of the art of the main activities in the world and to identify overlap and synergies. Recommendation for potential collaboration or exchanges will be discussed.

  19. Quantity Effect of Radial Cracks on the Cracking Propagation Behavior and the Crack Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingjing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Bohan; Yao, Xuefeng; Li, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the “energy conversion factor” is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris. PMID:25048684

  20. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Malik, S. N.; Laflen, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to examine the applicability of path-independent (P-I) integrals to crack growth problems in hot section components of gas turbine aircraft engines. Alloy 718 was used and the experimental parameters included combined temperature and strain cycling, thermal gradients, elastic-plastic strain levels, and mean strains. A literature review was conducted of proposed P-I integrals, and those capable of analyzing hot section component problems were selected and programmed into the postprocessor of a finite element code. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analyses were conducted to simulate crack growth and crack closure of the test specimen, and to evaluate the P-I integrals. It was shown that the selected P-I integrals are very effective for predicting crack growth for isothermal conditions.

  1. Ethylene by Naphta Cracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Peter

    1977-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the manufacture of ethylene by thermal cracking of hydrocarbon feedstocks that is useful for introducing the subject of industrial chemistry into a chemistry curriculum. (MLH)

  2. The identification of oppA gene homologues as part of the oligopeptide transport system in mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Wium, Martha; Botes, Annelise; Bellstedt, Dirk U

    2015-03-01

    The lack of an annotated oppA gene as part of many oligopeptide permease (opp) operons has questioned the necessity of the oligopeptide-binding domain (OppA) as a part of the Opp transport system in mycoplasmas. This study investigated the occurrence of an oppA gene as part of the oppBCDF operon in 42 mycoplasma genomes. Except for hemoplasma, all mycoplasmas were found to possess one or more copies of the oppBCDF operon and with the help of similarity searches their oppA genes could be identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the combined OppABCDF amino acid sequences allowed them to be grouped into three types. Each type has a unique set of conserved motifs, which are likely to reflect substrate preference and adaption strategies. Our approach allowed the identification of oppA gene homologues for all mycoplasma opp operons and thereby provides a method for re-evaluating the current annotation of oppA genes in mycoplasma genomes. PMID:25528211

  3. Inspecting cracks in foam insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, L. W.; Jung, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Dye solution indicates extent of cracking by penetrating crack and showing original crack depth clearly. Solution comprised of methylene blue in denatured ethyl alcohol penetrates cracks completely and evaporates quickly and is suitable technique for usage in environmental or structural tests.

  4. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  5. Round table part 5 : Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for waste management and recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Any manned missions will produce solid waste with or without on board food production. Of course in case of high food production, the percentage of waste of plant origin will be much higher and may pass the 80 %. Consequently the ultimate objective of a closed loop system is not achievable without an efficient waste r4cycling system. Over the years, a large panel of investigations of technologies have been performed form microbial degradation to wet oxidation. These part 5 is aiming to be a platform of discussion on the current world wide investigations related to solid waste treatment and to allow synergies and collaborations.

  6. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick populations in Estonia, the European part of Russia and Belarus.

    PubMed

    Katargina, O; Geller, J; Alekseev, A; Dubinina, H; Efremova, G; Mishaeva, N; Vasilenko, V; Kuznetsova, T; Järvekülg, L; Vene, S; Lundkvist, A; Golovljova, I

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is associated with diseases of goats, sheep, cattle, dogs and horses. In the beginning of the 1990s it was identified as a human pathogen, causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA, Europe and the far east of Russia. A. phagocytophilum is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle including ticks as the main vector and a wide range of mammalian species as reservoirs. Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected in Estonia, Belarus and the European part of Russia and screened for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Positive samples were found only among I. ricinus, in 13.4% in the European part of Russia, 4.2% in Belarus, 1.7% in mainland Estonia and 2.6% on Saaremaa Island. Positive samples were sequenced for partial 16S rRNA, groESL and ankA genes and phylogenetic analyses were performed. The results showed that A. phagocytophilum circulating in Eastern Europe belongs to different groESL lineages and 16S rRNA gene variants and also consists of variable numbers of repetitive elements within the ankA gene.

  7. Contamination Control in Hybrid Microelectronic Modules. Part 1: Identification of Critical Process and Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Various hybrid processing steps, handling procedures, and materials are examined in an attempt to identify sources of contamination and to propose methods for the control of these contaminants. It is found that package sealing, assembly, and rework are especially susceptible to contamination. Moisture and loose particles are identified as the worst contaminants. The points at which contaminants are most likely to enter the hybrid package are also identified, and both general and specific methods for their detection and control are developed. In general, the most effective controls for contaminants are: clean working areas, visual inspection at each step of the process, and effective cleaning at critical process steps. Specific methods suggested include the detection of loose particles by a precap visual inspection, by preseal and post-seal electrical testing, and by a particle impact noise test. Moisture is best controlled by sealing all packages in a clean, dry, inert atmosphere after a thorough bake-out of all parts.

  8. Beginning the 21st century with advanced Automatic Parts Identification (API)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Fred; Roxby, Don

    1994-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the development and commercialization of an advanced Automated Parts Indentification (API) system is being undertaken by Rockwell International Corporation. The new API system is based on a variable sized, machine-readable, two-dimensioanl matrix symbol that can be applied directly onto most metallic and nonmetallic materials using safe, permanent marking methods. Its checkerboard-like structure is the most space efficient of all symbologies. This high data-density symbology can be applied to products of different material sizes and geometries using application-dependent, computer-driven marking devices. The high fidelity markings produced by these devices can then be captured using a specially designed camera linked to any IBM-compatible computer. Applications of compressed symbology technology will reduce costs and improve quality, productivity, and processes in a wide variety of federal and commercial applications.

  9. Vibration-based non-destructive technique to detect crack in multi-span beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dharmendra S.; Mungla, Mitesh J.; Barad, Kaushar H.

    2015-10-01

    This article presents the study on identification of a single open crack in a straight multi-span beam using natural frequency-based non-destructive technique. The crack is assumed to be transverse and one-dimensional partial cut of a beam, and is modelled as equivalent elastic rotational spring. The effects of crack location and depth on the natural frequency for multi-span uniform beam are demonstrated. The reduction in natural frequency due to presence of crack is utilised to detect crack location and its severity. The formulation is validated experimentally.

  10. A Crack Growth Evaluation Method for Interacting Multiple Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    When stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue occurs, multiple cracks are frequently initiated in the same area. According to section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, multiple cracks are considered as a single combined crack in crack growth analysis, if the specified conditions are satisfied. In crack growth processes, however, no prescription for the interference between multiple cracks is given in this code. The JSME Post-Construction Code, issued in May 2000, prescribes the conditions of crack coalescence in the crack growth process. This study aimed to extend this prescription to more general cases. A simulation model was applied, to simulate the crack growth process, taking into account the interference between two cracks. This model made it possible to analyze multiple crack growth behaviors for many cases (e. g. different relative position and length) that could not be studied by experiment only. Based on these analyses, a new crack growth analysis method was suggested for taking into account the interference between multiple cracks.

  11. Cracks in Utopia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Many of the craters found on the northern plains of Mars have been partly filled or buried by some material (possibly sediment). The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image presented here (MOC2-136b, above left) shows a high-resolution view of a tiny portion of the floor of one of these northern plains craters. The crater, located in Utopia Planitia at 44oN, 258oW, is shown on the right (MOC2-136a)with a small white box to indicate the location of the MOC image. The MOC image reveals that the material covering the floor of this crater is cracked and pitted. The origin and source of material that has been deposited in this crater is unknown.

    The MOC image was acquired in June 1999 and covers an area only 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) wide at a resolution of 1.8 meters (6 feet) per pixel. The context picture is a mosaic of Viking 2 orbiter images 010B53 and 010B55, taken in 1976. Both images are illuminated from the left. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  12. Round table part 4: Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for Food production and preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Although the two first metabolic needs are based on simple molecule (i.e. oxygen and water), the third metabolic needs considered a tremendously large number and diversity of molecules: food. Today, physical chemical technologies do not allow to synthetize all the spectrum of molecules and biological processes have to be considered. Moreover, the raw material products by plants or by microorganisms are generally not directly edible or palatable and would need either transformation, assembly and/or storage. In other words the challenges of the food cannot be reduced to the plant production but need to include as well the complete chain, from the production conditions and the biomass quality up to the final edible products and its acceptance. In other words all the steps have to be considered and characterize. Today these challenges requires a high level of plants characterization. This round table part 4 would allow the participants to present some of their results and express some domain of activities. Re4serach for collaboration will be identified.

  13. Surface Enhancement Improves Crack Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The low plasticity burnishing (LPB) process produces a deep layer of surface compression in a quick and affordable manner to produce metal surfaces free of scratches, nicks, and gouges. The process, designed for easy inclusion in the manufacturing environment, can be performed with conventional Computer Numerical Control machine tools. This allows parts to be processed during manufacturing, rather than as a post process in a separate facility. A smooth, free-rolling spherical ball suspended in a fluid allows for single-point contact. The ball comes into mechanical contact only with the surface to be burnished, and can be moved in any direction. LPB can be applied to all types of carbon and alloy steel, stainless steel, cast iron, aluminum, titanium, and nickel- based super alloys. In addition to improving a surface's resistance to fatigue and damage, treatment stops the growth of shallow cracks. The LPB process is used on the leading edges of turbine blades to improve resistance to foreign object damage and crack growth. This means significant savings for aircraft owners, since maintenance requirements to inspect for fatigue damage, replace parts, and remove corrosion damage increase the cost of operation.

  14. Cracked cue ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The latest images sent by the Galileo spacecraft reveal that the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa may have contained a layer of “warm ice” or even liquid water. In fact, planetologists are wondering if perhaps it still does.Photos taken earlier this summer show Europa to have a crust of smooth white and brown-tinted ice scarred by long, jagged cracks; some scientists have said the moon looks like a cracked cue ball. “The scale of fracture patterns—extending a distance equivalent to the width of the western United States—dwarf the San Andreas fault in length and width,” said Ronald Greeley, a geologist from Arizona State University and a member of the Galileo imaging team. The cracks are believed to have been caused by the stress of tidal forces created by Jupiter's gravity. Warmth generated by tidal heating also may have been sufficient to soften or liquefy some of the ice.

  15. Fatigue crack tip deformation and fatigue crack propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, T. S.; Liu, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of stress ratio, prestress cycling and plate thickness on the fatigue crack propagation rate are studied on 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. Fatigue crack propagation rate increases with the plate thickness and the stress ratio. Prestress cycling below the static yield strength has no noticeable effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate. However, prestress cycling above the static yield strength causes the material to strain harden and increases the fatigue crack propagation rate. Crack tip deformation is used to study the fatigue crack propagation. The crack tip strains and the crack opening displacements were measured from moire fringe patterns. The moire fringe patterns were obtained by a double exposure technique, using a very high density master grille (13,400 lines per inch).

  16. BWR feedwater nozzle and control-rod-drive return line nozzle cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    In its 1978 Annual Report to Congress, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission identified as an unresolved safety issue the appearance of cracks in feedwater nozzles at boiling-water reactors (BWRs). Later similar cracking, detected in return water lines for control-rod-drive systems at BWRs, was designated Part II of the issue. This article outlines the resolution of these cracking problems.

  17. The surface and through crack problems in layered orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, Fazil; Wu, Binghua

    1991-01-01

    An analytical method is developed for a relatively accurate calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in a laminated orthotropic plate containing a through or part-through crack. The laminated plate is assumed to be under bending or membrane loading and the mode 1 problem is considered. First three transverse shear deformation plate theories (Mindlin's displacement based first-order theory, Reissner's stress-based first-order theory, and a simple-higher order theory due to Reddy) are reviewed and examined for homogeneous, laminated and heterogeneous orthotropic plates. Based on a general linear laminated plate theory, a method by which the stress intensity factors can be obtained in orthotropic laminated and heterogeneous plates with a through crack is developed. Examples are given for both symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated plates and the effects of various material properties on the stress intensity factors are studied. In order to implement the line-spring model which is used later to study the surface crack problem, the corresponding plane elasticity problem of a two-bonded orthotropic plated containing a crack perpendicular to the interface is also considered. Three different crack profiles: an internal crack, an edge crack, and a crack terminating at the interface are considered. The effect of the different material combinations, geometries, and material orthotropy on the stress intensity factors and on the power of stress singularity for a crack terminating at the interface is fully examined. The Line Spring model of Rice and Levy is used for the part-through crack problem. The surface crack is assumed to lie in one of the two-layered laminated orthotropic plates due to the limitation of the available plane strain results. All problems considered are of the mixed boundary value type and are reduced to Cauchy type of singular integral equations which are then solved numerically.

  18. Analyses of heterogeneous deformation and subsurface fatigue crack generation in alpha titanium alloy at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Umezawa, Osamu; Morita, Motoaki; Yuasa, Takayuki; Morooka, Satoshi; Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Ogata, Toshio

    2014-01-27

    Subsurface crack initiation in high-cycle fatigue has been detected as (0001) transgranular facet in titanium alloys at low temperature. The discussion on the subsurface crack generation was reviewed. Analyses by neutron diffraction and full constraints model under tension mode as well as crystallographic identification of the facet were focused. The accumulated tensile stress along <0001> may be responsible to initial microcracking on (0001) and the crack opening.

  19. Passivating metals on cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mckay, D.L.

    1980-01-15

    Metals such as nickel, vanadium and iron contaminating a cracking catalyst are passivated by contacting the cracking catalyst under elevated temperature conditions with antimony selenide, antimony sulfide, antimony sulfate, bismuth selenide, bismuth sulfide, or bismuth phosphate.

  20. Cracking the Credit Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit hour. If…

  1. Fatigue Crack Growth in Bodies with Thermally Sprayed Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovářík, O.; Haušild, P.; Medřický, J.; Tomek, L.; Siegl, J.; Mušálek, R.; Curry, N.; Björklund, S.

    2016-01-01

    Many applications of thermally sprayed coatings call for increased fatigue resistance of coated parts. Despite the intensive research in this area, the influence of coating on fatigue is still not completely understood. In this paper, the localization of crack initiation sites and the dynamics of crack propagation are studied. The resonance bending fatigue test was employed to test flat specimens with both sides coated. Hastelloy-X substrates coated with classical thermal barrier coating consisting of yttria stabilized zirconia and NiCoCrAlY layers. The strain distribution on the coating surface was evaluated by the Digital Image Correlation method through the whole duration of the fatigue test. Localization of crack initiation sites and the mode of crack propagation in the coated specimen are related to the observed resonance frequency. The individual phases of specimen degradation, i.e., the changes of material properties, crack initiation, and crack propagation, were identified. The tested coatings strongly influenced the first two phases, and the influence on the crack propagation was less significant. In general, the presented crack detection method can be used as a sensitive nondestructive testing method well suited for coated parts.

  2. Analysis of a turbine rotor containing a transverse crack at Oak Creek Unit 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, G. W.; Rau, C. A., Jr.; Kottke, J. J.; Menning, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Transient increases in one, two and three per revolution vibration characteristics of a low pressure steam turbine were observed during steam temperature reduction operations. Vibration and fracture mechanics analyses suggested the presence of a transverse shaft crack which was eventually identified by ultrasonic inspection and confirmed by destructive sectioning. Signature analyses of vibration data recorded over a two-year period prior to crack identification are correlated with fatigue crack growth, which occurred intermittently during transient temperature decreases. The apparent increased response of the rotor to vibration is due to asymmetric stiffness changes introduced by the growing transverse crack. The vibration response is predicted to increase with increasing crack depths in excess of 10% of the shaft diameter. Fracture mechanics analyses predict that fatigue crack growth occurred during periods of steam temperature decrease, when high surface tensile stresses are present. These same transient thermal stresses are shown to have retarded and prevented subsequent fatigue crack growth during steady operation.

  3. The effect of fatigue cracks on fastener flexibility, load distribution, and fatigue crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Zachary Layne

    Fatigue cracks typically occur at stress risers such as geometry changes and holes. This type of failure has serious safety and economic repercussions affecting structures such as aircraft. The need to prevent catastrophic failure due to fatigue cracks and other discontinuities has led to durability and damage tolerant methodologies influencing the design of aircraft structures. Holes in a plate or sheet filled with a fastener are common fatigue critical locations in aircraft structure requiring damage tolerance analysis (DTA). Often, the fastener is transferring load which leads to a loading condition involving both far-field stresses such as tension and bending, and localized bearing at the hole. The difference between the bearing stress and the tensile field at the hole is known as load transfer. The ratio of load transfer as well as the magnitude of the stresses plays a significant part in how quickly a crack will progress to failure. Unfortunately, the determination of load transfer in a complex joint is far from trivial. Many methods exist in the open literature regarding the analysis of splices, doublers and attachment joints to determine individual fastener loads. These methods work well for static analyses but greater refinement is needed for crack growth analysis. The first fastener in a splice or joint is typically the most critical but different fastener flexibility equations will all give different results. The constraint of the fastener head and shop end, along with the type of fastener, affects the stiffness or flexibility of the fastener. This in turn will determine the load that the fastener will transfer within a given fastener pattern. However, current methods do not account for the change in flexibility at a fastener as the crack develops. It is put forth that a crack does indeed reduce the stiffness of a fastener by changing its constraint, thus lessening the load transfer. A crack growth analysis utilizing reduced load transfer will result in

  4. Crack patterns over uneven substrates.

    PubMed

    Nandakishore, Pawan; Goehring, Lucas

    2016-02-28

    Cracks in thin layers are influenced by what lies beneath them. From buried craters to crocodile skin, crack patterns are found over an enormous range of length scales. Regardless of absolute size, their substrates can dramatically influence how cracks form, guiding them in some cases, or shielding regions from them in others. Here we investigate how a substrate's shape affects the appearance of cracks above it, by preparing mud cracks over sinusoidally varying surfaces. We find that as the thickness of the cracking layer increases, the observed crack patterns change from wavy to ladder-like to isotropic. Two order parameters are introduced to measure the relative alignment of these crack networks, and, along with Fourier methods, are used to characterise the transitions between crack pattern types. Finally, we explain these results with a model, based on the Griffith criteria of fracture, that identifies the conditions for which straight or wavy cracks will be seen, and predicts how well-ordered the cracks will be. Our metrics and results can be applied to any situation where connected networks of cracks are expected, or found. PMID:26762761

  5. Automatic image cracks detection and removal on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, V.; Marchuk, V.; Sizyakin, R.; Gapon, N.; Pismenskova, M.; Tokareva, S.

    2016-05-01

    Some of old photographs are damaged due to improper archiving (e.g. affected by direct sunlight, humidity, insects, etc.) or have a physical damage resulting on appearance of cracks, scratches on photographs, non-necessary signs, spots, dust, and so on. This paper focuses on detection and removal of cracks from digital images. The proposed method consists of the following steps: pre-processing, crack detection and image reconstruction. A pre-processing step is used to suppress a noise and small defects in images. For a crack identification we use modified local binary patterns to form a feature vectors, and a non-linear SVM for a crack recognition. The combined inpainting method using structure and texture restoration is applied at the image reconstruction step. Image inpainting is the process of restoring the lost or damaged regions or modifying the image contents imperceptibly. This technique detects and removes the horizontal, vertical, diagonal cracks and other defects on complex scenes of image. We implemented proposed method on some mobile platforms for automatic image enhancement. Presented examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm in cracks detection and removal.

  6. Development of Eddy Current Technique for the Detection of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John; Koshti, Ajay

    2006-01-01

    A recent identification of stress corrosion cracking in the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) thrusters triggered an extensive nondestructive evaluation effort to develop techniques capable of identifying such damage on installed shuttle hardware. As a part of this effort, specially designed eddy current probes inserted into the acoustic cavity were explored for the detection of such flaws and for evaluation of the remaining material between the crack tip and acoustic cavity. The technique utilizes two orthogonal eddy current probes which are scanned under stepper motor control in the acoustic cavity to identify cracks hidden with as much as 0.060 remaining wall thickness to the cavity. As crack growth rates in this area have been determined to be very slow, such an inspection provides a large safety margin for continued operation of the critical shuttle hardware. Testing has been performed on thruster components with both actual and fabricated defects. This paper will review the design and performance of the developed eddy current inspection system. Detection of flaws as a function of remaining wall thickness will be presented along with the proposed system configuration for depot level or on-vehicle inspection capabilities.

  7. Development of Eddy Current Techniques for the Detection of Cracking in Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz A.; Simpson, John W.; Koshti, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    A recent identification of cracking in the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) thrusters triggered an extensive nondestructive evaluation effort to develop techniques capable of identifying such damage on installed shuttle hardware. As a part of this effort, specially designed eddy current probes inserted into the acoustic cavity were explored for the detection of such flaws and for evaluation of the remaining material between the crack tip and acoustic cavity. The technique utilizes two orthogonal eddy current probes which are scanned under stepper motor control in the acoustic cavity to identify cracks hidden with as much as 0.060 remaining wall thickness to the cavity. As crack growth rates in this area have been determined to be very slow, such an inspection provides a large safety margin for continued operation of the critical shuttle hardware. Testing has been performed on thruster components with both actual and fabricated defects. This paper will review the design and performance of the developed eddy current inspection system. Detection of flaws as a function of remaining wall thickness will be presented along with the proposed system configuration for depot level or on-vehicle inspection capabilities.

  8. 9 CFR 310.2 - Identification of carcass with certain severed parts thereof and with animal from which derived.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... thereof has been completed. Such handling shall include the retention of ear tags, backtags, implants, and... inspection. (2)(i) Brucellosis and tuberculosis ear tags, herd identification ear tags, sales tags, ear bangles, and similar identification devices shall be removed from the animal's hide or ear by...

  9. The inclusion problem with a crack crossing the boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Gupta, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of an elastic plane containing an elastic inclusion is considered. It is assumed that both the plane and the inclusion contain a radial crack and the two cracks are collinear. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations. In the interesting limiting cases in which the crack tips approach the interface from either one or both sides, the dominant parts of the kernels become generalized Cauchy kernels giving rise to stress singularities of other than minus 1/2 power. For these unusual cases of a crack terminating at or crossing the interface stress intensity factors are defined and some detailed results are given for various crack-inclusion geometries and material combinations.

  10. Transient thermal stress problem for a circumferentially cracked hollow cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the transient thermal stress problem for a long hollow circular cylinder containing an internal axisymmetric circumferential edge crack that is suddenly cooled from inside. It is assumed that the transient thermal stress problem is quasi-static, i.e., the inertial effects are negligible. Also, all thermoelastic coupling effects and the possible temperature dependence of the thermoelastic constants are neglected. The problem is considered in two parts. The first part is the evaluation of transient thermal stresses in an uncracked cylinder; the second part is the isothermal perturbation problem for the cracked cylinder in which the crack surface tractions, equal and opposite to the thermal stresses obtained from the first problem, are the only external loads. The superposition of the two solutions gives results for the cracked cylinder.

  11. Sudden bending of cracked laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sih, G. C.; Chen, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    A dynamic approximate laminated plate theory is developed with emphasis placed on obtaining effective solution for the crack configuration where the 1/square root of r stress singularity and the condition of plane strain are preserved. The radial distance r is measured from the crack edge. The results obtained show that the crack moment intensity tends to decrease as the crack length to laminate plate thickness is increased. Hence, a laminated plate has the desirable feature of stabilizing a through crack as it increases its length at constant load. Also, the level of the average load intensity transmitted to a through crack can be reduced by making the inner layers to be stiffer than the outer layers. The present theory, although approximate, is useful for analyzing laminate failure to crack propagation under dynamic load conditions.

  12. Experimental investigation on centrifugal compressor blade crack classification using the squared envelope spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongkun; Zhang, Xuefeng; Xu, Fujian

    2013-09-18

    Centrifugal compressors are a key piece of equipment for modern production. Among the components of the centrifugal compressor, the impeller is a pivotal part as it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Blade crack condition monitoring and classification has been broadly investigated in the industrial and academic area. In this research, a pressure pulsation (PP) sensor arranged in close vicinity to the crack area and the corresponding casing vibration signals are used to monitor blade crack information. As these signals cannot directly demonstrate the blade crack, the method employed in this research is based on the extraction of weak signal characteristics that are induced by blade cracking. A method for blade crack classification based on the signals monitored by using a squared envelope spectrum (SES) is presented. Experimental investigations on blade crack classification are carried out to verify the effectiveness of this method. The results show that it is an effective tool for blade crack classification in centrifugal compressors.

  13. Statistical crack mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Dienes, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative to the use of plasticity theory to characterize the inelastic behavior of solids is to represent the flaws by statistical methods. We have taken such an approach to study fragmentation because it offers a number of advantages. Foremost among these is that, by considering the effects of flaws, it becomes possible to address the underlying physics directly. For example, we have been able to explain why rocks exhibit large strain-rate effects (a consequence of the finite growth rate of cracks), why a spherical explosive imbedded in oil shale produces a cavity with a nearly square section (opening of bedding cracks) and why propellants may detonate following low-speed impact (a consequence of frictional hot spots).

  14. Cracked and Pitted Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-536, 6 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view--at 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel--of surfaces in far western Utopia Planitia. In this region, the plains have developed cracks and pit chains arranged in a polygonal pattern. The pits form by collapse along the trend of a previously-formed crack. This picture is located near 45.0oN, 275.4oW. This April 2003 image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  15. Upgrading of cracking gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.; Ragonese, F.P.; Yurchak, S.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes an integrated catalytic cracking and gasoline upgrading process. It comprises: withdrawing a product stream from the riser reactor of a catalytic cracking process unit; charging the product stream to a primary fractionation zone; withdrawing an intermediate gasoline stream from the primary fractionation zone, the intermediate gasoline stream comprising olefinic gasoline having an ASTM D86 boiling range from about 90{degrees} to about 170{degrees} C.; contacting a first portion of the intermediate gasoline stream and a C{sub 2}{minus}C{sub 5} olefinic stream with a catalyst under conversion conditions to form an upgraded gasoline stream; and charging a second portion of the intermediate gasoline stream together with the upgraded gasoline stream to a gasoline product storage facility.

  16. Replica-based Crack Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Piascik, R. S.; Willard, Scott A.; Dawicke, David S.

    2007-01-01

    A surface replica-based crack inspection method has recently been developed for use in Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) hydrogen feedline flowliners. These flowliners exist to ensure favorable flow of liquid hydrogen over gimble joint bellows, and consist of two rings each containing 38 elongated slots. In the summer of 2002, multiple cracks ranging from 0.1 inches to 0.6 inches long were discovered; each orbiter contained at least one cracked flowliner. These long cracks were repaired and eddy current inspections ensured that no cracks longer than 0.075 inches were present. However, subsequent fracture-mechanics review of flight rationale required detection of smaller cracks, and was the driving force for development of higher-resolution inspection method. Acetate tape surface replicas have been used for decades to detect and monitor small cracks. However, acetate tape replicas have primarily been limited to laboratory specimens because complexities involved in making these replicas - requiring acetate tape to be dissolved with acetone - are not well suited for a crack inspection tool. More recently developed silicon-based replicas are better suited for use as a crack detection tool. A commercially available silicon-based replica product has been determined to be acceptable for use in SSME hydrogen feedlines. A method has been developed using this product and a scanning electron microscope for analysis, which can find cracks as small as 0.005 inches and other features (e.g., pits, scratches, tool marks, etc.) as small as 0.001 inches. The resolution of this method has been validated with dozens of cracks generated in a laboratory setting and this method has been used to locate 55 cracks (ranging in size from 0.040 inches to 0.004 inches) on space flight hardware. These cracks were removed by polishing away the cracked material and a second round of replicas confirmed the repair.

  17. Utopia Cracks and Polygons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-339, 23 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a pattern of polygonal cracks and aligned, elliptical pits in western Utopia Planitia. The picture covers an area about 3 km (about 1.9 mi) wide near 44.9oN, 274.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  18. Subcritical crack growth in marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Nishida, Yuki; Toshinori, Ii; Harui, Tomoki; Tanaka, Mayu; Kashiwaya, Koki

    2016-04-01

    It is essential to study time-dependent deformation and fracturing in various rock materials to prevent natural hazards related to the failure of a rock mass. In addition, information of time-dependent fracturing is essential to ensure the long-term stability of a rock mass surrounding various structures. Subcritical crack growth is one of the main causes of time-dependent fracturing in rock. It is known that subcritical crack growth is influenced by not only stress but also surrounding environment. Studies of subcritical crack growth have been widely conducted for silicate rocks such as igneous rocks and sandstones. By contrast, information of subcritical crack growth in carbonate rocks is not enough. Specifically, influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in carbonate rock should be clarified to ensure the long-term stability of a rock mass. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated. Especially, the influence of the temperature, relative humidity and water on subcritical crack growth in marble is investigated. As rock samples, marbles obtained in Skopje-City in Macedonia and Carrara-City in Italy were used. To measure subcritical crack growth, we used the load relaxation method of the double-torsion (DT) test. All measurements by DT test were conducted under controlled temperature and relative humidity. For both marbles, it was shown that the crack velocity in marble in air increased with increasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. Additionally, the crack velocity in water was much higher than that in air. It was also found that the crack velocity increased with increasing temperature. It is considered that temperature and water have significant influences on subcritical crack growth in marble. For Carrara marble in air, it was recognized that the value of subcritical crack growth index became low when the crack velocity was higher than 10-4 m/s. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth

  19. Seismic displacement of geosynthetic-reinforced slopes subject to cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Akram H.

    2015-09-01

    The kinematical approach of limit analysis associated with pseudo static assumption is employed to evaluate the displacement of geosynthetically reinforced soil slopes subject to cracks. According to existing literature, the seismic displacements for soil slopes have been calculated with the effect of possible cracking being neglected, such cracking is likely to emerge due to an earthquake with even moderately large motion. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to estimate the horizontal displacement of the slope toe for geosynthetically reinforced slopes resulting from a given earthquake postulating a rough estimation of real time crack propagation. The effect of crack formation as part of the failure process during the earthquake on the horizontal displacement of the slope toe is specifically tackled. The seismic displacement is estimated by incorporating a stepwise yield acceleration corresponding to postulated crack propagation. Rotational failure mechanisms accounting for either intact reinforced slopes that can show cracks or reinforced slopes with pre-existing cracks are considered. Two types of reinforcement layouts are employed here; uniformly distributed reinforcement along the slope height and linearly increasing distribution (i.e. the spacing between layers decreases linearly with depth). An example illustrating the procedure for a given earthquake is presented. Results show that the horizontal displacement of the slope toe calculated using the stepwise yield acceleration for both uniform distribution of reinforcement and for linearly increasing distribution can provide a reasonable estimation of the slope displacement. Furthermore, in terms of the slope displacement, linearly increasing distribution yields better results than the uniform layout.

  20. CIRCUMFERENTIAL MFL IN-LINE INSPECTION FOR CRACKS IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Nestleroth

    2003-06-01

    axially oriented volumetric defects. While successful results are presented in this report, circumferential MFL can only detect larger cracks. Even with the field aligned properly, circumferential MFL technology has difficulty detecting cracks on the outside surface that have the potential to grow to failure. Circumferential MFL can be used to detect many corrosion, mechanical damage, and crack defects. However, the detection capabilities and sizing accuracies may not be sufficient for all pipeline threats. Inspection tools that use more sophisticated technologies for detecting and sizing defects may have better performance capabilities, but will likely be expensive to operate. Circumferential MFL will be useful in identifying locations for detailed testing. While performance enhancements may be limited, circumferential MFL inspections will be part of the inspection process for many decades.

  1. A COMPUTATIONALLY BASED IDENTIFICATION ALGORITHM FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR LIGANDS: PART 2. EVALUATION OF A HERA BINDING AFFINITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common reactivity pattern (CORE{A) approach is a 3-dimensional, quantitative structure activity relationship (3-D QSAR) technique that permits identification and quantification of specific global and local stereoelectronic characteristics associated with a chemical's biologic...

  2. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Hazardous waste identification (40 cfr part 261) updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The module introduces a specific hazardous waste identification process, which involves asking and analyzing a series of questions about any waste being evaluated. It analyzes in detail the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of `hazardous waste.` It explains concepts that are essential to identifying a RCRA hazardous waste: hazardous waste listing, hazardous waste characteristics, the `mixture` and `derived-from` rules, the `contained-in` policy, and the hazardous waste identification rules (HWIR).

  3. Forensic identification science evidence since Daubert: Part II--judicial reasoning in decisions to exclude forensic identification evidence on grounds of reliability.

    PubMed

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2011-07-01

    Many studies regarding the legal status of forensic science have relied on the U.S. Supreme Court's mandate in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., and its progeny in order to make subsequent recommendations or rebuttals. This paper focuses on a more pragmatic approach to analyzing forensic science's immediate deficiencies by considering a qualitative analysis of actual judicial reasoning where forensic identification evidence has been excluded on reliability grounds since the Daubert precedent. Reliance on general acceptance is becoming insufficient as proof of the admissibility of forensic evidence. The citation of unfounded statistics, error rates and certainties, a failure to document the analytical process or follow standardized procedures, and the existence of observe bias represent some of the concerns that have lead to the exclusion or limitation of forensic identification evidence. Analysis of these reasons may serve to refocus forensic practitioners' testimony, resources, and research toward rectifying shortfalls in these areas.

  4. Investigation of Cracks Found in Helicopter Longerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James M.; Wallace, Terryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crack initiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurigical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crack initiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.

  5. Advanced Finite Element Modeling of Low Cycle Fatigue Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne; McGill, Preston; Swanson, Greg; Wells, Doug; Throckmorton, D. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document (a viewgraph presentation) assumes a crack-like defect of a size which may be missed in inspection will exist in most critical location of any critical structure or component. Flaw existence assumption is usually, but not always, conservative based on past experiences in NASA and knowledge of manufacturing processes. Cyclic, environmental, and sustained loads used to generate stresses on models. Fracture Mechanics analysis used to predict crack growth and residual strength. Must show that defective structure will still provide four times required mission lifetime. Special exemptions cover redundant structures, low risk parts, etc. Assessments require specialized software tools, experienced analysts, and reliable material crack growth rate test database.

  6. On the Crack Bifurcation and Fanning of Crack Growth Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Royce G.; Zanganeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Crack growth data obtained from ASTM load shedding method for different R values show some fanning especially for aluminum alloys. It is believed by the authors and it has been shown before that the observed fanning is due to the crack bifurcation occurs in the near threshold region which is a function of intrinsic properties of the alloy. Therefore, validity of the ASTM load shedding test procedure and results is confirmed. However, this position has been argued by some experimentalists who believe the fanning is an artifact of the test procedure and thus the obtained results are invalid. It has been shown that using a special test procedure such as using compressively pre-cracked specimens will eliminate the fanning effect. Since not using the fanned data fit can result in a significantly lower calculated cyclic life, design of a component, particularly for rotorcraft and propeller systems will considerably be impacted and therefore this study is of paramount importance. In this effort both test procedures i.e. ASTM load shedding and the proposed compressive pre-cracking have been used to study the fatigue crack growth behavior of compact tension specimens made of aluminum alloy 2524-T3. Fatigue crack growth paths have been closely observed using SEM machines to investigate the effects of compression pre-cracking on the crack bifurcation behavior. The results of this study will shed a light on resolving the existing argument by better understanding of near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior.

  7. Improvement of microbead cracking catalyst manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Mirskii, Ya.B.; Kosolapova, A.P.; Meged, N.F.

    1986-11-01

    In order to improve the manufacturing process for KMTsR microbead catalyst for use in new cracking units, the authors consider the method of increasing the content of aluminum oxide in its amorphous part. A microbead catalyst of zeolite, containing rare-earth elements of the KMTsR type was obtained by spray-drying a slurry prepared by mechanical dispersion of hydrogel beads, with the subsequent molding and processing operations the same as in the production of bead catalyst.

  8. Electromechanical impedance response of a cracked Timoshenko beam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Xu, Fuhou; Chen, Jiazhao; Wu, Cuiqin; Wen, Dongdong

    2011-01-01

    Typically, the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) technique does not use an analytical model for basic damage identification. However, an accurate model is necessary for getting more information about any damage. In this paper, an EMI model is presented for predicting the electromechanical impedance of a cracked beam structure quantitatively. A coupled system of a cracked Timoshenko beam with a pair of PZT patches bonded on the top and bottom surfaces has been considered, where the bonding layers are assumed as a Kelvin-Voigt material. The shear lag model is introduced to describe the load transfer between the PZT patches and the beam structure. The beam crack is simulated as a massless torsional spring; the dynamic equations of the coupled system are derived, which include the crack information and the inertial forces of both PZT patches and adhesive layers. According to the boundary conditions and continuity conditions, the analytical expression of the admittance of PZT patch is obtained. In the case study, the influences of crack and the inertial forces of PZT patches are analyzed. The results show that: (1) the inertial forces affects significantly in high frequency band; and (2) the use of appropriate frequency range can improve the accuracy of damage identification. PMID:22164017

  9. Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of material covered during 'Space Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking Investigation MSFC Fluids Workshop' held November 19-21, 2002. Topics covered include: cracks on fuel feed lines of Orbiter space shuttles, fluid driven cracking analysis, liner structural modes, structural motion in a fluid, fluid borne drivers, three dimensional computational fluid dynamics models, fluid borne drivers from pumps, amplification mechanisms, flow parameter mapping, and flight engine flow map.

  10. Cross-validated detection of crack initiation in aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanniamparambil, Prashanth A.; Cuadra, Jefferson; Guclu, Utku; Bartoli, Ivan; Kontsos, Antonios

    2014-03-01

    A cross-validated nondestructive evaluation approach was employed to in situ detect the onset of damage in an Aluminum alloy compact tension specimen. The approach consisted of the coordinated use primarily the acoustic emission, combined with the infrared thermography and digital image correlation methods. Both tensile loads were applied and the specimen was continuously monitored using the nondestructive approach. Crack initiation was witnessed visually and was confirmed by the characteristic load drop accompanying the ductile fracture process. The full field deformation map provided by the nondestructive approach validated the formation of a pronounced plasticity zone near the crack tip. At the time of crack initiation, a burst in the temperature field ahead of the crack tip as well as a sudden increase of the acoustic recordings were observed. Although such experiments have been attempted and reported before in the literature, the presented approach provides for the first time a cross-validated nondestructive dataset that can be used for quantitative analyses of the crack initiation information content. It further allows future development of automated procedures for real-time identification of damage precursors including the rarely explored crack incubation stage in fatigue conditions.

  11. A Study of Failure in Small Pressurized Cylindrical Shells Containing a Crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barwell, Craig A.; Eber, Lorenz; Fyfe, Ian M.

    1998-01-01

    The deformation in the vicinity of axial cracks in thin pressurized cylinders is examined using small experimental The deformation in the vicinity of axial cracks in thin pressurized cylinders is examined using small experimental models. The loading applied was either symmetric or unsymmetric about the crack plane, the latter being caused by structural constraints such as stringers. The objective was two fold - one, to provide the experimental results which will allow computer modeling techniques to be evaluated for deformations that are significantly different from that experienced by flat plates, and the other to examine the deformations and conditions associated with the onset of crack kinking which often precedes crack curving. The stresses which control crack growth in a cylindrical geometry depend on conditions introduced by the axial bulging, which is an integral part of this type of failure. For the symmetric geometry, both the hoop and radial strain just ahead off the crack, r = a, were measured and these results compared with those obtained from a variety of structural analysis codes, in particular STAGS [1], ABAQUS and ANSYS. In addition to these measurements, the pressures at the onset of stable and unstable crack growth were obtained and the corresponding crack deformations measured as the pressures were increased to failure. For the unsymmetric cases, measurements were taken of the crack kinking angle, and the displacements in the vicinity of the crack. In general, the strains ahead of the crack showed good agreement between the three computer codes and between the codes and the experiments. In the case of crack behavior, it was determined that modeling stable tearing with a crack-tip opening displacement fracture criterion could be successfully combined with the finite-element analysis techniques as used in structural analysis codes. The analytic results obtained in this study were very compatible with the experimental observations of crack growth

  12. Shear fatigue crack growth - A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies of shear crack growth are reviewed, emphasizing test methods and data analyses. The combined mode I and mode II elastic crack tip stress fields are considered. The development and design of the compact shear specimen are described, and the results of fatigue crack growth tests using compact shear specimens are reviewed. The fatigue crack growth tests are discussed and the results of inclined cracks in tensile panels, center cracks in plates under biaxial loading, cracked beam specimens with combined bending and shear loading, center-cracked panels and double edge-cracked plates under cyclic shear loading are examined and analyzed in detail.

  13. TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION WORKSHOP: PART I: WHAT WORKS, WHAT DOESN'T, AND DEVELOPMENTS FOR EFFLUENTS AND AQUEOUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The science of toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) on aqueous effluents, surface water, and sediment porewater has progressed since the USEPA published the guidance documents early 1990s. USEPA's TIE approach uses toxicity tests to bridge toxicity results and chemical-spec...

  14. Response to Intervention and the Identification of Specific Learning Disabilities: Why We Need Comprehensive Evaluations as Part of the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofiesh, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to underscore why we need to maintain the presence of comprehensive evaluations in the identification of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Response to intervention (RTI) models hold great hope for early instruction, and the reduction of the overrepresentation of students in special education who…

  15. Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth in aircraft engine materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yi

    1993-08-01

    This thesis summarizes the major technical achievements obtained as a part of a collaborative research and development project between Ecole Polytechnique and Pratt & Whitney Canada. These achievements include: (1) a thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) testing rig which is capable of studying the fatigue behaviors of gas turbine materials under simultaneous changes of temperatures and strains or stress; (2) an advanced alternative current potential drop (ACPD) measurement system which is capable of performing on-line monitoring of fatigue crack initiation and growth in specimen testing under isothermal and TMF conditions; (3) fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth data for the titanium specimens designed with notch features associated with bolt holes of compressor discs; (4) thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth data for two titanium alloys being used in PWC engine components, which explained the material fatigue behavior encountered in full-scale component testing; (5) a complete fractographic analysis for the tested specimens which enhanced the understanding of the fatigue crack growth mechanisms and helped to establish an analytical crack growth model; and (6) application of the ACPD fatigue crack monitoring technique to single tooth firtree specimen (STFT) LCF testing of PWA 1480 single crystal alloy. Finally, a comprehensive discussion concerning the results pertaining to this research project is presented.

  16. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Uuu of... - Initial Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units 12 Table 12 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1565(b)(4), you shall meet...

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 3 Table 3 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1564(b)(1), you shall meet...

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 3 Table 3 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1564(b)(1), you shall meet...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Uuu of... - Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63... Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1564(a)(2), you shall meet each operating limit in the...

  20. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Uuu of... - Initial Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units 12 Table 12 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1565(b)(4), you shall meet...

  1. 40 CFR Table 13 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units 13 Table 13 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1565(c)(1), you shall meet...

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Uuu of... - Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63... Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1564(a)(2), you shall meet each operating limit in the...

  3. 40 CFR Table 13 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units 13 Table 13 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1565(c)(1), you shall meet...

  4. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 10 Table 10 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery... Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1565(b)(1), you shall meet...

  5. Plates and shells containing a surface crack under general loading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Paul F.; Erdogan, Fazil

    1987-01-01

    Various through and part-through crack problems in plates and shells are considered. The line-spring model of Rice and Levy is generalized to the skew-symmetric case to solve surface crack problems involving mixed-mode, coplanar crack growth. Compliance functions are introduced which are valid for crack depth to thickness ratios at least up to .95. This includes expressions for tension and bending as well as expressions for in-plane shear, out-of-plane shear, and twisting. Transverse shear deformation is taken into account in the plate and shell theories and this effect is shown to be important in comparing stress intensity factors obtained from the plate theory with three-dimensional solutions. Stress intensity factors for cylinders obtained by the line-spring model also compare well with three-dimensional solution. By using the line-spring approach, stress intensity factors can be obtained for the through crack and for part-through crack of any crack front shape, without recalculation integrals that take up the bulk of the computer time. Therefore, parameter studies involving crack length, crack depth, shell type, and shell curvature are made in some detail. The results will be useful in brittle fracture and in fatigue crack propagation studies. All problems considered are of the mixed boundary value type and are reducted to strongly singular integral equations which make use of the finite-part integrals of Hadamard. The equations are solved numerically in a manner that is very efficient.

  6. Crack opening area estimates in pressurized through-wall cracked elbows under bending

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, C.; Gilles, P.; Pignol, M.

    1997-04-01

    One of the most important aspects in the leak-before-break approach is the estimation of the crack opening area corresponding to potential through-wall cracks at critical locations during plant operation. In order to provide a reasonable lower bound to the leak area under such loading conditions, numerous experimental and numerical programs have been developed in USA, U.K. and FRG and widely discussed in literature. This paper aims to extend these investigations on a class of pipe elbows characteristic of PWR main coolant piping. The paper is divided in three main parts. First, a new simplified estimation scheme for leakage area is described, based on the reference stress method. This approach mainly developed in U.K. and more recently in France provides a convenient way to account for the non-linear behavior of the material. Second, the method is carried out for circumferential through-wall cracks located in PWR elbows subjected to internal pressure. Finite element crack area results are presented and comparisons are made with our predictions. Finally, in the third part, the discussion is extended to elbows under combined pressure and in plane bending moment.

  7. Optimization of ultrasonic array inspections using an efficient hybrid model and real crack shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Maria V.; Velichko, Alexander Wilcox, Paul D.; Barden, Tim; Dunhill, Tony

    2015-03-31

    Models which simulate the interaction of ultrasound with cracks can be used to optimize ultrasonic array inspections, but this approach can be time-consuming. To overcome this issue an efficient hybrid model is implemented which includes a finite element method that requires only a single layer of elements around the crack shape. Scattering Matrices are used to capture the scattering behavior of the individual cracks and a discussion on the angular degrees of freedom of elastodynamic scatterers is included. Real crack shapes are obtained from X-ray Computed Tomography images of cracked parts and these shapes are inputted into the hybrid model. The effect of using real crack shapes instead of straight notch shapes is demonstrated. An array optimization methodology which incorporates the hybrid model, an approximate single-scattering relative noise model and the real crack shapes is then described.

  8. A metallurgical evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in large diameter stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.A.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing (UT) of the stainless steel piping in the primary coolant water system of SRS reactors indicates the presence of short, partly-through-wall stress corrosion cracks in the heat-affected zone of approximately 7% of the circumferential pipe welds. These cracks are thought to develop by intergranular nucleation and mixed mode propagation. Metallographic evaluations have confirmed the UT indications of crack size and provided evidence that crack growth involved the accumulation of chloride inside the growing crack. It is postulated that the development of an oxygen depletion cell inside the crack results in the migration of chloride ions to the crack tip to balance the accumulation of positively charged metallic ions. The results of this metallurgicial evaluation, combined with structural assessments of system integrity, support the existence of leak-before-break conditions in the SRS reactor piping system. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Experiences on IGSCC crack manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Veron, P.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents his experience in manufacturing IGSCC realistic defects, mainly in INCONEL 600 MA Steam Generator Tubes. From that experience he extracts some knowledge about this cracking (influence of chemistry in the environment, stress state, crack growth rate, and occurrence in laboratory condition of break before leak).

  10. Interface cracks in piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorukha, V.; Kamlah, M.; Loboda, V.; Lapusta, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their intrinsic electromechanical coupling behavior, piezoelectric materials are widely used in sensors, actuators and other modern technologies. It is well known that piezoelectric ceramics are very brittle and susceptible to fracture. In many cases, fracture occurs at interfaces as debonding and cracks. This leads to an undesired degradation of electrical and mechanical performance. Because of the practical and fundamental importance of the problem, interface cracks in piezoelectric materials have been actively studied in the last few decades. This review provides a comprehensive survey of recent works on cracks situated at the interface of two materials, at least one of which has piezoelectric or piezoelectromagnetic properties. Different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces are discussed. The oscillating and contact zone models for in-plane straight interface cracks between two dissimilar piezoelectric materials or between piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric ones are reviewed. Different peculiarities related to the investigation of interface cracks in piezoelectric materials for the anti-plane case, for functionally graded and thermopiezoelectric materials are presented. Papers related to magnetoelectroelastic bimaterials, to steady state motion of interface cracks in piezoelectric bimaterials and to circular arc-cracks at the interface of piezoelectric materials are reviewed, and various methods used to address these problems are discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on future research directions.

  11. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. It is assumed that the plane contains a series of collinear cracks perpendicular to the interfaces and is loaded in tension away from and perpendicular to the cracks. The problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. The singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. An interesting result found from the analysis of the latter is that for certain orthotropic material combinations the stress state at the point of intersection of a crack and an interface may be bounded whereas in isotropic materials at this point stresses are always singular. A number of numerical examples are worked out to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  12. Replica-Based Crack Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Surface replication has been proposed as a method for crack detection in space shuttle main engine flowliner slots. The results of a feasibility study show that examination of surface replicas with a scanning electron microscope can result in the detection of cracks as small as 0.005 inch, and surface flaws as small as 0.001 inch, for the flowliner material.

  13. High speed thin plate fatigue crack monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz A. (Inventor); Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device and method are provided which non-destructively detect crack length and crack geometry in thin metallic plates. A non-contacting vibration apparatus produces resonant vibrations without introducing extraneous noise. Resulting resonant vibration shifts in cracked plates are correlated to known crack length in plates with similar resonant vibration shifts. In addition, acoustic emissions of cracks at resonance frequencies are correlated to acoustic emissions from known crack geometries.

  14. The crack problem in a reinforced cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1986-01-01

    A partially reinforced cylinder containing an axial through crack is considered. The reinforcement is assumed to be fully bonded to the main cylinder. The composite cylinder is thus modelled by a nonhomogeneous shell having a step change in the elastic properties at the z = 0 plane, z being the axial coordinate. Using a Reissner type transverse shear theory the problem is reduced to a pair of singular integral equations. In the special case of a crack tip touching the bimaterial interface it is shown that the dominant parts of the kernels of the integral equations associated with both membrane loading and bending of the shell reduce to the generalized Cauchy kernel obtained for the corresponding plane stress case. The integral equations are solved and the stress intensity factors are given for various crack and shell dimensions. A bonded fiberglass reinforcement which may serve as a crack arrestor is used as an example.

  15. The crack problem in a reinforced cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper a partially reinforced cylinder containing an axial through crack is considered. The reinforcement is assumed to be fully bonded to the main cylinder. The composite cylinder is thus modelled by a nonhomogeneous shell having a step change in the elastic properties at the z=0 plane, z being the axial coordinate. Using a Reissner type transverse shear theory the problem is reduced to a pair of singular integral equations. In the special case of a crack tip touching the bimaterial interface it is shown that the dominant parts of the kernels of the integral equations associated with both membrane loading and bending of the shell reduce to the generalized Cauchy kernel obtained for the corresponding plane stress case. The integral equations are solved and the stress intensity factors are given for various crack and shell dimensions. A bonded fiberglass reinforcement which may serve as a crack arrestor is used as an example.

  16. Absorption Voltages and Insulation Resistance in Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Time dependence of absorption voltages (Vabs) in different types of low-voltage X5R and X7R ceramic capacitors was monitored for a maximum duration of hundred hours after polarization. To evaluate the effect of mechanical defects on Vabs, cracks in the dielectric were introduced either mechanically or by thermal shock. The maximum absorption voltage, time to roll-off, and the rate of voltage decrease are shown to depend on the crack-related leakage currents and insulation resistance in the parts. A simple model that is based on the Dow equivalent circuit for capacitors with absorption has been developed to assess the insulation resistance of capacitors. Standard measurements of the insulation resistance, contrary to the measurements based on Vabs, are not sensitive to the presence of mechanical defects and fail to reveal capacitors with cracks. Index Terms: Ceramic capacitor, insulation resistance, dielectric absorption, cracking.

  17. Implantation of an RFID-tag into human molars to reduce hard forensic identification labor. Part I: working principle.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, Patrick W; Poelman, Guy; De Cooman, Michel; Puers, Robert; Willems, Guy

    2006-05-15

    Recently the tsunami disaster, the London bombings and the landfall of hurricane Katrina demonstrated once more the need for an accurate, quick and easy to handle identification system. The implantation of a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag into a human tooth and the read-out of its information may give an answer to this problem. A description is given of the modification of an existing RFID-tag that was made for veterinary use. This modified system was implanted in human molars using directly bonded resin composites. A protocol for tooth preparation and tag implantation was developed. A study of tag read-out patterns, revealed their accurate read-out distance range, the optimal site of RFID-tag implantation, assemblage of its components, and dimensions of the primary coil. It was found that disassembling the commercial RFID-tags was practically feasible and resulted in a properly working set-up. Further research is needed to optimize the design and the stability of RFID-tags for human identification purposes. PMID:16563681

  18. Crack Turning Mechanics of Composite Wing Skin Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.; Reeder, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The safety of future composite wing skin integral stiffener panels requires a full understanding of failure mechanisms of these damage tolerance critical structures under both in-plane and bending loads. Of primary interest is to derive mathematical models using fracture mechanics in anisotropic cracked plate structures, to assess the crack turning mechanisms, and thereby to enhance the residual strength in the integral stiffener composite structures. The use of fracture mechanics to assess the failure behavior in a cracked structure requires the identification of critical fracture parameters which govern the severity of stress and deformation field ahead of the flaw, and which can be evaluated using information obtained from the flaw tip. In the three-year grant, the crack-tip fields under plane deformation, crack-tip fields for anisotropic plates and anisotropic shells have been obtained. In addition, methods for determining the stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and the T-stresses have been proposed and verified. The research accomplishments can be summarized as follows: (1) Under plane deformation in anisotropic solids, the asymptotic crack-tip fields have been obtained using Stroh formalism; (2) The T-stress and the coefficient of the second term for sigma(sub y), g(sub 32), have been obtained using path-independent integral, the J-integral and Betti's reciprocal theorem together with auxiliary fields; (3) With experimental data performed by NASA, analyses indicated that the mode-I critical stress intensity factor K(sub Q) provides a satisfactory characterization of fracture initiation for a given laminate thickness, provided the failure is fiber-dominated and crack extends in a self-similar manner; (4) The high constraint specimens, especially for CT specimens, due to large T-stress and large magnitude of negative g(sub 32) term may be expected to inhibit the crack extension in the same plane and promote crack turning; (5) Crack turning out of

  19. Microstructural and solidification cracking evaluation of electron beam welds in 304L

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgill, P.L.; Campbell, R.D.; Henningsen, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Weld hot cracking of stainless steels is a major materials-related problem in the welding industry. This present investigation evaluates the crack susceptibility of highly-constrained EB welds made in materials whose DeLong ferrite potentials range from zero to nine FN. In addition, the effect of piece part strength level on cracking is examined. This study has revealed that these deep penetration EB welds have regions that solidify as primary austenite, even when the DeLong ferrite potential is as high as 9 FN. This points out the critical role that solidification rate plays in the crack susceptibility of these highly restrained welds. In addition, 0 FN to 0 FN welds had primarily transverse cracks while 6 FN to 0 FN welds had primarily centerline cracks. Of particular interest is the observation that cracks still occur if a high ferrite (greater than 6 FN) component is welded to a zero FN component. Cracking is always associated with regions which solidify as primary austenite and these cracks occur because there are areas in the weld which do not mix. Thus it is not a recommended production practice to compensate for low ferrite in one piece part with high ferrite in its mate. Finally, it is shown that a DeLong FN threshold of 4 to prevent cracking in EB welds in not valid. 21 refs., 16 figs.

  20. NASA/FLAGRO - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    -intensity factor numerical values can be computed for making comparisons or checks of solutions. NASA/FLAGRO can check for failure of a part-through crack in the mode of a through crack when net ligament yielding occurs. NASA/FLAGRO has a number of special subroutines and files which provide enhanced capabilities and easy entry of data. These include crack case solutions, cyclic load spectrums, nondestructive examination initial flaw sizes, table interpolation, and material properties. The materials properties files are divided into two types, a user defined file and a fixed file. Data is entered and stored in the user defined file during program execution, while the fixed file contains already coded-in property value data for many different materials. Prompted input from CRT terminals consists of initial crack definition (which can be defined automatically), rate solution type, flaw type and geometry, material properties (if they are not in the built-in tables of material data), load spectrum data (if not included in the loads spectrum file), and design limit stress levels. NASA/FLAGRO output includes an echo of the input with any error or warning messages, the final crack size, whether or not critical crack size has been reached for the specified stress level, and a life history profile of the crack propagation. NASA/FLAGRO is modularly designed to facilitate revisions and operation on minicomputers. The program was implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 with the VMS operating system. NASA/FLAGRO is written in FORTRAN77 and has a memory requirement of 1.4 MB. The program was developed in 1986.

  1. Password Cracking Using Sony Playstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhans, Hugo; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Law enforcement agencies frequently encounter encrypted digital evidence for which the cryptographic keys are unknown or unavailable. Password cracking - whether it employs brute force or sophisticated cryptanalytic techniques - requires massive computational resources. This paper evaluates the benefits of using the Sony PlayStation 3 (PS3) to crack passwords. The PS3 offers massive computational power at relatively low cost. Moreover, multiple PS3 systems can be introduced easily to expand parallel processing when additional power is needed. This paper also describes a distributed framework designed to enable law enforcement agents to crack encrypted archives and applications in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

  2. A computational algorithm for crack determination: The multiple crack case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Kurt; Vogelius, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for recovering a collection of linear cracks in a homogeneous electrical conductor from boundary measurements of voltages induced by specified current fluxes is developed. The technique is a variation of Newton's method and is based on taking weighted averages of the boundary data. The method also adaptively changes the applied current flux at each iteration to maintain maximum sensitivity to the estimated locations of the cracks.

  3. Stress intensity and crack displacement for small edge cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    The weight function method was used to derive stress intensity factors and crack mouth displacement coefficients for small edge cracks (less than 20 percent of the specimen width) in common fracture specimen configurations. Contact stresses due to point application of loads were found to be small but significant for three-point bending and insignificant for four-point bending. The results are compared with available equations and numerical solutions from the literature and with unpublished boundary collocation results.

  4. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    loads may be either tensile or compressive. Several standardized aircraft flight-load histories, such as TWIST, Mini-TWIST, FALSTAFF, Inverted FALSTAFF, Felix and Gaussian, are included as options. FASTRAN II also includes two other methods that will help the user input spectrum load histories. The two methods are: (1) a list of stress points, and (2) a flight-by-flight history of stress points. Examples are provided in the user manual. Developed as a research program, FASTRAN II has successfully predicted crack growth in many metallic materials under various aircraft spectrum loading. A computer program DKEFF which is a part of the FASTRAN II package was also developed to analyze crack growth rate data from laboratory specimens to obtain the effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate relations used in FASTRAN II. FASTRAN II is written in standard FORTRAN 77. It has been successfully compiled and implemented on Sun4 series computers running SunOS and on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS using the Lahey F77L FORTRAN compiler. Sample input and output data are included with the FASTRAN II package. The UNIX version requires 660K of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for the UNIX version (LAR-14865) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the MS-DOS version (LAR-14944) is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. The program was developed in 1984 and revised in 1992. Sun4 and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc. F77L is a trademark of the Lahey Computer Systems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. PKWARE and PKUNZIP are trademarks of PKWare

  5. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    loads may be either tensile or compressive. Several standardized aircraft flight-load histories, such as TWIST, Mini-TWIST, FALSTAFF, Inverted FALSTAFF, Felix and Gaussian, are included as options. FASTRAN II also includes two other methods that will help the user input spectrum load histories. The two methods are: (1) a list of stress points, and (2) a flight-by-flight history of stress points. Examples are provided in the user manual. Developed as a research program, FASTRAN II has successfully predicted crack growth in many metallic materials under various aircraft spectrum loading. A computer program DKEFF which is a part of the FASTRAN II package was also developed to analyze crack growth rate data from laboratory specimens to obtain the effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate relations used in FASTRAN II. FASTRAN II is written in standard FORTRAN 77. It has been successfully compiled and implemented on Sun4 series computers running SunOS and on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS using the Lahey F77L FORTRAN compiler. Sample input and output data are included with the FASTRAN II package. The UNIX version requires 660K of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for the UNIX version (LAR-14865) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the MS-DOS version (LAR-14944) is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. The program was developed in 1984 and revised in 1992. Sun4 and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc. F77L is a trademark of the Lahey Computer Systems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. PKWARE and PKUNZIP are trademarks of PKWare

  6. A comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoisser, C. M.; Audebert, S.

    2008-05-01

    In order to describe the state-of-the-art on cracked rotor related problems, the current work presents the comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach adopted by EDF for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery. The work mainly focuses on the theoretical cracked beam model developed in the past years by S. Andrieux and C. Varé and associates both numerical and experimental aspects related to the crack detection problem in either turboset or turbo pump units. The theoretical part consists of the derivation of a lumped cracked beam model from the three-dimensional formulation of the general problem of elasticity with unilateral contact conditions on the crack lips, valid for any shape and number of cracks in the beam section and extended to cracks not located in a cross-section. This leads to the assessment of the cracked beam rigidity as a function of the rotation angle, in case of pure bending load or bending plus shear load. In this way the function can be implemented in a 1D rotordynamics code. An extension of the cracked beam model taking into account the torsion behaviour is also proposed. It is based on the assumption of full adherence between crack lips, when the crack closes, and on an incremental formulation of deformation energy. An experimental validation has been carried out using different cracked samples, both in static and dynamic configurations, considering one or three elliptic cracks in the same cross-section and helix-shaped cracks. Concerning the static configuration, a good agreement between numerical and experimental results is found. It is shown to be equal to 1% maximal gap of the beam deflection. Concerning the dynamical analysis, the main well-known indicator 2× rev. bending vibration component at half critical speed is approximated at maximum by 18% near the crack position. Our experiments also allowed for the observation of the bending and torsion resonance frequency shifts determined by the extra

  7. The non-contact detection and identification of blood stained fingerprints using visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Cadd, Samuel; Li, Bo; Beveridge, Peter; O'Hare, William T; Campbell, Andrew; Islam, Meez

    2016-05-01

    Blood is one of the most commonly encountered types of biological evidence found at scenes of violent crime and one of the most commonly observed fingerprint contaminants. Current visualisation methods rely on presumptive tests or chemical enhancement methods. Although these can successfully visualise ridge detail, they are destructive, do not confirm the presence of blood and can have a negative impact on DNA sampling. A novel application of visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been used for the detection and positive identification of blood stained fingerprints in a non-contact and non-destructive manner on white ceramic tiles. The identification of blood was based on the unique visible absorption spectrum of haemoglobin between 400 and 500 nm. HSI has been used to successfully visualise ridge detail in blood stained fingerprints to the ninth depletion. Ridge detail was still detectable with diluted blood to 20-fold dilutions. Latent blood stains were detectable to 15,000-fold dilutions. Ridge detail was detectable for fingerprints up to 6 months old. HSI was also able to conclusively distinguish blood stained fingerprints from fingerprints in six paints and eleven other red/brown media with zero false positives.

  8. The non-contact detection and identification of blood stained fingerprints using visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Cadd, Samuel; Li, Bo; Beveridge, Peter; O'Hare, William T; Campbell, Andrew; Islam, Meez

    2016-05-01

    Blood is one of the most commonly encountered types of biological evidence found at scenes of violent crime and one of the most commonly observed fingerprint contaminants. Current visualisation methods rely on presumptive tests or chemical enhancement methods. Although these can successfully visualise ridge detail, they are destructive, do not confirm the presence of blood and can have a negative impact on DNA sampling. A novel application of visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been used for the detection and positive identification of blood stained fingerprints in a non-contact and non-destructive manner on white ceramic tiles. The identification of blood was based on the unique visible absorption spectrum of haemoglobin between 400 and 500 nm. HSI has been used to successfully visualise ridge detail in blood stained fingerprints to the ninth depletion. Ridge detail was still detectable with diluted blood to 20-fold dilutions. Latent blood stains were detectable to 15,000-fold dilutions. Ridge detail was detectable for fingerprints up to 6 months old. HSI was also able to conclusively distinguish blood stained fingerprints from fingerprints in six paints and eleven other red/brown media with zero false positives. PMID:27162016

  9. Rapid Identification and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Standard Operating Procedure for Non-Commercial Assays: Part 3: Colorimetric Redox Indicator Assay v1.3.12

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Parveen; Sharma, Shreya; Mumbowa, Francis; Martin, Anandi; Durier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The previous two standard operating procedures (SOPs) related to the culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (Part 1) and nitrate reductase assay (Part 2). The present SOP is devoted to a third non-commercial culture and DST method known as colorimetric redox indicator assay (CRI). As its name indicates, the CRI detects the ability of the M. tuberculosis to reduce the colored oxidation-reduction indicator when added to a liquid culture of M. tuberculosis, after exposing the growth to different anti-mycobacterial drugs. The change in the color of the indicator denotes the proportionate number of viable Mycobacteria in the medium. The identification and DST results can be obtained in 7-8 days. This SOP document has been developed through the culture and DST subgroup of the STOP tuberculosis (TB) Partnership New Diagnostic Working Group. It is intended for laboratories that would want to use or already use this rapid non-commercial method for culture identification and DST of M. tuberculosis, notably in resource-constraint settings in Asia and Africa. PMID:23440615

  10. Rapid Identification and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Standard Operating Procedure for Non-Commercial Assays: Part 3: Colorimetric Redox Indicator Assay v1.3.12.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Parveen; Sharma, Shreya; Mumbowa, Francis; Martin, Anandi; Durier, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    The previous two standard operating procedures (SOPs) related to the culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (Part 1) and nitrate reductase assay (Part 2). The present SOP is devoted to a third non-commercial culture and DST method known as colorimetric redox indicator assay (CRI). As its name indicates, the CRI detects the ability of the M. tuberculosis to reduce the colored oxidation-reduction indicator when added to a liquid culture of M. tuberculosis, after exposing the growth to different anti-mycobacterial drugs. The change in the color of the indicator denotes the proportionate number of viable Mycobacteria in the medium. The identification and DST results can be obtained in 7-8 days. This SOP document has been developed through the culture and DST subgroup of the STOP tuberculosis (TB) Partnership New Diagnostic Working Group. It is intended for laboratories that would want to use or already use this rapid non-commercial method for culture identification and DST of M. tuberculosis, notably in resource-constraint settings in Asia and Africa.

  11. Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Abe Askari

    2014-10-01

    The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the "remaining life" of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.

  12. Boundary force method for analyzing two-dimensional cracked bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, P. W.; Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The Boundary Force Method (BFM) was formulated for the two-dimensional stress analysis of complex crack configurations. In this method, only the boundaries of the region of interest are modeled. The boundaries are divided into a finite number of straight-line segments, and at the center of each segment, concentrated forces and a moment are applied. This set of unknown forces and moments is calculated to satisfy the prescribed boundary conditions of the problem. The elasticity solution for the stress distribution due to concentrated forces and a moment applied at an arbitrary point in a cracked infinite plate are used as the fundamental solution. Thus, the crack need not be modeled as part of the boundary. The formulation of the BFM is described and the accuracy of the method is established by analyzing several crack configurations for which accepted stress-intensity factor solutions are known. The crack configurations investigated include mode I and mixed mode (mode I and II) problems. The results obtained are, in general, within + or - 0.5 percent of accurate numerical solutions. The versatility of the method is demonstrated through the analysis of complex crack configurations for which limited or no solutions are known.

  13. Fundamental understanding and life prediction of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs and energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, P.L.; Ford, F.P.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an approach for design and lifetime evaluation of environmental cracking based on experimental and fundamental modeling of the underlying processes operative in crack advance. In detailed this approach and its development and quantification for energy (hot water) systems, the requirements for a life prediction methodology will be highlighted and the shortcomings of the existing design and lifetime evaluation codes reviewed. Examples are identified of its use in a variety of cracking systems, such as stainless steels, low alloy steels, nickel base alloys, and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking in boiling water reactor (BWR) water, as well as preliminary use for low alloy steel and Alloy 600 in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and turbine steels in steam turbines. Identification of the common aspects with environmental cracking in other hot water systems provides a secure basis for its extension to related energy systems. 166 refs., 49 figs.

  14. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  15. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  16. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  17. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  18. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  19. Cocaine/Crack: The Big Lie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This pamphlet focuses on cocaine and crack use and the addictive nature of cocaine/crack. It contains a set of 21 questions about crack and cocaine, each accompanied by a clear and complete response. Interspersed throughout the booklet are photographs and quotes from former cocaine or crack users/addicts. Questions and answers focus on what…

  20. Cracking behavior of cored structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wahid, A.; Olson, D.L.; Matlock, D.K. . Center for Welding and Joining Research); Kelly, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The effects of compositional gradients, are considered based on a thermodynamic analysis, referred to as the Cahn-Hillard analysis, which describes the degree to which a local surface energy is modified by the presence of a composition gradient. The analysis predicts that both ductile and brittle fracture mechanisms are enhanced by the presence of a composition gradient. Data on stress corrosion cracking and fatigue crack growth in selected FCC alloys are used to illustrate the significance of microsegregation on mechanical properties.

  1. Cracking behavior of cored structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wahid, A.; Olson, D.L.; Matlock, D.K.; Kelly, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    The effects of compositional gradients, are considered based on a thermodynamic analysis, referred to as the Cahn-Hillard analysis, which describes the degree to which a local surface energy is modified by the presence of a composition gradient. The analysis predicts that both ductile and brittle fracture mechanisms are enhanced by the presence of a composition gradient. Data on stress corrosion cracking and fatigue crack growth in selected FCC alloys are used to illustrate the significance of microsegregation on mechanical properties.

  2. Fast Bayesian approach for modal identification using free vibration data, Part II-Posterior uncertainty and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yan-Chun; Zhang, Feng-Liang; Lam, Heung-Fai; Au, Siu-Kui

    2016-03-01

    A Bayesian statistical framework has been developed for modal identification using free vibration data in the companion paper (Zhang et al., Mech. Syst. Sig. Process. (2015)). Efficient strategies have been developed for evaluating the most probable value (MPV) of the modal parameters in both well-separated mode and general multiple mode cases. This paper investigates the posterior uncertainty of the modal parameters in terms of their posterior covariance matrix, which is mathematically equal to the inverse of the Hessian of the negative log-likelihood function (NLLF) evaluated at the MPVs. Computational issues associated with the determination of the posterior covariance matrix are discussed. Analytical expressions are derived for the Hessian so that it can be evaluated accurately and efficiently without resorting to finite difference method. The proposed methods are verified with synthetic data and then applied to field vibration test data.

  3. Initiation and propagation of small corner cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellyin, Ferdnand; Kujawski, Daniel; Craig, David F.

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of small corner cracks, inclined or perpendicular to loading direction, is presented. There are two aspects to this investigation: initiation of small cracks and monitoring their subsequent growth. An initial pre-cracking procedure under cyclic compression is adopted to minimize the residual damage at the tip of the growing and self-arresting crack under cyclic compression. A final fatigue specimen, cut from the larger pre-cracked specimen, has two corner flaws. The opening load of corner flaw is monitored using a novel strain gauge approach. The behaviour of small corner cracks is described in terms of growth rate relative to the size of the crack and its shape.

  4. Mitigation of Crack Damage in Metallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, Patrick E.; Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Leser, William P.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Wallace, Terryl A.; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    A system designed to mitigate or heal crack damage in metallic materials has been developed where the protected material or component is coated with a low-melting temperature film. After a crack is formed, the material is heated, melting the film which then infiltrates the crack opening through capillary action. Upon solidification, the healing material inhibits further crack damage in two ways. While the crack healing material is intact, it acts like an adhesive that bonds or bridges the crack faces together. After fatigue loading damages, the healing material in the crack mouth inhibits further crack growth by creating artificially-high crack closure levels. Mechanical test data show that this method sucessfully arrests or retards crack growth in laboratory specimens.

  5. Nonlinear ultrasonic imaging of thermal fatigue cracks of several tens nm gap in glass plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertl, M.; Kawashima, K.; Sekino, K.; Yasui, H.; Aida, T.

    2015-10-01

    Thermal fatigue crack of which gap distance is several tens nm in glass plate is imaged by using an immersion higher harmonic imaging technique. Some parts of the thermal fatigue crack are clearly imaged by the third harmonic amplitude of the 3.5 MHz burst wave by angular incidence. For through-transmission mode across the crack face, the seventh harmonic of a through-thickness resonant frequency also visualizes the thermal fatigue crack. If spatial resolution will reach to a few micron meters, the technique could be applied for detection of disbonds in bonded wafers.

  6. The effect of low energy protons on silicon solar cells with simulated coverglass cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasner, S.; Anspaugh, B.; Francis, R.; Marvin, D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a series of low-energy proton (LEP) tests are presented. The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effect of low-energy protons on the electrical performance of solar cells with simulated cracked covers. The results of the tests were then related to the space environment. A matrix of LEP tests was set up using solar cells with simulated cracks to determine the effect on electrical performance as a function of fluence, energy, crack width, coverglass adhesive shielding, crack location, and solar cell size. The results of the test were, for the most part, logical, and consistent.

  7. Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report for the NASA funded project entitled "Crack Growth Prediction Methodology for Multi-Site Damage." The primary objective of the project was to create a capability to simulate curvilinear fatigue crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage. The second objective was to validate the capability by way of comparisons to experimental results. Both objectives have been achieved and the results are detailed herein. In the first part of the report, the crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained and correlated from coupon tests to predict fracture behavior and residual strength of built-up aircraft fuselages, is discussed. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element analyses are used to simulate stable crack growth and to predict residual strength. Both measured and predicted results of laboratory flat panel tests and full-scale fuselage panel tests show substantial reduction of residual strength due to the occurrence of multi-site damage (MSD). Detailed comparisons of n stable crack growth history, and residual strength between the predicted and experimental results are used to assess the validity of the analysis methodology. In the second part of the report, issues related to crack trajectory prediction in thin shells; an evolving methodology uses the crack turning phenomenon to improve the structural integrity of aircraft structures are discussed, A directional criterion is developed based on the maximum tangential stress theory, but taking into account the effect of T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy. Possible extensions of the current crack growth directional criterion to handle geometrically and materially nonlinear problems are discussed. The path independent contour integral method for T-stress evaluation is derived and its accuracy is assessed using a p- and hp-version adaptive finite element method. Curvilinear crack growth is simulated in

  8. Studying Cracking and Oil Invasion in Porous Medium During Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qiu

    We study two interesting phenomena occurred during the evaporation of solvent in porous medium: first, the cracking behavior; and second, the expanding mechanism and the collecting methods of the non-evaporative phase. In the first part of this thesis, we visualize the cracking behavior of colloidal suspensions during drying by a confocal microscope. We develop an effective method which can completely eliminate cracking during drying: by adding emulsion droplets into colloidal suspensions, we can systematically decrease the amount of cracking, and eliminate it completely above a critical droplet concentration. We also find another effect that the emulsion droplets can bring: it varies the speed of air invasion and provides a powerful method to adjust drying rate. Besides, we investigate the samples' fundamental mechanical properties with a rheometer and clarify the underlying physical mechanism for the decreasing of crack amounts. With the effective control over cracking and drying rate, our study may find important applications in many drying and cracking related industrial processes. In the second part of the thesis, we conduct a study on the expanding mechanism and collecting methods of the non-evaporative phase in porous medium, which is inspired by a practical pollution problem that occurs when oil spills to the sandy beach. We build a system in a smaller scale to mimic the practical pollution and investigate the distribution change of the polluting phase as the flushing cycle increases. We find an obvious expansion of the polluting phase after several flushing cycles in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic porous media, but with different distributions and expanding behaviors. We explained this difference by analyzing the pressure distribution in the system at the pore level. Finally, we develop two methods to concentrate the polluting phase in some particular regions, which is beneficial to collect and solve the practical pollution problem.

  9. Recent Cocaine and Crack Use Among New Drug Treatment Clients in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Joanne; Robertson, Michele

    2004-01-01

    UK and US literature indicate that cocaine and crack users experience multiple problems and poor treatment outcomes (Gossop et al., 2002 , 2003 ). Using data collected as part of a Scottish national evaluation of drug treatment effectiveness, this paper: (i) provides information on the nature and extent of recent cocaine and crack use among 585…

  10. Algorithm for detecting seam cracks in steel plates using a Gabor filter combination method.

    PubMed

    Choi, Doo-Chul; Jeon, Yong-Ju; Lee, Sang Jun; Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Woo

    2014-08-01

    Presently, product inspection based on vision systems is an important part of the steel-manufacturing industry. In this work, we focus on the detection of seam cracks in the edge region of steel plates. Seam cracks are generated in the vertical direction, and their width range is 0.2-0.6 mm. Moreover, the gray values of seam cracks are only 20-30 gray levels lower than those of the neighboring surface. Owing to these characteristics, we propose a new algorithm for detecting seam cracks using a Gabor filter combination method. To enhance the performance, we extracted features of seam cracks and employed a support vector machine classifier. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is suitable for detecting seam cracks.

  11. Formation and interpretation of dilatant echelon cracks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollard, D.D.; Segall, P.; Delaney, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    The relative displacements of the walls of many veins, joints, and dikes demonstrate that these structures are dilatant cracks. We infer that dilatant cracks propagate in a principal stress plane, normal to the maximum tensile or least compressive stress. Arrays of echelon crack segments appear to emerge from the peripheries of some dilatant cracks. Breakdown of a parent crack into an echelon array may be initiated by a spatial or temporal rotation of the remote principal stresses about an axis parallel to the crack propagation direction. Near the parent-crack tip, a rotation of the local principal stresses is induced in the same sense, but not necessarily through the same angle. Incipient echelon cracks form at the parent-crack tip normal to the local maximum tensile stress. Further longitudinal growth along surfaces that twist about axes parallel to the propagation direction realigns each echelon crack into a remote principal stress plane. The walls of these twisted cracks may be idealized as helicoidal surfaces. An array of helicoidal cracks sweeps out less surface area than one parent crack twisting through the same angle. Thus, many echelon cracks grow from a single parent because the work done in creating the array, as measured by its surface area decreases as the number of cracks increases. -from Authors

  12. Coalescence, Cracking, and Crack Healing in Drying Dispersion Droplets.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, Hanne M; de Kool, Marleen; van der Gucht, Jasper; Sprakel, Joris

    2015-04-21

    The formation of a uniform film from a polymer dispersion is a complex phenomenon involving the interplay of many processes: evaporation and resulting fluid flows through confined geometries, particle packing and deformation, coalescence, and cracking. Understanding this multidimensional problem has proven challenging, precluding a clear understanding of film formation to date. This is especially true for drying dispersion droplets, where the particular geometry introduces additional complexity such as lateral flow toward the droplet periphery. We study the drying of these droplets using a simplified approach in which we systematically vary a single parameter: the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer. We combine optical with scanning electron microscopy to elucidate these processes from the macroscopic down to the single-particle level, both qualitatively and quantitatively, over times ranging from seconds to days. Our results indicate that the polymer Tg has a marked influence on the time evolution of particle deformation and coalescence, giving rise to a distinct and sudden cracking transition. Moreover, in cracked droplets it affects the frequently overlooked time scale of crack healing, giving rise to a second transition from self-healing to permanently cracked droplets. These findings are in line with the classical Routh-Russel model for film formation yet extend its scope from particle-level dynamics to long-range polymer flow.

  13. Observation of Intralaminar Cracking in the Edge Crack Torsion Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czabaj, Michael W.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Davidson, Barry D.

    2013-01-01

    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is evaluated to determine its suitability for measuring fracture toughness associated with mode III delamination growth onset. A series of ECT specimens with preimplanted inserts with different lengths is tested and examined using nondestructive and destructive techniques. Ultrasonic inspection of all tested specimens reveals that delamination growth occurs at one interface ply beneath the intended midplane interface. Sectioning and optical microscopy suggest that the observed delamination growth results from coalescence of angled intralaminar matrix cracks that form and extend across the midplane plies. The relative orientation of these cracks is approximately 45 deg with respect to the midplane, suggesting their formation is caused by resolved principal tensile stresses arising due to the global mode-III shear loading. Examination of ECT specimens tested to loads below the level corresponding to delamination growth onset reveals that initiation of intralaminar cracking approximately coincides with the onset of nonlinearity in the specimen's force-displacement response. The existence of intralaminar cracking prior to delamination growth onset and the resulting delamination extension at an unintended interface render the ECT test, in its current form, unsuitable for characterization of mode III delamination growth onset. The broader implications of the mechanisms observed in this study are also discussed with respect to the current understanding of shear-driven delamination in tape-laminate composites.

  14. BWR pipe crack remedies evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    This paper presents results on: (a) the influence of simulated BWR environments on the stress-corrosion-craking (SCC) susceptibility of Types 304, 316NG, and 347 stainless (SS); (b) fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate measurements on these materials and weld overlay specimens in different environments; and (c) residual stress measurements and metallographic evaluations of conventional pipe weldments treated by a mechanical-stress-improvement process (MSIP) as well as those produced by a narrow-gap welding procedure. Crack initiation studies on Types 304 and 316NG SS under crevice and non-crevice conditions in 289/sup 0/C water containing 0.25 ppM dissolved oxygen with low sulfate concentrations indicate that SCC initiates at very low strains (<3%) in the nuclear grade material. Crack growth measurements on fracture-mechanics-type specimens, under low-frequency cyclic loading, show that the Type 316NG steel cracks at a somewhat lower rate (approx.40%) than sensitized Type 304 SS in an impurity environment with 0.25 ppM dissolved-oxygen; however, the latter material stops cracking when sulfate is removed from the water. Crack growth in both materials ceases under simulated hydrogen-water chemistry conditions (<5 ppB oxygen) even with 100 ppB sulfate present in the water. An unexpected result was obtained in the test on a weld overlay specimen in the impurity environment, viz., the crack grew to the overlay interface at a nominal rate, branched at 90/sup 0/ in both directions, and then grew at high rate (parallel to the nominal applied load). Residual stress measurements on MSIP-treated weldments and those produced by a narrow-gap welding procedure indicate that these techniques produce compressive stresses over most of the inner surface near the weld and heat-affected zones.

  15. Identification of bacteria associated with underground parts of Crocus sativus by 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Sangwan, Naseer; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P; Lal, Rup; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2014-10-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L), an autumn-flowering perennial sterile plant, reproduces vegetatively by underground corms. Saffron has biannual corm-root cycle that makes it an interesting candidate to study microbial dynamics in its rhizosphere and cormosphere (area under influence of corm). Culture independent 16S rRNA gene metagenomic study of rhizosphere and cormosphere of Saffron during flowering stage revealed presence of 22 genera but none of the genus was common in all the three samples. Bulk soil bacterial community was represented by 13 genera with Acidobacteria being dominant. In rhizosphere, out of eight different genera identified, Pseudomonas was the most dominant genus. Cormosphere bacteria comprised of six different genera, dominated by the genus Pantoea. This study revealed that the bacterial composition of all the three samples is significantly different (P < 0.05) from each other. This is the first report on the identification of bacteria associated with rhizosphere, cormosphere and bulk soil of Saffron, using cultivation independent 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach.

  16. Extended Kalman filtering for battery management systems of LiPB-based HEV battery packs. Part 2. Modeling and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plett, Gregory L.

    Battery management systems in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs must estimate values descriptive of the pack's present operating condition. These include: battery state of charge, power fade, capacity fade, and instantaneous available power. The estimation mechanism must adapt to changing cell characteristics as cells age and therefore provide accurate estimates over the lifetime of the pack. In a series of three papers, we propose a method, based on extended Kalman filtering (EKF), that is able to accomplish these goals on a lithium ion polymer battery pack. We expect that it will also work well on other battery chemistries. These papers cover the required mathematical background, cell modeling and system identification requirements, and the final solution, together with results. In order to use EKF to estimate the desired quantities, we first require a mathematical model that can accurately capture the dynamics of a cell. In this paper we "evolve" a suitable model from one that is very primitive to one that is more advanced and works well in practice. The final model includes terms that describe the dynamic contributions due to open-circuit voltage, ohmic loss, polarization time constants, electro-chemical hysteresis, and the effects of temperature. We also give a means, based on EKF, whereby the constant model parameters may be determined from cell test data. Results are presented that demonstrate it is possible to achieve root-mean-squared modeling error smaller than the level of quantization error expected in an implementation.

  17. Vitrification and testing of a Hanford high-level waste sample, Part 2: Phase identification and waste form leachability

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Bredt, Paul; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Smith, H D.

    2005-10-01

    A sample of Hanford high-level radioactive waste from Tank AZ-101 was vitrified into borosilicate glass and tested to demonstrate its compliance with regulatory requirements. Compositional aspects of this study were reported in Part 1 of this paper. This second and last part presents results of crystallinity and leachability testing. Crystallinity was quantified in a glass sample heat treated according to the cooling curve of glass at the centerline of a Hanford Waste Treatment Plant canister. By quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis and image analysis applied to scanning electron microscopy micrographs, the sample contained 7 mass% of spinel, predominantly trevorite. Glass leachability was measured with the product consistency test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Measured data and model estimates were in reasonable agreement. Leachability results were close to those obtained for the nonradioactive simulant. Models were used to elucidate the effects of glass composition of spinel formation and to estimate effects of spinel formation on glass leachability.

  18. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. PMID:25596347

  19. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose.

  20. Fatigue reliability of cracked engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanning, David Bruce, Jr.

    1997-12-01

    This study investigates the reliability of engineering structures containing fatigue cracks. Stress concentrations and welded joints are probable locations for the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Due to the many unknowns of loading, materials properties, crack sizes and crack shapes present at these locations, a statistics-based reliability analysis is valuable in the careful consideration of these many different random factors involved in a fatigue life analysis, several of which are expanded upon in this study. The basic problem of a crack near a stress concentration is first considered. A formulation for the aspect ratio (a/c) of a propagating semi-elliptical fatigue crack located at the toe of a welded T-joint is developed using Newman and Raju's stress intensity factor for a cracked flat plate with a weld magnification factor and compared to that of a cracked flat plate, and the reliability in terms of fatigue lifetime is calculated with the aid of Paris' crack propagation equation for membrane and bending loadings. Crack closure effects are then introduced in the consideration of short crack effects, where crack growth rates typically may exceed those found using traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics solutions for long cracks. The probability of a very small, microstructurally influenced crack growing to a size influenced by local plastic conditions is calculated utilizing the probability of a crack continuing to grow past an obstacle, such as a grain boundary. The result is then combined with the probability for failure defined using the crack closure-modified Paris equation to find an overall reliability for the structure. Last, the probability of fracture is determined when a crack front encounters regions of non-uniform toughness, such as typical in the heat affected zone of a welded joint. An expression for the effective crack lengths of the dissimilar regions is derived, and used in a weakest-link fracture model in the evaluation

  1. HPLC-MS(n) Identification of Betalain Profile of Different Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) Parts and Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Jakopic, Jerneja

    2015-09-01

    The distribution of betalains in peel, flesh, and petioles of yellow and red beetroot cultivars has been investigated using an High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with electrospray mass spectrometry. Differences in the levels of betacyanins and betaxanthins between different colored cultivars were individually determined for 3 plant parts. The content of almost all analyzed compounds decreased in the following order: peel > flesh > petiole. Betanin/isobetanin pigments comprised a major portion of the relative peak area measured in red beetroot peel. Isobetanin relative peak areas were also high in leaf petioles (68.94% to 74.16%) of red colored cultivars. However, betacyanins were completely absent from the extracts of all analyzed parts of yellow beet. Glutamine-bx represented a very high relative peak area (59.54% to 64.18%) in flesh of red-colored cultivars analyzed in the study. Our results indicate that red beet cultivars can be utilized as a potential source of red and yellow natural colorants. However, differences in pigment composition among different beetroot parts must be considered and in order to maximize the pigment yields petioles can also be used as a source rich in specific betalain compounds.

  2. HPLC-MS(n) Identification of Betalain Profile of Different Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) Parts and Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Jakopic, Jerneja

    2015-09-01

    The distribution of betalains in peel, flesh, and petioles of yellow and red beetroot cultivars has been investigated using an High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with electrospray mass spectrometry. Differences in the levels of betacyanins and betaxanthins between different colored cultivars were individually determined for 3 plant parts. The content of almost all analyzed compounds decreased in the following order: peel > flesh > petiole. Betanin/isobetanin pigments comprised a major portion of the relative peak area measured in red beetroot peel. Isobetanin relative peak areas were also high in leaf petioles (68.94% to 74.16%) of red colored cultivars. However, betacyanins were completely absent from the extracts of all analyzed parts of yellow beet. Glutamine-bx represented a very high relative peak area (59.54% to 64.18%) in flesh of red-colored cultivars analyzed in the study. Our results indicate that red beet cultivars can be utilized as a potential source of red and yellow natural colorants. However, differences in pigment composition among different beetroot parts must be considered and in order to maximize the pigment yields petioles can also be used as a source rich in specific betalain compounds. PMID:26243178

  3. Distributed coaxial cable crack sensors for crack mapping in RC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Gary G.; Belarbi, Abdeldjelil; Chen, Genda; McDaniel, Ryan

    2005-05-01

    New type of distributed coaxial cable sensors for health monitoring of large-scale civil infrastructure was recently proposed and developed by the authors. This paper shows the results and performance of such sensors mounted on near surface of two flexural beams and a large scale reinforced concrete box girder that was subjected to twenty cycles of combined shear and torsion. The main objectives of this health monitoring study was to correlate the sensor's response to strain in the member, and show that magnitude of the signal's reflection coefficient is related to increases in applied load, repeated cycles, cracking, crack mapping, and yielding. The effect of multiple adjacent cracks, and signal loss was also investigated.

  4. Numerical simulation of stress amplification induced by crack interaction in human femur bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alia, Noor; Daud, Ruslizam; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Azman, Wan Zuki; Faizal, Ahmad; Aisyah, Siti

    2015-05-01

    This research is about numerical simulation using a computational method which study on stress amplification induced by crack interaction in human femur bone. Cracks in human femur bone usually occur because of large load or stress applied on it. Usually, the fracture takes longer time to heal itself. At present, the crack interaction is still not well understood due to bone complexity. Thus, brittle fracture behavior of bone may be underestimated and inaccurate. This study aims to investigate the geometrical effect of double co-planar edge cracks on stress intensity factor (K) in femur bone. This research focuses to analyze the amplification effect on the fracture behavior of double co-planar edge cracks, where numerical model is developed using computational method. The concept of fracture mechanics and finite element method (FEM) are used to solve the interacting cracks problems using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory. As a result, this study has shown the identification of the crack interaction limit (CIL) and crack unification limit (CUL) exist in the human femur bone model developed. In future research, several improvements will be made such as varying the load, applying thickness on the model and also use different theory or method in calculating the stress intensity factor (K).

  5. Rapid Identification and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Standard Operating Procedure for Non-Commercial Assays: Part 2: Nitrate Reductase Assay v1.3.12

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Parveen; Sharma, Shreya; Mumbowa, Francis; Martin, Anandi; Durier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    In the previous part, we presented the standard operating procedure (SOP) of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present SOP is devoted to another non-commercial culture and DST method known as nitrate reductase assay (NRA). As the name implies, the NRA detects the ability of M. tuberculosis to reduce nitrate to nitrite. In the assay, the presence of nitrite is detected by the addition of p-nitrobenzoate into the growth yield. The reaction is detected by the naked eye. The incorporation of drugs in the medium allows to use the test for DST, which can be interpreted with naked eyes. The identification and drug susceptibility results can be obtained in 2-3 weeks. This SOP document has been developed through the culture and DST subgroup of the STOP tuberculosis (TB) Partnership New Diagnostic Working Group. It is intended for laboratories that would want to use or already using this rapid non-commercial method for culture identification and DST of M. tuberculosis, notably in resource-constraint settings in Asia and Africa. PMID:23440455

  6. Rapid Identification and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Standard Operating Procedure for Non-Commercial Assays: Part 2: Nitrate Reductase Assay v1.3.12.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Parveen; Sharma, Shreya; Mumbowa, Francis; Martin, Anandi; Durier, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    In the previous part, we presented the standard operating procedure (SOP) of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present SOP is devoted to another non-commercial culture and DST method known as nitrate reductase assay (NRA). As the name implies, the NRA detects the ability of M. tuberculosis to reduce nitrate to nitrite. In the assay, the presence of nitrite is detected by the addition of p-nitrobenzoate into the growth yield. The reaction is detected by the naked eye. The incorporation of drugs in the medium allows to use the test for DST, which can be interpreted with naked eyes. The identification and drug susceptibility results can be obtained in 2-3 weeks. This SOP document has been developed through the culture and DST subgroup of the STOP tuberculosis (TB) Partnership New Diagnostic Working Group. It is intended for laboratories that would want to use or already using this rapid non-commercial method for culture identification and DST of M. tuberculosis, notably in resource-constraint settings in Asia and Africa.

  7. Corrosion fatigue crack propagation in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    This review assesses fracture mechanics data and mechanistic models for corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural alloys exposed to ambient temperature gases and electrolytes. Extensive stress intensity-crack growth rate data exist for ferrous, aluminum and nickel based alloys in a variety of environments. Interactive variables (viz., stress intensity range, mean stress, alloy composition and microstructure, loading frequency, temperature, gas pressure and electrode potential) strongly affect crack growth kinetics and complicate fatigue control. Mechanistic models to predict crack growth rates were formulated by coupling crack tip mechanics with occluded crack chemistry, and from both the hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution/film rupture perspectives. Research is required to better define: (1) environmental effects near threshold and on crack closure; (2) damage tolerant life prediction codes and the validity of similitude; (3) the behavior of microcrack; (4) probes and improved models of crack tip damage; and (5) the cracking performance of advanced alloys and composites.

  8. Identification of protostellar clusters in the inner part of the milky way : Interaction between the ISM and star forming regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuret, M.; Billot, N.; Cambrésy, L.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Pestalozzi, M.; Schisano, E.

    2014-12-01

    Interactions between the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects (YSO) need to be investigated to better understand star formation. We used the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) method to identify protostellar clusters in the inner part of galactic plane. Using heliocentric distance estimates, we obtained about 230 clusters over a 140 × 2 square degree region. Most of these clusters are correlated with Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) or H II regions. We conclude that clustering is more important for protostars than for prestellar clumps and that a strong correlation can be established between the distribution of H II regions, known star formation complexes and the YSOs identified in the Hi-GAL data.

  9. Microstructural indicators of transition mechanisms in time-dependent fatigue crack growth in nickel base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeter, Ann E.

    Gas turbine engines are an important part of power generation in modern society, especially in the field of aerospace. Aerospace engines are design to last approximately 30 years and the engine components must be designed to survive for the life of the engine or to be replaced at regular intervals to ensure consumer safety. Fatigue crack growth analysis is a vital component of design for an aerospace component. Crack growth modeling and design methods date back to an origin around 1950 with a high rate of accuracy. The new generation of aerospace engines is designed to be efficient as possible and require higher operating temperatures than ever seen before in previous generations. These higher temperatures place more stringent requirements on the material crack growth performance under creep and time dependent conditions. Typically the types of components which are subject to these requirements are rotating disk components which are made from advanced materials such as nickel base superalloys. Traditionally crack growth models have looked at high temperature crack growth purely as a function of temperature and assumed that all crack growth was either controlled by a cycle dependent or time dependent mechanism. This new analysis is trying to evaluate the transition between cycle-dependent and time-dependent mechanism and the microstructural markers that characterize this transitional behavior. The physical indications include both the fracture surface morphology as well as the shape of the crack front. The research will evaluate whether crack tunneling occurs and whether it consistently predicts a transition from cycle-dependent crack growth to time-dependent crack growth. The study is part of a larger research program trying to include the effects of geometry, mission profile and environmental effects, in addition to temperature effects, as a part of the overall crack growth system. The outcome will provide evidence for various transition types and correlate those

  10. Does an eye-hand coordination test have added value as part of talent identification in table tennis? A validity and reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7-12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and local training centres (n = 19) participated. During the eye-hand coordination test, children needed to throw a ball against a vertical positioned table tennis table with one hand and to catch the ball correctly with the other hand as frequently as possible in 30 seconds. Four different test versions were assessed varying the distance to the table (1 or 2 meter) and using a tennis or table tennis ball. 'Within session' reproducibility was estimated for the two attempts of the initial tests and ten youngsters were retested after 4 weeks to estimate 'between sessions' reproducibility. Validity analyses using age as covariate showed that players from the national and regional centres scored significantly higher than players from the local centre in all test versions (p<0.05). The tests at 1 meter demonstrated better discriminative ability than those at 2 meter. While all tests but one had a positive significant association with competition outcome, which were corrected for age influences, the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter showed the highest association (r = 0.54; p = 0.001). Differences between the first and second attempts were comparable for all test versions (between -8 and +7 repetitions) with ICC's ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. The smallest differences were found for the test with a table tennis ball at 1 meter (between -3 and +3 repetitions). Best test version as part of talent identification appears to be the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter regarding the psychometric characteristics evaluated. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of this test.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy.

  12. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy. PMID:27079356

  13. Getter materials for cracking ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Boffito, Claudio; Baker, John D.

    1999-11-02

    A method is provided for cracking ammonia to produce hydrogen. The method includes the steps of passing ammonia over an ammonia-cracking catalyst which is an alloy including (1) alloys having the general formula Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x M.sub.1 M.sub.2, wherein M.sub.1 and M.sub.2 are selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and x is between about 0.0 and about 1.0 inclusive; and between about 20% and about 50% Al by weight. In another aspect, the method of the invention is used to provide methods for operating hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines and hydrogen fuel cells. In still another aspect, the present invention provides a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine and a hydrogen fuel cell including the above-described ammonia-cracking catalyst.

  14. The cause of welding cracks in aircraft steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, J

    1940-01-01

    The discussion in this article refers to gas welding of thin-walled parts of up to about 3 mm thickness. It was proven that by restricting the sulphur, carbon, and phosphorous content, and by electric-furnace production of the steel, it was possible in a short time to remove this defect. Weld hardness - i.e., martensite formation and hardness of the overheated zone - has no connection with the tendency to weld-crack development. Si, Cr, Mo, or V content has no appreciable effect, while increased manganese content tends to reduce the crack susceptibility.

  15. Identification of biophysical regions in the south-western part of the Okhotsk Sea by satellite imagery classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Tangang, Fredolin; Saitoh, S.

    2015-03-01

    Water properties in the south-western part of the Okhotsk Sea show strong seasonal variability. This study applied a method based on Hierarchical Ascending Classification to classify biophysical regions using satellite data and to determine the seasonal variation of the characteristics of water masses in the area. Water masses in the same biophysical region have similar physical and biological characteristics and are able to explain the biological and physical processes in the ocean. This method provided classification of chlorophyll a, SST and SST gradient satellite data. Six classes explained the main patterns and important characteristics of the region. The method was also able to determine interannual variability in existence and area size of the classes which indicated occurrences of the major circulation patterns in the area and its influence on the variations of the classes.

  16. Slow Crack Growth of Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The fracture toughness and slow crack growth parameters of germanium supplied as single crystal beams and coarse grain disks were measured. Although germanium is anisotropic (A=1.7), it is not as anisotropic as SiC, NiAl, or Cu, as evidence by consistent fracture toughness on the 100, 110, and 111 planes. Germanium does not exhibit significant slow crack growth in distilled water. (n=100). Practical values for engineering design are a fracture toughness of 0.7 MPam and a Weibull modulus of m=6+/-2. For well ground and reasonable handled coupons, fracture strength should be greater than 30 MPa.

  17. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Donald E.; Hively, Lee M.; Holdaway, Ray F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  18. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 7 Table 7 to Subpart UUU of Part 63... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and... With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in §...

  19. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 7 Table 7 to Subpart UUU of Part 63... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and... With Operating Limits for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in §...

  20. 40 CFR Table 14 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 14 Table 14 to Subpart UUU of Part 63... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and... Compliance With Operating Limits for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in §...

  1. Humidity Testing of PME and BME Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.; Herzberger, Jaemi

    2014-01-01

    Cracks in ceramic capacitors are one of the major causes of failures during operation of electronic systems. Humidity testing has been successfully used for many years to verify the absence of cracks and assure quality of military grade capacitors. Traditionally, only precious metal electrode (PME) capacitors were used in high reliability applications and the existing requirements for humidity testing were developed for this type of parts. With the advance of base metal electrode (BME) capacitors, there is a need for assessment of the applicability of the existing techniques for the new technology capacitors. In this work, variety of different PME and BME capacitors with introduced cracks were tested in humid environments at different voltages and temperatures. Analysis of the test results indicates differences in the behavior and failure mechanisms for BME and PME capacitors and the need for different testing conditions.

  2. Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Yahya, Z.

    2013-06-01

    Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

  3. Absorption Voltages and Insulation Resistance in Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Time dependence of absorption voltages (V(sub abs)) in different types of low-voltage X5R and X7R ceramic capacitors was monitored for a maximum duration of hundred hours after polarization. To evaluate the effect of mechanical defects on V(sub abs)), cracks in the dielectric were introduced either mechanically or by thermal shock. The maximum absorption voltage, time to roll-off, and the rate of voltage decrease are shown to depend on the crack-related leakage currents and insulation resistance in the parts. A simple model that is based on the Dow equivalent circuit for capacitors with absorption has been developed to assess the insulation resistance of capacitors. Standard measurements of the insulation resistance, contrary to the measurements based on V(sub abs)), are not sensitive to the presence of mechanical defects and fail to reveal capacitors with cracks.

  4. Identification of repellent and insecticidal constituents of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Li, Yin Ping; Li, He Qin; Deng, Zhi Wei; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were α-terpinyl acetate (37.18%), spathulenol (10.65%), α-terpineol (10.09%), and linalool (7.56%), followed by 4-terpineol (3.92%) and patchoulol (3.05%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol and linalool. The essential oil of A. rupestris exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with LD₅₀ value of 414.48 µg/cm². α-Terpinyl acetate (LD₅₀ = 92.59 µg/cm²) exhibited stronger contact toxicity against booklice than α-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 140.30 µg/cm²), 4-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 211.35 µg/cm²), and linalool (LD5₅₀ = 393.16 µg/cm²). The essential oil of A. rupestris (LC₅₀ = 6.67 mg/L air) also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila while the four constituents, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate and linalool had LC₅₀ values of 0.34, 1.12, 1.26 and 1.96 mg/L air, respectively. α-Terpinol and α-terpinyl acetate showed strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, while linalool and 4-terpinol exhibited weak repellency. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rupestris aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:24005967

  5. SIF-based fracture criterion for interface cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xing

    2016-06-01

    The complex stress intensity factor K governing the stress field of an interface crack tip may be split into two parts, i.e., hat{K} and s^{-iɛ}, so that K=hat{K}s^{-iɛ}, s is a characteristic length and ɛ is the oscillatory index. hat{K} has the same dimension as the classical stress intensity factor and characterizes the interface crack tip field. That means a criterion for interface cracks may be formulated directly with hat{K}, as Irwin (ASME J. Appl. Mech. 24:361-364, 1957) did in 1957 for the classical fracture mechanics. Then, for an interface crack, it is demonstrated that the quasi Mode I and Mode II tip fields can be defined and distinguished from the coupled mode tip fields. Built upon SIF-based fracture criteria for quasi Mode I and Mode II, the stress intensity factor (SIF)-based fracture criterion for mixed mode interface cracks is proposed and validated against existing experimental results.

  6. Bioactive-guided identification of labdane diterpenoids from aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents.

    PubMed

    Varela, Javier; Lavaggi, María L; Cabrera, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Miño, Patricio; Chiriboga, Ximena; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    A bioactive-guided investigation of the hydro-ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa Lam. resulted in the isolation of two diterpenoids, (+)-15-hydroxy-labd-7-en-17-al (1) and (+)-13,14,15,16-tetranor-labd-7-en-17,12-olide (2), as the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi active principles. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The hydro-ethanolic extract showed anti-T. cruzi activity (IC50 = 19.6 microg/mL) whereas the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were near to seven- and one and a half-fold (IC50 = 3.0 and 15.6 microg/mL), respectively more active than the original extract. Labdene 1, equipotent as the reference compound (Nifurtimox), displayed low hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. These results support the vernacular medicinal use of this plant as an anti-T. cruzi agent. PMID:23074890

  7. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  8. Crack problems in cylindrical and spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Standard plate or shell theories were used as a starting point to study the fracture problems in thin-walled cylindrical and spherical shells, assuming that the plane of the crack is perpendicular to the surface of the sheet. Since recent studies have shown that local shell curvatures may have a rather considerable effect on the stress intensity factor, the crack problem was considered in conjunction with a shell rather than a plate theory. The material was assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, so that approximate solutions may be obtained by approximating the local shell crack geometry with an ideal shell which has a solution, namely a spherical shell with a meridional crack, a cylindrical shell with a circumferential crack, or a cylindrical shell with an axial crack. A method of solution for the specially orthotropic shells containing a crack was described; symmetric and skew-symmetric problems are considered in cylindrical shells with an axial crack.

  9. Crack Formation in Cement-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprince, A.; Pakrastinsh, L.; Vatin, N.

    2016-04-01

    The cracking properties in cement-based composites widely influences mechanical behavior of construction structures. The challenge of present investigation is to evaluate the crack propagation near the crack tip. During experiments the tension strength and crack mouth opening displacement of several types of concrete compositions was determined. For each composition the Compact Tension (CT) specimens were prepared with dimensions 150×150×12 mm. Specimens were subjected to a tensile load. Deformations and crack mouth opening displacement were measured with extensometers. Cracks initiation and propagation were analyzed using a digital image analysis technique. The formation and propagation of the tensile cracks was traced on the surface of the specimens using a high resolution digital camera with 60 mm focal length. Images were captured during testing with a time interval of one second. The obtained experimental curve shows the stages of crack development.

  10. Electrochemical situation in corrosion-mechanical cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, L.N.; Kalinkov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the electrochemical situation in corrosion cracks is determined by the electromotive force of local galvanic cells at the crack tip and the polarization resistance of anodic processes.

  11. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part III. Metritis.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metritis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of metritis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. In this manuscript, the overall performance of HIS to detect cows with all disorders of interest in this study [ketosis, displaced abomasum, indigestion (companion paper, part I), mastitis (companion paper, part II), and metritis] is also reported. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of <86 units during at least 1 d from -5 to 2 d after CD. Blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total calcium, and haptoglobin were determined in a subgroup of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The overall sensitivity of HIS was 55% for all cases of metritis (n=349), but it was greater for cows with metritis and another disorder (78%) than for cows with metritis only (53%). Cows diagnosed with metritis and flagged based on HIS had substantial alterations in their rumination, activity, and HIS patterns around CD, alterations of blood markers of metabolic and health status around calving, reduced milk production, and were more likely to exit the herd than cows not flagged based on the HIS and cows without disease, suggesting that cows flagged

  12. Identification of Novel Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part II): In Silico Prediction in Antidiabetic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Ojeda, María José; Valls, Cristina; Bladé, Cinta; Mulero, Miquel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural extracts play an important role in traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also an essential resource for new drug discovery. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are potential candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the effectiveness of certain antidiabetic extracts of natural origin could be, at least partially, explained by the inhibition of DPP-IV. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and an experimentally validated virtual screening procedure previously developed in our lab (Guasch et al.; 2012) [1], we have predicted 12 potential DPP-IV inhibitors from 12 different plant extracts that are known to have antidiabetic activity. Seven of these molecules are identical or similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity (although their role as DPP-IV inhibitors has not been suggested as an explanation for their bioactivity). Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of these extracts through their inhibitory effect on DPP-IV. In addition, we also identified as potential DPP-IV inhibitors 6 molecules from 6 different plants with no described antidiabetic activity but that share the same genus as plants with known antidiabetic properties. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules that we predicted as DPP-IV inhibitors exhibits chemical similarity with a group of 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance Our study identified 18 potential DPP-IV inhibitors in 18 different plant extracts (12 of these plants have known antidiabetic properties, whereas, for the remaining 6, antidiabetic activity has been reported for other plant species from the same genus). Moreover, none of the 18 molecules exhibits chemical similarity with a large group of known DPP-IV inhibitors. PMID:23028712

  13. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols - Part 2: Model evaluation and identification of key processes with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-10-01

    A global compilation of nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT) that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF) method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match the fractions of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, a process that destroys aggregates of soil particles that would have been emitted from the original, undisturbed soil. The second method approximately reconstructs the emitted aggregates. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF) method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observations. Only the AMF method exhibits phyllosilicate mass at silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in better agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at distinct clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, in contrast to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors, as illustrated by the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that allocation of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining source of uncertainty. Evaluation of both models and the MMT is hindered by the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. The importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.

  14. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols. Part 2; Model Evaluation and Identification of Key Processes with Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Garcia-Pando, C. Perez; Miller, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    A global compilation of nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT) that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF) method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match the fractions of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, a process that destroys aggregates of soil particles that would have been emitted from the original, undisturbed soil. The second method approximately reconstructs the emitted aggregates. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF) method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observations. Only the AMF method exhibits phyllosilicate mass at silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in better agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at distinct clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, in contrast to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors, as illustrated by the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that allocation of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining source of uncertainty. Evaluation of both models and the MMT is hindered by the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. The importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.

  15. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols - Part 2: Model evaluation and identification of key processes with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-02-01

    A global compilation from nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT) that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF) method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match those of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, where soil aggregates are broken into smaller particles. The second method approximately reconstructs the aggregates and size distribution of the original soil that is subject to wind erosion. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF) method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observation. Only the AMF method restores phyllosilicate mass to silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in closer agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at separate clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, compared to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors in the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that apportionment of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining uncertainty. Substantial uncertainty remains in evaluating both models and the MMT due to the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. The importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.

  16. Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactive methods of steam hydrocarbon reforming and cracking of the oil and chemical industries are scrutinized, with special focus on their resemblance and variations. The two methods are illustrations of equilibrium-controlled and kinetically-controlled processes, the analysis of which involves theories, which overlap and balance each…

  17. Junction formation during desiccation cracking.

    PubMed

    Toga, K B; Alaca, B Erdem

    2006-08-01

    In order to provide a sound physical basis for the understanding of the formation of desiccation crack networks, an experimental study is presented addressing junction formation. Focusing on junctions, basic features of the network determining the final pattern, provides an elemental approach and imparts conceptual clarity to the rather complicated problem of the evolution of crack patterns. Using coffee-water mixtures a clear distinction between junction formation during nucleation and propagation is achieved. It is shown that for the same drying suspension, one can switch from the well-known symmetric triple junctions that are unique to the nucleation phase to propagation junctions that are purely dictated by the variations of the stress state. In the latter case, one can even manipulate the path of a propagating crack in a deterministic fashion by changing the stress state within the suspension. Clear microscopic evidence is provided for the formation of propagation junctions, and material inhomogeneity is observed to be reflected by a broad distribution of angles, in stark contrast to shrinkage cracks in homogeneous solid films.

  18. TV fatigue crack monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for monitoring the development and growth of fatigue cracks in a test specimen subjected to a pulsating tensile load. A plurality of television cameras photograph a test specimen which is illuminated at the point of maximum tensile stress. The television cameras have a modified vidicon tube which has an increased persistence time thereby eliminating flicker in the displayed images.

  19. Cracks preserve kimberlite melt composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, R. C.; Vigouroux-Caillibot, N.; Donovan, J. J.; Russell, K.

    2009-12-01

    The chemical composition of kimberlite melts has previously been estimated by measuring aphanitic intrusive rocks (deposit composition) or by partial melting experiments on carbonated lherzolites (source composition). Pervasively altered, degassed and contaminated material preclude the determination of the primitive melt composition. Here we present data on melt compositions trapped in unaltered olivine cracks that have been healed and overgrown prior to shallow level emplacement. During the ascent of kimberlite magma the prograding crack tip samples mantle peridotite xenoliths. Xenoliths rapidly disaggregate over the first few kilometers of transport producing a population of olivine xenocrysts that are released to the fluid-rich melt. Rapid ascent of the kimberlite magma causes depressurization and creates internal elastic stresses in the olivine crystals that can only be alleviated by volumetric expansion or brittle failure. On the time scales operative during kimberlite ascent volume expansion is negligible and brittle failure occurs. Small wetting angles between the fluid-rich melt and olivine allow infiltration of the melt into the crack. These very thin cracks (<5 µm) heal rapidly and preserve primary kimberlitic material en route to the surface. We use the electron microprobe with a focused beam (interaction volume less than 2 µm) to analyze the small volumes of material found in the healed cracks of the olivine. We analyzed for 18 elements including oxygen, which we obtained by utilizing a non-linear time dependent intensity acquisition and empirically determined mass absorption coefficients. By accurately knowing the amount of oxygen in a sample, we assign oxygen molecules to all other analyzed elements (e.g. MgO, Al2O3) and the remaining oxygen is assigned to hydrogen and carbon. The analysis total is used as a constraint on the proportion of each species. Mg/Ca ratios of the cracks vary from 0.6-5 indicating a compositional continuum between alkali

  20. Evaluation of fatigue cracks using nonlinearities of acousto-ultrasonic waves acquired by an active sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Hong, Ming; Su, Zhongqing; Wang, Qiang; Cheng, Li

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in using the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic (AU) waves to detect damage onset (e.g., micro-fatigue cracks) due to their high sensitivity to damage with small dimensions. However, most existing approaches are able to infer the existence of fatigue damage qualitatively, but fail to further ascertain its location and severity. A damage characterization approach, in conjunction with the use of an active piezoelectric sensor network, was established, capable of evaluating fatigue cracks in a quantitative manner (including the co-presence of multiple fatigue cracks, and their individual locations and severities). Fundamental investigations, using both experiment and enhanced finite element analysis dedicated to the simulation of nonlinear AU waves, were carried out to link the accumulation of nonlinearities extracted from high-order AU waves to the characteristic parameters of a fatigue crack. A probability-based diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed, facilitating an intuitive presentation of identification results in images. The approach was verified experimentally by evaluating multi-fatigue cracks near rivet holes of a fatigued aluminum plate, showing satisfactory precision in characterizing real, barely visible fatigue cracks. Compared with existing methods, this approach innovatively (i) uses permanently integrated active sensor networks, conducive to automatic and online health monitoring; (ii) characterizes fatigue cracks at a quantitative level; (iii) allows detection of multiple fatigue cracks; and (iv) visualizes identification results in intuitive images.

  1. STRESS CORROSION CRACK GROWTH RESPONSE FOR ALLOY 152/52 DISSIMILAR METAL WELDS IN PWR PRIMARY WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Overman, Nicole R.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2015-08-15

    As part of ongoing research into primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) susceptibility of alloy 690 and its welds, SCC tests have been conducted on alloy 152/52 dissimilar metal (DM) welds with cracks positioned with the goal to assess weld dilution and fusion line effects on SCC susceptibility. No increased crack growth rate was found when evaluating a 20% Cr dilution zone in alloy 152M joined to carbon steel (CS) that had not undergone a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). However, high SCC crack growth rates were observed when the crack reached the fusion line of that material where it propagated both on the fusion line and in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the carbon steel. Crack surface and crack profile examinations of the specimen revealed that cracking in the weld region was transgranular (TG) with weld grain boundaries not aligned with the geometric crack growth plane of the specimen. The application of a typical pressure vessel PWHT on a second set of alloy 152/52 – carbon steel DM weld specimens was found to eliminate the high SCC susceptibility in the fusion line and carbon steel HAZ regions. PWSCC tests were also performed on alloy 152-304SS DM weld specimens. Constant K crack growth rates did not exceed 5x10-9 mm/s in this material with post-test examinations revealing cracking primarily on the fusion line and slightly into the 304SS HAZ.

  2. The energy release rate of a pressurized crack in soft elastic materials: effects of surface tension and large deformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianshu; Long, Rong; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a theoretical study on how surface tension affects fracture of soft solids. In classical fracture theory, the resistance to fracture is partly attributed to the energy required to create new surfaces. Thus, the energy released to the crack tip must overcome the surface energy in order to propagate a crack. In soft materials, however, surface tension can cause significant deformation and can reduce the energy release rate for crack propagation by resisting the stretch of crack surfaces. We quantify this effect by studying the inflation of a penny-shaped crack in an infinite elastic body with applied pressure. To avoid numerical difficulty caused by singular fields near the crack tip, we derived an expression for the energy release rate which depends on the applied pressure, the surface tension, the inflated crack volume and the deformed crack area. This expression is evaluated using a newly developed finite element method with surface tension elements. Our calculation shows that, when the elasto-capillary number ω ≡ σ/Ea is sufficiently large, where σ is the isotropic surface tension, E is the small strain Young's modulus and a is the initial crack radius, both the energy release rate and the crack opening displacement of an incompressible neo-Hookean solid are significantly reduced by surface tension. For a sufficiently high elasto-capillary number, the energy release rate can be negative for applied pressure less than a critical amount, suggesting that surface tension can cause crack healing in soft elastic materials.

  3. Crack/Cocaine: An Overview and Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minisman-Chin, Linda; And Others

    This compilation presents background information and a resource directory concerning the growing dilemma of crack-exposed infants. Information on the incidence of crack use among women of child-bearing age is reviewed. The effects of crack on young children are outlined, and ways in which parents, educators, and other professionals can help these…

  4. The transition from subsonic to supersonic cracks

    PubMed Central

    Behn, Chris; Marder, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the full analytical solution for steady-state in-plane crack motion in a brittle triangular lattice. This allows quick numerical evaluation of solutions for very large systems, facilitating comparisons with continuum fracture theory. Cracks that propagate faster than the Rayleigh wave speed have been thought to be forbidden in the continuum theory, but clearly exist in lattice systems. Using our analytical methods, we examine in detail the motion of atoms around a crack tip as crack speed changes from subsonic to supersonic. Subsonic cracks feature displacement fields consistent with a stress intensity factor. For supersonic cracks, the stress intensity factor disappears. Subsonic cracks are characterized by small-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations in the vertical displacement of an atom along the crack line, while supersonic cracks have large-amplitude, low-frequency oscillations. Thus, while supersonic cracks are no less physical than subsonic cracks, the connection between microscopic and macroscopic behaviour must be made in a different way. This is one reason supersonic cracks in tension had been thought not to exist. PMID:25713443

  5. Cracked Teeth: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lubisich, Erinne B.; Hilton, Thomas J.; FERRACANE, JACK

    2013-01-01

    Although cracked teeth are a common problem for patients and dentists, there is a dearth of evidence-based guidelines on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat cracks in teeth. The purpose of this article is to review the literature to establish what evidence exists regarding the risk factors for cracked teeth and their prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:20590967

  6. Evolution of Rock Cracks Under Unloading Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R. Q.; Huang, D.

    2014-03-01

    Underground excavation normally causes instability of the mother rock due to the release and redistribution of stress within the affected zone. For gaining deep insight into the characteristics and mechanism of rock crack evolution during underground excavation, laboratory tests are carried out on 36 man-made rock specimens with single or double cracks under two different unloading conditions. The results show that the strength of rock and the evolution of cracks are clearly influenced by both the inclination angle of individual cracks with reference to the unloading direction and the combination geometry of cracks. The peak strength of rock with a single crack becomes smaller with the inclination angle. Crack propagation progresses intermittently, as evidenced by a sudden increase in deformation and repeated fluctuation of measured stress. The rock with a single crack is found to fail in three modes, i.e., shear, tension-shear, and splitting, while the rock bridge between two cracks is normally failed in shear, tension-shear, and tension. The failure mode in which a crack rock or rock bridge behaves is found to be determined by the inclination angle of the original crack, initial stress state, and unloading condition. Another observation is that the secondary cracks are relatively easily created under high initial stress and quick unloading.

  7. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  8. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  9. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  10. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  11. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  12. Does an Eye-Hand Coordination Test Have Added Value as Part of Talent Identification in Table Tennis? A Validity and Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Irene R.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7–12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and local training centres (n = 19) participated. During the eye-hand coordination test, children needed to throw a ball against a vertical positioned table tennis table with one hand and to catch the ball correctly with the other hand as frequently as possible in 30 seconds. Four different test versions were assessed varying the distance to the table (1 or 2 meter) and using a tennis or table tennis ball. ‘Within session’ reproducibility was estimated for the two attempts of the initial tests and ten youngsters were retested after 4 weeks to estimate ‘between sessions’ reproducibility. Validity analyses using age as covariate showed that players from the national and regional centres scored significantly higher than players from the local centre in all test versions (p<0.05). The tests at 1 meter demonstrated better discriminative ability than those at 2 meter. While all tests but one had a positive significant association with competition outcome, which were corrected for age influences, the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter showed the highest association (r = 0.54; p = 0.001). Differences between the first and second attempts were comparable for all test versions (between −8 and +7 repetitions) with ICC's ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. The smallest differences were found for the test with a table tennis ball at 1 meter (between −3 and +3 repetitions). Best test version as part of talent identification appears to be the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter regarding the psychometric characteristics evaluated. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of this test. PMID:24465638

  13. Cracking behavior of structural slab bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baah, Prince

    Bridge deck cracking is a common problem throughout the United States, and it affects the durability and service life of concrete bridges. Several departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States prefer using continuous three-span solid structural slab bridges without stringers over typical four-lane highways. Recent inspections of such bridges in Ohio revealed cracks as wide as 0.125 in. These measured crack widths are more than ten times the maximum limit recommended in ACI 224R-01 for bridge decks exposed to de-icing salts. Measurements using digital image correlation revealed that the cracks widened under truck loading, and in some cases, the cracks did not fully close after unloading. This dissertation includes details of an experimental investigation of the cracking behavior of structural concrete. Prism tests revealed that the concrete with epoxy-coated bars (ECB) develops the first crack at smaller loads, and develops larger crack widths compared to the corresponding specimens with uncoated (black) bars. Slab tests revealed that the slabs with longitudinal ECB developed first crack at smaller loads, exhibited wider cracks and a larger number of cracks, and failed at smaller ultimate loads compared to the corresponding test slabs with black bars. To develop a preventive measure, slabs with basalt and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete were also included in the test program. These test slabs exhibited higher cracking loads, smaller crack widths, and higher ultimate loads at failure compared to the corresponding slab specimens without fibers. Merely satisfying the reinforcement spacing requirements given in AASHTO or ACI 318-11 is not adequate to limit cracking below the ACI 224R-01 recommended maximum limit, even though all the relevant design requirements are otherwise met. Addition of fiber to concrete without changing any steel reinforcing details is expected to reduce the severity and extent of cracking in reinforced concrete bridge decks.

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Fatigue Crack Growth Studies Pertinent to Spacecraft and Booster Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. R.; Finger, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    This experimental program was divided into two parts. The first part evaluated stress corrosion cracking in 2219-T87 aluminum and 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI) titanium alloy plate and weld metal. Both uniform height double cantilever beam and surface flawed specimens were tested in environments normally encountered during the fabrication and operation of pressure vessels in spacecraft and booster systems. The second part studied compatibility of material-environment combinations suitable for high energy upper stage propulsion systems. Surface flawed specimens having thicknesses representative of minimum gage fuel and oxidizer tanks were tested. Titanium alloys 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI), 6Al-4V annealed, and 6Al-4V STA were tested in both liquid and gaseous methane. Aluminum alloy 2219 in the T87 and T6E46 condition was tested in fluorine, a fluorine-oxygen mixture, and methane. Results were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.

  15. A crystal plasticity based methodology for modeling fatigue crack initiation and estimating material coefficients to predict fatigue crack initiation life at micro, nano and macro scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voothaluru, Rohit

    computational model performance and the closed loop feedback system enables the modeling of micro, macro and nano scale mechanisms very well. The computational models for the representative material microstructures were built by creating randomized Voronoi tessellations of the representative region that allows for reducing the need for extensive testing which is the major challenge in crack initiation predictions in engineering structures. In order to facilitate the use of the model for engineering applications, an analytical expression for fatigue crack initiation prediction using macro-scale loading conditions has been developed. The analytical model developed for fatigue crack initiation using macro-scale conditions has been validated using benchmark data in the literature to allow for the identification of the material co-efficients necessary to predict the fatigue crack initiation life while considering surface finish, grain size and crack size. The computational modeling and prediction of fatigue crack initiation life in nanostructured graphene reinforced materials is also studied by creating an effective interface method based computational model. The results of the model prediction showed good agreement with the trend of fatigue crack initiation life compared with the experimental results. This work lays the foundation for linking micromechanical plastic deformation to the nano-scale phenomenon while simultaneously providing a tool for engineers predicting crack initiation in macro-scale applications.

  16. Cracks in Flow Liners and Their Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Raju, I. S.

    2005-01-01

    Cracks were detected in flow liners at the gimbal joints in the LH2 feedlines of the space shuttle's main engines. The cracks initiated at defects in the drainage slots of the flow liners and grew due to high cycle fatigue. Fracture mechanics analyses were conducted to evaluate the life of the liners. These analyses yielded extremely short lives in the presence of small surface or corner cracks. A high fidelity detection method, edge replication, was used to detect the very small cracks. The detected cracks were removed by polishing and the surface quality of the slots was reestablished to improve life of the liners.

  17. Crack modeling of rotating blades with cracked hexahedral finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Jiang, Dongxiang

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic analysis is the basis in investigating vibration features of cracked blades, where the features can be applied to monitor health state of blades, detect cracks in an early stage and prevent failures. This work presents a cracked hexahedral finite element method for dynamic analysis of cracked blades, with the purpose of addressing the contradiction between accuracy and efficiency in crack modeling of blades in rotor system. The cracked hexahedral element is first derived with strain energy release rate method, where correction of stress intensity factors of crack front and formulation of load distribution of crack surface are carried out to improve the modeling accuracy. To consider nonlinear characteristics of time-varying opening and closure effects caused by alternating loads, breathing function is proposed for the cracked hexahedral element. Second, finite element method with contact element is analyzed and used for comparison. Finally, validation of the cracked hexahedral element is carried out in terms of breathing effects of cracked blades and natural frequency in different crack depths. Good consistency is acquired between the results with developed cracked hexahedral element and contact element, while the computation time is significantly reduced in the previous one. Therefore, the developed cracked hexahedral element achieves good accuracy and high efficiency in crack modeling of rotating blades.

  18. Application of laser ultrasonic technique for non-contact detection of structural surface-breaking cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Jianghua; Sun, Guangkai; Wang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Based on the finite element method (FEM), the surface-breaking cracks have been investigated by using the laser-generated Rayleigh wave. The features of laser-generated Rayleigh wave interaction with cracks are analyzed in time and frequency domain. The simulation results show that the surface acoustic wave induced by the pulsed laser is sensitive to the surface-breaking cracks. As the crack depth increases, the transmission coefficients almost linearly decrease and the reflection coefficients show a dip. The corresponding experimental results have verified the feasibility of numerical calculation and reached a good agreement with simulation results. The research findings would provide a potential application for testing surface-breaking cracks of aircraft parts.

  19. Growth model for large branched three-dimensional hydraulic crack system in gas or oil shale.

    PubMed

    Chau, Viet T; Bažant, Zdeněk P; Su, Yewang

    2016-10-13

    Recent analysis of gas outflow histories at wellheads shows that the hydraulic crack spacing must be of the order of 0.1 m (rather than 1 m or 10 m). Consequently, the existing models, limited to one or several cracks, are unrealistic. The reality is 10(5)-10(6) almost vertical hydraulic cracks per fracking stage. Here, we study the growth of two intersecting near-orthogonal systems of parallel hydraulic cracks spaced at 0.1 m, preferably following pre-existing rock joints. One key idea is that, to model lateral cracks branching from a primary crack wall, crack pressurization, by viscous Poiseuille-type flow, of compressible (proppant-laden) frac water must be complemented with the pressurization of a sufficient volume of micropores and microcracks by Darcy-type water diffusion into the shale, to generate tension along existing crack walls, overcoming the strength limit of the cohesive-crack or crack-band model. A second key idea is that enforcing the equilibrium of stresses in cracks, pores and water, with the generation of tension in the solid phase, requires a new three-phase medium concept, which is transitional between Biot's two-phase medium and Terzaghi's effective stress and introduces the loading of the solid by pressure gradients of diffusing pore water. A computer program, combining finite elements for deformation and fracture with volume elements for water flow, is developed to validate the new model.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597791

  20. Growth model for large branched three-dimensional hydraulic crack system in gas or oil shale.

    PubMed

    Chau, Viet T; Bažant, Zdeněk P; Su, Yewang

    2016-10-13

    Recent analysis of gas outflow histories at wellheads shows that the hydraulic crack spacing must be of the order of 0.1 m (rather than 1 m or 10 m). Consequently, the existing models, limited to one or several cracks, are unrealistic. The reality is 10(5)-10(6) almost vertical hydraulic cracks per fracking stage. Here, we study the growth of two intersecting near-orthogonal systems of parallel hydraulic cracks spaced at 0.1 m, preferably following pre-existing rock joints. One key idea is that, to model lateral cracks branching from a primary crack wall, crack pressurization, by viscous Poiseuille-type flow, of compressible (proppant-laden) frac water must be complemented with the pressurization of a sufficient volume of micropores and microcracks by Darcy-type water diffusion into the shale, to generate tension along existing crack walls, overcoming the strength limit of the cohesive-crack or crack-band model. A second key idea is that enforcing the equilibrium of stresses in cracks, pores and water, with the generation of tension in the solid phase, requires a new three-phase medium concept, which is transitional between Biot's two-phase medium and Terzaghi's effective stress and introduces the loading of the solid by pressure gradients of diffusing pore water. A computer program, combining finite elements for deformation and fracture with volume elements for water flow, is developed to validate the new model.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'.

  1. Fluid-driven cracks in an elastic matrix in the toughness-dominated limit.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Yao; Zheng, Zhong; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard A

    2016-10-13

    The dynamics of fluid-driven cracks in an elastic matrix is studied experimentally. We report the crack radius R(t) as a function of time, as well as the crack shapes w(r,t) as a function of space and time. A dimensionless parameter, the pressure ratio Δpf/Δpv, is identified to gauge the relative importance between the toughness (Δpf) and viscous (Δpv) effects. In our previous paper (Lai et al. 2015 Proc. R. Soc. A 471, 20150255. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2015.0255)), we investigated the viscous limit experimentally when the toughness-related stresses are negligible for the crack propagation. In this paper, the experimental parameters, i.e. Young's modulus E of the gelatin, viscosity μ of the fracturing liquid and the injection flow rate Q, were chosen so that the viscous effects in the flow are negligible compared with the toughness effects, i.e. Δpf/Δpv≫1. In this limit, the crack dynamics can be described by the toughness-dominated scaling laws, which give the crack radius R(t)∝t(2/5) and the half maximum crack thickness W(t)∝t(1/5) The experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of the toughness scaling laws: the experimental data for crack radius R(t) for a wide range of parameters (E,μ,Q) collapse after being rescaled by the toughness scaling laws, and the rescaled crack shapes w(r,t) also collapse to a dimensionless shape, which demonstrates the self-similarity of the crack shape. The appropriate choice of the viscous or toughness scaling laws is important to accurately describe the crack dynamics.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597782

  2. Environmentally assisted cracking of LWR materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    Research on environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of light water reactor materials has focused on (a) fatigue initiation in pressure vessel and piping steels, (b) crack growth in cast duplex and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs, and (d) EAC in high- nickel alloys. The effect of strain rate during different portions of the loading cycle on fatigue life of carbon and low-alloy steels in 289{degree}C water was determined. Crack growth studies on wrought and cast SSs have been completed. The effect of dissolved-oxygen concentration in high-purity water on IASCC of irradiated Type 304 SS was investigated and trace elements in the steel that increase susceptibility to intergranular cracking were identified. Preliminary results were obtained on crack growth rates of high-nickel alloys in water that contains a wide range of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations at 289 and 320{degree}C. The program on Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Light Water Reactor Materials is currently focused on four tasks: fatigue initiation in pressure vessel and piping steels, fatigue and environmentally assisted crack growth in cast duplex and austenitic SS, irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of austenitic SSs, and environmentally assisted crack growth in high-nickel alloys. Measurements of corrosion-fatigue crack growth rates (CGRs) of wrought and cast stainless steels has been essentially completed. Recent progress in these areas is outlined in the following sections.

  3. Improved imaging algorithm for bridge crack detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jingxiao; Song, Pingli; Han, Kaihong

    2012-04-01

    This paper present an improved imaging algorithm for bridge crack detection, through optimizing the eight-direction Sobel edge detection operator, making the positioning of edge points more accurate than without the optimization, and effectively reducing the false edges information, so as to facilitate follow-up treatment. In calculating the crack geometry characteristics, we use the method of extracting skeleton on single crack length. In order to calculate crack area, we construct the template of area by making logical bitwise AND operation of the crack image. After experiment, the results show errors of the crack detection method and actual manual measurement are within an acceptable range, meet the needs of engineering applications. This algorithm is high-speed and effective for automated crack measurement, it can provide more valid data for proper planning and appropriate performance of the maintenance and rehabilitation processes of bridge.

  4. Identification of volatile oil components from aerial parts of Trigonella torbatjamensis Ranjbar by GC-FID and GC-MS methods

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Arezu; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Chamsaz, Mahmood; Asili, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Various species of genus Trigonella are important from medical and culinary points of view. The essential oil of Trigonella torbatejamensis Ranjbar as an endemic plant in Iran has not been studied previously. The essential oil of this plant was analyzed by different methods for identification of its components. Materials and Methods: The essential oil composition of aerial parts of T. torbatjamensis was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS apparatus. Results: Forty components, representing 98.5 % of the total components, were identified. The pattern of the main grouped components in essential oil was: sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.2%), oxygenated sesquitepenes (16.5%), oxygenated monoterpenes (3.5%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (0.5%). Germacrene -D (33.0%), bicyclogermacrene (26.0%), and viridiflorol (5.3%) were the main components of the essential oil. Conclusion: The essential oil of T. torbatjamensis Ranjbar consisted of forty components with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as the main group of components. PMID:25429346

  5. Polygon/Cracked Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 December 2004 Exposures of sedimentary rock are quite common on the surface of Mars. Less common, but found in many craters in the regions north and northwest of the giant basin, Hellas, are sedimentary rocks with distinct polygonal cracks in them. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the floor of an unnamed crater near 21.0oS, 311.9oW. Such cracks might have formed by desiccation as an ancient lake dried up, or they might be related to ground ice freeze/thaw cycles or some other stresses placed on the original sediment or the rock after it became lithified. The 300 meter scale bar is about 328 yards long. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  6. Experimental Investigation on Centrifugal Compressor Blade Crack Classification Using the Squared Envelope Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongkun; Zhang, Xuefeng; Xu, Fujian

    2013-01-01

    Centrifugal compressors are a key piece of equipment for modern production. Among the components of the centrifugal compressor, the impeller is a pivotal part as it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Blade crack condition monitoring and classification has been broadly investigated in the industrial and academic area. In this research, a pressure pulsation (PP) sensor arranged in close vicinity to the crack area and the corresponding casing vibration signals are used to monitor blade crack information. As these signals cannot directly demonstrate the blade crack, the method employed in this research is based on the extraction of weak signal characteristics that are induced by blade cracking. A method for blade crack classification based on the signals monitored by using a squared envelope spectrum (SES) is presented. Experimental investigations on blade crack classification are carried out to verify the effectiveness of this method. The results show that it is an effective tool for blade crack classification in centrifugal compressors. PMID:24051521

  7. Experimental investigation on centrifugal compressor blade crack classification using the squared envelope spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongkun; Zhang, Xuefeng; Xu, Fujian

    2013-01-01

    Centrifugal compressors are a key piece of equipment for modern production. Among the components of the centrifugal compressor, the impeller is a pivotal part as it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Blade crack condition monitoring and classification has been broadly investigated in the industrial and academic area. In this research, a pressure pulsation (PP) sensor arranged in close vicinity to the crack area and the corresponding casing vibration signals are used to monitor blade crack information. As these signals cannot directly demonstrate the blade crack, the method employed in this research is based on the extraction of weak signal characteristics that are induced by blade cracking. A method for blade crack classification based on the signals monitored by using a squared envelope spectrum (SES) is presented. Experimental investigations on blade crack classification are carried out to verify the effectiveness of this method. The results show that it is an effective tool for blade crack classification in centrifugal compressors. PMID:24051521

  8. Identification marking by means of laser peening

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, C. Brent; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.

  9. The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (less than 35 microns) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500X) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% NaCl environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.

  10. The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.

  11. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Carbon Steel Weldments

    SciTech Connect

    POH-SANG, LAM

    2005-01-13

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the role of weld residual stress on stress corrosion cracking in welded carbon steel plates prototypic to those used for nuclear waste storage tanks. Carbon steel specimen plates were butt-joined with Gas Metal Arc Welding technique. Initial cracks (seed cracks) were machined across the weld and in the heat affected zone. These specimen plates were then submerged in a simulated high level radioactive waste chemistry environment. Stress corrosion cracking occurred in the as-welded plate but not in the stress-relieved duplicate. A detailed finite element analysis to simulate exactly the welding process was carried out, and the resulting temperature history was used to calculate the residual stress distribution in the plate for characterizing the observed stress corrosion cracking. It was shown that the cracking can be predicted for the through-thickness cracks perpendicular to the weld by comparing the experimental KISCC to the calculated stress intensity factors due to the welding residual stress. The predicted crack lengths agree reasonably well with the test data. The final crack lengths appear to be dependent on the details of welding and the sequence of machining the seed cracks, consistent with the prediction.

  12. Crack Turning in Integrally Stiffened Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Richard Glen

    2000-01-01

    Current emphasis in the aircraft industry toward reducing manufacturing cost has created a renewed interest in integrally stiffened structures. Crack turning has been identified as an approach to improve the damage tolerance and fail-safety of this class of structures. A desired behavior is for skin cracks to turn before reaching a stiffener, instead of growing straight through. A crack in a pressurized fuselage encounters high T-stress as it nears the stiffener--a condition favorable to crack turning. Also, the tear resistance of aluminum alloys typically varies with crack orientation, a form of anisotropy that can influence the crack path. The present work addresses these issues with a study of crack turning in two-dimensions, including the effects of both T-stress and fracture anisotropy. Both effects are shown to have relation to the process zone size, an interaction that is central to this study. Following an introduction to the problem, the T-stress effect is studied for a slightly curved semi-infinite crack with a cohesive process zone, yielding a closed form expression for the future crack path in an infinite medium. For a given initial crack tip curvature and tensile T-stress, the crack path instability is found to increase with process zone size. Fracture orthotropy is treated using a simple function to interpolate between the two principal fracture resistance values in two-dimensions. An extension to three-dimensions interpolates between the six principal values of fracture resistance. Also discussed is the transition between mode I and mode II fracture in metals. For isotropic materials, there is evidence that the crack seeks out a direction of either local symmetry (pure mode I) or local asymmetry (pure mode II) growth. For orthotropic materials the favored states are not pure modal, and have mode mixity that is a function of crack orientation.

  13. A new laser vibrometry-based 2D selective intensity method for source identification in reverberant fields: part II. Application to an aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, G. M.; Martarelli, M.; Chiariotti, P.

    2010-07-01

    The selective intensity technique is a powerful tool for the localization of acoustic sources and for the identification of the structural contribution to the acoustic emission. In practice, the selective intensity method is based on simultaneous measurements of acoustic intensity, by means of a couple of matched microphones, and structural vibration of the emitting object. In this paper high spatial density multi-point vibration data, acquired by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, have been used for the first time. Therefore, by applying the selective intensity algorithm, the contribution of a large number of structural sources to the acoustic field radiated by the vibrating object can be estimated. The selective intensity represents the distribution of the acoustic monopole sources on the emitting surface, as if each monopole acted separately from the others. This innovative selective intensity approach can be very helpful when the measurement is performed on large panels in highly reverberating environments, such as aircraft cabins. In this case the separation of the direct acoustic field (radiated by the vibrating panels of the fuselage) and the reverberant one is difficult by traditional techniques. The work shown in this paper is the application of part of the results of the European project CREDO (Cabin Noise Reduction by Experimental and Numerical Design Optimization) carried out within the framework of the EU. Therefore the aim of this paper is to illustrate a real application of the method to the interior acoustic characterization of an Alenia Aeronautica ATR42 ground test facility, Alenia Aeronautica being a partner of the CREDO project.

  14. Online bridge crack monitoring with smart film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Benniu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Xingxing; Zhou, Zhixiang; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Minfeng

    2013-01-01

    Smart film crack monitoring method, which can be used for detecting initiation, length, width, shape, location, and propagation of cracks on real bridges, is proposed. Firstly, the fabrication of the smart film is developed. Then the feasibility of the method is analyzed and verified by the mechanical sensing character of the smart film under the two conditions of normal strain and crack initiation. Meanwhile, the coupling interference between parallel enameled wires of the smart film is discussed, and then low-frequency detecting signal and the custom communication protocol are used to decrease interference. On this basis, crack monitoring system with smart film is designed, where the collected crack data is sent to the remote monitoring center and the cracks are simulated and recurred. Finally, the monitoring system is applied to six bridges, and the effects are discussed. PMID:24489496

  15. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-08-01

    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  16. Crack propagation in bamboo's hierarchical cellular structure.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Meisam K; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-07

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  17. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-a; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-01

    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles. PMID:26279317

  18. Meshfree Simulations of Ductile Crack Propagations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaofan; Simonsen, Cerup B.

    2005-03-01

    In this work, a meshfree method is used to simulate ductile crack growth and propagation under finite deformation and large scale yielding conditions. A so-called parametric visibility condition and its related particle splitting procedure have been developed to automatically adapt the evolving strong continuity or fracture configuration due to an arbitrary crack growth in ductile materials. It is shown that the proposed meshfree crack adaption and re-interpolation procedure is versatile in numerical simulations, and it can capture some essential features of ductile fracture and ductile crack surface morphology, such as the rough zig-zag pattern of crack surface and the ductile crack front damage zone, which have been difficult to capture in previous numerical simulations.

  19. Crossing grain boundaries in metals by slip bands, cleavage and fatigue cracks.

    PubMed

    Pineau, André

    2015-03-28

    The size and the character (low and large angle, special boundaries, tilt and twist boundaries, twins) of the grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline materials influence their strength and their fracture toughness. Recent studies devoted to nanocrystalline (NC) materials have shown a deviation from the Hall-Petch law. Special GBs formed by Σ3 twins in face-centred cubic metals are also known to have a strong effect on the mechanical behaviour of these metals, in particular their work-hardening rate. Grain orientation influences also crack path, the fracture toughness of body-centred cubic (BCC) metals and the fatigue crack growth rate of microstructurally short cracks. This paper deals both with slip transfer at GBs and with the interactions between propagating cracks with GBs. In the analysis of slip transfer, the emphasis is placed on twin boundaries (TBs) for which the dislocation reactions during slip transfer are analysed theoretically, experimentally and using the results of atomic molecular simulations published in the literature. It is shown that in a number of situations this transfer leads to a normal motion of the TB owing to the displacement of partial dislocations along the TB. This motion can generate a de-twinning effect observed in particular in NC metals. Crack propagation across GBs is also considered. It is shown that cleavage crack path behaviour in BCC metals is largely dependent on the twist component of the GBs. A mechanism for the propagation of these twisted cracks involving a segmentation of the crack front and the existence of intergranular parts is discussed and verified for a pressure vessel steel. A similar segmentation seems to occur for short fatigue cracks although, quite surprisingly, this crossing mechanism for fatigue cracks does not seem to have been examined in very much detail in the literature. Metallurgical methods used to improve the strength of the materials, via grain boundaries, are briefly discussed.

  20. A clamped rectangular plate containing a crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, R.; Erdogan, F.

    1985-01-01

    The general problem of a rectangular plate clamped along two parallel sides and containing a crack parallel to the clamps is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations and the asymptotic behavior of the stress state near the corners is investigated. Numerical examples are considered for a clamped plate without a crack and with a centrally located crack, and the stress intensity factors and the stresses along the clamps are calculated.

  1. New unit to thermal crack resid

    SciTech Connect

    Washimi, K. ); Limmer, H. )

    1989-09-01

    Thermal cracking conversion increases with temperature and residence time. Soakers added downstream of the cracking furnaces increase residence time in order to improve conversion at lower furnace outlet temperature, thereby increasing run length between shutdowns for decoking. This paper discusses advanced soaker technology incorporated in High-Conversion Soaker Cracking (HSC), developed by Toyo Engineering Corporation (TEC) and Mitsui Kozan Chemicals Ltd. The technology was demonstrated on a commercial scale. The process features are described.

  2. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  3. Dislocation shielding of a cohesive crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandakkar, Tanmay K.; Chng, Audrey C.; Curtin, W. A.; Gao, Huajian

    2010-04-01

    Dislocation interaction with a cohesive crack is of increasing importance to computational modelling of crack nucleation/growth and related toughening mechanisms in confined structures and under cyclic fatigue conditions. Here, dislocation shielding of a Dugdale cohesive crack described by a rectangular traction-separation law is studied. The shielding is completely characterized by three non-dimensional parameters representing the effective fracture toughness, the cohesive strength, and the distance between the dislocations and the crack tip. A closed form analytical solution shows that, while the classical singular crack model predicts that a dislocation can shield or anti-shield a crack depending on the sign of its Burgers vector, at low cohesive strengths a dislocation always shields the cohesive crack irrespective of the Burgers vector. A numerical study shows the transition in shielding from the classical solution of Lin and Thomson (1986) in the high strength limit to the solution in the low strength limit. An asymptotic analysis yields an approximate analytical model for the shielding over the full range of cohesive strengths. A discrete dislocation (DD) simulation of a large (>10 3) number of edge dislocations interacting with a cohesive crack described by a trapezoidal traction-separation law confirms the transition in shielding, showing that the cohesive crack does behave like a singular crack at very high cohesive strengths (˜7 GPa), but that significant deviations in shielding between singular and cohesive crack predictions arise at cohesive strengths around 1GPa, consistent with the analytic models. Both analytical and numerical studies indicate that an appropriate crack tip model is essential for accurately quantifying dislocation shielding for cohesive strengths in the GPa range.

  4. Acoustic emission for characterising the crack propagation in strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S.C.; Pirskawetz, S.; Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Schmidt, W.

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the analysis of crack propagation in strain-hardening cement-based composite (SHCC) under tensile and flexural load by using acoustic emission (AE). AE is a non-destructive technique to monitor the development of structural damage due to external forces. The main objective of this research was to characterise the cracking behaviour in SHCC in direct tensile and flexural tests by using AE. A better understanding of the development of microcracks in SHCC will lead to a better understanding of pseudo strain-hardening behaviour of SHCC and its general performance. ARAMIS optical deformation analysis was also used in direct tensile tests to observe crack propagation in SHCC materials. For the direct tensile tests, SHCC specimens were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibre with three different volume percentages (1%, 1.85% and 2.5%). For the flexural test beam specimens, only a fibre dosage of 1.85% was applied. It was found that the application of AE in SHCC can be a good option to analyse the crack growth in the specimens under increasing load, the location of the cracks and most importantly the identification of matrix cracking and fibre rupture or slippage.

  5. Coupled bending-torsional vibration analysis of rotor with rub and crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.

    2009-10-01

    Rotor-stator rub and fatigue crack of the shafts are two important rotor faults. They have detrimental effects on health and reliability of the rotating machinery. In this paper, modelling and vibration signature analysis of rotor with rotor-stator rub, transverse fatigue crack and unbalance is attempted. The rotor-stator interaction effects on the response of a rotor are investigated in the presence/absence of a transverse crack. The torsional vibrations are investigated for their sensitivity to rubbing using finite element model that also accounts for cross coupling of stiffness introduced due to crack. Due to the presence of both rotor-stator rub and transverse crack in a horizontal rotor, the system becomes highly nonlinear. The time localised rub excitations and nonlinear stiffness variation due to breathing of the crack influence the rotor response in both lateral and torsional modes and are explored extensively using Hilbert-Huang transform with the objective of unravelling some unique features of these faults that may be useful for fault identification.

  6. On the bi-dimensional variational decomposition applied to nonstationary vibration signals for rolling bearing crack detection in coal cutters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Zhixiong; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chao; Peng, Z.

    2016-06-01

    This work aims to detect rolling bearing cracks using a variational approach. An original method that appropriately incorporates bi-dimensional variational mode decomposition (BVMD) into discriminant diffusion maps (DDM) is proposed to analyze the nonstationary vibration signals recorded from the cracked rolling bearings in coal cutters. The advantage of this variational decomposition based diffusion map (VDDM) method in comparison to the current DDM is that the intrinsic vibration mode of the crack can be filtered into a limited bandwidth in the frequency domain with an estimated central frequency, thus discarding the interference signal components in the vibration signals and significantly improving the crack detection performance. In addition, the VDDM is able to simultaneously process two-channel sensor signals to reduce information leakage. Experimental validation using rolling bearing crack vibration signals demonstrates that the VDDM separated the raw signals into four intrinsic modes, including one roller vibration mode, one roller cage vibration mode, one inner race vibration mode, and one outer race vibration mode. Hence, reliable fault features were extracted from the outer race vibration mode, and satisfactory crack identification performance was achieved. The comparison between the proposed VDDM and existing approaches indicated that the VDDM method was more efficient and reliable for crack detection in coal cutter rolling bearings. As an effective catalyst for rolling bearing crack detection, this newly proposed method is useful for practical applications.

  7. Crack shapes and stress intensity factors for edge-cracked specimens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    A simple stress intensity factor expression is given for a deep edge crack in a plate in tension. The shapes of cracks opened by tension or bending are approximated by conic sections, and the conic section coefficients are related to plate geometry by very simple empirical equations. The magnitude of the crack displacement is a function of applied load, plate geometry, and the elastic constants of the plate material. The shape of a loaded crack in a semiinfinite plate is, approximately, a portion of an ellipse whose semimajor axis is about three times the crack length. As the crack length (relative to the plate width) increases, the crack shape becomes parabolic, then hyperbolic, the acuity of the hyperbola increasing with the relative crack length.

  8. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  9. Combustion in cracks of PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    Berghout, H. L.; Son, S. F.; Bolme, C. A.; Hill, L. G.; Asay, B. W.; Dickson, P. M.; Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L. B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments involving the combustion of PBX 9501 explosive under confined conditions reveal the importance of crack and flaws in reaction violence. Experiments on room temperature confined disks of pristine and thermally damaged PBX 9501 reveal that crack ignition depends on hot gases entering existing or pressure induced cracks rather than on energy release at the crack tip. PBX 9501 slot combustion experiments show that the reaction propagation rate in the slot does not depend on the external pressure. We have observed 1500 d s in long slots of highly-confined PBX 9501. We present experiments that examine the combustion of mechanically and thermally damaged samples of PBX 9501.

  10. Crack depth determination with inductive thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald-Tranta, B.; Schmidt, R.

    2015-05-01

    Castings, forgings and other steel products are nowadays usually tested with magnetic particle inspection, in order to detect surface cracks. An alternative method is active thermography with inductive heating, which is quicker, it can be well automated and as in this paper presented, even the depth of a crack can be estimated. The induced eddy current, due to its very small penetration depth in ferro-magnetic materials, flows around a surface crack, heating this selectively. The surface temperature is recorded during and after the short inductive heating pulse with an infrared camera. Using Fourier transformation the whole IR image sequence is evaluated and the phase image is processed to detect surface cracks. The level and the local distribution of the phase around a crack correspond to its depth. Analytical calculations were used to model the signal distribution around cracks with different depth and a relationship has been derived between the depth of a crack and its phase value. Additionally, also the influence of the heating pulse duration has been investigated. Samples with artificial and with natural cracks have been tested. Results are presented comparing the calculated and measured phase values depending on the crack depth. Keywords: inductive heating, eddy current, infrared

  11. Controlled crack growth specimen for brittle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony M.; Brewer, David N.

    1992-01-01

    A pure Mode 1 fracture specimen and test procedure has been developed which provides extended, stable, through-thickness crack growth in ceramics and other brittle, nonmetallic materials. Fixed displacement loading, applied at the crack mouth, promotes stable crack extension by reducing the stored elastic strain energy. Extremely fine control of applied displacements is achieved by utilizing the Poisson's expansion of a compressively loaded cylindrical pin. Stable cracks were successfully grown in soda-lime glass and monolithic Al2O3 for lengths in excess of 2O mm without uncontrollable catastrophic failure.

  12. Controlled crack growth specimen for brittle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony M.; Brewer, David N.

    1990-01-01

    A pure Mode 1 fracture specimen and test procedure has been developed which provides extended, stable, through-thickness crack growth in ceramics and other brittle, nonmetallic materials. Fixed displacement loading, applied at the crack mouth, promotes stable crack extension by reducing the stored elastic strain energy. Extremely fine control of applied displacements is achieved by utilizing the Poisson's expansion of a compressively loaded cylindrical pin. Stable cracks were successfully grown in soda-lime glass and monolithic Al2O3 for lengths in excess of 20 mm without uncontrollable catastrophic failure.

  13. Dynamics of cracking in drying colloidal sheets.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Rajarshi; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S

    2016-04-01

    Colloidal dispersions are known to display a fascinating network of cracks on drying. We probe the fracture mechanics of free-standing films of aqueous polymer-particle dispersions. Thin films of the dispersion are cast between a pair of plain steel wires and allowed to dry under ambient conditions. The strain induced on the particle network during drying is relieved by cracking. The stress which causes the films to crack has been calculated by measuring the deflection of the wires. The critical cracking stress varied inversely to the two-thirds' power of the film thickness. We also measure the velocity of the tip of a moving crack. The motion of a crack has been modeled as a competition between the release of the elastic energy stored in the particle network, the increase in surface energy as a result of the growth of a crack, the rate of viscous dissipation of the interstitial fluid and the kinetic energy associated with a moving crack. There is fair agreement between the measured crack velocities and predictions.

  14. [Desiccation cracking of soil body: a review].

    PubMed

    Pei, Yin-Ge; Xu, Ze-Min; Zhang, Jia-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Desiccation cracking of soil body is a complex physical process, which can affect the strength, stability, and permeability of soil body, and involve in several disciplines such as soil science, agricultural science, engineering geology, and environmental science. This paper introduced the significances of the study on the desiccation cracking of soil body, reviewed the related theoretical and applied researches and the quantitative analysis of crack morphology, and discussed the deficiencies in the research fields, research contents, and research methods. The future research directions about the desiccation cracking of soil body were pointed out.

  15. Expansive soil crack depth under cumulative damage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  16. Fatigue crack propagation at polymer adhesive interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Delamination of polymer adhesive interfaces often occurs due to slow crack growth under either monotonic or cyclic loading. The author`s previous research showed that moisture-assisted crack growth at epoxy/glass and epoxy acrylate/glass interfaces under monotonic loading was directly related to the applied energy release rate and relative humidity and that cyclic loading could enhance crack growth. The purpose of the present research is to compare crack growth along epoxy acrylate/glass and epoxy/PMMA interfaces under monotonic and cyclic loading.

  17. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  18. Dynamics of cracking in drying colloidal sheets.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Rajarshi; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S

    2016-04-01

    Colloidal dispersions are known to display a fascinating network of cracks on drying. We probe the fracture mechanics of free-standing films of aqueous polymer-particle dispersions. Thin films of the dispersion are cast between a pair of plain steel wires and allowed to dry under ambient conditions. The strain induced on the particle network during drying is relieved by cracking. The stress which causes the films to crack has been calculated by measuring the deflection of the wires. The critical cracking stress varied inversely to the two-thirds' power of the film thickness. We also measure the velocity of the tip of a moving crack. The motion of a crack has been modeled as a competition between the release of the elastic energy stored in the particle network, the increase in surface energy as a result of the growth of a crack, the rate of viscous dissipation of the interstitial fluid and the kinetic energy associated with a moving crack. There is fair agreement between the measured crack velocities and predictions. PMID:26924546

  19. Crack Healing in Quartz: Influence of Crack Morphology and pOH-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, J. A.; Kronenberg, A. K.; Popp, R. K.; Lamb, W. M.

    2004-12-01

    Crack healing in quartz has been investigated by optical microscopy and interferometry of rhombohedral r-cleavage cracks in polished Brazilian quartz prisms that were hydrothermally annealed. Quartz prisms were pre-cracked at room temperature and then annealed at temperatures T of 250° and 400° C for 2.4 to 240 hours, fluid pressure Pf = 41 MPa (equal to confining pressure Pc), and varying pOH- (from 5.4 to 1.2 at 250° C for fluids consisting of distilled water and NaOH solutions). Crack morphologies before and after annealing were recorded for each sample in plane light digital images and apertures were determined from interference fringes recorded using transmitted monochromatic light (λ = 598 nm). As documented in previous studies (Smith and Evans, 1984; Brantley et al., 1990; Beeler and Hickman, 1996), crack healing of quartz is driven by reductions in surface energy and healing rates appear to be limited by diffusional solute transport; sharply defined crack tips become blunted and break up into fluid-filled tubes and inclusions. However, fluid inclusion geometries are also observed with nonequilibrium shapes that depend on initial surface roughness. Crack healing is significant at 400° C after short run durations (24 hr) with healing rates reaching 10-5 mm/s. Crack healing is also observed at T=250° C, but only for smooth cracks with apertures < 0.6 μ m or for cracks subject to low pOH-. The extent of crack healing is sensitive to crack aperture and to hackles formed by fine-scale crack branching during crack growth. Initial crack apertures appear to be governed by the presence of fine particles, often found in the vicinity of hackles, which maintain the separation of crack surfaces. Where rough cracks exhibit healing, hackles are sites of either enhanced or reduced loss of fluid-solid interface depending on slight mismatches and sense of twist of opposing crack surfaces. Hackles of open r-cleavage cracks are replaced either by (1) healed curvilinear

  20. Fatigue Crack Closure Analysis Using Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue crack closure during crack growth testing is analyzed in order to evaluate the critieria of ASTM Standard E647 for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates. Of specific concern is remote closure, which occurs away from the crack tip and is a product of the load history during crack-driving-force-reduction fatigue crack growth testing. Crack closure behavior is characterized using relative displacements determined from a series of high-magnification digital images acquired as the crack is loaded. Changes in the relative displacements of features on opposite sides of the crack are used to generate crack closure data as a function of crack wake position. For the results presented in this paper, remote closure did not affect fatigue crack growth rate measurements when ASTM Standard E647 was strictly followed and only became a problem when testing parameters (e.g., load shed rate, initial crack driving force, etc.) greatly exceeded the guidelines of the accepted standard.

  1. Statistical distribution of time to crack initiation and initial crack size using service data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, R. A.; Yang, J. N.

    1977-01-01

    Crack growth inspection data gathered during the service life of the C-130 Hercules airplane were used in conjunction with a crack propagation rule to estimate the distribution of crack initiation times and of initial crack sizes. A Bayesian statistical approach was used to calculate the fraction of undetected initiation times as a function of the inspection time and the reliability of the inspection procedure used.

  2. Liquid metal embrittlement. [crack propagation in metals with liquid metal in crack space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Crack propagation is discussed for metals with liquid metal in the crack space. The change in electrochemical potential of an electron in a metal due to changes in stress level along the crack surface was investigated along with the change in local chemistry, and interfacial energy due to atomic redistribution in the liquid. Coupled elastic-elastrostatic equations, stress effects on electron energy states, and crack propagation via surface roughening are discussed.

  3. Effect of Crack Closure on Ultrasonic Detection of Fatigue Cracks at Fastener Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, S. J.; Harding, C. A.; Hugo, G. R.

    2009-03-01

    The ultrasonic response from closed fatigue cracks grown in aluminium alloy specimens using a representative aircraft spectrum loading has been characterised as a function of tensile applied load using pulse-echo 45° shear-wave ultrasonic C-scans with focused immersion transducers. Observed trends with crack size and applied load are described and compared to results for artificial machined defects. The results demonstrate that crack closure significantly reduces the ultrasonic response compared to open cracks or machined defects.

  4. Determining fatigue crack opening loads from near-crack-tip displacement measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Riddell, W.T.; Piascik, R.S.; Sutton, M.A.; Zhao, W.; McNeill, S.R.; Helm, J.D.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a near-crack-tip measurement method that quantifies crack closure levels in the near-threshold fatigue crack growth regime--a regime where crack closure is not well characterized by remote compliance methods. Further understanding of crack closure mechanics was gained by performing novel crack growth experiments in conjunction with numerical simulations of three-dimensional crack-front propagation. Steady-state (i.e., constant growth rate) fatigue crack growth rates were characterized by performing constant cyclic stress intensity range ({Delta}K) experiments over a wide range of stress ratios (R). Near-crack-tip (less than 0.3 mm behind) load-versus-displacement measurements were conducted on the specimen surface using a novel noncontact experimental technique (Digital Imaging Displacement System--DIDS). The experiments and simulations revealed that the three-dimensional aspects of fatigue crack closure must be considered to determine correct opening load levels from near-crack-tip load-versus-displacement data. It was shown that near-crack-front, but increase near the free surface. The interior opening load was found to collapse closure-affected data to intrinsic rates, and thus shown to relate to the true crack-front driving force parameter. Surface opening load DIDS measurements made at an optimal distance behind the crack tip were used to correlate da/dN with {Delta}K{sub eff}. Opening load determinations made less than the optimal distance behind the crack tip were shown to be too high to correlate fatigue crack growth rates.

  5. Small fatigue crack propagation in Y2O3 strengthened steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutař, P.; Kuběna, I.; Ševčík, M.; Šmíd, M.; Kruml, T.; Náhlík, L.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on two type of Y2O3 strengthened steels (Fe-14Cr ODS and ODS-EUROFER). Small fatigue crack propagation was experimentally measured using special small cylindrical specimens (diameter 2 and 2.6 mm) with shallow notch grinded in the gauge length. In the middle of this notch, a pre-crack of length of 50 μm was fabricated using a focused ion beam technique. Fatigue crack growth rate was measured for different applied total strain amplitudes and described using plastic part of the J-integral. Obtained results were compared with published data of EUROFER 97. The effect of the oxide dispersion on small fatigue crack propagation was found rather insignificant. Ferritic Fe-14Cr ODS steel shows more brittle behaviour, i.e. for the same cyclic plasticity, characterised by the plastic part of the J-integral, the small cracks grow faster. A new methodology for residual lifetime prediction of structures containing physically small cracks, based on plastic part of the J-integral, is presented.

  6. Resistance to biodegradative stress cracking in microporous vascular access grafts.

    PubMed

    Carson, R J; Edwards, A; Szycher, M

    1996-10-01

    Degradative cracking, more commonly known as "environmental stress cracking" (ESC) has been observed in many implanted polyetherurethane elastomers. This phenomenon has been attributed to biochemical and cellular interactions at the surface of the implanted material causing polymer chain cleavage. This may result in surface fissuring followed by the deep cracking associated with considerable biodegradation of the polymer, resulting in loss of mechanical strength and the formation of aneurysms in an in vivo situation. These cracking effects are believed to be due to mechanical stress combined with the oxidising actions of macrophages and giant cells, as surface cracking has been observed to occur directly under adherent macrophages on a polyetherurethane implant. These cells form part of the body's immune response which uses enzymes and reactive oxygen species (O2, O2-, and HO. and H2O2) to degrade foreign material. We describe a modification of an in vitro test method developed by Zaho et al. [1] using glass wool and a Hydrogen Peroxide/Cobalt (II) Chloride (H2O2/CoCl2) mixture to replicate the oxidising effects of macrophages in vivo. The modifications were made to establish a routine testing system for resistance to biodegradation which could be used to screen a range of polymers designed for use in microporous vascular grafts. The grafts are pre-stressed by a method devised by Stokes et al. [2] where each graft is stretched to a predetermined elongation over a mandrel and the strain is fixed by tying PTFE tape around each end of the mandrel. PMID:8913848

  7. A Creaking and Cracking Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurschou Hviid, Stubbe; Hüttig, Christian; Groussin, Olivier; Mottola, Stefano; Keller, Horst Uwe; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Since the middle of 2014 the OSIRIS cameras on the ESA Rosetta mission have been monitoring the evolution of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as it passed through perihelion. During the perihelion passage several change events have been observed on the nucleus surface. For example existing large scale cracks have expanded and new large scale cracks have been created. Also several large scale "wave pattern" like change events have been observed in the Imhotep and Hapi regions. These are events not directly correlated with any normal visible cometary activity. One interpretation is that these are events likely caused by "seismic" activity. The seismic activity is created by the self-gravity stress of the non-spherical comet nucleus and stress created by the non-gravitational forces acting on the comet. The non-gravitational forces are changing the rotation period of the comet (~20min/perihelion passage) which induces a changing mechanical stress pattern through the perihelion passage. Also the diurnal cycle with its changing activity pattern is causing a periodic wobble in the stress pattern that can act as a trigger for a comet quake. The stress pattern has been modeled using a finite element model that includes self-gravity, the comet spin and the non-gravitational forces based on a cometary activity model. This paper will discuss what can be learned about the comet nucleus structure and about the cometary material properties from these events and from the FEM model.

  8. What can cracked polymer do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Kexin; Zhou, Chuanhong; Kohli, Punit; Poudel, Anish; Chu, Tsuchin

    2015-03-01

    Buckling, delamination, and cracking are very well known phenomenon observed in most thin films. They were theoretically explained by the existence of mechanical instability due to the residue stress generated when a thin film is deposited on substrates or undergoing environmental stimulus. Buckled structures at micro- or nano-scale have been of great interests and have been used extensively in many applications including particles self-assembling, surface wettability modification, and micro-electronic device fabrication. However, peeling of a layer from a substrate due to delamination or fractures on a thin film due to cracking is mostly taken as an undesirable result. Therefore, strategies are inspired for preventing or removing these often undesired structures. We found that after being heated above its decomposition temperature and then cooled to room temperature, a PDMS thin film showed micro-fibers of 100 μm width and up to 1.5 cm in length. By studying the formation mechanism, control of the dimensions and of the growth pattern on a substrate for PDMS micro-fibers were realized. Giving credit to their high flexibility and optical transparency, a PDMS micro-fiber were utilized in high resolution near field imaging achieved by attaching a micro-lens on the fiber. Interestingly, a surface covered by PDMS micro-fibers will turn from superhydrophobic into superhydrophilic by further heating providing potential applications in surface wettability modification. In future, we will investigate and simulate the growth of PDMS micro-fiber and look for more possible applications.

  9. RCRA/UST, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Hazardous waste identification (40 CFR part 261) updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This module introduces a specific hazardous waste identification process, which involves asking and analyzing a series of questions about any waste being evaluated. Analyzes in detail the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of hazardous waste. It explains the following concepts that are essential to identifying a RCRA hazardous waste: hazardous waste listing, hazardous waste characteristics, the mixture and derived-from rules, the contained-in policy, and the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR).

  10. Evaluation of Three Methods in the Diagnosis of Dentin Cracks Caused by Apical Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Aminifar, Soran; Shadan, Leila; Ghanati, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare three various methods in the diagnosis of dentinal cracks formed in the apical third after root resection. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected. The root canals were prepared with step-back technique. Then 3mm from the apical end of all roots was cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. The apical end of each root was evaluated to make sure there were no cracks. Fifty specimens were randomly chosen and connected to an apparatus especially designed for application of force (50–60N) by a universal testing machine for crack formation. The cracked (no=50) and non-cracked (no=50) specimens were examined by three methods of fiber optic transillumination, methylene blue staining and combination of the two. Sensitivity and specificity of the methods were evaluated. The most suitable method for detecting cracks was determined using Youden index. To compare agreement between studied methods with the gold standard, kappa statistics and odds ratio of McNemar were utilized. Results: The sensitivity of transillumination, staining and the combination method were 82.0, 50.0 and 90.0%, respectively. The staining technique had the lowest sensitivity and the highest specificity. Both transillumination and the combination method had Youden index of 0.56, but the combination method diagnosed truly cracked samples more than the other techniques. Conclusion: The efficacy of transillumination in identification of apical root-end cracks undetectable by unaided vision was similar to the combination method. However, the efficacy of 2% methylene blue without transillumination was significantly lower than the other two methodologies. PMID:23724218

  11. Effect of rock fragments on soil surface cracks development in Vertisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, L.; Mele, G.; Terribile, F.

    2012-04-01

    Coarse fragments influence many soil physical properties. Available studies that address the controversial role of rock fragments in soil functioning are often oriented to assess effects of their presence in relation to specific applicative problems like soil erosion or their influence in agricultural practices. Experimental research is mostly based on the evaluation of the effect of rock fragments cover on soil erosion and of coarse fragment content on water infiltration. Much less is known on the role of stones on the development of soil surface cracks, which in turn influence many other soil properties including thermal conductivity and preferential flows. Surface cracks are especially important in Vertisols where cracks occurrence, width and depth constitute diagnostic criteria for Vertisol identification and classification (e.g. WRB, Soil Taxonomy). This is because soil cracks largely affect land management. In this work we designed a lab experiment in order to evaluate the effect of rock fragments on surface cracks development of a Vertisol. Two concentrations of three different sizes of rock fragments (basaltic type) were mixed with the soil material after sieving and put in flowerpots having diameter of 15cm; then such samples have undergone nine wet/dry cycles. At the end digital images of sample surface were acquired and examined by image analysis. In particular the cracking density was measured by a skeletonization process and the mean width of cracks was determined through a mathematical morphology approach. Results showed that the surface cracking density increased with rock fragments concentration and decreased with the rock fragment size while the mean width of fractures increased with rock fragment size and decreased with rock fragments concentration.

  12. Clay with Desiccation Cracks is an Advection Dominated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Kurtzman, D.; Sher, Y.; Ronen, Z.; Dahan, O.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy clay sediments are regarded "safe" from the hydrological point of view due to their low hydraulic conductivities. However, the formation of desiccation cracks in dispersive clays may dramatically change their bulk hydraulic properties. The impact of desiccation cracks on water percolation, dissolved salts and contaminants transport and redox related reactions (microbial ammonium oxidation and denitrification) were investigated in 6 -12 m clay layer near a diary farm waste lagoon. The study implemented unique vadose-zone monitoring systems that enable in-situ measurements of the temporal variation of the sediment's water content along with frequent sampling of the sediment's pore water along the entire vadose zone (> 30 m). Results from four years of continuous measurements showed quick rises in sediment water content following rain events and temporal wastewater overflows. The percolation pattern indicated dominance of preferential flow through a desiccation-cracks network crossing the entire clay sediment layer. High water-propagation velocities (0.4 - 23.6 m h-1) were observed, indicating that the desiccation-crack network remains open and serves as a preferential flow pathway year-round, even at high sediment water content (~0.50 m3 m-3). The rapid percolation bypassed the most bio-geo-active parts of the soil, transporting even highly sorptive contaminants (testosterone and estrogen) in to the deep sections of the vadose zone, accelerating the underlying groundwater contamination. The ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the vadose zone and the high number of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria (~108 gene copies gdry-sediemt-1, each) found in the sediment indicated that the entire vadose zone is aerated even at high water content conditions (~0.55 m3 m-3). The dissolved salts concentration in the pore-water and the δ2H-H2O and δ18O-H2O values of the pore-water substantially increased with depth (becoming less depleted) in the clay sediment

  13. Laboratory Study of Crack Development and Crack Interaction in Concrete Blocks due to Swelling of Cracking Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frühwirt, Thomas; Plößer, Arne; Konietzky, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The main focus of this work was to investigate temporary and spatial features of crack development in concrete blocks due to the action of a swelling agent. A commercial available cement-based mortar which shows heavily swelling behaviour when hydrating is used to provide inside pressure in boreholes in conrete blocks and hence serves as cracking agent. As no data for the swelling behaviour of the cracking agent were available the maximum axial swelling stress and axial free swelling strain were determined experimentally. In a first series of tests on concrete blocks the influence of an external mechanical, unidirectional stress on the development-time and orientation of cracks has been investigated for a range of loading levels. The stress state in the blocks prepared with a single borehole was determined by a superposition of internal stresses caused by swelling pressure and external mechanical loading. For a second series of tests prismatic blocks with two boreholes where prepared. This test setup allowed to realize different orientation of boreholes with respect to the uniaxial loading direction. Complementary tests were done using the cracking agent in both, only one or none of the boreholes. Different modes of crack interaction and influence of filled or unfilled boreholes have been observed. Features of crack development showed significant sensitivity to external loading. Starting even at very low load levels crack orientation was primarely determined by the direction of the external load. Temporal change in crack development due to the different load levels was insignificant and no consistent conclusion could be drawn. Crack interaction phenomena only were observed with two boreholes orientated primarely in direction of the external loading. Even in these cases crack orientation was mainly determined by the external stress field and only locally influenced by other cracks or the unfilled borehole. The work provides us with an extensive catalogue of

  14. Noncontact measurement of guided ultrasonic wave scattering for fatigue crack characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, P.

    2013-04-01

    Fatigue cracks can develop in aerospace structures at locations of stress concentration such as fasteners. For the safe operation of the aircraft fatigue cracks need to be detected before reaching a critical length. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of fatigue cracks in large aerospace structures. Noncontact excitation of guided waves was achieved using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). The transducers were developed for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb mode. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a simple theoretical model was developed and reasonably good agreement with the measurements was achieved. However, the detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks depends on the location and orientation of the crack relative to the measurement locations. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the characteristic defect size to wavelength. The detailed angular dependency of the guided wave field scattered at crack-like defects in plate structures has been measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement with 3D Finite Element simulation predictions was achieved for machined part-through and through-thickness notches. The amplitude of the scattered wave was quantified for a variation of angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and the defect depth. These results provide the basis for the defect characterization in aerospace structures using guided wave sensors.

  15. Development of crack shape: LBB methodology for cracked pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, D.; Chapuliot, S.; Drubay, B.

    1997-04-01

    For structures like vessels or pipes containing a fluid, the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment requires to demonstrate that it is possible, during the lifetime of the component, to detect a rate of leakage due to a possible defect, the growth of which would result in a leak before-break of the component. This LBB assessment could be an important contribution to the overall structural integrity argument for many components. The aim of this paper is to review some practices used for LBB assessment and to describe how some new R & D results have been used to provide a simplified approach of fracture mechanics analysis and especially the evaluation of crack shape and size during the lifetime of the component.

  16. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics methodology for surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, Hugo A.; Lambert, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics Methodology has evolved significantly in the last several years. Nevertheless, some of these concepts need to be extended further before the whole methodology can be safely applied to structural parts. Specifically, there is a need to include the effect of constraint in the characterization of material resistance to crack growth and also to extend these methods to the case of 3D defects. As a consequence, this project was started as a 36 month research program with the general objective of developing an elastic plastic fracture mechanics methodology to assess the structural reliability of pressure vessels and other parts of interest to NASA which may contain flaws. The project is divided into three tasks that deal with (1) constraint and thickness effects, (2) three-dimensional cracks, and (3) the Leak-Before-Burst (LBB) criterion. This report period (March 1994 to August 1994) is a continuation of attempts to characterize three dimensional aspects of fracture present in 'two dimensional' or planar configuration specimens (Chapter Two), especially, the determination of, and use of, crack face separation data. Also, included, are a variety of fracture resistance testing results (J(m)R-curve format) and a discussion regarding two materials of NASA interest (6061-T651 Aluminum alloy and 1N718-STA1 nickel-base super alloy) involving a bases for like constraint in terms of ligament dimensions, and their comparison to the resulting J(m)R-curves (Chapter Two).

  17. The growth of small corrosion fatigue cracks in alloy 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1993-04-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 2024 is established. The damaging effect of salt water on the early stages of small crack growth is characterized by crack initiation at constituent particle pits, intergranular microcracking for a less than 100 micrometers, and transgranular small crack growth for a micrometer. In aqueous 1 percent NaCl and at a constant anodic potential of -700 mV(sub SCE), small cracks exhibit a factor of three increase in fatigue crack growth rates compared to laboratory air. Small cracks exhibit accelerated corrosion fatigue crack growth rates at low levels of delta-K (less than 1 MPa square root of m) below long crack delta-K (sub th). When exposed to Paris regime levels of crack tip stress intensity, small corrosion fatigue cracks exhibit growth rates similar to that observed for long cracks. Results suggest that crack closure effects influence the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates of small cracks (a less than or equal to 100 micrometers). This is evidenced by similar small and long crack growth behavior at various levels of R. Contrary to the corrosion fatigue characteristics of small cracks in high strength steels, no pronounced chemical crack length effect is observed for Al by 2024 exposed to salt water.

  18. The growth of small corrosion fatigue cracks in alloy 2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 2024 is established. The damaging effect of salt water on the early stages of small crack growth is characterized by crack initiation at constituent particle pits, intergranular microcracking for a less than 100 micrometers, and transgranular small crack growth for a micrometer. In aqueous 1 percent NaCl and at a constant anodic potential of -700 mV(sub SCE), small cracks exhibit a factor of three increase in fatigue crack growth rates compared to laboratory air. Small cracks exhibit accelerated corrosion fatigue crack growth rates at low levels of delta-K (less than 1 MPa square root of m) below long crack delta-K (sub th). When exposed to Paris regime levels of crack tip stress intensity, small corrosion fatigue cracks exhibit growth rates similar to that observed for long cracks. Results suggest that crack closure effects influence the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates of small cracks (a less than or equal to 100 micrometers). This is evidenced by similar small and long crack growth behavior at various levels of R. Contrary to the corrosion fatigue characteristics of small cracks in high strength steels, no pronounced chemical crack length effect is observed for Al by 2024 exposed to salt water.

  19. Effect of precrack halos on kic determined by the surface crack in flexure method. Final report, August 1995-May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Swab, J.J.; Quinn, G.D.

    1997-12-01

    The surface crack in flexure (SCF) method, which is used to determine the fracture toughness of dense ceramics necessitates the measurement of precrack sizes by fractographic examination. Stable crack extension may occur from flaws under ambient room-temperature conditions, even in the relatively short time under load during fast fracture strength or fracture toughness testing. In this paper, fractographic techniques are used to characterize evidence of stable crack extension, a halo, around Knoop indentation surface cracks. Optical examination of the fracture surfaces of a high-purity Al2O3, an AlN, a glass-ceramic, and a MgF2 revealed the presence of a halo around the periphery of each precrack. The halo in the AlN was merely an optical effect due to crack reorientation, while the halo in the MgF2 was due to indentation-induced residual stresses initiating crack growth. However, for the Al2O3 and the glass-ceramic, environmentally assisted slow crack growth (SCG) was the cause of the halo. In the latter two materials, this stable crack extension must be included as part of the critical crack size in order to determine the appropriate fracture toughness.

  20. Numerical Simulation of 3D Thermo-Elastic Fatigue Crack Growth Problems Using Coupled FE-EFG Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Himanshu; Singh, Akhilendra; Singh, Indra Vir

    2016-06-01

    In this work, finite element method (FEM) and element free Galerkin method (EFGM) are coupled for solving 3D crack domains subjected to cyclic thermal load of constant amplitude. Crack growth contours and fatigue life have been obtained for each of the considered numerical examples. Thermo-elastic problems are decoupled into thermal and elastic problems . Firstly, the unknown temperature field is obtained by solving heat conduction equation, then, it is used as the input load in the elastic problem to calculate the displacement and stress fields. The geometrical discontinuity across crack surface is modelled by extrinsically enriched EFGM and the remaining part of the domain is approximated by standard finite element method. At the crack interface, a ramp function based interpolation scheme has been implemented. This coupled approach combines the advantages of both EFGM and FEM. A linear successive crack increment approach is used to model crack growth. The growing crack surface is traced by level set function. Standard Paris law is used for life estimation of the three-dimensional crack models. Different cases of planar and non-planar crack problems have been solved and their results are compared with the results obtained using extended finite element method to check accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the coupled FE-EFG approach implemented in this study.

  1. A crack-closure model for predicting fatigue-crack growth under aircraft spectrum loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The development and application of an analytical model of cycle crack growth is presented that includes the effects of crack closure. The model was used to correlate crack growth rates under constant amplitude loading and to predict crack growth under aircraft spectrum loading on 2219-T851 aluminum alloy sheet material. The predicted crack growth lives agreed well with experimental data. The ratio of predicted to experimental lives ranged from 0.66 to 1.48. These predictions were made using data from an ASTM E24.06.01 Round Robin.

  2. Positioning Community Art Practices in Urban Cracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschelden, Griet; Van Eeghem, Elly; Steel, Riet; De Visscher, Sven; Dekeyrel, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the position of community art practices and the role of practitioners in urban cracks. Community art practices raise possibilities for a reconceptualisation of the concept of community and an extension of the concept of art in public space. Urban cracks are conceptualised as spatial, temporal and relational manifestations of…

  3. Crack propagation directions in unfilled resins.

    PubMed

    Baran, G; Sadeghipour, K; Jayaraman, S; Silage, D; Paul, D; Boberick, K

    1998-11-01

    Posterior composite restorative materials undergo accelerated wear in the occlusal contact area, primarily through a fatigue mechanism. To facilitate the timely development of new and improved materials, a predictive wear model is desirable. The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model enabling investigators to predict crack propagation directions in resins used as the matrix material in composites, and to verify these predictions by observing cracks formed during the pin-on-disc wear of a 60:40 BISGMA:TEGDMA resin and an EBPADMA resin. Laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to measure crack locations. Finite element studies were done by means of ABAQUS software, modeling a cylinder sliding on a material with pre-existing surface-breaking cracks. Variables included modulus, cylinder/material friction coefficient, crack face friction, and yield behavior. Experimental results were surprising, since most crack directions were opposite previously published observations. The majority of surface cracks, though initially orthogonal to the surface, changed direction to run 20 to 30 degrees from the horizontal in the direction of indenter movement. Finite element modeling established the importance of subsurface shear stresses, since calculations provided evidence that cracks propagate in the direction of maximum K(II)(theta), in the same direction as the motion of the indenter, and at an angle of approximately 20 degrees. These findings provide the foundation for a predictive model of sliding wear in unfilled glassy resins.

  4. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  5. Preventing Cracks in Silicon-Reactor Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1987-01-01

    Correct placement helps prevent contamination while eliminating crack-causing deposits. Repositioning quartz liner in silicon fluidized-bed reactor prevents cracking of liner when cools. Liner protects stainless-steel walls of reactor from abrasion by particles in fluidized bed. Prevents contamination of newly formed silicon by material abraded from wall and ensures high-quality product.

  6. Helping Crack-Affected Children Succeed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Mary Bellis

    1993-01-01

    Crack-affected children who experience early intervention can be mainstreamed successfully into regular classes. These children can be overwhelmed by stimuli and need stability, routine, and sameness in the intervention classroom. Teachers have discovered effective methods for working with crack-affected children. (16 references) (MLF)

  7. Characterization of crack growth under combined loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, A.; Smith, F. W.; Holston, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Room-temperature static and cyclic tests were made on 21 aluminum plates in the shape of a 91.4x91.4-cm Maltese cross with 45 deg flaws to develop crack growth and fracture toughness data under mixed-mode conditions. During cyclic testing, it was impossible to maintain a high proportion of shear-mode deformation on the crack tips. Cracks either branched or turned. Under static loading, cracks remained straight if shear stress intensity exceeded normal stress intensity. Mixed-mode crack growth rate data compared reasonably well with published single-mode data, and measured crack displacements agreed with the straight and branched crack analyses. Values of critical strain energy release rate at fracture for pure shear were approximately 50% higher than for pure normal opening, and there was a large reduction in normal stress intensity at fracture in the presence of high shear stress intensity. Net section stresses were well into the inelastic range when fracture occurred under high shear on the cracks.

  8. Inspection of magnetic tile internal cracks based on impact acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Luofeng; Huang, Qinyuan; Zhao, Yue; Yin, Guofu

    2015-04-01

    An automatic system is developed for internal cracks detection in magnetic tiles based on the impact acoustics, using wavelet packet transform (WPT), principal component analysis (PCA) and hidden Markov model (HMM). In this system, the detecting device is considered as core part to collect and analyse the impact sounds. The original impact sounds are first decomposed up to six levels based on WPT to extract the features. PCA is then performed for dimension reduction and clustering analysis. By adopting the features extracted based on WPT and optimised by PCA as inputs, an HHM classifier is developed for automatic inspection. The results of classification show that the accuracy rate is 100%, demonstrating that the system has significant potential in detecting magnetic tile internal cracks.

  9. Stress analysis for structures with surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Two basic forms of analysis, one treating stresses around arbitrarily loaded circular cracks, the other treating stresses due to loads arbitrarily distributed on the surface of a half space, are united by a boundary-point least squares method to obtain analyses for stresses from surface cracks in places or bars. Calculations were for enough cases to show how effects from the crack vary with the depth-to-length ratio, the fractional penetration ratio, the obliquity of the load, and to some extent the fractional span ratio. The results include plots showing stress intensity factors, stress component distributions near the crack, and crack opening displacement patterns. Favorable comparisons are shown with two kinds of independent experiments, but the main method for confirming the results is by wide checking of overall satisfaction of boundary conditions, so that external confirmation is not essential. Principles involved in designing analyses which promote dependability of the results are proposed and illustrated.

  10. Fatigue crack growth automated testing method

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, P.W.; VanDenAvyle, J.A.; Laing, J.

    1989-06-01

    A computer controlled servo-hydraulic mechanical test system has been configured to conduct automated fatigue crack growth testing. This provides two major benefits: it allows continuous cycling of specimens without operator attention over evenings and weekends; and complex load histories, including random loading and spectrum loading, can be applied to the specimens to simulate cyclic loading of engineering structures. The software is written in MTS Multi-User Basic to control test machine output and acquire data at predetermined intervals. Compact tension specimens are cycled according to ASTM specification E647-86. Fatigue crack growth is measured via specimen compliance during the test using a compliance/crack length calibration determined earlier by visual crack length measurements. This setup was used to measure crack growth rates in 6063 aluminum alloy for a variety of cyclic loadings, including spectrum loads. Data collected compared well with tests run manually. 13 figs.

  11. Method of continuously determining crack length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakaran, Ramamurthy (Inventor); Lopez, Osvaldo F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The determination of crack lengths in an accurate and straight forward manner is very useful in studying and preventing load created flaws and cracks. A crack length sensor according to the present invention is fabricated in a rectangular or other geometrical form from a conductive powder impregnated polymer material. The long edges of the sensor are silver painted on both sides and the sensor is then bonded to a test specimen via an adhesive having sufficient thickness to also serve as an insulator. A lead wire is connected to each of the two outwardly facing silver painted edges. The resistance across the sensor changes as a function of the crack length in the specimen and sensor. The novel aspect of the present invention includes the use of relatively uncomplicated sensors and instrumentation to effectively measure the length of generated cracks.

  12. Strain rate effects in stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Parkins, R.N. . Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)

    1990-03-01

    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why strain rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic strain provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow strain tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that strain or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.

  13. Fracture toughness and crack growth of Zerodur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viens, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The fracture toughness and crack growth parameters of Zerodur, a low expansion glass ceramic material, were determined. The fracture toughness was determined using indentation techniques and was found to be 0.9 MPa x m(sup 1/2). The crack growth parameters were determined using indented biaxial specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading in an aqueous environment. The crack growth parameters n and 1n(B) were found to be 30.7 and -6.837, respectively. The crack growth parameters were also determined using indented biaxial specimens subjected to dynamic loading in an ambient 50 percent relative humidity environment. The crack growth parameters n and 1n(B) at 50 percent relative humidity were found to be 59.3 and -17.51, respectively.

  14. Crack tip field and fatigue crack growth in general yielding and low cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fatigue life consists of crack nucleation and crack propagation periods. Fatigue crack nucleation period is shorter relative to the propagation period at higher stresses. Crack nucleation period of low cycle fatigue might even be shortened by material and fabrication defects and by environmental attack. In these cases, fatigue life is largely crack propagation period. The characteristic crack tip field was studied by the finite element method, and the crack tip field is related to the far field parameters: the deformation work density, and the product of applied stress and applied strain. The cyclic carck growth rates in specimens in general yielding as measured by Solomon are analyzed in terms of J-integral. A generalized crack behavior in terms of delta is developed. The relations between J and the far field parameters and the relation for the general cyclic crack growth behavior are used to analyze fatigue lives of specimens under general-yielding cyclic-load. Fatigue life is related to the applied stress and strain ranges, the deformation work density, crack nucleus size, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth threshold, Young's modulus, and the cyclic yield stress and strain. The fatigue lives of two aluminum alloys correlate well with the deformation work density as depicted by the derived theory. The general relation is reduced to Coffin-Manson low cycle fatigue law in the high strain region.

  15. Crack shape developments and leak rates for circumferential complex-cracked pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M.

    1997-04-01

    A computerized procedure has been developed that predicts the growth of an initial circumferential surface crack through a pipe and further on to failure. The crack growth mechanism can either be fatigue or stress corrosion. Consideration is taken to complex crack shapes and for the through-wall cracks, crack opening areas and leak rates are also calculated. The procedure is based on a large number of three-dimensional finite element calculations of cracked pipes. The results from these calculations are stored in a database from which the PC-program, denoted LBBPIPE, reads all necessary information. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is presented for cracked pipes subjected to both stress corrosion and vibration fatigue.

  16. Environmental stress cracking of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, K. I.

    1980-01-01

    A two point bending method for use in studying the environmental stress cracking and crazing phenomena is described and demonstrated for a variety of polymer/solvent systems. Critical strain values obtained from these curves are reported for various polymer/solvent systems including a considerable number of systems for which critical strain values have not been previously reported. Polymers studied using this technique include polycarbonate (PC), ABS, high impact styrene (HIS), polyphenylene oxide (PPO), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Critical strain values obtained using this method compared favorably with available existing data. The major advantage of the technique is the ability to obtain time vs. strain curves over a short period of time. The data obtained suggests that over a short period of time the transition in most of the polymer solvent systems is more gradual than previously believed.

  17. Investigating Reaction-Driven Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.; Savage, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many metamorphic reactions lead to large volume changes, and potentially to reaction-driven cracking [1,2]. Large-scale hydration of mantle peridotite to produce serpentine or talc is invoked to explain the rheology of plate boundaries, the nature of earthquakes, and the seismic properties of slow-spread ocean crust and the 'mantle wedge' above subduction zones. Carbonation of peridotite may be an important sink in the global carbon cycle. Zones of 100% magnesite + quartz replacing peridotite, up to 200 m thick, formed where oceanic mantle was thrust over carbonate-bearing metasediments in Oman. Talc + carbonate is an important component of the matrix in subduction mélanges at Santa Catalina Island , California, and the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, Japan. Engineered systems to emulate natural mineral carbonation could provide relatively inexpensive CO2 capture and storage [3]. More generally, engineered reaction-driven cracking could supplement or replace hydraulic fracture in geothermal systems, solution mining, and extraction of tight oil and gas. The controls on reaction-driven cracking are poorly understood. Hydration and carbonation reactions can be self-limiting, since they potentially reduce permeability and armor reactive surfaces [4]. Also, in some cases, hydration or carbonation may take place at constant volume. Small changes in volume due to precipitation of solid products increases stress, destabilizing solid reactants, until precipitation and dissolution rates become equal at a steady state stress [5]. In a third case, volume change due to precipitation of solid products causes brittle failure. This has been invoked on qualitative grounds to explain, e.g., complete serpentinization of mantle peridotite [6]. Below ~ 300°C, the available potential energy for hydration and carbonation of olivine could produce stresses of 100's of MPa [2], sufficient to fracture rocks to 10 km depth or more, causing brittle failure below the steady state stress required

  18. An Experimental Study of Penny-shaped Fluid-driven Cracks in an Elastic Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    When a pressurized fluid is injected into an elastic matrix, the fluid generates a fracture that grows along a plane and forms a fluid-filled disc-like shape. For example, such problems occur in various natural and industrial applications involving the subsurface of Earth, such as hydraulic fracturing operations. We report a laboratory study of such a fluid-driven crack in a gelatin matrix, study the crack shape as a function of time, and investigate the influence of different experimental parameters such as the injection flow rate, Young's modulus of the matrix, and fluid viscosity. We find that the crack radius increases with time as a power law, which has been predicted both for the limit where viscous effects in the flow along the crack opening control the rate of crack propagation, as well as the limit where fracture toughness controls crack propagation. We vary experimental parameters to probe the physical limits and highlight that for our typical parameters both effects can be significant. Also, we measure the time evolution of crack shape, which has not been studied before. The rescaled crack shapes collapse at longer times, based on an appropriate scaling argument, and again we compare the scaling arguments in different physical limits. The gelatin system provides a useful laboratory model for further studies of fluid-driven cracks, some of which we will mention as they are inspired by the physics of hydraulic fracturing. This work is part of the PhD thesis of Ching-Yao Lai and is a collaboration with Drs. Zhong Zheng and Jason Wexler (Princeton University) and Professor Emilie Dressaire (NYU). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

  19. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-02-18

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components.

  20. Influence of environment on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steel.

    PubMed

    Schönbauer, Bernd M; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, the influence of different environments on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steam turbine blade steel is investigated. Fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) in the near threshold regime are measured with ultrasonic fatigue testing technique. Fatigue tests are performed in vacuum, air and different aqueous environments with defined chloride and oxygen content. Furthermore, the influence of different stress ratios is investigated. It is found that crack propagation is not necessarily enhanced with increasing corrosiveness. In the aqueous environments, the FCGRs below 10⁻⁸ m/cycle are lower than in air. The threshold stress intensity factor ranges are higher or equal. Observation of the fracture surfaces shows oxide formation and partly intergranular fracture for specimens tested in aqueous environments. Crack closure effects seem to be responsible for this unexpected behaviour. PMID:23490013

  1. Analysis of fatigue, fatique-crack propagation, and fracture data. [design of metallic aerospace structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaske, C. E.; Feddersen, C. E.; Davies, K. B.; Rice, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical methods have been developed for consolidation of fatigue, fatigue-crack propagation, and fracture data for use in design of metallic aerospace structural components. To evaluate these methods, a comprehensive file of data on 2024 and 7075 aluminums, Ti-6A1-4V, and 300M and D6Ac steels was established. Data were obtained from both published literature and unpublished reports furnished by aerospace companies. Fatigue and fatigue-crack-propagation analyses were restricted to information obtained from constant-amplitude load or strain cycling of specimens in air at room temperature. Fracture toughness data were from tests of center-cracked tension panels, part-through crack specimens, and compact-tension specimens.

  2. Influence of environment on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steel.

    PubMed

    Schönbauer, Bernd M; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, the influence of different environments on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steam turbine blade steel is investigated. Fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) in the near threshold regime are measured with ultrasonic fatigue testing technique. Fatigue tests are performed in vacuum, air and different aqueous environments with defined chloride and oxygen content. Furthermore, the influence of different stress ratios is investigated. It is found that crack propagation is not necessarily enhanced with increasing corrosiveness. In the aqueous environments, the FCGRs below 10⁻⁸ m/cycle are lower than in air. The threshold stress intensity factor ranges are higher or equal. Observation of the fracture surfaces shows oxide formation and partly intergranular fracture for specimens tested in aqueous environments. Crack closure effects seem to be responsible for this unexpected behaviour.

  3. How cracks are hot and cool: a burning issue for paper.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Renaud; Lengliné, Olivier; Santucci, Stéphane; Vincent-Dospital, Tom; Naert-Guillot, Muriel; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2016-07-01

    Material failure is accompanied by important heat exchange, with extremely high temperature - thousands of degrees - reached at crack tips. Such a temperature may subsequently alter the mechanical properties of stressed solids, and finally facilitate their rupture. Thermal runaway weakening processes could indeed explain stick-slip motions and even be responsible for deep earthquakes. Therefore, to better understand catastrophic rupture events, it appears crucial to establish an accurate energy budget of fracture propagation from a clear measure of various energy dissipation sources. In this work, combining analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we directly relate the temperature field around a moving crack tip to the part α of mechanical energy converted into heat. By monitoring the slow crack growth in paper sheets using an infrared camera, we measure a significant fraction α = 12% ± 4%. Besides, we show that (self-generated) heat accumulation could weaken our samples by microfiber combustion, and lead to a fast crack/dynamic failure/regime. PMID:27240655

  4. Analysis Of Potentiometric Methods Used For Crack Detection In Forging Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilc, Jozef; Drbúl, Mário; Stančeková, Dana; Varga, Daniel; Martinček, Juraj; Kuždák, Viktor

    2015-12-01

    Increased use of forging tools in mass production causes their increased wear and creates pressure to design more efficient renovation process. Renovation is complicated because of the identification of cracks expanding from the surface to the core material. Given that the production of forging tools is expensive, caused by the cost of tool steels and the thermo-chemical treatment, it is important to design forging tool with its easy renovation in mind. It is important to choose the right renovation technology, which will be able to restore the instrument to its original state while maintaining financial rentability. Choosing the right technology is difficult because of nitrided and heat-treated surface for high hardness and wear resistance. Article discusses the use of non-destructive method of detecting cracks taking into account the size of the cracks formed during working process.

  5. Magnetic Carpet Probe for Large Area Instant Crack/Corrosion Detection and Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yushi; Ouyang Tianhe; Yang Xinle; Zhu Haiou

    2007-03-21

    Recently a new NDE tool, Magnet Carpet Probe (MCP), has been developed by Innovative Materials Testing Technologies, Inc. supported by FAA to meet the demands of large area crack/corrosion detection and health monitoring. MCP is a two-dimensional coil array built on a piece of very thin flexible printed circuit board. A two-dimensional electromagnetic scan is going on within the MCP placed on top of a metallic surface under inspection. Therefore, one can finish the inspection, without moving anything, and see the crack/corrosion identification image on the instrument screen in a few second. Recent test results show that it can detect 0.030 x 0.016'' EDM notches on a Titanium standard; 0.024'' {approx} 0.036: real cracks on titanium standards, as well as penetrate through a 0.040'' aluminum layer for corrosion detection.

  6. Fatigue-crack monitoring in-flight using acoustic emission - hardware, technique, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, P.H.; Skorpik, J.R.; Lemon, D.K.

    1981-07-01

    The three programs described represent a logical evolutionary process toward effective flaw surveillance in aircraft using AE. The Macchi tests showed that an AE system can withstand extended in-flight service and collect meaningful information relative to fatigue crack growth at a single specific location. The MIrage aircraft work seeks to extend the methods demonstrated on the Macchi into a more complex circumstance. We are now attempting to detect and locate crack growth at any of twenty fastener locations in a relatively complex geometry. The DARPA pattern recognition program seeks to develop signal identification capability that would pave the way for general monitoring of aircraft structures using AE to detect fatigue crack growth. It appears that AE technology may be capable of enhancing aircraft safety assurance while reducing inspection requirements with the associated costs.

  7. Analysis of surface cracks at hole by a 3-D weight function method with stresses from finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, W.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Sutton, M. A.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Wu, X. R.

    1995-01-01

    Parallel with the work in Part-1, stress intensity factors for semi-elliptical surface cracks emanating from a circular hole are determined. The 3-D weight function method with the 3D finite element solutions for the uncracked stress distribution as in Part-1 is used for the analysis. Two different loading conditions, i.e. remote tension and wedge loading, are considered for a wide range in geometrical parameters. Both single and double surface cracks are studied and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Typical crack opening displacements are also provided.

  8. Augmented finite-element method for arbitrary cracking and crack interaction in solids under thermo-mechanical loadings.

    PubMed

    Jung, J; Do, B C; Yang, Q D

    2016-07-13

    In this paper, a thermal-mechanical augmented finite-element method (TM-AFEM) has been proposed, implemented and validated for steady-state and transient, coupled thermal-mechanical analyses of complex materials with explicit consideration of arbitrary evolving cracks. The method permits the derivation of explicit, fully condensed thermal-mechanical equilibrium equations which are of mathematical exactness in the piece-wise linear sense. The method has been implemented with a 4-node quadrilateral two-dimensional (2D) element and a 4-node tetrahedron three-dimensional (3D) element. It has been demonstrated, through several numerical examples that the new TM-AFEM can provide significantly improved numerical accuracy and efficiency when dealing with crack propagation problems in 2D and 3D solids under coupled thermal-mechanical loading conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242303

  9. Atomic simulation of fatigue crack propagation in Ni3Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Xiao, Shifang; Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, Wangyu

    2015-03-01

    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of Ni3Al was studied using molecular dynamics simulation at room temperature. The simulation results showed that the deformation mechanisms and the crack propagation path were significantly influenced by the orientation of initial crack. The formation process of slip bands around the crack tip was investigated in various cracks and indicated that the slip bands were able to hinder the initiation and propagation of cracks. Besides, the crack growth rate was also calculated by the Paris equation, and the results revealed that the crack growth rate increased with the increasing stress intensity factor range.

  10. A comparison of stress in cracked fibrous tissue specimens with varied crack location, loading, and orientation using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, John M; Elliott, Dawn M

    2016-04-01

    Cracks in fibrous soft tissue, such as intervertebral disc annulus fibrosus and knee meniscus, cause pain and compromise joint mechanics. A crack concentrates stress at its tip, making further failure and crack extension (fracture) more likely. Ex vivo mechanical testing is an important tool for studying the loading conditions required for crack extension, but prior work has shown that it is difficult to reproduce crack extension. Most prior work used edge crack specimens in uniaxial tension, with the crack 90° to the edge of the specimen. This configuration does not necessarily represent the loading conditions that cause in vivo crack extension. To find a potentially better choice for experiments aiming to reproduce crack extension, we used finite element analysis to compare, in factorial combination, (1) center crack vs. edge crack location, (2) biaxial vs. uniaxial loading, and (3) crack-fiber angles ranging from 0° to 90°. The simulated material was annulus fibrosus fibrocartilage with a single fiber family. We hypothesized that one of the simulated test cases would produce a stronger stress concentration than the commonly used uniaxially loaded 90° crack-fiber angle edge crack case. Stress concentrations were compared between cases in terms of fiber-parallel stress (representing risk of fiber rupture), fiber-perpendicular stress (representing risk of matrix rupture), and fiber shear stress (representing risk of fiber sliding). Fiber-perpendicular stress and fiber shear stress concentrations were greatest in edge crack specimens (of any crack-fiber angle) and center crack specimens with a 90° crack-fiber angle. However, unless the crack is parallel to the fiber direction, these stress components alone are insufficient to cause crack opening and extension. Fiber-parallel stress concentrations were greatest in center crack specimens with a 45° crack-fiber angle, either biaxially or uniaxially loaded. We therefore recommend that the 45° center crack case be

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of phosphorus(v) pesticides. Part I. Chemical shifts of protons as a means of identification of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Babad, H.; Herbert, W.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1968-01-01

    Correlations of structural and proton chemical-hift data for 40 commercial phosphorus(V) pesticides are reported. Correlations of structure with the phosphorus coupling constants are discussed, and general trends are noted which aid in the use of NMR as a tool for identification and analysis of phosphorus(V) compounds. ?? 1968.

  12. The non-contact detection and identification of blood stained fingerprints using visible wavelength hyperspectral imaging: Part II effectiveness on a range of substrates.

    PubMed

    Cadd, Samuel; Li, Bo; Beveridge, Peter; O'Hare, William T; Campbell, Andrew; Islam, Meez

    2016-05-01

    Biological samples, such as blood, are regularly encountered at violent crime scenes and successful identification is critical for criminal investigations. Blood is one of the most commonly encountered fingerprint contaminants and current identification methods involve presumptive tests or wet chemical enhancement. These are destructive however; can affect subsequent DNA sampling; and do not confirm the presence of blood, meaning they are susceptible to false positives. A novel application of visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been used for the non-contact, non-destructive detection and identification of blood stained fingerprints across a range of coloured substrates of varying porosities. The identification of blood was based on the Soret γ band absorption of haemoglobin between 400 nm and 500 nm. Ridge detail was successfully visualised to the third depletion across light coloured substrates and the stain detected to the tenth depletion on both porous and non-porous substrates. A higher resolution setup for blood stained fingerprints on black tiles, detected ridge detail to the third depletion and the stain to the tenth depletion, demonstrating considerable advancements from previous work. Diluted blood stains at 1500 and 1000 fold dilutions for wet and dry stains respectively were also detected on pig skin as a replica for human skin.

  13. The non-contact detection and identification of blood stained fingerprints using visible wavelength hyperspectral imaging: Part II effectiveness on a range of substrates.

    PubMed

    Cadd, Samuel; Li, Bo; Beveridge, Peter; O'Hare, William T; Campbell, Andrew; Islam, Meez

    2016-05-01

    Biological samples, such as blood, are regularly encountered at violent crime scenes and successful identification is critical for criminal investigations. Blood is one of the most commonly encountered fingerprint contaminants and current identification methods involve presumptive tests or wet chemical enhancement. These are destructive however; can affect subsequent DNA sampling; and do not confirm the presence of blood, meaning they are susceptible to false positives. A novel application of visible wavelength reflectance hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been used for the non-contact, non-destructive detection and identification of blood stained fingerprints across a range of coloured substrates of varying porosities. The identification of blood was based on the Soret γ band absorption of haemoglobin between 400 nm and 500 nm. Ridge detail was successfully visualised to the third depletion across light coloured substrates and the stain detected to the tenth depletion on both porous and non-porous substrates. A higher resolution setup for blood stained fingerprints on black tiles, detected ridge detail to the third depletion and the stain to the tenth depletion, demonstrating considerable advancements from previous work. Diluted blood stains at 1500 and 1000 fold dilutions for wet and dry stains respectively were also detected on pig skin as a replica for human skin. PMID:27162017

  14. Quality of Care Is Improved by Rapid Short Incubation MALDI-ToF Identification from Blood Cultures as Measured by Reduced Length of Stay and Patient Outcomes as Part of a Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Bacteremia in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Amanda; Schaus, David

    2016-01-01

    the patients where the empirical therapy was considered to be optimal were similar with respect to length of stay; 13.04 and 10.93 days (p = 0.34). In the 2012 group there was a significant increase in the length of stay in the group needing change in excess of 30 days (p = 0.02) compared to the group where empirical therapy was considered to be optimal, this clearly showed an improvement in the quality of care received after the rapid identification was instituted in 2014. The 2012 group had a four times overall increased sepsis associated mortality risk compared to the 2014 group and when empirical antibiotics needed to be optimized this risk was 7 times compared to the 2014 group. We conclude that rapid identification of bacterial pathogens in pediatric blood cultures with a rapid incubation MALDI-TOF identification protocol plays an important role in improving quality of care as part of a multidisciplinary approach to pediatric bacteremia and sepsis. PMID:27513860

  15. Quality of Care Is Improved by Rapid Short Incubation MALDI-ToF Identification from Blood Cultures as Measured by Reduced Length of Stay and Patient Outcomes as Part of a Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Bacteremia in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Delport, Johannes A; Strikwerda, Arend; Armstrong, Amanda; Schaus, David; John, Michael

    2016-01-01

    patients where the empirical therapy was considered to be optimal were similar with respect to length of stay; 13.04 and 10.93 days (p = 0.34). In the 2012 group there was a significant increase in the length of stay in the group needing change in excess of 30 days (p = 0.02) compared to the group where empirical therapy was considered to be optimal, this clearly showed an improvement in the quality of care received after the rapid identification was instituted in 2014. The 2012 group had a four times overall increased sepsis associated mortality risk compared to the 2014 group and when empirical antibiotics needed to be optimized this risk was 7 times compared to the 2014 group. We conclude that rapid identification of bacterial pathogens in pediatric blood cultures with a rapid incubation MALDI-TOF identification protocol plays an important role in improving quality of care as part of a multidisciplinary approach to pediatric bacteremia and sepsis. PMID:27513860

  16. Subcritical crack growth in two titanium alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of subcritical crack growth during static loading of precracked titanium alloys in salt water using samples too thin for plane strain loading to predominate was examined as a method for determining the critical stress intensity for crack propagation in salt water. Significant internal crack growth followed by arrest was found at quite low stress intensities, but crack growth rates were relatively low. Assuming these techniques provided a reliable measurement of the critical stress intensity, the value for annealed Ti-4Al-1.5Mo-0.5V alloy was apparently about 35 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power, while that for annealed Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V was below 45 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power. Crack growth was also observed in tests conducted in both alloys in an air environment. At 65 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power, the extent of crack growth was greater in air than in salt water. Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V showed arrested crack growth in air at a stress intensity of 45 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power.

  17. Lattice theory of three-dimensional cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esterling, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of the stability of a three-dimensional crack is analyzed within a lattice-statics approximation. The consequence of introducing a jog into the crack face as well as the effects of various nonlinear-force laws are studied. The phenomenon of lattice trapping (upper and lower bounds on the applied stress for an equilibrium crack of given length) is again obtained. It is possible to obtain some physical insight into which aspects of the force law are critical for crack stability. In particular, the inadequacy of a thermodynamic approach - which relates the critical stress to a surface energy corresponding to the area under the cohesive-force-vs-displacement curve - is demonstrated. Surface energy is a global property of the cohesive-force law. Crack stability is sensitive to much more refined aspects of the cohesive-force law. Crack healing is sensitive to the long-range portion of the cohesive force. Crack expansion is sensitive to the position of the maximum in the cohesive-force relation.

  18. Crack-closure and crack-growth measurements in surface-flawed titanium alloy Ti6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1975-01-01

    The crack-closure and crack-growth characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were determined experimentally on surface-flawed plate specimens. Under cyclic loading from zero to tension, cracks deeper than 1 mm opened at approximately 50 percent of the maximum load. Cracks shallower than 1 mm opened at higher loads. The correlation between crack-growth rate and the total stress-intensity range showed a lower threshold behavior. This behavior was attributed to the high crack-opening loads at short cracks because the lower threshold was much less evident in correlations between the crack-growth rates and the effective stress-intensity range.

  19. A finite element analysis of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments have shown that fatigue cracks close at positive loads during constant-amplitude load cycling. The crack-closure phenomenon is caused by residual plastic deformations remaining in the wake of an advancing crack tip. The present paper is concerned with the application of a two-dimensional, nonlinear, finite-element analysis for predicting crack-closure and crack-opening stresses during cyclic loading. A two-dimensional finite-element computer program, which accounts for both elastic-plastic material behavior and changing boundary conditions associated with crack extension and intermittent contact of the crack surfaces under cyclic loading, has been developed. An efficient technique to account for changing boundary conditions was also incorporated into the nonlinear analysis program. This program was subsequently used to study crack extension and crack closure under constant-amplitude and two-level block loading. The calculated crack-closure and crack-opening stresses were qualitatively consistent with experimental observations.

  20. The fracture mechanics of fatigue crack propagation in compact bone.

    PubMed

    Wright, T M; Hayes, W C

    1976-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to apply the techniques of fracture mechanics to a study of fatigue crack propagation in compact bone. Small cracks parallel to the long axis of the bone were initiated in standardized specimens of bovine bone. Crack growth was achieved by cyclically loading these specimens. The rate of crack growth was determined from measurements of crack length versus cycles of loading. The stress intensity factor at the tip of the crack was calculated from knowledge of the applied load, the crack length, and the specimen geometry. A strong correlation was found between the experimentally determined crack growth rate and the applied stress intensity. The relationship takes the form of a power law similar to that for other materials. Visual observation and scanning electron microscopy revealed that crack propagation occurred by initiation of subcritical cracks ahead of the main crack.

  1. Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1993-12-01

    Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

  2. Crack Growth Properties of Sealing Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Tandon, R.

    2008-01-01

    The crack growth properties of several sealing glasses were measured using constant stress rate testing in 2% and 95% RH (relative humidity). Crack growth parameters measured in high humidity are systematically smaller (n and B) than those measured in low humidity, and velocities for dry environments are approx. 100x lower than for wet environments. The crack velocity is very sensitivity to small changes in RH at low RH. Confidence intervals on parameters that were estimated from propagation of errors were comparable to those from Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Reconstruction of complex cracks by exterior measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutitskii, Pavel; Liu, Jijun; Sini, Mourad

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we deal with the acoustic inverse scattering problem for reconstructing complex cracks from the far field map, which models the diffraction of waves by thin two-sided cylindrical screens. A complex crack is characterized by its shape, the type of boundary data and the boundary coefficients (surface impedance). We give explicit formulas which can be used to reconstruct the shape of the crack, distinguish its type of boundary conditions and reconstruct the possible material coefficients on it by using the far-field map. Some numerical examples are also presented. Similar results could be given using near field measurements.

  4. TEM observations of crack tip: cavity interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.A.; Ohr, S.M.; Jesser, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Crack tip-cavity interactions have been studied by performing room temperature deformation experiments in a transmission electron microscope on ion-irradiated type 316 stainless steel with small helium containing cavities. Slip dislocations emitted from a crack tip cut, sheared, and thereby elongated cavities without a volume enlargement. As the crack tip approached, a cavity volume enlargement occurred. Instead of the cavities continuing to enlarge until they touch, the walls between the cavities fractured. Fracture surface dimples do not correlate in size or density with these enlarged cavities.

  5. MECHANICS OF CRACK BRIDGING UNDER DYNAMIC LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    N. SRIDHAR; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    A bridging law for fiber reinforced composites under dynamic crack propagation conditions has been derived. Inertial effects in the mechanism of fiber pullout during dynamic propagation of a bridged crack are critically examined for the first time. By reposing simple shear lag models of pullout as problems of dynamic wave propagation, the effect of the frictional coupling between the fibers and the matrix is accounted for in a fairly straightforward way. The solutions yield the time-dependent relationship between the crack opening displacement and the bridging traction. Engineering criteria and the role of material and geometrical parameters for significant inertial effects are identified.

  6. Ignition characteristics of cracked JP-7 fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, Puneesh; Ma, Fuhua; Choi, Jeong-Yeol; Yang, Vigor

    2005-09-01

    The ignition characteristics of cracked JP-7 fuel with both oxygen and air is studied over a wide range of pressures (1-20 atm), temperatures (1200-2000 K), and equivalence ratios (0.5-1.5). Correlations of ignition delay times, of the form t=Aexp(E/RT)[F]a[O2]b, are established using the Chemkin-II package and least-squares analysis. The effect of C3 hydrocarbons in cracked JP-7 fuel is examined by comparing ignition delay times for two different cracked compositions.

  7. Slow crack growth in spinel in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantes, S.; Elber, W.

    1983-01-01

    Magnesium aluminate spinel was tested in a water environment at room temperature to establish its slow crack-growth behavior. Ring specimens with artificial flaws on the outside surface were loaded hydraulically on the inside surface. The time to failure was measured. Various precracking techniques were evaluated and multiple precracks were used to minimize the scatter in the static fatigue tests. Statistical analysis techniques were developed to determine the strength and crack velocities for a single flaw. Slow crack-growth rupture was observed at stress intensities as low as 70 percent of K sub c. A strengthening effect was observed in specimens that had survived long-time static fatigue tests.

  8. Recent developments in analysis of crack propagation and fracture of practical materials. [stress analysis in aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardrath, H. F.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Elber, W.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The limitations of linear elastic fracture mechanics in aircraft design and in the study of fatigue crack propagation in aircraft structures are discussed. NASA-Langley research to extend the capabilities of fracture mechanics to predict the maximum load that can be carried by a cracked part and to deal with aircraft design problems are reported. Achievements include: (1) improved stress intensity solutions for laboratory specimens; (2) fracture criterion for practical materials; (3) crack propagation predictions that account for mean stress and high maximum stress effects; (4) crack propagation predictions for variable amplitude loading; and (5) the prediction of crack growth and residual stress in built-up structural assemblies. These capabilities are incorporated into a first generation computerized analysis that allows for damage tolerance and tradeoffs with other disciplines to produce efficient designs that meet current airworthiness requirements.

  9. Guided waves based diagnostic imaging of circumferential cracks in small-diameter pipe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehai; Wu, Zhanjun; Jiang, Youqiang; Wang, Yishou; Zhou, Kai; Chen, Yingpu

    2016-02-01

    To improve the safety and reliability of pipeline structures, much work has been done using ultrasonic guided waves methods for pipe inspection. Though good for evaluating the defects in the pipes, most of the methods lack the capability to precisely identify the defects in the pipe features like welds or supports. Therefore, a novel guided wave based cross-sectional diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed to improve the ability of circumferential cracks identification in the pipe features. To ensure the accuracy of the imaging, an angular profile-based frequency selection method is presented. As validation, the approach was employed to identify the presence and location of a small circumferential crack with 1.13% cross sectional area (CSA) in the welding zone of a 48 mm diameter type 304 stainless steel pipe. Accurate identification results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed approach.

  10. Guided waves based diagnostic imaging of circumferential cracks in small-diameter pipe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehai; Wu, Zhanjun; Jiang, Youqiang; Wang, Yishou; Zhou, Kai; Chen, Yingpu

    2016-02-01

    To improve the safety and reliability of pipeline structures, much work has been done using ultrasonic guided waves methods for pipe inspection. Though good for evaluating the defects in the pipes, most of the methods lack the capability to precisely identify the defects in the pipe features like welds or supports. Therefore, a novel guided wave based cross-sectional diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed to improve the ability of circumferential cracks identification in the pipe features. To ensure the accuracy of the imaging, an angular profile-based frequency selection method is presented. As validation, the approach was employed to identify the presence and location of a small circumferential crack with 1.13% cross sectional area (CSA) in the welding zone of a 48 mm diameter type 304 stainless steel pipe. Accurate identification results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed approach. PMID:26548527

  11. The energy release rate of a pressurized crack in soft elastic materials: effects of surface tension and large deformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianshu; Long, Rong; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a theoretical study on how surface tension affects fracture of soft solids. In classical fracture theory, the resistance to fracture is partly attributed to the energy required to create new surfaces. Thus, the energy released to the crack tip must overcome the surface energy in order to propagate a crack. In soft materials, however, surface tension can cause significant deformation and can reduce the energy release rate for crack propagation by resisting the stretch of crack surfaces. We quantify this effect by studying the inflation of a penny-shaped crack in an infinite elastic body with applied pressure. To avoid numerical difficulty caused by singular fields near the crack tip, we derived an expression for the energy release rate which depends on the applied pressure, the surface tension, the inflated crack volume and the deformed crack area. This expression is evaluated using a newly developed finite element method with surface tension elements. Our calculation shows that, when the elasto-capillary number ω ≡ σ/Ea is sufficiently large, where σ is the isotropic surface tension, E is the small strain Young's modulus and a is the initial crack radius, both the energy release rate and the crack opening displacement of an incompressible neo-Hookean solid are significantly reduced by surface tension. For a sufficiently high elasto-capillary number, the energy release rate can be negative for applied pressure less than a critical amount, suggesting that surface tension can cause crack healing in soft elastic materials. PMID:25140489

  12. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.

    2016-08-01

    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.

  13. The initiation of environmentally-assisted cracking in semi-elliptical surface cracks

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    A criterion to predict under what conditions EAC would Initiate In cracks In a high-sulfur steel in contact with low-oxygen water was recently proposed by Wire and U. This EAC Initiation Criterion was developed using transient analyses for the diffusion of sulfides plus experimental test results. The experiments were conducted mainly on compact tension-type specimens with initial crack depths of about 2.54 mm. The present paper expands upon the work of Wire and U by presenting results for significantly deeper initial semi-elliptical surface cracks. In addition, in one specimen, the surface crack penetrated weld-deposited cladding into the high-sulfur steel. The results for the semi-elliptical surface cracks agreed quite well with the EAC Initiation Criterion, and provide confirmation of the applicability of the criterion to crack configurations with more restricted access to water.

  14. Thermographic detection of cracks in thin sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. E.; Syed, Hazari; Winfree, William P.

    1991-01-01

    A thermographic inspection technique for crack detection based on a 2D filter convolved with the thermal temperature images is presented. The filter is designed to approximate operating on the temperature images with a Laplacian operator. This operation yields an image which approximates changes in the heat flux in a thin plate. This filtering method results in an enhanced contrast due to the presence of cracks. Measurements have been performed on samples with fabricated electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches (both through-the-thickness and surface notches) and closed fatigue cracks around rivets. It is shown that the technique is effective for the detection of various crack lengths down to the resolution limits of the imager used.

  15. Mean stress effect in fatigue crack propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabeshfar, K.; Williams, T. R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Crack propagation rates in three different grades of mild steel and two types of age hardening aluminium alloys have been measured for different stress ratios. The results show a pronounced stress ratio effect for all these materials. A model of fatigue crack propagation is formulated in terms of the size of the cyclic plastic instability zone at the crack tip rather than the zone of plastic yielding. The micro-plastic instability zone is measured by a parameter involving the ratio of the maximum stress intensity and the stress level at which macro-plastic instability occurs in the {S}/{N} curve of plain fatigue test pieces. Such a parameter provides a means of normalizing crack propagation results obtained for various stress ratios.

  16. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelale, F.

    1982-01-01

    A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  17. Causes of Cracking of Ignition Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsbee, F B

    1921-01-01

    The experiments described here show that the cracking at sharp bends, observed in the insulation of internal combustion engine high tension ignition wires after service, is due to a chemical attack upon the rubber by the ozone produced by the electric discharge that takes place at the surface of the cable. This cracking does not occur if the insulating material is not under tension, or if the cable is surrounded by some medium other than air. But it does occur even if the insulation is not subjected to electric stress, provided that the atmosphere near the cable contains ozone. The extent of this cracking varies greatly with the insulating material used. The cracking can be materially reduced by using braided cable and by avoiding sharp bends.

  18. Inner Crack Detection Method for Cantilever Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yixuan; Su, Xianyue

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, continuous wavelet transform has been performed to extract the inner crack information from the guided waves in cantilever beams, and the location and size of crack can be detected exactly. Considering its best time-frequency property, Gabor continuous wavelet transform is employed to analyze the complicated flexible wave signals in cantilever beam, which is inspirited by an impact on the free end. Otherwise, in order to enhance the sensitivity of detection for some small cracks, an improved method is discussed. Here, both computational and experimental methods are carried out for comparing the influence of different crack location in beam. Therefore, the method proposed can be expected to expand to a powerful damage detection method in a broad engineering application.

  19. Survey updates amine stress corrosion cracking data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-13

    The final report by National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) task group T-8-14 has been published, revising and expanding the information on stress information on stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel in diethanolamine and diisopropanolamine service. A major conclusion of the survey was that cracking frequency was more prevalent in monoethanolamine (MEA) than in other amines. This paper reports that further examination of the DEA data indicated that some units were previously in MEA service and the reported cracks were actually associated with that period. A detailed follow-up review of the DEA data also revealed that some cases were caused by processes other than amine cracking. In many cases, further inspection or testing had been done after the original survey was submitted.

  20. Stress intensity, stress concentration and fatigue crack growth along evacuators of pressurized, autofrettaged tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.P.; Underwood, J.H.

    1995-11-01

    The geometry analyzed consists of a thick-walled cylinder having a small diameter evacuator hole penetrating radially through the wall. The loading involves pressure acting on the ID of the tube and all or part of this pressure acting on the evacuator hole. In addition the tube may be fully or partially autofrettaged. Total hoop stress concentrations are determined for a range of radial locations along the evacuator, as are stress intensity factors along a crack emanating from the evacuator hole. Fatigue crack growth rates, and hence crack profiles, are predicted at each of the radial locations. These predictions indicate that the critical location for the crack in a non-autofrettaged tube is at the ID whereas in a fully autofrettaged tube it is located approximately half way through the wall thickness. Taking account of the influence of stress ratio, minimum value of direct stress/maximum value of direct stress has a significantly influence on crack shape in autofrettaged tubes, but a limited effect upon lifetime. The effect upon fatigue lifetime of axial residual stresses due to the autofrettage process is described and it is demonstrated that an insignificant reduction in lifetime results from the presence of such stresses. Finally the predicted profiles are compared with experimental observations of fatigue cracked evacuators and a limited comparison of predicted and actual lifetimes is presented. Agreement is considered good.

  1. Stress concentration, stress intensity, and fatigue crack growth along evacuators of pressurized, autofrettaged tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. P.; Underwood, J. H.

    1994-12-01

    A stress analysis has been conducted on a pressurized, fully or partially autofrettaged cylinder with a small diameter evacuator hole penetrating radially through the wall. Pressure was applied on the inside diameter (ID) of the tube, and all or part of this pressure was applied on the evacuator hole surfaces. Total hoop stress concentrations have been determined for a range of radial locations along the evacuator and stress intensity factors have been determined along a crack emanating from the evacuator hole. Fatigue crack growth rates. and hence crack profiles, were predicted at each of the radial locations. These predictions indicate that the critical location for the crack in a non-autofrettaged tube is at the ID, whereas in a fully autofrettaged tube, it is located approximately halfway through the wall thickness. Stress ratio has a significant influence on crack shape in autofrettaged tubes, however, it has a limited effect upon lifetime. The effect of axial residual stresses upon fatigue lifetime due to the autofrettage process has been described and an insignificant reduction in lifetime was a result of such stresses. Finally, the predicted profiles are compared with experimental observations of fatigue crack evacuators, and a limited comparison of predicted and actual lifetimes is presented. Good agreement has been observed in both comparisons.

  2. ORNOZL: A finite-element mesh generator for nozzle-cylinder intersections containing inner-corner cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney-Walker, J.; Bass, B.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the ORNOZL finite-element mesh generator program for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element model for four different geometries of a comer crack in a nozzle-cylinder intersection. ORNOZL generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. Regular 20-noded isoparametric brick elements are used away from the crack front in the modeling. Also, an option is included that allows for an embedded or penetrating crack in clad materials. As few as five input cards are required to execute the program. ORNOZL is part of a three-program system, ORNOZL-ADINA-ORVIRT, which addresses linear or nonlinear fracture in 2- or 3-D crack geometries. ORNOZL creates files containing nodal point coordinates and element connectivities that have formats compatible with the ADINA structural analysis program. ORVIRT is a postprocessor to ADINA and employs a virtual crack extension technique to compute energy release rates at specified positions along the crack front.

  3. High-temperature healing of lithographically introduced cracks in sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Rodel, J.; Glaeser, A.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    A new method for producing controlled-geometry, controlled-crystallography, cracklike defects using photolithography has been developed. The method has been applied to sapphire, and used to study crack healing behavior at 1800{degrees}C. Effects of crack face and crack perimeter crystallography, crack face microstructure, and impurities on healing behavior have been identified.

  4. Three-dimensional measurements of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, S. K.; Grandt, A. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth and retardation experiments conducted in polycarbonate test specimen are described. The transparent test material allows optical interferometry measurements of the fatigue crack opening (and closing) profiles. Crack surface displacements are obtained through the specimen thickness and three dimensional aspects of fatigue crack closure are discussed.

  5. Measurement and analysis of critical crack tip processes associated with variable amplitude fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Davidson, D. L.; Chan, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    Crack growth retardation following overloads can result in overly conservative life predictions in structures subjected to variable amplitude fatigue loading when linear damage accumulation procedures are employed. Crack closure is believed to control the crack growth retardation, although the specific closure mechanism is debatable. Information on the relative contributions to crack closure from: (1) plasticity left in the wake of the advancing crack and (2) crack tip residual stresses is provided. The delay period and corresponding crack growth rate transients following overloads are systematically measured as a function of load ratio (R) and overload magnitude. These responses are correlated in terms of the local 'driving force' for crack growth as measured by crack tip opening loads and delta K sub eff. The latter measurements are obtained using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a cyclic loading stage; measurements are quantified using a relatively new stereoimaging technique. Combining experimental results with analytical predictions suggests that both plastic wake and residual stress mechanism are operative, the latter becoming predominate as R increases.

  6. The effects of crack surface friction and roughness on crack tip stress fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Plesha, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented which can be used to incorporate the effects of friction and tortuosity along crack surfaces through a constitutive law applied to the interface between opposing crack surfaces. The problem of a crack with a saw-tooth surface in an infinite medium subjected to a far-field shear stress is solved and the ratios of Mode-I stress intensity to Mode-II stress intensity are calculated for various coefficients of friction and material properties. The results show that tortuosity and friction lead to an increase in fracture loads and alter the direction of crack propagation.

  7. Effects of crack geometry and material behavior on scattering by cracks for QNDE applications

    SciTech Connect

    Achenbach, J.D.

    1989-09-15

    In work carried out on this project, the usual mathematical modeling of ultrasonic wave scattering by flaws is being extended to account for several typical characteristics of fatigue and stress-corrosion cracks, and the environment of such cracks. Work has been completed on scattering by macrocrack-microcrack configurations. We have also investigated reflection and transmission by a flaw plane consisting of an infinite array of randomly oriented cracks. In another investigation the propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids with periodically distributed cracks has been studied.

  8. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, M.

    1982-01-01

    Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.

  10. Cracking of general relativistic anisotropic polytropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, L.; Fuenmayor, E.; León, P.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the effect that small fluctuations of the local anisotropy of pressure and of the energy density may have on the occurrence of cracking in spherical compact objects, satisfying a polytropic equation of state. Two different kinds of polytropes are considered. For both, it is shown that departures from equilibrium may lead to the appearance of cracking, for a wide range of values of the parameters defining the polytrope. Prospective applications of the obtained results to some astrophysical scenarios are pointed out.

  11. Dynamic behaviour of a rotating cracked beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashar, Ahmed; Ghandchi-Tehrani, Maryam; Ferguson, Neil

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach to investigate and analyse the vibrational behaviour of cracked rotating cantilever beams, which can for example represent helicopter or wind turbine blades. The analytical Hamiltonian method is used in modelling the rotating beam and two numerical methods, the Rayleigh-Ritz and FEM, are used to study the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the intact rotating beams. Subsequently, a crack is introduced into the FE model and simulations are performed to identify the modal characteristics for an open cracked rotating beam. The effect of various parameters such as non-dimensional rotating speed, hub ratio and slenderness ratio are investigated for both the intact and the cracked rotating beam, and in both directions of chordwise and flapwise motion. The veering phenomena in the natural frequencies as a function of the rotational speed and the buckling speed are considered with respect to the slenderness ratio. In addition, the mode shapes obtained for the flapwise vibration are compared using the modal assurance criterion (MAC). Finally, a new three dimensional design chart is produced, showing the effect of crack location and depth on the natural frequencies of the rotating beam. This chart will be subsequently important in identifying crack defects in rotating blades.

  12. Fatigue crack growth in lithium hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Subcritical fatigue crack growth, from cyclic tensile loading, was demonstrated in warm pressed Polycrystalline lithium hydride. Experiments were performed with cyclic tension-tension crack opening (mode I) loads applied to a pre-cracked compact type specimen in an argon environment at a temperature of 21C (70F). The fatigue crack growth was found to occur between 7.56 {times} 10{sup {minus}ll} M/cycle (2.98 {times} l0{sup {minus}9} in/cycle) and 2.35 {times} l0{sup {minus}8} m/cycle (9.24{times}10{sup {minus}7} in/cycle) for a range of stress intensity factors between 1.04 MPa{center_dot}{radical}m (0.95 ksi{center_dot}{radical}in) and 1.49 MPa{center_dot}{radical}m (1.36 ksi{center_dot}{radical}in). The rate of fatigue crack growth from cyclic tensile loading was found to be in excess of crack growth from sustained loading at an equivalent stress intensity factor. Furthermore, a fatigue threshold was not evident from the acquired data.

  13. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  14. Creep Behavior and Durability of Cracked CMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Fox, Dennis; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    To understand failure mechanisms and durability of cracked Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), Melt Infiltration (MI) SiCSiC composites with Sylramic-iBN fibers and full Chemical vapour infiltration SiCSiC composites with Sylramic-ion bombarded BN (iBN) and Hi-Nicalon -S fibers were pre-cracked between 150 to 200 megapascal and then creep and Sustained Peak Low Cycle Fatigue (SPLCF) tested at 13150 C at stress levels from 35 to 103 megapascal for up to 200 hours under furnace and burner rig conditions. In addition creep testing was also conducted on pre-cracked full Chemical vapour infiltration SiCSiC composites at 14500 C between 35 and 103 megapascal for up to 200 hours under furnace conditions. If the specimens survived the 200 hour durability tests, then they were tensile tested at room temperature to determine their residual tensile properties. The failed specimens were examined by Scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the failure modes and mechanisms. The influence of crack healing matrix, fiber types, crack density, testing modes and interface oxidation on durability of cracked Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be discussed.

  15. Protection of brittle film against cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, J.; Sklenka, J.; Čerstvý, R.

    2016-05-01

    This article reports on the protection of the brittle Zrsbnd Sisbnd O film against cracking in bending by the highly elastic top film (over-layer). In experiments the Zrsbnd Sisbnd O films with different elemental composition and structure were used. Both the brittle and highly elastic films were prepared by magnetron sputtering using a dual magnetron. The brittle film easily cracks in bending. On the other hand, the highly elastic film exhibits enhanced resistance to cracking in bending. Main characteristic parameters of both the brittle and highly elastic films are given. Special attention is devoted to the effect of the structure (crystalline, amorphous) of both the brittle and highly elastic top film on the resistance of cracking of the brittle film. It was found that (1) both the X-ray amorphous and crystalline brittle films easily crack in bending, (2) the highly elastic film can have either X-ray amorphous or crystalline structure and (3) both the X-ray amorphous and crystalline, highly elastic top films perfectly protect the brittle films against cracking in bending. The structure, mechanical properties and optical transparency of the brittle and highly elastic sputtered Zrsbnd Sisbnd O films are described in detail. At the end of this article, the principle of the low-temperature formation of the highly elastic films is also explained.

  16. Thermal crack damage is dominated by cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, John; Meredith, Philip; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-04-01

    Most studies of thermally-induced cracking to date have focused on the generation of cracks formed during heating and thermal expansion. Both the nature and mechanism of crack formation during cooling are hypothesised to be different from those formed during heating. We present in-situ acoustic emission data recorded as a proxy for crack damage evolution throughout a series of heating and cooling experiments on samples of basalt and dacite. The results show that both the rate and energy of acoustic emission are consistently much higher during cooling than during heating. When comparing the AE during the heating phase with the AE during the cooling phase of a comparable duration heating and cooling cycle; we find that there are ~ 150 times as many hits during cooling. Furthermore, the average energy of those AE are more than 3 times greater, resulting in a total AE energy that is almost 500 times higher during cooling than during heating. Seismic velocity comparisons and crack morphology analysis of our heated and cooled samples support the contemporaneous acoustic emission data and also indicate that thermal cracking is largely isotropic. These new data are important for assessing the contribution of cooling-induced damage within volcanic structures and layers such as dikes, sills and lava flows.

  17. Thermally activated processes of fatigue crack growth in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Fujii, Atsushi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Higashida, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Fatigue crack growth rates in steels at high and low temperatures have been investigated using Paris curves. The fatigue crack growth rates at high temperatures are quite different from those at low temperatures. Arrhenius plots between fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and test temperatures at constant stress intensity factor range (ΔKI) indicate a difference of the rate-controlling process for fatigue crack growth with temperature. Slip deformation at the crack tip governs fatigue crack growth at high temperatures, while hydrogen diffusion is associated with crack growth at low temperatures.

  18. Finite element microscopic stress analysis of cracked composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper considers the stress concentration problems of two types of cracked composite systems: (1) a composite system with a broken fiber (a penny-shaped crack problem), and (2) a composite system with a cracked matrix (an annular crack problem). The cracked composite systems are modeled with triangular and trapezoidal ring finite elements. Using NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) finite element computer program, the stress and deformation fields in the cracked composite systems are calculated. The effect of fiber-matrix material combination on the stress concentrations and on the crack opening displacements is studied.

  19. Crack growth direction in unidirectional off-axis graphite epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Gregory, M. A.; Beuth, J. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An anisotropic elasticity crack tip stress analysis is implemented using three crack extension direction criteria (the normal stress ratio, the tensor polynominal and the strain energy density) to predict the direction of crack extension in unidirectional off axis graphite-epoxy. The theoretical predictions of crack extension direction are then compared with experimental results for 15 deg off axis tensile coupons with center cracks. Specimens of various aspect ratios and crack orientations are analyzed. It is shown that only the normal stress ratio criterion predicts the correct direction of crack growth.

  20. Hierarchical Formation of Intrasplat Cracks in Thermal Spray Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2016-06-01

    Intrasplat cracks, an essential feature of thermally sprayed ceramic coatings, play important roles in determining coating properties. However, final intrasplat crack patterns are always considered to be disordered and irregular, resulting from random cracking during splat cooling, since the detailed formation process of intrasplat cracks has scarcely been considered. In the present study, the primary formation mechanism for intrasplat cracking was explored based on both experimental observations and mechanical analysis. The results show that the intrasplat crack pattern in thermally sprayed ceramic splats presents a hierarchical structure with four sides and six neighbors, indicating that intrasplat crack patterns arise from successive domain divisions due to sequential cracking during splat cooling. The driving forces for intrasplat cracking are discussed, and the experimental data quantitatively agree well with theoretical results. This will provide insight for further coating structure designs and tailoring by tuning of intrasplat cracks.

  1. Analysis of internal crack healing mechanism under rolling deformation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haitao; Ai, Zhengrong; Yu, Hailiang; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental method, called the 'hole filling method', is proposed to simulate the healing of internal cracks in rolled workpieces. Based on the experimental results, the evolution in the microstructure, in terms of diffusion, nucleation and recrystallisation were used to analyze the crack healing mechanism. We also validated the phenomenon of segmented healing. Internal crack healing involves plastic deformation, heat transfer and an increase in the free energy introduced by the cracks. It is proposed that internal cracks heal better under high plastic deformation followed by slow cooling after rolling. Crack healing is controlled by diffusion of atoms from the matrix to the crack surface, and also by the nucleation and growth of ferrite grain on the crack surface. The diffusion mechanism is used to explain the source of material needed for crack healing. The recrystallisation mechanism is used to explain grain nucleation and growth, accompanied by atomic migration to the crack surface.

  2. Chemistry and electrochemistry of environment-assisted cracking of an aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Kevin Richard

    2001-11-01

    The mechanism of environment-assisted cracking (EAC) of 7xxx-series alloys is unclear, involving uncertain contributions of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and anodic dissolution (AD). Fundamental understanding of the EAC mechanism is lacking in part because the role of the crack environment is not well understood. The objective of this research was to characterize and understand the role of the crack chemistry and electrochemistry during aqueous EAC of AA 7050. The crack environment can differ significantly from bulk conditions. Cations, produced by AD, hydrolyze causing local acidification; anions from the bulk electrolyte concentrate within the crack to maintain charge neutrality; ohmic potential drop results from ion migration and diffusion. A positive correlation exists between da/dt and [Al3+]Tip in chromate-chloride electrolyte wherein tip dissolution dominates flank corrosion in establishing the crack chemistry. Tip pH was 2 to 4 and determined by the reaction Al3+ + H 2O = AlOH2+ + H+. The tip potential (ETip) was approximately -0.90 VSCE and independent of EApp . The low ETip and pH promote H+ reduction, generating atomic and molecular H. Hydrogen bubbles restrict ion movement, substantially increasing the effective crack resistance over bulk conditions. Absorbed atomic hydrogen facilitates HE. The spontaneous transition from slow, incubation to high-rate da/dt coincides with the establishment of a critical aggressive tip chemistry and tip depolarization. Development of the critical occluded chemistry necessary for accelerated da/dt is a competitive process between opposing forces: AD, hydrolysis and migration promote an aggressive environment whereas diffusion reduces concentration gradients, thereby retarding the formation of an aggressive chemistry. Quantitative assessment of the contribution of tip dissolution to crack advance is hindered by a lack of knowledge of two key parameters: the tip corrosion front height and the effective crack conductivity

  3. Development and construction of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks: Free shrinkage tests, restrained ring tests, construction experience, and crack survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiqiu

    2011-12-01

    The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained during the construction of 13 LC-HPC bridge decks in Kansas, along with another deck bid under the LC-HPC specifications but for which the owner did not enforce the specification. This study is divided into four parts covering (1) an evaluation of the free shrinkage properties of LC-HPC candidate mixtures, (2) an investigation of the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete, (3) a study of the restrained shrinkage performance of concrete using restrained ring tests, and (4) a description of the construction and preliminary evaluation of LC-HPC and control bridge decks constructed in Kansas. The first portion of the study involves evaluating the effects of the duration of curing, fly ash, and a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) on the free-shrinkage characteristics of concrete mixtures. The results indicate that an increase of curing period reduces free shrinkage. With 7 days of curing, concretes containing fly ash as a partial replacement for cement exhibit higher free shrinkage than concretes with 100% portland cement. When the curing period is increased to 14, 28, and 56 days, the adverse effect of adding fly ash on free shrinkage is minimized and finally reversed. The addition of an SRA significantly reduces free shrinkage for both the 100% portland cement mixture and the mixture containing fly ash. The second portion of the study investigates the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete. A linear relationship between free shrinkage and evaporable water content in the cement paste is observed. For a given mixture, specimens cured for a longer period contain less evaporable water and exhibit lower free shrinkage and less weight loss in the free shrinkage

  4. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.

  5. Fatigue crack layer propagation in silicon-iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birol, Y.; Welsch, G.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation in metal is almost always accompanied by plastic deformation unless conditions strongly favor brittle fracture. The analysis of the plastic zone is crucial to the understanding of crack propagation behavior as it governs the crack growth kinetics. This research was undertaken to study the fatigue crack propagation in a silicon iron alloy. Kinetic and plasticity aspects of fatigue crack propagation in the alloy were obtained, including the characterization of damage evolution.

  6. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.

    2007-11-06

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2002. Topics that have been investigated include: (a) environmental effects on fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs in BWRs, (c) evaluation of causes and mechanisms of irradiation-assisted cracking of austenitic SS in PWRs, and (d) cracking in Ni-alloys and welds. A critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins and an assessment of the conservation in the current choice of design margins are presented. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on fatigue crack initiation in these materials in air and LWR environments. Crack growth tests were performed in BWR environments on SSs irradiated to 0.9 and 2.0 x 10{sup 21} n x cm{sup -2}. The crack growth rates (CGRs) of the irradiated steels are a factor of {approx}5 higher than the disposition curve proposed in NUREG-0313 for thermally sensitized materials. The CGRs decreased by an order of magnitude in low-dissolved oxygen (DO) environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in high-purity 289 C water on steels irradiated to {approx}3 dpa. The bulk S content correlated well with the susceptibility to intergranular SCC in 289 C water. The IASCC susceptibility of SSs that contain >0.003 wt. % S increased drastically. bend tests in inert environments at 23 C were conducted on broken pieces of SSRT specimens and on unirradiated specimens of the same materials after hydrogen charging. The results of the tests and a review of other data in the literature

  7. Stochastic modeling of crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitamura, Takayuki; Ghosn, Louis J.; Ohtani, Ryuichi

    1992-01-01

    A simplified stochastic model is proposed for crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. Material inhomogeneity provides the random nature of crack initiation and early growth. In the model, the influence of microstructure is introduced by the variability of: (1) damage accumulation along grain boundaries, (2) critical damage required for crack initiation or growth, and (3) the grain-boundary length. The probabilities of crack initiation and growth are derived by using convolution integrals. The model is calibrated and used to predict the crack density and crack-growth rate of short cracks of 304 stainless steel under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. The mean-crack initiation lives are predicted to be within an average deviation of about 10 percent from the experimental results. The predicted comulative distributions of crack-growth rate follow the experimental data closely. The applicability of the simplified stochastic model is discussed and the future research direction is outlined.

  8. Stochastic modeling of crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitamura, Takayuki; Ghosn, Louis J.; Ohtani, Ryuichi

    1989-01-01

    A simplified stochastic model is proposed for crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. Material inhomogeneity provides the random nature of crack initiation and early growth. In the model, the influence of microstructure is introduced by the variability of: (1) damage accumulation along grain boundaries, (2) critical damage required for crack initiation or growth, and (3) the grain-boundary length. The probabilities of crack initiation and growth are derived by using convolution integrals. The model is calibrated and used to predict the crack density and crack-growth rate of short cracks of 304 stainless steel under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. The mean-crack initiation lives are predicted to be within an average deviation of about 10 percent from the experimental results. The predicted cumulative distributions of crack-growth rate follow the experimental data closely. The applicability of the simplified stochastic model is discussed and the future research direction is outlined.

  9. User's manual for FRAC3D: Supplement to report on stress analysis for structures with surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. C.; Hopper, A. T.; Hayes, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    The FRAC3D computer program, designed for use in analyzing stresses in structures (including plates, bars, or blocks) which may contain part-circular surface cracks or embedded circular cracks is described. Instructions are provided for preparing input, including that for the supporting programs LATTICE and MATSOL as well as for FRAC3D. The course of a substantial illustrative calculation is shown with both input and output. The formulas underlying the calculations are summarized and related to the subroutines in which they are used. Many issues of strategy in using this program for analysing stresses around surface cracks are elucidated.

  10. Hybrid laser/broadband EMAT ultrasonic system for characterizing cracks in metals.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Johanna R; Spicer, James B

    2002-04-01

    Detection and characterization of defects in metal parts in industrial and commercial settings has typically been carried out by nondestructive ultrasonic inspection systems. Correct measurement of crack size is critical for lifetime prediction inspections. Normally, measurements are made based on far-field ultrasonic diffraction models and time-of-flight reflection signals making accurate measurements for parts less than approximately 25 mm in thickness impossible. In this work a hybrid noncontacting laser generation/broadband electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) detection system is used to characterize ideal cracks in aluminum in which the far-field condition for ultrasonic diffraction cannot be met. Time domain signals show that diffracted energy is measured in the geometrical shadow zone of the crack. Fourier transform methods are used to show that the frequency content of the diffracted signals is different than those from the waves that do not interact with the crack. Crack size measurements are made by using the frequency content of the ultrasonic signal rather than time-of-flight information.

  11. Acoustic emission measurement of fatigue crack closure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.; Rhyim, Y.M. . Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials); Kwon, D. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Ono, K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    In this study the acoustic emission (AE) technique has been applied to measure the crack closure loads precisely and the results have been compared with those measured by the conventional techniques such as the crack opening displacement (COD) method, back face strain gage (BFS) method, and surface strain gage method. In addition, fatigue tests at high stress ratio (R=0.8) have also been conducted to compared the results with those of the above methods at R=0.1 and to verify the accuracy of each method. The material used in the present investigation was an Al-Li 8090 alloy which was supplied as a 44.5mm thick rolled plate in the solution heat treated, 6% stretched and naturally aged condition. The COD and BFS methods show relatively good agreement with each other and measure the through-thickness mean value of crack closure loads. In the plane strain condition, the crack closure levels obtained by the COD and BFS methods were lower than those by the AE and surface train gage methods. The data obtained by the surface strain gage method must be interpreted carefully, because the shape of the compliance curves is affected by the location relative to the crack tip. The intrinsic fatigue life curve (da/dN vs. [Delta]K[sub eff]) obtained by the AE technique fitted well with the curve of high stress ratio (R=0.8) test at high [Delta]K, suggesting that the AE technique is sensitive to local crack-tip behavior on a microscopic scale and can be considered as a reliable measurement method for crack closure phenomena under repetitive loads.

  12. Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.

    2016-04-01

    Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.

  13. Treatment of singularities in cracked bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite-element analyses of middle-crack tension (M-T) and bend specimens subjected to mode I loadings were performed to study the stress singularity along the crack front. The specimen was modeled using 20-node isoparametric elements. The displacements and stresses from the analysis were used to estimate the power of singularities using a log-log regression analysis along the crack front. The analyses showed that finite-sized cracked bodies have two singular stress fields of the form rho = C sub o (theta, z) r to the -1/2 power + D sub o (theta, phi) R to the lambda rho power. The first term is the cylindrical singularity with the power -1/2 and is dominant over the middle 96 pct (for Poisson's ratio = 0.3) of the crack front and becomes nearly zero at the free surface. The second singularity is a vertex singularity with the vertex point located at the intersection of the crack front and the free surface. The second term is dominant at the free surface and becomes nearly zero away from the the boundary layer. The thickness of the boundary layer depends on Poisson's ratio of the material and is independent of the specimen type. The thickness of the boundary layer varied from 0 pct to about 5 pct of the total specimen thickness as Poisson's ratio varied from 0.0 to 0.45. Because there are two singular stress fields near the free surface, the strain energy release rate (G) is an appropriate parameter to measure the severity of the crack.

  14. TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.

    2012-05-11

    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  15. Crack-tip-opening angle measurements and crack tunneling under stable tearing in thin sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The stable tearing behavior of thin sheets 2024-T3 aluminum alloy was studied for middle crack tension specimens having initial cracks that were: flat cracks (low fatigue stress) and 45 degrees through-thickness slant cracks (high fatigue stress). The critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) values during stable tearing were measured by two independent methods, optical microscopy and digital image correlation. Results from the two methods agreed well. The CTOA measurements and observations of the fracture surfaces showed that the initial stable tearing behavior of low and high fatigue stress tests is significantly different. The cracks in the low fatigue stress tests underwent a transition from flat-to-slant crack growth, during which the CTOA values were high and significant crack tunneling occurred. After crack growth equal to about the thickness, CTOA reached a constant value of 6 deg and after crack growth equal to about twice the thickness, crack tunneling stabilized. The initial high CTOA values, in the low fatigue crack tests, coincided with large three-dimensional crack front shape changes due to a variation in the through-thickness crack tip constraint. The cracks in the high fatigue stress tests reach the same constant CTOA value after crack growth equal to about the thickness, but produced only a slightly higher CTOA value during initial crack growth. For crack growth on the 45 degree slant, the crack front and local field variables are still highly three-dimensional. However, the constant CTOA values and stable crack front shape may allow the process to be approximated with two-dimensional models.

  16. Recent evaluations of crack-opening-area in circumferentially cracked pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.; Miura, N.

    1997-04-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analyses for circumferentially cracked pipes are currently being conducted in the nuclear industry to justify elimination of pipe whip restraints and jet shields which are present because of the expected dynamic effects from pipe rupture. The application of the LBB methodology frequently requires calculation of leak rates. The leak rates depend on the crack-opening area of the through-wall crack in the pipe. In addition to LBB analyses which assume a hypothetical flaw size, there is also interest in the integrity of actual leaking cracks corresponding to current leakage detection requirements in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.45, or for assessing temporary repair of Class 2 and 3 pipes that have leaks as are being evaluated in ASME Section XI. The objectives of this study were to review, evaluate, and refine current predictive models for performing crack-opening-area analyses of circumferentially cracked pipes. The results from twenty-five full-scale pipe fracture experiments, conducted in the Degraded Piping Program, the International Piping Integrity Research Group Program, and the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program, were used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess quantitatively the accuracy of the predictive models. The evaluation also involved finite element analyses for determining the crack-opening profile often needed to perform leak-rate calculations.

  17. Crack initiation and propagation behavior of WC particles reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composite produced by laser melting deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiandong; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang

    2016-08-01

    It is generally believed that cracks in metal matrix composites (MMC) parts manufacturing are crucial to the reliable material properties, especially for the reinforcement particles with high volume fraction. In this paper, WC particles (WCp) reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composites (WCp/Fe) were manufactured by laser melting deposition (LMD) technology to investigate the characteristics of cracks formation. The section morphology of composites were analyzed by optical microscope (OM), and microstructure of WCp, matrix and interface were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in order to study the crack initiation and propagation behavior under different laser process conditions. The temperature of materials during the laser melting deposition was detected by the infrared thermometer. The results showed that the cracks often appeared after five layers laser deposition in this experiment. The cracks crossed through WC particles rather than the interface, so the strength of interface obtained by the LMD was relatively large. When the thermal stress induced by high temperature gradient during LMD and the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between WC and matrix was larger than yield strength of WC, the cracks would initiate inside WC particle. Cracks mostly propagated along the eutectic phases whose brittleness was very large. The obtained thin interface was beneficial to transmitting the stress from particle to matrix. The influence of volume fraction of particles, laser power and scanning speed on cracks were investigated. This paper investigated the influence of WC particles size on cracks systematically, and the smallest size of cracked WC in different laser processing parameters was also researched.

  18. The Effects of Crack Openings on Crack Initiation, Propagation and Coalescence Behavior in Rock-Like Materials Under Uniaxial Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jiang; Qian, Qihu

    2016-09-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the cracking behavior of rock-like specimens containing artificial open flaws under uniaxial compressive loads. The present experiments mainly focus on the effects of crack openings on crack propagation and coalescence behavior in rock-like materials under uniaxial compression. The real-time crack coalescence processes in the specimens with different crack openings are analyzed. The experimental results show that the crack openings significantly affect the crack initiation stresses and the crack initiation modes. The initiation stresses of wing cracks and coplanar secondary cracks decrease with increasing crack openings. However, the initiation stress of anti-wing cracks increases with increasing crack openings. Moreover, five types of crack coalescence in the specimens containing three pre-existing open flaws under uniaxial compression are observed. The effects of crack openings on the mechanical properties of rock-like materials, which include the complete axial stress-strain curves, peak stresses, peak strains and initiation stresses, are investigated in detail.

  19. Crack-tip chemistry modeling of stage I stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1991-10-01

    Stage I stress corrosion cracking usually exhibits a very strong K dependence with Paris law exponents of up to 30. 2 Model calculations indicate that the crack velocity in this regime is controlled by transport through a salt film and that the K dependence results from crack opening controlled salt film dissolution. An ionic transport model that accounts for both electromigration through the resistive salt film and Fickian diffusion through the aqueous solution was used for these predictions. Predicted crack growth rates are in excellent agreement with measured values for Ni with P segregated to the grain boundaries and tested in IN H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at +900 mV. This salt film dissolution may be applicable to stage I cracking of other materials.

  20. Stress Ratio Effects on Crack Opening Loads and Crack Growth Rates in Aluminum Alloy 2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of stress ratio (R) and crack opening behavior on fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for aluminum alloy (AA) 2024-T3 were investigated using constant-delta K testing, closure measurements, and fractography. Fatigue crack growth rates were obtained for a range of delta K and stress ratios. Results show that constant delta K fatigue crack growth for R ranging from near 0 to 1 is divided into three regions. In Region 1, at low R, da/dN increases with increasing R. In Region 2, at intermediate R, fatigue crack growth rates are relatively independent of R. In Region 3, at high R, further increases in da/dN are observed with increasing R.